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Sample records for theileria annulata alters

  1. Proteomic analysis of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    OpenAIRE

    Witschi Marc; Xia D; Sanderson Sandy; Baumgartner Martin; Wastling Jonathan; Dobbelaere Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite, Theileria annulata, is the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, a devastating lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. The schizont stage transforms bovine leukocytes and provides an intriguing model to study host/pathogen interactions. The genome of T. annulata has been sequenced and transcriptomic data are rapidly accumulating. In contrast, little is known about the proteome of the schizont, the pathogenic, transforming life cycle stage of the parasite. Using o...

  2. Proteomic analysis of the Theileria annulata schizont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschi, M.; Xia, D.; Sanderson, S.; Baumgartner, M.; Wastling, J.M.; Dobbelaere, D.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite, Theileria annulata, is the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, a devastating lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. The schizont stage transforms bovine leukocytes and provides an intriguing model to study host/pathogen interactions. The genome of T. annulata has been sequenced and transcriptomic data are rapidly accumulating. In contrast, little is known about the proteome of the schizont, the pathogenic, transforming life cycle stage of the parasite. Using one-dimensional (1-D) gel LC-MS/MS, a proteomic analysis of purified T. annulata schizonts was carried out. In whole parasite lysates, 645 proteins were identified. Proteins with transmembrane domains (TMDs) were under-represented and no proteins with more than four TMDs could be detected. To tackle this problem, Triton X-114 treatment was applied, which facilitates the extraction of membrane proteins, followed by 1-D gel LC-MS/MS. This resulted in the identification of an additional 153 proteins. Half of those had one or more TMD and 30 proteins with more than four TMDs were identified. This demonstrates that Triton X-114 treatment can provide a valuable additional tool for the identification of new membrane proteins in proteomic studies. With two exceptions, all proteins involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle were identified. For at least 29% of identified proteins, the corresponding transcripts were not present in the existing expressed sequence tag databases. The proteomics data were integrated into the publicly accessible database resource at EuPathDB (www.eupathdb.org) so that mass spectrometry-based protein expression evidence for T. annulata can be queried alongside transcriptional and other genomics data available for these parasites. PMID:23178997

  3. Transcriptome and microRNome of Theileria annulata Host Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rchiad, Zineb

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Theileriosis is a parasitic disease of calves with a profound economic impact caused by Theileria annulata, an apicomplexan parasite of the genus Theileria. Transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, T. annulata infects and transforms bovine lymphocytes and macrophages into a cancer-like phenotype characterized by all six hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we investigate the transcriptional landscape of T. annulata-infected lymphocytes to define genes and miRNAs regulated by host cell transformation using next generation sequencing. We also define genes and miRNAs differentially expressed as a result of the attenuation of a T.annulata-infected macrophage cell line used as a vaccine. By comparing the transcriptional landscape of one attenuated and two transformed cell lines we identify four genes that we propose as key factors in transformation and virulence of the T. annulata host cells. We also identify miR- 126-5p as a key regulator of infected cells proliferation, adhesion, survival and invasiveness. In addition to the host cell trascriptome we studied T. annulata transcriptome and identified the role of ROS and TGF-β2 in controlling parasite gene expression. Moreover, we have used the deep parasite ssRNA-seq data to refine the available T. annulata annotation. Taken together, this study provides the full list of host cell’s genes and miRNAs transcriptionally perturbed after infection with T. annulata and after attenuation and describes genes and miRNAs never identified before as players in this type of host cell transformation. Moreover, this study provides the first database for the transcriptome of T. annulata and its host cells using next generation sequencing.

  4. Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C G

    1990-04-01

    Tropical bovine theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata and transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma may be controlled by one or more of the following methods: i) management, with particular emphasis on movement control; ii) vector control by application of acaricides, preventing transmission of disease; iii) treatment of clinical disease using specific chemotherapeutics; iv) immunization with live vaccines; and v) the use of cattle resistant to ticks or the disease. Of these the most important and effective control method is the use of a live cell culture vaccine attenuated by prolonged culture in vitro of mononuclear cells persistently infected with macroschizonts of T. annulata. This vaccine, used chiefly in susceptible taurine dairy cattle, can now be complemented by using novel chemotherapeutic naphthoquinones--parvaquone and buparvaquone--which are very effective in treatment of the clinical disease in these valuable cattle.

  5. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; H Tageldin, Mohammed; Weir, William; Al-Fahdi, Amira; Johnson, Eugene H; Bobade, Patrick; Alqamashoui, Badar; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Thompson, Joanne; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Babiker, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle. Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman. We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia). A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST' = 0.075, θ = 0.07) were

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman.

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    Salama Al-Hamidhi

    Full Text Available Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle.Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman.We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia. A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST' = 0.075,

  7. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oliveira, C; van der Weide, M; Habela, M A; Jacquiet, P; Jongejan, F

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of Theileria annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, by PCR in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle. The assay employs primers specific for the gene encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. A 721-bp fragment was amplified from blood samples taken monthly from calves experimentally infected with one of four different stocks of T. annulata originating in either Mauritania, Portugal, Spain, or Turkey. At the end of the experiment, five animals carried the infection for 12 months and two animals remained infected for 15 months. DNAs from six other Theileria species, T. parva, T. mutans, T. sergenti, T. buffeli, T. velifera, and T. taurotragi, were not amplified. Moreover, DNAs from four other hemoparasites (Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina) were also not amplified. As a control, primers derived from the small subunit rRNA gene of Theileria spp. amplified a 1.1-kb DNA fragment from all Theileria species examined but not from the other four hemoparasites. As few as two to three parasites per microliter of infected blood in a 50-microliters sample volume were detected by Southern or microplate hybridization with a T. annulata-specific cDNA probe. In addition, 92 field samples obtained from cattle in Spain were tested; 22% were positive in blood smears, 40% were positive by immunofluorescent antibody test, and 75% were positive for T. annulata by PCR. The method provides a useful diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata carrier cattle. PMID:8567902

  8. Recruitment of EB1, a Master Regulator of Microtubule Dynamics, to the Surface of the Theileria annulata Schizont

    KAUST Repository

    Woods, Kerry L.; Theiler, Romina; Mü hlemann, Marcus; Segiser, Adrian; Huber, Sandra; Ansari, Hifzur R.; Pain, Arnab; Dobbelaere, Dirk A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell

  9. Induction of protective immunity to Theileria annulata using two major merozoite surface antigens presented by different delivery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. D'Oliveira; A. Feenstra; H.W. Vos (Helma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.R. Shiels; A.W.C.A. Cornelissen; F. Jongejan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAllelic forms (Tams1-1 and Tams1-2) of the major merozoite surface antigen gene of Theileria annulata have recently been expressed in Escherichia coli and in Salmonella typhimurium aroA vaccine strain SL3261. To test the potential of subunit vaccines against T. annulata infection, we

  10. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

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    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  11. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts

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    Isabel Hostettler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48–72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development.

  12. Prevalence of Theileria annulata in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan

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    Ismail A. Abaker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis. Materials and Methods: Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one <1 year old, group two 1-3 years old, and group three older than 3 years. These cattle were indigenous and cross (Friesian X zebu. A total of 150 blood samples were collected for blood smears, blood in EDTA tubes, and serum samples as well as ticks infesting cattle. Three diagnostic techniques were used such as blood smear, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 150 samples, 11 (7.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.1-5.5 were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in the blood smears, 70 (46.7%, 95% CI: 35.7-57.7 were positive for Theileria annulata antibodies in the IFAT, and of 100 samples, 39 (39%, 95% CI: 46.6-31.4 were positive for T. annulata using PCR. The prevalence of T. annulata was higher in indigenous breed than cross cattle by the three diagnostic techniques. The highest prevalence of T. annulata was recorded among cattle older than 3 years old. There were three genera and ten species of ticks found feeding on cattle. These were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedrii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma truncatum, Amblyomma variegatum, and Amblyomma lepidum. Conclusion: The study concluded that tropical theileriosis is prevalent among dairy cattle in Nyala. H. anatolicum was found in very low numbers, suggesting other ticks may play a role in the transmission of the disease. Molecular characterization of T. annulata is recommended for accurate mapping of the disease and evaluates the magnitude problem of

  13. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Tams1 of Theileria annulata isolates from three continents between 2000 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiay; Yang, Xianyong; Wang, Yuge; Jing, Zhihong; Meng, Kai; Liu, Jianzhu; Guo, Huijun; Xu, Ruixue; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Theileria annulata, which is part of the Theileria sergenti/Theileria buffeli/Theileria orientalis group, preferentially infects cattle and results in high mortality and morbidity in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Central Asia. The polypeptide Tams1 is an immunodominant major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen of T. annulata that could be used as a marker for epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analysis. In the present study, a total of 155 Tams1 sequences were investigated for genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships through phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that the Tams1 sequences were divided into two major groups and that distribution for some isolates also exhibited geographic specificity. As targeting polymorphic genes for parasite detection may result in underestimation of infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using two different probes targeting tams-1 genes of these two groups can be more credible. In addition, the direction of the spread of the disease was discovered to be from the Mediterranean or the tropical zone to the Eurasian peninsula, Middle East, Southern Asia, and Africa, particularly for Group 2. A similar occurrence was also found between the Ms1 gene of Theileria lestoquardi and the Tams1 gene of T. annulata, which explains cross-immunogenicity to a certain extent. However, no potential glycosylation site in the Tams1 of T. annulata was found in this study, which illustrated that instead of N-glycosylation, other modifications have more significant effects on the immunogenicity of the Tams1 protein.

  14. Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento epidemiológico de la theileriosis (Theileria annulata) en Extremadura

    OpenAIRE

    Rol Díaz, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    En la memoria presentada se pueden encontrar tres apartados bien diferenciados. En el primero de ellos, se establece la cronobiología y distribución de los ixodidos que parasitan en los bovinos de la comarca de Cáceres. Se establecen los datos relativos a la incidencia y prevalencia de los ixodidos parásitos. En el segundo apartado, se establecen los ixodidos vectores de este protozoo llegando a determinar qué especies y cuáles no son capaces de albergar y transmitir a theileria annulata...

  15. Evolution and diversity of secretome genes in the apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata

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    Shiels Brian R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how apicomplexan parasites have evolved to infect different host species and cell types. Theileria annulata and Theileria parva invade and transform bovine leukocytes but each species favours a different host cell lineage. Parasite-encoded proteins secreted from the intracellular macroschizont stage within the leukocyte represent a critical interface between host and pathogen systems. Genome sequencing has revealed that several Theileria-specific gene families encoding secreted proteins are positively selected at the inter-species level, indicating diversification between the species. We extend this analysis to the intra-species level, focusing on allelic diversity of two major secretome families. These families represent a well-characterised group of genes implicated in control of the host cell phenotype and a gene family of unknown function. To gain further insight into their evolution and function, this study investigates whether representative genes of these two families are diversifying or constrained within the T. annulata population. Results Strong evidence is provided that the sub-telomerically encoded SVSP family and the host-nucleus targeted TashAT family have evolved under contrasting pressures within natural T. annulata populations. SVSP genes were found to possess atypical codon usage and be evolving neutrally, with high levels of nucleotide substitutions and multiple indels. No evidence of geographical sub-structuring of allelic sequences was found. In contrast, TashAT family genes, implicated in control of host cell gene expression, are strongly conserved at the protein level and geographically sub-structured allelic sequences were identified among Tunisian and Turkish isolates. Although different copy numbers of DNA binding motifs were identified in alleles of TashAT proteins, motif periodicity was strongly maintained, implying conserved functional activity of these sites. Conclusions

  16. Growth of Theileria annulata and Theileria parva macroschizont-infected bovine cells in immunodeficient mice: effect of irradiation and tumour load on lymphocyte subsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, A.H.; Preston, P.M. (Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    Bovine cells infected with macroschizonts of the protozoan parasites Theileria annulata and Theileria parva formed solid tumours when injected into irradiated Balb/c and irradiated Balb/c nude mice. T. annulata tumours grew more vigorously than T. parva tumours, when initiated with similar doses of infected cells in mice exposed to the same doses of gamma-irradiation. In irradiated Balb/c mice, tumours of both species of parasites began to regress 2-3 weeks after injection of cells but grew without regression in irradiated Balb/c nude mice. Haemorrhage and necrosis of tumours, induced by macrophages and neutrophils, were seen in both mouse strains but were insufficient to cause regression in Balb/c nude mice. Theileria-infected bovine cells failed to establish in C57 beige mice, which lack functional natural killer (NK) cells. Flow cytometry, using monoclonal antibodies to murine leukocyte/lymphocyte antigens, showed that the radiation dose required to allow establishment of T. annulata tumours in Balb/c mice caused a severe depletion of splenic lymphocytes. B cells, helper T and cytotoxic T cells showed differing levels of susceptibility to irradiation. (Author).

  17. Growth of Theileria annulata and Theileria parva macroschizont-infected bovine cells in immunodeficient mice: effect of irradiation and tumour load on lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, A.H.; Preston, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Bovine cells infected with macroschizonts of the protozoan parasites Theileria annulata and Theileria parva formed solid tumours when injected into irradiated Balb/c and irradiated Balb/c nude mice. T. annulata tumours grew more vigorously than T. parva tumours, when initiated with similar doses of infected cells in mice exposed to the same doses of gamma-irradiation. In irradiated Balb/c mice, tumours of both species of parasites began to regress 2-3 weeks after injection of cells but grew without regression in irradiated Balb/c nude mice. Haemorrhage and necrosis of tumours, induced by macrophages and neutrophils, were seen in both mouse strains but were insufficient to cause regression in Balb/c nude mice. Theileria-infected bovine cells failed to establish in C57 beige mice, which lack functional natural killer (NK) cells. Flow cytometry, using monoclonal antibodies to murine leukocyte/lymphocyte antigens, showed that the radiation dose required to allow establishment of T. annulata tumours in Balb/c mice caused a severe depletion of splenic lymphocytes. B cells, helper T and cytotoxic T cells showed differing levels of susceptibility to irradiation. (Author)

  18. Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection in cattle in North Africa

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    Mohamed Gharbi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection is a protozoan disease of cattle transmitted by Hyalomma ticks. This parasite is causing high losses in several countries in South Europe, North Africa and Asia. Indeed, both symptomatic and subclinical forms are present in infected animals causing live weight decrease, milk yield decrease, abortions and in some cases death. Due to its high medical and financial impact, the control of this disease is of paramount importance. It can be implemented through five control measures: (i treatment of infected animals with theilericidal drugs and other symptomatic treatments (this option is used for the treatment of animals and is insufficient to eradicate the parasite, (ii use of acaricides in animals which contain several side effects for humans, animals and the environment, (iii roughcasting and smoothing of the outer and inner surfaces of the cattle buildings for endophilic tick species (this control option is expensive but leads to the eradication of the parasite from the farm, (iv vaccination against ticks, a control option used with success against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus species but not still available for Hyalomma ticks and (v vaccination against the parasite with live attenuated vaccines. These control options were presented in the paper and their advantages and limits were discussed. The implementation of one (or more of these control options should take into account other considerations (social, political, etc.; they sometimes cause the failure of the control action.

  19. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein–Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein–Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattl...

  20. Expression of Tac antigen component of bovine interleukin-2 receptor in different leukocyte populations infected with Theileria parva or Theileria annulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbelaere, D A; Prospero, T D; Roditi, I J; Kelke, C; Baumann, I; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O; Ahmed, J S; Baldwin, C L; Clevers, H

    1990-01-01

    The Tac antigen component of the bovine interleukin-2 receptor was expressed as a Cro-beta-galactosidase fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used to raise antibodies in rabbits. These antibodies were used for flow cytofluorimetric analysis to investigate the expression of Tac antigen in a variety of Theileria parva-infected cell lines and also in three Theileria annulata-infected cell lines. Cells expressing Tac antigen on their surface were found in all T. parva-infected cell lines tested whether these were of T- or B-cell origin. T cells expressing Tac antigen could be CD4- CD8-, CD4+ CD8-, CD4- CD8+, or CD4+ CD8+. Tac antigen expression was observed both in cultures which had been maintained in the laboratory for several years and in transformed cell lines which had recently been established by infection of lymphocytes in vitro with T. parva. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrated Tac antigen transcripts in RNA isolated from all T. parva-infected cell lines. Three T. annulata-infected cell lines which were not of T-cell origin were also tested. Two of them expressed Tac antigen on their surface. Abundant Tac antigen mRNA was detected in these T. annulata-infected cell lines, but only trace amounts were demonstrated in the third cell line, which contained very few Tac antigen-expressing cells. In all cell lines tested, whether cloned or uncloned, a proportion of the cells did not express detectable levels of Tac antigen on their surface. This was also the case for a number of other leukocyte surface markers. In addition, we showed that the interleukin-2 receptors were biologically functional, because addition of recombinant interleukin-2 to cultures stimulated cell proliferation. Recombinant interleukin-2 treatment also resulted in increased amounts of steady-state Tac antigen mRNA. The relevance of interleukin-2 receptor expression on Theileria-infected cells is discussed. Images PMID:1979317

  1. ApiAP2 Factors as Candidate Regulators of Stochastic Commitment to Merozoite Production in Theileria annulata.

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    Marta Pieszko

    Full Text Available Differentiation of one life-cycle stage to the next is critical for survival and transmission of apicomplexan parasites. A number of studies have shown that stage differentiation is a stochastic process and is associated with a point that commits the cell to a change over in the pattern of gene expression. Studies on differentiation to merozoite production (merogony in T. annulata postulated that commitment involves a concentration threshold of DNA binding proteins and an auto-regulatory loop.In this study ApiAP2 DNA binding proteins that show changes in expression level during merogony of T. annulata have been identified. DNA motifs bound by orthologous domains in Plasmodium were found to be enriched in upstream regions of stage-regulated T. annulata genes and validated as targets for the T. annulata AP2 domains by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Two findings were of particular note: the gene in T. annulata encoding the orthologue of the ApiAP2 domain in the AP2-G factor that commits Plasmodium to gametocyte production, has an expression profile indicating involvement in transmission of T. annulata to the tick vector; genes encoding related domains that bind, or are predicted to bind, sequence motifs of the type 5'-(ACACAC(A are implicated in differential regulation of gene expression, with one gene (TA11145 likely to be preferentially up-regulated via auto-regulation as the cell progresses to merogony.We postulate that the Theileria factor possessing the AP2 domain orthologous to that of Plasmodium AP2-G may regulate gametocytogenesis in a similar manner to AP2-G. In addition, paralogous ApiAP2 factors that recognise 5'-(ACACAC(A type motifs could operate in a competitive manner to promote reversible progression towards the point that commits the cell to undergo merogony. Factors possessing AP2 domains that bind (or are predicted to bind this motif are present in the vector-borne genera Theileria, Babesia and Plasmodium, and other

  2. Recruitment of EB1, a Master Regulator of Microtubule Dynamics, to the Surface of the Theileria annulata Schizont

    KAUST Repository

    Woods, Kerry L.

    2013-05-09

    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs) surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell\\'s astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability). Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton. 2013 Woods et al.

  3. Recruitment of EB1, a master regulator of microtubule dynamics, to the surface of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Woods

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell's astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability. Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1, a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton.

  4. Rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata by recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow strip (LF-RPA) in epidemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-15

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection contributes to the formulation of strategies to eradicate this parasite. A simple and efficient diagnostic tool, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip, was used in detection of Theileria and compared to other methods that require expensive instruments and skilled personnel. Herein, we established and optimized an LF-RPA method to detect the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata mitochondrial DNA from experimentally infected and field-collected blood samples. This method has many unparalleled characteristics, including that it is rapid (clear detection in 5min at constant temperature), sensitive (the limitation of detection is at least 2pg genomic DNA), and specific (no cross-reaction with other piroplasms that infect cattle). The LF-RPA assay was evaluated via testing 17 field blood samples and comparing the results of that of a PCR, showing 100% agreement, which demonstrates the ability of the LF-RPA assay to detect T. annulata infections in small number of samples (n=17). Taken together, the results indicate that this method could be used as an ideal diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata in endemic regions with limited to fewer and local resources and could also be a potential technique for the surveillance and control of blood protozoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In silico analysis of Ta9 gene polymorphism in an Iranian Theileria annulata schizont-infected cell line S15 vaccine strain and native isolates

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    Habibi, G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by obligate intracellular parasites related to the genus Theileria. Cellular immune responses protect cattle against pathogens through the activation of immune cells. Nowadays, live, attenuated vaccine of Theileria annulata (T. annulata is being produced in Iran and is recommended for active cattle immunization. Detection of the immunogenic antigens and epitopes recognized by CD8+ T Lymphocytes is vital for the development of recombinant and subunit vaccines. Herein, sequences of the genes encoding Ta9, which is an important antigen recognized by bovine CD8+ T cells specific for T. annulata, in Iranian S15 vaccine strains, several Iranian isolates, as well as reference Ta9 DNA sequences registered in GeneBank were compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The obtained data from DNA sequences were analyzed by using "Nucleotide", "Blast n", "BioEdit" and "IEDB" softwares. The results showed high level of variation in nucleotides and amino acids level. The observed polymorphism in Ta9 gene sequences of Iranian vaccine strains and some isolates from Iran demonstrated that this antigen contains polymorphic sequences and is active along with the specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC of the host. Polymorphic sequences and specific epitopes of Ta9 gene for CD8+ T cell provides an explanation for incomplete protection observed after inoculation of heterologous parasites in vaccinated cattle. These results have important implications for the application of Ta9 antigen for developing novel subunit vaccines.

  6. Natural infection rates and transmission of Theileria annulata by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in the Sudan

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    D.A. Salih

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were collected from two localities in the Sudan: Eddamer in Northern Sudan and Wad-Medani in Central Sudan. They were allowed to moult to adult ticks, which were assessed for Theileria infection in their salivary glands using Feulgen stain. At Eddamer, 49.6 % of 123 ticks examined were infected with Theileria and the mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (i.e. the number of infected acini / number of infected ticks. At Wad-Medani, 8.6 % of 162 ticks were infected and the mean intensity of infection was 7.9. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than in male ticks at both localities. When adult H. a. anatolicum were applied onto two susceptible calves, both animals developed the severe form of theileriosis.

  7. Population Genetic Analysis of Theileria annulata from Six Geographical Regions in China, Determined on the Basis of Micro- and Mini-satellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Salih, Diaeldin A; Li, Youquan; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Theileria annulata , a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan, causes a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle with high prevalence in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Understanding the genetic diversity and structure of local populations will provide more fundamental knowledge for the population genetics and epidemics of protozoa. In this study, 78 samples of T. annulata collected from cattle/yaks representing 6 different geographic populations in China were genotyped using eight micro- and mini-satellite markers. High genetic variation within population, moderate genetic differentiation, and high level of diversity co-occurring with significant linkage disequilibrium were observed, which indicates there is gene flow between these populations in spite of the existence of reproductive and geographical barriers among populations. Furthermore, some degree of genetic differentiation was also found between samples from China and Oman. These findings provide a first glimpse of the genetic diversity of the T. annulata populations in China, and might contribute to the knowledge of distribution, dynamics, and epidemiology of T. annulata populations and optimize the management strategies for control.

  8. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...... in infected buffaloes was more prominent than in infected cattle with persistence of some lesions after recovery as corneal opacity and pulmonary lesions. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in RBCS count, PCV%, hemoglobin amount and WBCs in the infected animals comparing to the healthy...

  9. Screening and identification of host proteins interacting with Theileria annulata cysteine proteinase (TaCP by yeast-two-hybrid system

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    Shuaiyang Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theileria annulata can infect monocytes/macrophages and B lymphocytes and causes severe lymphoproliferative disease in ruminants. Meanwhile, infection by T. annulata leads to the permanent proliferation of cell population through regulating signaling pathways of host cells. Cysteine proteinases (CPs are one kind of protein hydrolase and usually play critical roles in parasite virulence, host invasion, nutrition and host immune response. However, the biological function of T. annulata CP (TaCP is still unclear. In this study, a yeast-two-hybrid assay was performed to screen host proteins interacting with TaCP, to provide information to help our understanding of the molecular mechanisms between T. annulata and host cells. Methods The cDNA from purified bovine B cells was inserted into pGADT7-SfiI vector (pGADT7-SfiI-BcDNA, Prey plasmid for constructing the yeast two-hybrid cDNA library. TaCP was cloned into the pGBKT7 vector (pGBKT7-TaCP and was considered as bait plasmid after evaluating the expression, auto-activation and toxicity tests in the yeast strain Y2HGold. The yeast two-hybrid screening was carried out via co-transforming bait and prey plasmids into yeast strain Y2HGold. Sequences of positive preys were analyzed using BLAST, Gene Ontology, UniProt and STRING. Results Two host proteins, CRBN (Bos taurus cereblon transcript variant X2 and Ppp4C (Bos indicus protein phosphatase 4 catalytic subunit were identified to interact with TaCP. The results of functional analysis showed that the two proteins were involved in many cellular processes, such as ubiquitylation regulation, microtubule organization, DNA repair, cell apoptosis and maturation of spliceosomal snRNPs. Conclusions This study is the first to screen the host proteins of bovine B cells interacting with TaCP, and 2 proteins, CRBN and Ppp4C, were identified using yeast two-hybrid technique. The results of functional analysis suggest that the two proteins are

  10. Lymphocytes and macrophages are infected by Theileria equi, but T cells and B cells are not required to establish infection in vivo.

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    Joshua D Ramsay

    Full Text Available Theileria equi has a biphasic life cycle in horses, with a period of intraleukocyte development followed by patent erythrocytic parasitemia that causes acute and sometimes fatal hemolytic disease. Unlike Theileria spp. that infect cattle (Theileria parva and Theileria annulata, the intraleukocyte stage (schizont of Theileria equi does not cause uncontrolled host cell proliferation or other significant pathology. Nevertheless, schizont-infected leukocytes are of interest because of their potential to alter host cell function and because immune responses directed against this stage could halt infection and prevent disease. Based on cellular morphology, Theileria equi has been reported to infect lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro, but the specific phenotype of schizont-infected cells has yet to be defined. To resolve this knowledge gap in Theileria equi pathogenesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected in vitro and the phenotype of infected cells determined using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. These experiments demonstrated that the host cell range of Theileria equi was broader than initially reported and included B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. To determine if B and T lymphocytes were required to establish infection in vivo, horses affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, which lack functional B and T lymphocytes, were inoculated with Theileria equi sporozoites. SCID horses developed patent erythrocytic parasitemia, indicating that B and T lymphocytes are not necessary to complete the Theileria equi life cycle in vivo. These findings suggest that the factors mediating Theileria equi leukocyte invasion and intracytoplasmic differentiation are common to several leukocyte subsets and are less restricted than for Theileria annulata and Theileria parva. These data will greatly facilitate future investigation into the relationships between Theileria equi leukocyte tropism and pathogenesis

  11. miR-126-5p by direct targeting of JNK-interacting protein-2 (JIP-2) plays a key role in Theileria-infected macrophage virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak; Rchiad, ‍ Zineb; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Ben Rached, Fathia; Tajeri, Shahin; Latre De Late, Perle; Langsley, Gordon; Pain, Arnab

    2018-01-01

    Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells

  12. Bovine immunity - a driver for diversity in Theileria parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Declan J

    2009-06-01

    Theileria parva and Theileria annulata are tick-borne parasites of cattle that infect and transform leukocytes, causing severe and often fatal parasitic leukoses. Both species provoke strong immunity against subsequent infection. However, considerable diversity is observed in field populations of each parasite and protection is only assured against homologous challenge. The life cycles of these parasites are complex and involve prolonged exposure to host and vector defence mechanisms. Although the relevant vector mechanisms are poorly defined, protective responses of cattle seem to be tightly focused and variable in their specificity between individuals. This review considers whether bovine immunity acts as a driver for diversity in T. parva and T. annulata and explores other factors that might underlie genetic variation in these parasites.

  13. Detection of Theileria and Babesia species in ticks collected from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ica, A; Vatansever, Z; Yildirim, A; Duzlu, O; Inci, A

    2007-09-01

    The present study was carried out to detect tick species that infest cattle, and Theileria and Babesia species transmitted by these ticks in Kayseri province (Turkey). A total of 300 cattle were examined for tick infestations. Of the 300 cattle, 117 (39%) were infested with ticks. A total of 1160 ticks belonging to 11 Ixodid genera were collected from the infested animals and their shelters. The most prevalent tick species was Boophilus annulatus 26.37% (306/1160) followed by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum 21.12% (245/1160) and Rhipicephalus turanicus 18.7% (217/1160). The collected ticks were separated into 43 tick pools, according to their species. These pools were examined for bovine Theileria and Babesia species (Theileria sp., Babesia sp., Theileria annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and B. divergens) by using the reverse line blotting method (RLB). Of the 43 tick pools examined, 6 (14%) were infected with B. bigemina, 4 (9.3%) with T. annulata, and 1 (2.3%) with Babesia sp., whereas 1 (2.3%) displayed mixed infection with T. annulata + B. bigemina. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses of Babesia sp., which could not be identified to the species level by RLB, were performed. In the phylogenetic tree, Babesia sp. (Kayseri 1) grouped with Babesia sp. (Kashi 2), Babesia sp. (Kashi 1), Babesia sp. (Xinjiang) and B. orientalis with 96.8-100% identity.

  14. Citrus stand ages regulate the fraction alteration of soil organic carbon under a citrus/Stropharua rugodo-annulata intercropping system in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Zhang, Tong; Xie, Deti

    2017-08-01

    Soil carbon fractionation is a valuable indicator in assessing stabilization of soil organic matter and soil quality. However, limited studies have addressed how different vegetation stand ages under intercropping agroforestry systems, could affect organic carbon (OC) accumulation in bulk soil and its physical fractions. A field study thus investigated the impact of citrus plantation age (15-, 25-, and 45-year citrus) on the bulk soil organic carbon (SOC) and SOC fractions and yields of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (SRA) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, Chongqing, China. Results indicated that the intercropping practice of SRA with citrus significantly increased the SOC by 57.4-61.6% in topsoil (0-10 cm) and by 24.8-39.9% in subsoil (10-30 cm). With a significantly higher enhancement under the 25-year citrus stand than the other two stands, all these citrus stands of three ages also resulted in a significant increase of free particulate OC (fPOC, 60.1-62.4% in topsoil and 34.8-46.7% in subsoil), intra-micro aggregate particulate OC (iPOC, 167.6-206.0% in topsoil and 2.77-61.09% in subsoil), and mineral-associated OC (MOC, 43.6-46.5% in topsoil and 26.0-51.5% in subsoil). However, there were no significant differences in yields of SRA under three citrus stands. Our results demonstrated that citrus stand ages did play an important role in soil carbon sequestration and fractionation under a citrus/SRA intercropping system, which could therefore provide a sustainable agroforestry system to enhance concurrently the SOC accumulation while mitigating farmland CO 2 emission.

  15. A molecular survey of bovine Theileria parasites among apparently healthy cattle and with a note on the distribution of ticks in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir

    2006-06-15

    A survey of Theileria parasites in cattle in eastern Turkey was carried out using specific polymerase chain reaction. A total of 252 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cattle between June and July 2004. Of 252 blood samples examined, 41 (16%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy, whereas 114 (45%) were positive for the presence of at least one species of Theileria by PCR. The percentages of positive animals for Theileria annulata and benign Theileria species (Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis) were 39% (99/252) and 7% (18/252), respectively. By allele-specific PCR examination of 18 field isolates which were positive for benign Theileria parasites, 8 samples were only amplified by B-type specific primers and 10 samples were amplified by both of the B and C-type specific primers, indicating a mixed infection with B and C-type of the parasite. None of the field isolates was amplified by I-type specific primers. Three samples were co-infected with T. annulata and benign Theileria parasites. Two of them which were infected with B-type parasite were also infected with T. annulata, the other sample which was infected both of B and C-type parasites was also infected with T. annulata. A total of 724 ixodid ticks were collected from the cattle. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the dominant species with 32% (230/724) in the region. H. a. excavatum, Boophylus annulatus and Rhipicephalus bursa represented 25% (183/724), 19% (140/724) and 15% (112/724) of the total number of ticks, respectively. R. sanguineus was the minor species and represented 8% (59/724) of the tick population.

