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Sample records for theileria annulata infection

  1. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-01

    .... In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata...

  2. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-16

    Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular surveillance of Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata infection in sheep and ixodid ticks in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Yaghfoori, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    A molecular study was undertaken to detect Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in sheep and tick vectors. Investigation was conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the south of Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from 30 different sheep flocks. In addition, ixodid ticks were sampled from the same flocks. The stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of piroplasms and a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction (PCR) was used for subsequent molecular speciation. Salivary glands were isolated from the ticks and subsequently analysed by semi-nested PCR. polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to differentiate between T. lestoquardi and T. annulata from PCR-positive samples. Theileria species infection was microscopically detected in 18.6% of blood smears. The presence of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi or T. annulata was detected by semi-nested PCR in 58.6% and 6.6% of blood samples respectively. In total, 169 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 155; 91.7% of the total), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 8; 4.7%) and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 6; 3.5%). From an organ pooling of 33 ticks, three pools of salivary glands from R. turanicus were positive for Theileria species by semi-nested PCR. Of the three R. turanicus samples testing positive for Theileria species, two (6.1%) were positive for T. ovis and one (3.0%) for T. lestoquardi or T.annulata. Amongst the 11 PCR-positive samples for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata, 10 were positive for T. lestoquardi and one sample was positive for both T. lestoquardi and T. annulata using PCR-RFLP. The results also demonstrated that PCR-RFLP could be used for the detection of T. ovis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that T. ovis has a higher prevalence than T. lestoquardi, and that R

  4. Molecular surveillance of Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata infection in sheep and ixodid ticks in Iran

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    Gholamreza Razmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A molecular study was undertaken to detect Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulatain sheep and tick vectors. Investigation was conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the south of Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from 30 different sheep flocks. In addition, ixodid ticks were sampled from the same flocks. The stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of piroplasms and a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction (PCR was used for subsequent molecular speciation. Salivary glands were isolated from the ticks and subsequently analysed by semi-nested PCR. polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate between T. lestoquardi and T. annulata from PCR-positive samples. Theileria species infection was microscopically detected in 18.6% of blood smears. The presence of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi or T. annulata was detected by semi-nested PCR in 58.6% and 6.6% of blood samples respectively. In total, 169 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 155; 91.7% of the total, followed by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 8; 4.7% and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 6; 3.5%. From an organ pooling of 33 ticks, three pools of salivary glands from R. turanicus were positive for Theileria species by semi-nested PCR. Of the three R. turanicus samples testing positive for Theileria species, two (6.1% were positive for T. ovis and one (3.0% for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata. Amongst the 11 PCR-positive samples for T. lestoquardi or T. annulata, 10 were positive for T. lestoquardi and one sample was positive for both T. lestoquardi and T. annulata using PCR-RFLP. The results also demonstrated that PCR-RFLP could be used for the detection of T. ovis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that T. ovis has a higher

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Theileria annulata Infected Cell Line S15 Iran Vaccine Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Gh

    2012-01-01

    Bovine theileriosis results from infection with obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. The phylogenetic relationships between two isolates of Theileria annulata, and 36 Theileria spp., as well as 6 outgroup including Babesia spp. and coccidian protozoa were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The target DNA segment was amplified by PCR. The PCR product was used for direct sequencing. The length of the 18S rRNA gene of all Theileria spp. involved in this study was around 1,400 bp. A phylogenetic tree was inferred based on the 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Iran and Iraq isolates, and other species of Theileria available in GenBank. In the constructed tree, Theileria annulata (Iran vaccine strain) was closely related to other T. annulata from Europe, Asia, as well as T. lestoquardi, T. parva and T. taurotragi all in one clade. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene suggested that the percent identity of the sequence of Iran vaccine strain was completely the same as Iraq sequence (100% identical), but the similarity of Iran vaccine strain with other T. annulata reported from China, Spain and Italy determined the 97.9 to 99.9% identity.

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Theileria Annulata Infected Cell Line S15 Iran Vaccine Strain

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    Gh Habibi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bovine theileriosis results from infection with obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. The phylogenetic relationships between two isolates of Theileria annulata, and 36 Theileria spp., as well as 6 outgroup including Babesia spp. and coccidian protozoa were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence.Methods: The target DNA segment was amplified by PCR. The PCR product was used for direct sequencing. The length of the 18S rRNA gene of all Theileria spp. involved in this study was around 1,400 bp. Results: A phylogenetic tree was inferred based on the 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Iran and Iraq isolates, and other species of Theileria available in GenBank. In the constructed tree, Theileria annulata (Iran vaccine strain was closely related to other T. annulata from Europe, Asia, as well as T. lestoquardi, T. parva and T. taurotragi all in one clade.Conclusion: Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene suggested that the percent identity of the sequence of Iran vaccine strain was completely the same as Iraq sequence (100% identical, but the similarity of Iran vaccine strain with other T. annulata reported from China, Spain and Italy determined the 97.9 to 99.9% identity.

  7. Identification of different Theileria species (Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, and Theileria annulata) in naturally infected sheep using nested PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Haddadzadeh, Hamidreza; Khazraiinia, Parvaneh; Kazemi, Bahram; Bandehpour, M

    2011-04-01

    Ovine theileriosis is an important hemoprotozoal disease of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions that leads to economic losses in these animals. A nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was carried out to identification Theileria species in sheep in some area in western half of Iran (Sari, Rasht, Urmia, Ilam, and Ahvaz). Two hundred and fifty blood samples were taken from sheep during tick activating season (summer of 2008). Microscopic examination revealed that 9.2% (23/250) sheep were infected by Theileria spp. piroplasms. Parasitemia ranged from 0.011% to 0.015%. In nested PCR assessment of DNA samples, 32.8% (82/250) sheep were positive. The negative samples were confirmed by amplifying of ovine beta-actin gene as an internal control. The differentiation of Theileria species was based on RFLP patterns using three restriction enzymes: HpaII, Rsa1, and Bsh 1285I. Out of 82 positive samples, 54.8% (45/82) and 40.2% (33/82) were positive for Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria ovis respectively. Mixed infection was detected in 4.8% (4/82) cases. Based on their PCR product digestion pattern with HpaII (1178, 900, 278, and 106 bp), it seemed to be mixture of Theileria annulata and T. lestoquardi. The presence of T. annulata was supported by sequence analysis. This is the first report of naturally infected sheep with T. annulata in Iran. Geographical distribution of Theileria species in sheep is shown according to the result of microscopy and nested PCR and RFLP data.

  8. Infectivity and cross-immunity studies of Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in sheep and cattle: II. In vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, I; Brown, D; Fossum, C; Hooshmand-Rad, P; Kirvar, E; Wilkie, G; Uggla, A

    1999-04-12

    In the studies previously reported, the tick-borne protozoan parasites Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata were shown to differ in their capacity to infect sheep and cattle. In the studies presented here, these findings were further supported. In vitro infectivity of T. lestoquardi and T. annulata sporozoites for peripheral blood mononuclear cells of sheep and cattle were determined by analysis of cell cultures for cell proliferation, the detection of parasites in Giemsa-stained cytospin smears and the establishment of continuously growing schizont-infected cell lines. In the same way, the development of schizont-infected cells into continuously growing cell lines was studied with material isolated ex vivo from the sheep and cattle undergoing primary infections described elsewhere. Comparisons were also made between development of ex vivo cell lines from animals undergoing primary infections with those of the animals undergoing challenge infection with the other parasite species. Theileria species specific primers were used in a PCR to determine the identity of the parasites in the cell lines. These in vitro studies confirmed earlier observations that T. lestoquardi was unable to infect cattle, whereas infection of all sheep with T. annulata was proven. Moreover, earlier indications of the development of partial cross-immunity in sheep of T. annulata to T. lestoquardi and vice versa were strengthened. These findings may thus have consequences for the understanding of the epidemiology of T. lestoquardi infections of sheep. On the other hand. since piroplasms were not demonstrated in sheep infected with T. annulata, such sheep will not be infective to ticks and will consequently be unlikely to play a role in the maintenance and transmission of T. annulata to cattle.

  9. Comparative studies on surface phenotypes of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata schizont-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, I; Fossum, C; Johannisson, A; Hooshmand-Rad, P

    2001-09-01

    Phenotypes of sheep cell lines infected with Theileria lestoquardi or T. annulata were studied by flow cytometric analysis, following immunolabelling with a panel of monoclonal antibodies reacting to leukocyte differentiation antigens. Cell surface phenotypes of Theileria-infected sheep cell lines derived ex vivo and in vitro were compared, both with each other and with cell lines from cattle undergoing acute T. annulata infection. Besides the non-lineage specific markers CD45, MHC class I and MHC class II, myeloid lineage-associated antigens and B cell-specific markers were expressed in all five different types of line, suggesting that both T. lestoquardi and T. annulata had infected the same cell types in sheep as T. annulata in cattle, notably monocytes/macrophages and B cells. Lineage-specific markers were generally expressed at low frequency and intensity; any differences between the five types of cell lines were quantitative, rather than qualitative. Thus, relative rather than absolute differences in cell preference of sporozoites of T. lestoquardi and T. annulata may contribute to the differences observed in previous studies in the course of the infection of sheep with each of these two parasites and in the infection of cattle with T. annulata.

  10. Infectivity and cross-immunity studies of Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in sheep and cattle: I. In vivo responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, I; Brown, D; Hooshmand-Rad, P; Kirvar, E; Uggla, A

    1999-04-12

    In a series of experiments, sporozoite stabilates of a Theileria lestoquardi (Lahr) and a T. annulata (Ankara) stock prepared from Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks, were used to examine the infectivity of both parasite species for sheep and cattle and to study the development of cross-immunity between these parasite species. In the first experiment sheep and cattle were inoculated with T. lestoquardi sporozoites. Surviving animals and naive sheep and cattle were, in the second experiment, inoculated with T. annulata. In the third experiment, naive sheep and sheep previously infected with T. annulata, were inoculated with T. lestoquardi. The following responses to inoculations were monitored: clinical and haematological signs of infection, appearance of parasitic stages of the parasites in lymph node biopsies and in peripheral blood and serological response to T. lestoquardi and T. annulata schizont antigens. While T. lestoquardi readily infected sheep and caused severe disease, it did not infect cattle. On the other hand, T. annulata infected both cattle and sheep. However, whereas cattle became severely affected, infected sheep showed mild clinical symptoms only and piroplasms did not develop. Despite their different behaviour in the host species examined, cross-immunity studies suggested that the parasite species are very closely related. Experiments in sheep indicated that T. lestoquardi infection protected against subsequent T. annulata infection. On the other hand, recovery from T. annulata infection did not prevent infection by sporozoites of T. lestoquardi, resulting in the establishment of schizonts and their subsequent development into piroplasms, although it protected against the major clinical effects of T. lestoquardi infection.

  11. Prevalence of Theileria annulata infection in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from crossbred cattle of Ludhiana, Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anisha; Singh, N K; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Bhat, S A; Rath, S S

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of Theileria infection in tick vector Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from healthy animals of Ludhiana district, Punjab was recorded to assess the natural infection level of theilerial parasite in the field condition. A total of 60 semi-engorged H. a. anatolicum were collected from cattle and their salivary glands were dissected out. One half of the salivary gland was stained with methyl green pyronin (MGP) and the other half was utilized for DNA isolation for molecular detection of Theileria infection. A PCR and nested PCR assays were standardized for the detection of T. annulata infection in salivary gland of H. a. anatolicum. The prevalence of T. annulata infection was recorded as 8.3, 20.0 and 60.0 % by MGP staining, primary PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Further, the prevalence was higher in female ticks (8.8 %) than male ticks (6.6 %). The results demonstrated that both primary and nested PCR assays are a valuable technique for detection of T. annulata infection in vector tick under field conditions.

  12. Growth of Theileria annulata and Theileria parva macroschizont-infected bovine cells in immunodeficient mice: effect of irradiation and tumour load on lymphocyte subsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, A.H.; Preston, P.M. (Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    Bovine cells infected with macroschizonts of the protozoan parasites Theileria annulata and Theileria parva formed solid tumours when injected into irradiated Balb/c and irradiated Balb/c nude mice. T. annulata tumours grew more vigorously than T. parva tumours, when initiated with similar doses of infected cells in mice exposed to the same doses of gamma-irradiation. In irradiated Balb/c mice, tumours of both species of parasites began to regress 2-3 weeks after injection of cells but grew without regression in irradiated Balb/c nude mice. Haemorrhage and necrosis of tumours, induced by macrophages and neutrophils, were seen in both mouse strains but were insufficient to cause regression in Balb/c nude mice. Theileria-infected bovine cells failed to establish in C57 beige mice, which lack functional natural killer (NK) cells. Flow cytometry, using monoclonal antibodies to murine leukocyte/lymphocyte antigens, showed that the radiation dose required to allow establishment of T. annulata tumours in Balb/c mice caused a severe depletion of splenic lymphocytes. B cells, helper T and cytotoxic T cells showed differing levels of susceptibility to irradiation. (Author).

  13. Transcriptome and microRNome of Theileria annulata Host Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rchiad, Zineb

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Theileriosis is a parasitic disease of calves with a profound economic impact caused by Theileria annulata, an apicomplexan parasite of the genus Theileria. Transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, T. annulata infects and transforms bovine lymphocytes and macrophages into a cancer-like phenotype characterized by all six hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we investigate the transcriptional landscape of T. annulata-infected lymphocytes to define genes and miRNAs regulated by host cell transformation using next generation sequencing. We also define genes and miRNAs differentially expressed as a result of the attenuation of a T.annulata-infected macrophage cell line used as a vaccine. By comparing the transcriptional landscape of one attenuated and two transformed cell lines we identify four genes that we propose as key factors in transformation and virulence of the T. annulata host cells. We also identify miR- 126-5p as a key regulator of infected cells proliferation, adhesion, survival and invasiveness. In addition to the host cell trascriptome we studied T. annulata transcriptome and identified the role of ROS and TGF-β2 in controlling parasite gene expression. Moreover, we have used the deep parasite ssRNA-seq data to refine the available T. annulata annotation. Taken together, this study provides the full list of host cell’s genes and miRNAs transcriptionally perturbed after infection with T. annulata and after attenuation and describes genes and miRNAs never identified before as players in this type of host cell transformation. Moreover, this study provides the first database for the transcriptome of T. annulata and its host cells using next generation sequencing.

  14. Hematobiochemical alterations and direct blood polymerase chain reaction detection of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows

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    Anita Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical changes and rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from lactating crossbred cows (n=40 between 3 and 7 years of age and showing clinical signs of tropical theileriosis were collected, with or without anticoagulant, and analyzed for tropical theileriosis by direct smear, direct blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen (Tams1 gene specific amplicon, estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Healthy crossbred cows (n=6, examined free from hemoprotozoan infections were included as control. Results: The infected crossbred cows revealed significantly (p<0.001 lower values of total erythrocytic counts (4.46±0.2× 106/μL, hemoglobin (Hb 6.025±0.39 g%, packed cell volume (17.05±1.1%, mean corpuscular volume (37.94±1.70 fL and mean corpuscular Hb (13.5±0.48 pg; p<0.002 compared with healthy control. The serum samples of infected cows revealed profound (p<0.05 hyponatremia (Na 133.21±2.36 mEq/l and hypocalcemia (Ca 8.39±0.34 mg%. Infected crossbred cows showed a significant increase (p<0.05 of mean serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (61.45±13.36 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (146.1±20.97 U/L, blood urea nitrogen (28.26±3.90 mg%, creatinine (1.55±0.13 mg%, direct bilirubin (0.33±0.04 mg%; p<0.001 and lactate dehydrogenase (3001.32±167.0 U/L; p<001. Blood direct PCR revealed a 721-bp fragment amplified from the target gene encoding 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata using specific primer pairs. This assay was positive for all the infected animals. Conclusion: The assessments of hemato-biochemical parameters in T. annulata infected crossbred cows may be useful in understanding disease pathogenesis, prognosis and corrective measures for supportive therapy. Moreover, blood direct PCR can reliably be used for rapid detection of T. annulata

  15. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...... in infected buffaloes was more prominent than in infected cattle with persistence of some lesions after recovery as corneal opacity and pulmonary lesions. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in RBCS count, PCV%, hemoglobin amount and WBCs in the infected animals comparing to the healthy...

  16. Theileria lestoquardi displays reduced genetic diversity relative to sympatric Theileria annulata in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Weir, William; Kinnaird, Jane; Tageledin, Mohemmed; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Morrison, Ivan; Thompson, Joanne; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Babiker, Hamza A

    2016-09-01

    The Apicomplexan parasites, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata, the causative agents of theileriosis in small and large ruminants, are widespread in Oman, in areas where cattle, sheep and goats co-graze. Genetic analysis can provide insight into the dynamics of the parasite and the evolutionary relationship between species. Here we identified ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) spread across the T. lestoquardi genome, and confirmed their species specificity. We then genotyped T. lestoquardi in different regions in Oman. The genetic structures of T. lestoquardi populations were then compared with previously published data, for comparable panels of markers, for sympatric T. annulata isolates. In addition, we examined two antigen genes in T. annulata (Tams1 and Ta9) and their orthologues in T. lestoquardi (Tlms1 and Tl9). The genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) were lower in T. lestoquardi (He=0.64-0.77) than T. annulata (He=0.83-0.85) in all populations. Very limited genetic differentiation was found among T. lestoquardi and T. annulata populations. In contrast, limited but significant linkage disequilibrium was observed within regional populations of each species. We identified eight T. annulata isolates in small ruminants; the diversity and MOI were lower among ovine/caprine compared to bovine. Sequence diversity of the antigen genes, Tams1 and Ta9 in T. annulata (π=0.0733 and π=0.155 respectively), was 10-fold and 3-fold higher than the orthologous Tlms1 and Tl9 in T. lestoquardi (π=0.006 and π=0.055, respectively). Despite a comparably high prevalence, T. lestoquardi has lower genetic diversity compared to sympatric T. annulata populations. There was no evidence of differentiation among populations of either species. In comparison to T. lestoquardi, T. annulata has a larger effective population size. While genetic exchange and recombination occur in both parasite species, the extent of diversity, overall, is less for T

  17. Molecular surveillance of Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata infection in sheep and ixodid ticks in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Razmi; Saeed Yaghfoori

    2013-01-01

    A molecular study was undertaken to detect Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulatain sheep and tick vectors. Investigation was conducted from 2010 to 2011 in the south of Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from 30 different sheep flocks. In addition, ixodid ticks were sampled from the same flocks. The stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of piroplasms and a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restri...

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; H Tageldin, Mohammed; Weir, William; Al-Fahdi, Amira; Johnson, Eugene H; Bobade, Patrick; Alqamashoui, Badar; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Thompson, Joanne; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Babiker, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle. Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman. We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia). A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST' = 0.075, θ = 0.07) were

  19. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman.

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    Salama Al-Hamidhi

    Full Text Available Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle.Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman.We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia. A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST' = 0.075,

  20. Theileria lestoquardi displays reduced genetic diversity relative to sympatric Theileria annulata in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Weir, William; Kinnaird, Jane; Tagledeen, Mohammed; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Morrison, Ivan; Thompson, Joanne; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Babiker, Hamza A.

    2016-01-01

    The Apicomplexan parasites, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata, the causative agents of theileriosis in small and large ruminants, are widespread in Oman, in areas where cattle, sheep and goats co-graze. Genetic analysis can provide insight into the dynamics of the parasite and the evolutionary relationship between species. Here we identified ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) spread across the T. lestoquardi genome, and confirmed their species specificity. We then gen...

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Tams1 of Theileria annulata isolates from three continents between 2000 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiay; Yang, Xianyong; Wang, Yuge; Jing, Zhihong; Meng, Kai; Liu, Jianzhu; Guo, Huijun; Xu, Ruixue; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Theileria annulata, which is part of the Theileria sergenti/Theileria buffeli/Theileria orientalis group, preferentially infects cattle and results in high mortality and morbidity in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Central Asia. The polypeptide Tams1 is an immunodominant major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen of T. annulata that could be used as a marker for epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analysis. In the present study, a total of 155 Tams1 sequences were investigated for genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships through phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that the Tams1 sequences were divided into two major groups and that distribution for some isolates also exhibited geographic specificity. As targeting polymorphic genes for parasite detection may result in underestimation of infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using two different probes targeting tams-1 genes of these two groups can be more credible. In addition, the direction of the spread of the disease was discovered to be from the Mediterranean or the tropical zone to the Eurasian peninsula, Middle East, Southern Asia, and Africa, particularly for Group 2. A similar occurrence was also found between the Ms1 gene of Theileria lestoquardi and the Tams1 gene of T. annulata, which explains cross-immunogenicity to a certain extent. However, no potential glycosylation site in the Tams1 of T. annulata was found in this study, which illustrated that instead of N-glycosylation, other modifications have more significant effects on the immunogenicity of the Tams1 protein.

  2. Cloning, and Molecular Characterization of Polymorphic Iranian Isolate Theileria annulata Surface Protein (Tasp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr-Shirazi, N; Shayan, P; Eckert, B; Ebrahimzadeh, E; Amininia, N

    2012-01-01

    Because of the strong immunologic responses of surface protein TaSp in Theileria annulata infected host, we tried to characterize this protein in a T. annulata isolate from Iran. The RNA prepared from T. annulata infected cells was used to produce SMART-DS-cDNA. The Double strand cDNA was then amplified with primers derived from TaSp mRNA sequences. The PCR product was cloned in pTZ57R/T vector, sequenced and registered under accession no. JQ003240 in GenBank. The sequence analysis showed 90%-94% nucleotide sequence identity and 68%-94% amino acid homology to the corresponding sequences of TaSp gene by T. annulata, T. sp. china I, T. sp. china and T. lestoquardi and three T. annulata reported from Iran respectively. Interestingly, the sequence analysis also showed small nucleotide sequence region near the 5' end in which the presented TaSp protein differed very strongly from the other known TaSp sequences. For the preparation of the recombinant protein, the cDNA was cloned in pQE-32 vector, the recombinant protein was prepared and assayed by Theileria infected bovine serum. The polymorphism in TaSp gene could be detected in intra- as well as inter species. The different characterized TaSp proteins had a common identic region, which may be helpful for development of broad band vaccine based on the recombinant proteins. The polymorphism in this gene, make this protein also interesting for the diagnostic purposes.

  3. Existence of splicing variants in homologues of Theileria lestoquardi clone-5 gene's transcripts in Theileria annulata and Theileria parva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, Mohammed A; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2008-12-01

    Clone 5 has been described as an immunogenic protein and was used to establish an ELISA for malignant theileriosis. Molecular characterization of the gene product revealed alternative splicing at the single intron resulting in two mRNA transcripts, translating into a long and a short protein form. Homologues of clone 5 exist in Theileria annulata and T. parva according to the available annotated GenBank sequences, showing however only the long protein forms in these parasites (GenBank accession numbers CAI73679, EAN33624). The present study aimed to determine whether two splice variants of homologues of clone 5 occur in T. annulata and T. parva.

  4. Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle, sheep, and goats. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C G; Ilhan, T; Kirvar, E; Thomas, M; Wilkie, G; Leemans, I; Hooshmand-Rad, P

    1998-06-29

    Theileria annulata, causing bovine tropical theileriosis, and T. lestoquardi (syn T. hirci), the agent of malignant ovine theileriosis, are both transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma. Their distribution is thus very similar and, should these parasites infect more than one ruminant species, the difficulty in interpreting epidemiological studies is magnified considerably. A pilot series of experiments was thus conducted in which cattle, sheep and goats were infected with sporozoites of a single stock of each of T. annulata and T. lestoquardi from a laboratory colony of H.a.anatolicum. Reciprocal cross-immunity and serological studies and in vitro culture isolations in mononuclear cells of each ruminant species illustrated both the similarity of these organisms and their differences. The importance of these findings in discriminating parasites in epidemiological studies and the control of these diseases with cell culture vaccines is emphasized.

  5. Cloning, and Molecular Characterization of Polymorphic Iranian Isolate Theileria annulata Surface Protein (Tasp

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    E Ebrahimzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the strong immunologic responses of surface protein TaSp in Theileria annu­lata infected host, we tried to characterize this protein in a T. annulata isolate from Iran.Methods: The RNA prepared from T. annulata infected cells was used to produce SMART-DS-cDNA. The Double strand cDNA was then amplified with primers derived from TaSp mRNA se­quences. The PCR product was cloned in pTZ57R/T vector, sequenced and registered under acces­sion no. JQ003240 in GenBank.Results: The sequence analysis showed 90%-94% nucleotide sequence identity and 68%-94% amino acid homology to the corresponding sequences of TaSp gene by T. annulata, T. sp. china I, T. sp. china and T. lestoquardi and three T. annulata reported from Iran respectively. Interestingly, the sequence analysis also showed small nucleotide sequence region near the 5` end in which the presented TaSp protein differed very strongly from the other known TaSp sequences. For the preparation of the recombi­nant protein, the cDNA was cloned in pQE-32 vector, the recombinant protein was pre­pared and assayed by Theileria infected bovine serum.Conclusion: The polymorphism in TaSp gene could be detected in intra- as well as inter species. The different characterized TaSp proteins had a common identic region, which may be helpful for develop­ment of broad band vaccine based on the recombinant proteins. The polymorphism in this gene, make this protein also interesting for the diagnostic purposes.

  6. Identification of homologous genes of T. annulata proteins in the genome of Theileria sp. (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Joana P G; Bakheit, Mohammed; Schneider, Ilka; Haller, Daniel; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Yin, Hong; Oliva, Abel G; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2006-10-01

    Homologues to previously described Theileria (T.) annulata genes (T. annulata surface protein [TaSP], putative T. annulata membrane protein [TaD]) were successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from Theileria sp. (China) merozoite cDNA, with 88% identity to TaD; TcSP partial cDNA, 94% identity to TaSP. Moreover, homologues to a secretory protein of T. annulata (TaSE), with a sequence identity of 99% on the cDNA level (TcSE partial cDNA) and to a potential membrane protein of T. lestoquardi (Clone-5), with a sequence identity of 100% on the genomic level (Tc Clone-5) but lacking an intron at positions 1894-1928 were identified.

  7. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Theileria annulata schizont surface proteins.

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    Olga Wiens

    Full Text Available The invasion of Theileria sporozoites into bovine leukocytes is rapidly followed by the destruction of the surrounding host cell membrane, allowing the parasite to establish its niche within the host cell cytoplasm. Theileria infection induces host cell transformation, characterised by increased host cell proliferation and invasiveness, and the activation of anti-apoptotic genes. This process is strictly dependent on the presence of a viable parasite. Several host cell kinases, including PI3-K, JNK, CK2 and Src-family kinases, are constitutively activated in Theileria-infected cells and contribute to the transformed phenotype. Although a number of host cell molecules, including IkB kinase and polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1, are recruited to the schizont surface, very little is known about the schizont molecules involved in host-parasite interactions. In this study we used immunofluorescence to detect phosphorylated threonine (p-Thr, serine (p-Ser and threonine-proline (p-Thr-Pro epitopes on the schizont during host cell cycle progression, revealing extensive schizont phosphorylation during host cell interphase. Furthermore, we established a quick protocol to isolate schizonts from infected macrophages following synchronisation in S-phase or mitosis, and used mass spectrometry to detect phosphorylated schizont proteins. In total, 65 phosphorylated Theileria proteins were detected, 15 of which are potentially secreted or expressed on the surface of the schizont and thus may be targets for host cell kinases. In particular, we describe the cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of two T. annulata surface proteins, TaSP and p104, both of which are highly phosphorylated during host cell S-phase. TaSP and p104 are involved in mediating interactions between the parasite and the host cell cytoskeleton, which is crucial for the persistence of the parasite within the dividing host cell and the maintenance of the transformed state.

  8. The Microtubule-Stabilizing Protein CLASP1 Associates with the Theileria annulata Schizont Surface via Its Kinetochore-Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sandra; Theiler, Romina; de Quervain, Daniel; Wiens, Olga; Karangenc, Tulin; Heussler, Volker; Dobbelaere, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Theileria is an apicomplexan parasite whose presence within the cytoplasm of a leukocyte induces cellular transformation and causes uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the infected cell. The intracellular schizont utilizes the host cell’s own mitotic machinery to ensure its distribution to both daughter cells by associating closely with microtubules (MTs) and incorporating itself within the central spindle. We show that CLASP1, an MT-stabilizing protein that plays important roles in regulating kinetochore-MT attachment and central spindle positioning, is sequestered at the Theileria annulata schizont surface. We used live-cell imaging and immunofluorescence in combination with MT depolymerization assays to demonstrate that CLASP1 binds to the schizont surface in an MT-independent manner throughout the cell cycle and that the recruitment of the related CLASP2 protein to the schizont is MT dependent. By transfecting Theileria-infected cells with a panel of truncation mutants, we found that the kinetochore-binding domain of CLASP1 is necessary and sufficient for parasite localization, revealing that CLASP1 interaction with the parasite occurs independently of EB1. We overexpressed the MT-binding domain of CLASP1 in parasitized cells. This exhibited a dominant negative effect on host MT stability and led to altered parasite size and morphology, emphasizing the importance of proper MT dynamics for Theileria partitioning during host cell division. Using coimmunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that CLASP1 interacts, directly or indirectly, with the schizont membrane protein p104, and we describe for the first time TA03615, a Theileria protein which localizes to the parasite surface, where it has the potential to participate in parasite-host interactions. IMPORTANCE T. annulata, the only eukaryote known to be capable of transforming another eukaryote, is a widespread parasite of veterinary importance that puts 250 million cattle at risk worldwide

  9. Identification and characterization of Theileria ovis surface protein (ToSp) resembled TaSp in Theileria annulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, P; Jafari, S; Fattahi, R; Ebrahimzade, E; Amininia, N; Changizi, E

    2016-05-01

    Ovine theileriosis is an important hemoprotozoal disease of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions which caused high economic loses in the livestock industry. Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSp) was used previously as a tool for serological analysis in livestock. Since the amino acid sequences of TaSp is, at least, in part very conserved in T. annulata, Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria china I and II, it is very important to determine the amino acid sequence of this protein in Theileria ovis as well, to avoid false interpretation of serological data based on this protein in small animal. In the present study, the nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of T. ovis surface protein (ToSp) were determined. The comparison of the nucleotide sequence of ToSp showed 96, 96, 99, and 86 % homology to the corresponding nucleotide sequence of TaSp genes by T. annulata, T. China I, T. China II and T. lestoquardi, previously registered in GenBank under accession nos. AJ316260.1, AY274329.1, DQ120058.1, and EF092924.1 respectively. The amino acid sequence analysis showed 95, 81, 98 and 70 % homology to the corresponding amino acid sequence of T. annulata, T chinaI, T china II and T. lestoquardi, registered in GenBank under accession nos. CAC87478.1, AAP36993.1, AAZ30365.1 and AAP36999.11, respectively. Interestingly, in contrast to the C terminus, a significant difference in amino acid sequence in the N teminus of the ToSp protein could be determined compared to the other known corresponding TaSp sequences, which make this region attractive for designing of a suitable tool for serological diagnosis.

  10. Detection of Theileria annulata in cattle and vector ticks by PCR using the Tams1 gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirvar, E; Ilhan, T; Katzer, F; Hooshmand-Rad, P; Zweygarth, E; Gerstenberg, C; Phipps, P; Brown, C G

    2000-03-01

    A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization for the detection of Theileria annulata are described. The PCR used primers amplifying a 785 base-pair fragment of the T. annulata gene which encodes the 30 kDa major merozoite surface antigen, Tams1. The sensitivity of the PCR in bovine blood was 1 piroplasm in 1 microl of blood. T. buffeli, T. parva, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and B. divergens were not detected. The PCR detected down to 1 infected acinus/tick in resting and partially fed adult Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks and was negative for T. lestoquardi and T. equi, which are transmitted by this tick but are not infective to cattle. The specificity of the PCR was checked using 30 stocks of T. annulata, all of which were detected. Three stocks of T. lestoquardi, 4 of T. equi and 1 each of T. buffeli, T. parva, B. bigemina, B. bovis and B. divergens were used to ascertain there were no cross-reactions. A nested PCR using separate primers for the first reaction and the same primers for the second reaction detected T. annulata to the same sensitivity and specificity in saponin-extracted DNA samples stored for long periods at -20 degrees C.

  11. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts

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    Isabel Hostettler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48–72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development.

  12. First molecular evidence of the transplacental transmission of Theileria annulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul; Shanker, Daya

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis (BTT) is a serious hindrance in the cattle upgradation programme using the exotic germplasm. There is a wide range of variations in the pathobiology alongside clinical symptoms of the animals suffering from BTT. The present paper communicates the first report about the transplacental transmission of T. annulata in a cross bred 2-day old calf. T. sergenti, T. lestoquardi and T. equi are known to undergo transplacental transmission, but baring a single citation in literature, there are no records about the transplacental transmission of T. annulata.

  13. Detection of Theileria lestoquardi cross infection in cattle with clinical theileriosis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Seyedeh Missagh; Jolodar, Abbas; Rasooli, Aria; Darabifard, Ameneh

    2016-12-01

    Theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi (malignant ovine theileriosis) in sheep and Theileria annulata (tropical theileriosis) in cattle is an important hemoprotozoal tick-borne disease in Iran. Due to major biologic and phylogenic similarities of these two species, this study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of natural infections with T.lestoquardi and T.annulata in cattle with clinical theileriosis in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. Fifty one cattle were selected based on clinical signs of theileriosis and confirmation by microscopic examination of blood smears. Blood samples were collected from each animal and hematologic and microscopic examinations were performed. Theileria piroplasmic forms were detected in all affected cattle. Pale mucous membranes (43.14%), icterus (11.76%) and fever (70.6%) were also observed. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed T. annulata infection in all tested cattle while coinfections with T. lestoquardi were found in two samples (3.92%). All sampled cattle including the two with mixed species Theileria infection were anemic. This is the first report of Theileria species cross infections in cattle with clinical theileriosis in Iran. It can be concluded that cattle can be infected with both pathogenic Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. annulata which can be an important issue in the epidemiology and spread of ovine malignant theileriosis.

  14. Recruitment of EB1, a Master Regulator of Microtubule Dynamics, to the Surface of the Theileria annulata Schizont

    KAUST Repository

    Woods, Kerry L.

    2013-05-09

    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs) surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell\\'s astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability). Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton. 2013 Woods et al.

  15. Recruitment of EB1, a master regulator of microtubule dynamics, to the surface of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Woods

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell's astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability. Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1, a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton.

  16. Discrimination between Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in their vectors and hosts by RFLP based on the 18S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalska, Eva; Torina, Alessandra; Cannella, Vincenza; Caracappa, Santo; Sparagano, Olivier A E

    2004-10-01

    Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata can occur in similar vectors, and current available probes based on the 18S rRNA gene showed cross-reaction between the two species. However, we developed a species-specific RFLP test based on the MspI restriction enzyme, able to cut amplified products from T. lestoquardi only and to discriminate the two species in both tick and blood samples.

  17. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the partial tams1 gene sequence of a vaccine strain of Theileria annulata

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    Majid Esmaelizad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The polypeptide Tams1 is an immunodominant major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen of the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata and is highly variable. In this study, the partial nucleotide (nt sequence of the Tams1 (522 nt gene of Iranian vaccine strain (Vaccine-ir68 recovered from an outbreak of disease in Iran was determined and compared with the corresponding sequences of eighteen previously published Tams1 genes. According to sequencing result, a novel amino acid substitution at the Tams1 region (K→Q was found exclusively in isolate Vaccine-ir68. Genetic distance values, estimated from the sequence data, revealed striking sequence homology (approximately 99% between Vaccine-ir68 isolate and Tunisian isolates, showing that they were same isolates of T. annulata which were spread in these areas. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the sequence alignment of 19 Tams1 coding regions was distinctly divided into five lineages. There might be some unknown tick carrier birds immigrating to the different geographical regions. These birds have an effective role to distribute the T. annulata species in North Africa, Palestine and Iran.

  18. Comparison of molecular and microscopic technique for detection of Theileria annulata from the field cases of cattle

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    H. C. Chauhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Tropical theileriosis is fatal hemoprotozoal disease of dairy animals caused by Theileria annulata. The aim of the present study was to detect the T. annulata and comparison of results of molecular and microscopic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 blood samples were collected from the cattle suspected for theileriosis across the Banaskantha district. All the samples were screened for theileriosis using Giemsa’s staining technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Total of 17 (32.69% and 24 (46.15% samples were found positive for theileriosis by microscopic examination and PCR test, respectively. It revealed that the study area is endemic for theileriosis, and the microscopic technique has 70.83% sensitivity and 100% specificity with respect to PCR technique. Conclusion: It may be concluded from the present study that the PCR is comparatively sensitive technique than microscopic examination and may be recommended to use in the field for screening of theileriosis in the study area, where a high prevalence of diseases have been reported due to intensive dairy farming.

  19. Molecular identification of different Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Imam, Ahmed H; Hassan, Shawgi M; Gameel, Ahmed A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Taha, Khalid M; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological aspects of sheep piroplasmosis in Sudan are poorly studied, and further investigations using sensitive and precise techniques are required. In this study, the Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to detect and simultaneously differentiate between Theileria and Babesia species. DNA was extracted from blood collected on filter paper (n=219) from apparently healthy sheep from six different geographical localities in Sudan. Results indicated that Theileria ovis (88.6%), T. separata (20.1%), T. lestoquardi (16.4%) and T. annulata (16.4%) DNA could be detected in the blood samples. Single and mixed Theileria infections were detected in 74 (33.8%) and 124 (56.6%) respectively and T. ovis being the most prevalent species in the country. T. ovis and T. separata were reported for the first time in sheep in Sudan.

  20. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein-Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2016-12-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein-Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattle, from the two major breeds in Sistan, with the mean age of more than one year and without typical clinical symptoms of theileriosis were selected. At first, a thin layer smear was held from their ear sublime vein blood for Giemsa staining method. In order to do PCR assay, jugular vein blood sample of each cow was taken. The PCR employs primers specific for the 721-bp gene fragment encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. By PCR method, 38 (47.5 %) Holstein blood samples and 22 (27.5 %) Sistani blood samples had DNA of T. annulata and considered positive (The correlation was significant at values of P < 0.05). By checking 160 blood smears with light microscope and lens × 100, only 10 samples (6.25 %) were positive for T. annulata. Statistical comparison between PCR and smear method showed that the PCR method is more sensitive and accurate in comparison to Giemsa staining method to diagnose the asymptomatic carriers of T. annulata.

  1. Validation of an in vitro method to determine infectivity of cryopreserved sporozoites in stabilates of Theileria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, G M; Kirvar, E; Brown, C G D

    2002-03-20

    The infectivity of 15 cryopreserved Theileria spp. sporozoite stabilates was assessed semi-quantitatively by titration using naive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) in vitro in multi-well plates. Using the method described, the effective dilution, which would result in 50% of replicate wells infected (ED50), was calculated. The ED50 for 11 Theileria annulata stabilates in bovine PBM ranged from 10(-2.6) to 10(-4.2) dilutions of 1 tick equivalent (t.e.) ml(-1), one stabilate of Theileria parva 10(-2.2)t.e.ml(-1); and three Theileria lestoquardi stabilates in ovine PBM, from 10(-1.5) to 10(-1.8)t.e.ml(-1). Two of the T. annulata stabilates had been used individually to infect groups of calves: stabilate 52 produced more severe disease responses than stabilate 67, as measured by prepatent period, parasitosis, parasitaemia and death or recovery. This corresponded with the sixfold difference found in vitro between the ED50's of these two stabilates. This method is useful not only to measure the infection potential of the sporozoite stabilates but also as an in vitro model for chemotherapeutic and immunological studies of the early stages of theileriosis.

  2. Influence of subculturing on gene expression in a Theileria lestoquardi-infected cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Awadia M; Beyer, Doreen; Bakheit, Mohammed A; Kullmann, Birgit; Salih, Diaeldin A; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2008-12-19

    In this study potential molecular markers for identification of attenuation in a Theileria lestoquardi-infected cell line to be used in vaccination trials were identified. Two markers associated with attenuation in Theileria annulata vaccine strains were analyzed (metalloproteinase activity and TNF? mRNA expression). The result showed a decreased activity of MMP 9 and decreased mRNA expression of TNF? with increasing passage number. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify potential new markers of attenuation. Random screening revealed nine differentially expressed genes, one from the parasite and eight from the host. Quantitative real time-PCR confirmed mRNA expression of the parasite vacuolar H+ATPase to be downregulated at higher passages.

  3. Development of a recombinant indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Theileria sp. (China) infection in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Bakheit, M A; Liu, Z; Yin, H; Mu, Y; Guo, S; Beyer, D; Oliva, A; Ahmed, J S; Seitzer, U

    2006-05-01

    Theileria sp. (China) causes severe limitations on the development of the livestock industry in the north-west of China. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on merozoite homogenate of the parasite for diagnosis of infection has been established; however, cross-reactivity with other small ruminant-infecting piroplasms could not be excluded. Thus, a prerequisite for epidemiological surveys and diagnosis was the establishment of a recombinant protein-based ELISA. To this end, serum from Theileria sp. (China)-infected sheep was used to screen a Theileria lestoquardi expression library, resulting in the identification of a specifically reacting clone with a high identity to the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of Theileria parva and Theileria annulata and thus named TlHSP70. An HSP70 homologue was also confirmed to be expressed by Theileria sp. (China) merozoites (TcHSP70). A part of the TlHSP70 protein, found to be conserved in TcHSP70, was recombinantly expressed and used to establish an ELISA. A total of 260 field serum samples tested resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 94.3 and 89.5%, respectively, in comparison with the merozoite homogenate ELISA. The potentials of the application of the test in epidemiological surveys to map out the prevalence of the disease and for routine diagnostics are described.

  4. Transforming Growth Factor β2 Promotes Transcription of COX2 and EP4, Leading to a Prostaglandin E2-Driven Autostimulatory Loop That Enhances Virulence of Theileria annulata-Transformed Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echebli, Nadia; Ding, Ying; Kamau, Everlyn

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine known to regulate cell growth, differentiation, and motility and is a potent modulator of immune function. TGF-β consequently plays a central role in carcinogenesis, and a dampened TGF-β2 response by Theileria annulata-infected monocytes/macrophages underpins disease resistance to tropical theileriosis. Here, we show that concomitant with the loss of TGF-β2 production, there is ablated expression of COX2 and EP4, which leads to a drop in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and, consequently, reduced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and EPAC. This ablated phenotype can be rescued in attenuated macrophages by the addition of exogenous TGF-β2, which reactivates the expression of COX2 and EP4 while repressing that of protein kinase inhibitor gamma (PKIG) to the levels in virulent macrophages. TGF-β2 therefore promotes the adhesion and invasiveness of virulent macrophages by modulating COX2, EP4, and PKIG transcription to initiate a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-driven autostimulatory loop that augments PKA and EPAC activities. A virulence phenotype stemming from the double activation of PKA and EPAC is the induction of a CREB-mediated transcriptional program and the upregulation of JAM-L- and integrin 4αβ1-mediated adhesion of Theileria-infected macrophages. PMID:25690101

  5. Phylogenetic analysis by rRNA comparison of the highly pathogenic sheep-infecting parasites Theileria lestoquardi and a Theileria species identified in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, L; Hong, Y; Jianxun, L; Ludwig, W; Shayan, P; Rahbari, S; Voss-Holtmann, A; Ahmed, J S

    2000-01-01

    In the Northwestern part of China there have been reports of clinical cases in small ruminants of a haemoparasite with the characteristics of Theileria hirci (T. lestoquardi). However, some properties of this parasites argue against its classification as T. lestoquardi. In this paper, we present evidence that T. lestoquardi and the Chinese Theileria isolate are distinct parasite species. Phylogenetic analysis of determined nucleotide sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) genes of T. lestoquardi and the Chinese Theileria parasite show that they belong to different clades within the phylogenetic tree of piroplasms. The srRNA sequence of the Chinese parasite was found to be most closely related to T. buffeli, which, with T. sergenti, belongs to an evolutionary lineage of non-lymphoproliferative Theileria species. On the other hand, it was clearly divergent to a lineage of lymphoproliferative Theileria species; T. annulata, T. parva, T. taurotragi, and T. lestoquardi, the latter being most closely related to T. annulata.

  6. Global gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells challenged with Theileria annulata in crossbred and indigenous cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amod; Gaur, Gyanendra Kumar; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Panigrahi, Manjit; Ghosh, Shrikant; Saravanan, B C; Bhushan, Bharat; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Sulabh, Sourabh; Priya, Bhuvana; V N, Muhasin Asaf; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Wani, Sajad Ahmad; Sahu, Amit Ranjan; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis is an important haemoprotozoan disease associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. It is one of the major constraints of the livestock development programmes in India and Southeast Asia. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance to tropical theileriosis in indigenous cattle is not well documented. Recent studies incited an idea that differentially expressed genes in exotic and indigenous cattle play significant role in breed specific resistance to tropical theileriosis. The present study was designed to determine the global gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from indigenous (Tharparkar) and cross-bred cattle following in vitro infection of T. annulata (Parbhani strain). Two separate microarray experiments were carried out each for cross-bred and Tharparkar cattle. The cross-bred cattle showed 1082 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of total DEGs, 597 genes were down-regulated and 485 were up-regulated. Their fold change varied from 2283.93 to -4816.02. Tharparkar cattle showed 875 differentially expressed genes including 451 down-regulated and 424 up-regulated. The fold change varied from 94.93 to -19.20. A subset of genes was validated by qRT-PCR and results were correlated well with microarray data indicating that microarray results provided an accurate report of transcript level. Functional annotation study of DEGs confirmed their involvement in various pathways including response to oxidative stress, immune system regulation, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal changes, kinases activity and apoptosis. Gene network analysis of these DEGs plays an important role to understand the interaction among genes. It is therefore, hypothesized that the different susceptibility to tropical theileriosis exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle

  7. Survey of Theileria lestoquardi antibodies among Sudanese sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, D A; ElHussein, A M; Hayat, M; Taha, K M

    2003-02-27

    The prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi antibodies in Sudanese sheep from nine geographical areas in Sudan was determined using indirect fluorescent antibody "IFA" test. Out of 315 samples examined, 51 (16.2%) were found positive and ranged between 23.4% in River Nile State and 10% in Kasala and Darfour Provinces with an overall prevalence of 16.2% indicating widespread distribution of the infection. We also report on presence of antibodies reactive to Theileria annulata in sheep sera.

  8. Detection of Theileria ovis in naturally infected sheep by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Holman, Patricia J; Aktas, Munir

    2005-01-20

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Theileria ovis in sheep using oligonucleotide primers designed from the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence of T. ovis from sheep in eastern Turkey is described. A 398-bp DNA fragment was specifically amplified from blood samples from sheep, naturally infected with T. ovis. No PCR products resulted from T. lestoquardi, T. annulata, T. parva, T. buffeli and Babesia spp. DNA using these specific primers. The sensitivity of the nested PCR for T. ovis, which was assessed showed that one infected cell in 10(7) sheep erythrocytes, equivalent to a blood parasitemia of 0.00001%, could be detected. This is more sensitive than examining 200 fields under light microscopy. In addition, of the 124 field samples obtained from sheep in eastern Turkey tested, 19.35% (24/124) were positive for the presence of Theileria spp. by microscopic examination compared to 54.03% (67/124) positive for T. ovis by nested PCR. The primer pairs described in this study will be useful for epidemiological studies on ovine theileriosis and for discrimination between T. lestoquardi and T. ovis infections in sheep.

  9. Identification of Theileria lestoquardi antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    S. Goh; Ngugi, D.; Lizundia, R; Hostettler, I; Woods, K.; Ballingall, K; MacHugh, N D; Morrison, W I; Weir, W; Shiels, B; Werling, D.

    2016-01-01

    As part of an international effort to develop vaccines for Theileria lestoquardi, we undertook a limited screen to test T. lestoquardi orthologues of antigens recognised by CD8+ T lymphocyte responses against T. annulata and T. parva in cattle. Five MHC defined sheep were immunized by live T. lestoquardi infection and their CD8+ T lymphocyte responses determined. Thirteen T. lestoquardi orthologues of T. parva and T. annulata genes, previously shown to be targets of CD8+ T lymphocyte response...

  10. Molecular detection, infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohammadi; Bijan Esmaeilnejad; Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin

    2017-01-01

    Goat Iran Ixodid ticks Semi-nested PCR Theileria lestoquardi Abstract This study was aimed to determine the infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran...

  11. The indirect fluorescent antibody test based on schizont antigen for study of the sheep parasite Theileria lestoquardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, I; Hooshmand-Rad, P; Uggla, A

    1997-04-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), based on schizont-infected lymphoblastoid cells, was applied to study the course of antibody production in adult sheep inoculated with attenuated, in vitro grown, Theileria lestoquardi (Theileria hirci) infected cells. Bright fluorescence of the intracellular schizonts could first be demonstrated 15 days after inoculation. A 32-64-fold rise in antibody titres was recorded 1 month after infection, and substantial titres were still observed 90 days after inoculation. Fluorescence was absent with negative control sera and background staining was minimal. No serological cross-reactions were detected with sheep sera positive for Babesia motasi, Babesia ovis or Toxoplasma gondii. Results obtained did not differ when antigens prepared from three different strains of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoid cells were compared. Testing for reactivity to non-pathogenic Theileria species of sheep revealed a low degree of cross-reaction of a Theileria ovis and a Theileria separata antiserum to T. lestoquardi antigen. Cross-reactions were also observed with bovine sera positive for Theileria annulata and Theileria parva. Moreover, T. lestoquardi positive sera reacted almost equally strongly with bovine T. annulata antigen as with their homologous antigen, whereas cross-reaction with bovine T. parva antigen was less pronounced. These results indicate a close antigenic relationship between ovine T. lestoquardi and T. annulata of cattle.

  12. [How does the apicomplexan parasite Theileria control host cell identity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolier, Justine; Weitzman, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents, like bacteria or virus, are responsible for a large number of pathologies in mammals. Microbes have developed mechanisms for interacting with host cell pathways and hijacking cellular machinery to change the phenotypic state. In this review, we focus on an interesting apicomplexan parasite called Theileria. Infection by the tick-transmitted T. annulata parasite causes Tropical Theileriosis in North Africa and Asia, and the related T. parva parasite causes East Coast Fever in Sub-Saharan Africa. This parasite is the only eukaryote known to induce the transformation of its mammalian host cells. Indeed, T. annulata and T. parva infect bovine leukocytes leading to transforming phenotypes, which partially mirror human lymphoma pathologies. Theileria infection causes hyperproliferation, invasiveness and escape from apoptosis, presumably through the manipulation of host cellular pathways. Several host-signaling mechanisms have been implicated. Here we describe the mechanisms involved in parasite-induced transformation phenotypes. © Société de Biologie, 2015.

  13. Molecular Detection and Identification of Theileria Species by PCR-RFLP Method in Sheep from Ahvaz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Seyedeh Missagh; Khaki, Zohreh; Kazemi, Bahram; Rahbari, Sadegh; Shayan, Parviz; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Yasini, Seyedeh Parastoo

    2014-03-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the accurate status of ovine Theileria infection in sheep from Ahvaz and surrounding region, a tropical area southwest Iran. A PCR-RFLP method based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene was designed which could detect and differentiate Theileria and Babesia spp. and also differentiate main Theileria species in sheep at the same time. 119 sheep blood samples were collected from Ahvaz and surroundings. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 69.7% (83/119) infection with Theileria spp. Of the total samples subjected to PCR, 89% (106/119) were found to be positive, all of which were identified as Theileria by RFLP analysis using enzyme Hind II. In enzymatic digestion of PCR products by Vsp I, 91.5% (97/106) of Theileria positive samples were identified as T. ovis while mixed Theileria infections were found in 9 samples. The samples with mixed infections were analyzed with an additional nested PCR-RFLP method, by HpaII enzyme digestion. 3 samples with T. lestoquardi infection, 1 sample with T. ovis and T. annulata, 1 sample with T. lestoquardi and T. annulata, and 4 samples with T. ovis, T. lestoquardi and T. annulata mixed infections were detected. Ovine theileriosis caused by T. ovis is highly prevalent in southwest Iran while T. lestoquardi and T. annulata infection can be detected in a lesser propor-tion of sheep in this region. The new PCR-RFLP method that was designed in this study, can serve as a beneficial diagnostic tool, especially in T. ovis prevalent re-gions.

  14. Molecular Detection and Identification of Theileria Species by PCR-RFLP Method in Sheep from Ahvaz, Southern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Missagh Jalali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the accurate status of ovine Theileria infection in sheep from Ahvaz and surrounding region, a tropical area southwest Iran.A PCR-RFLP method based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene was designed which could detect and differentiate Theileria and Babesia spp. and also differentiate main Theileria species in sheep at the same time. 119 sheep blood samples were collected from Ahvaz and surroundings.Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 69.7% (83/119 infection with Theileria spp. Of the total samples subjected to PCR, 89% (106/119 were found to be positive, all of which were identified as Theileria by RFLP analysis using enzyme Hind II. In enzymatic digestion of PCR products by Vsp I, 91.5% (97/106 of Theileria positive samples were identified as T. ovis while mixed Theileria infections were found in 9 samples. The samples with mixed infections were analyzed with an additional nested PCR-RFLP method, by HpaII enzyme digestion. 3 samples with T. lestoquardi infection, 1 sample with T. ovis and T. annulata, 1 sample with T. lestoquardi and T. annulata, and 4 samples with T. ovis, T. lestoquardi and T. annulata mixed infections were detected.Ovine theileriosis caused by T. ovis is highly prevalent in southwest Iran while T. lestoquardi and T. annulata infection can be detected in a lesser propor-tion of sheep in this region. The new PCR-RFLP method that was designed in this study, can serve as a beneficial diagnostic tool, especially in T. ovis prevalent re-gions.

  15. Detection of Theileria orientalis in mosquito blood meals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Marco, M; Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; Thorne, L; Phipps, L P; Nikolova, N I; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2016-10-15

    Theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. In this study, the utility of xenosurveillance of blood-fed specimens of Culiseta annulata for detecting the presence of piroplasms in livestock was investigated. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected at Elmley National Nature Reserve, Kent, United Kingdom. All specimens were morphologically identified, and DNA barcoding was used to confirm the morphological identification. Both the vertebrate host species and Theileria genome was detected within the bloodmeal by real-time PCR. Sequencing was used to confirm the identity of all amplicons. In total, 105 blood-fed mosquitoes morphologically identified as Cs. annulata were collected. DNA barcoding revealed that 102 specimens were Cs. annulata (99%), while a single specimen was identified as Anopheles messeae. Two specimens could not be identified molecularly due to PCR amplification failure. Blood meal analysis revealed that Cs. annulata fed almost exclusively on cattle at the collection site (n=100). The application of a pan-piroplasm PCR detected 16 positive samples (15.2%) and sequence analysis of the amplicons demonstrated that the piroplasms present in the blood meal belonged to the Theileria orientalis group. This study demonstrates how xenosurveillance can be applied to detecting pathogens in livestock and confirms the presence of Theileria species in livestock from the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Theileria Infecting Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Wamuyu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Theileria is a genus of tick-borne protozoan that is globally widespread and infects nearly all ungulates in which they cause either latent infection or lethal disease. Wild animals are considered reservoir hosts of many species of Theileria and their diversity in wildlife species is increasingly becoming of interest. The molecular characterization and identification of Theileria infecting wildlife has been studied in a few species including buffalo, which are considered reservoir host for Theileria parva infecting cattle. In this study, we sequenced Theileria species infecting wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus and used molecular-genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 18 Small Subunit of the Ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA to identify their relationships with known species of Theileria. Our results revealed three new Theileria haplotypes infecting wildebeest. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that haplotype 1 and 2 clustered in the same clade as Theileria separata and with Theileria sp. isolated from other small to medium sized antelopes. Haplotype 3 clustered close to the Theileria ovis clade. This is the first molecular description and characterization of Theileria species infecting blue wildebeest in East Africa. This study demonstrates the potential for Theileria transmission between wildebeest and small domestic ungulates, such as sheep and goats.

  17. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Theileria Infecting Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamuyu, Lucy; Obanda, Vincent; Kariuki, Daniel; Gakuya, Francis; Makanda, Moni; Otiende, Moses; Ommeh, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Theileria is a genus of tick-borne protozoan that is globally widespread and infects nearly all ungulates in which they cause either latent infection or lethal disease. Wild animals are considered reservoir hosts of many species of Theileria and their diversity in wildlife species is increasingly becoming of interest. The molecular characterization and identification of Theileria infecting wildlife has been studied in a few species including buffalo, which are considered reservoir host for Theileria parva infecting cattle. In this study, we sequenced Theileria species infecting wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and used molecular-genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 18 Small Subunit of the Ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) to identify their relationships with known species of Theileria. Our results revealed three new Theileria haplotypes infecting wildebeest. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that haplotype 1 and 2 clustered in the same clade as Theileria separata and with Theileria sp. isolated from other small to medium sized antelopes. Haplotype 3 clustered close to the Theileria ovis clade. This is the first molecular description and characterization of Theileria species infecting blue wildebeest in East Africa. This study demonstrates the potential for Theileria transmission between wildebeest and small domestic ungulates, such as sheep and goats. PMID:26295263

  18. Pathogenic genotype of major piroplasm surface protein associated with anemia in Theileria orientalis infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Bae-Keun; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2017-07-27

    Serious disease outbreaks in cattle caused by Theileria orientalis have emerged in the Asia-Pacific region. Genetic variables of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) expressed on the surface of the piroplasm inside T. orientalis-infected erythrocytes are considered to be associated with variation in the pathogenicity of T. orientalis. Our study describes the clinically relevant MPSP types associated with anemia in Theileria-infected cattle. These results revealed that MPSP expression plays an important role in hematological alterations in Theileria-infected cattle, and that MPSP type 1 is strongly associated with bovine anemia, which can be a potential target for the prevention of bovine theileriosis.

  19. Milk losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouarda Ayadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the impact of tropical theileriosis onset on milk yield decrease in 10 local bred cows in Skikda (Northern Algeria during 2015 summer season. The milk yield decrease estimated weekly during two months was 2.76 L/day/cow corresponding to 31.92% of the total milk yield. This decrease corresponds to 110.5 Algerian Dinars (1.02 US$/day/diseased cow. The relative variation of milk yield showed a dramatic decrease from 82.72% to 0.76% at Day 21 then became constant. Further studies are needed to improve these estimations of financial losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis in Algeria.

  20. Comparative genome analysis of three eukaryotic parasites with differing abilities to transform leukocytes reveals key mediators of theileria-induced leukocyte transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashida, Kyoko

    2012-09-04

    We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmo-dium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. 2012 Hayashida et al. T.

  1. Molecular identification of ovine Theileria species by a new PCR-RFLP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarpour Bami, M; Haddadzadeh, H R; Kazemi, B; Khazraiinia, P; Bandehpour, M; Aktas, M

    2009-05-12

    Theileria spp. infect wild and domestic ruminants in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Two species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, are suspected to cause ovine theileriosis in Iran. The epidemiological aspects of ovine theileriosis in Iran are poorly understood, and further investigations by sensitive and precise techniques are required. In this study, the use of a nested PCR for amplification of a fragment of the 18S ribosomal DNA from virtually all species of Theileria is described. For differentiation of various Theileria spp. a RFLP assay was developed as a diagnostic tool enabling direct, concurrent, highly specific and sensitive identification of Theileria spp. The sensitivity of the nested PCR for Theileria species was 10(-5)% parasitemia. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PCR products allowed differentiation between three different Theileria species (T. annulata, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis) and seems to be useful for differentiation of other species such as T. separata and Theileria spp. china. From 100 field blood samples obtained from sheep in East and South-East Iran, 56% were positive for Theileria spp. by nested-PCR compared with 21% by microscopic examination. Out of 56 positive samples, 12.5% (7/56) were positive for T. ovis and 87/5% (49/56) were positive for T. lestoquardi. This is the first report in which T. ovis has been detected in Iran using molecular identification techniques.

  2. Molecular surveillance of Theileria parasites of livestock in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahdi, Amira; Alqamashoui, Badar; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Kose, Onur; Tageldin, Mohammed H; Bobade, Patrick; Johnson, Eugene H; Hussain, Abdel-Rahim; Karagenc, Tulin; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Babiker, Hamza

    2017-08-01

    Theileriosis is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of livestock in the Arabian Peninsula, and causes high rates of mortality and morbidity in sheep and cattle. However, there is a paucity of information on the distribution of Theileria spp. over the whole region and their impact on different hosts. The present study carried out a country-wide molecular survey for Theileria spp. of livestock in Oman across four governorates. The aim of the survey was to define the prevalence of Theileria spp. in cattle, sheep and goats, highlight risk factors for infection and identify the main tick species involved in parasite transmission. A total of 2020 animals were examined in the survey consisting of sheep [n=592], goats [n=981] and cattle [n=447]. All three species were raised and co-grazed on the same farms. Theileria parasites were detected using PCR-RFLP and RLB of the 18S rRNA gene. Cloning and sequencing of the 18S rRNA was carried out on 11 T. lestoquardi isolates from Ash-Sharqiyah, and Ad-Dhahira governorates, and phylogenetic relationships were inferred using additional sequences of T. lestoquardi, T. annulata and T. ovis available in GenBank. Theileria spp. prevalence was 72.3%, 36.7% and 2.7% among cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Strong similarity in results was obtained using RLB and PCR-RFLP for detection of Theileria spp. however, RLB detected a higher rate of mixed infection than PCR-RFPL (PTheileria annulata was the only parasite detected in cattle, while sheep and goats carried T. ovis, T. lestoquardi and T. annulata as well as Theileria spp. OT1. Of the four Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, overall T. ovis was most prevalent (sheep [33.4%], goats [2.0%]), whereas T. lestoquardi was less prevalent (sheep [22.0%], goats [0.5%]). A large proportion of infected sheep (19%) carried mixed infection of T. ovis and T. lestoquardi. However, single T. lestoquardi infections (3.0%) were less prevalent than T. ovis infections (14.5%). Risk

  3. First isolation and establishment of in vitro culture of Theileria lestoquardi from a naturally infected cow

    OpenAIRE

    M Namavari; Ezhdehakosh-pour, S.; Habibi, G. R.; A. Rahimian; F Namazi

    2013-01-01

    Theileria infected cell line was isolated from the prescapular lymph node of an adult crossbred cow. Molecular study confirmed this cell line of bovine lymphocyte has been transformed by the Theileria lestoquardi. This strain of T. lestoquardi designated Ka-6 and sheep were inoculated with this strain didn’t show any clinical signs of theileriosis which shows the significance of this cell line to develop a tissue-culture vaccine against malignant ovine theileriosis. Contrary to accepted belie...

  4. Experimental Theileria lestoquardi infection in sheep: Biochemical and hematological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2017-09-01

    Malignant theileriosis (Theileria lestoquardi infection) is a hemoparasitic tick-borne disease that affects both wild and domestic small ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and hematological characteristics of sheep after being experimentally infected by T. lestoquardi. T. lestoquardi infection was induced in seven Baluchi sheep of six-to-eight months old via experimentally-infected Hyalomma anatolicum adult ticks. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured twice a week during the three weeks' post infection. Twenty-three biochemical analytes and seven hematological ones were measured. After three to four days infection, body temperature rose above 40(°)C. Maximum and minimum parasitaemia were 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. Piroplasms and schizont were seen on average from days 7.2 and 4 post infection, respectively. The concentrations and activities of Alb, HDL, ALT, T3, T4, Ca, Fe, Mg, iP, WBC, RBC, PCV, Hb, Plt, neutrophil and lymphocytes significantly decreased (P≤0.05) during experimental infection. However, concentrations and activities of BT, GGT, Glu, BUN, Crea, FIB and Cu significantly increased (P≤0.05). There was no significant change in the serum amounts of Chol, LDL, TG, VLDL and Zn. The observed hypoalbuminemia and increase of FIB concentrations referred to pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the raising of GGT activity indicates liver damage, cholestatic disorders or schizont infiltration. The disease stress and corticosteroids are suspected to cause the Glu concentration increase. The present study is aimed at improving the knowledge of malignant theileriosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The pulmonary involvement in Theileria lestoquardi naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Imam, Ahmed H; Hassan, Shawgi M; Gameel, Ahmed A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Taha, Khalid M

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Ovine Theileriosis (MOT) caused by Theileria lestoquardi is considered a major constraint for sheep production in many areas of the world including Sudan. Pulmonary oedema is thought to be the main cause of animal death, but the mechanism, the cell types involved and/or the probable cause of this pneumonia has yet to be defined. The present study was carried out to investigate the pulmonary involvement post T. lestoquardi infection and to identify the cell types involved in pneumonia. Apparently healthy sheep were exposed to ticks challenge in T. lestoquardi endemic area. Lungs impression smears and tissue sections for histopathology were processed. At necropsy, fifteen infected sheep revealed severe pneumonia associated with oedema and accumulation of creamy-grayish frothy exudates. The microscopic findings of examined lungs showed emphysema, congestion, collapse and proliferation of immense amount of different kinds of cells. The current study indicates that T. lestoquardi infections are accompanied with remarkable pulmonary involvements and may lead to respiratory failure and death.

  6. Molecular detection, infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Seyyed Mostafa; ESMAEILNEJAD, Bijan; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total of 400 blood samples were collected from 40 randomly selected flocks in the study area from June to September, 2014. Out of 400 blood samples examined using microscopic examination, a number of 14 goats (3.50%) were positive for Theileria spp., whereas 25 goats (6.25%) yielded a specific T. lestoquardi SSU-rRNA fragment (235 bp). The prevalence of the...

  7. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Tajeri; Gholamreza Razmi; Alireza Haghparast

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses), which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infec...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Theileria parva infection in cattle in three regions of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerario, Isack I.; Simuunza, Martin C; Chenyambuga, Sebastian W

    2017-01-01

    of ECF in Tanzania has continued to be a challenge due to inadequate epidemiological information. The main objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological situation of Theileria parva infections in cattle kept under pastoral and agro-pastoral farming systems in Mara, Singida, and Mbeya...

  9. Molecular detection, infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyyed Mostafa; Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total of 400 blood samples were collected from 40 randomly selected flocks in the study area from June to September, 2014. Out of 400 blood samples examined using microscopic examination, a number of 14 goats (3.50%) were positive for Theileria spp., whereas 25 goats (6.25%) yielded a specific T. lestoquardi SSU-rRNA fragment (235 bp). The prevalence of theileriosis in goats estimated by semi-nested PCR was significantly higher than the prevalence estimated by microscopic examination of the blood smears. The prevalence of Theileria infection in different age and sex groups of goats was not significantly different. The highest and lowest prevalence of Theileria infection was in July (12.00%) and September (2.00%), respectively. A number of 315 adult Ixodid ticks were also collected from naturally infested goats and they were characterized. Out of 315 examined ticks, a number of 37 ticks including Hyalomma marginatum (65.20%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (44.00%), and Dermacentor marginatus (68.70%) were infected by T. lestoquardi. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that the semi-nested PCR assay based on SSU-rRNA gene is a valuable method for epidemiological investigation of caprine theileriosis. The results showed that H. marginatum, R. turanicus and D. marginatus can be considered as risk factor in the epidemiology of T. lestoquardi.

  10. First isolation and establishment of in vitro culture of Theileria lestoquardi from a naturally infected cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namavari, M; Ezhdehakosh-Pour, S; Habibi, G R; Rahimian, A; Namazi, F

    2015-06-01

    Theileria infected cell line was isolated from the prescapular lymph node of an adult crossbred cow. Molecular study confirmed this cell line of bovine lymphocyte has been transformed by the Theileria lestoquardi. This strain of T. lestoquardi designated Ka-6 and sheep were inoculated with this strain didn't show any clinical signs of theileriosis which shows the significance of this cell line to develop a tissue-culture vaccine against malignant ovine theileriosis. Contrary to accepted belief that the T. lestoquardi not capable of causing disease in cattle, the present study describes the first isolation and establishment of in vitro culture of T. lestoquardi-infected cell line from a naturally infected cow with typical singes of acute theileriosis.

  11. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeri, Shahin; Razmi, Gholamreza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses), which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail.

  12. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Tajeri

    Full Text Available The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses, which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail.