  16. Molecular surveillance of Theileria parasites of livestock in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahdi, Amira; Alqamashoui, Badar; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Kose, Onur; Tageldin, Mohammed H; Bobade, Patrick; Johnson, Eugene H; Hussain, Abdel-Rahim; Karagenc, Tulin; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Babiker, Hamza

    2017-08-01

    Theileriosis is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of livestock in the Arabian Peninsula, and causes high rates of mortality and morbidity in sheep and cattle. However, there is a paucity of information on the distribution of Theileria spp. over the whole region and their impact on different hosts. The present study carried out a country-wide molecular survey for Theileria spp. of livestock in Oman across four governorates. The aim of the survey was to define the prevalence of Theileria spp. in cattle, sheep and goats, highlight risk factors for infection and identify the main tick species involved in parasite transmission. A total of 2020 animals were examined in the survey consisting of sheep [n=592], goats [n=981] and cattle [n=447]. All three species were raised and co-grazed on the same farms. Theileria parasites were detected using PCR-RFLP and RLB of the 18S rRNA gene. Cloning and sequencing of the 18S rRNA was carried out on 11 T. lestoquardi isolates from Ash-Sharqiyah, and Ad-Dhahira governorates, and phylogenetic relationships were inferred using additional sequences of T. lestoquardi, T. annulata and T. ovis available in GenBank. Theileria spp. prevalence was 72.3%, 36.7% and 2.7% among cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Strong similarity in results was obtained using RLB and PCR-RFLP for detection of Theileria spp. however, RLB detected a higher rate of mixed infection than PCR-RFPL (POman in the same clade as other T. lestoquardi strains isolated from the same regional area (Iraq and Iran). The main tick species, identified on the examined animals, Hyalomma anatolicum, was widely distributed and was found in all of the surveyed governorates. Theileria spp. are widespread in Oman with variable prevalence detected in different regions. Two economically important hosts, cattle and sheep are at high risk from virulent T. annulata and T. lestoquardi, respectively. The survey indicates extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of infection

  17. Molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Aydin, M Fatih; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2008-12-20

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and distribution of tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in apparently healthy cattle in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey. A total of 389 blood samples were collected from the animals of various ages in six provinces in the region. Prevalence of infection was determined by reverse line blot (RLB) assay. The hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified with a set of primers for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Amplified PCR products were hybridized onto a membrane to which generic- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes were covalently linked. RLB hybridization identified infection in 16.19% of the samples. Blood smears were also examined microscopically for Theileria and/or Babesia spp. and 5.14% were positive. All samples shown to be positive by microscopy also tested positive with RLB assay. Two Theileria (T. annulata and T. buffeli/orientalis) and three Babesia (B. bigemina, B. major and Babesia sp.) species or genotypes were identified in the region. Babesia sp. genotype shared 99% similarity with the previously reported sequences of Babesia sp. Kashi 1, Babesia sp. Kashi 2 and Babesia sp. Kayseri 1. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli/orientalis, present in 11.56% of the samples. T. annulata was identified in five samples (1.28%). Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. bigemina was found in three samples (0.77%), B. major in two samples (0.51%) and Babesia sp. in five samples (1.28%). A single animal infected with T. buffeli/orientalis was also infected with B. bigemina.

  18. Comparative genome analysis of three eukaryotic parasites with differing abilities to transform leukocytes reveals key mediators of theileria-induced leukocyte transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashida, Kyoko

    2012-09-04

    We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmo-dium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. 2012 Hayashida et al. T.

  19. Spatial distribution, risk factors and haemato-biochemical alterations associated with Theileria equi infected equids of Punjab (India) diagnosed by indirect ELISA and nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbria, Deepak; Singla, L D; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Amrita; Dahiya, Rajesh K; Setia, Raj

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a febrile, tick-borne disease of equids predominately caused by obligatory intra-erythrocytic protozoa Theileria equi in the Indian sub-continent. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 464 equids (426 horses and 38 donkeys/mules) in Punjab, India to assess the level of exposure to equine piroplasmosis by 18S rRNA gene nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and equine merozoite antigen-2 (EMA2) indirect-ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), to investigate risk factors and haemato-biochemical alterations associated with the infection. The endemicity of the disease was confirmed by positive PCR amplification in 21.77% and positive antibody titers in 49.78% equid samples. There was a fair agreement between these two diagnostic techniques (Kappa coefficient=0.326). The spatial distribution analysis revealed an increasing trend of T. equi prevalence from north-eastern to south-western region of Punjab by both the techniques correspondingly, which proffered a direct relation with temperature and inverse with humidity variables. The relatively prominent risk factor associated with sero-positivity was the presence of other domestic animals in the herd, while the propensity of finding a positive PCR amplification was higher in donkeys/mules, animal kept at unorganised farm or those used for commercial purposes as compared to their counterparts. There was a significant increase in globulins, gamma glutamyl-transferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, glucose levels and decrease in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume by animals, which were revealed positive by nPCR (may or may not positive by indirect-ELISA) and increase in creatinine, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, glucose and decrease in total erythrocytes count by animals, which were revealed positive by indirect-ELISA (alone). To our knowledge, this study, for the first time, brings out a comprehensive report on the status on spatial

  20. Animal level risk factors associated with Babesia and Theileria infections in cattle in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; Salama, Akram; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd-El-Salam; Elsify, Ahmed; El-Ashkar, Maged; Ibrahim, Hussam; Youssef, Mohamed; El-Khodery, Sabry

    2017-12-20

    In present study, blood samples were collected randomly from 439 cows at three main regions of Egypt (northern, central and southern). Molecular diagnosis of Babesia and Theileria infections by PCR amplification of DNA (gene) fragments, then cloning and sequencing of the positive samples were conducted. A questionnaire was created to imply the assumed risk factors and logistic regression statistical analysis was carried out to appraise the potential factors on the animal level. The results revealed that 49 (11.16%) and 45 (10.25%) cattle were infected with Babesia and Theileria parasites, respectively. B. bigemina (7.97%) and T. annulata (9.56%) were the most prevalent parasites. For Babesia sp., final multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the infection and irregular use of antiprotozoal drugs (P = 0.003; OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.65), management practice (P = 0.029; OR: 6.66; 95% CI: 1.21-36.59) and ecology area (P = 0.006; OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.63-19.31). However, for Theileria sp. infection, animal breed (P = 0.003; OR: 0.44; 95% CI: .45-1.00) and irregular use of antiprotozoal drugs (PBabesia and Theileria sp. in Egypt based on molecular description. An impression on the potential risk factors associated with infections was obtained. Recognition of the potential risk factors associated with tick borne disease may be helpful to construct the best preventive measures.

  1. HK2 Recruitment to Phospho-BAD Prevents Its Degradation, Promoting Warburg Glycolysis by Theileria-Transformed Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Malak; Lombès, Anne; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Kennedy, Eileen J; Langsley, Gordon

    2017-03-10

    Theileria annulata infects bovine leukocytes, transforming them into invasive, cancer-like cells that cause the widespread disease called tropical theileriosis. We report that in Theileria-transformed leukocytes hexokinase-2 (HK2) binds to B cell lymphoma-2-associated death promoter (BAD) only when serine (S) 155 in BAD is phosphorylated. We show that HK2 recruitment to BAD is abolished by a cell-penetrating peptide that acts as a nonphosphorylatable BAD substrate that inhibits endogenous S155 phosphorylation, leading to complex dissociation and ubiquitination and degradation of HK2 by the proteasome. As HK2 is a critical enzyme involved in Warburg glycolysis, its loss forces Theileria-transformed macrophages to switch back to HK1-dependent oxidative glycolysis that down-regulates macrophage proliferation only when they are growing on glucose. When growing on galactose, degradation of HK2 has no effect on Theileria-infected leukocyte proliferation, because metabolism of this sugar is independent of hexokinases. Thus, targeted disruption of the phosphorylation-dependent HK2/BAD complex may represent a novel approach to control Theileria-transformed leukocyte proliferation.

  2. A PCR-based survey of selected Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Hadirampela, Dilhani Thilanka; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; Sukumar, Subramaniyam; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2012-11-23

    Hemoprotozoan parasites are responsible for significant economic losses in cattle. We screened Sri Lankan cattle populations for the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using species-specific PCR assays. Out of 316 samples collected from animals in four different districts of Sri Lanka (Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna), 231 (73.1%) were positive for at least one parasite species. All four parasite species were detected among the study groups from all of the districts surveyed. The first and second commonest hemoprotozoan parasites identified were T. orientalis (53.5%) and B. bigemina (30.1%), respectively. We found that the dry zones (Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna) had more Babesia-positive animals than the hill country wet zone (Nuwara Eliya). In contrast, T. orientalis was the predominant species detected in Nuwara Eliya, while infection with T. annulata was more common in the dry zones. In addition, 81 (35.1%) of the 231 positive samples were infected with more than one parasite species. The presence of multiple parasite species among the different cattle populations is of clinical and economic significance. Therefore, island-wide control and prevention programs against bovine babesiosis and theileriosis are needed to minimize the financial burden caused by these parasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Properties of non-coding DNA and identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Theileria parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites in the genus Theileria cause lymphoproliferative diseases in cattle, resulting in enormous socio-economic losses. The availability of the genome sequences and annotation for T. parva and T. annulata has facilitated the study of parasite biology and their relationship with host cell transformation and tropism. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation in this genus, which may be key to understanding fundamental aspects of its parasitology, remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyze the evolution of non-coding sequences in the Theileria genome and identify conserved sequence elements that may be involved in gene regulation of these parasitic species. Results Intergenic regions and introns in Theileria are short, and their length distributions are considerably right-skewed. Intergenic regions flanked by genes in 5'-5' orientation tend to be longer and slightly more AT-rich than those flanked by two stop codons; intergenic regions flanked by genes in 3'-5' orientation have intermediate values of length and AT composition. Intron position is negatively correlated with intron length, and positively correlated with GC content. Using stringent criteria, we identified a set of high-quality orthologous non-coding sequences between T. parva and T. annulata, and determined the distribution of selective constraints across regions, which are shown to be higher close to translation start sites. A positive correlation between constraint and length in both intergenic regions and introns suggests a tight control over length expansion of non-coding regions. Genome-wide searches for functional elements revealed several conserved motifs in intergenic regions of Theileria genomes. Two such motifs are preferentially located within the first 60 base pairs upstream of transcription start sites in T. parva, are preferentially associated with specific protein functional categories, and have significant similarity to know

  4. Detection of Babesia and Theileria species infection in cattle from Portugal using a reverse line blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A

    2010-12-15

    Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous Detection of Bovine Theileria and Babesia Species by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, J. M.; de Vos, A. P.; van der Weide, M.; Viseras, J.; Schouls, L. M.; de Vries, E.; Jongejan, F.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species. PMID:10325324

  6. TGF-b2 induction regulates invasiveness of Theileria-transformed leukocytes and disease susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chaussepied

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parasites invade and transform bovine leukocytes causing either East Coast fever (T. parva, or tropical theileriosis (T. annulata. Susceptible animals usually die within weeks of infection, but indigenous infected cattle show markedly reduced pathology, suggesting that host genetic factors may cause disease susceptibility. Attenuated live vaccines are widely used to control tropical theileriosis and attenuation is associated with reduced invasiveness of infected macrophages in vitro. Disease pathogenesis is therefore linked to aggressive invasiveness, rather than uncontrolled proliferation of Theileria-infected leukocytes. We show that the invasive potential of Theileria-transformed leukocytes involves TGF-b signalling. Attenuated live vaccine lines express reduced TGF-b2 and their invasiveness can be rescued with exogenous TGF-b. Importantly, infected macrophages from disease susceptible Holstein-Friesian (HF cows express more TGF-b2 and traverse Matrigel with great efficiency compared to those from disease-resistant Sahiwal cattle. Thus, TGF-b2 levels correlate with disease susceptibility. Using fluorescence and time-lapse video microscopy we show that Theileria-infected, disease-susceptible HF macrophages exhibit increased actin dynamics in their lamellipodia and podosomal adhesion structures and develop more membrane blebs. TGF-b2-associated invasiveness in HF macrophages has a transcription-independent element that relies on cytoskeleton remodelling via activation of Rho kinase (ROCK. We propose that a TGF-b autocrine loop confers an amoeboid-like motility on Theileria-infected leukocytes, which combines with MMP-dependent motility to drive invasiveness and virulence.

  7. Prevalence of Theileria annulata in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaker, Ismail A; Salih, Diaeldin A; Haj, Lima M El; Ahmed, Rawia E; Osman, Manal M; Ali, Awadia M

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis. Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one Darfur region.

  8. Milk losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouarda Ayadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the impact of tropical theileriosis onset on milk yield decrease in 10 local bred cows in Skikda (Northern Algeria during 2015 summer season. The milk yield decrease estimated weekly during two months was 2.76 L/day/cow corresponding to 31.92% of the total milk yield. This decrease corresponds to 110.5 Algerian Dinars (1.02 US$/day/diseased cow. The relative variation of milk yield showed a dramatic decrease from 82.72% to 0.76% at Day 21 then became constant. Further studies are needed to improve these estimations of financial losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis in Algeria.

  9. Theileria parasites secrete a prolyl isomerase to maintain host leukocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolier, J; Perichon, M; DeBarry, J D; Villoutreix, B O; Chluba, J; Lopez, T; Garrido, C; Zhou, X Z; Lu, K P; Fritsch, L; Ait-Si-Ali, S; Mhadhbi, M; Medjkane, S; Weitzman, J B

    2015-04-16

    Infectious agents develop intricate mechanisms to interact with host cell pathways and hijack their genetic and epigenetic machinery to change host cell phenotypic states. Among the Apicomplexa phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, which cause veterinary and human diseases, Theileria is the only genus that transforms its mammalian host cells. Theileria infection of bovine leukocytes induces proliferative and invasive phenotypes associated with activated signalling pathways, notably JNK and AP-1 (ref. 2). The transformed phenotypes are reversed by treatment with the theilericidal drug buparvaquone. We used comparative genomics to identify a homologue of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase PIN1 in T. annulata (TaPIN1) that is secreted into the host cell and modulates oncogenic signalling pathways. Here we show that TaPIN1 is a bona fide prolyl isomerase and that it interacts with the host ubiquitin ligase FBW7, leading to its degradation and subsequent stabilization of c-JUN, which promotes transformation. We performed in vitro and in silico analysis and in vivo zebrafish xenograft experiments to demonstrate that TaPIN1 is directly inhibited by the anti-parasite drug buparvaquone (and other known PIN1 inhibitors) and is mutated in a drug-resistant strain. Prolyl isomerization is thus a conserved mechanism that is important in cancer and is used by Theileria parasites to manipulate host oncogenic signalling.

  10. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. Copyright

  11. miR-126-5p by direct targeting of JNK-interacting protein-2 (JIP-2) plays a key role in Theileria-infected macrophage virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2018-03-23

    Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells and macrophages we identify a set of microRNAs induced by infection, whose expression diminishes upon loss of the hyper-disseminating phenotype of virulent transformed macrophages. We describe how infection-induced upregulation of miR-126-5p ablates JIP-2 expression to release cytosolic JNK to translocate to the nucleus and trans-activate AP-1-driven transcription of mmp9 to promote tumour dissemination. In non-disseminating attenuated macrophages miR-126-5p levels drop, JIP-2 levels increase, JNK1 is retained in the cytosol leading to decreased c-Jun phosphorylation and dampened AP-1-driven mmp9 transcription. We show that variation in miR-126-5p levels depends on the tyrosine phosphorylation status of AGO2 that is regulated by Grb2-recruitment of PTP1B. In attenuated macrophages Grb2 levels drop resulting in less PTP1B recruitment, greater AGO2 phosphorylation, less miR-126-5p associated with AGO2 and a consequent rise in JIP-2 levels. Changes in miR-126-5p levels therefore, underpin both the virulent hyper-dissemination and the attenuated dissemination of T. annulata-infected macrophages.

  12. Revision of the Cerobasis annulata group (Psocoptera: Trogiidae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baz, A.

    1993-01-01

    The species of the Cerobasis annulata group from the Canary Islands are revised. A key to the seven species is provided; the Holarctic C. annulata is added for comparison. Five new species are described: Cerobasis rosae spec. nov., C. ericaceus spec. nov., C. anagaensis spec. nov., C. longicornis

  13. A molecular survey of Theileria and Babesia parasites in cattle, with a note on the distribution of ticks in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'ghirbi, Y; Hurtado, A; Barandika, J F; Brandika, J; Khlif, K; Ketata, Z; Bouattour, A

    2008-07-01

    Between October and November 2006, a total of 278 bovine blood samples were examined, and 104 (37.4%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy. A reverse line blot hybridisation with polymerase chain reaction detected Theileria annulata, T. buffeli, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina in cattle accounting for 48.6% of positive samples. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli, which was present in 39.2% of the samples. T. annulata was found in 48 samples (17.3%). Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. bovis was found in 6.8% of the samples and B. bigemina in 4.3%. Mixed infections were detected in 45 samples, accounting for seven different combinations of species. Seven Ixodid tick species (Boophilus annulatus, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma excavatum, Hyalomma detritum, Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis sulcata) were collected from examined cattle in the 23 visited farms. I. ricinus was the dominant species (36%), mainly collected in the humid zone, while it seemed to be very rare in the semi-arid zone (where only 15 specimens were collected), whereas B. annulatus was the most commonly collected species in the sub-humid area (68.5% of ticks collected in this zone).

  14. Comparative evaluation of antibody positive titer by ELISA and IFA in Theileria annulata vaccinated cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Fesharki R.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to evaluate antibody positive titer in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle using schizont infected myeloid cells as an antigen. The result was compared with indirect fluorescent antibody level in the same animals. For this study 116 milking cows, 95 vaccinated and 21 non-vaccinated, were bleeded in order to prepare sera. They were tested with both ELISA and IFA tests. 94 sera had positive antibody titer and 22 sera were negative through ELISA test but, with IFA test, only 89 sera showed positive antibody titer and 27 were negative. Thereby, it was concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test in comparison with IFA test was 95.5 % and 66.6 % respectively. This study generally indicated that ELISA could be an effective test for seroepidemiological investigations of bovine tropical theileriosis, and it is considered to be valid as an additional test to distinguish the vaccinated from the non vaccinated cattle in order to schedule vaccination programs.

  15. [A Duplex PCR Method for Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yu-ting; Wang, Zhen-bao; Bolati; Li, Hai; Bayinchahan

    2015-04-01

    To develop a duplex PCR assay for detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Two pairs of primers were designed according to the BC48 gene of B. caballi and 18 s rRNA gene of T. equi, and a duplex PCR assay was developed by the optimization of reaction conditions. The specificity, sensitivity and reliability of the method were tested. The horse blood samples of suspected cases were collected from Yili region, and detected by the duplex PCR, microspopy, conventional PCR, and fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the results were compared. Using the duplex PCR assay, the specific fragments of 155 bp and 280 bp were amplified from DNA samples of B. caballi and T. equi, respectively. No specific fragment was amplified from DNA samples of B. bigemina, Theilerdia annulata, Theilerdia sergenti, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Trypanosoma evansi. The limit of detection was 4.85 x 10(5) copies/L for B. caballi DNA and 4.85 x 10(4) copies/µl for T. equi DNA, respectively. Among the 24 blood samples, 11 were found B. caballi-positive by the duplex PCR assay, and 18 were T. equi-positive. The coincidence rate of microscopy, conventional PCR, and fluorescence quantitative PCR with duplex PCR was 91.7% (22/24), 95.8% (23/24), and 95.8% (23/24), respectively. A duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of B. caballi and T. equi is established.

  16. Improvement of Theileria parva sporozoite vaccine against East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mobile Nav Footer Links ... Improvement of Theileria parva sporozoite vaccine against East Coast fever ... Mortality rates approach 90% in susceptible cattle, and animals that recover are long-term Theileria parva ... Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed) for technology distribution to endemic regions.

  17. Identification of novel Theileria genotypes from Grant's gazelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Hooge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples collected from Grant's gazelles (Nanger granti in Kenya were screened for hemoparasites using a combination of microscopic and molecular techniques. All 69 blood smears examined by microscopy were positive for hemoparasites. In addition, Theileria/Babesia DNA was detected in all 65 samples screened by PCR for a ~450-base pair fragment of the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of a subset of PCR amplicons revealed widespread co-infection (25/39 and the existence of two distinct Grant's gazelle Theileria subgroups. One group of 11 isolates clustered as a subgroup with previously identified Theileria ovis isolates from small ruminants from Europe, Asia and Africa; another group of 3 isolates clustered with previously identified Theileria spp. isolates from other African antelope. Based on extensive levels of sequence divergence (1.2–2% from previously reported Theileria species within Kenya and worldwide, the Theileria isolates detected in Grant's gazelles appear to represent at least two novel Theileria genotypes.

  18. Identification of novel Theileria genotypes from Grant's gazelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, Janis; Howe, Laryssa; Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2015-08-01

    Blood samples collected from Grant's gazelles (Nanger granti) in Kenya were screened for hemoparasites using a combination of microscopic and molecular techniques. All 69 blood smears examined by microscopy were positive for hemoparasites. In addition, Theileria/Babesia DNA was detected in all 65 samples screened by PCR for a ~450-base pair fragment of the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of a subset of PCR amplicons revealed widespread co-infection (25/39) and the existence of two distinct Grant's gazelle Theileria subgroups. One group of 11 isolates clustered as a subgroup with previously identified Theileria ovis isolates from small ruminants from Europe, Asia and Africa; another group of 3 isolates clustered with previously identified Theileria spp. isolates from other African antelope. Based on extensive levels of sequence divergence (1.2-2%) from previously reported Theileria species within Kenya and worldwide, the Theileria isolates detected in Grant's gazelles appear to represent at least two novel Theileria genotypes.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the geophilous grasshopper Trilophidia annulata (Acrididae: Oedipodinae: Trilophidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, De-Long; Xu, Sheng-Quan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of the geophilous grasshopper Trilophidia annulata was reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. After annotation, the circular genome was obtained with 16,501 bp in length, and typically consisted of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. All PCGs were initiated with ATN codons, except ND2 with the start codon GTG. Most of the PCGs used TAA as their stop codons, while the others used TAG as stop codons (COX1, COX3&ND1). The nucleotide composition was asymmetric (42.3% A, 15.0% C, 11.0% G, 31.8% T) with an overall GC content of 25.9%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary research of T. annulata.

  20. Informe sobre reptiles colombianos (I: Noticia sobre el primer hallazgo de la Tortuga Geoemyda Annulata (Gray en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medem Fred

    1956-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoemyda annulata fue descrita por Gray en 1860, del Ecuador (Esmeraldas. El typus y dos paratypus que se conservan en el British Museum (Boulenger, 1889: 127. Dunn (1945: 320 afirma que G. annulata es muy común en la Zona del Canal de Panamá. Schmidt (1946: 8 coleccionó material de dicha Zona, como también en Barro Colorado, isla situada en la misma región. El límite norte de la distribución geográfica para G. annulata aparentemente es Costa Rica (Chelopus gabbii, Cope, 1876, puesto que al menos desconozco datos exactos sobre su existencia más al norte.  En Colombia G. annulata no ha sido encontrada según Dunn (op. cit.: 320, quien sugirió como "muy probable" su presencia en este país. Durante la expedición "Operación Truandó" realizada por la Armada Nacional en julio de 1955, el autor logró hallar un ejemplar de G. annulata y pudo comprobar que dicha tortuga pertenece a la fauna colombiana.

  1. Observations on Dissocladella annulata (Elliott, 1993 nov. comb. (Calcareous algae, Dasycladales from the Cenomanian of west Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Rajka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on material from the type area at Tetrebovo in the Zlatibor massif of WSerbia, the Cenomanian dasycladalean alga originally described as Harlanjohnsonella annulata by ELLIOTT (1968, typified 1993 in: GRANIER & DELOFFRE, is emended and revisited as Dissocladella annulata (ELLIOTT nov. comb. The evidence of tufts of short secondaries arising at the top of the drop-like primaries allows its transfer to the genus Dissocladella PIA, 1936. This species displays a different degree of skeleton calcification which is described in detail. The monospecific genus Harlanjohnsonella ELLIOTT becomes invalid, as being a junior synonym of Dissocladella.

  2. Fungus gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta colombica function as egg nurseries for the snake Leptodeira annulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Kronauer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    by ant soldiers and that also newly hatched snakes manage to avoid ant attacks when they leaving their host colony. We speculate that L. annulata might use Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutter ant colonies as egg nurseries by some form of chemical insignificance, but more work is needed to understand...

  3. Comparative genome analysis of three eukaryotic parasites with differing abilities to transform leukocytes reveals key mediators of theileria-induced leukocyte transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    . annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within

  4. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  5. A molecular and haematological study of Theileria equi in Balkan donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitkov, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stanisic, Ljubodrag; Radakovic, Milena; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2017-06-01

    Equine piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognised as a serious problem of major economic importance. The present molecular study is the first investigation of the presence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Balkan donkeys and of the possible haematological alterations related to it. A total of 70 apparently healthy donkeys from Serbia were included in this study. The overall prevalence of T. equi infection in donkeys tested with multiplex PCR was 50%. There was no B. caballi-positive sample. Infections in donkeys included in this study seem to be associated with decreased red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and platelet count, and with increased white blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Altered haematological parameters in donkeys can lead to a decrease in working capacity and production performance. Further molecular research and long-term monitoring of equine piroplasmosis is needed in Serbia and throughout Europe.

  6. Molecular Detection of Theileria spp. in Livestock on Five Caribbean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theileria spp. are tick-transmitted, intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasites infecting a wide range of animals. As there is very limited information on the prevalence of Theileria spp. in the Caribbean we used the recently described genus-specific pan-Theileria FRET-qPCR to identify infected animals in the region and a standard 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing to determine the species involved. We found Theileria spp. in 9% of the convenience samples of animals (n=752 studied from five Caribbean islands. Donkeys (20.0%: 5/25 were most commonly infected, followed by sheep (17.4%, 25/144, cattle (6.8%; 22/325, goats (5.0%; 12/238, and horses (5.0%; 1/20. Six species of Theileria were identified: T. equi (donkeys, cattle, goats, and sheep, Theileria sp. OT3 (sheep and goats, Theileria sp. NG-2013a (cattle, Theileria sp. YW-2014 (donkeys, Theileria sp. B15a (goats, and Babesia vulpes or a closely related organism (sheep and goats. Only T. equi has been previously reported in the Caribbean. Our findings expand the known host ranges of Theileria spp. and the known distribution of the organisms around the world.

  7. Theileria Apicoplast as a Target for Chemotherapy▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lizundia, Regina; Werling, Dirk; Langsley, Gordon; Ralph, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Theileria parasites cause severe bovine disease and death in a large part of the world. These apicomplexan parasites possess a relic plastid (apicoplast), whose metabolic pathways include several promising drug targets. Putative inhibitors of these targets were screened, and we identified antiproliferative compounds that merit further characterization.

  8. Strategic control of ticks with synthetic pyrethroids in Theileria parva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tick control by strategic dipping in synthetic pyrethroids on growth and survival rates of calves in Eastern Tanzania where Theileria parva and other tick borne infections (babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis) are endemic was measured. One day to five months old Tanganyika short horn zebu (Bos indicus) ...

  9. Reclassification of Theileria annae as Babesia vulpes sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Cardoso, Luís; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2015-04-08

    Theileria annae is a tick-transmitted small piroplasmid that infects dogs and foxes in North America and Europe. Due to disagreement on its placement in the Theileria or Babesia genera, several synonyms have been used for this parasite, including Babesia Spanish dog isolate, Babesia microti-like, Babesia (Theileria) annae, and Babesia cf. microti. Infections by this parasite cause anemia, thrombocytopenia, and azotemia in dogs but are mostly subclinical in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Furthermore, high infection rates have been detected among red fox populations in distant regions strongly suggesting that these canines act as the parasite's natural host. This study aims to reassess and harmonize the phylogenetic placement and binomen of T. annae within the order Piroplasmida. Four molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed using a maximum likelihood algorithm based on DNA alignments of: (i) near-complete 18S rRNA gene sequences (n = 76 and n = 93), (ii) near-complete and incomplete 18S rRNA gene sequences (n = 92), and (iii) tubulin-beta gene sequences (n = 32) from B. microti and B. microti-related parasites including those detected in dogs and foxes. All phylogenetic trees demonstrate that T. annae and its synonyms are not Theileria parasites but are most closely related with B. microti. The phylogenetic tree based on the 18S rRNA gene forms two separate branches with high bootstrap value, of which one branch corresponds to Babesia species infecting rodents, humans, and macaques, while the other corresponds to species exclusively infecting carnivores. Within the carnivore group, T. annae and its synonyms from distant regions segregate into a single clade with a highly significant bootstrap value corroborating their separate species identity. Phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that T. annae and its synonyms do not pertain to Theileria and can be clearly defined as a separate species. Based on the facts that T. annae and its synonyms have not been

  10. Subclinical Theileria Equi Infection and Rhabdomyolysis in Three Endurance Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz1,2*, R. G. M. Rodríguez2, C. Riber1,2, P. Trigo2, M. Gómez-Díez2 and F. Castejon2

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three well-trained endurance horses, competing over different distances, developed sudden and unexpected rhabdomyolysis at the onset of exercise. They were treated and afterwards they did not have any other bout of muscle damage. All of them were positive to Theileria equi (polymerase reaction chain. The possible reasons of the rhabdomyolysis could have been the direct effect of the parasite on the muscle and/or the result of the anemia and a limited oxygen supply to the exercising muscles. It is suggested that the horses were carriers of Theileria and they developed clinical signs because of the immune-suppression caused by prolonged submaximal exercise and/or transportation.

  11. A PKA survival pathway inhibited by DPT-PKI, a new specific cell permeable PKA inhibitor, is induced by T. annulata in parasitized B-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergnon, Julien; Dessauge, Frederic; Traincard, François; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita; Bost, Pierre Etienne; Langsley, Gordon; Garcia, Alphonse

    2006-08-01

    T. annulata, an intracellular pathogenic parasite of the Aplicomplexa protozoan family infects bovine B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Parasitized cells that become transformed survive and proliferate independently of exogenous growth factors. In the present study, we used the isogenic non parasitized BL3 and parasitized TBL3 B cell lines, as a model to evaluate the contribution of two-major PI3-K- and PKA-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways in the survival of T. annulata parasitized B lymphocytes. We found that T. annulata increases PKA activity, induces over-expression of the catalytic subunit and down-regulates the pro-survival phosphorylation state of Akt/PKB. Consistent with a role of PKA activation in survival, two pharmacological inhibitors H89 and KT5720 ablate PKA-dependent survival of parasitized cells. To specifically inhibit PKA pro-survival pathways we linked the DPTsh1 peptide shuttle sequence to PKI(5-24) and we generated DPT-PKI, a cell permeable PKI. DPT-PKI specifically inhibited PKA activity in bovine cell extracts and, as expected, also inhibited the PKA-dependent survival of T. annulata parasitized TBL3 cells. Thus, parasite-dependent constitutive activation of PKA in TBL3 cells generates an anti-apoptotic pathway that can protect T. annulata-infected B cells from apoptosis. These results also indicate that DPT-PKI could be a powerful tool to inhibit PKA pathways in other cell types.

  12. Real-time PCR for detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Real-time PCR for detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi parasites in ticks. ... This study aimed to develop a real-time PCR screening test for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in ticks. Adult D. reticulatus were ... This test is suitable for application in epidemiological surveillance of equine babesiosis and theileriosis.

  13. Clinical investigation on Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in Italian donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Fulvio; Spaterna, Andrea; Faillace, Vanessa; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Ravagnan, Silvia; Beribé, Francesca; Cerquetella, Matteo; Meligrana, Marina; Tesei, Beniamino

    2015-04-28

    Interest in the welfare and diseases of donkeys is constantly increasing in several countries. Despite this, clinical research into donkeys needs to be in continual development since they show different reactions compared to horses in many conditions, including infectious diseases, and need specific clinical and therapeutic approaches. No reports are currently available on clinical and clinical pathology data regarding donkeys with natural piroplasms infection. Venous blood samples were taken from one hundred and thirty eight donkeys and underwent indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to detect IgG antibodies against Theileria equi and Babesia caballi and real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. Clinical examinations, haematological analyses and serum bilirubin evaluation were also performed and compared with positive or negative status. A seroprevalence of 40.6% and 47.8% was found for T. equi and B. caballi, respectively; double positivity was detected in 19.6% of the animals. PCR results showed that 17.4% of the animals tested positive for T.equi and 3.6% for B. caballi with no double positivity. Twelve donkeys (8.7%) had clinical signs consistent with chronic forms of the disease and no acute forms were detected. Fifty-eight donkeys had haematological and serum bilirubin alterations and 56 (96.6%) of them were IFAT and/or PCR positive. Changes in erythrocyte number, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, platelets number and total bilirubin were significantly associated with positive and symptomatic animals. Nonspecific clinical presentation seems to be very common in donkeys and several clinical pathology alterations persist after natural infection. Therefore, apparently healthy donkeys can have masked but severe clinical pathology alterations. Acute forms are very seldom observed in donkeys. Clinical monitoring of chronically infected donkeys is recommended since such animals

  14. Theileria parva infection induces autocrine growth of bovine lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbelaere, D A; Coquerelle, T M; Roditi, I J; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O

    1988-01-01

    Bovine lymphocytes infected with the parasite Theileria parva continuously secrete a growth factor that is essential for their proliferation in vitro and also constitutively express interleukin 2 receptors on their surface. Dilution of the secreted growth factor, caused by culturing cells at low density, results in retardation of culture growth. Human recombinant interleukin 2, however, effectively substitutes for the diluted growth factor by restoring normal growth rates and also allows Theileria-infected cells to be grown at low density without the use of feeder layers. Secretion of the growth factor and expression of the interleukin 2 receptor depend on the presence of the parasite in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Elimination of the parasite from the cell cytoplasm by the specific antitheilerial drug BW 720c results in the arrest of growth factor secretion and the disappearance of interleukin 2 receptors from the cell surface. This is accompanied by growth arrest and reversion of the infected cells to the morphology of resting lymphocytes. We propose that the continuous proliferation of infected cells in vitro is mediated by autocrine receptor activation. Images PMID:3133661

  15. Evaluation of a PCR and comparison with RLB for detection and differentiation of Theileria sp. MK and other Theileria and Babesia species of small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih

    2008-07-01

    Theileria sp. MK in sheep and goats were detected first time by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detection limit of PCR and reverse line blotting (RLB) were compared. A part of 18S ssu rRNA gene was amplified from blood samples that were taken from sheep and goats naturally infected with Theileria sp. MK by PCR. Detection limit of both PCR and RLB methods was one infected cell in 10(7) sheep erythrocytes. Nine hundred twenty field samples that had been tested previously by RLB were evaluated by the PCR assay. As found by RLB previously, 12 of 920 (1.30%) samples were detected as positive by PCR. Two positive PCR products, one of which was from sheep and the other from goat, were sequenced. These sequences were identical to the reported nucleotide sequence of Theileria sp. MK. It is concluded that the PCR described in this study will be useful for epidemiological studies and for discrimination between Theileria sp. MK and other Theileria species. In addition, PCR has superiority over RLB because of its ease of use and time period required.