  13. The first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel Theileria spp. co-infection in a South African giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen

    2016-08-01

    Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on Theileria lestoquardi antigens as potential vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namavari, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mohammad H; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh; Lotfi, Mohsen; Shirazi, Ali; Sparagano, Olivier A E

    2008-12-01

    Theileria lestoquardi is the causative agent of malignant theileriosis of sheep and goats, causing morbidity and mortality in these animals worldwide. Western blot analysis based on T. lestoquardi schizont antigens was carried out using sera collected from Iranian sheep, which had been immunized with T. lestoquardi schizont-infected cells. The results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that schizont-immunized animals produced antibodies reacting with protein bands at 73, 42, 20, 14, and 12 kDa. Comparison of the results of the current Western blotting test with earlier studies of Theileria spp. revealed two immunogenic schizont proteins with molecular weights of 73 and 42 kDa shared between T. annulata and T. lestoquardi. Two other proteins with molecular weights of 14 and 12 kDa have not been previously found in other Theileria species. Our results suggest that the 73-kDa protein could be a potential vaccine candidate and that the 14- and 12-kDa proteins could be considered as diagnostic antigens.

  15. Molecular surveillance of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in horses from Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivinska, Kateryna; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Wróblewski, Zbigniew; Peťko, Branislav; Ragač, Ondrej; Demeshkant, Vitaliy; Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-15

    A survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in some regions of Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia. Using a specific PCR assays, blood samples from 215 horses were tested. The prevalence of T. equi and A. phagocytophilum infection was 13.95% and 1.4%, respectively. BLAST analysis showed the isolates closest to the T. equi 18S rRNA and A. phagocytophilum msp4 gene sequences in GenBank with a similarity of ≥99%. No significant association was found between the T. equi PCR positivity and the age or sex of the horses. There was a significant association between the origin of horses and T. equi-PCR positivity. No significant association was found between the A. phagocytophilum-PCR positivity and the age, sex or origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization of a Theileria lestoquardi gene encoding for immunogenic protein splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, M A; Scholzen, T; Ahmed, J S; Seitzer, U

    2006-12-01

    A Theileria lestoquardi schizont cDNA library was screened using sera collected from sheep recovering from a natural malignant theileriosis infection. An immunogenic clone (clone-5) was isolated and its full sequence was obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. PCR experiments and sequencing demonstrated the presence of two transcript forms of the gene, resulting from splicing variation at the single intron found in the gene. Both gene products, clone-5 long and clone-5 short variants with calculated molecular weights of 99.9 and 72.7 kDa, respectively, were expressed in a T. lestoquardi-infected cell line. BLAST searches suggested the presence of homologues of the gene in both the Theileria parva and Theileria annulata genomes, with identities of 53 and 62% on the DNA level, respectively. The intron was preserved in size, sequence, and location within the gene in these parasites. Analysis of the subcellular localization of the clone-5 proteins showed a predominant parasite membrane association in T. lestoquardi-infected cells. Both recombinantly produced forms were found to be reactive with sera from infected animals. Bioinformatic analyses were employed to address the possible function of the gene products in the biology of T. lestoquardi.

  17. A review of Theileria diagnostics and epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Mans

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive range of serological and molecular diagnostic assays exist for most of the economically important Theileira species such as T. annulata, T. equi, T. lestoquardi, T. parva, T. uilenbergi and other more benign species. Diagnostics of Theileria is considered with regard to sensitivity and specificity of current molecular and serological assays and their use in epidemiology. In the case of serological assays, cross-reactivity of genetically closely related species reduces the use of the gold standard indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Development of antigen-specific assays does not necessarily address this problem, since closely related species will potentially have similar antigens. Even so, serological assays remain an important line of enquiry in epidemiological surveys. Molecular based assays have exploded in the last decade with significant improvements in sensitivity and specificity. In this review, the current interpretation of what constitute a species in Theileria and its impact on accurate molecular diagnostics is considered. Most molecular assays based on conventional or real-time PCR technology have proven to be on standard with regard to analytical sensitivity. However, consideration of the limits of detection in regard to total blood volume of an animal indicates that most assays may only detect >400,000 parasites/L blood. Even so, natural parasitaemia distribution in carrier-state animals seems to be above this limit of detection, suggesting that most molecular assays should be able to detect the majority of infected individuals under endemic conditions. The potential for false-negative results can, however, only be assessed within the biological context of the parasite within its vertebrate host, i.e. parasitaemia range in the carrier-state that will support infection of the vector and subsequent transmission.

  18. A review of Theileria diagnostics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Ben J; Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A

    2015-04-01

    An extensive range of serological and molecular diagnostic assays exist for most of the economically important Theileira species such as T. annulata, T. equi, T. lestoquardi, T. parva, T. uilenbergi and other more benign species. Diagnostics of Theileria is considered with regard to sensitivity and specificity of current molecular and serological assays and their use in epidemiology. In the case of serological assays, cross-reactivity of genetically closely related species reduces the use of the gold standard indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Development of antigen-specific assays does not necessarily address this problem, since closely related species will potentially have similar antigens. Even so, serological assays remain an important line of enquiry in epidemiological surveys. Molecular based assays have exploded in the last decade with significant improvements in sensitivity and specificity. In this review, the current interpretation of what constitute a species in Theileria and its impact on accurate molecular diagnostics is considered. Most molecular assays based on conventional or real-time PCR technology have proven to be on standard with regard to analytical sensitivity. However, consideration of the limits of detection in regard to total blood volume of an animal indicates that most assays may only detect >400,000 parasites/L blood. Even so, natural parasitaemia distribution in carrier-state animals seems to be above this limit of detection, suggesting that most molecular assays should be able to detect the majority of infected individuals under endemic conditions. The potential for false-negative results can, however, only be assessed within the biological context of the parasite within its vertebrate host, i.e. parasitaemia range in the carrier-state that will support infection of the vector and subsequent transmission.

  19. Epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of Theileria equi infection in Giza, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez A. Salib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Theileria equi among horses in different age groups, both sexes, months and seasons of the year, and regions of Giza governourate. Studying the changes in the blood picture, blood chemistries, liver enzymes associate with T.equi infections in horses. Evaluating IFA and CFT at different dilutions in the serodiagnosis of T.equi infections in horses. Evaluating four anti-Theileria medication regimens (diminazine aceturate, imidiocarb 7%, buparvaquone and a combination of imidiocarb 7% and buparvaquone in treatment of T.equi infections in horses. Materials and Methods: Total of 149 horses were examined by clinical signs and blood smears. Fortey whole blood samples from T.equi infected horses were examined to measure haemoglobin, total RBCs count and PCV. Fortey serum samples from T.equi infected horses were examined to measure total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT and AST enzymes. Serum samples from T.equi infected (40 and non infected (14 horses were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA and complement fixation test (CFT at different dilutions. Four groups of T.equiinfected horses (A,B,C,D, each group was represented by 10 horses and was separately treated with diminazine aceturate, imidiocarb 7%, buparvaquone and a combination of imidiocarb 7% and buparvaquone respectively. Results: the prevalence of T.equi was 41.61% in totally examined horses. The prevalence was higher in males than females. The highest prevalence was among age group ranged from 5-10 years as (22.81%. The highest prevalence was in July and was recorded as (25.81% and the disease was more prevalent in summer than winter. The highest prevalence was recorded in Nazlet-alsamman as (51.61%. Equine theileriosis was clinically characterized by fever, haemoglobinuria, oedema, anaemia and icterus. The best dilution for IFA was 1/160 where sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were the highest for this test as (98%, (92.86% and (97

  20. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detection of Theileria lestoquardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Diaeldin A; Ali, Awadia M; Liu, Zhijie; Bakheit, Mohammed A; Taha, Khalid M; El Imam, Ahmed H; Kullmann, Birgit; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2012-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the diagnosis of Theileria lestoquardi infection. The primers were designed based on the clone-5 sequence of T. lestoquardi. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were established. Analysis of the specificity showed that the selected LAMP primers amplified the target sequence from T. lestoquardi DNA successfully, while no amplification was seen with DNA from Theileria annulata, Theileria ovis, Babesia ovis, Anaplasma ovis, or ovine genomic DNA. The specificity of the LAMP product was further confirmed by restriction digestion and sequencing. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was analyzed in comparison to PCR resulting in a detection limit of 10 fg/μl of plasmid DNA containing the clone-5 sequence. The suitability for utilizing the LAMP assay in the field for the diagnosis of T. lestoquardi infection was tested on 100 field samples collected in Sudan and compared with results obtained by PCR. The relative specificity and sensitivity of the established LAMP assay was determined to be 92.1% and 87.5%, respectively, indicating that it may be regarded as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool to PCR which could be used for epidemiological surveys on T. lestoquardi infection.

  1. Attenuation of Theileria lestoquardi infected cells and immunization of sheep against malignant ovine theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bukhari M; Taha, Khalid M; Enan, Khalid A; Elfahal, Abdelghafar M; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim M

    2013-10-01

    Malignant ovine theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi is an economically important disease infecting small ruminants in the Sudan. The disease causes massive losses among sheep in many regions of Northern Sudan. The present studies were done to isolate lymphoblastoid cells infected with malignant ovine theileriosis and attenuate them by passage using culture media to develop and produce schizonts candidate vaccine, then test its efficacy and safety by exposing immunized lambs to field challenge in an area endemic with T. lestoquardi. In the present experiments we isolated and established an in vitro culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoblast cell line. Long-term culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoplastoid cells was shown to result in attenuation of their virulence and lambs inoculated with different doses of such cells at passage 105 exhibited very mild reactions with fever that lasted for 1-5 days and parasitaemia of <0.2%. The experimental lambs immunized with this candidate vaccine were immune and protected when exposed to field challenge in an area endemic of ovine theileriosis, while morbidity and mortality among non-immunized animals reached 76.9% and 46.15%, respectively, and they exhibited the clinical signs of malignant ovine theileriosis that included, high fever, loss of appetite, enlargement of lymph nodes, jaundice, loss of weight and death. The present study demonstrates the efficacy and the safety of this attenuated cell line as a live attenuated candidate vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotypic variations in field isolates of Theileria species infecting giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi and Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaka, Naftaly; Konnai, Satoru; Skilton, Robert; Kariuki, Edward; Kanduma, Esther; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-10-01

    Recently, mortalities among giraffes, attributed to infection with unique species of piroplasms were reported in South Africa. Although haemoparasites are known to occur in giraffes of Kenya, the prevalence, genetic diversity and pathogenicity of these parasites have not been investigated. In this study, blood samples from 13 giraffes in Kenya were investigated microscopically and genomic DNA extracted. PCR amplicons of the hyper-variable region 4 (V4) of Theileria spp. small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene were hybridized to a panel of genus- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes by reverse line blot (RLB). Two newly designed oligonucleotide probes specific for previously identified Theileria spp. of giraffes found single infections in eight of the specimens and mixed infections in the remaining five samples. Partial 18S rRNA genes were successfully amplified from 9 samples and the PCR amplicons were cloned. A total of 28 plasmid clones representing the Kenyan isolates were analyzed in the present study and compared with those of closely-related organisms retrieved from GenBank. In agreement with RLB results, the nucleotide sequence alignment indicated the presence of mixed infections in the giraffes. In addition, sequence alignment with the obtained 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed extensive microheterogeneities within and between isolates, characterized by indels in the V4 regions and point mutations outside this region. Phylogeny with 18S rRNA gene sequences from the detected parasites and those of related organisms places Theileria of giraffes into two major groups, within which are numerous clades that include the isolates reported in South Africa. Collectively, these data suggest the existence of at least two distinct Theileria species among giraffes, and extensive genetic diversity within the two parasite groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The persistence of Theileria parva infection in cattle immunized using two stocks which differ in their ability to induce a carrier state: analysis using a novel blood spot PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, R A; Bishop, R P; Katende, J M; Mwaura, S; Morzaria, S P

    2002-03-01

    An improved Theileria parva DNA detection assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers derived from the 104 kDa antigen (p104) gene was developed to detect parasite DNA in blood spots on filter paper. The specificity of the assay was validated using DNA from a wide range of cattle-derived and buffalo-derived stocks of T. parva. DNA of T. annulata, T. buffeli, T. lestoquardi, T. mutans and T. taurotragi was not amplified using the p104 primers. The detection threshold of the assay was approximately 1-2 parasites/microl of infected blood. PCR amplification using the p104 primers was applied to sequential samples from groups of cattle experimentally infected with either the T. parva Marikebuni stock that induces a long-term carrier state or the Muguga stock, which does not induce a carrier state. The study extended for up to 487 days post-infection and PCR data from defined time points were compared with parasitological microscopy and serological data, together with xenodiagnosis by experimental application of ticks. Microscopy first detected piroplasms between days 13 and 16 after infection whereas all cattle became PCR +ve between days 9 and 13. Animals infected with the Muguga stock of T. parva had parasite DNA in the peripheral blood, which could be detected by PCR, for between 33 and 129 days post-infection in different animals. By contrast parasite DNA in the blood of cattle infected with the Marikebuni stock could be detected consistently from day 9 up to 487 days, when the study terminated. The data suggest that the nature and persistence of the carrier state may differ markedly between different T. parva parasite stocks.

  4. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  5. Theileria infections in small ruminants in the east and southeast Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kürşat; Aktaş, Münir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Theileria (T.) ovis and to investigate the presence of T. lestoquardi in small ruminants by microscopic examination (ME) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the East and Southeast Anatolia. Whole blood samples (677 sheep and 142 goats) and thin blood smears (656 sheep and 139 goats) were collected from Malatya, Muş, Erzincan, Erzurum, Iğdir, Diyarbakir and Mardin. Piroplasms of Theileria spp. were detected in 18.29% (120/656) of sheep and 2.88% (4/139) of goats by ME. T. ovis was detected in 58.79% (398/677) of sheep and 11.27% (16/142) of goats by PCR whereas T. lestoquardi was not detected in the same animals.

  6. Phylogenetics of Theileria species in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier A E; Spitalska, Eva; Namavari, Mehdi; Torina, Alessandra; Cannella, Vincenza; Caracappa, Santo

    2006-10-01

    Our study is based on the collection of blood and ticks from sheep in Iran and Italy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was performed to target the 18S rRNA gene and RLB was performed using previously published probes. In Italy and Iran 78.7% and 76.0% of the sheep were PCR positive, which after sequencing and RLB showed that they were Theileria ovis and Theileria lestoquardi, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Clustal W multiple sequence alignment program and our sequences were compared with more than 50 others already published in the EMBL database. Our T. lestoquardi sequences linked with other T. lestoquardi sequences from Iran, Tanzania, and Sudan and Theileria annulata showed the importance of having species-specific probes between these two species. However, distinctive clades were found between T. lestoquardi ticks and those found in sheep blood. Italian T. ovis seemed to be closer to Theileria spp. from Namibia and Iran than with other T. ovis from Spain, Turkey, Tanzania, and Sudan adding some information to the controversy about this species. However, some confusion was found on the existing database where the location of pathogens, years, and species names was inaccurate and when available sequences were not always appropriately used. This article will discuss our results and some comparisons with other phylogenetic approaches.

  7. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theileria and Babesia parasites infecting small ruminants by reverse line blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, Leonhard; Yin, Hong; Qi, Bai; Gubbels, Marc J; Beyer, Doreen; Niemann, Stefan; Jongejan, Frans; Ahmed, Jabbar S

    2004-02-01

    Characteristic sequence signatures were identified within the hypervariable region 4 (V4 region) of the small ribosomal RNA gene of ovine/caprine piroplasm species including Theileria lestoquardi, T. ovis, T. separata, Babesia ovis, B. motasi, B. crassa [comprising strains B. crassa (Iran) and B. crassa (Turkey)] and several novel species: Theileria sp. 1 (China), Theileria sp. 2 (China) and Babesia sp. (China), [comprising strain Babesia sp. (Lintan), and Babesia sp. (Ningxian)] as defined previously. Based on the ascertained gene variations a reverse line blotting (RLB) assay was developed enabling direct, concurrent, highly specific and sensitive identification of virtually all presently known ovine/caprine piroplasm species. All probes bound to their respective target sequence only, therefore, no cross-reaction was observed resulting in clear recognition of either individual strains, species or groups. No signal was observed when ovine and caprine genomic DNA was used as the control, demonstrating that the signals are due to the presence of parasite DNA in investigated samples. Furthermore, the sensitivity of RLB could be considerably enhanced to detect a parasitemia level of at least 10(-12)% by reamplification of PCR products (nested PCR) thereby substantially increasing the possibility of identifying carrier animals.

  8. Clinical haematology and biochemistry profiles of cattle naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2018-01-01

    To present the haematology and biochemistry profiles for cattle in New Zealand naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type and investigate if the results differed between adult dairy cattle and calves aged biochemistry results were obtained from blood samples from cattle which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type by PCR, that were submitted to veterinary laboratories in New Zealand between October 2012 and November 2014. Data sets for haematology and biochemistry results were prepared for adult dairy cattle (n=62 and 28, respectively) and calves aged biochemistry (pbiochemistry changes observed in cattle infected with T. orientalis Ikeda type were consistent with extravascular haemolytic anaemia. Adult dairy cattle were more likely to be severely anaemic than calves. There were differences in haematology and biochemistry profiles between adult dairy cattle and calves, but most of these differences likely had a physiological rather than pathological basis. Overall, the haematological changes in calves aged <6 months appeared less severe than in adult dairy cattle.

  9. Identification of Theileria lestoquardi Antigens Recognized by CD8+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shan; Ngugi, Daniel; Lizundia, Regina; Hostettler, Isabel; Woods, Kerry; Ballingall, Keith; MacHugh, Niall D; Morrison, W Ivan; Weir, Willie; Shiels, Brian; Werling, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    As part of an international effort to develop vaccines for Theileria lestoquardi, we undertook a limited screen to test T. lestoquardi orthologues of antigens recognised by CD8+ T lymphocyte responses against T. annulata and T. parva in cattle. Five MHC defined sheep were immunized by live T. lestoquardi infection and their CD8+ T lymphocyte responses determined. Thirteen T. lestoquardi orthologues of T. parva and T. annulata genes, previously shown to be targets of CD8+ T lymphocyte responses of immune cattle, were expressed in autologous fibroblasts and screened for T cell recognition using an IFNγ assay. Genes encoding T. lestoquardi antigens Tl8 (putative cysteine proteinase, 349 aa) or Tl9 (hypothetical secreted protein, 293 aa) were recognise by T cells from one animal that displayed a unique MHC class I genotype. Antigenic 9-mer peptide epitopes of Tl8 and Tl9 were identified through peptide scans using CD8+ T cells from the responding animal. These experiments identify the first T. lestoquardi antigens recognised by CD8+ T cell responses linked to specific MHC class I alleles.

  10. Identification of Theileria lestoquardi Antigens Recognized by CD8+ T Cells.

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    Shan Goh

    Full Text Available As part of an international effort to develop vaccines for Theileria lestoquardi, we undertook a limited screen to test T. lestoquardi orthologues of antigens recognised by CD8+ T lymphocyte responses against T. annulata and T. parva in cattle. Five MHC defined sheep were immunized by live T. lestoquardi infection and their CD8+ T lymphocyte responses determined. Thirteen T. lestoquardi orthologues of T. parva and T. annulata genes, previously shown to be targets of CD8+ T lymphocyte responses of immune cattle, were expressed in autologous fibroblasts and screened for T cell recognition using an IFNγ assay. Genes encoding T. lestoquardi antigens Tl8 (putative cysteine proteinase, 349 aa or Tl9 (hypothetical secreted protein, 293 aa were recognise by T cells from one animal that displayed a unique MHC class I genotype. Antigenic 9-mer peptide epitopes of Tl8 and Tl9 were identified through peptide scans using CD8+ T cells from the responding animal. These experiments identify the first T. lestoquardi antigens recognised by CD8+ T cell responses linked to specific MHC class I alleles.

  11. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Infectivity of Theileria parva sporozoites following cryopreservation in four suspension media and multiple refreezing: evaluation by in vitro titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbao, V; Berkvens, D; Dolan, T; Speybroeck, N; Brandt, J; Dorny, P; Van den Bossche, P; Marcotty, T

    2006-09-01

    Theileria parva sporozoite stabilates are used for immunizing cattle against East Coast fever and in in vitro sporozoite neutralization assays. In this study, we attempted to identify a cheaper freezing medium and quantified the infectivity loss of sporozoites due to refreezing of stabilates, using an in vitro technique. Pools of stabilates prepared using Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640), foetal calf serum (FCS) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were compared. All were supplemented with bovine serum albumin except the FCS. RPMI 1640 was as effective as MEM in maintaining sporozoite infectivity while the infectivity in PBS and FCS reached only 59% and 67%, respectively. In a second experiment, a stabiiate based on MEM was subjected to several freeze-thaw cycles including various holding times on ice between thawing and refreezing. Refrozen stabilate gave an average sporozoite infectivity loss of 35% per cycle. The results indicate that RPMI can be used as a cheaper freezing medium for T. parva stabilates and that refrozen stabilate doses need to be adjusted for the 35% loss of infectivity.

  13. Infectivity of Theileria parva sporozoites following cryopreservation in four suspension media and multiple refreezing : evaluation by in vitro titration

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    V. Mbao

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parva sporozoite stabilates are used for immunizing cattle against East Coast fever and in in vitro sporozoite neutralization assays. In this study, we attempted to identify a cheaper freezing medium and quantified the infectivity loss of sporozoites due to refreezing of stabilates, using an in vitro technique. Pools of stabilates prepared using Minimum Essential Medium (MEM, Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640, foetal calf serum (FCS and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS were compared. All were supplemented with bovine serum albumin except the FCS. RPMI 1640 was as effective as MEM in maintaining sporozoite infectivity while the infectivity in PBS and FCS reached only 59 % and 67 %, respectively. In a second experiment, a stabilate based on MEM was subjected to several freeze-thaw cycles including various holding times on ice between thawing and refreezing. Refrozen stabilate gave an average sporozoite infectivity loss of 35 % per cycle. The results indicate that RPMI can be used as a cheaper freezing medium for T. parva stabilates and that refrozen stabilate doses need to be adjusted for the 35 % loss of infectivity.

  14. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  15. Genotyping of Theileria lestoquardi from sheep and goats in Sudan to support control of Malignant Ovine Theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A M; Salih, D A; Njahira, M N; Hassan, S K; El Hussein, A M; Liu, Z; Yin, H; Pelle, R; Skilton, R A

    2017-05-30

    Theileriosis, caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Theileria parasites, are among the major tick-borne diseases of ruminant livestock. The largest economic losses are attributed in particular to those caused by the leukoproliferative species of Theileria: T. parva, T. annulata and T. lestoquardi. Theileria lestoquardi is transmitted by Hyalomma ticks and causes malignant ovine theileriosis (MOT), a disease that is particularly prevalent in Sudan. The disease is considered of a high economic importance in Sudan, where export of sheep is a major component of the national economy. A live vaccine based on a Sudanese isolate of T. lestoquardi (Atbara strain) was previously developed for the control of MOT in Sudan, but not yet deployed in the field. The present study aims to genetically characterize and compare samples of T. lestoquardi circulating in Sudan as well as the live vaccine isolate in order to understand vaccine breakthroughs and failure that may occur. Sheep and goats blood samples were collected from six regions in Sudan that are known to be endemic for T. lestoquardi infection or have experienced outbreaks of MOT. Blood samples infected with T. lestoquardi were identified by PCR or RLB. Genotyping was carried out by (1) sequencing the homologues of two T. parva CD8+ T cell antigen genes, Tp1 and Tp2, and (2) using a panel of seven micro- and mini-satellite markers. A total of 100 T. lestoquardi positive field samples and the T. lestoquardi (Atbara) vaccine were genotyped. The results showed that all samples had mixed genotypes, with several alleles identified at one or more loci. The gene diversity ranged from 0.7840 (TS8) to 0.2133 (TS12) with mean values of 0.5470. PCA revealed three clusters of the parasite in Sudan; interestingly one independent cluster was clearly seen, corresponding to the vaccine isolate. The T. lestoquardi Tp1 homologue showed higher homology with T. annulata than with T. parva sequences included the defined single CD8+ T cell

  16. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  17. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  18. Genetic characterization of theileria equi infecting horses in North America: evidence for a limited source of U.S. introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theileria equi is a tick-borne Apicomplexan hemoparasite that causes equine piroplasmosis (EP). This parasite has a worldwide distribution, but until recent outbreaks the United States has been considered to be free of EP. Maximum parsimony analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences of North American T. eq...

  19. Purification of macroschizonts of a Sudanese isolate of Theileria lestoquardi (T. lestoquardi [Atbara]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, Mohammed A; Endl, Elmar; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2006-10-01

    Research on malignant theileriosis is affected by the limited access to biological materials required for studies aiming at controlling the disease through the establishment of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The main aims of this work were to isolate, establish, and characterize a Theileria lestoquardi-infected cell culture (line) as a source of biological material and to generate a schizont cDNA library for further studies aiming at the identification of antigenic proteins. The T. lestoquardi isolate used originated from a sheep showing typical signs of malignant theileriosis in Atbara town in northern Sudan, and was maintained as an infected cell culture. A high-quality representative schizont cDNA library was established by isolating and purifying the schizonts using a nocodazole/aerolysin protocol followed by Percoll gradient ultracentrifugation. As a parameter to assess the quality of the schizont library, a provisional estimation of the percentage of recombinant phage clones originating from T. lestoquardi (Atbara) was undertaken. Ten clones with inserts ranging in size between 600 and 1200 bp were selected randomly, sequenced, and subjected to BLAST similarity searches. As 6 of the 10 sequenced clones showed similarities to T. parva, T. annulata, and other apicomplexan genes, it was concluded that the majority of the library phage clones originated from the parasite and not from host cell transcripts. The cDNA library will be used for screening of antigenic proteins using sera from infected sheep.

  20. Detection of Theileria lestoquardi (hirci) in ticks, sheep, and goats using the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirvar, E; Ilhan, T; Katzer, F; Wilkie, G; Hooshmand-Rad, P; Brown, D

    1998-06-29

    Theileria lestoquardi (= T. hirci) is a protozoan parasite of sheep and goats that is morphologically and biologically similar to T. annulata, the causative agent of bovine tropical theileriosis. Both parasites are transmitted by ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma. However, because of their morphological similarity, they cannot be distinguished in the salivary glands of infected ticks by traditional staining methods such as Feulgen or Methyl green-pyronin. Thus a need has arisen for sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that will distinguish between the two species in the vector tick, allowing the epidemiology of both diseases to be clearly defined. A contribution to this has been the development of a polymerase chain reaction using specific primers which amplify, only in T. lestoquardi-infected ticks, a 785 bp fragment of the gene that codes for a 30 kD merozoite surface protein. The sensitivity of this test and its application to the detection of T. lestoquardi in infected H. anatolicum anatolicum ticks, in the blood of three species of domestic ruminants and in cell cultures established in mononuclear cells of sheep and goats is also discussed.

  1. Cluster analysis of the clinical histories of cattle affected with bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2017-11-01

    AIM To determine the most commonly used words in the clinical histories of animals naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type; whether these words differed between cases categorised by age, farm type or haematocrit (HCT), and if there was any clustering of the common words in relation to these categories. METHODS Clinical histories were transcribed for 605 cases of bovine anaemia associated with T. orientalis (TABA), that were submitted to laboratories with blood samples which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type infection by PCR analysis, between October 2012 and November 2014. χ2 tests were used to determine whether the proportion of submissions for each word was similar across the categories of HCT (normal, moderate anaemia or severe anaemia), farm type (dairy or beef) and age (young or old). Correspondence analysis (CA) was carried out on a contingency table of the frequency of the 28 most commonly used history words, cross-tabulated by age categories (young, old or unknown). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering, using Ward's method, was then performed on the coordinates from the correspondence analysis. RESULTS The six most commonly used history words were jaundice (204/605), lethargic (162/605), pale mucous membranes (161/605), cow (151/605), anaemia (147/605), and off milk (115/605). The proportion of cases with some history words differed between categories of age, farm type and HCT. The cluster analysis indicated that the recorded history words were grouped in two main clusters. The first included the words weight loss, tachycardia, pale mucous membranes, anaemia, lethargic and thin, and was associated with adult (pcluster included the words deaths, ill-thrift, calves, calf and diarrhoea, and was associated with young (pCluster analysis of words recorded in clinical histories submitted with blood samples from cases of TABA indicates that two potentially different disease syndromes were associated with T. orientalis Ikeda type

  2. Ribosomal small-subunit RNA gene-sequence analysis of Theileria lestoquardi and a Theileria species highly pathogenic for small ruminants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, L; Yin, H; Jianxun, L; Ludwig, W; Shayan, P; Rahbari, S; Voss-Holtmann, A; Ahmed, J S

    2000-05-01

    A fatal disease of sheep and goats in the northwestern part of China has been reported to be due to Theileria lestoquardi (syn. T. hirci). However, some characteristics of the causative agent are not in accordance with attributes ascribed to this parasite. We therefore determined the nucleotide sequence of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene of T. lestoquardi and the parasite identified in China and compared it with that of other Theileria and Babesia species. In the inferred phylogenetic tree the srRNA sequence of the Chinese parasite was found to be most closely related to T. buffeli and clearly divergent from T. lestoquardi, suggesting that it is an as yet unrecognized Theileria species. Extensive structural similarities were observed between the srRNA sequences of T. lestoquardi and T. annulata, revealing a close phylogenetic relationship between these two Theileria species. On the basis of the srRNA nucleotide sequence, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed that specifically amplified genomic DNA of the Chinese Theileria species. These primers may be valuable tools in future epidemiology studies.

  3. Epidemiology of East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection in Kenya: past, present and the future

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    Gachohi John

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we review the epidemiology of East Coast fever (ECF, a tick-borne infection of cattle, in Kenya. The major factors associated with epidemiology of ECF include the agro-ecological zone (AEZ, livestock production system (LPS and both animal breed and age. These factors appear to influence the epidemiology of ECF through structured gradients. We further show that the gradients are dynamically shaped by socio-demographic and environmental processes. For a vector-borne disease whose transmission depends on environmental characteristics that influence vector dynamics, a change in the environment implies a change in the epidemiology of the disease. The review recommends that future ECF epidemiological studies should account for these factors and the dynamic interactions between them. In Kenya, ECF control has previously relied predominantly on tick control using acaricides and chemotherapy while ECF immunization is steadily being disseminated. We highlight the contribution of ECF epidemiology and economics in the design of production system and/or geographical area-specific integrated control strategies based on both the dynamic epidemiological risk of the disease and economic impacts of control strategies. In all production systems (except marginal areas, economic analyses demonstrate that integrated control in which ECF immunization is always an important component, can play an important role in the overall control of the disease. Indeed, Kenya has recently approved ECF immunization in all production systems (except in marginal areas. If the infrastructure of the vaccine production and distribution can be heightened, large ECF endemic areas are expected to be endemically stable and the disease controlled. Finally, the review points the way for future research by identifying scenario analyses as a critical methodology on which to base future investigations on how both dynamic livestock management systems and patterns of land

  4. Detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae) by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran. Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008). Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR. Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.

  5. Molecular Detection of Theileria spp. in Livestock on Five Caribbean Islands

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    Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theileria spp. are tick-transmitted, intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasites infecting a wide range of animals. As there is very limited information on the prevalence of Theileria spp. in the Caribbean we used the recently described genus-specific pan-Theileria FRET-qPCR to identify infected animals in the region and a standard 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing to determine the species involved. We found Theileria spp. in 9% of the convenience samples of animals (n=752 studied from five Caribbean islands. Donkeys (20.0%: 5/25 were most commonly infected, followed by sheep (17.4%, 25/144, cattle (6.8%; 22/325, goats (5.0%; 12/238, and horses (5.0%; 1/20. Six species of Theileria were identified: T. equi (donkeys, cattle, goats, and sheep, Theileria sp. OT3 (sheep and goats, Theileria sp. NG-2013a (cattle, Theileria sp. YW-2014 (donkeys, Theileria sp. B15a (goats, and Babesia vulpes or a closely related organism (sheep and goats. Only T. equi has been previously reported in the Caribbean. Our findings expand the known host ranges of Theileria spp. and the known distribution of the organisms around the world.

  6. Molecular Detection of Theileria spp. in Livestock on Five Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Theileria spp. are tick-transmitted, intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasites infecting a wide range of animals. As there is very limited information on the prevalence of Theileria spp. in the Caribbean we used the recently described genus-specific pan-Theileria FRET-qPCR to identify infected animals in the region and a standard 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing to determine the species involved. We found Theileria spp. in 9% of the convenience samples of animals (n = 752) studied from five Caribbean islands. Donkeys (20.0%: 5/25) were most commonly infected, followed by sheep (17.4%, 25/144), cattle (6.8%; 22/325), goats (5.0%; 12/238), and horses (5.0%; 1/20). Six species of Theileria were identified: T. equi (donkeys, cattle, goats, and sheep), Theileria sp. OT3 (sheep and goats), Theileria sp. NG-2013a (cattle), Theileria sp. YW-2014 (donkeys), Theileria sp. B15a (goats), and Babesia vulpes or a closely related organism (sheep and goats). Only T. equi has been previously reported in the Caribbean. Our findings expand the known host ranges of Theileria spp. and the known distribution of the organisms around the world. PMID:26783522

  7. Monitoring piroplasms infection in three cattle farms in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-García, A; García-Pérez, A L; Verdera, J; Juste, R A; Hurtado, A

    2012-12-21

    Bovine piroplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases caused by parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Three Friesian cattle farms (F1-F3) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis were selected in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Blood samples were collected from 8 to 11 animals every two months throughout a year and, a newly developed multiplex DNA bead-based suspension array based on the Luminex(®) xMAP technology was used to monitor for the presence of piroplasms. The assay incorporated probes for Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia major, Babesia occultans, Theileria annulata and Theileria buffeli, and a Catch-all Theileria and Babesia (TB) control probe. An internal amplification control that was detected with a Luminex probe was also included to monitor for inhibition. Infection was detected in 87.5% of the samples, 38.7% as single infections and 48.8% as mixed infections. T. annulata was widespread in Farm F1, with all animals positive over the whole study; albeit less frequently, T. annulata was also detected in Farms F2 and F3. T. buffeli was the overall most prevalent piroplasm, with a wide distribution in Farms F2 and F3 but only occasionally detected in F1. B. bigemina was the most frequent Babesia species, but was absent from Farm F1. B. bovis, previously reported in Minorca, was only sporadically detected in F2 and F3. A further 3 Babesia species not previously found in Minorca were also identified: B. major present in the 3 farms; B. divergens detected once in 2 animals in F2; and B. occultans found in 4 animals in F2 and in 1 Hyalomma marginatum female tick collected from a positive animal. Sequencing confirmed the identity of B. occultans thus extending the distribution of this species to Mediterranean Europe. This study confirmed the endemic situation for piroplasm infection in the region and detected the presence of a large number of chronic asymptomatic carriers. More importantly, 3 Babesia species not

  8. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of Theileria and Babesia equi in relation to the establishment of parasite populations within novel host species and the development of diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzer, F; McKellar, S; Kirvar, E; Shiels, B

    1998-09-01

    The divergence of parasites is important for maintenance within an established host and spread to novel host species. In this paper we have carried out phylogenetic analyses of Theileria parasites isolated from different host species. This was performed with small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences available in the data bases and a novel sequence amplified from Theileria lestoquardi DNA. Similar phylogenetic studies were carried out with sequences representing the major merozoite/piroplasm surface antigen (mMPSA) from the data base, and novel sequences representing 2 mMPSA alleles from T. lestoquardi, a full length sequence of a Theileria taurotragi mMPSA gene and partial sequences of two new allelic variants of the Babesia equi mMPSA gene homologue. The analysis indicated that the pathogenic sheep parasite T. lestoquardi has most probably evolved from a common ancestor of T. annulata. Interestingly, the level of mMPSA sequence diversity found for T. lestoquardi was surprisingly low, while diversity between the B. equi sequences was higher than that found within any of the classical Theileria species. The possible implications of these results for the establishment of Theileria parasites within novel species are discussed. Extensive cross-reactivity of a range of antisera was found when tested against recombinant mMPSA polypeptides from different Theileria (including B. equi) species. The cross-reactivity between mMPSA polypeptides and sequence diversity are relevant for the development of species specific diagnostic tests.