  16. Hepatozoon and Theileria species detected in ticks collected from mammals and snakes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-04-01

    We report the detection of Hepatozoon and Theileria in 103 ticks from mammals and snakes in Thailand. By using a genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR, Hepatozoon and Theileria spp. were detected in 8% and 18%, respectively, of ticks (n=79) removed from mammals. Of the ticks removed from snakes (n=24), 96% were infected with Hepatozoon spp., but none were infected with Theileria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatozoon spp. detected from Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks from Wild boar (Sus scrofa) formed a phylogenetic group with many isolates of Hepatozoon felis that were distantly related to a species group containing Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis of the Hepatozoon sequences of snake ticks revealed that Hepatozoon spp. from Amblyomma varanense from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Amblyomma helvolum ticks from Indochinese rat snake (Ptyas korros), and Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) are grouped with Hepatozoon spp. recently isolated from Monocellate cobras, Reticulated pythons and Burmese pythons, all of Thai origin, and with Hepatozoon sp. 774c that has been detected from a tick species obtained from Argus monitors in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Theileria spp. from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haemaphysalis obesa, and Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) cluster with the Theileria cervi isolates WU11 and 239, and Theileria sp. Iwate 141. We report for the first time a Hepatozoon species that shares genetic similarity with Hepatozoon felis found in Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from Wild boars in Thailand. In addition, we found the presence of a Theileria cervi-like sp. which suggests the potential role of Haemaphysalis lagrangei as a Theileria vector in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Hematological Changes Associated with Theileria orientalis Infection in Korean Indigenous Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kang, Sung-Woo; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Bae-Keun; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2017-10-01

    Tick-borne pathogens can cause serious problems in grazing cattle. However, little information is available on tick-mediated diseases in cattle grazing on mountains. Thus, this study aimed to understand the potential problems related to tick-borne diseases in grazing cattle through the investigation of prevalent tick-transmitted infections, and their associated hematological changes, in terms of season and grazing type in Korean indigenous cattle (=Hanwoo). Hanwoo cattle from 3 regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea) were either maintained indoors or placed on grassy mountains from spring to fall of 2014 and 2015. Cattle that grazed in mountainous areas showed a greater prevalence of tick-borne infections with an increased Theileria orientalis infection rate (54.7%) compared to that in non-grazing cattle (16.3%) (Pcattle were significantly lower than those of non-grazing cattle throughout the season (Pcattle in mountainous areas is closely associated with an increase in T. orientalis infection (RR=3.4, Pcattle in mountainous areas of Korea are at a high risk of infection by T. orientalis, which can lead to hematological alterations. This study highlights the necessity of preventive strategies that target T. orientalis infection.

  18. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyanjui Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli, T. orientalis (ikeda, T. orientalis (chitose and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP or type C (SSU rRNA. The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  19. Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in ticks infesting animal hosts in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin O; Tolf, Conny; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Radbea, Gabriel; Rubel, Franz; Waldenström, Jonas; Dobler, Gerhard; Chițimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR. Five different apicomplexan parasite species were detected; among them three different species of Babesia: B. canis, B. microti, and B. ovis. Hepatozoon canis was the most frequently detected parasite, found predominately in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from domestic dogs. It was also detected in I. ricinus collected from goat, fox, and cat. Furthermore, H. canis was found in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. In addition, Theileria buffeli was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from cattle.

  20. Three Novel Haplotypes of Theileria bicornis in Black and White Rhinoceros in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiende, M Y; Kivata, M W; Jowers, M J; Makumi, J N; Runo, S; Obanda, V; Gakuya, F; Mutinda, M; Kariuki, L; Alasaad, S

    2016-02-01

    Piroplasms, especially those in the genera Babesia and Theileria, have been found to naturally infect rhinoceros. Due to natural or human-induced stress factors such as capture and translocations, animals often develop fatal clinical piroplasmosis, which causes death if not treated. This study examines the genetic diversity and occurrence of novel Theileria species infecting both black and white rhinoceros in Kenya. Samples collected opportunistically during routine translocations and clinical interventions from 15 rhinoceros were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a nested amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene fragments of Babesia and Theileria. Our study revealed for the first time in Kenya the presence of Theileria bicornis in white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) rhinoceros and the existence of three new haplotypes: haplotypes H1 and H3 were present in white rhinoceros, while H2 was present in black rhinoceros. No specific haplotype was correlated to any specific geographical location. The Bayesian inference 50% consensus phylogram recovered the three haplotypes monophyleticly, and Theileria bicornis had very high support (BPP: 0.98). Furthermore, the genetic p-uncorrected distances and substitutions between T. bicornis and the three haplotypes were the same in all three haplotypes, indicating a very close genetic affinity. This is the first report of the occurrence of Theileria species in white and black rhinoceros from Kenya. The three new haplotypes reported here for the first time have important ecological and conservational implications, especially for population management and translocation programs and as a means of avoiding the transport of infected animals into non-affected areas. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in sheep and goats in the Black Sea Region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.

  2. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Bishop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo, which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo, using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo. This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo. Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo. is a distinct species from T. parva.

  3. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus.

  4. Molecular diversity of Theileria parva : a case study of Kilosa district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theileria parva is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite which causes East Coast fever (ECF) in Eastern and Central Africa. A study was conducted between February and May 2012 in Morogoro region to determine the diversity of the T. Parva parasite circulating in cattle in Kilosa district. Also ECF cases reported between ...

  5. The use of different diagnostic tools for Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Menofia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayel, Mohamed; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Elsify, Ahmed; Hassan, Hany; Ibrahim, Elsayed; Salama, Akram; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    Bovine piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of the genera Babesia and Theileria and is the most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, causing a major economic impact worldwide. In the current study, a total of 405 cattle of different ages, sexes, and breeds were randomly sampled for surveying and diagnosis of babesiosis and theileriosis using three methods: direct microscopy (blood smears), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed that, out of 405 examined cattle, 33 (8.15 %) were infected with Babesia sp. and 65 (16.05 %) with Theileria sp. (total number of infected cattle was 98). Mixed infection was seen in 11 (2.72 %) animals. Moreover, application of the three diagnostic assays on 158 randomly sampled cattle indicated that 17 (10.76 %) and 33 (20.89 %) were positive for Babesia and Theileria spp. by the direct smear technique, 25 (15.82 %) and 33 (20.89 %) by IFAT (fluorescence was greenish yellow for Babesia and yellowish for Theileria), and 20 (12.66 %) and 38 (24.05 %) by PCR. Using primers specific for Babesia and Theileria spp., we found that diagnostic bands appeared at ~350 and ~370 bp, respectively indicating the presence of these piroplasms. Statistically, there was a non-significant difference of the positivity in response to the three techniques; thus, any of these methods can be described as useful for diagnosing blood parasites in both domesticated animals and birds. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that direct microscopy can be used in acute infections, whereas IFAT and PCR are useful in chronicity.

  6. Identification of novel Babesia and Theileria genotypes in the endangered marsupials, the woylie (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) and boodie (Bettongia lesueur).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, Andrea; Ryan, Una M; Warren, Kris; McInnes, Linda M; de Tores, Paul; Irwin, Peter J

    2012-05-01

    Piroplasms, which include the genera Theileria and Babesia, are blood-borne parasites transmitted mainly by tick vectors. Relatively little is known about their prevalence and clinical impact in Australian marsupials. In the present study the occurrence and molecular phylogeny of these parasites were studied in both wild and captive marsupials from Western Australia (WA) and Queensland (QLD). Blood samples were screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Overall, 7.1% of the blood samples (8/113) were positive for piroplasm 18S rDNA. Theileria and Babesia rDNA was detected in 0.9% (1/113) and 6.2% (7/113) of the animals, respectively. The single Theileria positive was identified in one of three boodies (Bettongia lesueur) screened from a wildlife rehabilitation centre in WA, while all seven Babesia positives were detected in WA in wild captured woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi). Small intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed in blood films made from six of these individuals. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. in woylies, and Theileria sp. in boodies. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the woylie-derived Babesia was genetically distinct and most closely related to Babesia occultans, the causative agent of a benign form of cattle babesiosis (genetic similarity 98.4%). The Theileria identified was most closely related to the marsupial-derived species Theileria penicillata from the woylie, Theileria brachyuri from the quokka (Setonix brachyurus), and Theileria sp. from the long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Amblyomma cajennense is an intrastadial biological vector of Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2013-10-23

    The apicomplexan hemoprotozoan parasite Theileria equi is one of the etiologic agents causing equine piroplasmosis, a disease of equines that is endemic throughout large parts of the world. Before 2009 the United States had been considered to be free of this parasite. Occasional cases had occurred but there was no evidence for endemic vector-borne transmission in the U.S. until a 2009 outbreak in Texas in which Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma cajennense were implicated as vectors. Although D. variabilis has previously been shown to be a competent laboratory vector, studies suggested A. cajennense was not a competent transstadial vector, even though the presence of this tick species on horses in South American is epidemiologicaly correlated with higher a prevalence of infection. In this study we tested the transstadial and intrastadial vector competence of D. variabilis and A. cajennense for T. equi. A tick passaged T. equi strain from the Texas outbreak and ticks colonized from engorged females collected off horses on the outbreak ranch in Texas were used for these studies. Nymph or adult ticks were fed on infected horses and transmission fed on naïve horses. Infections were tracked with PCR and serology, dissected tick tissues were tested with PCR. A. cajennense transmitted T. equi intrastadially when adult ticks acquired infection by feeding on an infected horse, and transmitted to a naïve host on subsequent reattachment and feeding. D. variabilis failed to transmit in the same experiment. Transstadial transmission was not successful for either tick species. PCR on DNA isolated from eggs of females that had fed on an infected horse suggests that there is no transovarial passage of this parasite by either tick species. This work confirms that ticks from the Texas population of A. cajennense are competent intrastadial vectors of T. equi. We propose that the most likely natural mode of transmission for this parasite/vector combination in the Texas outbreak

  8. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Cort?s, Maria Guadalupe; Fern?ndez-Garc?a, Jos? Luis; Habela Mart?nez-Est?llez, Miguel ?ngel

    2017-01-01

    Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors. This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence anti...

  9. Cell penetrating peptides to dissect host-pathogen protein-protein interactions in Theileria -transformed leukocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2017-09-08

    One powerful application of cell penetrating peptides is the delivery into cells of molecules that function as specific competitors or inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Ablating defined protein-protein interactions is a refined way to explore their contribution to a particular cellular phenotype in a given disease context. Cell-penetrating peptides can be synthetically constrained through various chemical modifications that stabilize a given structural fold with the potential to improve competitive binding to specific targets. Theileria-transformed leukocytes display high PKA activity, but PKAis an enzyme that plays key roles in multiple cellular processes; consequently genetic ablation of kinase activity gives rise to a myriad of confounding phenotypes. By contrast, ablation of a specific kinase-substrate interaction has the potential to give more refined information and we illustrate this here by describing how surgically ablating PKA interactions with BAD gives precise information on the type of glycolysis performed by Theileria-transformed leukocytes. In addition, we provide two other examples of how ablating specific protein-protein interactions in Theileria-infected leukocytes leads to precise phenotypes and argue that constrained penetrating peptides have great therapeutic potential to combat infectious diseases in general.

  10. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Theileria (Babesia) Equi Infection in Equids of Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Gholamreza; Esmaeilnia, Kasra; Hablolvarid, Mohammad Hasan; Afshari, Asghar; Zamen, Mohsen; Bozorgi, Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is the cause of persistent tick-borne infection with no symptoms, but the most important problem of EP is due to the persistent carrier state. Carrier animals to Babesia (Theileria) equi (Laveran 1901) and B. caballi (Nuttall, 1910) infestation could be identified by extremely sensitive PCR-based method. The purpose of this study was to identify the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis based on molecular and microscopic assays in equids from Kurdistan Province, Iran. Thirty one horse and mule blood samples were used with history of living in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The blood specimens were utilized for T. equi and B. caballi DNA identification by PCR and Giemsa stained smears for microscopic observation. The results clearly showed the presence of B. (Theileria) equi DNA in 30 of 31 blood samples (96.77%), but the microscopic examination revealed the 3 of 31 positive Babesia like organisms in the red blood cells (9.67%). The obtained results demonstrated the presence of hidden B. (Theileria) equi infection in horses with previous habitance in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The carrier animals became a main source of infection and can transmit the disease. Therefore, hidden infection might be considered as a health threatening and limiting factor in animals used in therapeutic antisera research and production centers.

  11. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and ixodid ticks from the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Pourhosseini, Moslem; Yaghfouri, Saeed; Rashidi, Ahmad; Seidabadi, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Theilerioses and babesioses are important diseases in Iranian sheep. The present study was undertaken to identify and classify/specify Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and vector ticks. Investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. In total, 302 sheep originating from 60 different flocks were clinically examined and their blood collected. In addition, from the same flocks, ixodid ticks were sampled. Stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Theileria and Babesia organisms, and a semi-nested PCR was used for subsequent molecular specification. From the ticks, salivary glands and uterus were isolated and subsequently analyzed by semi-nested PCR. Piroplasm organisms were observed in 29% of the blood smears with low parasitemia, whereas 65% of the blood samples yielded positive PCR findings. The presence of Theileria ovis (55.6%), Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection with Theileria spp. and Babesia ovis were detected by semi-nested PCR in 0.3%, 5.6%, and 0.99%, respectively. In total, 429 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 376; 87.6% of the total), followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 30; 7.0%), Dermacentor raskemensis (n = 12; 2.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 7; 1.6%), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 2; 0.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 1; 0.2%), and Haemaphysalis sp. (n = 1; 0.2%). Of the positive R. turanicus samples, 5 (5.7%) were infected with T. ovis and 2 (2.9%) with T. lestoquardi. Neither Babesia ovis nor Babesia motasi infection was detected in salivary glands or uterine samples of the ticks. The results also suggest that R. turanicus could be the vector responsible for transmission of the 2 Theileria species.

  12. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH 2 O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10 -3  ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [What makes a parasite "transforming"? Insights into cancer from the agents of an exotic pathology, Theileria spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, K M; Weitzman, J B

    2017-02-01

    Theileria are obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasites of cattle. The diseases they cause, Tropical theileriosis and East Coast Fever, cause huge economic loss in East African, Mediterranean and central and South-East Asian countries. These apicomplexan parasites are the only intracellular eukaryotic parasites known to transform their host cell and represent a unique model to study host-parasite interactions and mechanisms of cancer onset.Here, we review how Theileria parasites induce transformation of their leukocyte host cell and discuss similarities with tumorigenesis. We describe how genomic innovation, epigenetic changes and hijacking of signal transductions enable a eukaryotic parasite to transform its host cell.

  14. Molecular detection of Theileria, Babesia, and Hepatozoon spp. in ixodid ticks from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Kifaya; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Baneth, Gad; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-07-01

    Ixodid ticks transmit various infectious agents that cause disease in humans and livestock worldwide. A cross-sectional survey on the presence of protozoan pathogens in ticks was carried out to assess the impact of tick-borne protozoa on domestic animals in Palestine. Ticks were collected from herds with sheep, goats and dogs in different geographic districts and their species were determined using morphological keys. The presence of piroplasms and Hepatozoon spp. was determined by PCR amplification of a 460-540bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene followed by RFLP or DNA sequencing. A PCR-RFLP method based on the 18S rRNA was used in order to detect and to identify Hepatozoon, Babesia and Theileria spp. A total of 516 ticks were collected from animals in six Palestinian localities. Five tick species were found: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva and Haemaphysalis adleri. PCR-based analyses of the ticks revealed Theileria ovis (5.4%), Hepatozoon canis (4.3%), Babesia ovis (0.6%), and Babesia vogeli (0.4%). Theileria ovis was significantly associated with ticks from sheep and with R. turanicus ticks (p<0.01). H. canis was detected only in R. sanguineus s.l. and was significantly associated with ticks from dogs (p<0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of these pathogens in ticks collected from Palestine. Communicating these findings with health and veterinary professionals will increase their awareness, and contribute to improved diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Identification of a surface antigen on Theileria parva sporozoites by monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, D A; Shapiro, S Z; Webster, P

    1985-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (mAbD1) that neutralizes sporozoites of different stocks of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva has been used to localize and identify a sporozoite antigen. Protein A-colloidal gold was used to localize bound mAbD1 in immunoelectron microscopic studies. mAbD1 bound to sporozoite antigen, which was evenly spread over the surface of all sporozoites. Immune complexes were obtained by incubation of sporozoite suspensions with mAbD1 followed by Zwittergent 3-14 extra...

  16. Natural Infection of the South American Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Alexandre Welzel; De Oliveira, Gustavo Gomes; Menezes Santos, Leandro; da Silva Azuaga, Lucas Bezerra; Macedo Coutinho, Claudia Regina; Echeverria, Jessica Teles; Antunes, Tamires Ramborger; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Izabel de Souza, Alda

    2017-04-01

    Theileria equi is a tick-borne piroplasm considered endemic in equines in Brazil. The cohabitation of domestic and wild animals in areas of extensive cattle breeding favors the close contact between different species and the sharing of vectors and, consequently, pathogens. We report the natural infection of a young South American tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by T. equi in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Although it was not possible to associate the clinical and hematologic status of the animal with the infection by the protozoan parasite, our report represents an alert on the sharing of pathogens between domestic and wild animals.

  17. Development of a novel subunit vaccine against East Coast fever based on the Theileria parva sporozoite surface protein p67

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Theileriaparva is an intracellular protozoan parasite and the causative agent of a lethal cattle disease, called East Coast fever (ECF). This disease poses a major constraint on improvement of cattle production in Eastern, Central

  18. East coast fever caused by Theileria parva is characterized by macrophage activation associated with vasculitis and respiratory failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure and death in East Coast Fever (ECF), a clinical syndrome of African cattle caused by the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva, has historically been attributed to pulmonary infiltration by infected lymphocytes. However, immunohistochemical staining of tissue from T. parva infect...

  19. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  20. Assessment and optimization of theileria parva sporozoite full-length p67 antigen expression in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delivery of various forms of recombinant Theileria parva sporozoite antigen (p67) has been shown to elicit antibody responses in cattle capable of providing protection against East Coast fever, the clinical disease caused by T. parva. Previous formulations of full-length and shorter recombinant vers...

  1. Quest for the piroplasms in camels: Identification of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Jordanian dromedaries by PCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qablan, M.; Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Dwairi, S.; Amr, Z. S.; Hořín, P.; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, 3/4 (2012), s. 456-460 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Babesia * Theileria * Camelus * Jordan * Host specificity * Diagnosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  2. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  3. Piroplasmosis in wildlife: Babesia and Theileria affecting free-ranging ungulates and carnivores in the Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanet, Stefania; Trisciuoglio, Anna; Bottero, Elisa; de Mera, Isabel Garcia Fernández; Gortazar, Christian; Carpignano, Maria Grazia; Ferroglio, Ezio

    2014-02-17

    Piroplasmosis are among the most relevant diseases of domestic animals. Babesia is emerging as cause of tick-borne zoonosis worldwide and free-living animals are reservoir hosts of several zoonotic Babesia species. We investigated the epidemiology of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in wild ungulates and carnivores from Northern Italy to determine which of these apicomplexan species circulate in wildlife and their prevalence of infection. PCR amplification of the V4 hyper-variable region of the 18S rDNA of Babesia sp./Theileria sp was carried out on spleen samples of 1036 wild animals: Roe deer Capreolus capreolus (n = 462), Red deer Cervus elaphus (n = 52), Alpine Chamois Rupicapra rupicapra (n = 36), Fallow deer Dama dama (n = 17), Wild boar Sus scrofa (n = 257), Red fox Vulpes vulpes (n = 205) and Wolf Canis lupus (n = 7). Selected positive samples were sequenced to determine the species of amplified Babesia/Theileria DNA. Babesia/Theileria DNA was found with a mean prevalence of 9.94% (IC95% 8.27-11.91). The only piroplasms found in carnivores was Theileria annae, which was detected in two foxes (0.98%; IC95% 0.27-3.49). Red deer showed the highest prevalence of infection (44.23%; IC95% 31.6-57.66), followed by Alpine chamois (22.22%; IC95% 11.71-38.08), Roe deer (12.55%; IC95% 9.84-15.89), and Wild boar (4.67%; IC95% 2.69-7.98). Genetic analysis identified Babesia capreoli as the most prevalent piroplasmid found in Alpine chamois, Roe deer and Red deer, followed by Babesia bigemina (found in Roe deer, Red deer and Wild boar), and the zoonotic Babesia venatorum (formerly Babesia sp. EU1) isolated from 2 Roe deer. Piroplasmids of the genus Theileria were identified in Wild boar and Red deer. The present study offers novel insights into the role of wildlife in Babesia/Theileria epidemiology, as well as relevant information on genetic variability of piroplasmids infecting wild ungulates and carnivores.

  4. Coinfection of sheep with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneker, S; Abdo, J; Bakheit, M A; Kullmann, B; Beyer, D; Ahmed, J; Seitzer, U

    2013-11-01

    Infections of small ruminants with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species are widely distributed in the old world and are of great economic impact. In Iraq, data on disease occurrence in sheep caused by above-mentioned infectious agents are scarce. This study provides information on various haemoparasitic agents infecting sheep in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using molecular diagnostic tools. Altogether, 195 samples originating from three governorates in the Kurdistan Region, namely Duhok, Erbil and Sulaimaniya, were analysed. The following pathogens were identified: Anaplasma ovis (62.6%), Theileria ovis (14.35%), T. lestoquardi (7.7%), T. uilenbergi (5.6%) and Babesia ovis (1.5%). T. uilenbergi is detected for the first time in Iraq. Coinfection of sheep with different pathogens could be observed in this study, and it was found that 45 of 195 (23%) of the samples contained more than one pathogen. Even triple-positive samples were identified in 3% of the investigated animals. In conclusion, we confirm the coinfection of sheep with various haemoparasitic pathogen species in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Further investigations are needed to reveal the epidemiology of the diseases, the respective tick vectors, and, in the case of coinfection, pathogens' interaction and possible cross-protection. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Ticks circulate Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia and Theileria parasites in North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekloo, Ahmad Jafar; Bakhshi, Hasan; Soufizadeh, Ayoub; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Bekloo, Romina Jafar; Ramzgouyan, Maryam Roya; Chegeni, Asadollah Hosseini; Faghihi, Faezeh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh

    2017-12-15

    Ticks serve as important vectors of some pathogens of medical importance all over the world and identification of their rate of infection plays an important role for further control of diseases. In the current study, we investigated on ticks collected from north of Iran where raising and caring livestock are the main task of the people in order to find evidences of infection of Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia microbial agents. Totally, 609 hard tick species from two genera Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus including; Hy. scupense, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. rufipes, Hy. marginatum, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. anatolicum, R. bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus were identified. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia and Theileria microorganism agents in all collected tick species except Hy. asiaticum and R. turanicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on identification of B. occultans in Hyalomma anatolicum and B. ovis in Hyalomma sp in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8-100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds.

  7. Reproductive efficiency of asymptomatic Theileria equi carriers mares submitted to an embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Bezerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and evaluate the effects of Theileria equi infection on embryonic recovery, gestation and early embryonic loss. Thirteen Mangalarga Marchador Theileria equi positive donors (diagnosed through nested-PCR and 40 embryos receptors were used. Donors were submitted to two embryo collections in two consecutive estrous cycles (GId; after, the same mares were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (1.2mg/kg IM. in order to collect more embryos in two more estrous cycles (GIId. Receptors were divided into two groups (control and with treated with 20 animals each, where one group was the control (GIr and the other one (GIIr treated with 1.2mg/kg IM of imidocarb dipropionate assessing the gestation rate at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. After 52 embryo collections, the embryonic recovery rates were 53.84% (14/26 and 65.38% (17/26 (p> 0.05 for GId and GIId, respectively. The gestation rate was 70% (14/20 (p>0.05 at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in group GIr and for GIIr was 85% (17/20 (p>0.05 at 15 days, 80% (16/20 (p>0.05 at 30, 45 and 60 days. The treatment with imidocarb dipropionate did not cause significant improvement in the reproductive efficiency at an ET program.

  8. OncomiR addiction is generated by a miR-155 feedback loop in Theileria-transformed leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Marsolier

    Full Text Available The intracellular parasite Theileria is the only eukaryote known to transform its mammalian host cells. We investigated the host mechanisms involved in parasite-induced transformation phenotypes. Tumour progression is a multistep process, yet 'oncogene addiction' implies that cancer cell growth and survival can be impaired by inactivating a single gene, offering a rationale for targeted molecular therapies. Furthermore, feedback loops often act as key regulatory hubs in tumorigenesis. We searched for microRNAs involved in addiction to regulatory loops in leukocytes infected with Theileria parasites. We show that Theileria transformation involves induction of the host bovine oncomiR miR-155, via the c-Jun transcription factor and AP-1 activity. We identified a novel miR-155 target, DET1, an evolutionarily-conserved factor involved in c-Jun ubiquitination. We show that miR-155 expression led to repression of DET1 protein, causing stabilization of c-Jun and driving the promoter activity of the BIC transcript containing miR-155. This positive feedback loop is critical to maintain the growth and survival of Theileria-infected leukocytes; transformation is reversed by inhibiting AP-1 activity or miR-155 expression. This is the first demonstration that Theileria parasites induce the expression of host non-coding RNAs and highlights the importance of a novel feedback loop in maintaining the proliferative phenotypes induced upon parasite infection. Hence, parasite infection drives epigenetic rewiring of the regulatory circuitry of host leukocytes, placing miR-155 at the crossroads between infection, regulatory circuits and transformation.

  9. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene in Theileria equi from horses presented in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Meli, Marina L; Zhang, Yi; Meili, Theres; Stirn, Martina; Riond, Barbara; Weibel, Beatrice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-05-15

    A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was adapted and applied for equine blood samples collected at the animal hospital of the University of Zurich to determine the presence of piroplasms in horses in Switzerland. A total of 100 equine blood samples were included in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using the RLB assay. Samples from seven horses hybridized to a Theileria/Babesia genus-specific and a Theileria genus-specific probe. Of these, two hybridized also to the Theileria equi-specific probe. The other five positive samples did not hybridize to any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of unrecognized Theileria variants or genotypes. The 18S rRNA gene of the latter five samples were sequenced and found to be closely related to T. equi isolated from horses in Spain (AY534822) and China (KF559357) (≥98.4% identity). Four of the seven horses that tested positive had a documented travel history (France, Italy, and Spain) or lived abroad (Hungary). The present study adds new insight into the presence and sequence heterogeneity of T. equi in Switzerland. The results prompt that species-specific probes must be designed in regions of the gene unique to T. equi. Of note, none of the seven positive horses were suspected of having Theileria infection at the time of presentation to the clinic. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of equine piroplasma infections outside of endemic areas and in horses without signs of piroplasmosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Theileria parva infection in cattle in three regions of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerario, Isack I.; Simuunza, Martin C; Chenyambuga, Sebastian W

    2017-01-01

    of ECF in Tanzania has continued to be a challenge due to inadequate epidemiological information. The main objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological situation of Theileria parva infections in cattle kept under pastoral and agro-pastoral farming systems in Mara, Singida, and Mbeya...... not found to be significant predictors of being PCR positive for T. parva. The present study showed high variation in tick burden and T. parva prevalence across the regions. Therefore, different strategic planning and cost-effective control measures for ticks and T. parva infection should be implemented...... regions of Tanzania. Blood samples were collected from 648 cattle in the three regions. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using T. parva-specific primers targeting the 104-kD antigen (P104) gene. In addition, information was collected on the possible risk factors...

  12. Serological and molecular detection of Theileria equi in sport horses of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Edlainne P; Vidotto, Odilon; Almeida, Jonatas C; Ribeiro, Luana P S; Borges, Marcos V; Pequeno, Walter H C; Stipp, Danilo T; de Oliveira, Celso J B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C

    2016-08-01

    Theileriosis is a worldwide protozoal tick-borne disease caused by Theileria equi, which may produce a variety of clinical signs and turn infected horses into lifetime carriers. This study has aimed to perform a serological and molecular detection of T. equi and associated factors in sports horses from six areas of northeastern Brazil. In overall, 59.6% horses were positive by indirect immunofluorescence assay and 50.4% by polymerase chain reaction. No significant association was found when presence of ticks, age, gender, anemia or total plasma proteins was analyzed with seropositivity and molecular techniques. Although a significant association of infection was found in two cities. Thus, local risk factors other than presence of ticks, horse age, gender, anemia and total plasmatic proteins may dictate prevalence of T. equi infection in sports horses, even in highly endemic areas with no control of infection prior to horse competitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptation and possible attenuation of Theileria parva-infected cells grown in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.; Kanhai, G.K.; Kimber, C.D.; Radley, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were taken from 8 cattle immediately after death from East Coast fever (ECF). Cells were inoculated into groups of irradiated Swiss and athymic nude mice. The irradiated mice were exposed to 800 rad doses from a 60 Co source. Cells became established in one group of Swiss mice and 2 groups of athymic mice. Development of cells in mice only occurred if cells concurrently established in culture; when establishment in culture was delayed, cells failed to develop in mice. Cells from one of the isolates in athymic mice were passaged 6 times through further mice. On inoculation of these mouse-passaged cells into cattle, the animals underwent mild reactions and subsequently resisted a lethal ECF challenge. The possibility of vaccinating cattle aginst ECF by means of mouse passaged cells merits further study. (author)

  14. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  15. Expression analysis of the Theileria parva subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein gene family.

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    Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer

    Full Text Available The intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria parva transforms bovine lymphocytes inducing uncontrolled proliferation. Proteins released from the parasite are assumed to contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell and parasite persistence. With 85 members, genes encoding subtelomeric variable secreted proteins (SVSPs form the largest gene family in T. parva. The majority of SVSPs contain predicted signal peptides, suggesting secretion into the host cell cytoplasm.We analysed SVSP expression in T. parva-transformed cell lines established in vitro by infection of T or B lymphocytes with cloned T. parva parasites. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression for a wide range of SVSP genes. The pattern of mRNA expression was largely defined by the parasite genotype and not by host background or cell type, and found to be relatively stable in vitro over a period of two months. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis carried out on cell lines established from a cloned parasite showed that expression of a single SVSP encoded by TP03_0882 is limited to only a small percentage of parasites. Epitope-tagged TP03_0882 expressed in mammalian cells was found to translocate into the nucleus, a process that could be attributed to two different nuclear localisation signals.Our analysis reveals a complex pattern of Theileria SVSP mRNA expression, which depends on the parasite genotype. Whereas in cell lines established from a cloned parasite transcripts can be found corresponding to a wide range of SVSP genes, only a minority of parasites appear to express a particular SVSP protein. The fact that a number of SVSPs contain functional nuclear localisation signals suggests that proteins released from the parasite could contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell. This initial characterisation will facilitate future studies on the regulation of SVSP gene expression and the potential biological role of these enigmatic

  16. Expression of major piroplasm protein (p33) of Theileria sergenti (Korean isolate) and its immunogenicity in guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seung-Won; Kweon, Chang-Hee; Choi, Eun-Jin; Yoon, Yong-Dhuk

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the development of a subunit vaccine against theileriosis in cattle, the DNA fragments encoding piroplasm surface protein (p33) of Theileria sergenti of a Korean isolate were expressed in baculoviruses. The expressed p33 was characterized by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and western blotting analysis. The expression of p33 was mainly detected on the surface of infected Sf21 cells by IFA. The immunoblotting analysis revealed the presence of a same molecular weight protein ...

  17. Molecular detection and characterization of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Zhou, Mo; Wang, Guanbo; Liu, Mingming; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Ybanez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi; Shirafuji-Umemiya, Rika; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-09-30

    Infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Kenya yet there is a lack of adequate information on their genotypes. This study established the genetic diversities of the above tick-borne hemoparasites infecting cattle in Kenya. Nested PCR and sequencing were used to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the above parasites in 192 cattle blood samples collected from Ngong and Machakos farms. B. bovis spherical body protein 4, B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a, A. marginale major surface protein 5, Theileria spp. 18S rRNA, T. parva p104 and T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein were used as the marker genes. B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. parva, T. velifera, T. taurotragi, T. mutans and A. marginale were prevalent in both farms, whereas T. ovis, Theileria sp. (buffalo) and T. orientalis were found only in Ngong farm. Co-infections were observed in more than 50 % of positive samples in both farms. Babesia parasites and A. marginale sequences were highly conserved while T. parva and T. orientalis were polymorphic. Cattle-derived T. parva was detected in Machakos farm. However, cattle and buffalo-derived Theileria were detected in Ngong farm suggesting interactions between cattle and wild buffaloes. Generally, the pathogens detected in Kenya were genetically related to the other African isolates but different from the isolates in other continents. The current findings reaffirm the endemicity and co-infection of cattle with tick-borne hemoparasites, and the role of wildlife in pathogens transmission and population genetics in Kenya.

  18. Epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of Theileria equi infection in Giza, Egypt

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    Fayez A. Salib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Theileria equi among horses in different age groups, both sexes, months and seasons of the year, and regions of Giza governourate. Studying the changes in the blood picture, blood chemistries, liver enzymes associate with T.equi infections in horses. Evaluating IFA and CFT at different dilutions in the serodiagnosis of T.equi infections in horses. Evaluating four anti-Theileria medication regimens (diminazine aceturate, imidiocarb 7%, buparvaquone and a combination of imidiocarb 7% and buparvaquone in treatment of T.equi infections in horses. Materials and Methods: Total of 149 horses were examined by clinical signs and blood smears. Fortey whole blood samples from T.equi infected horses were examined to measure haemoglobin, total RBCs count and PCV. Fortey serum samples from T.equi infected horses were examined to measure total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT and AST enzymes. Serum samples from T.equi infected (40 and non infected (14 horses were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA and complement fixation test (CFT at different dilutions. Four groups of T.equiinfected horses (A,B,C,D, each group was represented by 10 horses and was separately treated with diminazine aceturate, imidiocarb 7%, buparvaquone and a combination of imidiocarb 7% and buparvaquone respectively. Results: the prevalence of T.equi was 41.61% in totally examined horses. The prevalence was higher in males than females. The highest prevalence was among age group ranged from 5-10 years as (22.81%. The highest prevalence was in July and was recorded as (25.81% and the disease was more prevalent in summer than winter. The highest prevalence was recorded in Nazlet-alsamman as (51.61%. Equine theileriosis was clinically characterized by fever, haemoglobinuria, oedema, anaemia and icterus. The best dilution for IFA was 1/160 where sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were the highest for this test as (98%, (92.86% and (97

  19. Monitoring Theileria orientalis (Ikeda)-associated bovine anaemia in affected cattle over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Amj; Hart, M; Bueno, I M; Ha, H J; Heath, Acg; Pulford, D J

    2017-10-15

    The aim of the study was to observe changes in haematocrit (HCT) over time in a New Zealand South Island dairy herd affected by an outbreak of Theileria-associated bovine anaemia (TABA; Ikeda). A secondary aim was to relate individual cow HCTs to the amount of Theileria orientalis Ikeda DNA present in the blood, as measured by cycle threshold values, using a quantitative PCR (qPCR). Over a 6 month period, blood samples from 19 randomly selected cattle were monitored from a herd of 600 dairy cows. The sampling interval was approximately fortnightly for the first six weeks, followed by sampling at between four and six week intervals. At the initial report of the outbreak, two from six cattle were anaemic (HCTcattle 11 days later showed that 57% (95% CI 33-77%) of the cattle sampled were anaemic. Of the 19 cattle that went on to be monitored, 12 (63% 95% CI=41-81%) developed anaemia at some point during the period of monitoring. One of the anaemic animals did not meet the case definition for TABA Ikeda. For individual cattle, the average number of days between when cattle were first detected as anaemic and when HCT returned to normal was 53days (median=47 days, range=6-92 days). At the point of notification the amount of T. orientalis Ikeda DNA in the blood of the six cattle tested was low (Cq median=36), but 11days later the amount of DNA in blood of 14 additional cows tested was relatively high (Cq median=24). Levels of all 19 cows monitored continued to remain moderately high through the period of testing (Cq median=29). This was despite a general improvement in the HCT of affected cattle. In four of the 15 cattle positive to T. orientalis Ikeda where blood fractions (plasma and whole blood) were tested, it appeared that T. orientalis Ikeda (as measured by qPCR) dropped more rapidly in plasma fractions than in whole blood at the point that HCT started to return to normal levels. Despite the assumption that tick populations were low in the Canterbury region of the

  20. Nuclear techniques in the study of East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection of cattle)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been used in a variety of ways to study East Coast fever of cattle caused by the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. Macroschizonts, piroplasms and sporozoites have been radiolabelled by using different nucleic acid precursors, particularly 3 H-hypoxanthine and 3 H-thymidine. These studies have helped to elucidate cyclic changes occurring during parasite development in bovine lymphoid cells and in tick salivary glands. Attempts to attenuate parasites by irradiation have been partially successful in the case of sporozoites, and more attention should be given to an attempt to induce attenuation by irradiation of developing rather than mature sporozoites. Irradiation of macroschizont-infected cells does not appear to offer a means towards vaccine development but has proved a valuable technique in elucidating immunological mechanisms. The study of these mechanisms has also been greatly helped by nuclear techniques such as radioimmunoassay and 51 Cr-release assays. Irradiation of laboratory mice, particularly athymic nude strains, has resulted in immunosuppression of the host so that macroschizont-infected bovine lymphoid cells will grow as tumours following subcutaneous inoculation. Schizonts do not transfer to mouse cells and, until this can be achieved, the use of an athymic mouse model for East Coast fever is limited. (author)

  1. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Babesia (Theileria) annae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, Noel; Horney, Barbara; Burton, Shelley; Birkenheuer, Adam; McBurney, Scott; Tefft, Karen

    2010-04-01

    A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1 x 2 microm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic broncho-pneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia microti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are yet to be determined.

  3. Evaluation of PCR and multiplex PCR in relation to nested PCR for diagnosing Theileria equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Leal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional PCR (PCRTeq for diagnosing Theileria equi and multiplex PCR (M/PCRTeq-Bc for diagnosing T. equi and Babesia caballi were comparatively evaluated with nested PCR (N/PCR-Teq for diagnosing equine piroplasmosis. In DNA sensitivity determinations, in multiple dilutions of equine blood that had tested positive for T. equi, PCR-Teq and N/PCR-Teq detected hemoparasite DNA in the larger dilutions (1:128, but did not differ significantly from the M/PCRTeq-Bc (1:64. In analyses on equine serum tested by ELISA, there was high agreement between this serological test and PCR-Teq (k = 0.780 and moderate agreement with N/PCR-Teq (k = 0.562 and M/PCRTeq-Bc (k = 0.488. PCR-Teq found a higher frequency of T. equi both in extensively and intensively reared horses, but this was not significant in relation to N/PCR-Teq (P>0.05, and both PCRs indicated that there was an endemic situation regarding T. equi in the population of horses of this sample. PCR-Teq was only significantly different from M/PCR-Teq-Bc (P<0.05. PCR-Teq presented high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to N/PCR-Teq, but with the advantage of higher speed in obtaining results and lower costs and risks of laboratory contamination. This accredits PCR-Teq for epidemiological studies and for determinations on affected horses.

  4. Molecular prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine Theileria orientalis in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain

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    Montes Cortés Maria Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors. This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence antibody testing (IFAT in 3,100 sera samples from apparently healthy horses of different ages, breeds, coat colours, genders and geographical locations. The overall seroprevalence was 52%, consisting of 44% seropositive for T. equi and 21% for B. caballi. There was a significant association between age (p < 0.0001, breed (p < 0.004, geographical location (p < 0.0001 and the seroprevalence, but neither the coat colour nor the gender was significantly associated with prevalence. In addition, it was proved that most of the geographic areas showed a moderate to high prevalence. The statistical κ value was used to compare the results obtained by the IFAT and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA utilised to test some samples (n = 108 and showed a higher concordance for T. equi (κ = 0.68 than for B. caballi (κ = 0.22. Consequently, this revealed the importance of developing an appropriate technique to detect each haemoparasite.

  6. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in eliminating Theileria equi from experimentally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grause, Juanita F; Ueti, Massaro W; Nelson, Jeffrey T; Knowles, Donald P; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Bunn, Thomas O

    2013-06-01

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a 'foreign' animal disease in the USA. In an effort to prevent the importation of T. equi, stringent serological screening of horses is practiced prior to entry to the USA. Current regulatory options available where horses are found to be infected include permanent quarantine with or without chemotherapy, repatriation, or euthanasia. Chemotherapeutics that eliminate infection and subsequently transmission risk are critical in the management of infected horses. In this study, the efficacy of the drug imidocarb dipropionate against experimental T. equi infection was assessed. Of nine horses experimentally inoculated with T. equi isolated from an animal previously imported from Peru, six were treated with imidocarb dipropionate after the resolution of the acute phase of the disease. Elimination of the parasite was demonstrated in 5/6 by nested PCR, blood transfusions to naïve horses, and reversion to seronegative status. The findings support the use of this drug as a potential treatment option in controlling outbreaks of T. equi, and also suggest that 'combination testing' using both serological and PCR detection methods are necessary to demonstrate clearance of infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Comparative bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor genes indicates conservation of key regulatory domains among babesia bovis, babesia microti and theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicomplexa tick borne hemoparasites including B. bovis, B. microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis respectively. These neglected parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate a...

  8. Babesia bicornis sp. nov. and Theileria bicornis sp. nov.: Tick-Borne Parasites Associated with Mortality in the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Ard M.; Penzhorn, Banie L.; Lynen, Godelieve; Mollel, Johnson O.; Morkel, Pete; Bekker, Cornelis P. J.; Jongejan, Frans

    2003-01-01

    A novel Babesia species, designated Babesia bicornis sp. nov., was identified in three black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) that died in wildlife areas in Tanzania and South Africa. Screening of black rhinoceroses in South Africa revealed, in addition to B. bicornis, a second parasite, designated Theileria bicornis sp. nov. PMID:12734294

  9. Occurrence of Theileria parva and other haemoprotozoa in cattle at the edge of Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    S. B.A.S. Yusufmia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parva, the most important bovine theilerial species in sub-Saharan Africa, causes widespread mortality and morbidity in endemic areas. A survey was conducted using buffy-coat specimens from 60 apparently healthy adult communally herded Nguni-type cattle at the northeastern edge of the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park to determine, by means of PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB hybridisation, the occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species. The presence of Trypanosoma species was determined using PCR-RFLP. Results showed that 6.7 % of the specimens were positive for Theileria parva. This significant finding suggests that cattle in South Africa, and not only African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer, may be subclinical carriers of T. parva. Other species identified were T. mutans (83.3 %, T. velifera (70.0 %, Theileria sp. (sable (46.8 % and T. taurotragi (1.7 %. Two specimens (3.3 % were positive for Babesia bovis and single specimens (1.7 % positive for B. bigemina and B. rossi, respectively. Mixed infections, of up to 4 species, were common (65.0 %. Only 1 specimen was found to be positive for Trypanosoma vivax, and 2 for T. theileri, of which only the first species is pathogenic.

  10. Babesia bicornis sp. nov. and Theileria bicornis sp. nov.: Tick-Borne Parasites Associated with Mortality in the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, Ard M.; Penzhorn, Banie L.; Lynen, Godelieve; Mollel, Johnson O.; Morkel, Pete; Bekker, Cornelis P. J.; Jongejan, Frans

    2003-01-01

    A novel Babesia species, designated Babesia bicornis sp. nov., was identified in three black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) that died in wildlife areas in Tanzania and South Africa. Screening of black rhinoceroses in South Africa revealed, in addition to B. bicornis, a second parasite, designated Theileria bicornis sp. nov.

  11. Characterization of Theileria equi genotypes in horses in Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketter-Ratzon, Dafna; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Saar, Tal; Qura'n, Lara; Zivotofsky, Doni; Abdeen, Ziad; Baneth, Gad; Steinman, Amir

    2017-06-01

    Equine theileriosis caused by Theileria equi is endemic in the Middle East, where it causes a severe disease as well as widespread subclinical infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T. equi genotypes in Israel and the neighboring Palestinian Authority and Jordan. Blood samples from 355 horses from Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan were tested for the prevalence of T. equi DNA. Two hundred and fourteen (60%) were found positive for T. equi infection by PCR. Of those, the 18S rRNA (1458bp) and the EMA-1 (745bp) genes of T. equi were sequenced from 15 horse samples that represent Israel's geographical distribution together with four samples from the Palestinian Authority and two from Jordan. The results were used for genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis of T. equi in the equine population in Israel and its surroundings. Three 18S rRNA genotype clades were found in Israel (A, C and D) with clade D being the most prevalent and included all four isolates from the PA. In contrast, the EMA-1 gene showed little diversity with all sequences clustering in the same clade apart from one Jordanian sequence. Results suggest that although the Israeli horse population is small and relatively confined geographically, it is probable that the genetic variability, which was found among Israeli horses, is a result of introduction of horses from other countries. It also suggests that the EMA-1 gene is probably not a good target for the evaluation of variance in T. equi populations. Characterization of the different genotypes prevalent in a certain region is important in order to map out the intra-species sequence heterogeneity of the parasite, which is needed in order to develop new diagnostic tools and vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in five draught equine populated metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Raza, Fahad; Muhammad, Ghulam; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Saleem, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-05-28

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by intraerythrocytic parasites (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) is an emerging equine disease of world-wide distribution. In Pakistan, the prevalence and incidence of EP are unknown. In order to obtain the first insights into the prevalence of the disease, a total of 430 equids, including 33 mules, 65 horses and 332 donkeys, aging from ≤ 5 to ≥ 10 years of either sex, from five metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan, were serologically tested for the presence of antibodies directed against B. caballi and T. equi, using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Out of 430 equid serum samples tested, 226 (52.6%, 95% CI 47.7-57.4) were found cELISA positive for EP (T. equi and/or B. caballi infections). The overall seroprevalence of EP was 41.2% (95% CI 36.5-46.0) for T. equi and 21.6% (95% CI 17.8-25.8) for B. caballi. A small proportion of equids (10.2%, 95% CI 7.5-13.5) was seropositive for both T. equi and B. caballi. Seroprevalence of T. equi was significantly higher (P<0.01) in equines from the metropolis of Lahore (66.7%, 95% CI 54.3-77.6) and in horses (56.9%, 95% CI 44.0-69.2). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that factors associated with prevalence of EP were being an equine species kept in metropolis Lahore (OR=4.24, 95% CI 2.28-7.90), horse (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.53-5.20) and male equids (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.86). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of a Fluorescence-Based Assay for Large-Scale Drug Screening against Babesia and Theileria Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd El-Salam; Terkawi, Mohamed Alaa; Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; El Said, El Said El Shirbini; Elsayed, Gehad; El-Khodery, Sabry; El-Ashker, Maged; Elsify, Ahmed; Omar, Mosaab; Salama, Akram; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and accurate assay for evaluating antibabesial drugs on a large scale is required for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia parasites. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of a fluorescence-based assay for determining the efficacies of antibabesial compounds against bovine and equine hemoparasites in in vitro cultures. Three different hematocrits (HCTs; 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) were used without daily replacement of the medium. The results of a high-throughput screening assay revealed that the best HCT was 2.5% for bovine Babesia parasites and 5% for equine Babesia and Theileria parasites. The IC50 values of diminazene aceturate obtained by fluorescence and microscopy did not differ significantly. Likewise, the IC50 values of luteolin, pyronaridine tetraphosphate, nimbolide, gedunin, and enoxacin did not differ between the two methods. In conclusion, our fluorescence-based assay uses low HCT and does not require daily replacement of culture medium, making it highly suitable for in vitro large-scale drug screening against Babesia and Theileria parasites that infect cattle and horses.

  14. Optimization of a Fluorescence-Based Assay for Large-Scale Drug Screening against Babesia and Theileria Parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdo Rizk

    Full Text Available A rapid and accurate assay for evaluating antibabesial drugs on a large scale is required for the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents against Babesia parasites. In the current study, we evaluated the usefulness of a fluorescence-based assay for determining the efficacies of antibabesial compounds against bovine and equine hemoparasites in in vitro cultures. Three different hematocrits (HCTs; 2.5%, 5%, and 10% were used without daily replacement of the medium. The results of a high-throughput screening assay revealed that the best HCT was 2.5% for bovine Babesia parasites and 5% for equine Babesia and Theileria parasites. The IC50 values of diminazene aceturate obtained by fluorescence and microscopy did not differ significantly. Likewise, the IC50 values of luteolin, pyronaridine tetraphosphate, nimbolide, gedunin, and enoxacin did not differ between the two methods. In conclusion, our fluorescence-based assay uses low HCT and does not require daily replacement of culture medium, making it highly suitable for in vitro large-scale drug screening against Babesia and Theileria parasites that infect cattle and horses.

  15. Discrimination between ovine Babesia and Theileria species in China based on the ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhancheng; Liu, Guangyuan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jin; Xie, Junren; Zheng, Jinfeng; Yuan, Xiaosong; Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Hui; Tian, Meiyuan

    2013-10-18

    Ovine babesiosis and theileriosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a reliable molecular diagnostic tool for discriminating Theileria or Babesia species in the same host. In this study, the DNA sequences of a ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene from four species of piroplasms in China were used to develop a species-specific PCR-RFLP diagnostic tool. The sensitivity of the PCR assays was 0.1 pg DNA for B. motasi and 1 pg DNA for T. uilenbergi and 10 pg DNA for Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and T. luwenshuni. The clear size difference of the PCR products allowed for a direct discrimination for B. motasi, Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and ovine Theileria species (T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni), except that the mixed infection between T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni may be difficult to distinguish, simply after the electrophoretic separation of the amplification products. Further T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni diagnoses were made by digesting the PCR product with SacI. The established method could be applicable for the survey of parasite dynamics, and epidemiological studies as well as prevention and control of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular detection and characterization of potentially new Babesia and Theileria species/variants in wild felids from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaka, Naftaly; Konnai, Satoru; Kariuki, Edward; Kanduma, Esther; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-01

    Piroplasms frequently infect domestic and wild carnivores. At present, there is limited information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne parasites in wild felids in Kenya. In 2009, a pair of captive lions (Panthare leo) was diagnosed with suspected babesiosis and mineral deficiency at an animal orphanage on the outskirts of Nairobi, Kenya. Blood smears indicated presences of haemoparasites in the erythrocytes, however, no further investigations were conducted to identify the infecting agent. The animals recovered completely following diet supplementation and treatment with anti-parasite drug. In this report, we extracted and detected parasite DNA from the two lions and seven other asymptomatic feline samples; two leopards (Panthera pardus) and five cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Reverse line blot with probes specific for Babesia spp. of felines indicated the presence of new Babesia species or genotypes in the lions and leopards, and unknown Theileria sp. in the cheetahs. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene showed that the parasite infecting the lions belong to the Babesia canis complex, and the parasite variant detected in the leopards clusters in a clade bearing other Babesia spp. reported in wild felids from Africa. The cheetah isolates falls in the Theileria sensu stricto group. Our findings indicate the occurrence of potentially new species or genotypes of piroplams in all three feline species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of Theileria and Babesia in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Júlia A G; Rabelo, Elida M L; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2011-04-19

    Intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genera Theileria and Babesia are known to infect both wild and domestic animals, and both are transmitted by hard-ticks of the family Ixodidae. The prevalences of hemoprotozoa and ectoparasites in 15 free-living Mazama gouazoubira, two captive M. gouazoubira and four captive Blastocerus dichotomus from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have been determined through the examination of blood smears and the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). The cervid population was inspected for the presence of ticks and any specimens encountered were identified alive under the stereomicroscope. Blood samples were collected from all 21 animals, following which blood smears were prepared, subjected to quick Romanowsky staining and examined under the optical microscope. DNA was extracted with the aid of commercial kits from cervid blood samples and from tick salivary glands. The nPCR assay comprised two amplification reactions: the first was conducted using primers specific for a 1700 bp segment of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia and Theileria species, whilst the second employed primers designed to amplify a common 420 bp Babesia 18S rRNA fragment identified by aligning sequences from Babesia spp. available at GenBank. The ticks Amblyomma cajennense, Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens were identified in various of the cervids examined. Of the animals investigated, 71.4% (15/21) were infected with hemoprotozoa, including Theileria cervi (47.6%), Theileria sp. (14.3%), Babesia bovis (4.8%) and Babesia bigemina (4.8%). However, only one of the infected wild cervids exhibited accentuated anaemia (PCV=17%). This is first report concerning the occurrence of Theileria spp. in Brazilian cervids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adding injury to infection: The relationship between injury status and genetic diversity of Theileria infecting plains zebra, Equus quagga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King'ori, Edward M; Obanda, Vincent; Ndambiri, Ephantus M; Runo, Steven M; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2018-03-01

    Asymptomatic tick-borne infections are a common feature in wild herbivores. In human-dominated habitats, snare injuries to wild herbivores are common and are likely to co-occur with enzootic infections. The influence of injury on pattern, course and outcome of enzootic infection in wild herbivores is unknown. We identified Theileria species infecting zebra and assessed the relationship between host injury-status and parasitaemia, parasite diversity and selection regimes. We also determined host leucocyte differential as this can reveal mechanisms by which injuries influence infections. Theileria infecting zebra was identified using PCR and sequencing of the V4 region of the 18 s rRNA gene and confirmed with phylogenetic analyses. The influence of injury status on parasite infection patterns, genetic diversity and selection were assessed using population genetic tools. Parasitaemia estimated from prevalence and leucocyte differential were determined from microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood smears. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that the zebra population studied was infected with three Theileria equi haplotypes. Parasitaemia was lower among injured compared to non-injured animals and lower during dry than wet season. Mean (±SD) genetic diversity was 0.386 (±0.128) in injured and 0.513 (±0.144) in non-injured zebra (P = .549). Neutrality tests indicated that T. equi is under strong purifying selection in injured females (Li & Fu's D* = -2.037) and demographic expansion in all zebra during the wet season (Tajima D = -1.904). Injured zebras had a higher median per cent of neutrophils (64% vs 37%) a lower median per cent of basophils (0% vs 1%) and eosinophils (2% vs 4.5%) than non-injured animals, suggesting a heightened immune response and a shift from a Th2 to Th1 T-Cell response favoring the elimination of intracellular parasites in injured animals. This study demonstrates the utility of population genetics in revealing

  19. Clinical haematology and biochemistry profiles of cattle naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2018-01-01

    To present the haematology and biochemistry profiles for cattle in New Zealand naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type and investigate if the results differed between adult dairy cattle and calves aged cattle which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type by PCR, that were submitted to veterinary laboratories in New Zealand between October 2012 and November 2014. Data sets for haematology and biochemistry results were prepared for adult dairy cattle (n=62 and 28, respectively) and calves aged cattle and calves cattle than for beef or dairy calves, for both haematology (pcattle and calves aged cattle infected with T. orientalis Ikeda type were consistent with extravascular haemolytic anaemia. Adult dairy cattle were more likely to be severely anaemic than calves. There were differences in haematology and biochemistry profiles between adult dairy cattle and calves, but most of these differences likely had a physiological rather than pathological basis. Overall, the haematological changes in calves aged cattle.

  20. Molecular biological identification of Babesia, Theileria, and Anaplasma species in cattle in Egypt using PCR assays, gene sequence analysis and a novel DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashker, Maged; Hotzel, Helmut; Gwida, Mayada; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Silaghi, Cornelia; Tomaso, Herbert

    2015-01-30

    In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was tested for the diagnosis of bovine piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in comparison with microscopy and PCR assay results. In the Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt, 164 cattle were investigated for the presence of piroplasms and Anaplasma species. All investigated cattle were clinically examined. Blood samples were screened for the presence of blood parasites using microscopy and PCR assays. Seventy-one animals were acutely ill, whereas 93 were apparently healthy. In acutely ill cattle, Babesia/Theileria species (n=11) and Anaplasma marginale (n=10) were detected. Mixed infections with Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale were present in two further cases. A. marginale infections were also detected in apparently healthy subjects (n=23). The results of PCR assays were confirmed by DNA sequencing. All samples that were positive by PCR for Babesia/Theileria spp. gave also positive results in the microarray analysis. The microarray chips identified Babesia bovis (n=12) and Babesia bigemina (n=2). Cattle with babesiosis were likely to have hemoglobinuria and nervous signs when compared to those with anaplasmosis that frequently had bloody feces. We conclude that clinical examination in combination with microscopy are still very useful in diagnosing acute cases of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, but a combination of molecular biological diagnostic assays will detect even asymptomatic carriers. In perspective, parallel detection of Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale infections using a single microarray system will be a valuable improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection and molecular characterization of Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in hard ticks collected from Kagoshima, the southern region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Hayashi, Kei; Andoh, Masako; Tateno, Morihiro; Endo, Yasuyuki; Asada, Masahito; Kusakisako, Kodai; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hozumi, Nodoka; Nakadohzono, Fumiko; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the distribution of tick-borne parasites, we established a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system to detect the most common agents of tick-borne parasitic diseases, namely Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon parasites. We collected host-seeking or animal-feeding ticks in Kagoshima Prefecture, the southernmost region of Kyusyu Island in southwestern Japan. Twenty of the total of 776 tick samples displayed a specific band of the appropriate size (approximately 1.4-1.6kbp) for the 18S rRNA genes in the novel nested PCR (20/776: 2.58%). These PCR products have individual sequences of Babesia spp. (from 8 ticks), Theileria spp. (from 9 ticks: one tick sample including at least two Theileria spp. sequences), and Hepatozoon spp. (from 3 ticks). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these sequences were close to those of undescribed Babesia spp. detected in feral raccoons in Japan (5 sequences; 3 sequences being identical), Babesia gibsoni-like parasites detected in pigs in China (3 sequences; all sequences being identical), Theileria spp. detected in sika deer in Japan and China (10 sequences; 2 sequences being identical), Hepatozoon canis (one sequence), and Hepatozoon spp. detected in Japanese martens in Japan (two sequences). In summary, we showed that various tick-borne parasites exist in Kagoshima, the southern region in Japan by using the novel nested PCR system. These including undescribed species such as Babesia gibsoni-like parasites previously detected in pigs in China. Importantly, our results revealed new combinations of ticks and protozoan parasites in southern Japan. The results of this study will aid in the recognition of potential parasitic animal diseases caused by tick-borne parasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Diversity in the 18S SSU rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of Theileria spp. in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Ben J; Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Potgieter, Fred T

    2011-05-01

    Sequence variation within the 18S SSU rRNA V4 hyper-variable region can affect the accuracy of real-time hybridization probe-based diagnostics for the detection of Theileria spp. infections. This is relevant for assays that use non-specific primers, such as the real-time hybridization assay for T. parva (Sibeko et al. 2008). To assess the effect of sequence variation on this test, the Theileria 18S gene from 62 buffalo and 49 cattle samples was cloned and ∼1000 clones sequenced. Twenty-six genotypes were detected which included known and novel genotypes for the T. buffeli, T. mutans, T. taurotragi and T. velifera clades. A novel genotype related to T. sp. (sable) was also detected in 1 bovine sample. Theileria genotypic diversity was higher in buffalo compared to cattle. Polymorphism within the T. parva hyper-variable region was confirmed by aberrant real-time melting peaks and supported by sequencing of the S5 ribosomal gene. Analysis of the S5 gene suggests that this gene can be a marker for species differentiation. T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) remain the only genotypes amplified by the primer set of the hybridization assay. Therefore, the 18S sequence diversity observed does not seem to affect the current real-time hybridization assay for T. parva.

  3. The prevalence and impact of Babesia canis and Theileria sp. in free-ranging grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ana; Huber, Doroteja; Polkinghorne, Adam; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Benko, Valerija; Mrljak, Vladimir; Reljić, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Reil, Irena; Beck, Relja

    2017-04-04

    Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. are important emerging causes of disease in dogs. Alongside these domesticated hosts, there is increasing recognition that these piroplasms can also be found in a range of wild animals with isolated reports describing the presence of these pathogen in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and captive grey wolves (Canis lupus). The prevalence and impact of these infections in free-ranging populations of canids are unknown. To gain a better insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of piroplasm infections in free-ranging grey wolves, pathological and molecular investigations into captive and free-ranging grey wolves in Croatia were performed. The carcasses of 107 free-ranging wolves and one captive wolf were the subjects of post-mortem investigations and sampling for molecular studies. A blood sample from one live captured wolf for telemetric tracking was also used for molecular analysis. PCR amplification targeting the 18S RNA gene revealed that 21 of 108 free-ranging wolves and one captive animal were positive for Theileria/Babesia DNA. Subsequent sequencing of a fragment of the 18S RNA gene revealed that 7/22 animals were positive for Babesia canis while the other amplified sequence were found to be identical with corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of Theileria capreoli isolated from wild deer (15/22). Haematological and cytological analysis revealed the presence of signet-ring shaped or pear-shaped piroplasms in several animals with the overall parasite burden in all positive animals assessed to be very low. Pathological investigation of the captive animal revealed fatal septicemia as a likely outcome of hemolytic anaemia. There was little or no evidence of hemolytic disease consistent with babesiosis in other animals. Importantly, the presence of B. canis in free-ranging grey wolves has not been described before but has been reported in a single fox and domestic dogs only. That B. canis infections cause disease in dogs but have little impact

  4. Immunogenicity and antigenicity of the recombinant EMA-1 protein of Theileria equi expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris Imunogenicidade e antigenicidade da proteína recombinante EMA-1 de Theileria equi expressa em Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Q. Nizoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi is one of the most important parasitic diseases of the equine, causing damage to animal health and economic losses. In T. equi, 2 merozoite surface proteins, equi merozoite antigen EMA-1 and EMA-2, have been identified as the most immunodominant antigens. This suggests that these antigens might be used as immunobiological tools. The EMA-1 of Theileria equi was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The transformed yeast was grown at high cell density, expressing up to 389 mg.L-1 of recombinant protein. The protein was concentrated and detected in Dot blot. The recombinant product was antigenically similar to the native protein as determined using monoclonal antibodies, and polyclonal antibodies obtained from equines naturally infected with T. equi. The immunogenicity of rEMA-1 protein was demonstrated by IFAT using sera from recombinant-protein-immunized mice using aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. All animals vaccinated with rEMA-1 developed a high specific antibody response. This results suggest that rEMA-1expressed in P. pastoris might be a strong candidate to be used as an antigen for immune diagnostics as well as a vaccine antigen.A piroplasmose equina causada por Theileria equi é uma das mais importantes doenças parasitárias de equídeos, causando danos a saúde animal e perdas econômicas. Em T. equi, 2 proteínas de superfície de merozoítos, equi merozoite antigen EMA-1 e EMA-2, têm sido identificadas como antígenos imunodominantes. Sugerindo que estes antígenos possam ser usados como produtos imunobiológicos. O gene EMA-1 de T. equi foi clonado e expressado na levedura Pichia pastoris. As leveduras transformadas foram cultivadas a altas densidades celulares expressando 389 mg.L-1 de proteína recombinante. A proteína foi concentrada e detectada em Dot blot. O produto recombinante foi antigenicamente similar à proteína nativa quando determinado usando anticorpo

  5. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  6. Detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi using microscopic and molecular methods in horses in suburb of Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Malekifard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine piroplasmosis is a severe disease of horses caused by the intra-erythrocyte protozoan, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. The aim of this study was to identify equine piroplasmosis based on molecular and morphometrical features in horses in suburb of Urmia, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. From April to September 2011, a total number of 240 blood samples were collected randomly from horses of 25 villages. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears stained with Geimsa, and the morphological and biometrical data of parasite in any infected erythrocyte were considered. Extracted DNA from each blood sample was used in multiplex PCR in order to confirm the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. Microscopic observation on 240 blood smears determined that 15 (6.25% and 5 (2.80% samples were infected by T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. The mixed infections occurred in 2 (0.83% samples. The results of the PCR assays showed 26 (10.83%, 14 (5.83% and 4 (1.66% were distinguished as T. equi, B. caballi and mixed infection, respectively. Differences in infection rates were statistically nonsignificant between male and female horses and among different age groups. Our findings indicated that T. equi and B. caballi were prevalent in horse population.