  10. Molecular Detection and Identification of Theileria Species by PCR-RFLP Method in Sheep from Ahvaz, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh Missagh Jalali; Zohreh Khaki; Bahram Kazemi; Sadegh Rahbari; Parviz Shayan; Mojgan Bandehpour; Seyedeh Parastoo Yasini

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out to investigate the accurate status of ovine Theileria infection in sheep from Ahvaz and surrounding region, a tropical area southwest Iran. Methods A PCR-RFLP method based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene was designed which could detect and differentiate Theileria and Babesia spp. and also differentiate main Theileria species in sheep at the same time. 119 sheep blood samples were collected from Ahvaz and surroundings. Results Microscopic examination of b...

  11. Phylogeny of sheep and goat Theileria and Babesia parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, Leonhard; Yin, Hong; Gubbels, Marc J; Beyer, Doreen; Niemann, Stefan; Jongejan, Frans; Ahmed, Jabbar S

    2003-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep and goats on the basis of their 18S RNA gene structure was addressed in the present study. For this purpose, the complete sequences of the small ribosomal RNA genes of a panel of sheep and goat piroplasm isolates, including T. lestoquardi, T. ovis, T. separata, B. ovis, B. motasi, B. crassa and several novel species, were sequenced and compared. The classification based on the established phylogenetic tree corresponded with traditional systematics and revealed that sheep/goat piroplasm species are of polyphyletic origin. The independent evolution of almost all sheep/goat piroplasms suggests that speciation may have occurred after transfer of the piroplasm-transmitting tick from a primal wild ruminant host to domestic sheep and goats. In accordance with recent reports, our study confirms the existence of at least two additional sheep/goat piroplasm species, designated Theileria sp. 1 (China) and Theileria sp. 2 (China). The recently reported pathogenic sheep/goat Theileria sp. 1 (China) seems to be identical with a Theileria sp. isolated from Japanese serow. Furthermore, our results suggest that T. ovis represents a single species.

  12. Guidelines for the Detection of Babesia and Theileria Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempereur, Laetitia; Beck, Relja; Fonseca, Isabel; Marques, Cátia; Duarte, Ana; Santos, Marcos; Zúquete, Sara; Gomes, Jacinto; Walder, Gernot; Domingos, Ana; Antunes, Sandra; Baneth, Gad; Silaghi, Cornelia; Holman, Patricia; Zintl, Annetta

    2017-01-01

    The genera Babesia and Theileria (phylum Apicomplexa, order Piroplasmida) are mainly transmitted by Ixodid ticks in which the sexual part of their life cycle followed by sporogony takes place. They include protozoan parasites that infect erythrocytes of a variety of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals, with some Babesia spp. also infecting humans. Babesia sporozoites transmitted in the tick's saliva during the bloodmeal directly infect erythrocytes, where they asexually multiply to produce pear-shaped merozoites in the process of merogony; whereas a pre-erythrocytic schizogonic life stage in leukocytes is found in Theileria and precedes merogony in the erythrocytes. The wide spectrum of Babesia and Theileria species and their dissimilar characteristics with relation to disease severity, transmission, epidemiology, and drug susceptibility stress the importance of accurate detection of babesiosis and theileriosis and their causative agents. These guidelines review the main methods currently used for the detection of Babesia and Theileria spp. for diagnostic purposes as well as epidemiological studies involving their vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Serological methods were not included once they did not indicate current infection but rather exposure.

  13. A PKA survival pathway inhibited by DPT-PKI, a new specific cell permeable PKA inhibitor, is induced by T. annulata in parasitized B-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergnon, Julien; Dessauge, Frederic; Traincard, François; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita; Bost, Pierre Etienne; Langsley, Gordon; Garcia, Alphonse

    2006-08-01

    T. annulata, an intracellular pathogenic parasite of the Aplicomplexa protozoan family infects bovine B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Parasitized cells that become transformed survive and proliferate independently of exogenous growth factors. In the present study, we used the isogenic non parasitized BL3 and parasitized TBL3 B cell lines, as a model to evaluate the contribution of two-major PI3-K- and PKA-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways in the survival of T. annulata parasitized B lymphocytes. We found that T. annulata increases PKA activity, induces over-expression of the catalytic subunit and down-regulates the pro-survival phosphorylation state of Akt/PKB. Consistent with a role of PKA activation in survival, two pharmacological inhibitors H89 and KT5720 ablate PKA-dependent survival of parasitized cells. To specifically inhibit PKA pro-survival pathways we linked the DPTsh1 peptide shuttle sequence to PKI(5-24) and we generated DPT-PKI, a cell permeable PKI. DPT-PKI specifically inhibited PKA activity in bovine cell extracts and, as expected, also inhibited the PKA-dependent survival of T. annulata parasitized TBL3 cells. Thus, parasite-dependent constitutive activation of PKA in TBL3 cells generates an anti-apoptotic pathway that can protect T. annulata-infected B cells from apoptosis. These results also indicate that DPT-PKI could be a powerful tool to inhibit PKA pathways in other cell types.

  14. Development of a polymerase chain reaction method for diagnosis of Babesia ovis infection in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, M; Altay, K; Dumanli, N

    2005-11-05

    In this study, a pair of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene of Babesia ovis isolated from sheep in eastern Turkey. The primers were used to detect parasite DNA from blood samples of B. ovis-infected sheep and goats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A 549-bp DNA fragment was specifically amplified from blood samples from sheep and goats, naturally infected with B. ovis. No PCR products resulted from Babesia motasi, T. ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp. OT3, T. lestoquardi, B. canis, B. microti,T. annulata or normal sheep leucocytes DNA using these specific primers. B. ovis-infected erythrocytes with 1% parasitemia were subjected to 10-fold serial dilutions (from 10(-1) to 10(-9)) using an uninfected sheep erythrocytes, and DNA was extracted from each diluted sample for testing the sensitivity of the PCR. The PCR was sensitive enough to detect parasite DNA from the dilution of 10(-5) with 0.00001% parasitemia. This is more sensitive than examining 200 fields under light microscopy. In addition, 98 field samples collected from small ruminanats in eastern Turkey were tested for B. ovis infection. Four samples were positive Babesia spp. in blood smears, 21 samples were positive for B. ovis DNA by PCR. These results indicate that the PCR provides a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of B. ovis infection in sheep and goats.

  15. Experimental transmission of Theileria lestoquardi by developmental stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Khalid M; Elhussein, A M

    2010-09-01

    Theileria-free Hyalomma anatolicum larvae were fed on a naturally infected sheep with Theileria lestoquardi. Resulting flat nymphs of the tick were able to transmit T. lestoquardi infection upon feeding to 3/3 susceptible sheep. Adults emerging from the same batch of larvae were also infective to 3/3 susceptible sheep when they had the infection during their larval feeding. Transmission of T. lestoquardi to sheep was confirmed through clinical monitoring, examination of blood and lymph node biopsy smears, serology using indirect immunoflourescent test, and molecular using polymerase chain reaction technique.

  16. Small-scale expressed sequence tag analysis of Theileria uilenbergi: identification of a gene family encoding potential antigenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Dang, Zhisheng; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2008-12-01

    Recently, Theileria sp. (China) has been designated as T. luwenshuni[formerly Theileria sp. (China 1)] and T. uilenbergi[formerly Theileria sp. (China 2)]. A cDNA library of T. uilenbergi merozoites was constructed and subjected to random sequencing. Among the obtained sequences were three highly identical cDNA clones, indicating a gene family. Bioinformatic analyses indicated these genes contain signal peptides and encode potential immunogenic proteins. The presence of tandemly arranged and additional variants of these genes was shown. Analysis of one recombinantly expressed clone revealed immunoreactivity for serum from Theileria-infected animals. No cross-reaction with serum of T. lestoquardi-, Babesia motasi-, or Anaplasma ovis-infected animals was observed, indicating a potential antigen for development of serological diagnostic tools.

  17. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. in sheep and vector ticks in the North Khorasan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ahmad; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried in North Khorasan Province, Iran in 2010-2011, designed to identify Theileria spp. infections of both sheep and ticks. The tick species were also examined. Ninety sheep from different flocks were clinically examined, and blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected. Light microscopy of blood smears revealed Theileria spp. infection in 37 (41.1 %), while 74 (82.2 %) of blood samples were positive using semi-nested PCR. Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection were detected in 63/90 (70 %), 5/90 (5.5 %), and 6/90 (6.6 %) of samples, respectively. Of the 434 ticks that were collected, the most prevalent species was Rhipicephalus turanicus (69.3 %) followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (18.4 %), Dermacentor marginatus (6.4 %), and Rhipicephalus bursa (5.7 %). The ticks were separated into 42 tick pools, and the salivary glands were dissected out in 0.85 % (w/v) saline under a stereomicroscope and examined using semi-nested PCR. Three pools of H. marginatum turanicum salivary glands were infected with T. ovis and T. lestoquardi, and one pool of R. turanicus was infected with T. ovis. Based on these results, it is concluded that the prevalence of T. ovis is higher than T. lestoquardi and that H. marginatum turanicum and R. turanicus are likely vectors of T. lestoquardi and T. ovis in this area.

  18. Vertical transmission of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Barati, Farid; Kahroba, Hooman; Jolodar, Abbas; Rashidi, Fardokht

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report of an outbreak of Theileria lestoquardi abortion and stillbirth in a mob of 450 ewes in July 2012, during which, approximately 35 late-term ewes lost their fetuses over a 5-day period...

  19. Revision of the Cerobasis annulata group (Psocoptera: Trogiidae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baz, A.

    1993-01-01

    The species of the Cerobasis annulata group from the Canary Islands are revised. A key to the seven species is provided; the Holarctic C. annulata is added for comparison. Five new species are described: Cerobasis rosae spec. nov., C. ericaceus spec. nov., C. anagaensis spec. nov., C. longicornis

  20. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2011-12-15

    Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the

  1. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil W Kolte

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens (TBP are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD, most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey with native Bos indicus (numerous breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type. The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic

  2. Theileriosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) associated with a potentially novel Theileria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bridget C; Holman, Patricia; Berent, Linda M

    2012-12-01

    A 5-year-old male neutered reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from Missouri was presented with a 3-week history of anorexia, respiratory distress, lethargy, and weight loss. Blood smear review revealed that a small percentage of RBCs contained small (1-2 μm in length) pleomorphic piroplasms (signet ring, rod- or pear-shaped, and elongate forms) with an eccentric magenta nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm. Nested PCR to specifically amplify a portion of the piroplasm small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was performed on DNA extracted from an EDTA specimen of whole blood. Subsequent sequence analyses showed similarity between the reindeer hemoparasite and Theileria spp SSU rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank database, with highest similarity to those of a Theileria sp in a White-tailed deer from North Texas (AY735132, AY735133). The reindeer and North Texas Theileria sp are genetically distinct from, albeit closely related to, the White-tailed deer Theileria sp (subsequently referred to as T cervi). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first identification of Theileria of this genotype in a reindeer. Historically, T tarandirangiferis infection was found with associated mortality in reindeer in Russia, but reports predate molecular characterization. Hence, the relationship of T tarandirangiferis with either T cervi or this agent remains unknown. T cervi is not typically pathogenic in White-tailed deer in the US unless the animal is immune-compromised by stress or disease; however, mortality from T cervi infection in reindeer has been reported. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and ixodid ticks from the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Pourhosseini, Moslem; Yaghfouri, Saeed; Rashidi, Ahmad; Seidabadi, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Theilerioses and babesioses are important diseases in Iranian sheep. The present study was undertaken to identify and classify/specify Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and vector ticks. Investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. In total, 302 sheep originating from 60 different flocks were clinically examined and their blood collected. In addition, from the same flocks, ixodid ticks were sampled. Stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Theileria and Babesia organisms, and a semi-nested PCR was used for subsequent molecular specification. From the ticks, salivary glands and uterus were isolated and subsequently analyzed by semi-nested PCR. Piroplasm organisms were observed in 29% of the blood smears with low parasitemia, whereas 65% of the blood samples yielded positive PCR findings. The presence of Theileria ovis (55.6%), Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection with Theileria spp. and Babesia ovis were detected by semi-nested PCR in 0.3%, 5.6%, and 0.99%, respectively. In total, 429 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 376; 87.6% of the total), followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 30; 7.0%), Dermacentor raskemensis (n = 12; 2.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 7; 1.6%), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 2; 0.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 1; 0.2%), and Haemaphysalis sp. (n = 1; 0.2%). Of the positive R. turanicus samples, 5 (5.7%) were infected with T. ovis and 2 (2.9%) with T. lestoquardi. Neither Babesia ovis nor Babesia motasi infection was detected in salivary glands or uterine samples of the ticks. The results also suggest that R. turanicus could be the vector responsible for transmission of the 2 Theileria species.

  4. BIOLOGY AND INTRINSIC GROWTH RATE OF EARWIG (Euborellia annulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnina Nonci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Earwig (Euborellia annulata is a potential predator of corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis, one of the most important pests of corn. To include the use of predator in integrated pest management (IPM to control the pest, it is necessary to understand the basic information of the predator. This study aimed to know biology and intrinsic growth rate of the predator feed on an artificial media (dog food. Ten pairs of newly emerging adults of the predator were placed in a small plastic container containing a mixture of soil and sand (1:1 v/v supplemented with an artificial food. The average temperature and relative humidity during the study were kept at 27.9-30.3oC and 76.7-92.3%, respectively. The biological aspects of the predator evaluated were number of eggs laid, hatched, and died, as well as its oviposition period and adult mortality. The intrinsic growth rate was studied from a group of 200 newly laid eggs and results were analyzed based on the method of Birch. The biological aspects study showed that number of eggs laid by a single female of E. annulata was 86-166, which were laid five times in a group of 9-45 eggs. The nymph consists of five instars. Length of nymphs varied ranging from 4 to 13 mm depends on their instar. The fifth instar nymph period was 4-6 days for female and 2-3 days for male. The period of first mating was shorter; the shortest was 2 minutes and the longest one was 70 minutes. Both male and female were able to do mating several times at an interval of several seconds or minutes. Pre-oviposition period was 6-13 days. The eggs were deposited five times, the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth oviposition period were 7-22 days, 7-21 days, 7-18 days, 11-18 days, and 11-21 days, respectively. The oviposition period was 32-59 days and postoviposition period was 21-51 days. Ratio between male and female was 1.4:1.0. The average natural mortality of E. annulata was 10.5% which means that 89.5% of deposited eggs hatched became

  5. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH2O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10-3 ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. OncomiR addiction is generated by a miR-155 feedback loop in Theileria-transformed leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Marsolier

    Full Text Available The intracellular parasite Theileria is the only eukaryote known to transform its mammalian host cells. We investigated the host mechanisms involved in parasite-induced transformation phenotypes. Tumour progression is a multistep process, yet 'oncogene addiction' implies that cancer cell growth and survival can be impaired by inactivating a single gene, offering a rationale for targeted molecular therapies. Furthermore, feedback loops often act as key regulatory hubs in tumorigenesis. We searched for microRNAs involved in addiction to regulatory loops in leukocytes infected with Theileria parasites. We show that Theileria transformation involves induction of the host bovine oncomiR miR-155, via the c-Jun transcription factor and AP-1 activity. We identified a novel miR-155 target, DET1, an evolutionarily-conserved factor involved in c-Jun ubiquitination. We show that miR-155 expression led to repression of DET1 protein, causing stabilization of c-Jun and driving the promoter activity of the BIC transcript containing miR-155. This positive feedback loop is critical to maintain the growth and survival of Theileria-infected leukocytes; transformation is reversed by inhibiting AP-1 activity or miR-155 expression. This is the first demonstration that Theileria parasites induce the expression of host non-coding RNAs and highlights the importance of a novel feedback loop in maintaining the proliferative phenotypes induced upon parasite infection. Hence, parasite infection drives epigenetic rewiring of the regulatory circuitry of host leukocytes, placing miR-155 at the crossroads between infection, regulatory circuits and transformation.

  7. Vertical transmission of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, Amir; Nouri, Mohammad; Barati, Farid; Kahroba, Hooman; Jolodar, Abbas; Rashidi, Fardokht

    2014-07-14

    This is the first report of an outbreak of Theileria lestoquardi abortion and stillbirth in a mob of 450 ewes in July 2012, during which, approximately 35 late-term ewes lost their fetuses over a 5-day period. A dead ewe and her aborted fetus were transported to the Ahvaz Veterinary Hospital for the diagnostic evaluation. The microbial cultures from the ewe vaginal discharges and fetal abomasal contents and the liver were negative. The blood films of the ewe and her fetus contained Theileria piroplasms and the impression smears from ewe liver and fetal spleen were positive for Theileria Koch blue bodies. The DNA was extracted from the liver and spleen of ewe and her fetus, respectively, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers derived from the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of T. lestoquardi. A single fragment of 428-bp fragment was amplified. The PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank(®) showed 100% identities with 18S rDNA gene of T. lestoquardi. The present study is the first report of the T. lestoquardi vertical transmission that could be related to the abortion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell penetrating peptides to dissect host-pathogen protein-protein interactions in Theileria -transformed leukocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2017-09-08

    One powerful application of cell penetrating peptides is the delivery into cells of molecules that function as specific competitors or inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Ablating defined protein-protein interactions is a refined way to explore their contribution to a particular cellular phenotype in a given disease context. Cell-penetrating peptides can be synthetically constrained through various chemical modifications that stabilize a given structural fold with the potential to improve competitive binding to specific targets. Theileria-transformed leukocytes display high PKA activity, but PKAis an enzyme that plays key roles in multiple cellular processes; consequently genetic ablation of kinase activity gives rise to a myriad of confounding phenotypes. By contrast, ablation of a specific kinase-substrate interaction has the potential to give more refined information and we illustrate this here by describing how surgically ablating PKA interactions with BAD gives precise information on the type of glycolysis performed by Theileria-transformed leukocytes. In addition, we provide two other examples of how ablating specific protein-protein interactions in Theileria-infected leukocytes leads to precise phenotypes and argue that constrained penetrating peptides have great therapeutic potential to combat infectious diseases in general.

  9. Selectivity of neem to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Celso L; Silva, Flávia A C; Novaes, Tanara G de

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis are commonly found in avocado and persimmon orchards in northern Parana state. However, their abundance depends on whether insecticides are used or not to control the key lepidopteran pests Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Hypocala andremona (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous neem seed extract (ANSE) at 15, 3 and 1.5%, and of an emulsifiable concentrate neem oil (ECNO) at 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25% on lifetime parameters of these trichogrammatids as a way of testing the feasibility of integrating the biological and chemical control methods. Chemicals were applied on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs before or after parasitization (one, three or five days). ANSE was more deleterious to both parasitoid species than ECNO, regardless of the concentration and the time of application. The chemicals acted on a concentration and time dependent manner. Treating the host with neem before parasitism was less deleterious to wasp emergence, especially for T. annulata. Pre-treatments (24h) of the host eggs with ECNO at concentrations varying from 0.5% to 0.25% did not affect T. pretiosum longevity, but 2.5% reduced T. annulata survival. Feeding wasps with honey mixed with 0.25% ECNO negatively affected T. annulata survival.

  10. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I...

  11. Transfection of live, tick derived sporozoites of the protozoan Apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goeyse, Ine; Jansen, Famke; Madder, Maxime; Hayashida, Kyoko; Berkvens, Dirk; Dobbelaere, Dirk; Geysen, Dirk

    2015-03-15

    Theileria parva is an important veterinary protozoan causing the tick-borne disease East Coast fever. Transfection of Theileria parasites will facilitate the investigation of many aspects of this apicomplexan infection and its unique host-parasite interaction. The pathogen has the extraordinary capacity of transforming B and T cells into clonally dividing cancerous cell lines in a reversible way. Sequence data of the entire T. parva genome are available and in vitro infected cell lines can easily be generated, thereby eliminating the use of animals in the evaluation of the evolution of the transfected sporozoites. Here we report, for the first time, on experiments towards successful transient transfection of T. parva sporozoites, making use of a new generation transfection device. Plasmid DNA containing the strong EF-1α promoter and an Azami Green reporter gene were integrated by nucleofection into freshly purified T. parva sporozoites. Expression of Azami Green was detected with a fluorescence microscope and confirmed by counter staining with a monoclonal directed against a sporozoite protein. Despite the fact that transfection efficiencies are still low, this is the first step towards a stable infection method of T. parva parasites. In the long run, transfected parasites might become an alternative way to induce immunity without clinical signs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of clone-9 antigenic protein of Theileria uilenbergi and evaluation of its application for serodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Jassim; Liu, Zhijie; Yin, Hong; Kullmann, Birgit; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2010-08-01

    The pathogenic protozoan parasite Theileria uilenbergi is one of the causative agents of theileriosis in small ruminants in China. The infection results in great economical losses in the northwest part of China. Efforts are underway to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a T. uilenbergi immunodominant recombinantly expressed protein using different approaches in order to perform epidemiological studies in the area. In this study, we describe the possible use of the clone-9 protein for this purpose, which was identified as a potential immunogenic piroplasm protein by random sequencing of cDNA library clones followed by bioinformatic analyses. The clone-9 gene was partially recombinantly expressed and used for the development of an indirect ELISA for the detection of circulating antibodies in sera of T. uilenbergi-infected sheep. No cross-reactivity was observed in serum from animals infected with Theileria lestoquardi. The cut-off was calculated at 48.6% positivity using 25 serum samples from uninfected animals. A total of 101 field samples collected from an endemic area in China were used to evaluate the clone-9 ELISA for its use in the field.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the geophilous grasshopper Trilophidia annulata (Acrididae: Oedipodinae: Trilophidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, De-Long; Xu, Sheng-Quan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of the geophilous grasshopper Trilophidia annulata was reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. After annotation, the circular genome was obtained with 16,501 bp in length, and typically consisted of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. All PCGs were initiated with ATN codons, except ND2 with the start codon GTG. Most of the PCGs used TAA as their stop codons, while the others used TAG as stop codons (COX1, COX3&ND1). The nucleotide composition was asymmetric (42.3% A, 15.0% C, 11.0% G, 31.8% T) with an overall GC content of 25.9%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary research of T. annulata.

  14. Coinfection of sheep with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneker, S; Abdo, J; Bakheit, M A; Kullmann, B; Beyer, D; Ahmed, J; Seitzer, U

    2013-11-01

    Infections of small ruminants with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species are widely distributed in the old world and are of great economic impact. In Iraq, data on disease occurrence in sheep caused by above-mentioned infectious agents are scarce. This study provides information on various haemoparasitic agents infecting sheep in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using molecular diagnostic tools. Altogether, 195 samples originating from three governorates in the Kurdistan Region, namely Duhok, Erbil and Sulaimaniya, were analysed. The following pathogens were identified: Anaplasma ovis (62.6%), Theileria ovis (14.35%), T. lestoquardi (7.7%), T. uilenbergi (5.6%) and Babesia ovis (1.5%). T. uilenbergi is detected for the first time in Iraq. Coinfection of sheep with different pathogens could be observed in this study, and it was found that 45 of 195 (23%) of the samples contained more than one pathogen. Even triple-positive samples were identified in 3% of the investigated animals. In conclusion, we confirm the coinfection of sheep with various haemoparasitic pathogen species in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Further investigations are needed to reveal the epidemiology of the diseases, the respective tick vectors, and, in the case of coinfection, pathogens' interaction and possible cross-protection. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Detection of Theileria and Babesia in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Júlia A G; Rabelo, Elida M L; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2011-04-19

    Intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genera Theileria and Babesia are known to infect both wild and domestic animals, and both are transmitted by hard-ticks of the family Ixodidae. The prevalences of hemoprotozoa and ectoparasites in 15 free-living Mazama gouazoubira, two captive M. gouazoubira and four captive Blastocerus dichotomus from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have been determined through the examination of blood smears and the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). The cervid population was inspected for the presence of ticks and any specimens encountered were identified alive under the stereomicroscope. Blood samples were collected from all 21 animals, following which blood smears were prepared, subjected to quick Romanowsky staining and examined under the optical microscope. DNA was extracted with the aid of commercial kits from cervid blood samples and from tick salivary glands. The nPCR assay comprised two amplification reactions: the first was conducted using primers specific for a 1700 bp segment of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia and Theileria species, whilst the second employed primers designed to amplify a common 420 bp Babesia 18S rRNA fragment identified by aligning sequences from Babesia spp. available at GenBank. The ticks Amblyomma cajennense, Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens were identified in various of the cervids examined. Of the animals investigated, 71.4% (15/21) were infected with hemoprotozoa, including Theileria cervi (47.6%), Theileria sp. (14.3%), Babesia bovis (4.8%) and Babesia bigemina (4.8%). However, only one of the infected wild cervids exhibited accentuated anaemia (PCV=17%). This is first report concerning the occurrence of Theileria spp. in Brazilian cervids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular surveillance of Theileria parasites of livestock in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fahdi, Amira; Alqamashoui, Badar; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Kose, Onur; Mohammed H Tageldin; Bobade, Patrick; Eugene H. Johnson; Hussain, Abdel-Rahim; Karagenc, Tulin; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Babiker, Hamza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Theileriosis is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of livestock in the Arabian Peninsula,\\ud and causes high rates of mortality and morbidity in sheep and cattle. However, there is a paucity of information\\ud on the distribution of Theileria spp. over the whole region and their impact on different hosts. The present study\\ud carried out a country-wide molecular survey for Theileria spp. of livestock in Oman across four governorates. The\\ud aim of the survey was to defin...

  17. Reproductive efficiency of asymptomatic Theileria equi carriers mares submitted to an embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and evaluate the effects of Theileria equi infection on embryonic recovery, gestation and early embryonic loss. Thirteen Mangalarga Marchador Theileria equi positive donors (diagnosed through nested-PCR and 40 embryos receptors were used. Donors were submitted to two embryo collections in two consecutive estrous cycles (GId; after, the same mares were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (1.2mg/kg IM. in order to collect more embryos in two more estrous cycles (GIId. Receptors were divided into two groups (control and with treated with 20 animals each, where one group was the control (GIr and the other one (GIIr treated with 1.2mg/kg IM of imidocarb dipropionate assessing the gestation rate at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. After 52 embryo collections, the embryonic recovery rates were 53.84% (14/26 and 65.38% (17/26 (p> 0.05 for GId and GIId, respectively. The gestation rate was 70% (14/20 (p>0.05 at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in group GIr and for GIIr was 85% (17/20 (p>0.05 at 15 days, 80% (16/20 (p>0.05 at 30, 45 and 60 days. The treatment with imidocarb dipropionate did not cause significant improvement in the reproductive efficiency at an ET program.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Theileria parva in Eastern Zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reported in previous studies. The significance of the different p67 alleles and the novel variants stocks detected by p104 PCR-RFLP in the epidemiology of theileriosis in Eastern Zone of Tanzania and the key aspects for vaccine developement is discussed. Keywords: p104, p67, molecular epidemiology, Theileria parva.

  19. Strategic control of ticks with synthetic pyrethroids in Theileria parva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tick control by strategic dipping in synthetic pyrethroids on growth and survival rates of calves in ... divided in two groups; group 1 (n=1340) were non treated control and group 2 (n=17920) were dipped regularly in ... Keywords: East cost fever, Theileria parva, endemic stability, tick acaricide ... from 32 Countries:.

  20. Theileria lestoquardi--maturation and quantification in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirvar, E; Wilkie, G; Katzer, F; Brown, C G

    1998-09-01

    The maturation and quantification of Theileria lestoquardi (T. hirci) parasites in unfed and partially fed adult Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks was studied using (1) methyl green pyronin (MGP) staining of salivary glands, (2) in vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) with parasites harvested from infected ticks and (3) a semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With MGP staining the greatest infection rate was seen in unfed ticks. Feeding resulted in a gradual reduction in the number of infected acini with a concomitant increase in the maturity of the parasites. In vitro infection of sheep PBM with titrated group-up tick supernate (GUTS) demonstrated that infectivity peaked between 2 and 4 days of tick feeding whereas GUTS prepared from unfed ticks was not infective. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was both sensitive and specific, detecting T. lestoquardi DNA in unfed and partially fed ticks, with a maximum sensitivity of 0.022 infected acinus/tick in 2-day fed ticks, though it gave no indication of the infectivity of the parasite.

  1. The first genetic identification of Theileria ovis subtype KP019206 in sheep in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khezri, M; Habibi, G.; K. Esmaeil-Nia; Afshari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases, including theileriosis, constitute a major constraint to livestock production. Two species, known as Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria ovis, are suspected to contribute to ovine theileriosis in Iran. However, the epidemiological aspects of ovine theileriosis are poorly understood in this country. In a survey, designed to identify Theileria species in sheep, 52 (47.27%) out of 110 blood samples were positive, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. Am...

  2. Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    M.J.A. Alkhaled; N.N. A’aiz; H.H. Naser

    2016-01-01

    Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment ...

  3. Mediterranean theileriosis and other tick transmitted piroplasmoses in cattle in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain): the effect of tick control on prevalence levels analyzed by reverse line blot (RLB) macroarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerìa, Sonia; Delgado-Neira, Yolanda; Adelantado, Carles; Huguet, Marian; Vinent, Joan; Nicolàs, Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Mediterranean theileriosis, caused by Theileria annulata, is endemic in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). The present study analyzes the prevalence of piroplasm infections in cattle in Minorca using reverse line blot (RLB) macroarrays, as well as the effect of herd tick control on those prevalence levels. One hundred and nineteen animals from 12 herds were sampled in representative areas of the island. Information was gathered regarding tick control for the animals (frequency and acaricide used) in each herd. More than 87% of the animals were positive for the presence of piroplasm species. Theileria annulata and Theileria buffeli were observed in all sampled herds (mean prevalence 53.3% for T. annulata and 69.75% for T. buffeli). The mean prevalence was 5.7% for Babesia bigemina. A significantly higher prevalence of Theileria spp. was observed in herds that grazed in, or near, forested areas. Theileria annulata prevalence was significantly lower in herds that followed tick control and was related to the frequency of the applied treatments. Theileria buffeli and B. bigemina prevalences were not affected by tick control for the herds. The results indicate that despite tick control, Mediterranean theileriosis remains endemic in Minorca. Adequate control measures and vaccination approaches are required to improve the situation of Mediterranean theileriosis on the island.

  4. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  5. The prevalence and impact of Babesia canis and Theileria sp. in free-ranging grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ana; Huber, Doroteja; Polkinghorne, Adam; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Benko, Valerija; Mrljak, Vladimir; Reljić, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Reil, Irena; Beck, Relja

    2017-04-04

    Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. are important emerging causes of disease in dogs. Alongside these domesticated hosts, there is increasing recognition that these piroplasms can also be found in a range of wild animals with isolated reports describing the presence of these pathogen in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and captive grey wolves (Canis lupus). The prevalence and impact of these infections in free-ranging populations of canids are unknown. To gain a better insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of piroplasm infections in free-ranging grey wolves, pathological and molecular investigations into captive and free-ranging grey wolves in Croatia were performed. The carcasses of 107 free-ranging wolves and one captive wolf were the subjects of post-mortem investigations and sampling for molecular studies. A blood sample from one live captured wolf for telemetric tracking was also used for molecular analysis. PCR amplification targeting the 18S RNA gene revealed that 21 of 108 free-ranging wolves and one captive animal were positive for Theileria/Babesia DNA. Subsequent sequencing of a fragment of the 18S RNA gene revealed that 7/22 animals were positive for Babesia canis while the other amplified sequence were found to be identical with corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of Theileria capreoli isolated from wild deer (15/22). Haematological and cytological analysis revealed the presence of signet-ring shaped or pear-shaped piroplasms in several animals with the overall parasite burden in all positive animals assessed to be very low. Pathological investigation of the captive animal revealed fatal septicemia as a likely outcome of hemolytic anaemia. There was little or no evidence of hemolytic disease consistent with babesiosis in other animals. Importantly, the presence of B. canis in free-ranging grey wolves has not been described before but has been reported in a single fox and domestic dogs only. That B. canis infections cause disease in dogs but have little impact

  6. Expression analysis of the Theileria parva subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer

    Full Text Available The intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria parva transforms bovine lymphocytes inducing uncontrolled proliferation. Proteins released from the parasite are assumed to contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell and parasite persistence. With 85 members, genes encoding subtelomeric variable secreted proteins (SVSPs form the largest gene family in T. parva. The majority of SVSPs contain predicted signal peptides, suggesting secretion into the host cell cytoplasm.We analysed SVSP expression in T. parva-transformed cell lines established in vitro by infection of T or B lymphocytes with cloned T. parva parasites. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression for a wide range of SVSP genes. The pattern of mRNA expression was largely defined by the parasite genotype and not by host background or cell type, and found to be relatively stable in vitro over a period of two months. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis carried out on cell lines established from a cloned parasite showed that expression of a single SVSP encoded by TP03_0882 is limited to only a small percentage of parasites. Epitope-tagged TP03_0882 expressed in mammalian cells was found to translocate into the nucleus, a process that could be attributed to two different nuclear localisation signals.Our analysis reveals a complex pattern of Theileria SVSP mRNA expression, which depends on the parasite genotype. Whereas in cell lines established from a cloned parasite transcripts can be found corresponding to a wide range of SVSP genes, only a minority of parasites appear to express a particular SVSP protein. The fact that a number of SVSPs contain functional nuclear localisation signals suggests that proteins released from the parasite could contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell. This initial characterisation will facilitate future studies on the regulation of SVSP gene expression and the potential biological role of these enigmatic

  7. The transforming parasite Theileria co-opts host cell mitotic and central spindles to persist in continuously dividing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad von Schubert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Theileria inhabits the host cell cytoplasm and possesses the unique capacity to transform the cells it infects, inducing continuous proliferation and protection against apoptosis. The transforming schizont is a multinucleated syncytium that resides free in the host cell cytoplasm and is strictly intracellular. To maintain transformation, it is crucial that this syncytium is divided over the two daughter cells at each host cell cytokinesis. This process was dissected using different cell cycle synchronization methods in combination with the targeted application of specific inhibitors. We found that Theileria schizonts associate with newly formed host cell microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles, positioning the parasite at the equatorial region of the mitotic cell where host cell chromosomes assemble during metaphase. During anaphase, the schizont interacts closely with host cell central spindle. As part of this process, the schizont recruits a host cell mitotic kinase, Polo-like kinase 1, and we established that parasite association with host cell central spindles requires Polo-like kinase 1 catalytic activity. Blocking the interaction between the schizont and astral as well as central spindle microtubules prevented parasite segregation between the daughter cells during cytokinesis. Our findings provide a striking example of how an intracellular eukaryotic pathogen that evolved ways to induce the uncontrolled proliferation of the cells it infects usurps the host cell mitotic machinery, including Polo-like kinase 1, one of the pivotal mitotic kinases, to ensure its own persistence and survival.