  7. A field survey for the seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in donkeys from Nuu Division, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduori, David O; Onyango, Solomon C; Kimari, Joseph N; MacLeod, Ewan T

    2015-07-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is one of the most significant tick-borne disease of equids. The prevalence of this disease in donkeys of semi-arid Kenya remains largely unexplored. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the extent to which donkeys in Nuu division, Kenya have been exposed to the haemoprotozoans Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis. The study also assessed the effect of age and sex on seroprevalence. A stratified sampling approach was used and three hundred and fourteen donkeys were sampled across nine sub-locations in Nuu division, Mwingi district. Serodiagnosis was via competitive inhibition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA). The seroprevalence of T. equi was 81.2% (95% CI: 76.4-85.4). There was no significant difference in sub-location seropositivity, gender seropositivity or age related seropositivity. Antibodies against B. caballi were not detected (95% CI: 0-1.2). Findings from this study suggest that T. equi infection is endemic in Nuu division, Mwingi where it exists in a state of endemic stability. Existence of the infection should be communicated to animal health practitioners and donkey owning communities in the area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Hubei province, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Li-Xia; Tu, Pan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2012-05-25

    The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in Blood from Equines from Four Indigenous Communities in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Posada-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out in four indigenous communities of Costa Rica to detect presence and prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and to investigate factors associated with presence of these hemoparasites. General condition of horses (n=285 was evaluated, and hematocrits and hemoglobin were determined from blood samples of 130 horses, which were also analyzed using blood smears, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA. The general condition of the horses (n=285 in terms of their body and coat was between regular and poor, and hematocrit and hemoglobin average values were low (19% and 10.65 g/dL, resp.. Erythrocyte inclusions were observed in 32 (24.6% of the samples. Twenty-six samples (20.0% gave positive results for B. caballi and 60 (46.2% for T. equi; 10 horses (7.7% showed mixed infection, when analyzed by PCR. Using c-ELISA, it was found that 90 (69.2% horses had antibodies against B. caballi and 115 (88.5% against T. equi, while 81 (62.3% showed mixed reactions. There were no factors associated with the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. These results contrast with results previously obtained in equines in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  10. Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in Blood from Equines from Four Indigenous Communities in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Guzmán, María Fernanda; Dolz, Gaby; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in four indigenous communities of Costa Rica to detect presence and prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and to investigate factors associated with presence of these hemoparasites. General condition of horses (n = 285) was evaluated, and hematocrits and hemoglobin were determined from blood samples of 130 horses, which were also analyzed using blood smears, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The general condition of the horses (n = 285) in terms of their body and coat was between regular and poor, and hematocrit and hemoglobin average values were low (19% and 10.65 g/dL, resp.). Erythrocyte inclusions were observed in 32 (24.6%) of the samples. Twenty-six samples (20.0%) gave positive results for B. caballi and 60 (46.2%) for T. equi; 10 horses (7.7%) showed mixed infection, when analyzed by PCR. Using c-ELISA, it was found that 90 (69.2%) horses had antibodies against B. caballi and 115 (88.5%) against T. equi, while 81 (62.3%) showed mixed reactions. There were no factors associated with the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. These results contrast with results previously obtained in equines in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  11. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I...... with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8+ T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified...

  12. Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

  13. Antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens directly inhibit the growth of T cells infected with Theileria parva without affecting their state of activation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, M; Prospero, T D; Heussler, Volker; Dobbelaere, D A

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the effect of antibodies (Abs) directed against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Abs on the proliferation of Theileria parva-infected (Tpi) T cells. Anti-MHC class II Abs exert a direct effect on Tpi T cells causing an acute block in their proliferation. The inhibition does not involve apoptosis and is also entirely reversible. The rapid arrest of DNA synthesis caused by anti- MHC class II Abs is not due to interference with the state of activation of the T cel...

  14. The incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites. (author)

  15. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria equi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo G Bastos

    Full Text Available Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. Apicomplexans Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan Theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis. Bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis are the most economically important parasite diseases that affect worldwide cattle and equine industries, respectively. The recent sequencing of the B. bovis and T. equi genomes has provided the opportunity to identify novel genes involved in parasite biology. Here we characterize three members of the CCp family, named CCp1, CCp2 and CCp3, in B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. Using B. bigemina as an in vitro model, expression of all three CCp genes and proteins was demonstrated in temperature-induced sexual stages. Transcripts for all three CCp genes were found in vivo in blood stages of T. equi, and transcripts for CCp3 were detected in vivo in blood stages of B. bovis. However, no protein expression was detected in T. equi blood stages or B. bovis blood stages or B. bovis tick stages. Collectively, the data demonstrated a differential pattern of expression of three orthologous genes of the multidomain adhesion CCp family by B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. The novel CCp members represent potential targets for innovative approaches to control bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, D; D'Alessio, N; Di Loria, A; Di Prisco, F; Mariani, U; Neola, B; Santoro, M; Montagnaro, S; Capelli, G; Veneziano, V

    2014-12-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) has been frequently described in donkeys in subtropical and tropical regions, but published data reflecting large scale surveys are very limited in Europe. The seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in a donkey population from Campania Region in Southern Italy using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the infection were assessed. Of 203 samples, the overall seroprevalence for EP was 57.1% (116/203), with 35.5% (72/203) for B. caballi and 44.3% (90/203) for T. equi. Co-infection was detected in 46 donkeys (22.6%). The distribution of IFAT antibody titres to B. caballi was: 1:80 (n= 67), 1:160 (n= 2), 1:320 (n= 3); while the distribution of IFAT antibody titres to T. equi was: 1:80 (n= 25), 1:160 (n= 42), 1:320 (n= 12), 1:640 (n= 8), 1:1280 (n= 3). All examined donkeys were asymptomatic, except one adult male (with a titre of 1:640 against T. equi) that showed clinical signs corresponding to the acute stage of EP, reported for the first time in Italy. The unique risk factor associated with a higher B. caballi seroprevalence was the presence of horses in the farms, while risk factors associated with a higher T. equi seroprevalence were poor body condition, presence of ruminants in the farms and milk production. The results indicate a high level of exposure in donkeys living in Southern Italy and suggest that donkeys may be an important reservoir of EP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotia, Hanzel T; Munro, James B; Knowles, Donald P; Daubenberger, Claudia A; Bishop, Richard P; Silva, Joana C

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field.

  19. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  20. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water bu...

  1. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  2. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of bovine Babesia spp., Theileria orientalis, and Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Efstratiou, Artemis; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2017-02-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria orientalis, and Anaplasma marginale are significant tick-borne pathogens that affect the health and productivity of cattle in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we used PCR to detect the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, and T. orientalis in 279 beef cattle from Western Thailand and A. marginale in 608 beef cattle from the north, northeastern, and western regions. The PCRs were performed using species-specific primers based on the B. bovis spherical body protein 2 (BboSBP2), B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP), and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes. To determine the genetic diversity of the above parasites, amplicons of B. bovis and B. bigemina ITS1-5.8s rRNA gene-ITS2 regions (B. bovis ITS, B. bigemina ITS), ToMPSP, and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the prevalence of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis, and A. marginale in the Western region was 11.1, 12.5, 7.8, and 39.1 %, respectively. Coinfections of two or three parasites were observed in 17.9 % of the animals sampled. The study revealed that the prevalence of A. marginale in the western region was higher than in the north and northeastern regions (7 %). Sequence analysis showed the BboSBP2 gene to be more conserved than B. bovis ITS in the different isolates and, similarly, the BbiRAP-1a was more conserved than B. bigemina ITS. In the phylogenetic analysis, T. orientalis MPSP sequences were classified into types 3, 5, and 7 as previously reported. A. marginale MSP4 gene sequences shared high identity and similarity with each other and clustered with isolates from other countries. This study provides information on the prevalence and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in beef cattle and highlights the need for effective strategies to control these pathogens in Thailand.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  4. Mechanical transfer of Theileria orientalis: possible roles of biting arthropods, colostrum and husbandry practices in disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jade Frederick; Jenkins, Cheryl; Bogema, Daniel; Emery, David

    2016-01-22

    The intracellular protozoal parasite Theileria orientalis has rapidly spread across South-eastern Australia, substantially impacting local cattle industries since 2006. Haemaphysalis longicornis appears to be a biological vector in the endemic regions. Mechanical transfer of blood by biting arthropods, in colostrum or iatrogenic transmission though husbandry procedures is another possible mode of transmission. This study assesses the risk of these mechanical modes of transmission. Blood was collected from a T. orientalis Ikeda positive Angus steer, and was inoculated into the jugular vein of 9 calves in 3 treatment groups, each with 3 animals. Calves in Group 1 received 10 ml of cryopreserved blood, while those in Groups 2 and 3 received 1 ml (fresh blood) and 0.1 ml (cryopreserved), respectively. An additional three animals remained as negative controls and the donor calf was also followed as a positive control. Blood was collected over 3 months, and analysed via qPCR for the presence of the parasite. Samples of the sucking louse Linognathus vituli were collected opportunistically from calves 5 months after inoculation and tested for T. orientalis. For the colostral transmission study, 30 samples of blood and colostrum were collected from cows at calving in an endemic herd. These samples along with blood from their calves were tested by qPCR for T. orientalis and for antibodies to the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP). Eight of the nine inoculated calves became positive for T. orientalis. The prepatent period of these infections was inversely correlated with inoculation dose. All negative control calves remained negative and the positive control calf remained positive. Samples of L. vituli tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda, while some samples of colostrum were also shown to be qPCR and anti-MPSP positive. All calves in the colostral study tested qPCR negative although one was antibody-positive. T. orientalis is capable of being mechanically transferred

  5. Identification of candidate vaccine antigens of bovine hemoparasites Theileria parva and Babesia bovis by use of helper T cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W C; Zhao, S; Logan, K S; Grab, D J; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1995-03-01

    Current vaccines for bovine hemoparasites utilize live attenuated organisms or virulent organisms administered concurrently with antiparasitic drugs. Although such vaccines can be effective, for most hemoparasites the mechanisms of acquired resistance to challenge infection with heterologous parasite isolates have not been clearly defined. Selection of potentially protective antigens has traditionally made use of antibodies to identify immunodominant proteins. However, numerous studies have indicated that induction of high antibody titers neither predicts the ability of an antigen to confer protective immunity nor correlates with protection. Because successful parasites have evolved antibody evasion tactics, alternative strategies to identify protective immunogens should be used. Through the elaboration of cytokines, T helper 1-(Th1)-like T cells and macrophages mediate protective immunity against many intracellular parasites, and therefore most likely play an important role in protective immunity against bovine hemoparasites. CD4+ T cell clones specific for soluble or membrane antigens of either Theileria parva schizonts or Babesia bovis merozoites were therefore employed to identify parasite antigens that elicit strong Th cell responses in vitro. Soluble cytosolic parasite antigen was fractionated by gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography or hydroxylapatite chromatography, or a combination thereof, and fractions were tested for the ability to induce proliferation of Th cell clones. This procedure enabled the identification of stimulatory fractions containing T. parva proteins of approximately 10 and 24 kDa. Antisera raised against the purified 24 kDa band reacted with a native schizont protein of approximately 30 kDa. Babesia bovis-specific Th cell clones tested against fractionated soluble Babesia bovis merozoite antigen revealed the presence of at least five distinct antigenic epitopes. Proteins separated by gel filtration revealed four patterns of

  6. Cluster analysis of the clinical histories of cattle affected with bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2017-11-01

    AIM To determine the most commonly used words in the clinical histories of animals naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type; whether these words differed between cases categorised by age, farm type or haematocrit (HCT), and if there was any clustering of the common words in relation to these categories. METHODS Clinical histories were transcribed for 605 cases of bovine anaemia associated with T. orientalis (TABA), that were submitted to laboratories with blood samples which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type infection by PCR analysis, between October 2012 and November 2014. χ 2 tests were used to determine whether the proportion of submissions for each word was similar across the categories of HCT (normal, moderate anaemia or severe anaemia), farm type (dairy or beef) and age (young or old). Correspondence analysis (CA) was carried out on a contingency table of the frequency of the 28 most commonly used history words, cross-tabulated by age categories (young, old or unknown). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering, using Ward's method, was then performed on the coordinates from the correspondence analysis. RESULTS The six most commonly used history words were jaundice (204/605), lethargic (162/605), pale mucous membranes (161/605), cow (151/605), anaemia (147/605), and off milk (115/605). The proportion of cases with some history words differed between categories of age, farm type and HCT. The cluster analysis indicated that the recorded history words were grouped in two main clusters. The first included the words weight loss, tachycardia, pale mucous membranes, anaemia, lethargic and thin, and was associated with adult (pcluster included the words deaths, ill-thrift, calves, calf and diarrhoea, and was associated with young (pCluster analysis of words recorded in clinical histories submitted with blood samples from cases of TABA indicates that two potentially different disease syndromes were associated with T. orientalis Ikeda type

  7. The Hybrid II assay: a sensitive and specific real-time hybridization assay for the diagnosis of Theileria parva infection in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Ronel; Potgieter, Fred T; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

    2011-12-01

    Corridor disease is an acute, fatal disease of cattle caused by buffalo-adapted Theileria parva. This is a nationally controlled disease in South Africa and strict control measures apply for the movement of buffalo, which includes mandatory testing for the presence of T. parva and other controlled diseases. Accurate diagnosis of the T. parva carrier state in buffalo using the official real-time hybridization PCR assay (Sibeko et al. 2008), has been shown to be affected by concurrent infection with T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites. We describe the Hybrid II assay, a real-time hybridization PCR method, which compares well with the official hybridization assay in terms of specificity and sensitivity. It is, however, not influenced by mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo)-like parasites and is as such a significant improvement on the current hybridization assay.

  8. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the intraeytrhocytic protozoans Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. It has been reported as a main equine parasitic disease. In addition, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, causes a seasonal disease in horses. Both diseases, can be detrimental to animal health. In this sense, blood samples and ticks were collected from 97 horses raised in the microregion of Baixada Maranhense, Maranhão State, Brazil. Serum samples were subjected to Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT and blood samples and ticks to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR to evaluate the infection by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The overall seroprevalence was 38.14%, 18.55% and 11.34% for T. equi, B. caballi and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. The results of PCR from blood samples showed 13.40% and 3.09% positive samples to T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. A total of 170 tick specimens were collected and identified as Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. It was detected 2.35% (4/170 and 0.59% (1/170 positive tick samples by PCR for T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. All samples were negative to A. phagocytophilum. No statically difference (p>0.05 was observed when gender, age, use of ectoparasiticide and tick presence were analyzed. A BLASTn analysis of the sequenced samples indicated 97 to 100% similarity with T. equi 18S rRNA gene sequences in GenBank and 98 to 100% with B. caballi. Genetic analysis classified the obtained sequences as T. equi and B. caballi cluster, respectively. It can be concluded that these pathogens occur and are circulating in the studied area.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09317-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin, mRNA (cDN... 40 0.062 EU273942_1( EU273942 |pid:none) Amphimedon queenslandica notch mRN... 40 0.062 EU...52 |pid:none) Theileria annulata strain Ankara... 39 0.18 EU285556_1( EU285556 |pid:none) Amphimedon queensland

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01056-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AJ928354 ) Theileria annulata EST, clone tam025d03_q1k. 32 5.7 3 ( Z32534 ) Human rotavirus (St Thomas) gene... 5 (1566bp). 44 6.0 1 ( U11492 ) Human rotavirus ST3 non-structural protein NSP1 mRN... 44 6.0 1 ( EF672613 ) Human rotavirus

  11. Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.A. Alkhaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1 and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1 more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

  12. Theileria parva antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells show varying degrees of diversity in buffalo-derived infected cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Tatjana; Pelle, Roger; Chepkwony, Maurine; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2018-05-06

    The extent of sequence diversity among the genes encoding 10 antigens (Tp1-10) known to be recognized by CD8+ T lymphocytes from cattle immune to Theileria parva was analysed. The sequences were derived from parasites in 23 buffalo-derived cell lines, three cattle-derived isolates and one cloned cell line obtained from a buffalo-derived stabilate. The results revealed substantial variation among the antigens through sequence diversity. The greatest nucleotide and amino acid diversity were observed in Tp1, Tp2 and Tp9. Tp5 and Tp7 showed the least amount of allelic diversity, and Tp5, Tp6 and Tp7 had the lowest levels of protein diversity. Tp6 was the most conserved protein; only a single non-synonymous substitution was found in all obtained sequences. The ratio of non-synonymous: synonymous substitutions varied from 0.84 (Tp1) to 0.04 (Tp6). Apart from Tp2 and Tp9, we observed no variation in the other defined CD8+ T cell epitopes (Tp4, 5, 7 and 8), indicating that epitope variation is not a universal feature of T. parva antigens. In addition to providing markers that can be used to examine the diversity in T. parva populations, the results highlight the potential for using conserved antigens to develop vaccines that provide broad protection against T. parva.

  13. Detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran.Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008. Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR.Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province.Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.

  14. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzan, Heba F; Knowles, Donald P; Suarez, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i) identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii) identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii) define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv) identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  15. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba F Alzan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  16. Assessing the performance of multiplexed tandem PCR for the diagnosis of pathogenic genotypes of Theileria orientalis using pooled blood samples from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Stevenson, Mark A; McGrath, Sean; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-02-01

    Oriental theileriosis caused by multiple genotypes of Theileria orientalis is an important tick-borne disease of bovines. Here, we assessed the performance of an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) for the diagnosis of the two recognized, pathogenic genotypes (chitose and ikeda) of T. orientalis in cattle using pooled blood samples. We used a total of 265 cattle blood samples, which were divided into two groups according to previous MT-PCR results for individual samples. Samples in group 1 (n = 155) were from a herd with a relatively high prevalence of T. orientalis infection; and those in group 2 (n = 110) were from four herds with a low prevalence. For group 1, 31 and 15 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. For group 2, 22 and 11 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. DNAs from individual pooled samples in each batch and group were then tested by MT-PCR. For group 1, the apparent prevalences estimated using the 31 batches of five-pooled samples (97%) and 15 batches of ten-pooled samples (100%) were significantly higher compared with individual samples (75%). For group 2, higher apparent prevalences (9% and 36%) were also recorded for the 22 and 11 batches of pooled samples, respectively, compared with individual samples (7%). Overall, the average infection intensity recorded for the genotypes of chitose and ikeda were considerably lower in pooled compared with individual samples. The diagnostic specificities of MT-PCR were estimated at 95% and 94%, respectively, when batches of five- and ten-pooled samples were tested, and 94% for individual samples. The diagnostic sensitivity of this assay was estimated at 98% same for all individual, five- and ten-pooled samples. This study shows that screening batches of five- and ten-pooled blood samples from cattle herds are similar to those obtained for individual samples, and, importantly, that the reduced cost

  17. In vitro culture, PCR , and nested PCR for the detection of Theileria equi in horses submitted to exercise Cultivo in vitro, PCR e nested PCR na detecção de Theileria equi em eqüinos submetidos a exercícios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Baldani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the usefulness of in vitro culture, PCR, and nested PCR for the diagnosis of Theileria equi in horses submitted to stress during exercise. Blood samples from 15 apparently healthy horses, previously conditioned to a high-speed equine treadmill, were taken prior to and after exercise. The animals were divided into two experimental groups: 30-day training schedule (G1 and 90-day training schedule (G2. Statistical analysis was performed using a chi-square test and kappa statistic was used in order to assess agreement. No significant difference was observed between samples collected at resting or after exercise. In G1, merozoites of T. equi were detected in the blood smears of four horses before in vitro culture, whereas 14 samples were positive, confirmed by culture. In G2, five and 11 horses were positive before and after culture, respectively. No PCR amplified product was observed in any of the tested animals although the PCR system based on the 16S rRNA gene of T. equi detected DNA in blood with an equivalent 8x10-5% parasitaemia. The nested PCR based on the T. equi merozoite antigen gene (EMA-1 allowed the visualization of amplified products in all the horses. Therefore, nested PCR should be considered as a means of detection of sub-clinical T. equi infections and in vitro culture could be used as a complement to other methods of diagnosis.Comparou-se a utilização do cultivo in vitro, PCR e nested PCR no diagnóstico de Theileria equi em eqüinos submetidos ao estresse induzido por exercícios. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas de 15 eqüinos submetidos a treinamento em esteira rolante de alto desempenho, sendo as amostras colhidas antes e após os exercícios. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais: 30 dias de treinamento (G1 e 90 dias de treinamento (G2. O teste do qui-quadrado foi empregado para as análises estatísticas e o índice kappa utilizado para avaliar a concordância. Não houve diferen

  18. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  19. Developing high throughput quantitative PCR assays for diagnosing Ikeda and other Theileria orientalis types common to New Zealand in bovine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Gias, E; Bueno, I M; McFadden, Amj

    2016-01-01

    To develop rapid, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and type-specific TaqMan assays for identifying the prevalent types of Theileria orientalis found in New Zealand cattle; and to evaluate their analytical and diagnostic characteristics compared with other assays for T. orientalis. Nucleotide sequences aligned with T. orientalis Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda types, obtained from DNA extracted from blood samples from infected cattle, were used to design HRM and type-specific probe-based qPCR assays. The three type-specific assays were also incorporated into a single-tube multiplex qPCR assay. These assays were validated using DNA extracted from blood samples from cattle in herds with or without clinical signs of T. orientalis infection, other veterinary laboratory samples, as well as plasmids containing T. orientalis type-specific sequences. Diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) estimates for the qPCR assays were compared to blood smear piroplasm results, and other PCR assays for T. orientalis. Copy number estimates of Ikeda DNA in blood were determined from cattle exhibiting anaemia using the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay. The T. orientalis type-specific and the HRM qPCR assays displayed 100% analytical specificity. The Ikeda-specific qPCR assay exhibited linearity (R(2) = 0.997) with an efficiency of 94.3%. Intra-assay CV were ≤0.08 and inter-assay CV were ≤0.095. For blood samples from cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis, the DSp and DSe of the multiplex probe qPCR assay were 93 and 96%, respectively compared with blood smears, and 97 and 100%, respectively compared with conventional PCR assays. For the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay, the number of positive samples (n=66) was slightly higher than a conventional PCR assay (n=64). The concentration of Ikeda genomes in blood samples from 41 dairy cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis ranged between 5.6 × 10(4) and 3.3 × 10(6) genomes per

  20. Music and Alterity Processes

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    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  1. Molecular study of Theileria camelensis and Theileria dromedarii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding of camels in the world is growing expansionary due to increasing in consumption rate of its meat, milk and wool. Besides, The rise of profitability of this industry and importing of camels into the country through the South East borders make it important to recognize infectious diseases in this species. Theileriosis ...

  2. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TROPICAL THEILERIOSIS ON A HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN DAIRY FARM IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad; Haroon, Akbar; Rashid, Muhmmad Imran; Khalid, Saeed; Liaquat, Ahmad; Saghir, Abdullah; Wasim, Shehzad; Saher, Islam; Shahid, Farooqi

    2018-03-09

    The dairy industry in Pakistan is booming and investors are anxious to fund dairy farms that are using high milk producing (exotic) cattle breeds such as Holsteins that are not native to the country. Unfortunately, the benefits of increased milk production do not provide resistance to pathogens present in regions where the exotic breeds are introduced. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the economic impact of Theileria annulata on a commercial Holstein dairy farm in the District of Ranjanpur, in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan. The economic impact of T. annulata infection was calculated for cattle with subclinical and clinical theileriosis. Losses were estimated based on milk production, morbidity, mortality and tick control costs (organophosphate sprays). Animals were classified into groups after screening for mastitis, teat abnormality, abnormal parturition, intestinal parasites and hemoparasites (T. annulata, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma spp.). Microscopy was done for hemoparasites and intestinal parasites. PCR was used to confirm microscopic identification of T. annulata. Animals were classified into 3 groups, comprising group A (normal), group B (subclinical theileriosis) and group C (acute theileriosis). Hemoparasites were observed microscopically in 28.7% of cows. Theileria annulata was found in 8% and the herd incidence (new cases) of T. annulata was 2.8%. Milk production, animal rectal temperature and body condition scores of group A with B and C were significantly different (P0.05). The total expenditure incurred due to theileriosis was US $74.98 per animal and 13.83% of total farm costs. Hence theileriosis caused significant economic loss of US $18743.76 (0.02 million) on this Holstein Friesian dairy.

  3. Prevalence of carrier state theileriosis in lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjana Sahoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the carrier status of theileriosis among apparently healthy cross-bred jersey cattle population of Odisha using conventional blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 apparently healthy cross-bred Jersey lactating cows were considered in this study. Blood samples were subjected to microscopic examination after staining with Giemsa stain and PCR based molecular diagnosis using two sets of primer, i.e., N516/N517 and TorF1/TorF2 specific for Theileria annulata and Theileria orientalis, respectively. Results: Examination of blood samples revealed presence of theileria parasites to a magnitude of 20.59% for T. annulata, 8.82% for T. orientalis, and 2.94% for both. Conclusion: Molecular diagnosis was found to be much more sensitive than conventional method for diagnosis of theileriosis. T. annulata was found to be the predominant species affecting the exotic cattle. T. orientalis was detected in apparently healthy cows.

  4. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  6. Evaluation of indirect TaSP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amr M; Abdel-Rady, Ahmed; Ahmed, Laila S; El-Hosary, Amira

    2012-05-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSP)-ELISA, in comparison with traditional microscopic test, for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection among Egyptian baladi cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Molecular confirmation of infection using T. annulata merozoite surface (Tams-1) target amplification by PCR was used as a gold standard. A total of 76 clinically suspected animals including 64 baladi cattle and 12 water buffaloes were investigated in the current study by the three methods. Based on the PCR-confirmed results, the evaluation study revealed higher sensitivity of TaSP-ELISA (72.9% and 75%) as compared to microscopic examination (58.3% and 50%) among cattle and buffaloes, respectively. On the other hand, the specificity of TaSP-ELISA in diagnosis of T. annulata infection was higher (87.5%) in baladi cattle as compared to water buffaloes (37.5%). In conclusion, TaSP-ELISA was shown to be suitable for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection in cattle under field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  8. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J.

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  9. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  10. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area.

  11. Estudo comparativo de três métodos de diagnóstico para detecção de anticorpos anti-Theileria equi em eqüinos de áreas endêmicas do estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marques dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA e a reação de fixação do complemento (RFC no diagnóstico de Theileria equi em amostras de soro de 79 equinos na Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ, Brasil. Houve reação positiva para Theileria equi em 74,7, 75,9 e 60,8% das amostras testadas pela RIFI, ELISA e RFC, respectivamente. Observou-se discrepância em 16,45% (n=13 das amostras de soro testadas pelo ELISA indireto e RIFI. Quando comparado a RIFI e a RFC, a discrepância observada entre os soros testados foi de 36,70% (n=29. O teste ELISA indireto e a RFC apresentaram discordância em 37,97% (n=30 das amostras de soros. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que a melhor alternativa para o diagnóstico sorológico de T. equi em eqüinos portadores é a associação dos testes de RIFI e ELISA indireto, especialmente para a realização de estudos soroepidemiológicos.

  12. Production of recombinant EMA-1 protein and its application for the diagnosis of Theileria equi using an enzyme immuno assay in horses from São Paulo State, Brazil Produção da proteína recombinante EMA-1 e sua aplicação para o diagnóstico baseadono imuno ensaio enzimático de Theileria equi em equinos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Divan Baldani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocytic-stage surface protein, Equi Merozoite Antigen 1 (EMA-1, is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In order to establish an effective diagnostic method for practical use, the gene encoding the entire EMA-1 of Theileria equi Jaboticabal strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein (His6-EMA1. The expressed EMA-1 reacted with specific antibodies in Western blot and had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa which was largely consistent with its theoretical value. The nucleotide sequence of the EMA-1 gene of Jaboticabal strain was comparatively analyzed with other published sequences. The results indicated a high degree of homology with EMA-1 genes of all other strains isolated from various countries. The recombinant purified His6-EMA1 protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of antibodies anti-T. equi in horses. The ELISA clearly differentiated T. equi-infected from Babesia caballi-infected horse sera or normal horse sera. Field serum samples collected from horses in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, were examined for the diagnosis of T. equi infection by ELISA. Of 170 samples analyzed, 95.88% (163/170 were positive for T. equi infection. These results suggest that the His6-EMA1 protein expressed in E. coli could be a reliable immunodiagnostic antigen for ELISA test and that T. equi infection is a serious concern in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.A proteína de superfície eritrocitária, Antígeno 1 do Merozoíta de Theileria equi (EMA-1, é um potencial candidato para o desenvolvimento de antígenos de valor diagnóstico para a piroplasmose equina. Com o objetivo de estabelecer um método de diagnóstico efetivo e prático, o gene EMA-1 da amostra Jaboticabal - SP de T. equi foi clonado e expresso em Escherichia coli contendo uma cauda de poli-histidina (His6-EMA1. O EMA-1 expresso reagiu com

  13. Seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China

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    Yaqiong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.

  14. Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter : d. Gesundheitsreformgesetz (GRG) ; Möglichkeiten, Grenzen u. weitere Vorschläge / Martin Pfaff ; Klaus Deimer. - In: Expertengespräch "Pflege in der Familie". - Augsburg, 1989. - Getr. Zählung

  15. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  16. PCR detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Guswanto, Azirwan; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country.

  17. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGräff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  18. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  19. Systemic dystrophic alterations of skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A roentgenologic picture of dystrophic alterations of bones following hard, acute and chronic infections diseases, distinct disorders of vitanium balance, diseases of endocrine system, disorder of metabolism and diet, long-term exogenous intoxications including medicinal is given. Distinct dystrophic disorders are characterized both by quantitative and qualitative deviations in physiological change of bones

  20. Digital media and altered states

    OpenAIRE

    Ressel, James

    2014-01-01

    This article is a reflection on whether technology has altered our perception of the spaces surrounding us and those we make, how we express ourselves and how we interact with our experiences. The reflection is based on a brief examination of the history of Northampton Chronicle & Echo as a print newspaper, its digital manifestation and human creative expression in the digital world.

  1. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-01-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  2. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  3. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  4. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda

    2010-01-15

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  5. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  6. Some hydrolase activities from the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giménez-Pardo C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work has been made a detection and preliminary characterization of some hydrolases in whole extracts from unfed adult males and females of Hyalomma lusitanicum, one of the vectors for Theileria annulata that causes Mediterranean theileriosis in cattle. We have elected as targets, proteases as enzymes implicated in the nutritional processes of ticks, esterases that are usually implicated in resistance to organophosphates and phosphatises often implicated in protein phosphorilation and control of ticks salivary gland. The biological role and physiological significance are discussed in terms of the possibility of use these enzymes as possible in future anti-tick vaccination or acaricide resistance.

  7. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  8. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  9. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations.......Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  10. Altered Insula Connectivity under MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ishan C; Nest, Timothy; Roseman, Leor; Erritzoe, David; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-10-01

    Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap. To do this, we administered MDMA-HCl (100 mg p.o.) and, separately, placebo (ascorbic acid) in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures design with twenty-five healthy volunteers undergoing fMRI scanning. We then employed a measure of global resting-state functional brain connectivity and follow-up seed-to-voxel analysis to the fMRI data we acquired. Results revealed decreased right insula/salience network functional connectivity under MDMA. Furthermore, these decreases in right insula/salience network connectivity correlated with baseline trait anxiety and acute experiences of altered bodily sensations under MDMA. The present findings highlight insular disintegration (ie, compromised salience network membership) as a neurobiological signature of the MDMA experience, and relate this brain effect to trait anxiety and acutely altered bodily sensations-both of which are known to be associated with insular functioning.

  11. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M Voigt

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  12. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Gayani; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Takemae, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-09-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam.

  13. Self-alteration in HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Nørskov, Marco

    human communications. As an example of the results, in group work activities in an elementary school, we found that Telenoid's limited capability led children to change their attitudes so that they could work together. Also, in a care facility, the elderly with dementia developed prosocial behaviors......Humanlike androids are being developed with the ambition to be immersed into our daily life and meet us on an equal level in social interaction. The possibilities and limitations of these types of robots can potentially change societies and Human-Robot Interaction might affect the very way in which...... the ways in which our subjectivity can be innerly transformed, decentred, in other words, self-altered. In our trials so far, we have been investigating the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting pilot studies in Japan...

  14. Hematological alterations in protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ed W; Oliveira, Dalila C; Silva, Graziela B; Tsujita, Maristela; Beltran, Jackeline O; Hastreiter, Araceli; Fock, Ricardo A; Borelli, Primavera

    2017-11-01

    Protein malnutrition is one of the most serious nutritional problems worldwide, affecting 794 million people and costing up to $3.5 trillion annually in the global economy. Protein malnutrition primarily affects children, the elderly, and hospitalized patients. Different degrees of protein deficiency lead to a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms of protein malnutrition, especially in organs in which the hematopoietic system is characterized by a high rate of protein turnover and, consequently, a high rate of protein renewal and cellular proliferation. Here, the current scientific information about protein malnutrition and its effects on the hematopoietic process is reviewed. The production of hematopoietic cells is described, with special attention given to the hematopoietic microenvironment and the development of stem cells. Advances in the study of hematopoiesis in protein malnutrition are also summarized. Studies of protein malnutrition in vitro, in animal models, and in humans demonstrate several alterations that impair hematopoiesis, such as structural changes in the extracellular matrix, the hematopoietic stem cell niche, the spleen, the thymus, and bone marrow stromal cells; changes in mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells; increased autophagy; G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest of progenitor hematopoietic cells; and functional alterations in leukocytes. Structural and cellular changes of the hematopoietic microenvironment in protein malnutrition contribute to bone marrow atrophy and nonestablishment of hematopoietic stem cells, resulting in impaired homeostasis and an impaired immune response. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Epigenetic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Meneses, María Del Pilar; Pérez-Vera, Patricia

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. It is well-known that genetic alterations constitute the basis for the etiology of ALL. However, genetic abnormalities are not enough for the complete development of the disease, and additional alterations such as epigenetic modifications are required. Such alterations, like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA regulation have been identified in ALL. DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions is one of the most frequent epigenetic modifications observed in ALL. This modification frequently leads to gene silencing in tumor suppressor genes, and in consequence, contributes to leukemogenesis. Alterations in histone remodeling proteins have also been detected in ALL, such as the overexpression of histone deacetylases enzymes, and alteration of acetyltransferases and methyltransferases. ALL also shows alteration in the expression of miRNAs, and in consequence, the modification in the expression of their target genes. All of these epigenetic modifications are key events in the malignant transformation since they lead to the deregulation of oncogenes as BLK, WNT5B and WISP1, and tumor suppressors such as FHIT, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and TP53, which alter fundamental cellular processes and potentially lead to the development of ALL. Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the development and evolution of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Summability of alterations of convergent series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Keagy

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of splitting, rearrangement, and grouping series alterations on the summability of a convergent series by ℓ−ℓ and cs−cs matrix methods is studied. Conditions are determined that guarantee the existence of alterations that are transformed into divergent series and into series with preassigned sums.

  17. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  18. Roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities based on the author's experiences and on the literature is presented. Following a description of the normal roentgen anatomy, the alterations in different diseases of interstitial lipomatosis are demonstrated. By roentgenological examinations differt muscular lesions of the extremities can be differentiated and the clinical follow-up verified. (orig.) [de

  19. An Analysis of the Alteration Specialist Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkel, Elaine; Rehling, Joseph H.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the textile service occupation. The industry needs properly trained alteration specialists, bushelmen and dressmakers, in the repairing, remodeling, altering or renovating of garments. Their personal…

  20. First confirmed report of outbreak of theileriosis/anaplasmosis in a cattle farm in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Yaqun; Dong, Haiju; Jian, Fuchun; Shi, Ke; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) impose a significant constraint to livestock production world widely. In this paper, we presented a case of TBD in a cattle farm in Henan, China. 35 blood samples (7 samples sent by veterinarian, 28 samples gathered by our colleagues) were collected from ill, surviving and asymptomatic cattle and microscopic observation and PCR assays were conducted to characterize the pathogens. Genus Ixodes feeding on these cattle were collected and identified. Theileria annulata-like and Anaplasma marginale-like pathogens were observed in the blood smears stained with Giemsa staining under microscope. Furthermore, 5 out of 7 cattle blood samples were found to be positive for T. annulata by PCR. In the 28 blood specimens, three were positive for T. annulata, while A. marginale DNA was detected in nine blood DNA samples. Besides, 56 ticks feeding on cattle were collected from this farm and were all identified as Rhipisephalus microplus, meanwhile, 10 of them were found to be positive for A. marginale. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the msp4 gene sequences of A. marginale obtained in this study showed that the isolate from cattle (KX840009) fell in the same clade with that of R. microplus (KX904527), sharing 100% similarity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of outbreak of theileriosis/anaplasmosis in cattle farms in Henan, China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered Structures That Favour .... aircraft. Total line kilometers of 36,500 were covered in the survey. Magnetic ... tie lines occur at about 2000 metres interval in the ... visual inspection of the map.

  2. Altered States: Globalization, Sovereignty, and Governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For all the opportunities that globalization promises, it raises urgent ... Has the achievement of democratic government come too late for most of the ... The message of Altered States is one of both hope and warning: globalization opens great ...

  3. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  4. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  6. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  7. Alter(n – ein vielschichtiger Begriff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maly-Lukas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese Veröffentlichung, die aus einer Vortragsreihe an der katholischen Fachhochschule Freiburg entstanden ist, führt die Leserinnen und Leser in die verschiedenen Sichtweisen des Alter(ns in der modernen Gesellschaft ein. Es handelt sich um eine gelungene Zusammenstellung von Beiträgen aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen, die sich alle aus ihrer Sicht dem Thema Alter(n widmen. Die einzelnen Artikel sind zwischen 8 und 38 Seiten lang und recht schnell und einfach zu lesen. Je nach Hintergrund und Interessen werden die einzelnen Leserinnen und Leser dabei sicher unterschiedliche Beiträge favorisieren. Schade ist nur, dass durch die ungleichen Längen der Beiträge bestimmte thematische Schwerpunkte – ob gewollt oder nicht – gesetzt werden. Dies sollte die Leserinnen und Leser, die offen für unterschiedlichste Sichtweisen des Alter(ns sind, jedoch nicht davon abhalten, dieses Buch zu lesen.

  8. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  10. Bone alterations by stress in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, H.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.) [de

  11. White matter alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, P. B.; Salmon, C. E.; Velasco, T. R.; Sakamoto, A. C.; Leite, J. P.; Santos, A. C.

    2011-03-01

    In This study, we used Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (D), parallel diffusivity (D//) and perpendicular diffusivity (D), to localize the regions where occur axonal lesion and demyelization. TBSS was applied to analyze the FA data. After, the regions with alteration were studied with D, D// and D maps. Patients exhibited widespread degradation of FA. With D, D// and D maps analysis we found alterations in corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, internal capsule, corona radiate, Sagittal stratum, cingulum, fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exist demyelization and axonal damage in patients with TLE.

  12. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the objective of examining the outer membrane proteins and their involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the response of gram negative bacterial biomembrane alteration was studied using extended ...

  13. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  14. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...

  15. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD. PMID:26734709

  16. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the pole to the magnetic data aided in mapping of various hydrothermally altered structures that may favour gold mineralisation. The interpretation of the aero data set has enhanced a lot of ... water serves as a concentrating, transporting and depositing agent through faults (structures) to the earth's surface. Hydrothermal ...

  17. SEDAH. Data Server for hydrologic alteration evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Romero, R.; Magdaleno Mas, F.; Ortiz Rodriguez, J.; Fernandez Yuste, J. A.; Martinez Santa-Maria, C.

    2011-01-01

    Several tasks and studies have been developed from 2008 till 2010 all around the country in order to evaluate the hydrologic alteration of water bodies. In most cases this alteraction has been evaluated through IAHRIS (Martinez and Fernandez, 2006). The necessity of creating a new toll that allowed a better performance of the National Flow-Stage Stations Network data was showed up by developing these works. The output data series should match IAHRIS and IHA. SEDAH (Data Server for Evaluating Hydrologic Alteration) Helps to solve some of these problems by supplying an easy way to select flow stations, dates, flow series typology, etc. Moreover, other useful utilities are: a preliminary appraisement of quality data, calssification of altered or reference flow series and exportation of data in different file formats. The web application works with different data bases, daily, monthly and annual series belonging to, wither actual series from flow station data or completed series by statistical procedures. Through SEDAH the user has easy access to all this huge information ready for being applied in hydrologic alteration assessment, environmental fows regime, river restoration projects, etc. Furthermore, this first phase of the application constitute the basis for future powerful functionalities related to the natural flow series obtaining. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  19. NEW, GOOD DOCTORS FOR AN ALTERED SOCIETY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW, GOOD DOCTORS FOR AN ALTERED SOCIETY*. ANrHONY BARKER ... the concept of trying to become one is just a psychological throwback? ... called all these things and many things besides, yet this ... sex (women ought to be better at it than men, but often are not) .... foundations to lay for a specialized career.

  20. Global alteration of climate - hopes and fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems concerning gaseous emission affecting the global climate alteration connected with hotbed effect are considered. Economical and social-political ways of solution of the problem of minimization of gaseous wastes are described. Role of nuclear power plants and alternative power plants in the hotbed effect are analyzed. International cooperation in environmental protection policy is discussed

  1. Rare endocrine cancers have novel genetic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes and identified several novel genetic mutations as likely mechanisms driving the disease as well as whole genome doubling as a probable driver of the disease.

  2. 28 CFR 36.402 - Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other types of disabilities (e.g., those who use crutches, those who have impaired vision or hearing, or... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC.... (1) Any alteration to a place of public accommodation or a commercial facility, after January 26...

  3. Altered Cellular Metabolism Drives Trained Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Yahya; Godfrey, Rinesh; Findeisen, Hannes M

    2018-04-04

    Exposing innate immune cells to an initial insult induces a long-term proinflammatory response due to metabolic and epigenetic alterations which encompass an emerging new concept called trained immunity. Recent studies provide novel insights into mechanisms centered on metabolic reprogramming which induce innate immune memory in hematopoietic stem cells and monocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones, and...

  5. Epigenetic alteration of sedimentary rocks at hydrogenic uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wanlie; Shen Kefeng

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces the concept, the recognition criteria, the genesis and classification of the epigenetic alteration of sedimentary rocks in brief, and expounds the mineral-geochemical indications and characteristics of oxidation and reduction alterations in different geochemical zones in detail, and proposes the two models of ore-controlling zonation of epigenetic alteration. The authors finally introduce research methods of epigenetic alteration

  6. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  7. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life. © 2013.

  8. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  9. Lung scan alterations in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, R; Sanchez, J; Munoz, A; Lanaro, A E; Pico, A M

    1975-04-01

    This report analyzes the patterns in 54 lung scannings of 34 patients with altered pulmonary blood flow due to congenital heart disease. The technique and the results are presented. According to the images obtained, the patients are classified in three groups: Group I--normal distribution with more concentration of particles over the right lung and the bases. Group II--normal scannings found in left to right shunts unless there is pulmonary venous hypertension in which case the apex-base relationship was inverted. Group III--patients with right to left shunts of different types presenting various patterns according to severity, associated anomalies and palliative surgery. The hemodynamics created by cardiac defects and surgical procedures explain these alterations. This method is recommended in view of its advantages and accurate results.

  10. Smoking cessation alters subgingival microbial recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S C; Preshaw, P M; Heasman, P A; Kumar, P S

    2009-06-01

    Smoking cessation improves the clinical manifestations of periodontitis; however, its effect on the subgingival biofilm, the primary etiological agent of periodontitis, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate, longitudinally, if smoking cessation altered the composition of the subgingival microbial community, by means of a quantitative, cultivation-independent assay for bacterial profiling. Subgingival plaque was collected at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment from smokers who received root planing and smoking cessation counseling. The plaque was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). Microbial profiles differed significantly between smokers and quitters at 6 and 12 months following smoking cessation. The microbial community in smokers was similar to baseline, while quitters demonstrated significantly divergent profiles. Changes in bacterial levels contributed to this shift. These findings reveal a critical role for smoking cessation in altering the subgingival biofilm and suggest a mechanism for improved periodontal health associated with smoking cessation.

  11. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  12. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  13. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarova, G.V.; Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Zelenova, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  14. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  15. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  16. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J.; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations.\\ud \\ud The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence® Boost and Mirawhite® Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 ...

  17. Silychristin: Skeletal Alterations and Biological Activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermann, David; Buchta, M.; Holečková, Veronika; Sedlák, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Cvačka, Josef; Bednárová, Lucie; Křenková, Alena; Kuzma, Marek; Škuta, Ctibor; Peikerová, Žaneta; Bartůněk, Petr; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 12 (2016), s. 3086-3092 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27317A; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15081 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Silychristin * skeletal alterations * biological activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  18. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns ... the proteins synthesis and the rate with which all amino ... thiamine-HCl, 1 mgml-1 nicotinic acid and 2 mgml-1 glycine), 20 gL-1 ... Amino acids and soluble sugar extraction .... 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100, 0.1 % (w/v) dithiothreitol, and 0.2%.

  19. Marijuana exposure and pulmonary alterations in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligiel, S E; Beals, T F; Tashkin, D P; Paule, M G; Scallet, A C; Ali, S F; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    As part of a large multidisciplinary study, we examined lungs from 24 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys that were sacrificed seven months after daily marijuana smoke inhalation of 12 months duration. Animals were divided into four exposure groups: A) high-dose (one marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), B) low-dose (one marijuana cigarette 2 days/week and sham smoke 5 days/week), C) placebo (one extracted marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), and D) sham (sham smoke 7 days/week). Lungs, removed intact, were formalin inflated, sectioned and examined. Several pathological alterations, including alveolitis, alveolar cell hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation, were found with higher frequency in all cigarette-smoking groups. Other alterations, such as bronchiolitis, bronchiolar squamous metaplasia and interstitial fibrosis, were found most frequently in the marijuana-smoking groups. Alveolar cell hyperplasia with focal atypia was seen only in the marijuana-smoking animals. These changes represent mostly early alterations of small airways. Additional follow-up studies are needed to determine their long-term prognostic significance.

  20. Genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhao-Shan; Niu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Wen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although recent advances in therapeutic approaches for treating HCC have improved the prognoses of patients with HCC, this cancer is still associated with a poor survival rate mainly due to late diagnosis. Therefore, a diagnosis must be made sufficiently early to perform curative and effective treatments. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HCC because these mechanisms are critical for making early diagnoses and developing novel therapeutic strategies. Over the past decade, much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis. In particular, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revealed numerous genetic alterations, including recurrently mutated genes and dysregulated signaling pathways in HCC. A better understanding of the genetic alterations in HCC could contribute to identifying potential driver mutations and discovering novel therapeutic targets in the future. In this article, we summarize the current advances in research on the genetic alterations, including genomic instability, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, somatic mutations and deregulated signaling pathways, implicated in the initiation and progression of HCC. We also attempt to elucidate some of the genetic mechanisms that contribute to making early diagnoses of and developing molecularly targeted therapies for HCC. PMID:27895396

  1. Genomic and Epigenomic Alterations in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Nepal, Saroj; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple genetic and epigenetic events characterize tumor progression and define the identity of the tumors. Advances in high-throughput technologies, like gene expression profiling, next-generation sequencing, proteomics, and metabolomics, have enabled detailed molecular characterization of various tumors. The integration and analyses of these high-throughput data have unraveled many novel molecular aberrations and network alterations in tumors. These molecular alterations include multiple cancer-driving mutations, gene fusions, amplification, deletion, and post-translational modifications, among others. Many of these genomic events are being used in cancer diagnosis, whereas others are therapeutically targeted with small-molecule inhibitors. Multiple genes/enzymes that play a role in DNA and histone modifications are also altered in various cancers, changing the epigenomic landscape during cancer initiation and progression. Apart from protein-coding genes, studies are uncovering the critical regulatory roles played by noncoding RNAs and noncoding regions of the genome during cancer progression. Many of these genomic and epigenetic events function in tandem to drive tumor development and metastasis. Concurrent advances in genome-modulating technologies, like gene silencing and genome editing, are providing ability to understand in detail the process of cancer initiation, progression, and signaling as well as opening up avenues for therapeutic targeting. In this review, we discuss some of the recent advances in cancer genomic and epigenomic research. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R Showalter

    Full Text Available Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose, or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  3. [Alterations in arterial compliance of dyslipidemic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Fernando Mario; Corral, Pablo; Blanco, Gustavo Hector; Scandurra, Adriana Graciela; Meschino, Gustavo Javier

    2015-01-01

    We studied the alteration on the distensibility of the arterial walls caused by dyslipidemia LDLc dependent, along the decades of life, by means of a study of the radial artery pulse wave. We made an analysis of the radial artery pulse wave records acquired by means a movement displacement sensor, placed on radial palpation area. We recruited 100 dyslipidemic men without other cardiovascular risk factors, between the 3rd and the 6th decade. We identified the reflected wave in the records and we computed the augmentation index in order to quantify its amplitude and position. This index is useful to assess the endothelial dysfunction. Besides, we defined a velocity coefficient as the ratio between the size of the individuals and the delay time between the peak of the systolic wave and the arrival of the reflected wave. Results were compared against those obtained in a group of 161 healthy volunteers. We found that dyslipidemic patients presented augmentation index values similar to controls until the fourth decade, increasing thereafter with significant differences only in the 6th decade. No significant differences were found in the velocity index in any of the ages studied. We conclude that alterations produced by dyslipidemia take decades to manifest, and they begin affecting the mechanism of vasodilation of distal arteries with highest proportion of smooth muscle, without altering the proximal conduit arteries with more elastin content. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered Global Signal Topography in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Glasser, Matthew; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Krystal, John H; Schleifer, Charlie; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a disabling neuropsychiatric disease associated with disruptions across distributed neural systems. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has identified extensive abnormalities in the blood-oxygen level-dependent signal in SCZ patients, including alterations in the average signal over the brain-i.e. the "global" signal (GS). It remains unknown, however, if these "global" alterations occur pervasively or follow a spatially preferential pattern. This study presents the first network-by-network quantification of GS topography in healthy subjects and SCZ patients. We observed a nonuniform GS contribution in healthy comparison subjects, whereby sensory areas exhibited the largest GS component. In SCZ patients, we identified preferential GS representation increases across association regions, while sensory regions showed preferential reductions. GS representation in sensory versus association cortices was strongly anti-correlated in healthy subjects. This anti-correlated relationship was markedly reduced in SCZ. Such shifts in GS topography may underlie profound alterations in neural information flow in SCZ, informing development of pharmacotherapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-08-16

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease.

  6. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Megan R; Nonnecke, Eric B; Linderholm, A L; Cajka, Tomas; Sa, Michael R; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose), or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose) for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  7. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  8. Chemistry, mineralogy and alteration intensity of hydrothermal altered Mt Unzen conduit rocks (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Yilmaz, Tim; Gilg, H. Albert; Janots, Emilie; Mayer, Klaus; Nakada, Setsuya; Dingwell, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, C-O-isotope, hot-cathode CL and SEM analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity and type of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the volcanic conduit rocks was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite and kaolinite group minerals indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate and chlorite pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite, R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals in the groundmass. Late chlorite veins crosscut precipitates of R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals. Carbonates in fractures and in pseudomorphs after hornblende comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration

  9. Reactive-brittle dynamics in peridotite alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, O.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between reactive fluids and brittle solids are critical in Earth dynamics. Implications of such processes are wide-ranging: from earthquake physics to geologic carbon sequestration and the cycling of fluids and volatiles through subduction zones. Peridotite alteration is a common feature in many of these processes, which - despite its obvious importance - is relatively poorly understood from a geodynamical perspective. In particular, alteration reactions are thought to be self-limiting in nature, contradicting observations of rocks that have undergone 100% hydration/carbonation. One potential explanation of this observation is the mechanism of "reaction-driven cracking": that volume changes associated with these reactions are large enough to fracture the surrounding rock, leading to a positive feedback where new reactive surfaces are exposed and fluid pathways are created. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative roles of reaction, elastic stresses and surface tension in alteration reactions. In this regard we derive a system of equations describing reactive fluid flow in an elastically deformable porous media, and explore them via a combination of analytic and numerical solutions. Using this model we show that the final stress state of a dry peridotite that has undergone reaction depends strongly on the rates of reaction versus fluid transport: significant fluid flow driven by pressure and/or surface tension gradients implies higher fractions of serpentinization, leaving behind a highly stressed residuum of partially reacted material. Using a model set-up that mimics a cylindrical triaxial apparatus we predict that the resulting stresses would lead to tensile failure and the generation of radially oriented cracks.

  10. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashktorab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CRC development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic CRC tumors from AAs, in order to investigate possible explanations for the observed disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH using a 105k chip to identify copy number aberrations in samples from 15 AAs. In addition, we did a population comparative analysis with aCGH data in Caucasians as well as with a widely publicized list of colon cancer genes (CAN genes. There was an average of 20 aberrations per patient with more amplifications than deletions. Analysis of DNA copy number of frequently altered chromosomes revealed that deletions occurred primarily in chromosomes 4, 8 and 18. Chromosomal duplications occurred in more than 50% of cases on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, 20 and X. The CIN profile showed some differences when compared to Caucasian alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosome X amplification in male patients and chromosomes 4, 8 and 18 deletions were prominent aberrations in AAs. Some CAN genes were altered at high frequencies in AAs with EXOC4, EPHB6, GNAS, MLL3 and TBX22 as the most frequently deleted genes and HAPLN1, ADAM29, SMAD2 and SMAD4 as the most frequently amplified genes. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs.

  12. SON68 glass alteration enhanced by magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godon, Nicole; Gin, Stephane; Rebiscoul, Diane; Frugier, Pierre [CEA, DEN-Marcoule, F30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports experimental and modeling results of SON68 glass / magnetite interactions while in contact with synthetic groundwater from a clay environment. It is shown that magnetite enhances glass alteration, first by the sorption of Si released from the glass onto magnetite surfaces, then by a second process that could be the precipitation of an iron silicate mineral or the transformation of magnetite into a more reactive phase like hematite or goethite. This study globally suggests a detrimental effect of magnetite on the long-term durability of nuclear glass in geological disposal conditions. (authors)

  13. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  14. Metabolic alterations during ascosporogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Sporulation of S. cerevisiae has been shown to alter the profiles of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The enhancement in the levels of total cellular carbohydrates could be correlated with the enhancement in fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and trehalose-phosphate synthetase. The latter activity could account for the 15-fold increase in trehalose levels in sporulating cells. Glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase showed continuous decline during ascosporogenesis. The relative incorporation of radioactivity from possible precursors of gluconeogenesis indicated that acetate-2- 14 C alone could contribute to carbohydrate synthesis. (author)

  15. Phase alteration compensation in reflection digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, O; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    The phase maps obtained from digital holographic microscopy techniques carry information about the axial lengths of the object under study. Additionally, these phase maps have information of tilt and curvatures with origin in the off-axis geometry and the magnification lenses system, respectively. Only a complete compensation of these extra phases allows a correct interpretation of the phase information. In this article a numerical strategy to compensate for these alterations is designed, using a phase mask located in different planes. This strategy is applied in the measurement of a phase steps plate using a digital holography setup.

  16. Ethic's pedagogy: from responsibility to alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Vila Merino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, since the so-called 'linguistic turn' and the rise of the notion of discursive formations, has tended to combine the teleological and the deontological. That means that, if ethics is to be useful in understanding relationships and other social issues, or in building the common good, it ought to take a procedural position. We believe that the teaching of ethics should be based on the notions of responsibility and alterity. These two concepts are helpful in promoting mutual understanding and other-directedness.

  17. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yesilkanal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2009, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC was thought to be the only biologically significant cytosine modification in mammalian DNA. With the discovery of the TET enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC, however, intense interest has emerged in determining the biological function of 5-hmC. Here, we review the techniques used to study 5-hmC and evidence that alterations to 5-hmC physiology play a functional role in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers.

  18. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  19. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Flow Alteration - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the flow alteration module, when to list flow alteration as a candidate cause, ways to measure flow alteration, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for flow alteration, flow alteration module references and literature reviews.

  20. Altered pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Beach, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles, but little is known about potential neuromuscular abnormalities in the swallowing muscles in PD. This study examined the fiber histochemistry of pharyngeal constrictor and cricopharyngeal sphincter muscles in postmortem specimens from 8 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Pharyngeal muscles in subjects with PD exhibited many atrophic fibers, fiber type grouping, and fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain transformation. These alterations indicate that the pharyngeal muscles experienced neural degeneration and regeneration over the course of PD. Notably, subjects with PD with dysphagia had a higher percentage of atrophic myofibers versus with those without dysphagia and controls. The fast-to-slow fiber-type transition is consistent with abnormalities in swallowing, slow movement of food, and increased tone in the cricopharyngeal sphincter in subjects with PD. The alterations in the pharyngeal muscles may play a pathogenic role in the development of dysphagia in subjects with PD.

  1. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  2. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  3. Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkens, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one's child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (research) for their child, especially as part of the first wave(s) of PGA research participants and especially for non-medically oriented purposes. This is because doing otherwise is inconsistent with a plausible and defensible understanding of virtuous parenting and parental virtues, founded on a genuine concern for promoting the overall flourishing of the eventual child. In essence, given the current and foreseeable state of the art, parents who allow prenatal genetic alteration of their children are less-than-virtuous parents to those children, even in cases where they have a right to do so and even if PGA turns out to be beneficial to the eventual child.

  4. Afforestation alters community structure of soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jennifer K; Gleeson, Deirdre B; Clipson, Nicholas; Murphy, Daniel V

    2010-07-01

    Relatively little is known about the effect of afforestation on soil fungal communities. This study demonstrated that afforestation altered fungal community structure and that changes were correlated to pools of soil C. Pasture at three locations on the same soil type was afforested with Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus pinaster. The structure of fungal communities under the three land uses was measured after 13y using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Afforestation significantly altered the structure of fungal communities. The effect of location on the structure of fungal communities was limited to pasture soils; although these contained the same plant species, the relative composition of each species varied between locations. Differences in the structure of fungal communities between pasture, E. globulus and P. pinaster were significantly correlated with changes in the amount of total organic C and microbial biomass-C in soil. Afforestation of patches of agricultural land may contribute to conserving soil fungi in agricultural landscapes by supporting fungal communities with different composition to agricultural soils. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. "Under what conditions does 'altering brain function' qualify as 'mind control'?" In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  6. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  7. Obesity Promotes Alterations in Iron Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Citelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN, a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1, FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  8. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 fraction proteins was carried out The gels were silver stained and stained gels were scanned and analyzed

  9. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D E; Hart, N W; Hofer, H J

    2014-04-01

    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer et al., 2012). Here we describe a simple strategy employing a longer wavelength (980nm) beacon that, in conjunction with appropriate restriction on timing and placement, allowed us to perform psychophysics when dark adapted without altering visual perception. The method was verified by comparing detection and color appearance of foveally presented small spot stimuli with and without the wavefront beacon present in 5 subjects. As an important caution, we found that significant perceptual interference can occur even with a subliminal beacon when additional measures are not taken to limit exposure. Consequently, the lack of perceptual interference should be verified for a given system, and not assumed based on invisibility of the beacon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems.

  11. Thermal remediation alters soil properties - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F

    2018-01-15

    Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Hepatic alterations in patients with dengue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larreal, Yraima; Valero, Nereida; Estévez, Jesús; Reyes, Ivette; Maldonado, Mery; Espina, Luz Marina; Arias, Julia; Meleán, Eddy; Añez, German; Atencio, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Clinical features of Dengue are very variable due to multiple alterations induced by the virus in the organism. Increased levels of transaminases similar to those produced by the Hepatitis virus have been reported in patients with Dengue from hiperendemic zones in Asia. The objectives of this study were to determine alterations in the liver tests in patients with Dengue and to relate them to the disease, clinically and serologically. Clinical history, hemathological tests serum transaminases (ALT y AST) and bilirubin assays were performed in 62 patients with clinical and serological diagnosis of Dengue. According to clinical features 38.7% of the patients with classical (CD) and hemorrhagic (DHF) forms of Dengue reffered abdominal pain and 2 patients with DHF had ictericia and hepatomegaly. Laboratory test findings showed leucopenia in 72.5% in both forms of Dengue and of patients with DHF severe thrombocytopenia (< 50.000 platelets x mm3), long PT and PPT in 70.9%, 23.0% and 42.3%, respectively. Transaminase values five fold higher than the normal values (p < 0.005) were observed in 36.8% and 74.4% of patients with CD and DHF respectively; AST was predominant in both groups. Our results suggest liver damage during the course of Dengue. A differential diagnosis has to be done between the hepatic involvement of Dengue cases and others viral diseases with hepatic disfunctions.

  13. 46 CFR 115.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers and other pressure vessels, and steering... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 115.700 Section... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.700 Permission for repairs and alterations. (a...

  14. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Historic preservation. 36... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C...

  15. Alterations in adipokines in feline hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, M; Abood, S K; Segev, G; Schenck, P A

    2013-01-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is associated with alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The adipokines, adiponectin, and leptin have lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin are altered in feline HL. Client-owned cats: 55 healthy and 45 with liver disease. Cats with liver disease were categorized as having HL (n = 20), HL and concurrent disease (n = 19), or other liver disease (n = 6), based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, abdominal ultrasound examination as well as liver cytopathology, histopathology, or both. Serum samples were collected and body condition score determined. Mean serum concentrations of adiponectin were higher in overweight cats with HL (4.5 μg/mL), HL and concurrent disease (4.4 μg/mL), or other liver disease (6.1 μg/mL), as compared with healthy cats (1.5 μg/mL; P < .001, P < .001, and P = .04, respectively). Mean serum concentration of leptin was higher in cats with HL (9.8 ng/mL) or HL and concurrent disease (10.7 ng/mL) than healthy cats (4.9 ng/mL, P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Cats with other liver disease had leptin concentration (4.9 ng/mL) similar to healthy cats. Concentrations of adiponectin were correlated with alanine aminotransferase activity (r = 0.40, P = .0069), and concentrations of leptin were correlated with alkaline phosphatase activity (r = 0.42, P = .0051) in cats with liver disease. Adipokine concentrations are altered in feline HL. Increased concentrations of adiponectin are related to liver disease, whereas increased concentrations of leptin are specifically related to HL. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Altered brain connectivity in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Joel S; Brooks, Eric D; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vander Wyk, Brent; Jou, Roger J; Steinbacher, Derek M; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2014-06-01

    Sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC) is the most common form of NSC. The condition is associated with a high prevalence (> 50%) of deficits in executive function. The authors employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI to evaluate whether hypothesized structural and functional connectivity differences underlie the observed neurocognitive morbidity of sNSC. Using a 3-T Siemens Trio MRI system, the authors collected DTI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI data in 8 adolescent patients (mean age 12.3 years) with sNSC that had been previously corrected via total vault cranioplasty and 8 control children (mean age 12.3 years) without craniosynostosis. Data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library and BioImageSuite. Analyses of the DTI data revealed white matter alterations approaching statistical significance in all supratentorial lobes. Statistically significant group differences (sNSC right supramarginal gyrus. Analysis of the resting-state seed in relation to whole-brain data revealed significant increases in negative connectivity (anticorrelations) of Brodmann area 8 to the prefrontal cortex (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] center of mass coordinates [x, y, z]: -6, 53, 6) and anterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 6, 43, 14) in the sNSC group relative to controls. Furthermore, in the sNSC patients versus controls, the Brodmann area 7, 39, and 40 seed had decreased connectivity to left angular gyrus (MNI coordinates -31, -61, 34), posterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 13, -52, 18), precuneus (MNI coordinates 10, -55, 54), left and right parahippocampus (MNI coordinates -13, -52, 2 and MNI coordinates 11, -50, 2, respectively), lingual (MNI coordinates -11, -86, -10), and fusiform gyri (MNI coordinates -30, -79, -18). Intrinsic connectivity analysis also revealed altered connectivity between central nodes in the default mode network in sNSC relative to controls; the left and right posterior cingulate cortices

  17. Are relative depletions altered inside diffuse clouds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The data of Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer (1986) were used to analyze interstellar abundances and depletions of Fe, P, Mg, and Mn toward 37 stars, spanning nearly 1.0 (dex) in mean line-of-sight depletion. It was found that the depletions of these elements are linearly correlated and do not show evidence of differences in the rates of depletion or sputtering from one element to another. For a given level of overall depletion, the sightline-to-sightline rms variance in the depletion for each of these elements was less than 0.16 (dex), which is significantly smaller than is the element-to-element variance. The results suggest that, for most diffuse lines of sight, the relative abundances of these elements are set early in the lifetime of the grains and are not altered significantly thereafter. 53 references

  18. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Mucosal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The initial effect of anticancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is on the rapidly proliferating cells of the oral epithelium. As a consequence, the epithelium may show atrophy and ulceration. The sites of these alterations are related to the rate of epithelial proliferation. Regions of rapid proliferation, such as the oral lining mucosa, show a greater frequency of ulceration than masticatory mucosa or skin. Subsequent changes in the mucosa reflect damage to connective tissue, including fibroblasts and blood vessels. This results in hyalinization of collagen, hypovascularity, and ischemia. Indirect effects of anticancer therapy may include granulocytopenia and reduced salivary secretion, so that the protective mucin coating of the epithelium is compromised. These changes result in tissue with reduced barrier function and impaired ability to heal and to resist entry of pathogens, thus increasing the risk of systemic infections

  19. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  20. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  1. Method and apparatus for altering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Regan W.; Greenly, John B.