  8. First Molecular Characterization of Theileria ornithorhynchi Mackerras, 1959: yet Another Challenge to the Systematics of the Piroplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, Andrea; Macgregor, James; Ryan, Una M; Irwin, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Piroplasms, tick-transmitted Apicomplexa of the genera Theileria, Babesia and Cytauxzoon, are blood-borne parasites of clinical and veterinary importance. The order Piroplasmida shows a puzzling systematics characterized by multiple clades, soft polytomies and paraphyletic/polyphyletic genera. In the present study, screening of platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), was performed to infer the parasite molecular phylogeny. DNA was extracted from blood, ectoparasites and tick eggs and the 18S rRNA- hsp70-genes were used for the phylogenetic reconstructions. Microscopic analyses detected pleomorphic intra-erythrocytic organisms and tetrads consistent with previous descriptions of Theileria ornithorhynchi Mackerras, 1959, but observation of possible schizonts could not be confirmed. DNA sequences obtained from blood and ticks allowed resolving the systematics of the first piroplasm infecting a monotreme host. Molecularly, T. ornithorhynchi formed a novel monophyletic group, basal to most known piroplasms' clades. The ancestral position of this clade, isolated from an ancient lineage of mammalian host appears particularly fascinating. The present paper discusses the inadequacies of the current molecular systematics for the Piroplasmida and the consequences of incomplete sampling, morphology-based classification and ambiguous microscopic identifications. Likely when the current sampling bias is rectified and more sequence data is made available, the phylogenetic position of T. ornithorhynchi will be further contextualized without ambiguity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Babesia (Theileria) annae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, Noel; Horney, Barbara; Burton, Shelley; Birkenheuer, Adam; McBurney, Scott; Tefft, Karen

    2010-04-01

    A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1 x 2 microm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic broncho-pneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia microti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are yet to be determined.

  10. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Sitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail, which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present.

  11. Identification of Theileria uilenbergi immunodominant protein for development of an indirect ELISA for diagnosis of ovine theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Zijian; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun; Zhang, Bao; Kullmann, Birgit; Abdo, Jassim; Salih, Dialeldin; Ahmed, Jabbar; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2010-04-01

    Theileriosis of small ruminants in the northwest of China is a protozoan disease that restricts the development of the livestock industry. The disease is caused by infection with Theileria uilenbergi and Theilerialuwenshuni, both of which are transmitted by ixodid Heamaphysalis ticks. The development of serological tools as a means of integrated control of the disease is an urgent and important requirement. Here we describe the identification and partial recombinant expression of a T.uilenbergi immunodominant protein (TuIP), which was identified by immunoscreening of a merozoite cDNA library. Using the recombinant TuIP (rTuIP), a novel indirect ELISA was established using 329 negative serum samples to determine the cut-off value. The internal quality control revealed satisfactory stability and repeatability of the assay. Preliminary validation using 128 positive and 48 negative reference samples demonstrated that the rTuIP ELISA is able to detect T. uilenbergi infection with high sensitivity and specificity. No cross-reactivity was found in sera from animals infected with Theileria lestoquardi, Babesia sp. China or Anaplasma ovis. Furthermore, circulating antibodies were detected in sera collected from endemic regions in China. Analyses of the antibody responses of experimentally infected animals demonstrated that tick infestation resulted in a sharply rising and stronger production of specific antibodies against TuIP while inoculation with infected blood induced an earlier production of TuIP-specific antibodies. The persistence of the TuIP-specific antibodies lasted more than 100days p.i. These data indicate the usefulness of the TuIP antigen for the development of diagnostic methods and as a potential candidate for vaccine design. 2009 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phylogenetic position of small-ruminant infecting piroplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jabbar S; Luo, Jianxun; Schnittger, Leonhard; Seitzer, Ulrike; Jongejan, Frans; Yin, Hong

    2006-10-01

    Theileria and Babesia are tick-transmitted protozoa that cause great economical losses in livestock. Recently, interest has risen in sheep-infecting piroplasms and a number of previously unidentified pathogens were described, particularly in China. To address the phylogenetic relationship of Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep, the complete sequences of the 18 S small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of a panel of piroplasm isolates, including T. lestoquardi, T. ovis, T. separata, B. ovis, B. motasi, B. crassa, and several novel species, were compared. The classification based on the established phylogenetic tree corresponded with traditional systematics and revealed that sheep/goat piroplasm species are of a polyphyletic origin. In addition, these studies revealed the existence of at least two novel sheep/goat piroplasm species, designated Theileria sp. (China 1) and Theileria sp. (China 2).

  13. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, R Z; Toledo, C Z P; Teixeira, M C A; André, M R; Freschi, C R; Sampaio, P H

    2012-05-25

    Piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognized as a serious problem of major economic importance, since the affected animals manifest loss of appetite and decreased working capacity. The present work is aimed at detecting infection or exposure of donkeys in São Paulo, Brazil to Theileria (T.) equi and Babesia (B.) caballi using molecular and serological approaches. EDTA-blood and serum samples were collected from 88 donkeys (Equus asinus). From 88 sampled donkeys, 65 (73.86%; 95% confidence interval, PI=63.41, 82.65) and 82 (93.2%; 95% confidence interval, PI=85.75, 97.46) animals showed IgG antibodies to T. equi (by ELISA) and B. caballi (by IFAT), respectively. Twenty-eight (31.81%; 95% confidence interval, PI=22.3, 42.61) and 18 (20.45%; 95% confidence interval, PI=12.6, 30.39) donkeys were positive to T. equi and B. caballi nested PCR assays, respectively. The results indicated that T. equi and B. caballi are prevalent among donkeys in Brazil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  15. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, F; Khattak, Rm; Ozubek, S; Khattak, Mnk; Rasul, A; Aktas, M

    2013-04-01

    The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp.) in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan. Reverse line blot (RLB) assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products. Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa. Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001). Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03), animals infested by ticks (P = 0.03) and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001) were more infected by blood parasites.

  16. Verification of post-chemotherapeutic clearance of Theileria equi through concordance of nested PCR and immunoblot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L N; Kappmeyer, L S; Silva, M G; White, S N; Grause, J F; Knowles, D P

    2018-02-01

    Certain countries including the United States remain non-endemic for particular infectious diseases such as equine piroplasmosis through import restrictions and surveillance. Endemic regions often employ premunition as the primary method to control disease, however in non-endemic countries, chemosterilization combined with methods to confirm parasite elimination are required to maintain disease-free status. The ability of imidocarb diproprionate (ID) to clear persistent Theileria equi infection from infected horses has been shown through the inability of treated horses to transmit via blood transfer. However, the common lengthy persistence of anti-T. equi antibody causes regulatory tests such as cELISA or IFA to remain positive for extended periods. Persistence of positive testing creates challenges for regulatory veterinary medicine and international trade. Concordance between nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) targeting the ema1 gene and immunoblotting (IB) measuring declination in anti-EMA1 and anti-EMA2 antibody were used to verify clearance of T. equi from 179 ID-treated horses. These data support the use of IB to demonstrate declining anti-EMA1 and EMA2 titers in T. equi-infected horses subsequent to successful ID treatment. Such data provide concordant support to a negative nPCR and allow for a more timely determination of effective ID clearance of T. equi. The post ID treatment results indicate that while nPCR was consistently negative by 14 days and cELISA generally remained positive after 1 year, immunoblot was on average negative after 4 months and 100% in agreement with nPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of the gene encoding the polymorphic immunodominant molecule, a neutralizing antigen of Theileria parva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toye, P.G.; Metzelaar, M.J.; Wijngaard, P.L.J. [Univ. Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Theileria parva, a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite related to Plasmodium spp., causes the disease East Coast fever, an acute and usually fatal lymphoproliferative disorder of cattle in Africa. Previous studies using sera from cattle that have survived infection identified a polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that is expressed by both the infective sporozoite stage of the parasite and the intracellular schizont. Here we show that mAb specific for the PIM Ag can inhibit sporozoite invasion of lymphocytes in vitro. A cDNA clone encoding the PIM Ag of the T. parva (Muguga) stock was obtained by using these mAb in a novel eukaryotic expression cloning system that allows isolation of cDNA encoding cytoplasmic or surface Ags. To establish the molecular basis of the polymorphism of PIM, the cDNA of the PIM Ag from a buffalo-derived T. parva stock was isolated and its sequence was compared with that of the cattle-derived Muguga PIM. The two cDNAs showed considerable identity in both the 5{prime} and 3{prime} regions, but there was substantial sequence divergence in the central regions. Several types of repeated sequences were identified in the variant regions. In the Muguga form of the molecule, there were five tandem repeats of the tetrapeptide, QPEP, that were shown, by transfection of a deleted version of the PIM gene, not to react with several anti-PIM mAbs. By isolating and sequencing the genomic version of the gene, we identified two small introns in the 3{prime} region of the gene. Finally, we showed that polyclonal rat Abs against recombinant PIM neutralize sporozoite infectivity in vitro, suggesting that the PIM Ag should be evaluated for its capacity to immunize cattle against East Coast Fever.

  18. Detection and molecular characterization of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi isolates from endemic areas of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Alexandra; Passos, Lygia M F; Ribeiro, Múcio F B; Costa-Júnior, Lívio M; Bastos, Camila V; Cabral, Dagmar D; Hirzmann, Jörg; Pfister, Kurt

    2007-12-01

    Blood samples were collected from 487 adult horses, including 83 pregnant mares, at a slaughterhouse located in Araguari, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For each blood sample, the packed cell volume (PCV) was determined, and Giemsa-stained smears were microscopically examined for the presence of hemoparasites. The plasma was examined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of antibodies against Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. In addition, DNA was extracted and analyzed by a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), specific for B. caballi and T. equi. Products of PCR were sequenced and compared with each other and with known sequences. The serological results showed a total prevalence of 91.0% for T. equi and 83.0% for B. caballi, while by PCR, prevalences of 59.7% for T. equi and 12.5% for B. caballi were observed. However, no correlations were seen between positivity (neither by serology nor by PCR) and PCV values. As expected, the microscopic examination of blood smears showed low sensitivity in detecting the infections when compared to the PCR. Only 35 out of 570 blood smears were positive, with parasitemias below 0.1%. No congenital transmission was detectable. As far as sequencing is concerned, no differences were seen among the isolates of each species nor among them and known sequences available. These results confirm, by molecular methods, the high prevalence rates of T. equi and B. caballi infections in carrier horses in Brazil. However, no diversity was observed among the isolates within the studied regions.

  19. Fungus gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta colombica function as egg nurseries for the snake Leptodeira annulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Kronauer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Attine ants are well known for their mutualistic symbiosis with fungus gardens, but many other symbionts and commensals have been described. Here, we report the discovery of two clusters of large snake eggs in neighboring fungus gardens of a mature Atta colombica colony. The eggs were completely...... embedded within the fungus garden and were ignored by the host ants, even when we placed them into another, freshly excavated fungus garden of the same colony. All five eggs contained embryos and two snakes eventually hatched, which we identified as being banded cat eyed snakes Leptodeira annulata L. Ant...... fungus gardens are likely to provide ideal climatic conditions for developing snake eggs and almost complete protection from egg predation. Our observations therefore indicate that mature banded cat eyed snakes are able to enter and oviposit in large and well defended Atta colonies without being attacked...

  20. Improved immunogenicity of novel baculovirus-derived Theileria parva p67 subunit antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.; Schaap, D.; Roode, E.C.; Nene, V.; Musoke, A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2004-01-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle is caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva. The major sporozoite surface antigen of T parva (p67) is an important candidate for inclusion in a subunit vaccine. Recently, we reported the expression and production of different parts of p67 as

  1. Molecular detection and genetic characterization of Babesia, Theileria and Anaplasma amongst apparently healthy sheep and goats in the central region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Sevinc, Ferda; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur; Ekici, Sepil; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2017-02-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia ovis, Theileria ovis and Anaplasma ovis in 343 small ruminants (249 sheep and 94 goats) from 13 towns in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. ovis ssu rRNA (BoSSUrRNA), T. ovis ssu rRNA (ToSSUrRNA) and A. ovis major surface protein 4 (AoMSP4) genes, respectively. Fragments of these genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the overall infections of A. ovis, T. ovis and B. ovis were 60.0%, 35.9% and 5.2%, respectively. Co-infection of the animals with two or three pathogens was detected in 105/343 (30.6%) of the ovine samples. The results of sequence analysis indicated that AoMSP4 were conserved among the Turkish samples, with 100% sequence identity values. In contrast, the BoSSUrRNA and ToSSUrRNA gene sequences were relatively diverse with identity values of 98.54%-99.82% and 99.23%-99.81%, respectively. Phylograms were inferred based on the BoSSUrRNA, ToSSUrRNA and AoMSP4 sequences obtained in this study and those from previous studies. B. ovis isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries in phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, the Turkish T. ovis isolates in the present study formed a monophyletic grouping with the isolates from other countries in a phylogeny based on ToSSUrRNA sequences. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis using AoMSP4 sequences showed the presence of three genotypes of A. ovis. This study provides important data for understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in small ruminants and the degree of genetic heterogeneities among these pathogens in Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the co-infection of Babesia, Theileria and Anaplasma in sheep and goats in Turkey. Copyright

  2. Immunogenicity and antigenicity of the recombinant EMA-1 protein of Theileria equi expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris Imunogenicidade e antigenicidade da proteína recombinante EMA-1 de Theileria equi expressa em Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Q. Nizoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi is one of the most important parasitic diseases of the equine, causing damage to animal health and economic losses. In T. equi, 2 merozoite surface proteins, equi merozoite antigen EMA-1 and EMA-2, have been identified as the most immunodominant antigens. This suggests that these antigens might be used as immunobiological tools. The EMA-1 of Theileria equi was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The transformed yeast was grown at high cell density, expressing up to 389 mg.L-1 of recombinant protein. The protein was concentrated and detected in Dot blot. The recombinant product was antigenically similar to the native protein as determined using monoclonal antibodies, and polyclonal antibodies obtained from equines naturally infected with T. equi. The immunogenicity of rEMA-1 protein was demonstrated by IFAT using sera from recombinant-protein-immunized mice using aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. All animals vaccinated with rEMA-1 developed a high specific antibody response. This results suggest that rEMA-1expressed in P. pastoris might be a strong candidate to be used as an antigen for immune diagnostics as well as a vaccine antigen.A piroplasmose equina causada por Theileria equi é uma das mais importantes doenças parasitárias de equídeos, causando danos a saúde animal e perdas econômicas. Em T. equi, 2 proteínas de superfície de merozoítos, equi merozoite antigen EMA-1 e EMA-2, têm sido identificadas como antígenos imunodominantes. Sugerindo que estes antígenos possam ser usados como produtos imunobiológicos. O gene EMA-1 de T. equi foi clonado e expressado na levedura Pichia pastoris. As leveduras transformadas foram cultivadas a altas densidades celulares expressando 389 mg.L-1 de proteína recombinante. A proteína foi concentrada e detectada em Dot blot. O produto recombinante foi antigenicamente similar à proteína nativa quando determinado usando anticorpo

  3. Molecular detection of Theileria, Babesia, and Hepatozoon spp. in ixodid ticks from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Kifaya; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Baneth, Gad; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-07-01

    Ixodid ticks transmit various infectious agents that cause disease in humans and livestock worldwide. A cross-sectional survey on the presence of protozoan pathogens in ticks was carried out to assess the impact of tick-borne protozoa on domestic animals in Palestine. Ticks were collected from herds with sheep, goats and dogs in different geographic districts and their species were determined using morphological keys. The presence of piroplasms and Hepatozoon spp. was determined by PCR amplification of a 460-540bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene followed by RFLP or DNA sequencing. A PCR-RFLP method based on the 18S rRNA was used in order to detect and to identify Hepatozoon, Babesia and Theileria spp. A total of 516 ticks were collected from animals in six Palestinian localities. Five tick species were found: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva and Haemaphysalis adleri. PCR-based analyses of the ticks revealed Theileria ovis (5.4%), Hepatozoon canis (4.3%), Babesia ovis (0.6%), and Babesia vogeli (0.4%). Theileria ovis was significantly associated with ticks from sheep and with R. turanicus ticks (pPalestine. Communicating these findings with health and veterinary professionals will increase their awareness, and contribute to improved diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. First Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Theileria lestoquardi in Sheep of the Maghreb Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjeibi, M R; Darghouth, M A; Rekik, M; Amor, B; Sassi, L; Gharbi, M

    2016-06-01

    Theileria lestoquardi is the most prominent Theileria species in small ruminants that causes malignant theileriosis of sheep in Africa and Asia. In the present survey, blood samples and ticks were collected in Kebili (southern Tunisia) from 166 Queue Fine de l'Ouest sheep. Giemsa-stained blood smears, immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and PCR were performed. The DNA was extracted from blood and analysed by PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene of Theileria spp. and then sequenced. A total number of 140 ticks were collected from a total number of 166 sheep during the four seasons. The ticks belonged to two genera and 4 species; the most frequent tick was Hyalomma excavatum 84.3% (118/140) and then Rhipicephalus spp. 15.7% (22/140). Only two animals had positive Giemsa-stained blood smears, and they were also positive by IFAT. The amplicons had 99.3 and 99.6% homology with the BLAST published T. lestoquardi amplicons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. lestoquardi in small ruminants within the Maghreb region. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  6. Simultaneous differentiation between Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. on stained blood smear using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Parviz; Rahbari, Sadegh

    2005-10-01

    The tick-borne diseases of livestock constitute a complex of several diseases with different etiological agents. Theileriosis and babesiosis belong to this complex and are severe and often fatal protozoan tick-borne diseases of ruminants worldwide. This results in high economical losses yearly in Iran. The most common diagnostic method for the identification of piroplasms in Iran is Giemsa staining of blood smear, which is unspecific, accompanied by some technical problems and, in some cases, impossible, due to the carriers. In contrast, immunostaining is more specific and can only be performed with suitably prepared blood smears, but cannot be used also for the carriers. The most specific method for the differential diagnosis of piroplasms is the method of polymerase chain reaction. We extracted DNA from different sources of blood samples, including from already stained blood smears. The extracted DNA was subsequently amplified using specific primers derived from Theileria heat shock protein hsp70, Theileria lestoquardi ms1-2 gene, Babesia rhoptry protein gene and piroplasms hyper variable region V4 of 18S rRNA gene. The results show that it is possible to detect piroplasms in already stained blood smears as well enabling a simpler method to be developed for the collection of the samples. Furthermore, it is possible to analyse the already stained and registered blood smears from the patients with unclear differential diagnosis, e.g. in the carriers. In addition, the results revealed that using a primer designed from the hyper variable region V4 of 18S rRNA, it is possible to detect and differentiate simultaneously the genera Theileria and Babesia in DNA samples isolated from already stained blood smears.

  7. Development of a novel subunit vaccine against East Coast fever based on the Theileria parva sporozoite surface protein p67

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Theileriaparva is an intracellular protozoan parasite and the causative agent of a lethal cattle disease, called East Coast fever (ECF). This disease poses a major constraint on improvement of cattle production in Eastern, Central

  8. Molecular characterisation of Theileria orientalis in imported and native bovines from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Abbas, Tariq; Wajid, Muhammad; Ali, Aamir; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The epidemiological aspects of Theileria orientalis in Pakistan are unknown; therefore, investigations using sensitive and precise molecular techniques are required. This study reports the first molecular characterisation of T. orientalis detected from imported (Bos taurus) and native cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) selected from four districts of Punjab, Pakistan. DNA samples from blood (n=246) were extracted and tested using conventional PCR utilising the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR). Theileria orientalis DNA was detected (15%; 22/147) only in imported cattle by conventional PCR, whereas 24.5% (36/147), 6% (3/50) and 6.1% (3/49) of the imported cattle and native Pakistani cattle and buffaloes, respectively were test-positive for T. orientalis using MT-PCR. Using MT-PCR, the prevalence of T. orientalis was significantly higher (PPakistan, and highlights the need for future studies to understand the spread of transboundary animal diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A case of transplacental transmission of Theileria equi in a foal in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Karla C; Ezeokoli, Chuckwudozi D; Sparagano, Olivier; Pargass, Indira; Campbell, Mervyn; D'Abadie, Roger; Yabsley, Michael J

    2011-02-10

    Equine piroplasmosis due to Theileria equi and Babesia caballi is endemic in Trinidad. A case of equine piroplasmosis due to T. equi was diagnosed in a thoroughbred foal at 10h post-partum. A high parasitaemia (63%) of piroplasms was observed in a Wright-Giemsa(®) stained thin blood smear from the foal. In addition, the 18S rRNA gene for Babesia/Theileria was amplified from DNA extracted from the blood of the foal and the mare. Amplified products were subjected to a reverse line blot hybridization assay (RLB), which confirmed the presence of T. equi DNA in the foal. The mare was negative by RLB but was positive for T. equi using a nested PCR and sequence analysis. In areas where equine piroplasmosis is endemic, severe jaundice in a post-partum foal may be easily misdiagnosed as neonatal isoerythrolysis. Foals with post-partum jaundice should be screened for equine piroplasmosis, which may be confirmed using molecular methods if available. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical transfer of Theileria orientalis: possible roles of biting arthropods, colostrum and husbandry practices in disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jade Frederick; Jenkins, Cheryl; Bogema, Daniel; Emery, David

    2016-01-22

    The intracellular protozoal parasite Theileria orientalis has rapidly spread across South-eastern Australia, substantially impacting local cattle industries since 2006. Haemaphysalis longicornis appears to be a biological vector in the endemic regions. Mechanical transfer of blood by biting arthropods, in colostrum or iatrogenic transmission though husbandry procedures is another possible mode of transmission. This study assesses the risk of these mechanical modes of transmission. Blood was collected from a T. orientalis Ikeda positive Angus steer, and was inoculated into the jugular vein of 9 calves in 3 treatment groups, each with 3 animals. Calves in Group 1 received 10 ml of cryopreserved blood, while those in Groups 2 and 3 received 1 ml (fresh blood) and 0.1 ml (cryopreserved), respectively. An additional three animals remained as negative controls and the donor calf was also followed as a positive control. Blood was collected over 3 months, and analysed via qPCR for the presence of the parasite. Samples of the sucking louse Linognathus vituli were collected opportunistically from calves 5 months after inoculation and tested for T. orientalis. For the colostral transmission study, 30 samples of blood and colostrum were collected from cows at calving in an endemic herd. These samples along with blood from their calves were tested by qPCR for T. orientalis and for antibodies to the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP). Eight of the nine inoculated calves became positive for T. orientalis. The prepatent period of these infections was inversely correlated with inoculation dose. All negative control calves remained negative and the positive control calf remained positive. Samples of L. vituli tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda, while some samples of colostrum were also shown to be qPCR and anti-MPSP positive. All calves in the colostral study tested qPCR negative although one was antibody-positive. T. orientalis is capable of being mechanically transferred

  11. Prevalence and Molecular Diagnosis of Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis in Lohi Sheep at Livestock Experiment Station (LES, Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis are among the important and main etiological agents causing ovine babesiosis and ovine theileriosis, causing severe economic losses among sheep and goats. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of B. ovis and T. ovis in Lohi sheep at Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.The prevalence of B. ovis and T. ovis was investigated in 200 Lohi sheep of mixed age and sex by PCR during 2011. The assay was employed using primers Bbo-F & Bbo-R, specific for a 549-bp fragment in B. ovis genomic DNA and primers TSsr 170F & TSsr 670R, specific for a 520-bp fragment in T. ovis genomic DNA. The animals were also screened for both haemoparasites through stained thin blood smears.Thirty two (16%, 48 (24% and 26 (13% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through microscopy. Sixty eight (34%, 73 (37% and 42 (21% were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites, respectively, through PCR test.The results indicate the high sensitivity of PCR for surveying babesiosis and theileriosis and there is noteworthy prevalence of these diseases in sheep at an experimental station where environmental conditions are relatively controlled as compared to field conditions.

  12. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 2nd Edition Victor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    cycle stages and transovarial passage within the tick vector (Uilenberg, 2006). Other theileria species that have been recorded in dogs using. 18S rRNA gene includes Theileria equi and. Theileria annulata (Criado-Fornelio et al.,. 2003b). In essence, the previous notion of. Babesia spp being solely responsible for canine.

  13. Consistent and contrasting properties of lineage-specific genes in the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium and Theileria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissinger Jessica C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lineage-specific genes, the genes that are restricted to a limited subset of related organisms, may be important in adaptation. In parasitic organisms, lineage-specific gene products are possible targets for vaccine development or therapeutics when these genes are absent from the host genome. Results In this study, we utilized comparative approaches based on a phylogenetic framework to characterize lineage-specific genes in the parasitic protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. Genes from species in two major apicomplexan genera, Plasmodium and Theileria, were categorized into six levels of lineage specificity based on a nine-species phylogeny. In both genera, lineage-specific genes tend to have a higher level of sequence divergence among sister species. In addition, species-specific genes possess a strong codon usage bias compared to other genes in the genome. We found that a large number of genus- or species-specific genes are putative surface antigens that may be involved in host-parasite interactions. Interestingly, the two parasite lineages exhibit several notable differences. In Plasmodium, the (G + C content at the third codon position increases with lineage specificity while Theileria shows the opposite trend. Surface antigens in Plasmodium are species-specific and mainly located in sub-telomeric regions. In contrast, surface antigens in Theileria are conserved at the genus level and distributed across the entire lengths of chromosomes. Conclusion Our results provide further support for the model that gene duplication followed by rapid divergence is a major mechanism for generating lineage-specific genes. The result that many lineage-specific genes are putative surface antigens supports the hypothesis that lineage-specific genes could be important in parasite adaptation. The contrasting properties between the lineage-specific genes in two major apicomplexan genera indicate that the mechanisms of generating lineage-specific genes

  14. 17-DMAG inhibits the multiplication of several Babesia species and Theileria equi on in vitro cultures, and Babesia microti in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswanto, Azirwan; Nugraha, Arifin Budiman; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Tayebwa, Dickson Stuart; Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; Batiha, Gaber El-Saber; Gantuya, Sambuu; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2018-02-27

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a chaperone protein that stabilizes cells during stress or non-stress responses. Previous reports have shown that Hsp90 is a potential drug target to suppress the multiplication of several protozoan parasites. In this study, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, was evaluated for its inhibitory effect on five in vitro cultures of Babesia and Theileria species, including B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and T. equi, and on the multiplication of a B. microti-infected mouse model. 17-DMAG showed the inhibitory effect in all of the species tested. The half maximum inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) of 17-DMAG on B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and T. equi was 77.6 ± 2.9, 62.4 ± 1.9, 183.8 ± 3.2, 88.5 ± 9.6, and 307.7 ± 7.2 nM, respectively. The toxicity assay on MDBK and NIH/3T3 cell lines showed that 17-DMAG affected the viability of cells with an IC 50 of 15.5 ± 4 and 8.8 ± 2 μM, respectively. Since the IC 50 s were much lower on the parasites than on the host cell lines, the selectivity index were high for all tested species. Furthermore, the two-drug combination of 17-DMAG with diminazene aceturate (DA) and atovaquone (AV) showed synergism or addition on in vitro cultures of Babesia and Theileria parasites. In the mouse model, 17-DMAG at a concentration of 30 mg/kg BW effectively inhibited the multiplication of B. microti. Moreover, if combined with DA or AV, 17-DMAG showed a comparable inhibition at the half dose. Taken together, these results indicate that 17-DMAG is a potent drug for treating piroplamosis. The data warrant further evaluation of 17-DMAG as an antibabesial drug and as an option in combination with atovaquone for the treatment of human babesiosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.A. Alkhaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1 and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1 more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

  16. Serum antibodies from a subset of horses positive for babesia caballi by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrate a protein recognition pattern that is not consistent with infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick-borne pathogens that cause persistent infection are of major concern to the livestock industry because of transmission risk from persistently infected animals and the potential economic losses they pose. The recent re-emergence of Theileria equi in the U.S. prompted widespread national surveill...

  17. Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Theileria equi in team roping horses from central-western region of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Prochno,Hanna Carolina; Scorsin, Lucas Milléo; De Melo, Fatiane Rodrigues; Baldani,Cristiane Divan; Falbo, Margarete Kimie; Aquino,Lucia Cury Thomaz de; Lemos, Karen Regina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi in horses from central western region of Paraná state, Brazil. The presence of antibodies IgG against T. equi was determined in serum samples obtained from 400 team roping horses of the district of Guarapuava by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that 242 (61%) animals were positive which demonstrates that equine piroplasmosis is widespread and therefore it might be a contributing factor for ...

  18. Evaluation of PCR and multiplex PCR in relation to nested PCR for diagnosing Theileria equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Leal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional PCR (PCRTeq for diagnosing Theileria equi and multiplex PCR (M/PCRTeq-Bc for diagnosing T. equi and Babesia caballi were comparatively evaluated with nested PCR (N/PCR-Teq for diagnosing equine piroplasmosis. In DNA sensitivity determinations, in multiple dilutions of equine blood that had tested positive for T. equi, PCR-Teq and N/PCR-Teq detected hemoparasite DNA in the larger dilutions (1:128, but did not differ significantly from the M/PCRTeq-Bc (1:64. In analyses on equine serum tested by ELISA, there was high agreement between this serological test and PCR-Teq (k = 0.780 and moderate agreement with N/PCR-Teq (k = 0.562 and M/PCRTeq-Bc (k = 0.488. PCR-Teq found a higher frequency of T. equi both in extensively and intensively reared horses, but this was not significant in relation to N/PCR-Teq (P>0.05, and both PCRs indicated that there was an endemic situation regarding T. equi in the population of horses of this sample. PCR-Teq was only significantly different from M/PCR-Teq-Bc (P<0.05. PCR-Teq presented high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to N/PCR-Teq, but with the advantage of higher speed in obtaining results and lower costs and risks of laboratory contamination. This accredits PCR-Teq for epidemiological studies and for determinations on affected horses.

  19. Inhibitory effect of allicin on the growth of Babesia and Theileria equi parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Akram Ahmed; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Mousa, Ahmed; El-Sify, Ahmed; Allaam, Mahmoud; Zaghawa, Ahmed; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Allicin is an active ingredient of garlic that has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiprotozoal activity. However, the inhibitory effects of allicin on Babesia parasites have not yet been examined. In the present study, allicin was tested as a potent inhibitor against the in vitro growth of bovine and equine Babesia parasites and the in vivo growth of Babesia microti in a mouse model. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia caballi, or Theileria equi was inhibited by allicin in a dose-dependent manner and had IC50 values of 818, 675, 470, and 742 μM, respectively. Moreover, allicin significantly inhibited (P allicin for 5 days significantly (P allicin with diminazene aceturate, growth inhibitory assays were performed in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, combinations of diminazene aceturate with allicin synergistically potentiated its inhibitory effects in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that allicin might be beneficial for the treatment of babesiosis, particularly when used in combination with diminazene aceturate.

  20. Comparative bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor genes indicates conservation of key regulatory domains among babesia bovis, babesia microti and theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicomplexa tick borne hemoparasites including B. bovis, B. microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis respectively. These neglected parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate a...

  1. The aetiology, pathogenesis and control of theileriosis in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W I

    2015-08-01

    The Theileria genus includes a large number of species of tick-borne parasites that infect domestic animals and wildlife species, predominantly ruminants. These range from species, such as T. parva and T. annulata, which cause acute lymphoproliferative diseases in cattle resulting in high levels of mortality, to others that are non-pathogenic. In the last decade, several new pathogenic species of Theileria have been identified and pathogenic strains of other previously low-pathogenic species have emerged. Theileria parasites are characterised by developmental stages within leukocytes and erythrocytes. The capacity of the most pathogenic species to undergo extensive multiplication during intra-leukocyte development is central to their ability to cause disease. However, this is not the sole property responsible for disease, as illustrated by T. parva, which grows in a similar mannerin buffalo cells butdoes notcause disease inthisspecies. Because of the highly pathogenic nature of these parasites in livestock and the susceptibility of young animals to disease, control of the diseases is challenging. Control by chemotherapy and prevention of tick infestation has proved expensive and difficult to sustain. Vaccines using live parasites are available for T. parva and T. annulata and have been used with some success in the field. However, their widespread use has been hampered by practical constraints in production and distribution of the vaccines. Studies of the immune responses in immune cattle have helped to elucidate the protective immune responses and identified a number of parasite antigens that are currently being explored for development of alternative vaccines.