    2002-02-05

    Methods and apparatus for thermally altering the near surface characteristics of a material are described. In particular, a repetitively pulsed ion beam system comprising a high energy pulsed power source and an ion beam generator are described which are capable of producing single species high voltage ion beams (0.25-2.5 MeV) at 1-1000 kW average power and over extended operating cycles (10.sup.8). Irradiating materials with such high energy, repetitively pulsed ion beams can yield surface treatments including localized high temperature anneals to melting, both followed by rapid thermal quenching to ambient temperatures to achieve both novel and heretofore commercially unachievable physical characteristics in a near surface layer of material.

  2. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Simon J; Haendler, Bernard

    2017-05-09

    Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  3. Exploiting Epigenetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Baumgart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer affects an increasing number of men worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Beside genetic mutations, many epigenetic alterations including DNA and histone modifications have been identified in clinical prostate tumor samples. They have been linked to aberrant activity of enzymes and reader proteins involved in these epigenetic processes, leading to the search for dedicated inhibitory compounds. In the wake of encouraging anti-tumor efficacy results in preclinical models, epigenetic modulators addressing different targets are now being tested in prostate cancer patients. In addition, the assessment of microRNAs as stratification biomarkers, and early clinical trials evaluating suppressor microRNAs as potential prostate cancer treatment are being discussed.

  4. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  5. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...... cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might...

  6. Saccadic Alterations in Severe Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pensiero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading pathology: (1 low velocities (and larger durations of the adducting saccades of the left eye with undershooting and long-lasting postsaccadic onward drift, typical of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia; (2 saccades interrupted in mid-flight and fixation instability, which are present in cases of brainstem premotor disturbances.

  7. Aqueous alteration detection in Tikhonravov crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancarella, F.; Fonti, S.; Alemanno, G.; Orofino, V.; Blanco, A.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of a wet period lasting long enough to allow the development of elementary forms of life on Mars has always been a very interesting issue. Given this perspective, the research for geological markers of such occurrences has been continually pursued. Once a favorable site is detected, effort should be spent to get as much information as possible aimed at a precise assessment of the genesis and evolution of the areas showing the selected markers. In this work, we discuss the recent finding of possible deposits pointing to the past existence of liquid water in Tikhonravov crater located in Arabia Terra. Comparison of CRISM spectra and those of laboratory minerals formed by aqueous alteration has led us to the conclusion that the studied areas within the impact crater host phyllosilicates deposits. In addition, analysis of the CRISM spectra has resulted in the tentative identification of carbonates mixed with phyllosilicates.

  8. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A.; Rice, G.

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow

  10. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  11. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  12. Chlorite alteration in aqueous solutions and uranium removal by altered chlorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Ahn, Hyangsig [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Ho Young, E-mail: hyjo@korea.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji-Hun; Koh, Yong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Chlorite alteration and the U removal capacity of altered chlorite were investigated. • Initial pH affected more chlorite dissolution than ionic strength. • Chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 3–8 was inversely proportional to the U removal capacity. • Chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 10 was proportional to the U removal capacity. • The formation of Fe-containing secondary minerals affected the U removal capacity. - Abstract: Chlorite alteration and the U removal capacity of altered chlorite were investigated. Batch kinetic dissolution tests using clinochlore CCa-2 were conducted for 60 days in aqueous solutions of various pHs and ionic strengths. Batch sorption tests using these altered chlorite samples were conducted for 48 h with natural groundwater containing 3.06 × 10{sup −6} M U. Chlorite dissolution was influenced more by pH{sub o} than by the ionic strength of the solution. TEM analysis revealed Fe(oxy)hydroxide aggregates in the solid residue from the batch dissolution test with 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} solution at pH{sub o} = 10. The U removal capacity of the reacted chlorite samples at pH{sub o} = 6–10 was higher than that of the reacted chlorite samples at pH{sub o} = 3. The degree of dissolution of chlorite samples reacted at pH{sub o} = 3–8 was inversely proportional to the U removal capacity, but that of chlorite samples reacted at pH{sub o} = 10 was proportional to the U removal capacity. The positive correlation between the U removal capacity and degree of chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 10 might be due to the formation of Fe-containing secondary minerals and changes in the reactive sites.

  13. Microbiome, inflammation, epigenetic alterations, and mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Reza; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Zhou, Jin-Rong

    2017-09-01

    Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis. Much of this interplay may be moderated by epigenetic changes. Similar to genetic mutations, epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA interference can influence gene expression and therefore may cause behavioral and neuronal changes observed in mental disorders. Environmental factors such as diet, gut microbiota, and infections have significant role in these epigenetic modifications. Studies show that bioactive nutrients and gut microbiota can alter either DNA methylation and histone signatures through a variety of mechanisms. Indeed, microbes within the human gut may play a significant role in the regulation of various elements of "gut-brain axis," via their influence on inflammatory cytokines and production of antimicrobial peptides that affect the epigenome through their involvement in generating short chain fatty acids, vitamin synthesis, and nutrient absorption. In addition, they may participate in-gut production of many common neurotransmitters. In this review we will consider the potential interactions of diet, gastrointestinal microbiome, inflammation, and epigenetic alterations in psychiatric disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Wound trauma alters ionizing radiation dose assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiang Juliann G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wounding following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury, RCI increases mortality. Wounding-induced increases in radiation mortality are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. Among these factors, cytokines along with other biomarkers have been adopted for biodosimetric evaluation and assessment of radiation dose and injury. Therefore, wounding could complicate biodosimetric assessments. Results In this report, such confounding effects were addressed. Mice were given 60Co γ-photon radiation followed by skin wounding. Wound trauma exacerbated radiation-induced mortality, body-weight loss, and wound healing. Analyses of DNA damage in bone-marrow cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, changes in hematology and cytokine profiles, and fundamental clinical signs were evaluated. Early biomarkers (1 d after RCI vs. irradiation alone included significant decreases in survivin expression in bone marrow cells, enhanced increases in γ-H2AX formation in Lin+ bone marrow cells, enhanced increases in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF concentrations in blood, and concomitant decreases in γ-H2AX formation in PBMCs and decreases in numbers of splenocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Intermediate biomarkers (7 – 10 d after RCI included continuously decreased γ-H2AX formation in PBMC and enhanced increases in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF concentrations in blood. The clinical signs evaluated after RCI were increased water consumption, decreased body weight, and decreased wound healing rate and survival rate. Late clinical signs (30 d after RCI included poor survival and wound healing. Conclusion Results suggest that confounding factors such as wounding alters ionizing radiation dose assessment and agents inhibiting these responses may prove therapeutic for radiation combined

  15. Chemical alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material and the ability to provide a high pH condition are very important parameters when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. For the long term, in the geological disposal environment, cement hydrates will be altered by, for example, dissolution, chemical reaction with ions in the groundwater, and hydrothermal reaction. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement hydrate is changed by these processes, the pH of the repository buffered by cementitious material and its sorption ability might be affected. However, the mechanism of cement alteration is not yet fully understood. In this study, leaching experiments of some candidate cements for radioactive waste disposal were carried out. Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) samples were contacted with distilled water at liquid:solid ratios of 10:1, 100:1 and 1000:1 at room temperature for 200 days. In the case of OPC, Ca(OH) 2 dissolved at high liquid:solid ratios. The specific surface area of all cement samples increased by leaching process. This might be caused by further hydration and change of composition of constituent minerals. A model is presented which predicts the leaching of cement hydrates and the mineral composition in the hydrated cement solid phase, including the incongruent dissolution of CSH gel phases and congruent dissolution of Ca(OH) 2 , Ettringite and Hydrotalcite. Experimental results of dissolution of Ca-O-H and Ca-Si-O-H phases were well predicted by this model. (author)

  16. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  17. Aqueous alteration of Japanese simulated waste glass P0798: Effects of alteration-phase formation on alteration rate and cesium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Y.; Shinkai, A.; Idemistu, K.; Arima, T.; Yoshikawa, H.; Yui, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous alteration tests were performed with a Japanese simulated waste glass P0798 in alkaline solutions as a function of pH or species/concentration of alkaline metals in the solution in order to evaluate the alteration conditions determining whether smectite (2:1 clay mineral) or analcime (zeolite) forms as the major alteration-phase. XRD analysis of the alteration-phases showed that smectite forms at any pH between 9.5 and 12, and analcime forms at pH above 11, though the formation also depends on species and concentrations of alkaline metals in the solution. These results cannot agree with the thermodynamically predicted phase stability, e.g., smectite is more stable than the thermodynamic prediction shows. On the basis of the results of alteration conditions, the alteration tests were performed under smectite forming conditions, where only smectite forms or no crystalline phases form, in order to evaluate the alteration rate and the mechanism of cesium release/retention. The results showed that the glass alteration proceeds slowly in proportion to square root of time under smectite forming conditions, which indicates that the alteration rate can be controlled by a diffusion process. It was suggested that the alteration rate under smectite forming conditions is independent of the pH, alkaline metal species/concentration in the solution and whether smectite actually forms or not. The results also indicated that most of cesium dissolved from the glass can be retained in the alteration-phases by reversible sorption onto smectite or irreversible incorporation into analcime, pollucite or solid solutions of them

  18. Investigation of alteration zones in Garandake and Kurokawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinbara, K [Geological Survey of Japan, Kawasaki; Sudo, S

    1977-01-01

    The eastern part of the Garan area contains both the Myoban and Tsukahara hot springs. The springs are associated with the Sanin Formation, and an alteration zone is present which strikes easterly. Throughout the altered area, a clear zonation of the alteration is present. The zonation runs: silicified - alunitized - kaolin/argillized - montmorillonite/zeolite. In the Kurokawa area, a total of 0.96 km/sup 2/ of altered zones were observed near Suzumejigoku and throughout Yoshikawa and Tawara. The most heavily altered areas were at Kurokawa hot springs and Yoshikawa, where alunite and kaolinite are abundant. The time of alteration is believed to be prior to the deposition of the Hisazumi pumice. Around the Kurokawa hot springs, where the water temperature is 98/sup 0/C, the alteration extends as far as the pumice.

  19. Network analysis of genomic alteration profiles reveals co-altered functional modules and driver genes for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunyan; Wang, Hongwei; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yujing; Zhao, Wenyuan; Qi, Lishuang; Zhang, Yuannv; Wang, Chenguang; Guo, Zheng

    2013-03-01

    The heterogeneity of genetic alterations in human cancer genomes presents a major challenge to advancing our understanding of cancer mechanisms and identifying cancer driver genes. To tackle this heterogeneity problem, many approaches have been proposed to investigate genetic alterations and predict driver genes at the individual pathway level. However, most of these approaches ignore the correlation of alteration events between pathways and miss many genes with rare alterations collectively contributing to carcinogenesis. Here, we devise a network-based approach to capture the cooperative functional modules hidden in genome-wide somatic mutation and copy number alteration profiles of glioblastoma (GBM) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), where a module is a set of altered genes with dense interactions in the protein interaction network. We identify 7 pairs of significantly co-altered modules that involve the main pathways known to be altered in GBM (TP53, RB and RTK signaling pathways) and highlight the striking co-occurring alterations among these GBM pathways. By taking into account the non-random correlation of gene alterations, the property of co-alteration could distinguish oncogenic modules that contain driver genes involved in the progression of GBM. The collaboration among cancer pathways suggests that the redundant models and aggravating models could shed new light on the potential mechanisms during carcinogenesis and provide new indications for the design of cancer therapeutic strategies.

  20. Molecular and Parasitological Survey of Bovine Piroplasms in the Black Sea Region, Including the First Report of Babesiosis Associated with Babesia divergens in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M; Ozubek, S

    2015-11-01

    Clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. In addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. Egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. DNA isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for Babesia and Theileria by reverse line blot assay. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. were observed microscopically for symptomatic cattle as circular, oval, elongated, or pear-shaped bodies. Parasitemia ranged from 0.08 to 0.9% for Babesia bovis, 2.5 to 15.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 7.4% for Babesia divergens. Reverse line blot showed positivity in 13 (13%) of the sampled clinically normal cattle and revealed the presence of three Babesia species. Babesia bovis was the most prevalent (9/100, 9%), followed by Babesia occultans (3/100, 3%) and B. bigemina (1/100, 1%). One animal infected with B. bigemina was also infected with B. bovis. The single animal infected with B. divergens showed symptoms of babesiosis. Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Ixodes ricinus. One female R. annulatus and its egg mass were infected with B. bigemina. Neither Theileria annulata nor Theileria buffeli/orientalis infections were observed in cattle or ticks. This is the first report of clinical babesiosis caused by B. divergens in cattle from Turkey. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Smectite alteration by anaerobic iron corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.; Kaufhold, S.; Hassel, A.W.; Dohrmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The interaction of smectites with corroding steel/iron represents a crucial topic in the estimation of the long term confinement properties of clay barriers for the encasement of steel/iron containers. Especially in case of engineered clay barriers a possible deterioration of favourable smectite properties as response to corrosion could reduce the barrier capacity. The extent of this reduction is unknown, yet. The essential properties of bentonite clays in this context are on the one hand the relatively high swelling pressure together with low hydraulic conductivity, which results from the well known expandability of smectite interlayers in aqueous environments. On the other hand smectites are cation exchangers being able to long term encase radioactive cations in a way that negative charges of silicate layers are compensated by easily exchangeable hydrated cations. Both properties are directly related to the crystal and chemical composition of smectites. The nature of the corrosion of steel canisters in clay barriers will - after a first short aerobic phase - predominantly be anaerobic resulting in the formation of Fe(II) and two equivalents of hydroxide ions. In a set of exposition experiments anaerobic corroding iron in bentonite gels was studied in order to determine alteration of the smectite fraction. During the exposition a green coloration of the bentonite neighbouring to corroding iron was observed. Upon contact to oxygen in a humid state the bentonite turned reddish indicating the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This observation is in accordance with reported results indicating the formation of an iron rich smectite. Chemical analysis of the 'green bentonite' reveals an increase of iron fraction e.g. from 3.4% mass to 9.3% mass . The adsorbed iron is predominantly Fe(II) which was proven by chromato-metric titration. The estimated ratio between silicon to increased iron content is Si: Fe ≅ 2

  2. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and

  3. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF

  4. Genetic alterations and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Hoyos Giraldo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Hepatocarcinogenesis as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with background of chronic liver disease usually in association with cirrhosis, marked hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV and/or hepatitis virus (HCV infection, chronic inflammation, Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 exposure, chronic alcoholism, metabolic disorder of the liver and necroinflamatory liver disease. Hepatocarcinogenesis involve two mechanisms, genetic alterations (with changes in the cell's DNA sequence and epigenetic changes (without changes in the cell's DNA sequence, but changes in the pattern of gene expression that can persist through one or more generations (somatic sense. Hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oncogenes and decreased expression of tumor suppressor genes (TSG; include those involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis, DNA repair, immortalization and angiogenesis. AFB1 is metabolized in the liver into a potent carcinogen, aflatoxin 8, 9-epoxide, which is detoxified by epoxide hydrolase (EPHX and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1.

    A failure of detoxification processes can allow to mutagenic metabolite to bind to DNA and inducing P53 mutation. Genetic polymorphism of EPHX and GSTM1 can make individuals more susceptible to AFB1. Epigenetic inactivation of GSTP1 by promoter hypermethylation plays a role in the development of HCC because, it leads that electrophilic metabolite increase DNA damage and mutations. HBV DNA integration into the host chromosomal DNA of hepatocytes has been detected in HBV-related HCC.

    DNA tumor viruses cause cancer mainly by interfering with cell cycle controls, and activating the cell's replication machinery by blocking the action of key TSG. HBx protein is a

  5. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  6. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  7. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  8. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  10. Cerebral blood volume alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, K.; Greitz, T.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous and continuous measurements of the cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood pressure were carried out in six patients during fractional pneumoencephalography in order to examine intracranial volumetric interactions. Three patients (Group A) showed normal encephalographic findings, and in three patients (Group B) communicating hydrocephalus with convexity block was found encephalographically. In all patients the injection of air was followed by an immediate increase of CSF pressure and blood pressure and a concomitant decrease of CBV. The initial CSF pressure was invariably re-established within 3 to 3.5 min. During this time interval the CBV of the patients of Group B decreased significantly and 30 percent more than that of Group A. Furthermore, after restoration of the original CSF pressure, CBV returned to its initial level in all patients of Group A, whereas it remained unchanged or showed a further decrease in the patients of Group B. Removal of an amount of CSF corresponding to half of the amount of injected air was followed by a significant reactive hyperemic response in two normal patients. The intracranial volumetric alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography are discussed in detail with respect to the underlying physiologic mechanisms and are suggested as a model for acute and low pressure hydrocephalus

  11. Genetic alterations during radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews radiation-induced genetic alterations and its carcinogenesis, focusing on the previous in vitro assay outcome. A colony formation assay using Syrian hamster fetal cells and focus formation assay using mouse C3H10T1/2 cells are currently available to find malignant transformation of cells. Such in vitro assays has proposed the hypothesis that radiation-induced carcinogenesis arises from at least two-stage processes; i.e., that an early step induced by irradiation plays an important role in promoting the potential to cause the subsequent mutation. A type of genetic instability induced by radiation results in a persistently elevated frequency of spontaneous mutations, so-called the phenomenon of delayed reproductive death. One possible mechanism by which genetic instability arises has been shown to be due to the development of abnormality in the gene group involved in the maintenance mechanism of genome stability. Another possibility has also been shown to stem from the loss of telomere (the extremities of a chromosome). The importance of search for radiation-induced genetic instability is emphasized in view of the elucidation of carcinogenesis. (N.K.)

  12. Triclosan alterations of estuarine phytoplankton community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, James L; Thompson, Laura; Hylton, Sarah

    2017-06-15

    Antimicrobial additives in pharmaceutical and personal care products are a major environmental concern due to their potential ecological impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Triclosan (TCS) has been used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and preservative in various media. The sublethal and lethal effects of TCS on estuarine phytoplankton community composition were investigated using bioassays of natural phytoplankton communities to measure phytoplankton responses to different concentrations of TCS ranging from 1 to 200μgl -1 . The EC 50 (the concentration of an inhibitor where the growth is reduced by half) for phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cryptophytes) examined in this ranged from 10.7 to 113.8μg TCS l -1 . Exposures resulted in major shifts in phytoplankton community composition at concentrations as low as 1.0μg TCS l -1 . This study demonstrates estuarine ecosystem sensitivity to TCS exposure and highlights potential alterations in phytoplankton community composition at what are typically environmental concentrations of TCS in urbanized estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  15. Histochemical alterations in one lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kingsley; Gribbin, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Steven; Orndorff, Rebecca; Walker, Jean; Weese, James; Fallahnejad, Manucher

    2007-01-01

    One lung ventilation is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although there have been several reports showing that one-lung ventilation can cause pathophysiological alterations such as pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and intrapulmonary shunting, there have been virtually no reports on the effects of one-lung ventilation on lung histology. Yorkshire pigs (11-17 kg) were anesthetized, a tracheotomy performed and a tracheal tube inserted. The chest was opened and one lung ventilation (OLV), was induced by clamping of the right main bronchus. OLV was continued for 60 min before the clamp was removed and two lung ventilation (TLV) started. TLV was continued for 30 to 60 min. Blood and lung biopsies were taken immediately before OLV, 30 min and 60 min of OLV and after restoration of TLV. Histological analyses revealed that the non-ventilated lung was totally collapsed during OLV. On reventilation, there was clear evidence of vascular congestion and alveolar wall thickening at 30 min after TLV. At 60 min of TLV, there was still vascular congestion. Serum nitrite levels (as an index of nitric oxide production) showed steady decline over the course of the experimental period, reaching a significantly low level on reventilation (compared with baseline levels before OLV). Lung MPO activity (marker of neutrophil sequestration) and serum TNFalpha levels were not raised during the entire experimental period. These results suggest that there was lung vascular injury after OLV, which was associated with reduced levels of nitric oxide production and not associated with an inflammatory response.

  16. Altered Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zóka, András; Műzes, Györgyi; Somogyi, Anikó; Varga, Tímea; Szémán, Barbara; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Hadarits, Orsolya; Firneisz, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune mechanisms that keep autoimmunity under control in health. Genomewide association studies have helped to understand the congenital susceptibility, and hand-in-hand with the immunological research novel paths of immune dysregulation were described in central tolerance, apoptotic pathways, or peripheral tolerance mediated by regulatory T-cells. Epigenetic factors are contributing to the immune dysregulation. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and potential triggers is likely to play a role at a very early age and gradually results in the loss of balanced autotolerance and subsequently in the development of the clinical disease. Genetic susceptibility, the impaired elimination of apoptotic β-cell remnants, altered immune regulatory functions, and environmental factors such as viral infections determine the outcome. Autoreactivity might exist under physiologic conditions and when the integrity of the complex regulatory process is damaged the disease might develop. We summarized the immune regulatory mechanisms that might have a crucial role in disease pathology and development. PMID:24285974

  17. Altered Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Zóka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune mechanisms that keep autoimmunity under control in health. Genomewide association studies have helped to understand the congenital susceptibility, and hand-in-hand with the immunological research novel paths of immune dysregulation were described in central tolerance, apoptotic pathways, or peripheral tolerance mediated by regulatory T-cells. Epigenetic factors are contributing to the immune dysregulation. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and potential triggers is likely to play a role at a very early age and gradually results in the loss of balanced autotolerance and subsequently in the development of the clinical disease. Genetic susceptibility, the impaired elimination of apoptotic β-cell remnants, altered immune regulatory functions, and environmental factors such as viral infections determine the outcome. Autoreactivity might exist under physiologic conditions and when the integrity of the complex regulatory process is damaged the disease might develop. We summarized the immune regulatory mechanisms that might have a crucial role in disease pathology and development.

  18. Alterated integrin expression in lichen planopilaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erriquez Roberta

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichen planopilaris (LPP is an inflammatory disease characterized by a lymphomononuclear infiltrate surrounding the isthmus and infundibulum of the hair follicle of the scalp, that evolves into atrophic/scarring alopecia. In the active phase of the disease hairs are easily plucked with anagen-like hair-roots. In this study we focused on the expression of integrins and basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions. Methods Scalp biopsies were taken in 10 patients with LPP and in 5 normal controls. Using monoclonal antibodies against α3β1 and α6β4 integrins we showed the expression of these integrins and of the basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions and in healthy scalp skin. Results In the LPP involved areas, α3β1 was distributed in a pericellular pattern, the α6 subunit was present with a basolateral distribution while the β4 subunit showed discontinuous expression at the basal pole and occasionally, basolateral staining of the hair follicle. Conclusion: An altered distribution of the integrins in active LPP lesions can explain the phenomenon of easy pulling-out of the hair with a "gelatinous" root-sheath.

  19. PKA and Apicomplexan Parasite Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, M; Ramdani, G; Kennedy, E J; Langsley, G

    2017-04-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA is a well-characterized member of the serine-threonine protein AGC kinase family and is the effector kinase of cAMP signaling. As such, PKA is involved in the control of a wide variety of cellular processes including metabolism, cell growth, gene expression and apoptosis. cAMP-dependent PKA signaling pathways play important roles during infection and virulence of various pathogens. Since fluxes in cAMP are involved in multiple intracellular functions, a variety of different pathological infectious processes can be affected by PKA signaling pathways. Here, we highlight some features of cAMP-PKA signaling that are relevant to Plasmodium falciparum -infection of erythrocytes and present an update on AKAP targeting of PKA in PGE2 signaling via EP4 in Theileria annulata -infection of leukocytes and discuss cAMP-PKA signling in Toxoplasma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  1. Deforestation alters rainfall: a myth or reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, M. F.; Mustafa, M. R.; Hashim, A. M.; Yusof, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    To cope with the issue of food safety and human shelter, natural landscape has gone through a number of alterations. In the coming future, the expansion of urban land and agricultural farms will likely disrupt the natural environment. Researchers have claimed that land use change may become the most serious issue of the current century. Thus, it is necessary to understand the consequences of land use change on the climatic variables, e.g., rainfall. This study investigated the impact of deforestation on local rainfall. An integrated methodology was adopted to achieve the objectives. Above ground biomass was considered as the indicator of forest areas. Time series data of a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor were obtained for the year of 2000, 2005, and 2010. Rainfall data were collected from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia. The MODIS time series data were classified and four major classes were developed based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) ranges. The results of the classification showed that water, and urban and agricultural lands have increased in their area by 2, 3, and 6%, respectively. On the other hand, the area of forest has decreased 10% collectively from 2000 to 2010. The results of NDVI and rainfall data were analysed by using a linear regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship at a 90% confidence interval between rainfall and deforestation (t = 1.92, p = 0.06). The results of this study may provide information about the consequences of land use on the climate on the local scale.

  2. Altered levels of acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Salud García-Ayllón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have been conducted in an extensive effort to identify alterations in blood cholinesterase levels as a consequence of disease, including the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in plasma. Conventional assays using selective cholinesterase inhibitors have not been particularly successful as excess amounts of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE pose a major problem. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have estimated the levels of AChE activity in human plasma by first immunoprecipitating BuChE and measuring AChE activity in the immunodepleted plasma. Human plasma AChE activity levels were approximately 20 nmol/min/mL, about 160 times lower than BuChE. The majority of AChE species are the light G(1+G(2 forms and not G(4 tetramers. The levels and pattern of the molecular forms are similar to that observed in individuals with silent BuChE. We have also compared plasma AChE with the enzyme pattern obtained from human liver, red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and brain, by sedimentation analysis, Western blotting and lectin-binding analysis. Finally, a selective increase of AChE activity was detected in plasma from Alzheimer's disease (AD patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. This increase correlates with an increase in the G(1+G(2 forms, the subset of AChE species which are increased in Alzheimer's brain. Western blot analysis demonstrated that a 78 kDa immunoreactive AChE protein band was also increased in Alzheimer's plasma, attributed in part to AChE-T subunits common in brain and CSF. CONCLUSION: Plasma AChE might have potential as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis in AD and warrants further investigation.

  3. Alterations of the Gut Microbiome in Hypertension

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    Qiulong Yan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human gut microbiota is believed to be directly or indirectly involved in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. However, the identification and functional status of the hypertension-related gut microbe(s have not yet been surveyed in a comprehensive manner.Methods: Here we characterized the gut microbiome in hypertension status by comparing fecal samples of 60 patients with primary hypertension and 60 gender-, age-, and body weight-matched healthy controls based on whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing.Results: Hypertension implicated a remarkable gut dysbiosis with significant reduction in within-sample diversity and shift in microbial composition. Metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS revealed 53,953 microbial genes that differ in distribution between the patients and healthy controls (false discovery rate, 0.05 and can be grouped into 68 clusters representing bacterial species. Opportunistic pathogenic taxa, such as, Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., and Parabacteroides merdae were frequently distributed in hypertensive gut microbiome, whereas the short-chain fatty acid producer, such as, Roseburia spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, were higher in controls. The number of hypertension-associated species also showed stronger correlation to the severity of disease. Functionally, the hypertensive gut microbiome exhibited higher membrane transport, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and steroid degradation, while in controls the metabolism of amino acid, cofactors and vitamins was found to be higher. We further provided the microbial markers for disease discrimination and achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC of 0.78, demonstrating the potential of gut microbiota in prediction of hypertension.Conclusion: These findings represent specific alterations in microbial diversity, genes, species and functions of the hypertensive gut microbiome. Further studies on the causality relationship between

  4. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  5. Mitochondrial DNA alteration in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacedonia, Donato; Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Cotugno, Grazia; Palladino, Grazia P; Patricelli, Giulia; Sabato, Roberto; Foschino Barbaro, Maria P

    2015-04-07

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSAS) is a disease associated with the increase of cardiovascular risk and it is characterized by repeated episodes of Intermittent Hypoxia (IH) which inducing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Mitochondria are cell organelles involved in the respiratory that have their own DNA (MtDNA). The aim of this study was to investigate if the increase of oxidative stress in OSAS patients can induce also MtDNA alterations. 46 OSAS patients (age 59.27 ± 11.38; BMI 30.84 ± 3.64; AHI 36.63 ± 24.18) were compared with 36 control subjects (age 54.42 ± 6.63; BMI 29.06 ± 4.7; AHI 3.8 ± 1.10). In blood cells Content of MtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was measured in OSAS patients by Real Time PCR. The ratio between MtDNA/nDNA was then calculated. Presence of oxidative stress was evaluated by levels of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (ROMs), measured by diacron reactive oxygen metabolite test (d-ROM test). MtDNA/nDNA was higher in patients with OSAS than in the control group (150.94 ± 49.14 vs 128.96 ± 45.8; p = 0.04), the levels of ROMs were also higher in OSAS subjects (329.71 ± 70.17 vs 226 ± 36.76; p = 0.04) and they were positively correlated with MtDNA/nDNA (R = 0.5, p DNA damage induced by the increase of oxidative stress. Intermittent hypoxia seems to be the main mechanism which leads to this process.

  6. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  7. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  8. Metabolic alterations in experimental models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Puiu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and is associated with a severe impact on the personal functioning, thus with incurring significant direct and indirect costs. The presence of depression in patients with medical comorbidities increases the risks of myocardial infarction and decreases diabetes control, and adherence to treatment. The mechanism through which these effects are produced is still uncertain. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the metabolic alterations in female Wistar rats with induced depression, with and without administration of Agomelatine. The methods included two experiments. All data were analyzed by comparison with group I (control, and with each other. In the first experiment we induced depression by: exposure to chronic mild stress-group II; olfactory bulbectomy-group III; and exposure to chronic mild stress and hyperlipidic/ hyper caloric dietgroup IV. The second experiment was similar with the first but the rats received Agomelatine (0.16mg/ animal: group V (depression induced through exposure to chronic mild stress, VI (depression induced through olfactory bulbectomy and VII (depression induced through exposure to chronic mild stressing hyperlipidic/ hypercaloric diet. Weight, cholesterol, triglycerides and glycaemia were measured at day 0 and 28, and leptin value was measured at day 28. The results in the 1st experiment revealed significant differences (p<0.01 for weight and cholesterol in Group IV, for triglycerides in groups III and IV (p<0.001, and for glycaemia in group II. The 2nd experiment revealed significant differences (p<0.001 in group VII for weight and triglycerides, and in groups V and VI for triglycerides (p<0.01. In conclusion, significant correlations were found between high level of triglycerides and depression induced by chronic stress and olfactory bulbectomy. Agomelatine groups had a lower increase of triglycerides levels.