  2. Vaccination of cattle against tropical theileriosis in Uzbekistan using autochthonous live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Ilhan; Fish, L; Shkap, V

    2008-12-19

    In Uzbekistan, 1984 cattle were vaccinated with the TAU-219 autochthonous live Theileria annulata vaccine under field conditions. There were no post-vaccination reactions recorded in calves vaccinated with 10 times the recommended dose, under semi-field conditions. After vaccination 53.9% of the vaccinates developed fever over 39.5 degrees C that lasted for a few days, but none developed clinical theileriosis or required drug treatment during the 3-week follow-up. The numbers of animals in which piroplasms were detected before and after vaccination were similar (7.15% and 7.25%, respectively), indicating previous exposure to T. annulata tick infection. Following vaccination none of the 241 pregnant cows aborted. Milk production during 30-45 days was similar in non-vaccinated and vaccinated cows, at about 5.2-5.9L/day. During 1999-2006 a total of 11,000 field-grazing cattle were safely vaccinated in Uzbekistan.

  3. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  4. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    whether BMPs maintain their osteoinductive capability in infected human wounds. The authors are aware of only one series describing the use of BMP in an...et al. Osteogenic protein-1 induces bone formation in the presence of bacterial infection in a rat intramuscular osteoinduction model. J Orthop Trauma

  5. A comparison of the presence of Theileria ovis by PCR amplification of their SSU rRNA gene in small ruminants from two provinces of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Durrani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the presence of Theileria ovis in small ruminants from two provinces of Pakistan and to determine the risk factors associated with the spread of theileriosis. Methods: In present study, a total of 210 blood samples were collected from sheep (n=99 and goats (n=111 from 5 sampling sites in Punjab (Dera Ghazi Khan, Layyah, Multan and Rahim Yar Khan districts and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (district Kohat provinces, in Pakistan, from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals (species, gender, age, tick presence or absence, prior treatment for babesiosis and the herd (location, size, species of animals, dogs associated with the herds, tick burden of dogs associated with the herds was collected through questionnaires. Results: Twelve blood samples (6% of total, 11 from district Kohat, produced the 520 base pairs DNA fragment specific for small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA gene of Theileria ovis, by PCR amplification, of which 11 were sheep and 1 was goat indicating that sheep are more significantly (P=0.001 prone to this parasite. On the other hand parasite was detected only in 2 out of 210 samples (1% by blood smear screening confirming PCR as the reliable detection tool. Conclusions: PCR is more sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool for detection of Theileria sp. as compared to blood smear screening. Incidence of Theileria ovis is very high in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa as compared to Punjab province. It was also observed that presence of ticks on animals was the only significant risk factor associated with the theileriosis in small ruminants.

  6. Developing high throughput quantitative PCR assays for diagnosing Ikeda and other Theileria orientalis types common to New Zealand in bovine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Gias, E; Bueno, I M; McFadden, Amj

    2016-01-01

    To develop rapid, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and type-specific TaqMan assays for identifying the prevalent types of Theileria orientalis found in New Zealand cattle; and to evaluate their analytical and diagnostic characteristics compared with other assays for T. orientalis. Nucleotide sequences aligned with T. orientalis Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda types, obtained from DNA extracted from blood samples from infected cattle, were used to design HRM and type-specific probe-based qPCR assays. The three type-specific assays were also incorporated into a single-tube multiplex qPCR assay. These assays were validated using DNA extracted from blood samples from cattle in herds with or without clinical signs of T. orientalis infection, other veterinary laboratory samples, as well as plasmids containing T. orientalis type-specific sequences. Diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) estimates for the qPCR assays were compared to blood smear piroplasm results, and other PCR assays for T. orientalis. Copy number estimates of Ikeda DNA in blood were determined from cattle exhibiting anaemia using the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay. The T. orientalis type-specific and the HRM qPCR assays displayed 100% analytical specificity. The Ikeda-specific qPCR assay exhibited linearity (R(2) = 0.997) with an efficiency of 94.3%. Intra-assay CV were ≤0.08 and inter-assay CV were ≤0.095. For blood samples from cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis, the DSp and DSe of the multiplex probe qPCR assay were 93 and 96%, respectively compared with blood smears, and 97 and 100%, respectively compared with conventional PCR assays. For the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay, the number of positive samples (n=66) was slightly higher than a conventional PCR assay (n=64). The concentration of Ikeda genomes in blood samples from 41 dairy cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis ranged between 5.6 × 10(4) and 3.3 × 10(6) genomes per

  7. Characterization of a polymorphic gene of T. lestoquardi and of a recently identified Theileria species pathogenic for small ruminants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, L; Yin, H; Luo, J; Katzer, F; Beyer, D; Shayan, P; Ahmed, J S

    2002-06-01

    In the present study, we identified a gene from Theileria lestoquardi and from a recently described Theileria species which is highly pathogenic for small ruminants in China. Since the taxonomic position of the latter parasite is still not clear, we refer to it as Theileria (China) species. The gene described here comprises an open reading frame of about 948 bp which prospectively encodes a 35-kDa protein. Its sequence is most closely related to the polymorphic immunodominant membrane protein of T. parva (36% identity). A search for sequence patterns and motifs within the predicted amino acid sequence revealed that this gene possesses three membrane-spanning regions at its C-terminal part, suggesting that it is a membrane protein. Several allelic variants of this gene were found in each parasite species, demonstrating interspecies and intraspecies variation. The predicted amino acid sequence variants display a substantial size and sequence polymorphism in the central part of its presumed extracellular region, while the N-terminal and the transmembrane/intracellular regions are highly conserved.

  8. Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the neonatal period to school age.' In Saudi Arabia, the rate of 5.3 per cent was reported' while in Nigeria,. Okafor et a1,7 found the prevalence rate .... the multiplication of the organisms in the urine, resulting in lalse diagnosis of urinary tract infection. This over-diagnosis ofl ITI may account for the high prevalence rate ...

  9. Production of recombinant EMA-1 protein and its application for the diagnosis of Theileria equi using an enzyme immuno assay in horses from São Paulo State, Brazil Produção da proteína recombinante EMA-1 e sua aplicação para o diagnóstico baseadono imuno ensaio enzimático de Theileria equi em equinos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Divan Baldani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocytic-stage surface protein, Equi Merozoite Antigen 1 (EMA-1, is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In order to establish an effective diagnostic method for practical use, the gene encoding the entire EMA-1 of Theileria equi Jaboticabal strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein (His6-EMA1. The expressed EMA-1 reacted with specific antibodies in Western blot and had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa which was largely consistent with its theoretical value. The nucleotide sequence of the EMA-1 gene of Jaboticabal strain was comparatively analyzed with other published sequences. The results indicated a high degree of homology with EMA-1 genes of all other strains isolated from various countries. The recombinant purified His6-EMA1 protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of antibodies anti-T. equi in horses. The ELISA clearly differentiated T. equi-infected from Babesia caballi-infected horse sera or normal horse sera. Field serum samples collected from horses in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, were examined for the diagnosis of T. equi infection by ELISA. Of 170 samples analyzed, 95.88% (163/170 were positive for T. equi infection. These results suggest that the His6-EMA1 protein expressed in E. coli could be a reliable immunodiagnostic antigen for ELISA test and that T. equi infection is a serious concern in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.A proteína de superfície eritrocitária, Antígeno 1 do Merozoíta de Theileria equi (EMA-1, é um potencial candidato para o desenvolvimento de antígenos de valor diagnóstico para a piroplasmose equina. Com o objetivo de estabelecer um método de diagnóstico efetivo e prático, o gene EMA-1 da amostra Jaboticabal - SP de T. equi foi clonado e expresso em Escherichia coli contendo uma cauda de poli-histidina (His6-EMA1. O EMA-1 expresso reagiu com

  10. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    lost by diuresis in early convalescence (1). Severe retention of body water, especially during central nervous system infection, has now been widely...adrenocortical production of glucocorticoid and ketosteroid hormones often declines into a subnormal range. The labile pool of body nitrogen is...may not become apparent until early convalescence when postfebrile diuresis causes excessive fluid to be excreted. (3) Protein requirements ’- Despite

  11. PCR based detection of Theileria lestoquardi in apparently healthy sheep and goats from two districts in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, S; Jahangir, M; Fatima, M; Shaikh, R S; Khattak, R M; Ali, M; Iqbal, F

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi from two districts of Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (Kohat and Peshawar) in Pakistan and also to report the risk factors associated with the spread of ovine theileriosis. A total of 165 blood samples were collected from sheep (N = 44) and goats (N = 121) from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of animals and the herds were collected through questionnaires. Five (3%) out of total 165 samples produced 730 base pairs DNA fragment, through PCR amplification of 18S SSU rRNA gene, specific for T. lestoquardi. All positive samples were from district Kohat while samples from Peshawar were found negative for this parasite. Statistical analysis indicated a significant association (P = 0.005) between sampling site and prevalence of T. lestoquardi. It was observed that presence of tick on the ruminant (P = 0.0007) and the dogs associated with the herd (P = 0.001) were highly significant risk factor for the spread of ovine theileriosis. It was also observed that mixed herds (containing both sheep and goats) were more prone to the parasite. We have concluded that PCR is a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool for detection of T. lestoquardi in blood samples of small ruminants and can be used for the prophylactic screening and treatment of this blood parasite in order to increase the live stock production in Pakistan.

  12. Antibodies produced by mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing two different types of a major Theileria sergenti surface antigen (p32) react with the native surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasima, Y; Xuan, X; Matsumoto, Y; Onuma, M; Otsuka, H

    1999-07-01

    A 32 kDa major surface antigen, p32, of Theileria sergenti at the piroplasm stage is the main target of the host immune response. The immunogenic property of the p32 varies in some strains among the population of Theileria sergenti in Japan where the Chitose type and the Ikeda type are the most common varieties. We have constructed vaccinia virus recombinants vv/p32C and vv/p32I which harbor the Chitose and Ikeda types of p32 gene, respectively. It was found that vv/p32C and vv/p32I produced type-specific p32 which did not cross react with the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the other type of p32. When mice were immunized with vv/p32C and vv/p32I, antibodies against p32 were detectable 2 weeks after the immunization, and these antibodies reacted with the native surface antigen in purified T. sergenti merozoite.

  13. Haematological and biochemical indicators of tropical theileriosis diseased cattle in wilaya of Sétif (North East Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Ouarda; Gharbi, Mohamed; Benchikh-Elfegoun, Mohammed Cherif

    2017-06-01

    The authors investigated biochemical and haematological parameters in 40 healthy and 40 tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata) clinically infected cattle in El Eulma region (North East Algeria). The mean haematological and biochemical parameters including the number of erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were estimated. The mean hematological and biochemical parameters including the number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, albumin, total proteins decreased significantly (p = 0.005; 0.008; 0.03 0.048; 0.002; 0.027 and 0.018; respectively) in Montbéliard breed clinically infected with T. annulata. In all diseased animals, the concentration of total and direct bilirubin increased significantly (p < 0.001). In cross breed cattle, the erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit means decreased significantly (p = 0.027; 0.003 and <0.001, respectively). Two types of anemia were detected: a microcytic hypochromic anemia in Montbéliard breed clinically infected cattle and normocytic normochromic anemia in local and cross breed cattle. Tropical theileriosis induces severe biochemical and haematological alterations that should be taken into consideration by field veterinarians for both the diagnosis of the disease and its treatment.

  14. Molecular evidence of tick-borne hemoprotozoan-parasites (Theileria ovis and Babesia ovis) and bacteria in ticks and blood from small ruminants in Northern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Atef; Leulmi, Hamza; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Using qPCR, standard PCR and/or sequencing, we investigated the presence of tick-associated microorganisms in ticks and blood from sheep and goats from Souk Ahras, Algeria. Borrelia theileri, was detected in (7/120, 5.8%) blood from sheep and (13/120, 10.8%) goats. Anaplasma ovis was screened in (38/73, 52%) Rhipicephalus bursa and (5/22, 22.7%) R. turanicus and in (74/120, 61.7%), (65/120, 54.2%) blood of sheep and goats respectively. Coxiella burnetii tested positive in R. bursa (4/73, 5.5%) and (7/120, 5.8%) blood of sheep and (2/120, 1.7%) goats. Theileria ovis was detected in (50/147, 34%) R. bursa and (3/22, 13.6%) R. turanicus and in (64/120, 53.3%) blood of sheep and (25/120, 20.8%) goats. Babesia ovis was screened positive in (23/147, 15.6%) R. bursa and (7/48, 14.6%) R. turanicus. Our findings expand knowledge about the repertoire of tick-borne microorganisms present in ectoparasites and/or the blood of small ruminants in Algeria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12824-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( AC231698 ) Choloepus hoffmanni clone CH281-350F10, WORKING D... 42 4.6 1 ( DX385383 ) Diversa 1104 Librar...SEQUENCING CANCELLED *... 42 4.6 1 ( CR940347 ) Theileria annulata genomic DNA chromosome 1 part 1. 42 4.6 1

  16. Estudo da infecção natural por protozoários dos géneros Babesia e Theileria numa exploração coudélica do Ribatejo

    OpenAIRE

    Rego, Bruno Miguel da Cunha Duarte

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A piroplasmose equina, considerada a única doença intra-eritrocitária dos equinos, produzida pelos parasitas protozoários intra-eritrocitários, Babesia caballi e Theileria equi e transmitida principalmente por vectores da família Ixodidae, afigura-se como uma afecção de elevada patogenicidade e de grande importância económica. No que se refere às restrições impostas ao movimento de equinos, estas reflectem-se sobretudo e...

  17. Optimisation et rationalisation de l'immunisation du bétail de la Zambie de l'est contre Theileria parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcotty, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation and Rationalisation of Cattle Immunisation against Theileria parva in Eastern Zambia. En zone cotonnière de la Centrafrique, les agriculteurs ont diversifié leurs activités en dépit de la faiblesse de la main-d'oeuvre familiale. L'objet de l'étude était de comprendre les pratiques de gestion de la main-d'oeuvre qui permettaient à ces agriculteurs d'assurer la diversification des activités. La mise au point de cette étude a reposé sur le suivi rapproché de 30 exploitations pendant trois campagnes agricoles. En outre, l'observation des pratiques de gestion globale de l'exploitation, couplée à des entretiens avec l'agriculteur et sa famille, a permis de compléter les données du suivi. Les résultats ont montré que les agriculteurs sont parvenus à réaliser la diversification des activités grâce au recours à la force de travail extérieure qui a représenté en moyenne 42% de la main-d'oeuvre totale utilisée sur l'exploitation. Cette diversification leur a permis de disposer des recettes toute l'année, ce qui a limité les risques de rupture d'équilibre entre recettes et dépenses, et a amené à la stabilité de la trésorerie. Ainsi, l'appui aux agriculteurs ne doit pas seulement prendre en compte la main-d'oeuvre familiale disponible, mais devait tenir compte de leur capacité à recourir à la main-d'oeuvre extérieure.

  18. Geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of African wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2015-04-01

    The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria

  19. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae in the Maghreb region: from biology to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa. This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the

  20. Molecular study of Theileria camelensis and Theileria dromedarii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding of camels in the world is growing expansionary due to increasing in consumption rate of its meat, milk and wool. Besides, The rise of profitability of this industry and importing of camels into the country through the South East borders make it important to recognize infectious diseases in this species. Theileriosis ...

  1. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staph is short for Staphylococcus, a type of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including Skin infections Pneumonia ...

  2. First report of Rangelia vitalii infection (canine rangeliosis) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, María Belén; Baneth, Gad; Moré, Gastón

    2014-10-01

    A 12-year old mixed breed neutered bitch from Misiones, Argentina, was presented with a history of fever and epistaxis. Blood, bone marrow, and lymph node samples were collected for hematology and cytology. Mild regenerative anemia was recorded and large, round, poorly stained piroplasms (>2.5 μm) were found within erythrocytes in blood and lymph node smears. Nested PCR-RFLP on blood and bone marrow samples was positive for piroplasm DNA. The 18S rRNA gene of piroplasms was targeted. A restriction pattern of a previously unreported piroplasm was observed. The PCR product was sequenced, and the sequence obtained had 99% identity with the Rangelia vitalii sequences from Brazil when compared by BLAST analysis. Further characterization of the detected piroplasm consisted of nearly full-length sequencing (1668 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of this organism. Those sequences were deposited in GenBank. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that they clustered together with R. vitalii from Brazil but separately from large Babesia species of dogs such as Babesia canis, and from species of Theileria of dogs as well. This is the first report of R. vitalii infection in Argentina, and the first case of canine rangeliosis diagnosed outside Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of ticks and tick-borne livestock pathogens in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Karim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As obligate blood-feeding arthropods, ticks transmit pathogens to humans and domestic animals more often than other arthropod vectors. Livestock farming plays a vital role in the rural economy of Pakistan, and tick infestation causes serious problems with it. However, research on tick species diversity and tick-borne pathogens has rarely been conducted in Pakistan. In this study, a systematic investigation of the tick species infesting livestock in different ecological regions of Pakistan was conducted to determine the microbiome and pathobiome diversity in the indigenous ticks.A total of 3,866 tick specimens were morphologically identified as 19 different tick species representing three important hard ticks, Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Hyalomma, and two soft ticks, Ornithodorus and Argas. The bacterial diversity across these tick species was assessed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing using a 454-sequencing platform on 10 of the different tick species infesting livestock. The notable genera detected include Ralstonia, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Rickettsia, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, and Enterococcus. A survey of Spotted fever group rickettsia from 514 samples from the 13 different tick species generated rickettsial-specific amplicons in 10% (54 of total ticks tested. Only three tick species Rhipicephalus microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum, and H. dromedarii had evidence of infection with "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" a result further verified using a rompB gene-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR assay. The Hyalomma ticks also tested positive for the piroplasm, Theileria annulata, using a qPCR assay.This study provides information about tick diversity in Pakistan, and pathogenic bacteria in different tick species. Our results showed evidence for Candidatus R. amblyommii infection in Rhipicephalus microplus, H. anatolicum, and H. dromedarii ticks, which also carried T. annulata.

  4. A study of ticks and tick-borne livestock pathogens in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Williams, Jaclyn; Kausar, Asma; Hassan, Muhammad Jawadul; Adamson, Steven; Dowd, Scot E.; Apanskevich, Dmitry; Arijo, Abdullah; Sindhu, Zia Uddin; Kakar, Muhammad Azam; Khan, Raja Muhammad Dilpazir; Ullah, Shafiq; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Abid; Iqbal, Zafar

    2017-01-01

    Background As obligate blood-feeding arthropods, ticks transmit pathogens to humans and domestic animals more often than other arthropod vectors. Livestock farming plays a vital role in the rural economy of Pakistan, and tick infestation causes serious problems with it. However, research on tick species diversity and tick-borne pathogens has rarely been conducted in Pakistan. In this study, a systematic investigation of the tick species infesting livestock in different ecological regions of Pakistan was conducted to determine the microbiome and pathobiome diversity in the indigenous ticks. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 3,866 tick specimens were morphologically identified as 19 different tick species representing three important hard ticks, Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Hyalomma, and two soft ticks, Ornithodorus and Argas. The bacterial diversity across these tick species was assessed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing using a 454-sequencing platform on 10 of the different tick species infesting livestock. The notable genera detected include Ralstonia, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Rickettsia, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, and Enterococcus. A survey of Spotted fever group rickettsia from 514 samples from the 13 different tick species generated rickettsial-specific amplicons in 10% (54) of total ticks tested. Only three tick species Rhipicephalus microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum, and H. dromedarii had evidence of infection with “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii” a result further verified using a rompB gene-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The Hyalomma ticks also tested positive for the piroplasm, Theileria annulata, using a qPCR assay. Conclusions/Significance This study provides information about tick diversity in Pakistan, and pathogenic bacteria in different tick species. Our results showed evidence for Candidatus R. amblyommii infection in Rhipicephalus microplus, H. anatolicum, and H. dromedarii ticks, which

  5. A study of ticks and tick-borne livestock pathogens in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Shahid; Budachetri, Khemraj; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Williams, Jaclyn; Kausar, Asma; Hassan, Muhammad Jawadul; Adamson, Steven; Dowd, Scot E; Apanskevich, Dmitry; Arijo, Abdullah; Sindhu, Zia Uddin; Kakar, Muhammad Azam; Khan, Raja Muhammad Dilpazir; Ullah, Shafiq; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Abid; Iqbal, Zafar

    2017-06-01

    As obligate blood-feeding arthropods, ticks transmit pathogens to humans and domestic animals more often than other arthropod vectors. Livestock farming plays a vital role in the rural economy of Pakistan, and tick infestation causes serious problems with it. However, research on tick species diversity and tick-borne pathogens has rarely been conducted in Pakistan. In this study, a systematic investigation of the tick species infesting livestock in different ecological regions of Pakistan was conducted to determine the microbiome and pathobiome diversity in the indigenous ticks. A total of 3,866 tick specimens were morphologically identified as 19 different tick species representing three important hard ticks, Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Hyalomma, and two soft ticks, Ornithodorus and Argas. The bacterial diversity across these tick species was assessed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing using a 454-sequencing platform on 10 of the different tick species infesting livestock. The notable genera detected include Ralstonia, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Rickettsia, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, and Enterococcus. A survey of Spotted fever group rickettsia from 514 samples from the 13 different tick species generated rickettsial-specific amplicons in 10% (54) of total ticks tested. Only three tick species Rhipicephalus microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum, and H. dromedarii had evidence of infection with "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" a result further verified using a rompB gene-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The Hyalomma ticks also tested positive for the piroplasm, Theileria annulata, using a qPCR assay. This study provides information about tick diversity in Pakistan, and pathogenic bacteria in different tick species. Our results showed evidence for Candidatus R. amblyommii infection in Rhipicephalus microplus, H. anatolicum, and H. dromedarii ticks, which also carried T. annulata.

  6. Expressão heteróloga da EMA-2 (equi merozoite antigen de Theileria equi em Pichia pastoris com potencial utilização em imunobiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Muñoz Vianna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A piroplasmose equina causada por Theileria equi acomete os equinos de forma endêmica no Brasil e em diversos outros países tropicais e subtropicais. Considerada uma das mais importantes doenças de equinos, causa danos à saúde animal e perdas econômicas. A proteína equi merozoite antigen (EMA-2 é uma das principais proteínas de superfície, expressa nos diversos estágios do ciclo do parasita, estimula resposta imune em animais infectados, tornando-se um possível candidato para utilização em diagnóstico. O gene EMA-2 foi clonado e expresso na levedura Pichia pastoris. A proteína EMA-2 recombinante (rEMA-2 foi caracterizada antigenicamente por Western Blot e por ELISA indireto, utilizando-se soro de equino positivo para theileriose. O resultado do ELISA demonstrou uma especificidade de 90,9% e sensibilidade de 83,3%, quando comparado ao padrão, sendo superior à imunofluorescência (80,6% de especificidade e 75,0% de sensibilidade, o que sugere que a rEMA-2 expressa em P. pastoris é um promissor antígeno para ser utilizado como ferramenta no imunodiagnóstico de theileriose equina

  7. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for many cases of Brain and spinal cord infection (meningitis) Lung infection (pneumonia) Infection of the bloodstream (bacteremia) Joint infection ( ... other illnesses or health conditions such as HIV infection, certain cancers (eg, leukemia, ... or kidney disease. Last Updated 11/21/2015 ...

  8. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...

  9. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area.

  10. Estudo comparativo de três métodos de diagnóstico para detecção de anticorpos anti-Theileria equi em eqüinos de áreas endêmicas do estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marques dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA e a reação de fixação do complemento (RFC no diagnóstico de Theileria equi em amostras de soro de 79 equinos na Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ, Brasil. Houve reação positiva para Theileria equi em 74,7, 75,9 e 60,8% das amostras testadas pela RIFI, ELISA e RFC, respectivamente. Observou-se discrepância em 16,45% (n=13 das amostras de soro testadas pelo ELISA indireto e RIFI. Quando comparado a RIFI e a RFC, a discrepância observada entre os soros testados foi de 36,70% (n=29. O teste ELISA indireto e a RFC apresentaram discordância em 37,97% (n=30 das amostras de soros. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que a melhor alternativa para o diagnóstico sorológico de T. equi em eqüinos portadores é a associação dos testes de RIFI e ELISA indireto, especialmente para a realização de estudos soroepidemiológicos.

  11. Seasonal incidence of parasitic diseases in bovines of south western Gujarat (Junagadh), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Maharana, B R; Prasad, Amit; Joseph, Joice P; Patel, Bhavika; Patel, J S

    2016-12-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the incidence of parasitic diseases in bovines which were sick and brought at veterinary hospital for treatment. A total of 366 samples were investigated from cattle (n = 175) and buffaloes (n = 191) presented at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC), Veterinary College, Junagadh, Gujarat during January to December 2014. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 58.6 % of cattle and 41.2 % of buffaloes were infected with haemoparasites comprising Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Anaplasma marginale @ of 54.0, 3.4 and 1.1 in cattle and 38.8, 1.2 and 1.2 percent in buffaloes, respectively. The incidence of total haemoparasites and B. bigemina infections was significantly higher (p  0.05). Seasonal prevalence of GI parasites was highest in summer in both cattle and buffaloes, the data being statistically non-significant (p > 0.05). However, the incidence of B. sulcata in both cattle (19.3 %) and buffaloes (28.3 %) was higher in comparisons to other GI parasites. The present investigation emphasized that B. bigemina and B. sulcata are the most important parasites of bovines of this region.

  12. Parasite co-infections and their impact on survival of indigenous cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M Thumbi

    Full Text Available In natural populations, individuals may be infected with multiple distinct pathogens at a time. These pathogens may act independently or interact with each other and the host through various mechanisms, with resultant varying outcomes on host health and survival. To study effects of pathogens and their interactions on host survival, we followed 548 zebu cattle during their first year of life, determining their infection and clinical status every 5 weeks. Using a combination of clinical signs observed before death, laboratory diagnostic test results, gross-lesions on post-mortem examination, histo-pathology results and survival analysis statistical techniques, cause-specific aetiology for each death case were determined, and effect of co-infections in observed mortality patterns. East Coast fever (ECF caused by protozoan parasite Theileria parva and haemonchosis were the most important diseases associated with calf mortality, together accounting for over half (52% of all deaths due to infectious diseases. Co-infection with Trypanosoma species increased the hazard for ECF death by 6 times (1.4-25; 95% CI. In addition, the hazard for ECF death was increased in the presence of Strongyle eggs, and this was burden dependent. An increase by 1000 Strongyle eggs per gram of faeces count was associated with a 1.5 times (1.4-1.6; 95% CI increase in the hazard for ECF mortality. Deaths due to haemonchosis were burden dependent, with a 70% increase in hazard for death for every increase in strongyle eggs per gram count of 1000. These findings have important implications for disease control strategies, suggesting a need to consider co-infections in epidemiological studies as opposed to single-pathogen focus, and benefits of an integrated approach to helminths and East Coast fever disease control.

  13. Estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachohi, J M; Ngumi, P N; Kitala, P M; Skilton, R A

    2010-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (TBD) parasites (Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in Mbeere District in Kenya. The objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. A total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveyed. Information on animal and on each farm's management practices, particularly on tick control practices, was obtained by personal interview using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalences of serum antibodies were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The relationship between TBDs seroprevalence and the risk factors was assessed by multivariable analysis using standard logistic regression models and mixed models using the farm as a random effect. Overall estimation of seroprevalences and their 95% confidence limits were: T. parva (19% [14%, 25%]), T. mutans (25% [20%, 29%]), A. marginale (58% [52%, 64%]) and B. bigemina (19% [15%, 23%]). Analysis in presence of extra-binomial variation under Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) yielded relatively larger intra-farm correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.3) and variance-inflation factor (VIF) (2.35) values for T. parva than for the other parasites [range, 0.05-0.07 (for ICC) and 1.02-1.32 (for VIF)]. Both farm- and area-level variables had variably significant and large effects on all infections, but these were more pronounced on T. parva seroprevalence. Inclusion of farm random effect resulted in substantially higher estimate of farm variance component for T. parva infection (1.73) compared to other infections [range, 0.29-0.56], comparable ICC values with those under ANOVA analysis [range, 0.08-0.35] and a substantially better fit than the standard multivariable logistic regressions. The above results

  14. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis), and a number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related ... cases clear up in 7 to 10 days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in ...

  15. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... reactive arthritis or Guillain-Barre syndrome. To prevent Campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  16. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all children in the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  17. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Staph Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Staph Infections What's in ... en español Infecciones por estafilococo What Is a Staph Infection? Staph is the shortened name for Staphylococcus ( ...

  18. The complete mitochondrial genomes of five Eimeria species infecting domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis caused by members of the genus Eimeria can cause enormous economic impact worldwide, but the genetics, epidemiology and biology of these parasites remain poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of five Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic rabbits. The complete mt genomes of Eimeria intestinalis, Eimeria flavescens, Eimeria media, Eimeria vejdovskyi and Eimeria irresidua were 6261bp, 6258bp, 6168bp, 6254bp, 6259bp in length, respectively. All of the mt genomes consist of 3 genes for proteins (cytb, cox1, and cox3), 14 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 11 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, but no transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The gene order of the mt genomes is similar to that of Plasmodium, but distinct from Haemosporida and Theileria. Phylogenetic analyses based on full nucleotide sequences using Bayesian analysis revealed that the monophyly of the Eimeria of rabbits was strongly statistically supported with a Bayesian posterior probabilities. These data provide novel mtDNA markers for studying the population genetics and molecular epidemiology of the Eimeria species, and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention and control of coccidiosis in rabbits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Graf, Jürgen; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated for the year 2006 that around 500,000 to 600,000 nosocomial infections occurred in Germany and that among these 10,000 to 15,000 patients died of the infection. Nosocomial infections in general lengthen the duration of hospitalisation by on average 4 days - with associated extra costs of 4000 to 20,000 Euro per case. About a third of all infections acquired in hospital are considered to be avoidable. However, the classification of an infection as nosocomial does not automatically mean that a causal relationship exists between a medical intervention and the occurrence of the infection. Also a nosocomial infection is not a synonym for medical or nursing errors. The first epidemiological report of the EU emphasises the health-political and health-economical significance of nosocomial infections and classifies the increasing number of infections acquired in hospitals as a most important danger - even higher than the threats of pandemic influenza and HIV. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  20. Immunization against east coast fever by infection and treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East Coast Fever (ECF) caused by Theileria parva is known in Uganda as the must important tick-horne disease of cattle for a long time. The 1}apcr describes ... ECf' is probably the most important tick-borne disease of cattle due to the high ... This paper reviews research efforts towards development and introduction of the ...

  1. A review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Rybak, Mario; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Millán, Javier

    2016-10-10

    Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa. However, the number of piroplasmid species is likely higher than currently accepted due to the reported existence of DNA sequences that may correspond to new species and the lack of studies on many host species and biogeographical areas. Indeed, many species have been recognized in the last few years with the advancement of molecular analyses. Disease and mortality have been documented in some wild carnivores, whereas other species appear to act as natural, subclinical reservoirs. Various factors (e.g. unnatural hosts, stress due to captivity, habitat degradation, climate fluctuation or immunosuppression) have been associated with disease susceptibility to piroplasmid infections in some species in captivity. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the epidemiology of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores and associated tick vectors. Emphasis is given to the role of wild carnivores as reservoirs of clinical piroplasmosis for domestic dogs and cats, and to the importance of piroplasmids as disease agents for endangered carnivores.

  2. Streptococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test during ... or already have health problems. Strep B can cause urinary tract infections, blood ... and pneumonia in adults. Antibiotics are used to treat strep ...

  3. Nail infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, K T; Bonar, P L

    1989-04-01

    Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect.

  4. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tapeworm (Taenia solium) is greater in areas of Latin America, China, sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia where ... as well as seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus or dementia. Death can occur in severe cases of infection. Organ ...

  5. Norovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you experience severe vomiting, bloody stools, abdominal pain or dehydration. Causes Noroviruses are highly contagious and are shed in the feces of infected humans and animals. Methods of transmission include: Eating contaminated food Drinking ...

  6. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Runny nose MRSA infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  7. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vomiting Pinworm infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  9. Norovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get it if you touch a contaminated surface. Norovirus can be serious, especially for young children and older adults. The most common symptoms of norovirus infection are Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Stomach pain ...

  10. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... on the face and neck, sometimes after a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction ...

  11. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your hands before touching other people and before handling food. (Anyone with a diarrhea should not prepare food ... should be kept away from other kids. Proper handling, storage, and preparation of food can also help prevent Shigella infections. Cold foods ...

  12. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection of the paronychium (pay-roh-NIK-ee-um), which is the area around the fingernail ( ... term?) for single-character wildcard matching. For example, pa?ent would give you results for parent, patent, ...

  13. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most common Campylobacter species associated with diarrhea . Common ways that a child can get the ... and Symptoms Illness caused by Campylobacter infections includes diarrhea, stomach pain, and fever. Blood may be present ...

  14. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  15. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  16. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...

  17. Fusarium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  18. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease. Pregnant women should get a test when they go to ... partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted disease Men who have ... of chlamydia? In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus ...

  19. Protozoan Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    respond poorly to antimicrobial therapy. Organisms closely related to Leishmania include Trypanosoma cruzi , which causes American trypanosomiasis...1978). Trypanosoma cruzi also does not 22. Protozoan Infections 689 inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, but escapes from the parasitophorous vacuole to...y from solution. Approximately one-third of antileishmanial activity remains, however, when lymphokine preparations are treated with anti -IFN (Nacy et

  20. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  1. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  3. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal discharge with a cottage cheese appearance Complicated yeast infection You might have a complicated yeast infection ... have an uncomplicated or a complicated infection. Uncomplicated yeast infection For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent ...

  4. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  5. Escherichia coli Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvana, Sejal; Krilov, Leonard R

    2015-04-01

    Virulent strains of Escherichia coli are responsible for most diarrheal infections, meningitis, septicemia, and urinary tract infections in children worldwide. Clinicians must learn to recognize, treat, and prevent these infections. After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology of E coli infections. 2. Recognize the clinical features of E coli infections, including the O157: H7 strain. 3. Appropriately treat children with various types of E coli infections. 4. Understand ways to prevent E coli infections.

  6. Monkeypoxvirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, S R

    2000-04-01

    During and after the smallpox eradication campaign, human cases of monkeypox appeared in West and Central Africa, as isolated cases or as small epidemics. Since inter-human transmission has never or only very exceptionally been documented, monkeypox does not represent a serious threat to humans. The virus reservoir is among tree squirrels living in the tropical rain forests of Africa and humans are infected by hunting, killing and skinning these animals. However, the modernization of society lessens human contact with the virus reservoir. Since the eradication of smallpox, stocks of variola virus have been maintained; whether these stocks should now be destroyed is a political question, which is seriously compromised by mistrust between countries.

  7. Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  8. Hantavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  9. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections Print A ... Last? Can Salmonella Infections Be Prevented? What Is Salmonella ? Salmonella is a kind of bacteria , with many ...

  10. Metabolic Imaging of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawal, Ismaheel; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas; Ankrah, Alfred; Vorster, Mariza; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Govender, Thavendran; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic imaging has come to occupy a prominent place in the diagnosis and management of microbial infection. Molecular probes available for infection imaging have undergone a rapid evolution starting with nonspecific agents that accumulate similarly in infection, sterile inflammation, and

  11. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria infection Overview Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly ...

  12. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...

  13. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  14. Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org editorial staff Home Diseases and Conditions Group B Strep Infection Condition Group B Strep Infection Share Print Group B Strep Infection Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. ...

  15. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  16. Shewanella putrefaciens infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Constant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.

  17. Postoperative pelvic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Constance; Faro, Sebastian

    2008-12-01

    Infectious morbidity affecting the postoperative course has long been a concern for obstetricians and gynecologists. The incidence of postoperative infections approaches 38%. The third most common nosocomial infection is surgical site infection. The realm of postoperative infections includes obstetric and gynecologic sources. An understanding of the basic fundamentals of the vaginal flora and addressing host and surgical risk factors can aid in prevention of postoperative infections, which result in significant morbidity and mortality.

  18. Babesia ovis as the main causative agent of sheep babesiosis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Bahadori, Shahrokh; Eckert, Brigitte; Omidian, Zahra; Shirazi, Nastran Sadr; Shayan, Parviz

    2012-04-01

    Babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease with high economical losses in livestock industry worldwide. The early diagnosis and successful therapy of babesiosis belong to the key steps of control and health management of livestock. Ethanol-fixed blood samples of 400 sheep were analyzed for Babesia infection. Reverse line blot (RLB) was established specifically for Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria (China 1), Theileria (China 2), Theileria ovis, Theileria separata, Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, Babesia crassa, and Babesia (Lintan). The DNA was extracted from the ethanol-fixed blood samples and amplified with a common primer pair derived from 18S rRNA gene, amplifying both Theileria spp. as well as Babesia spp. Regarding the differences in the length of nucleotide sequences of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products obtained from Theileria spp. and Babesia spp., the PCR products derived from Babesia spp. were out screened and analyzed by RLB. The RLB analysis showed that 28 samples within the 400 blood samples were B. ovis positive. No B. motasi, B. crassa, or Babesia (Lintan) could be detected. The sequence analysis of one PCR product as a representative for other B. ovis-positive PCR products confirmed the results of RLB. Our results and the results of other investigators showed that B. ovis could be considered as a main causative agent of sheep babesiosis in Iran. Furthermore, our results also showed that RLB can be used as a reliable method for a simultaneous differentiation of Theileria and Babesia species from each other.

  19. Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3) harvested from the Faeces of Naturally Infected Swayne's Hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei ) at Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, Ethiopia.

  20. Novel foci of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with Babesia canis and Babesia caballi in the Netherlands and in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Frans; Ringenier, Moniek; Putting, Michael; Berger, Laura; Burgers, Stefan; Kortekaas, Reinier; Lenssen, Jesse; van Roessel, Marleen; Wijnveld, Michiel; Madder, Maxime

    2015-04-17

    Autochthonous populations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the Netherlands were discovered after fatal cases of babesiosis occurred in resident dogs in 2004. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Netherlands has also linked with the emergence of piroplasmosis in the resident horse population. The aim of this study was to put together results of continued surveillance of field sites and hosts for this tick in the Netherlands and also in Belgium and determine their infection status for Babesia and Theileria species. Ticks were collected from the vegetation at 11 locations between 2011 and 2013. D. reticulatus ticks were also collected from different hosts between 2007 and 2013. Ticks were screened by PCR and reverse line blot (RLB). A total of 1368 D. reticulatus ticks were collected from 4 previously known field locations and from 5 new locations in the Netherlands and from 2 sites in Belgium (one old and one new location). A total of 855 ticks collected from 8 locations in the Netherlands and 2 locations in Belgium were tested. Fourteen ticks (1,64%) collected at 4 field locations (Dintelse Gorzen, Rozenburg, Slikken van de Heen and St. Philipsland) were positive for Babesia canis, whereas two ticks were positive for Babesia caballi, one tick in the Dintelse Gorzen in the Netherlands and one tick was found positive in De Panne in Belgium. A further 1092 D. reticulatus ticks were collected between 2007 and 2013 from 40 dogs (132 ticks), two ticks from two humans, 51 ticks from 15 horses, two ticks from two cats, one tick from a roe deer, whereas most ticks (904) were collected from cattle (n = 25). Ticks were found throughout the year on dogs in nearly all provinces of the Netherlands. None of the ticks collected from these hosts were infected. D. reticulatus is continuing its spread into novel areas. The finding that some autochthonous ticks are infected with B. canis and B. caballi poses a threat to the resident dog and horse population and justifies year

  1. Learn About Cronobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Learn About Cronobacter Infection Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... but infections in young infants can be deadly. Learn what steps you can take to protect your ...

  2. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  3. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  4. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux ( ...

  5. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000449.htm Staph infections - hospital To use the sharing features on ... can also spread from one person to another. Staph Infections in the Hospital Staph germs are mostly ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections ... begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, ...

  7. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Infections Print A A A en español Infecciones vaginales por hongos What Are Vaginal Yeast Infections? ... keep the amount in a person's body under control. But yeast in the vagina can sometimes "overgrow" ...

  8. Clostridium difficile infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geller, Stephen A; Campos, Fernando P. F. de

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element...

  9. Infection and esophageal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al‐Haddad, Sahar; El‐Zimaity, Hala; Hafezi‐Bakhtiari, Sara; Rajendra, Shanmugarajah; Streutker, Catherine J; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on infection and cancer, and includes commentaries on the influence of bacterial infections on mucin expression and cancer risk...

  10. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body When you hear ... of Chlamydia bacteria. Another species, called Chlamydia (or Chlamydophila ) pneumoniae, causes respiratory illnesses. These lung infections are spread ...

  11. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. Infants in childcare settings can become infected with ... than 2 weeks, however, are a sign of chronic diarrhea. Call your doctor if you think that you ...

  12. Diabetic foot infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bader, MS

    2008-01-01

    .... Diabetic foot infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci, are the most common pathogens in previously untreated mild and moderate infection...

  13. Breast infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most breast infections occur in breastfeeding women when bacteria enters the breast through cracks in the nipple. In severe infections, abscesses may occur. Antibiotics may be indicated for treatment.

  14. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infection. How Is Listeriosis Treated? Healthy kids, teens, and adults with a Listeria infection typically don' ... November 2017 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Staying Healthy During Pregnancy Why Is Hand Washing ...

  15. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  16. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Influenza HIV Infection Philip J. Peters, John T. Brooks INFECTIOUS AGENT ... skin (see Chapter 8, Health Care Workers ). EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV infection occurs worldwide. As of the end of 2014, ...

  17. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK? What's the best way to treat a yeast infection during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. You can safely treat a yeast infection during pregnancy with various over-the-counter ...

  18. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  19. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  20. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organ space SSI. • Infection occurs within 30 days if no implant, or within a year if implant and the infection seems to be related to the operation and infection occurs in any anatomical site ... Diagnosis of an organ/space SSI made by the surgeon or ..... selected projects ”enlist the best academic researchers and industry to.

  1. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F

    1993-08-01

    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  2. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Old traumatic wounds with retained devitalized tissue and those that involve existing clinical infection or perforated viscera. This definition suggests that the organisms that caused the post-operative infection had been present at the start of the procedure. * Garner JS and Simmons. Table II: National nosocomial Infections ...

  3. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with En...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  4. Diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  5. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Sports 5 Ideas for Eco-Friendly Celebrations Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Urinary Tract Infections Print ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  7. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by ... common bacterial infections? If so, these recurrent infections may be a sign of an immunodeficiency disorder. The ...

  8. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence...... of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...

  9. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-08-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon) or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana), Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), one agouti (Dasyprocta sp.), and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca), Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari). The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani) in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus), Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides) and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca). Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  10. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert S. Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana, Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, one agouti (Dasyprocta sp., and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca, Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari. The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus, Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca. Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  11. [Deep neck infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible.

  12. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  13. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  14. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    D'Oronzio, U; Arlettaz, R.; Hagmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical details of 50 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified in a prospective study are reported. The mean birthweight, gestational age, and head circumference of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection were not significantly different from those of controls. Three (6%) had symptoms at birth--two neurological and one pneumonitis. In the first four months of life transient hepatosplenomegaly occurred in two infected children and six suffered interstitial pneum...

  15. Infections in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Sampathkumar, Priya

    2017-12-01

    Neurointensive care (NICU) patients experience complex infectious disease challenges. Central nervous system (CNS) infections are difficult to diagnose and treat, and post-neurosurgical patients are vulnerable to a unique set of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) in addition to those typical of critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize the approach to suspected infection in the NICU and discuss management of several infectious syndromes in the NICU setting.

  16. [Infection and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatz, A; Boecker, M; Schuppe, H-C; Diemer, Th; Wagenlehner, F

    2016-07-01

    Infections in the urogenital tract are accepted causes of male infertility. Epidemiologic data indicate 6-10 % of all males undergoing andrological work-up for infertility having an infectious etiology. This review gives a comprehensive overview on the most important urogenital tract infections (prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, male accessory gland infection-MAGI) and the impact on fertility. In males suffering infertility, evidence is also presented regarding an infectious etiology.

  17. Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.

  18. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  19. Listeria Placental Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Véázquez-Boland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting listeriosis, which can potentially lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital neonatal infections. While other systemic bacterial infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes at comparable frequencies, L. monocytogenes has particular notoriety because fetal complications largely occur in the absence of overt illness in the mother, delaying medical intervention. Here, we briefly review the pathophysiology and mechanisms of maternofetal listeriosis, discussed in light of a recent mBio report on Listeria transplacental infection in a nonhuman primate model.

  20. HIV infections in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  1. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...... frequently than the others. We discuss the symptoms and diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess and suggest a proposal for prophylactic and diagnostic guidelines for epidural catheter-related infections. Comment in: J Hosp Infect. 1997 Mar;35(3):245....

  2. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  3. Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433

  4. Neonatal rotavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffejee, I E

    1991-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infections in newborns differ from those in older infants; the majority of RV infections that occur in neonates are mild or asymptomatic. Generally, fewer than one-third of RV-infected neonates have diarrhea, although rates have reached 77% in some hospital nursery populations. Cases with severe diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, bowel perforation, and death have been reported, but such cases are very rare. Infection usually occurs during the first week of life and generally invokes a mucosal antibody response without a concomitant serologic antibody response. Neonatal RV infections appear to incite an immune response that affords significant protection against severe RV-associated diarrhea, although not necessarily against a symptomatic RV infection later in life. Strains that cause neonatal infections differ from those that infect older infants; the outer-capsid protein VP4 is highly conserved in "nursery" RV strains, a property that probably plays a key role in their attenuated virulence. Immaturity of proteolytic enzymes in the neonatal gut and presence of secretory anti-RV IgA and trypsin inhibitors in breast milk are other factors that could account for the asymptomatic nature of RV infections in newborns. Natural "nursery" strains of RV are currently being evaluated as vaccine candidates.

  5. Epidemiology of anaerobic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatko, S I

    1983-01-01

    The clinical importance of the anaerobic organisms, especially the toxicogenic Clostridia and some of the nonsporulating anaerobes, has been recognized for some time. Only within the last 20 years, however, owing to improved methodology, have gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, anaerobic cocci, and streptococci been commonly recognized and encountered in clinical infections. Today, anaerobic organisms are common isolates from infections involving intra-abdominal sites, the female genital tract, soft tissue, and oral areas and from major infections involving the lung, brain, and head and neck. Most of these infections are polymicrobial--involving both anaerobic and facultative or aerobic organisms. In some instances, it is difficult to ascertain what role is played by what organisms. No doubt, synergism is present in many cases. Because anaerobes are prevalent normal flora of the body, almost all anaerobic infections are of endogenous origin. Many of these anaerobes are opportunists; given the appropriate set of conditions, they will penetrate tissue and cause infection. Many have been associated with wound infection subsequent to bowel surgery or trauma, tubo-ovarian abscess, perirectal abscess, subphrenic abscess, postabortal sepsis, appendicitis, and many other infectious conditions. This article reviews the distribution of anaerobes in infected hospitalized patients and their relation to infection over a 5-year period.

  6. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of infection-causing bacteria than the previous vaccine, the PCV7. If your child already has begun PCV7 vaccination, consult your physician ... infections than children who aren’t vaccinated. The vaccine is strongly ... and can help keep your child from catching a cold or the flu. Avoid ...

  7. E. Coli Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out if you have E. coli in your intestines. The culture has to be taken in the first 48 hours after the bloody diarrhea starts. PreventionHow can I keep from getting E. coli infection?You can help prevent this infection by handling ...

  8. Imaging spinal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Jay; Gibbs, Wende N.

    2016-01-01

    Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral ...

  9. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Complications of untreated/improperly treated sexually transmitted infections include male and female infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, lower abdominal pain and cervical cancer2. Sexually transmitted infections rank among the five top diseases for which Nigerians seek medical attention, and the major ...

  10. Surgical wound infection - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007645.htm Surgical wound infection - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... the organ and space where you had surgery Treatment Antibiotics are used to treat most wound infections. Sometimes, you also may need surgery to ...

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... younger than 5 years, they are a leading cause of pneumonia in school-aged children and young adults. Community- ... be given for more serious symptoms associated with pneumonia and ear infections. What Is the Prognosis? This infection often causes wheezing in children with asthma or reactive airways. ...

  12. Urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2013-07-01

    The urinary tract is a common source for life-threatening infections. Most patients with sepsis or septic shock from a urinary source have complicated urinary tract infection. This article explains the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Effective management, appropriate collection of microbiology specimens, prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy, source control, and supportive therapy are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Nidal A; Bakri, Faris G

    2006-05-01

    Diabetic foot infection DFI is simply defined as suspected or documented infection of the tissues that comprise the foot of a diabetic patient. Diabetic foot infection is often caused by introduction of an infection into the otherwise sterile soft tissues of the foot through a minor skin break down. Diabetic foot infection may be mild usually restricted to the uppermost layers of the skin, moderate extending down to the soft tissues of the foot or severe infection associated with systemic toxicity or metabolic instability. The paper reviews the types of DFI, pathophysiology, microbiology of DFI, relevant anatomy of the foot, clinical evaluation, measures of severity of DFI, the role of radiological investigations, and the role of early surgical intervention in the prevention of progressive foot infection and limb salvage. It is concluded that the diagnosis of DFI should be suspected at an early stage based on the presence of local signs of inflammation with or without systemic signs of toxicity or metabolic instability. Optimal treatment of DFI requires a multimodality approach directed at controlling hyperglycemia, administration of systemic antibiotics, and local wound management to prevent the spread and dissemination of infection.

  14. Pulmonary infections after tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauser Jabeen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.

  15. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sera was Western blot analysis positive. The over- all prevalence of mv infection in this study was. 2/1553 participants (0,13%). These results dem.on- strate not only that mv infection and the potential for its transmission are present in the Republic of. Bophuthatswana but that they call for energetic and well-targeted control ...

  16. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  17. [Infection by human cytomegalovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Navarro Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus infection is very high worldwide. Following primary infection, the virus remains latent, being able to cause recurrences either by reinfection with a new strain or by reactivation of the replication of the latent virus. The most severe disease is seen in congenital infection and in immunosuppressed patients, in whom the virus act as an opportunistic pathogen. Serological techniques are the methods of choice in primary infection and to determine the immune status against CMV in organ donor and receptor. Although well-standardized studies are lacking, the recent commercial availability of methods that measure cellular immune response are promising to predict the risk of CMV disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Molecular assays, that have gradually been substituting viral culture and/or antigen detection, are the most widely used methods for the diagnosis and control of CMV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Genitourinary infection in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Julka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to increase the risk of infection and the commonest amongst them are the ones involving the genitourinary tract. The infections in a diabetic patient are unique in that they are recurrent, more severe, requiring hospitalization, and also have higher mortality than nondiabetics. Some infections are exclusively found in diabetics like the emphysematous pyelonephritis while others have their natural history complicated due to hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may lead to albuminuria and urinary tract infection and may need to be treated in diabetics. Not just this certain organisms have a predilection for the genitourinary tract of the diabetic patient. All of the above makes the diabetic patient vulnerable to infections and therefore early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory.

  19. Infection control in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S R

    1991-08-01

    The risk of transmission of infection within the dental workplace is low, but recent data have indicated that human immunodeficiency virus transmission between dentist and patient can occur, and that while nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus is now less likely, a small but significant number of staff may be at risk of hepatitis C virus and varicella zoster virus infection during dental treatment. Despite these continued risks, shortcomings remain in cross-infection control in the dental workplace. Dental clinicians still fail to take adequate steps to minimize nosocomial infection, inconsistently using appropriate methods of sterilization and not providing ancillary staff with suitable protective clothing. Similarly, although vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, a substantial number of clinicians are reluctant to treat hepatitis B virus- or human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Cross-infection control procedures continue to be modified. Of importance, it has been confirmed that protective rubber gloves cannot be reused, as micropunctures develop during rewashing. Sharps injuries are common in dental practice, but there are still no effective measures to prevent postinjury human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Instrument sterilization is generally safe and effective, but the contamination of dental unit water supplies remains to be overcome, and while impressions can be placed in disinfectants for up to 1 hour without significant dimensional change, it is not known if infectious agents within the impression material are inactivated by this procedure.

  20. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  1. Zebrafish and Streptococcal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralahti, A; Rämet, M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcal bacteria are a versatile group of gram-positive bacteria capable of infecting several host organisms, including humans and fish. Streptococcal species are common colonizers of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause some of the most common life-threatening, invasive infections in humans and aquaculture. With its unique characteristics and efficient tools for genetic and imaging applications, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful vertebrate model for infectious diseases. Several zebrafish models introduced so far have shown that zebrafish are suitable models for both zoonotic and human-specific infections. Recently, several zebrafish models mimicking human streptococcal infections have also been developed. These models show great potential in providing novel information about the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses associated with human streptococcal infections. Here, we review the zebrafish infection models for the most relevant streptococcal species: the human-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the zoonotic Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The recent success and the future potential of these models for the study of host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal infections are also discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  2. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  3. Hajj-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon-Rousseau, A; Piednoir, E; Cattoir, V; de La Blanchardière, A

    2016-10-01

    The Hajj is the largest annual mass gathering event in the world, thus favoring the transmission of various infections: 183 different nationalities, high temperatures, coincidence with the start of the flu season in the Northern hemisphere, a long barefoot walk, tent-type accommodation, communal toilet facilities, absence of food control, and sharing of razors. Infections are the first cause of hospital admission, which often occurs in the home country of pilgrims. Literature review on PubMed from 1952 to November 2015 on the epidemiology and prevention of infections contracted during the Hajj, using the keywords "Hajj" and "infections". Respiratory tract infections, ENT infections, influenza, pyogenic pneumonia, whooping cough, and tuberculosis are most frequently observed during the Hajj. Outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis have been reported in pilgrims and their contacts. Waterborne infections such as gastroenteritis and hepatitis A are common, despite the improvement of health conditions. Pyoderma and furuncles are also frequently observed. Recently, dengue fever, Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever have emerged but no case of MERS-coronavirus, appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012, have yet been observed during the 2012-2014 Hajj. Prevention is based on compulsory meningococcal vaccination, vaccination against seasonal influenza and pneumococcal infections for pilgrims at high risk of contracting the infection, and on vaccination against hepatitis A. Updating immunization for diphtheria/tetanus/poliomyelitis/pertussis and measles/mumps is also crucial and pilgrims must comply with hygiene precautions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. O’Connell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.

  5. Identification of potential antigenic proteins of Theileria lestoquardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, Mohammed; Scholzen, Thomas; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Seitzer, Ulrike

    2006-10-01

    A PCR strategy was used to identify potential antigenic proteins of T. lestoquardi suitable for the development of an ELISA by searching for homologous proteins previously identified in other theilierial parasites to be antigenic.

  6. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  7. Superficial Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Pujalte, George G A; Reese, Stephanie T

    2015-12-01

    Superficial fungal infections grow in dark and moist areas and invade various parts of the body. These infections are easily treatable in immunocompetent individuals. In immunosuppressed individuals, the presentation can be quite severe, requiring use of more potent antifungal agents. The treatment for these conditions consists of topical antifungal agents, creams, and oral systemic medications. The use of prednisone can alter the appearance of superficial fungal infections, making them difficult to diagnose. It is important for primary care providers to become adept at understanding the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis techniques, and treatment options available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  9. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    .... The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies...

  10. Super-infections and relapses occur in chronic norovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julianne R; Roy, Sunando; Tutill, Helena; Williams, Rachel; Breuer, Judith

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus causes chronic infections in immunocompromised patients with considerable associated morbidity. It is not known whether chronic infections involve super- or re-infections or relapses. To retrospectively investigate whether longitudinal sampling in chronically infected patients demonstrates persistent infection with the same virus, or super- or re-infection. Norovirus full genomes were generated from 86 longitudinal samples from 25 paediatric patients. Consensus sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis and genotyping. Super-infections occurred in 17% of chronically infected patients who were continuously PCR positive; including two with mixed norovirus infections. The median duration of infection was 107days longer in those with super-infections; however this was not statistically significant. A third of patients with interrupted norovirus shedding continued to be infected with the same virus despite up to 2 months of PCR negative stools, classified as a relapse. The majority (67%) of patients with interrupted shedding were re-infected with a different genotype. Chronically infected patients who are continuously PCR positive are most likely to remain infected with the same virus; however super-infections do occur leading to mixed infection. Patients with interrupted shedding are likely to represent re-infection with a different genotype, however relapsing infections also occur. Our findings have implications for infection control as immunosuppressed patients remain susceptible to new norovirus infections despite current or recent infection and may continue to be infectious after norovirus is undetectable in stool. The relevance to children without co-morbidities remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Listeria Placental Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Boland, José A; Krypotou, Emilia; Scortti, Mariela

    2017-06-27

    The Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting listeriosis, which can potentially lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital neonatal infections. While other systemic bacterial infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes at comparable frequencies, L. monocytogenes has particular notoriety because fetal complications largely occur in the absence of overt illness in the mother, delaying medical intervention. Here, we briefly review the pathophysiology and mechanisms of maternofetal listeriosis, discussed in light of a recent mBio report on Listeria transplacental infection in a nonhuman primate model. Copyright © 2017 Vázquez-Boland et al.

  12. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  13. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  14. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  15. SIDA et Infections Opportunistes

    OpenAIRE

    GHAFFOUR, Mohammed El-Amine; GHOMARI, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Le sida ou syndrome d'immunodépression acquise, révélé en 1983, est la conséquence grave de l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (HIV), responsable d'une diminution de l'immunité cellulaire qui est source d'infections opportunistes. L'amélioration des fonctions immunitaires sous multi thérapie antirétrovirale a permis de réduire de façon importante la prévalence de ces infections. L'infection par le VIII réalise actuellement une pandémie, dont la transmission ...

  16. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  17. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic"

  18. Urticaria and infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedi Bettina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p

  19. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  20. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  1. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Video) Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  3. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...

  4. Prevent Infections in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles 10 Tips for Preventing Infections Before and During Pregnancy Language: ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. (2013). Sexually transmitted infections among U.S. women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008 . Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(3): 187–193. Centers for Disease Control ...

  6. Immunity Against Klebsiella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rukavina

    2005-01-01

    different plasma concentrations for all cytokines. The greatest difference was detected 24 hours after infection, with a higher production in the unprotected group. We concluded that a reduced cytokine production is partially responsible for the survival of protected animals.

  7. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by A haemolyticum and one associated with a streptococcal organism. Antibacterials, typically erythromycin, can be used to treat this infection. The symptoms quickly clear up when taking these medicines, although the disease is likely to get better on its own ...

  8. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  9. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  10. Coxsackievirus Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a serious infection, including myocarditis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In ... feel more comfortable. Because antibiotics only work against bacteria, they can't be used to fight a ...

  11. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  12. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  13. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  14. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wash your hands. This is the simplest and best way to prevent most kinds of infection. Wash your ... supply is likely to be unsafe, drink and brush your teeth with bottled water that you open yourself. Don' ...

  15. An Infected Mediastinal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Lawson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a 43-year-old patient who had a mediastinal mass that became infected after a transbronchial needle aspirate biopsy. A paraspinal, extrapleural window with a saline-lidocaine mixture was created that allowed the placement of a percutaneous drainage catheter into the infected lesion. This procedure resulted in an excellent clinical outcome, and obviated the need for a thoracotomy and more invasive surgical management.

  16. Immunomodulation of Helicobacter Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori leads to a chronic infection in humans that is associated with gastric inflammation and a vigorous immune response. Despite the humoral and cellular responses that can be detected in both human and animal models of helicobacter infection, the immune response fails to eliminate the organism. Eradication failure may be due to the niche in which H pylori confines itself, well away from direct contact with elements of the immune system. Alternatively, the general tendency of t...

  17. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Agnese Latino; Daniela De Maria; Andrea Caneparo; Claudia Rosso; Gianfranco De Intinis; Anna Maria Calì; Pierangelo Clerici; Marco Cusini; Ivano Dal Conte; Tiziano Maggino; Enrico Magliano; Alfonso Panuccio; Roberto Pozzoli; Mario Rassu; Barbara Suligoi

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more c...

  18. Clostridium difficile infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, WK; Lyras, D.; Lacy, DB; Wilcox, MH; Kuijper, EJ

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of infla...

  19. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  20. Metabolic Effects of Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    about the tions of glucagon, insulin, glucocorticoids , cate- mechanisms that regulate the rates of lipid re- cholamines, and growth hormone increase...from an acute period of fever may be followed energy-generating responses during infection. In by diuresis in early convalescence, contrast, several...common in infections of the central nervous sys- The adrenal glucocorticoid hormones serve a tern and may occur during severe generalized central but

  1. Parasitic lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi

    2009-05-01

    Global climate change and population explosion leading to changes in natural ecosystem and travel across the continents have resulted in an increase in the transmission of parasites to human beings. This review focuses on recent advancements in parasitic lung infections. Invasive parasitic diseases including lung infections are increasingly being reported in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes. A recombinant kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania donovani has been validated with ELISA using urine samples for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pyruvate kinase deficiency has been shown to provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Intravenous artesunate is an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. The best way to protect from malaria is the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets. Biennial treatment with praziquantel has been found to be cost-effective treatment for control of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Pulmonary paragonimiasis can be diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary nodules. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection can mimic accelerated idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Migratory nodular shadows with halos are important chest computed tomographic findings in human toxocariasis. Patients with immunodeficiency syndromes (HIV infection, organ transplantation and immunosuppressive drugs, including corticosteroids) should be evaluated for early detection of parasitic lung infections.

  2. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Nosocomial infections: surgical site infection in UCH Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HAI was 3.0%, Surgical Site Infection was the second most prevalent HAI. Surgical Site Infection was responsible for 27.9% of the nosocomial infections recorded. The ratio of Gram Positive to Gram Negative organisms was 1:2.3. Bacterial agents of Surgical Site Infection were Staphylococcus aureus ...

  4. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  5. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  6. Transgenerational effect of infection in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

    2015-03-01

    Transgenerational effects of infection have a huge potential to influence the prevalence and intensity of infections in vectors and, by extension, disease epidemiology. These transgenerational effects may increase the fitness of offspring through the transfer of protective immune factors. Alternatively, however, infected mothers may transfer the costs of infection to their offspring. Although transgenerational immune protection has been described in a dozen invertebrate species, we still lack a complete picture of the incidence and importance of transgenerational effects of infection in most invertebrate groups. The existence of transgenerational infection effects in mosquito vectors is of particular interest because of their potential for influencing parasite prevalence and intensity and, by extension, disease transmission. Here we present what we believe to be the first study on transgenerational infection effects in a mosquito vector infected with malaria parasites. The aim of this experiment was to quantify both the benefits and the costs of having an infected mother. We find no evidence of transgenerational protection in response to a Plasmodium infection. Having an infected mother does, however, entail considerable fecundity costs for the offspring: fecundity loss is three times higher in infected offspring issued from infected mothers than in infected offspring issued from uninfected mothers. We discuss the implications of our results and we call for more studies looking at transgenerational effects of infection in disease vectors. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Infected nonunion of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  8. Infected nonunion of tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Milind Madhav

    2017-01-01

    Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced membrane technique is an

  9. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

  10. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  11. Urticaria and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence.

  12. Immunomodulation of Helicobacter Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori leads to a chronic infection in humans that is associated with gastric inflammation and a vigorous immune response. Despite the humoral and cellular responses that can be detected in both human and animal models of helicobacter infection, the immune response fails to eliminate the organism. Eradication failure may be due to the niche in which H pylori confines itself, well away from direct contact with elements of the immune system. Alternatively, the general tendency of the intestinal immune response to down- regulate reactivity to noninvasive luminal bacteria also may contribute to the failure to eliminate helicobacter infection. Results of vaccine studies in mouse models indicate that modulating the helper T cell response from a T helper cell type 1 to a T helper cell type 2 response likely is required for the prevention and elimination of helicobacter infection. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune response controls bacterial infections will allow for the design of novel strategies of immune modulation and the development of vaccines for both the treatment and prevention of H pylori.

  13. [Infection control in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeyuki

    2010-01-01

    Infection control committee as the central decision-making and infection control team (ICT) for carrying out all aspects of infection control are important for hospital infection control. Standard precautions are used for all patients and apply to all body fluids except for sweat, whether or not they contain visible blood. Transmission-based precautions involve airborne, droplet, contact vector-borne and common vehicle precautions. Airborne precautions are for tuberculosis, varicella and measles. Small particles (precautions are for influenza, rubella, pertussis, and so on. Transmission via large droplet (transmissions are for blood-borne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C virus and HIV, bacterial infections via percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure, and so on. Vaccinations for measles, rubella, varicella, mumps, influenza and hepatitis B virus to health-care workers are important. Influenza virus is mainly transmitted via droplet and contact, but also via airborne transmission in the aerosol-generating procedures such as intubation and suctioning. WHO declared a public health emergency in April 2009. A novel influenza has spread rapidly across the globe, and it will be necessary to prepare for the outbreak in this autumn and winter.

  14. Infection control for norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, L.; Park, G. W.; Vega, E.; Hall, A.; Parashar, U.; Vinjé, J.; Lopman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are notoriously difficult to prevent and control, owing to their low infectious dose, high shedding titre, and environmental stability. The virus can spread through multiple transmission routes, of which person-to-person and foodborne are the most important. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. In this article, we review the epidemiology and virology of noroviruses, and prevention and control guidelines, with a focus on the principles of disinfection and decontamination. Outbreak management relies on sound infection control principles, including hand hygiene, limiting exposure to infectious individuals, and thorough environmental decontamination. Ideally, all infection control recommendations would rely on empirical evidence, but a number of challenges, including the inability to culture noroviruses in the laboratory and the challenges of outbreak management in complex environments, has made it difficult to garner clear evidence of efficacy in certain areas of infection control. New experimental data on cultivable surrogates for human norovirus and on environmental survivability and relative resistance to commonly used disinfectants are providing new insights for further refinining disinfection practices. Finally, clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, which may shift the current infection control principles to more targeted interventions. PMID:24813073

  15. [Atherosclerosis and infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, K

    2006-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is guided by chronicle inflammation process. In the last decades of the 20th century, studies considering infection another possible risk factor of atherosclerosis development were written. Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromas gingivalis, some viruses but most frequently Chlamydia pneumonie are infection agens mentioned in these studies. Some of them emphasize also combined infections caused by more pathogenic factors having influence on vascular inflammation. Serological, epidemiological, histological and imunological studies show the pathogenic influence of acute or chronic infections. Many studies selected makrolid antibiotics as treatment in patients with ischaemic heart disease. However, existing experience with antibiotics did not bring clear results. These studies have mentioned the fact antibiotics have not been indicated as treatment in patients with acute or chronic vascular system infliction by atherosclerosis. Since the experimental and clinical research of influence of inflammations on the development of atherosclerosis moved forward a lot, no exact evidence of this complicated pathogenic mechanism was given. It will obviously take some time to confirm whether the relation between infections and artherosclerosis is causal, i.e. initiating the pathogenic process, accelerating it or keeping it alive.

  16. The Biophysics of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes involved in infection has grown enormously in the past decade due in part to emerging methods of biophysics. This new insight has been enabled through advances in interdisciplinary experimental technologies and theoretical methods at the cutting-edge interface of the life and physical sciences. For example, this has involved several state-of-the-art biophysical tools used in conjunction with molecular and cell biology approaches, which enable investigation of infection in living cells. There are also new, emerging interfacial science tools which enable significant improvements to the resolution of quantitative measurements both in space and time. These include single-molecule biophysics methods and super-resolution microscopy approaches. These new technological tools in particular have underpinned much new understanding of dynamic processes of infection at a molecular length scale. Also, there are many valuable advances made recently in theoretical approaches of biophysics which enable advances in predictive modelling to generate new understanding of infection. Here, I discuss these advances, and take stock on our knowledge of the biophysics of infection and discuss where future advances may lead.

  17. Surgical infection in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakins, J L

    1996-12-01

    The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.

  18. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  19. Enterococcal infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karina M

    2006-07-01

    From relative obscurity, enterococci have become a leading cause of nosocomial infection. This has been attributed, in part, to the growth in susceptible host populations, increased use of intravascular devices, prolonged hospital stay, and widespread antibiotics use. Furthermore, the facility with which enterococci acquire resistance characteristics coupled with their capacity to survive in the environment renders them uniquely suited as nosocomial opportunists and have resulted in global dissemination of resistant strains. Debate continues as to whether most serious infections arise from a person's indigenous flora or dissemination of virulent clones. Enterococci are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. Classically associated with endocarditis and wound and urinary tract infections, increasingly they are a cause of nosocomial bacteremia. The rise in incidence of serious enterococcal infection has been particularly evident in neonatal, paediatric intensive care, and haematology/oncology units. Spread of resistant phenotypes has posed a difficult therapeutic challenge. We have been rescued, albeit perhaps only temporarily, by the addition of newer agents, such as linezolid, to the therapeutic armamentarium. However, there is no room for complacency. Linezolid resistance already has been reported. Efforts must continue to focus on prevention of the emergence and dissemination of resistance through policies of rational antibiotic use, infection control and education.

  20. Orthopaedic biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoodley, Paul; Ehrlich, Garth D; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Baratz, Mark E; Altman, Daniel T; Sotereanos, Nicholas G; Costerton, John William; Demeo, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    A recent paradigm shift in microbiology affects orthopaedic surgery and most other medical and dental disciplines because more than 65% of bacterial infections treated by clinicians in the developed world are now known to be caused by organisms growing in biofilms. These slime-enclosed communities of bacteria are inherently resistant to host defenses and to conventional antibacterial therapy, and these device-related and other chronic bacterial infections are unaffected by the vaccines and antibiotics that have virtually eliminated acute infections caused by planktonic (floating) bacteria. We examine the lessons that can be learned, within this biofilm paradigm, by the study of problems (e.g. non-culturability) shared by all biofilm infections and by the study of new therapeutic options aimed specifically at sessile bacteria in biofilms. Orthopaedic surgery has deduced some of the therapeutic strategies based on assiduous attention to patient outcomes, but much can still be learned by attention to modern research in related disciplines in medicine and dentistry. These perceptions will lead to practical improvements in the detection, management, and treatment of infections in orthopaedic surgery.

  1. Epidemiology of coronavirus respiratory infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, D; Flowers, D; Clarke, J R; Valman, H B; MacNaughton, M R

    1983-01-01

    Human coronaviruses were found by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in upper respiratory tract secretions taken during 30% of 108 acute respiratory infections experienced by 30 children under age 6 years with recurrent respiratory infections (index group), and during 29% of 51 acute infections experienced by their siblings. Lower respiratory tract infection--predominantly wheezy bronchitis--occurred in 30% of the index children's coronavirus positive infections but in none of their siblings' ...

  2. Thrombocytopenia and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Acquired thrombocytopenia recognizes a myriad of causes. Among these, infectious diseases play a relevant role since a low platelet count is commonplace along with other abnormal laboratory data. Areas covered: This narrative review, after a brief presentation of the possible pathogenic mechanisms, is focused on the most prevalent infections associated with thrombocytopenia, namely those attributable to hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Helicobacter pylori. Expert commentary: An underlying HCV or HIV infection should always be suspected in patients at risk who present with isolated thrombocytopenia. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori is advisable in infected patients with secondary immune thrombocytopenia, because this will increase the platelet count in a substantial number of cases, thus avoiding more aggressive and prolonged treatments.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  4. Infections after keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Chodosh, James

    2016-07-01

    The purpose is to provide an overview of the recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of microbial keratitis and endophthalmitis after keratoprosthesis implantation. The addition of vancomycin daily to a fluoroquinolone in the postoperative management of keratoprosthesis patients successfully reduced the number of cases of bacterial keratitis and endophthalmitis with an increased number of fungal infections now documented both in the United States and abroad. Compliance with the regimen of a fluoroquinolone and vancomycin daily for life after keratoprosthesis implantation should be stressed with the patient. Further research is needed to investigate whether intermittent use of 5% povidone-iodine and frequent replacement of the bandage contact lens could reduce fungal infection after keratoprosthesis surgery. Future advancements in the Boston keratoprosthesis design and/or postoperative management are needed to further reduce infection after keratoprosthesis placement.

  5. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  6. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  7. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  8. Genital infections mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  9. [Listeria monocytogenes infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Léna; Chuard, Christian

    2017-10-11

    Listeria monocytogenes infections are caused by food ingestion. They are not only transmitted by animal products, but also by secondarily contaminated fruits and vegetables. They preferentially affect pregnant women, patients of extreme ages and the immu-nocompromised, and manifest as a gastroenteritis, bacteremia, meningo-encephalitis or maternal-fetal infection. Diagnosis is achieved by culture of usually sterile sites. The preferred treatment is amoxicillin with or without gentamicin. For patients at risk, prevention is based on avoiding at-risk food or cooking it when possible.

  10. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  11. Dipylidium caninum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child. PMID:22674592

  12. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  13. CNS infections in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Søborg, Bolette; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    ), but equally high among Inuits in Greenland and Denmark (38.2 and 35.4, respectively). Mortality from CNS infections was 2 fold higher among Inuits (10.5%) than among non-Inuits (4.8%) with a fivefold higher case fatality rate in Inuit toddlers. CONCLUSION: Overall, Inuits living in Greenland and Denmark...... suffer from twice the rate of CNS infections compared with non-Inuits, and Inuit toddlers carried the highest risk of mortality. Further studies regarding risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, life style and socioeconomic factors are warranted....

  14. Atypical bacterial infections explained by a concomitant virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Hall, C B; Menegus, M A

    1985-09-01

    Because both viral and bacterial infections are common during early childhood, dual infections are not unexpected. However, the clinical manifestation of such combined infections may be, difficult to interpret, and they are often misdiagnosed as "atypical bacterial infection." Five patients with concomitant viral-bacterial infections are described. In all five cases, virus detection enabled the physicians to better understand an otherwise puzzling clinical presentation. In view of the recent progress in rapid viral diagnoses and the potential of antiviral drugs, the possibility of dual infection should be investigated more often.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11419-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CR940348_367( CR940348 |pid:none) Theileria annulata strain Ankara... 50 3e-04 CR933357_1( CR933357 |pid:none) Mini antigen, Para...1 ( EH009812 ) USDA-FP_182973 Lysiphlebus testaceipes adult whol... 46 4.7 1 ( EG975267 ) GLL024_F05_019 Cyamopsis tetragon...a Subtracted L... 44 4.8 2 ( BJ401358 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:dds23b01,...A14871.rev CAXA Helobdella robusta Subtracted ... 44 6.4 2 ( BJ371376 ) Dictyostelium dis... 205 4e-51 AC116984_103( AC116984 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromos... 180 2e-43 S44208( S44208 ) extracellular matr

  16. Piroplasmids of livestock in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, M A

    2004-01-01

    Several species of piroplasms of livestock are present in Tunisia; some of them are of high veterinary importance. This paper reviews the species already reported in Tunisia on the basis of clinical observations, parasitological routine diagnostic and serological surveys, as well as those considered as potentially present according to epidemiological argumentations. The genus Theileria includes four species reported in Tunisia: T. annulata, T. buffeli, T. ovis, and T. equi. The ovine malignant theileriosis agent, T. lestoquardi, appears to be absent in Tunisia. Five species belonging to the genus Babesia were reported in the country, namely B. hovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and B. ovis. Furthermore, two more species, B. major and B. motasi, are potentially present in zones where their vectors of the genus Haemaphysalis occur.

  17. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  18. Vitamin C and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-01-01

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further. PMID:28353648

  19. Infections after refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Zeeshan; Farooq, Asim V; Huang, Andrew J W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the review is to provide a summary of the recent literature concerning infections after refractive surgery pertinent to each procedure category. New data from a large retrospective study suggest that the incidence of post-laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis infectious keratitis is declining. Additionally, recent case studies have reported viral, fungal, and Acanthamoeba pathogens. Corneal collagen cross-linking is emerging as an alternative therapeutic option for early stage post-LASIK infectious keratitis. Postoperative bandage contact lens used in patients undergoing surface ablation procedures may confer a higher risk of infection because of greater colonization rates in those individuals, such as healthcare providers, with relatively high risk of exposure to potential pathogens. In the setting of post-penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism, femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy procedures pose a risk of infectious keratitis and even endophthalmitis. Lastly, recent case reports of endophthalmitis after refractive lens procedures highlight the importance of postoperative monitoring for this sight threatening, albeit rare, complication. The risks and management of infections after surgical refractive procedures vary widely depending on the specific technique employed. As technology and treatment options continue to evolve with further research, we anticipate continued success in the management of postoperative infections after refractive surgery.

  20. Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernike, K.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Beer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects

  1. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  2. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, TS; van der Graaf, WTA; Tappero, JW; Asiedu, K

    1999-01-01

    After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli-ulcer disease (caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent people. Countries in which the disease is endemic have been identified, predominantly in areas of tropical rain forest; the

  3. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  5. (HLB) infected citrus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... sinuous rod like structures, 0.15 - 0.25 µm in diameter. They can be observed by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of infected trees (Moll and Martin, 1973). The aim of this study was to detect and identify Candidatus. Liberibacter asiaticus using PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to ...

  6. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathogenesis of Rhinovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Turner, Ronald B.; Braciale, Thomas; Heymann, Peter W.; Borish, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Summary Since its discovery in 1956, rhinovirus (RV) has been recognized as the most important virus producing the common cold syndrome. Despite its ubiquity, little is known concerning the pathogenesis of RV infections, and some of the research in this area has led to contradictions regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of RV-induced illness. In this article, we discuss the pathogenesis of this virus as it relates to RV-induced illness in the upper and lower airway, an issue of considerable interest in view of the minimal cytopathology associated with RV infection. We endeavor to explain why many infected individuals exhibit minimal symptoms or remain asymptomatic, while others, especially those with asthma, may have severe, even life-threatening, complications (sequelae). Finally, we discuss the immune responses to RV in the normal and asthmatic host focusing on RV infection and epithelial barrier integrity and maintenance as well as the impact of the innate and adaptive immune responses to RV on epithelial function. PMID:22542099

  8. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know - 한국어 (Korean) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Salmonella Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por salmonela: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  9. Haemophilus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Haemophilus Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por Haemophilus: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  10. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Bacterial Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones bacterianas: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ...

  11. Wound Infections PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  12. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente; Claramonte, Xavier; Armero, Yolanda; Sidani, Nisreen; Kanj-Sharara, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Raglio, Annibale; Goglio, Antonio; Gnecchi, Fabrizio; Suter, Fredy; Valsecchi, Grazia; Rizzi, Marco; Ravasio, Veronica; Hoen, Bruno; Chirouze, Catherine; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Bernard, Yvette; Casey, Anna; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Elliot, Tom; Patel, Mukesh; Dismukes, William; Pan, Angelo; Caros, Giampiero; Tribouilloy, Amel Brahim Mathiron Christophe; Goissen, Thomas; Delahaye, Armelle; Delahaye, Francois; Vandenesch, Francois; Vizzotti, Carla; Nacinovich, Francisco M.; Marin, Marcelo; Trivi, Marcelo; Lombardero, Martin; Cortes, Claudia; Casabe, Jose Horacio; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Commerford, Anita; Hansa, Cass; Deetlefs, Eduan; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Commerford, Patrick; Wray, Dannah; Steed, Lisa L.; Cantey, Robert; Morris, Arthur; Holland, David; Murdoch, David; Graham, Katherine; Read, Kerry; Raymond, Nigel; Bridgman, Paul; Troughton, Richard; Lang, Selwyn; Chambers, Stephen; Kotsanas, Despina; Korman, Tony M.; Peterson, Gail; Purcell, Jon; Southern, Paul M.; Shah, Manisha; Bedimo, Roger; Reddy, Arjun; Levine, Donald; Dhar, Gaurav; Hanlon-Feeney, Alanna; Hannan, Margaret; Kelly, Sinead; Wang, Andrew; Cabell, Christopher; Woods, Christopher; Sexton, Daniel J.; Benjamin, Danny; Corey, G. Ralph; McDonald, Jay R.; Federspiel, Jeff; Engemann, John J.; Barth Reller, L.; Drew, Laura; Caram, L. B.; Stryjewski, Martin; Morpeth, Susan; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Fowler, Vance; Chu, Vivian; Mazaheri, Bahram; Neuerburg, Carl; Naber, Christoph; Athan, Eugene; Henry, Margaret; Harris, Owen; Alestig, Eric; Olaison, Lars; Wikstrom, Lotta; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K.; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Chaiworramukkun, Jaruwan; Pachirat, Orathai; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Suwanich, Tewan; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Premru, Manica Muella; Logar, Mateja; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Orezzi, Christina; Klein, John; Bouza, Emilio; Moreno, Mar; Rodriguez-Creixems, Marta; Marin, Mercedes; Fernandez, Miguel; Munoz, Patricia; Fernandez, Rocio; Ramallo, Victor; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Habib, Gilbert; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Kulichenko, Vadim P.; Butkevich, O. M.; Lion, Christine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Alla, Francois; Coyard, Helene; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Larussi, Diana; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Francoise Tripodi, Marie; Utili, Riccardo; Sampath Kumar, A.; Sharma, Gautam; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Street, Alan; Eisen, Damon Peter; McBryde, Emma Sue; Grigg, Leeanne; Abrutyn, Elias; Michelet, Christian; Tattevin, Pierre; Yves Donnio, Pierre; Fortes, Claudio Querido; Edathodu, Jameela; Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Font, Bernat; Raimon Guma, Joan; Cereceda, M.; Oyonarte, Miguel J.; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Garcia, Patricia; Braun Jones, Sandra; Isabel de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ley Woon, Lok; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Rees, David; Kornecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Dever, Robyn; Post, Jeffey; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzzane; Harkness, John; Fenely, Michael; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilewitz, Jacob; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Dragulescu, Stefan; Forno, Davide; Cecchi, Enrico; de Rosa, Francesco; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Wiesbauer, Franz; Gattringer, Rainer; Deans, Greg; Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic; Barsic, Bruno; Klinar, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  13. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has far reaching implications on patient morbidity and ... was complicated by a SSI had a 2-11% higher risk of death. In those patients who died, 75% was directly .... genital and uninfected urinary tract is not entered. In addition, clean wounds are primarily closed ...

  14. Oral fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common oral fungal infection diagnosed in humans. Candidiasis may result from immune system dysfunction or as a result of local or systemic medical treatment. Because oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection, topical treatment methods are the first line of therapy, especially for the pseudomembranous and erythematous variants. Patients with dental prostheses should also be advised to disinfect the prosthesis routinely during the candidal treatment period, because the prosthesis may serve as a source of reinfection. Additionally, patients should be advised that oral hygiene aids, such as toothbrushes and denture brushes, may also be contaminated and should be discarded or disinfected. A disinfecting solution of equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and water may be used. Likewise, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution may be used asa disinfecting solution for dental prostheses and oral hygiene aids. Occasionally the clinician encounters a more resistant form of oral candidiasis such as the hyperplastic variant or a variant that does not respond to topical therapy. Appropriate systemic therapy should be employed for the treatment of these infections. Additionally, a biopsy should be undertaken in individuals with the hyperplastic variant of Candida because there is some degree of risk for malignant transformation. Deep fungal infections should be managed in association with appropriate medical specialists to rule out other systemic involvement. The dental health care provider plays an important part in the diagnosis and management of fungal disease, and therefore clinicians should be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms or oral fungal disease.

  15. Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...

  16. Repeated Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... he/she have ear tubes?What are the dangers of my child’s repeated infections?Should my child ... affect you or your baby through your breast milk.December 2017December 2017familydoctor.org editorial staffHip Problems in ...

  17. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of the respondents or other identifying information were not included in the questionnaires. The knowledge section had 7 sexually transmitted infection symptoms for grading knowledge, namely lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, penile discharge, itching of the vagina, burning pain on urination, genital ulcers/sores ...

  18. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  19. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toilet training or spend time in a child care center. People who live or work with small children also are at higher risk of developing giardia infection. People without access to safe drinking water. Giardiasis is rampant wherever sanitation is inadequate or ...

  20. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  1. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  2. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in

  3. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  4. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED...... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...... and 39 pocket infections) were recorded during the study period. Median follow-up time was 26 (IQR 9-41) months, 30 day and 12 month mortality were 4% and 14%, respectively. There was no long-term difference in mortality between patients with pocket vs. systemic infection (p = 0.48). During follow...

  5. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.

  6. EBV Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eligio, Pizzigallo; Delia, Racciatti; Valeria, Gorgoretti

    2010-01-01

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpes viruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS) aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA), really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.). However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious). Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse. Thanks to both

  7. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  8. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... this page: About CDC.gov . Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients Patients and Caregivers Prepare: Watch Out for Fever ...

  9. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder infection called cystitis (say: ... harmful bacteria keep spreading. From the bladder, they may head into one of the ureters and climb ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...

  14. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research HIV Infection and Cancer Risk On This Page Do people ... being linked to an increased risk of cancer, HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of dying ...

  15. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  16. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... 16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America ...

  17. SIV Infection Facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Xian, Qiao-Yang; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Xin; Bao, Rong; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jin-Biao; Tang, Zhi-Jiao; Guo, De-yin; Qin, Chuan; Li, Jie-Liang; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thus, it is necessary to understand the pathogenetic interactions between M.tb and HIV infection. In this study, we examined M.tb and/or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Chinese rhesus macaques. While there was little evidence that M.tb enhanced SIV infection of macaques, SIV could facilitate M.tb infection as demonstrated by X-rays, pathological and microbiological findings. Chest X-rays showed that co-infected animals had disseminated lesions in both left and right lungs, while M.tb mono-infected animals displayed the lesions only in right lungs. Necropsy of co-infected animals revealed a disseminated M.tb infection not only in the lungs but also in the extrapulmonary organs including spleen, pancreas, liver, kidney, and heart. The bacterial counts in the lungs, the bronchial lymph nodes, and the extrapulmonary organs of co-infected animals were significantly higher than those of M.tb mono-infected animals. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that two of three co-infected animals had lower levels of M.tb specific IFN-γ and IL-22 in PBMCs than M.tb mono-infected animals. These findings suggest that Chinese rhesus macaque is a suitable and alternative non-human primate model for SIV/M.tb coinfection studies. The impairment of the specific anti-TB immunity is likely to be a contributor of SIV-mediated enhancement M.tb infection. PMID:28133458

  18. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  19. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  20. Infection imaging in nuclear medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Regardless of advances in medicine, infection continues to play a major role in patients' morbidity and mortality. Nuclear medicine techniques have an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of harbouring infection. Many different agents may be used in an attempt to image infection. ere are ...

  1. [Opportunistic infections and sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilloux, Y; Bernard, C; Lortholary, O; Kerever, S; Lelièvre, L; Gerfaud-Valentin, M; Broussolle, C; Valeyre, D; Sève, P

    2017-05-01

    Opportunistic infections (OI) are uncommon in sarcoidosis (1 to 10%) and mostly occur in patients with previously diagnosed disease or can rarely be the presenting manifestation. The most common OIs are, in descending order: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and mycobacterial infections. Treatment with corticosteroids is the most frequent risk factor for OI occurrence during sarcoidosis but immunosuppressive drugs and therapy with anti-TNFα are also risk factors. Overall, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome are identical to that occur in other conditions complicated with the occurrence of OIs. However, some atypical presentations of OIs can mimic sarcoidosis exacerbation and misdiagnosis may lead clinicians to increase immunosuppression, causing worsening of the OI. The meticulous collection of patient's history along with factors differentiating OI from sarcoidosis exacerbation is key factor to optimally manage these patients. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  3. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodd Roger Y

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens.

  4. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  5. Esophageal infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj C; Caicedo, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    Infectious esophagitis generally occurs in patients with impaired immunity. Although methods to suppress the immune system evolve, the potential infectious consequences are poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious esophagitis. Minimal pediatric data, including a few case reports and series, involve infectious esophagitis. Esophageal infections are usually caused by the following microbes, in order starting with the most common: Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Uncommon risk factors in these and other reports include epidural triamcinolone and oral budesonide in addition to more common risk factors such as HIV infection, chemotherapeutic agents, and transplant immunosuppressive medications. Rare reports involve immunocompetent patients and treatment of these patients is controversial. Understanding of infectious esophagitis is growing, and risk factors, diagnosis, and treatments are evolving.

  6. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  7. Third molar infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  8. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  9. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  10. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  11. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  12. Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  13. Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmali Maamouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a relatively common disorder among infants in Iran. Bacterial infection and jaundice may be associated with higher morbidity. Previous studies have reported that jaundice may be one of the signs of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate, presentation time, severity of jaundice, signs and complications of infection within neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.   Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran. We prospectively evaluated 1763 jaundiced newborns. We Finally found 434 neonates who were categorized into two groups.131 neonates as case group (Blood or/and Urine culture positive or sign of pneumonia and 303 neonates with idiopathic jaundice as control group. Demographic data including prenatal, intrapartum, postnatal events and risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Biochemical markers including bilirubin level, urine and blood cultures were determined at the request of the clinicians.   Results: Jaundice presentation time, age on admission, serum bilirubin value and hospitalization period were reported significantly higher among case group in comparison with control group (p

  14. Vaccines against mucosal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2012-06-01

    There remains a great need to develop vaccines against many of the pathogens that infect mucosal tissues or have a mucosal port of entry. Parenteral vaccination may protect in some instances, but usually a mucosal vaccination route is necessary. Mucosal vaccines also have logistic advantages over injectable vaccines by being easier to administer, having less risk of transmitting infections and potentially being easier to manufacture. Still, however, only relatively few vaccines for human use are available: oral vaccines against cholera, typhoid, polio, and rotavirus, and a nasal vaccine against influenza. For polio, typhoid and influenza, in which the pathogens reach the blood stream, there is also an injectable vaccine alternative. A problem with available oral live vaccines is their reduced immunogenicity when used in developing countries; for instance, the efficacy of rotavirus vaccines correlates closely with the national per capita income. Research is needed to define the impact of factors such as malnutrition, aberrant intestinal microflora, concomitant infections, and preexisting immunity as well as of host genetic factors on the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  16. IL-17 and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y; Puel, A

    2014-10-01

    IL-17 immunity has been shown to be essential for mucocutaneous protection against Candida albicans in mice and humans. However, mice with defective IL-17 immunity display broader susceptibility, as they are also prone to infections with diverse infectious agents at various sites. Humans with genetic defects affecting their IL-17 immunity usually suffer from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC): recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and mucosae with C. albicans, with or without other clinical signs. Most patients with autosomal dominant (AD) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to STAT3 deficiency or AD STAT1 gain-of-function display impaired IL-17-producing T-cell development, and CMC is one of their principal clinical manifestations. Similarly, patients with autosomal recessive (AR) autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by AIRE deficiency have high levels of neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F and/or IL-22 and present CMC as their only infectious disease. Finally, CMC is the main clinical phenotype observed in patients with inborn errors specifically affecting IL-17 immunity. Indeed, patients with AD IL-17F deficiency or AR IL-17RA or ACT1 deficiency display CMC and, to a lesser extent, superficial staphylococcal diseases. Candida infection was recently reported in psoriasis patients treated with anti-IL-17A antibodies. Careful monitoring for CMC is thus important during anti-IL-17 treatment.

  17. Predisposing factors endorsing Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Fatima, Zeeshan; Hameed, Saif

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which is involved in infections ranging from superficial, mucosal to systemic candidiasis. It is the fourth most leading cause of death in nosocomial infections. Candidal infections are increasing at an alarming rate due to poor clinical management in hospital settings, more use of antibiotics, increased drug resistance, immunosuppression and host-pathogen related factors. There are various predisposing factors which can be immunologic or non-immunologic in origin that make a person susceptible to such infections. This review article establishes the need to understand the various predisposing factors leading to Candidal infections and discusses them on a common platform.

  18. Latest opportunistic infection prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, R

    1998-01-01

    Although people with HIV are living longer than ever before, they continue to suffer from infections that are associated with low T4-cell counts. The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have updated the guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections, including their positions on when prophylaxis is indicated. Summaries are given for preventing the following infections: cytomegalovirus (CMV), cryptosporidiosis, fungal infections, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes-related infections, mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), streptococcal pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis.

  19. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  20. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Yeast Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginal yeast infection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Yeast Infections updates ... gram stain Thrush Vaginal yeast infection Related Health Topics Fungal Infections Vaginitis National Institutes of Health The ...

  2. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections when visiting (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic ... precautions Personal protective equipment Preventing infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS ...

  3. Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute periodontal infection in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C L; Winkler, J R; Heinic, G S; Daniels, T E; Yee, K; Greenspan, D

    1993-04-01

    During childhood, many people acquire primary infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), one of the herpes viruses. If they later become immunosuppressed, such as occurs with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CMV is likely to become reactivated. Severe disease caused by CMV is life-threatening in the HIV-infected population. CMV retinitis, gastritis, colitis, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis have all been reported, but oral lesions due to infection with CMV are rarely reported. We report a case of oral CMV infection which at first was clinically indistinguishable from HIV-associated periodontal disease.

  4. [Rotavirus: an ubiquitous infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaiche, M; Viala, J; Degas, V; Cézard, J-P

    2007-10-01

    Rotavirus is the most frequent virus found in childhood gastroenteritis. A rotavirus viremia is observed in 19 to 63 % of cases, for three days at the beginning of infection. Then, rotavirus can reach several organs as liver (hepatitis in 1/3 of case), nervous central system (2 % of encephalitis could be linked to rotavirus), or more infrequently mesenteric lymph nodes, lung or heart. However, the link between rotavirus and systemic manifestations has not been well established. Further studies are necessary to confirm the role of rotavirus in these organ's lesions.

  5. les infections toxoplasmique

    OpenAIRE

    Laîssouf, Sihem; MERAH, Fatima; Lahssaini, Nour El Houda

    2012-01-01

    La toxoplasmose est une maladie cosmopolite due à un parasite protozoaire intracellulaire obligatoire opportuniste, Toxoplasma gondii. Pour étudier ce parasite nous proposerons un plan de travail qui comporte une aperçu théorique sur l'épidémiologie analytique, la clinique, essentiellement le diagnostic biologique et enfin on abord le traitement et la prophylaxie. En général, l'homme s'infectant le plus souvent par ingestion de viande contaminée par la forme kystique, forme ...

  6. Schistosomiasis and associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambertucci JR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In hospital-based series viral hepatitis B has been frequently described in association with schistosomiasis whilst in field-based studies the association has not been confirmed. The association between schistosomiasis and Salmonella bacteraemia has been well documented. More recently, acute schistosomiasis has been shown to be a facilitating factor in the genesis of pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus. New evidences indicate an interaction between the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and schistosomiasis. In this paper, data on the association of schistosomiasis with other infections are updated.

  7. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  8. Paediatric respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual "home". Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  9. Ovine theileriosis in China: a new look at an old story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Schnittger, Leonhard; Luo, Jianxun; Seitzer, Ulrike; Ahmed, Jabbar S

    2007-09-01

    A fatal disease of sheep and goats in the northwestern part of China has in the past been reported to be due to Theileria lestoquardi. However, some characteristics of the causative agent are not in accordance with attributes ascribed to this parasite. We therefore determined the nucleotide sequence of the 18 small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene of T. lestoquardi and the parasite identified in China and compared it with that of other Theileria and Babesia species. In the inferred phylogenetic tree, the 18S rRNA sequence of the Chinese parasite falls inside the clade consisting of Theileria species evidencing that it belongs to this genus. The 18S rRNA sequence of the Chinese parasite was found to be most closely related to Theileria buffeli and clearly divergent to T. lestoquardi, suggesting that it was a yet unrecognized Theileria species. The phylogenetic relationship of Theileria species infecting sheep and goats on the basis of their 18S rRNA gene structure was addressed. We report on the existence of at least two additional ovine and caprine piroplasm species, designated T. luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi.

  10. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  11. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  12. Immunology of pediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-07-01

    Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV's perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Viral Infection Model with a Nonlinear Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto JuanJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A viral infection model with a nonlinear infection rate is constructed based on empirical evidences. Qualitative analysis shows that there is a degenerate singular infection equilibrium. Furthermore, bifurcation of cusp-type with codimension two (i.e., Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation is confirmed under appropriate conditions. As a result, the rich dynamical behaviors indicate that the model can display an Allee effect and fluctuation effect, which are important for making strategies for controlling the invasion of virus.

  14. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Submasseteric Infection: A Rare, Deep Space Cheek Infection Causing Trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H; Bahadori, Robert S; Willis, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Submasseteric space infections are rare at any age but particularly so in primary school children. The origin of the infection is usually odontogenic, from pericoronitis in a third molar. Submasseteric inflammation is a deep facial space inflammation, often progressing to mature abscess, and usually misdiagnosed as staphylococcal or streptococcal lymphadenitis or pyogenic parotitis. The hallmark of a masticatory space infection is trismus. The cardinal signs of this infection include a firm mass in the body of the masseter muscle with overlying cellulitis with trismus.

  16. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms).

  17. Opportunistic Infections in Patients with HTLV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an acquired immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is primarily responsible for opportunistic infections in infected patients. However, opportunistic infections also occur in individuals with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection. Here, we report opportunistic infections in two Japanese HTLV-1-seropositive patients. The first patient was a 67-year-old male, who had cytomegalovirus infection associated with esophagogastritis and terminal ileitis. The patient was HTLV-1-positive and was diagnosed with smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL. High levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; 4,304 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (75.5% in peripheral blood were also detected. The second patient was a 78-year-old female, a known asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier, who presented with persistent herpes zoster, followed by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Disease progression of smoldering ATL along opportunistic infections was observed with very high levels of serum sIL-2R (14,058 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (87.2% in peripheral blood. In patients with suspected opportunistic infections, both HTLV-1 and HIV should be considered. In HTLV-1-positive patients, an increase in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset may have its value as a prognostic marker.

  18. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Srinidhi; You, Jianxin

    2017-08-18

    While the majority of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and cleared within a couple of years following exposure, 10-20% of infections persist latently, leading to disease progression and, ultimately, various forms of invasive cancer. Despite the clinical efficiency of recently developed multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines, these preventive measures are not effective against pre-existing infection. Additionally, considering that the burden associated with HPV is greatest in regions with limited access to preventative vaccination, the development of effective therapies targeting persistent infection remains imperative. This review discusses not only the mechanisms underlying persistent HPV infection, but also the promise of immunomodulatory therapeutic vaccines and small-molecular inhibitors, which aim to augment the host immune response against the viral infection as well as obstruct critical viral-host interactions.

  20. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributab...

  1. Infection Control in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Saiman, Lisa; Siegel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a greater interest in infection control in cystic fibrosis (CF) as patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens has been increasingly demonstrated in this unique patient population. The CF Foundation sponsored a consensus conference to craft recommendations for infection control practices for CF care providers. This review provides a summary of the literature addressing infection control in CF. Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sta...

  2. Opportunistic infections following renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infection is common following renal transplantation. Prompt diagnosis and management can be life saving. Four different types of opportunistic respiratory infections diagnosed at our center during the period of January 1998 to December 2000 are discussed. Of the four cases one had Aspergillus, second had Sporothrix, third had Nocardia and fourth case Actinomyces species. Microbiologist has an important role to play by being aware of such opportunistic infections and helping the clinician to make early aetiological diagnosis.

  3. Pulmonary infections in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, M Kyle; Hosey, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    Despite their general high level of health, athletes are not free from the threat of developing pulmonary infection. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are important given the effects of pulmonary infection upon athletic performance and time away from training. This article reviews common etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia and a more in-depth discussion of mycoplasma pneumonie and influenza. Current treatment guidelines, acute bronchitis, fungal pulmonary infection, and return to play principles also are discussed.

  4. [Listeria monocytogenes in human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołakowska, Agnieszka; Madajczak, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    The Listeria genus is distinguished into six species from which just one--Listeria monocytogenes is pathogenic for humans. The main route of acquisition of Listeria is through the ingestion of contaminated food products. An important element of the L. monocytogenes pathogenesis infection is affiliation with high-risk group of immunocompromised patients, infants or pregnant women, who infected by this microorganism can lead to miscarriage. Listeriosis can appear in the form of sepsis, infection of the nervous system or local abscesses. Another form of listeriosis is gastrointestinal tract infection--noticed in case of food poisoning outbreak.

  5. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  7. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms.

  8. Catheter associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation.

  9. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  11. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  13. HIV and co-infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christina C; Crane, Megan; Zhou, JingLing; Mina, Michael; Post, Jeffrey J; Cameron, Barbara A; Lloyd, Andrew R; Jaworowski, Anthony; French, Martyn A; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite significant reductions in morbidity and mortality secondary to availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection still accounts for 1.5 million deaths annually. The majority of deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of opportunistic co-infections are disproportionately high. In this review, we discuss the immunopathogenesis of five common infections that cause significant morbidity in HIV-infected patients globally. These include co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Plasmodium falciparum. Specifically, we review the natural history of each co-infection in the setting of HIV, the specific immune defects induced by HIV, the effects of cART on the immune response to the co-infection, the pathogenesis of immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with each infection, and advances in the areas of prevention of each co-infection via vaccination. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and gaps for future research. PMID:23772618

  14. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

  15. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  16. Murine model of rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N; Franco, M A; Greenberg, H B

    1997-01-01

    The murine model of homologous rotavirus infection has been used to study the determinants of protection. The local IgA immune response appears to be the critical factor in generating protective immunity after natural infection. A series of knockout mice were used to evaluate the contribution of T cells and B cells to immunity and resolution from primary infection. Both arms of immune system played a role in the resolution of primary infection but antibody was much more important for prevention of reinfection.

  17. NATURAL HISTORY OF HIV-INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH THE ROUTE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Denisenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural history of HIV infection in 91 vertically HIV infected patients and in 101 parenterally HIV infected children were investigated. High relative incidence rates regardless of the route of HIV transmission have demonstrated HIV-related symptoms — generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, underweight, anemia, prolonged unmotivated fever, and opportunistic infections — bacterial infections, candidiasis, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus infection. Vertically HIV infected children had higher relative incidence rates of HIV-related symptoms, opportunistic infections and generalized forms of opportunistic infections.

  18. (Penicillium) marneffei infection in a returning HIV-infected traveller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in an HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment- experienced South African woman who had travelled to mainland China. The 37-year-old woman was admitted to a private hospital in fulminant septic shock and died within 12 h of admission.

  19. [Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juliano Novaes; Ochiai, Marcelo Eidi; Oliveira, Múcio T; Morgado, Paulo; Munhoz, Robinson; Andretto, Fernanda E; Mansur, Alfredo José; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2005-07-01

    The HACEK microorganisms (Haemophilus spp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) account for 3% of the cases of endocarditis. They have the following similar clinical and microbiological properties: are Gram-negative bacilli, more easily isolated in aerobic media; their cultures require prolonged incubation time for growing (mean, 3.3 days); and may be considered part of normal flora of upper respiratory tract and oropharynx. The following characteristics have been identified in endocarditis caused by the HACEK microorganisms: insidious clinical findings; difficult diagnosis due to the fastidious nature of the microorganisms; and negative cultures. The Eikenella corrodens endocarditis was first described in 1972. That microorganism continues to be a rare etiological agent. We report the case of a female patient with native valve, who had Eikenella corrodens infective endocarditis.

  20. Streptococcus suis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807