  9. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  10. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  11. Morphed and moving: TNFα-driven motility promotes cell dissemination through MAP4K4-induced cytoskeleton remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell dissemination from an initial site of growth is a highly coordinated and controlled process that depends on cell motility. The mechanistic principles that orchestrate cell motility, namely cell shape control, traction and force generation, are highly conserved between cells of different origins. Correspondingly, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these critical aspects of migrating cells are likely functionally conserved too. Thus, cell motility deregulation of unrelated pathogenesis could be caused and maintained by similar mechanistic principles. One such motility deregulation disorder is the leukoproliferative cattle disease Tropical Theileriosis, which is caused by the intracellular, protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. T. annulata transforms its host cell and promotes the dissemination of parasite-infected cells throughout the body of the host. An analogous condition with a fundamentally different pathogenesis is metastatic cancer, where oncogenically transformed cells disseminate from the primary tumor to form distant metastases. Common to both diseases is the dissemination of motile cells from the original site. However, unlike metastatic cancer, host cell transformation by Theileria parasites can be reverted by drug treatment and cell signaling be analyzed under transformed and non-transformed conditions. We have used this reversible transformation model and investigated parasite control of host cell motile properties in the context of inflammatory signaling in Ma M. et al. [PLoS Pathog (2014 10: e1004003]. We found that parasite infection promotes the production of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα in the host macrophage. We demonstrated that increased TNFα triggers motile and invasive properties by enhancing actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell motility through the ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. We concluded that inflammatory conditions resulting in increased TNFα could facilitate cell dissemination by activating the actin

  12. Borosilicate nuclear waste glass alteration kinetics theoretical basis for the kinetic law of nuclear glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegou, Ch.; Gin, St.; Advocat, Th.; Vernaz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out since the early 1980's to predict the long-term behavior of nuclear containment glasses has revealed the inadequacy of existing models, notably in accounting for the fundamental mechanisms involved in some complex systems (e.g. glass-water-clay), inciting us to examine and discuss the theoretical basis for the hypotheses generally assumed in our models. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for the Aagaard-Helgeson law and its application to nuclear glasses. The contribution of other types of kinetic laws is also considered to describe the alteration kinetics of nuclear glasses. (authors)

  13. Oral Probiotics Alter Healthy Feline Respiratory Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Ericsson, Aaron C; Rindt, Hansjorg; Reinero, Carol R

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics have been advocated as a novel therapeutic approach to respiratory disease, but knowledge of how oral administration of probiotics influences the respiratory microbiota is needed. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of bacterial DNA our objective was to determine whether oral probiotics changed the composition of the upper and lower airway, rectal, and blood microbiota. We hypothesized that oral probiotics would modulate the respiratory microbiota in healthy cats, demonstrated by the detection and/or increased relative abundance of the probiotic bacterial species and altered composition of the microbial population in the respiratory tract. Six healthy young research cats had oropharyngeal (OP), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), rectal, and blood samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after receiving oral probiotics. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries were sequenced, and coverage, richness, and relative abundance of representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were determined. Hierarchical and principal component analyses (PCA) demonstrated relatedness of samples. Mean microbial richness significantly increased only in the upper and lower airways. The number of probiotic OTUs (out of 5 total) that significantly increased in relative abundance vs. baseline was 5 in OP, 3 in BAL and 2 in feces. Using hierarchical clustering, BALF and blood samples grouped together after probiotic administration, and PERMANOVA supported that these two sites underwent significant changes in microbial composition. PERMANOVA revealed that OP and rectal samples had microbial population compositions that did not significantly change. These findings were visualized via PCA, which revealed distinct microbiomes in each site; samples clustered more tightly at baseline and had more variation after probiotic administration. This is the first study describing the effect of oral probiotics on the respiratory microbiota via detection of probiotic species in the airways. Finding

  14. Oral Probiotics Alter Healthy Feline Respiratory Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida I. Vientós-Plotts

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been advocated as a novel therapeutic approach to respiratory disease, but knowledge of how oral administration of probiotics influences the respiratory microbiota is needed. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of bacterial DNA our objective was to determine whether oral probiotics changed the composition of the upper and lower airway, rectal, and blood microbiota. We hypothesized that oral probiotics would modulate the respiratory microbiota in healthy cats, demonstrated by the detection and/or increased relative abundance of the probiotic bacterial species and altered composition of the microbial population in the respiratory tract. Six healthy young research cats had oropharyngeal (OP, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, rectal, and blood samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after receiving oral probiotics. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries were sequenced, and coverage, richness, and relative abundance of representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs were determined. Hierarchical and principal component analyses (PCA demonstrated relatedness of samples. Mean microbial richness significantly increased only in the upper and lower airways. The number of probiotic OTUs (out of 5 total that significantly increased in relative abundance vs. baseline was 5 in OP, 3 in BAL and 2 in feces. Using hierarchical clustering, BALF and blood samples grouped together after probiotic administration, and PERMANOVA supported that these two sites underwent significant changes in microbial composition. PERMANOVA revealed that OP and rectal samples had microbial population compositions that did not significantly change. These findings were visualized via PCA, which revealed distinct microbiomes in each site; samples clustered more tightly at baseline and had more variation after probiotic administration. This is the first study describing the effect of oral probiotics on the respiratory microbiota via detection of probiotic species in the

  15. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.) [pt

  16. 46 CFR 176.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair or replacement, other than replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 176.700 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.700 Permission for...

  17. Alterity: Learning Polyvalent Selves, Resisting Disabling Notions of the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wayland

    2011-01-01

    This article queries how one type of human difference--alterity, the experience of multiple distinct consciousnesses, or "alters," by one person--is pathologized in American culture. This experience is inscribed as a mental illness, labeled now as dissociative identity disorder (DID) and formerly known as multiple personality disorder (MPD). In…

  18. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... have been found in numerous studies. It is unclear whether such alterations are related to specific mood states. As a biphasic disorder, mood state-related alterations in gene expression have the potential to point to markers of disease activity, and trait-related alterations might indicate...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...

  19. Hydrothermal alteration in Dumoga Barat, Bolaang Mongondow area North Sulawesi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Harjanto' Sutanto; Sutarto; Achmad Subandrio; I Made Suasta; Juanito Salamat; Giri Hartono; Putu Suputra; I Gde Basten; Muhammad Fauzi; Rosdiana

    2016-01-01

    Bolaang Mongondow is located in central north Sulawesi arm, which is composed of Neogen magmatic arc and potentially contain economic minerals. This condition is behind the research purpose to study the mineral resources potencies. Research aim is to study alteration caused by hydrothermal process and its relation with gold (Au) deposit based on field study and laboratory analysis. Methodologies used for the research are literature study, geological survey, rocks sampling, laboratory analysis, and data processing. Research area is a multiply diorite intrusion complex. Andesite, volcaniclastic rocks, and dacite, the older rocks, were intruded by this complex. Later, dacitic tuff, volcanic sandstone, and alluvium deposited above them. There are three measured and mapped major faults heading NE-SW crossed by E-W fault and NW-SE fault lately crossed all the older faults. Early stage hydrothermal alteration related to the existence of young quartz diorite, showing alteration stage from the potassic center to distal prophylatic. Final stage hydrothermal alteration consist of argilic, advanced argilic, and silica-clay mineral±magnetite±chlorite alteration overlapping the earlier alteration. Mineralization of Cu-Au±Ag in central part of research area or Tayap-Kinomaligan area is mostly associated with potassic altered young quartz diorite and crossed by parallel and stock worked quartz-magnetite-chalcopyrite±bornite vein. (author)

  20. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Rare earth impact on glass structure and alteration kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molieres, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work is related to the question of the geological deep repository of high-level waste glass. These wastes include fission products and minor actinides, elements which can be simulated by rare earths. As new glass compositions could enable increased rare earth concentrations, it is crucial to know and understand rare earth impact on glass structure on the one hand, and on glass alteration kinetics or their incorporation into an altered layer. This work studied simplified borosilicate glasses in order to limit synergetic effects between rare earths and other elements. Various complementary techniques were used to characterize pristine and altered glasses (solid-high resolution NMR, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, SIMS, SAXS). Firstly, the structural role of a rare earth is discussed and is compared to a calcium cation. The local environment of rare earths is also probed. Secondly, rare earth (nature and concentration) impact on several alteration regimes was studied (initial rate, rate drop). Then, after alteration, rare earth elements being retained within the altered layer, the structural impact of rare earth elements (and their local environment) in this alteration layer was also investigated. (author) [fr

  2. ARID1B alterations identify aggressive tumors in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jung-Sun; Zheng, Siyuan; Huse, Jason T; Bae, Joon Seol; Lee, Ji Won; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kyung, Sungkyu; Park, Woong-Yang; Sung, Ki W

    2017-07-11

    Targeted panel sequencing was performed to determine molecular targets and biomarkers in 72 children with neuroblastoma. Frequent genetic alterations were detected in ALK (16.7%), BRCA1 (13.9%), ATM (12.5%), and PTCH1 (11.1%) in an 83-gene panel. Molecular targets for targeted therapy were identified in 16 of 72 patients (22.2%). Two-thirds of ALK mutations were known to increase sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. Sequence alterations in ARID1B were identified in 5 of 72 patients (6.9%). Four of five ARID1B alterations were detected in tumors of high-risk patients. Two of five patients with ARID1B alterations died of disease progression. Relapse-free survival was lower in patients with ARID1B alterations than in those without (p = 0.01). In analysis confined to high-risk patients, 3-year overall survival was lower in patients with an ARID1B alteration (33.3 ± 27.2%) or MYCN amplification (30.0 ± 23.9%) than in those with neither ARID1B alteration nor MYCN amplification (90.5 ± 6.4%, p = 0.05). These results provide possibilities for targeted therapy and a new biomarker identifying a subgroup of neuroblastoma patients with poor prognosis.

  3. ORIENTATION FIELD RECONSTRUCTION OF ALTERED FINGERPRINT USING ORTHOGONAL WAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini M.G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ridge orientation field is an important feature for fingerprint matching and fingerprint reconstruction. Matching of the altered fingerprint against its unaltered mates can be done by extracting the available features in the altered fingerprint and using it along with approximated ridge orientation. This paper presents a method for approximating ridge orientation field of altered fingerprints. In the proposed method, sine and cosine of doubled orientation of the fingerprint is decomposed using orthogonal wavelets and reconstructed back using only the approximation coefficients. No prior information about the singular points is needed for orientation approximation. The method is found suitable for orientation estimation of low quality fingerprint images also.

  4. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes.

  5. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Kessler, H.; Falkai, P.; Retz, W.; Roesler, M.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W.

    2003-01-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [de

  6. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes

  7. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  8. Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted Detarium senegalense seed-based diet alters lipid profile, ... cheaper alternative source for good quality protein for dietary purposes, we evaluated Detarium ... Whole seed residue, DDS seed flour and control diets (soybeans) were ...

  9. Diet, lifestyle, and molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors have been repeatedly implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, and much is known about the molecular events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The relationships between environmental risk factors and the molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis are

  10. Alterations of the ECG after frationated radiotherapy of the mediastine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alheit, C.; Alheit, H.D.; Herrmann, T.

    1986-01-01

    In 72 patients with irradiation of the mediastine the ECGs were examined before, immediately after, and 3-6 months after termination of radiotherapy. In comparison with starting findings 41.7% ECG alterations were found at the end of irradiation and 40.1% in control examinations. Mainly it was the question of alterations in ST-lines, in type of position, in P-waves, and an increase of the heart rate. However, in result of uni- and multivariant variance analyses it could be shown, that extracardiac factors and general reactions of the irradiated organism resulted in ECG alterations too. Considering the correlation of ECG alterations to the heart dose however, a direct influence of the capillary system of the heart has also to be discussed and an adequate after-care of patients with irradiation of the mediastine must be recommended. (author)

  11. Alteration of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    Textural, mineralogical and compositional characteristics of basaltic glasses from the Central Indian Ocean show them to be altered to varying extents through their interaction with the seawater, resulting in the formation of palagonite. The major...

  12. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the colour composite, band ratio, principal component analysis, least square ... to hydrothermal alteration mapping using multi- ..... ing of the two images is also achieved by PCA; .... remote sensing perspective; 2nd edn, Prentice Hall Series.

  13. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Botvinnik, Olga B; Abudayyeh, Omar; Birger, Chet; Rosenbluh, Joseph; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Abazeed, Mohamed E; Hammerman, Peter S; DiCara, Daniel; Konieczkowski, David J; Johannessen, Cory M; Liberzon, Arthur; Alizad-Rahvar, Amir Reza; Alexe, Gabriela; Aguirre, Andrew; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Greulich, Heidi; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Tsherniak, Aviad; Shao, Diane D; Zack, Travis I; Noble, Michael; Getz, Gad; Beroukhim, Rameen; Garraway, Levi A; Ardakani, Masoud; Romualdi, Chiara; Sales, Gabriele; Barbie, David A; Boehm, Jesse S; Hahn, William C; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers. However, elucidating the functional consequences of these variants, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, remains a challenge in cancer research. We developed REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene dependency of oncogenic pathways or sensitivity to a drug treatment. We used REVEALER to uncover complementary genomic alterations associated with the transcriptional activation of β-catenin and NRF2, MEK-inhibitor sensitivity, and KRAS dependency. REVEALER successfully identified both known and new associations, demonstrating the power of combining functional profiles with extensive characterization of genomic alterations in cancer genomes.

  14. The alteration of the BPM, burden neutrality and autonomous greening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The foundation of the purchase tax on passenger cars (BPM) in the Netherlands is gradually altered from catalogue value to CO2 emission per kilometer of the new car. The tariffs have been established in such a way that they meet the precondition of burden neutrality of the BPM alteration. There is some discussion about this and the first part of this publication will address this issue. The issue of burden neutrality is part of a study by DHV Investment Services (DHV). The first main conclusion of the DHV study is that the alteration is not budget neutral. The study entails an applied welfare analysis of the alteration of the BPM foundation. Some comments on the welfare analysis are provided in the second part of this memo. Another issue that is addressed involves the question if and how the autonomous decrease in CO2 emission of newly sold cars can be established in practice. [nl

  15. Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle. ... Heat stress reduces the degree of dominance of the selected follicle and this can be seen as reduced steroidogenic capacity of its theca and ... from 32 Countries:.

  16. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with altered bile acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a clinically asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, and increased gut permeability, is common among children in developing countries. Because of abnormal gut mucosa and altered gut microbiome, EED coul...

  17. Isolation and characterization of altered root growth behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... contrasting root growth behavior and salinity tolerance in rice will help us to identify key genes controlling ..... In order to screen plants showing altered response ... were found to remain green even after 15 days of salinity.

  18. Theoretical cell alteration model in the context of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A model incorporating cell survival and alteration is used to discuss the general nature of cellular response to a toxic agent. Cell division and repair are discussed as regards their influence on dose-response relationships to bone-seeking radionuclides. The application of the model in its present form to specific biologic end points depends on the assumption that such end points are the result of some initial alteration

  19. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  20. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical ...

  1. Development of gypsum alteration on marble and limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Blackened alteration crusts of gypsum plus particulates that form on sheltered areas on marble and limestone buildings pose a challenge for rehabilitation and cleaning. Fresh marble and limestone samples exposed at monitored exposure sites present conditions of simple geometry and well-documented exposures but have short exposure histories (one to five years). The gypsum alteration crusts that develop on these samples provide insight into the early stages and rate of alteration crust formation. Alteration crusts from buildings give a longer, but less well known exposure history and present much more complex surfaces for gypsum accumulation. Integrated observations and measurements of alteration crusts from exposure samples and from buildings identify four factors that are important in the formation and development of alteration crusts on marble and limestone: (1) pollution levels, (2) exposure to rain or washing, (3) geometry of exposure of the stone surface, and (4) permeability of the stone. The combination of these factors contributes to both the distribution and the physical characteristics of the gypsum crusts which may affect cleaning decisions.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor structural alterations in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Cátia; Mateus, Ana R; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    EGFR overexpression has been described in many human tumours including gastric cancer. In NSCLC patients somatic EGFR mutations, within the kinase domain of the protein, as well as gene amplification were associated with a good clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. In gastric tumours data concerning structural alterations of EGFR remains controversial. Given its possible therapeutic relevance, we aimed to determine the frequency and type of structural alterations of the EGFR gene in a series of primary gastric carcinomas. Direct sequencing of the kinase domain of the EGFR gene was performed in a series of 77 primary gastric carcinomas. FISH analysis was performed in 30 cases. Association studies between EGFR alterations and the clinical pathological features of the tumours were performed. Within the 77 primary gastric carcinomas we found two EGFR somatic mutations and several EGFR polymorphisms in exon 20. Six different intronic sequence variants of EGFR were also found. Four gastric carcinomas showed balanced polysomy or EGFR gene amplification. We verified that gastric carcinoma with alterations of EGFR (somatic mutations or copy number variation) showed a significant increase of tumour size (p = 0.0094) in comparison to wild-type EGFR carcinomas. We demonstrate that EGFR structural alterations are rare in gastric carcinoma, but whenever present, it leads to tumour growth. We considered that searching for EGFR alterations in gastric cancer is likely to be clinically important in order to identify patients susceptible to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

  3. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Depierre, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Angeli, F., E-mail: frederic.angeli@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frizon, F. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LP2C, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Gin, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage.

  4. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  5. The genetic alteration of p53 in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Baik, Hee Jong; Kim, Chang Min; Kim, Mi Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    Genetic alterations in the p53 gene have been detected in various human malignancies, and its alterations inactive the function of p53 as a tumor suppressor. Point mutation and gene deletion are the main mechanisms of p53 inactivation. To determine the incidence of genetic alteration of p53 and their clinical implications in Korean patients of esophageal cancer, we investigated p53 alterations in 26 esophageal cancer tissues paired with its normal tissue by Southern blot analysis, PCR-SSCP, and direct sequencing. Allelic loss of chromosome 17p occurred in 12 out of 21 informative cases(57%) by Southern blot analysis, and 16 cases showed mobility shift in PCR-SSCP, so overall incidence of p53 gene alterations was 77%(20/26). The mutations detected was randomly dispersed over exon4-8 and was frequently G-T transversion and C:T transitions. Three identical mutations were clustered at codon 213 suggested the same etiologic agents in this cases. The p53 gene alterations play a significant role in the development of esophageal cancers, however, no relationship between p53 mutation and clinical data was detected so far. 9 refs. (Author).

  6. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Depierre, S.; Angeli, F.; Frizon, F.; Gin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage

  7. Learning Arm/Hand Coordination with an Altered Visual Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Denisia Iftime Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was to test a novel tool for the analysis of motor coordination with an altered visual input. The altered visual input was created using special glasses that presented the view as recorded by a video camera placed at various positions around the subject. The camera was positioned at a frontal (F, lateral (L, or top (T position with respect to the subject. We studied the differences between the arm-end (wrist trajectories while grasping an object between altered vision (F, L, and T conditions and normal vision (N in ten subjects. The outcome measures from the analysis were the trajectory errors, the movement parameters, and the time of execution. We found substantial trajectory errors and an increased execution time at the baseline of the study. We also found that trajectory errors decreased in all conditions after three days of practice with the altered vision in the F condition only for 20 minutes per day, suggesting that recalibration of the visual systems occurred relatively quickly. These results indicate that this recalibration occurs via movement training in an altered condition. The results also suggest that recalibration is more difficult to achieve for altered vision in the F and L conditions compared to the T condition. This study has direct implications on the design of new rehabilitation systems.

  8. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  10. Hydrothermal alteration of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylagan, Robert F.; Altaner, Stephen P.; Pozzuoli, Antonio

    1996-12-01

    A rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza island, Italy, has been hydrothermally altered producing four distinct alteration zones based on XRD and field textures: (1) non-pervasive argillic zone; (2) propylitic zone; (3) silicic zone; and (4) sericitic zone. The unaltered hyaloclastite is a volcanic breccia with clasts of vesiculated obsidian in a matrix of predominantly pumice lapilli. Incomplete alteration of the hyaloclastite resulted in the non pervasive argillic zone, characterized by smectite and disordered opal-CT. Obsidian clasts, some pumice lapilli, and pyrogenic plagioclase and biotite are unaltered. Smectite has an irregular flakey morphology, although euhedral particles are occasionally observed. The propylitic zone is characterized by mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) with 10 to 85% illite (I), mordenite, opal-C and authigenic K-feldspar (akspar). The matrix of the hyaloclastite is completely altered and obsidian clasts are silicified; however, plagioclase and biotite phenocrysts remain unaltered. Flakey I/S replaces pumice, and mordenite, akspar and silica line and fill pores. I/S particles are composed predominantly of subequant plates and euhedral laths. The silicic zone is characterized by highly illitic I/S with ≥ 90% I, quartz, akspar and occasional albite. In this zone the matrix and clasts are completely altered, and pyrogenic plagioclase shows significant alteration. Illitic I/S has a euhedral lath-like morphology. In the sericitic zone the hyaloclastite altered primarily to illitic I/S with ≥ 66% I, quartz, and minor akspar and pyrite. Clay minerals completely replace pyrogenic feldspars and little evidence remains of the original hyaloclastite texture. Unlike other zones, illitic I/S is fibrous and pure illite samples are composed of euhedral laths and hexagonal plates. The temperatures of hydrothermal alteration likely ranged from 30 to 90 °C for the argillic zone, from 110 to 160 °C for the propylitic zone, from 160 to 270 °C for the

  11. Altered states, altered spaces : architecture, space and landscape in the film and television of Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Altered States, Altered Spaces: Architecture, Landscape and Space in the work of Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell.\\ud \\ud Stanley Kubrick and Ken Russell, at first, seem like unlikely bedfellows for a critical comparison: the combined Baroque, Mannerist, frequently excessive and romantic nature of Russell’s screen standing in apparent contrast to the structure, order, organisation, Brutalism and spatial complexity of Kubrick’s.\\ud \\ud In an online blogpost1 (2007) Russell biographer Paul Sutto...

  12. An alter-centric perspective on employee innovation: The importance of alters' creative self-efficacy and network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Travis J; Venkataramani, Vijaya; Labianca, Giuseppe Joe

    2017-09-01

    While most social network studies of employee innovation behavior examine the focal employees' ("egos'") network structure, we employ an alter-centric perspective to study the personal characteristics of employees' network contacts-their "alters"-to better understand employee innovation. Specifically, we examine how the creative self-efficacy (CSE) and innovation behavior of employees' social network contacts affects their ability to generate and implement novel ideas. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 144 employees in a U.S.-based product development organization. We find that the average CSE of alters in an employee's problem solving network is positively related to that employee's innovation behavior, with this relationship being mediated by these alters' average innovation behavior. The relationship between the alters' average innovation behavior and the employee's own innovation behavior is strengthened when these alters have less dense social networks. Post hoc results suggest that having network contacts with high levels of CSE also leads to an increase in ego's personal CSE 1 year later in cases where the employee's initial level of CSE was relatively low. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evaluation of bentonite alteration due to interactions with iron. Sensitivity analyses to identify the important factors for the bentonite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Wilson, James; Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessment of geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive waste requires a consideration of long-term systems behaviour. It is possible that the alteration of swelling clay present in bentonite buffers might have an impact on buffer functions. In the present study, iron (as a candidate overpack material)-bentonite (I-B) interactions were evaluated as the main buffer alteration scenario. Existing knowledge on alteration of bentonite during I-B interactions was first reviewed, then the evaluation methodology was developed considering modeling techniques previously used overseas. A conceptual model for smectite alteration during I-B interactions was produced. The following reactions and processes were selected: 1) release of Fe 2+ due to overpack corrosion; 2) diffusion of Fe 2+ in compacted bentonite; 3) sorption of Fe 2+ on smectite edge and ion exchange in interlayers; 4) dissolution of primary phases and formation of alteration products. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most important factors for the alteration of bentonite by I-B interactions. (author)

  14. Mapping advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada, using imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, Gregg A.; Clark, Roger N.; Goetz, Alexander F.H.; Livo, K. Eric; Breit, George N.; Kruse, Fred A.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Lowers, Heather A.; Post, James L.; Stoffregen, Roger E.; Ashley, Roger P.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral maps based on Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used to study late Miocene advanced argillic alteration at Cuprite, Nevada. Distributions of Fe-bearing minerals, clays, micas, sulfates, and carbonates were mapped using the Tetracorder spectral-shape matching system. The Al content of white micas increases toward altered areas and near intrusive rocks. Alunite composition varies from pure K to intimate mixtures of Na-K endmembers with subpixel occurrences of huangite, the Ca analogue of alunite. Intimately mixed Na-K alunite marks areas of relatively lower alteration temperature, whereas co-occurring Na-alunite and dickite may delineate relict hydrothermal conduits. The presence of dickite, halloysite, and well-ordered kaolinite, but absence of disordered kaolinite, is consistent with acidic conditions during hydrothermal alteration. Partial lichen cover on opal spectrally mimics chalcedony, limiting its detection to lichen-free areas. Pods of buddingtonite are remnants of initial quartz-adularia-smectite alteration. Thus, spectral maps provide a synoptic view of the surface mineralogy, and define a previously unrecognized early steam-heated hydrothermal event.Faulting and episodes of hydrothermal alteration at Cuprite were intimately linked to upper plate movements above the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain detachment and growth, collapse, and resurgence of the nearby Stonewall Mountain volcanic complex between 8 and 5 Ma. Isotopic dating indicates that hydrothermal activity started at least by 7.61 Ma and ended by about 6.2 Ma. Spectral and stable isotope data suggest that Cuprite is a late Miocene low-sulfidation adularia-sericite type hot spring deposit overprinted by late-stage, steam-heated advanced argillic alteration formed along the margin of the Stonewall Mountain caldera.

  15. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Hashemi, Jordan; Gans, Lee K; Lerebours, Laura; Clement, Nathaniel J; Vu, Mai-Anh T; Sapiro, Guillermo; Heller, Nicole E; Adcock, R Alison

    2018-01-01

    Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel characterization of

  16. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly S Chiew

    Full Text Available Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel

  17. Motivational valence alters memory formation without altering exploration of a real-life spatial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Jordan; Gans, Lee K.; Lerebours, Laura; Clement, Nathaniel J.; Vu, Mai-Anh T.; Sapiro, Guillermo; Heller, Nicole E.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2018-01-01

    Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes. To elicit spontaneous exploration, we used the physical space of an art exhibit with affectively rich content; we expected motivated exploration and memory to reflect multiple factors, including not only motivational valence, but also individual differences. Motivation was manipulated via an introductory statement framing exhibit themes in terms of Promotion- or Prevention-oriented goals. Participants explored the exhibit while being tracked by video. They returned 24 hours later for recall and spatial memory tests, followed by measures of motivation, personality, and relevant attitude variables. Promotion and Prevention condition participants did not differ in terms of group-level exploration time or memory metrics, suggesting similar motivation to explore under both framing contexts. However, exploratory behavior and memory outcomes were significantly more closely related under Promotion than Prevention, indicating that Prevention framing disrupted expected depth-of-encoding effects. Additionally, while trait measures predicted exploration similarly across framing conditions, traits interacted with motivational framing context and facial affect to predict memory outcomes. This novel characterization of

  18. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  19. Ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni caused by artemether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Xiao

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made over the last decade with the development and clinical use of artemether as an agent against major human schistosome parasites. The tegument has been identified as a key target of artemether, implying detailed studies on ultrastructural damage induced by this compound. We performed a temporal examination, employing a transmission electron microscope to assess the pattern and extent of ultrastructural alterations in adult Schistosoma mansoni harboured in mice treated with a single dose of 400 mg/kg artemether. Eight hours post-treatment, damage to the tegument and subtegumental structures was seen. Tegumental alterations reached a peak 3 days after treatment and were characterized by swelling, fusion of distal cytoplasma, focal lysis of the tegumental matrix and vacuolisation. Tubercles and sensory organelles frequently degenerated or collapsed. Typical features of subtegumental alterations, including muscle fibres, syncytium and parenchyma tissues, were focal or extensive lysis, vacuolisation and degeneration of mitochondria. Severe alterations were also observed in gut epithelial cells and vitelline cells of female worms. Our findings of artemether-induced ultrastructural alterations in adult S. mansoni confirm previous results obtained with juvenile S. mansoni and S. japonicum of different ages.

  20. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it's alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author)

  1. Hydrothermal surface alteration in the Copahue Geothermal Field (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, Graciela R.; Mas, Luis C.; Bengochea, Leandro

    1996-01-24

    In the area of the Copahue Geothermal Field, there are five active geothermal manifestations, which mainly consist of fumaroles, hot springs and mud pots. Four of these manifestations are located in Argentina: Las Máquinas, Termas de Copahue, Las Maquinitas and El Anfiteatro, and the fifth on the Chilean side: Chancho Co. All of them present a strong acid sulfate country rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz + cristobalite + pyrite + sulfur + jarosite, as the result of the base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4 by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam heated environment of H2S released by deeper boiling fluids. Another alteration zone in this area, called COP-2, is a fossil geothermal manifestation which shows characteristics of neutral to alkaline alteration represented mainly by the siliceous sinter superimposed over the acid alteration. The mineralogy and zoning of these alteration zones, and their relation with the hidrothermal solutions and the major structures of the area are analized.

  2. Congenital heart malformations induced by hemodynamic altering surgical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline eMidgett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart formation results from a dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Blood flow during early embryonic stages plays a critical role in heart development, as interactions between flow and cardiac tissues generate biomechanical forces that modulate cardiac growth and remodeling. Normal hemodynamic conditions are essential for proper cardiac development, while altered blood flow induced by surgical manipulations in animal models result in heart defects similar to those seen in humans with congenital heart disease. This review compares the altered hemodynamics, changes in tissue properties, and cardiac defects reported after common surgical interventions that alter hemodynamics in the early chick embryo, and shows that interventions produce a wide spectrum of cardiac defects. Vitelline vein ligation and left atrial ligation decrease blood pressure and flow; and outflow tract banding increases blood pressure and flow velocities. These three surgical interventions result in many of the same cardiac defects, which indicate that the altered hemodynamics interfere with common looping, septation and valve formation processes that occur after intervention and that shape the four-chambered heart. While many similar defects develop after the interventions, the varying degrees of hemodynamic load alteration among the three interventions also result in varying incidence and severity of cardiac defects, indicating that the hemodynamic modulation of cardiac developmental processes is strongly dependent on hemodynamic load.

  3. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Lee

    Full Text Available Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc. are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness-subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984-but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the "Dance of Souls", a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress, self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale. Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers and in participants adopting other roles.

  4. Macroinvertebrate community change associated with the severity of streamflow alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Eng, Kenny; Nelson, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural streamflows play a critical role in stream ecosystems, yet quantitative relations between streamflow alteration and stream health have been elusive. One reason for this difficulty is that neither streamflow alteration nor ecological responses are measured relative to their natural expectations. We assessed macroinvertebrate community condition in 25 mountain streams representing a large gradient of streamflow alteration, which we quantified as the departure of observed flows from natural expectations. Observed flows were obtained from US Geological Survey streamgaging stations and discharge records from dams and diversion structures. During low-flow conditions in September, samples of macroinvertebrate communities were collected at each site, in addition to measures of physical habitat, water chemistry and organic matter. In general, streamflows were artificially high during summer and artificially low throughout the rest of the year. Biological condition, as measured by richness of sensitive taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) and taxonomic completeness (O/E), was strongly and negatively related to the severity of depleted flows in winter. Analyses of macroinvertebrate traits suggest that taxa losses may have been caused by thermal modification associated with streamflow alteration. Our study yielded quantitative relations between the severity of streamflow alteration and the degree of biological impairment and suggests that water management that reduces streamflows during winter months is likely to have negative effects on downstream benthic communities in Utah mountain streams. 

  5. Altered States of Consciousness during an Extreme Ritual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewald, Tonio; Comber, Evelyn M.; Hanson, Sarah A.; Pruitt, Bria

    2016-01-01

    Extreme rituals (body-piercing, fire-walking, etc.) are anecdotally associated with altered states of consciousness—subjective alterations of ordinary mental functioning (Ward, 1984)—but empirical evidence of altered states using both direct and indirect measures during extreme rituals in naturalistic settings is limited. Participants in the “Dance of Souls”, a 3.5-hour event during which participants received temporary piercings with hooks or weights attached to the piercings and danced to music provided by drummers, responded to measures of two altered states of consciousness. Participants also completed measures of positive and negative affect, salivary cortisol (a hormone associated with stress), self-reported stress, sexual arousal, and intimacy. Both pierced participants (pierced dancers) and non-pierced participants (piercers, piercing assistants, observers, drummers, and event leaders) showed evidence of altered states aligned with transient hypofrontality (Dietrich, 2003; measured with a Stroop test) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; measured with the Flow State Scale). Both pierced and non-pierced participants also reported decreases in negative affect and psychological stress and increases in intimacy from before to after the ritual. Pierced and non-pierced participants showed different physiological reactions, however, with pierced participants showing increases in cortisol and non-pierced participants showing decreases from before to during the ritual. Overall, the ritual appeared to induce different physiological effects but similar psychological effects in focal ritual participants (i.e., pierced dancers) and in participants adopting other roles. PMID:27175897

  6. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it`s alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author).

  7. Mechanisms for altered carnitine content in hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carnitine levels are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction (banding) and evaluated in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In an attempt to determine the mechanisms for these alterations, L-[ 14 C]carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by ∼20% in hypertrophied hearts of banded rats at all perfusate carnitine concentrations employed. The reduction in total uptake was due to a 40% reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake with no difference in uptake by diffusion. In contrast, carnitine uptake was not altered in isolated hypertrophied hearts of SHR. However, serum carnitine levels were elevated in SHR, which could result in increased myocardial carnitine uptake in vivo. The data suggest that altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of aortic-banded rats is due to an alteration in the carrier-mediated carnitine transport system in the myocardium. However, altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of SHR is not due to a change in the carnitine transport system per se but may rather be due to a change in serum carnitine levels

  8. Power loss analysis in altered tooth-sum spur gearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda H. K.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of power loss or dissipation of heat in case of meshed gears is due to friction existing between gear tooth mesh and is a major concern in low rotational speed gears, whereas in case of high operating speed the power loss taking place due to compression of air-lubricant mixture (churning losses and windage losses due to aerodynamic trial of air lubricant mixture which controls the total efficiency needs to be considered. Therefore, in order to improve mechanical efficiency it is necessary for gear designer during gear tooth optimization to consider these energy losses. In this research paper the power loss analysis for a tooth-sum of 100 altered by ±4% operating between a specified center distance is considered. The results show that negative altered tooth-sum gearing performs better as compared to standard and positive altered tooth-sum gearing.

  9. Rheumatoid cachexia and other nutritional alterations in rheumatologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Torres, Gilberto Fabián; González-Baranda, Lourdes Larisa; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of nutritional alterations in rheumatologic diseases ranges from 4 to 95%, depending on the detection method used. Formerly described as the single term rheumatoid cachexia, nutritional alterations can currently be grouped and subdivided based on the physiopathological mechanisms involved: chronic disease-related inflammatory conditions (cachexia), malnutrition associated to acute malnutrition inflammatory conditions (protein-caloric malnutrition) and starvation-related malnutrition. Clinical manifestations of malnutrition associated to rheumatic diseases vary from the patient with low weight or overweight and obesity; with lean body mass depletion as well as functional repercussions, and impact of quality of life as a common denominator. Additionally, the associated increase in body fat mass increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidity. A multidisciplinary approach towards rheumatic diseases should include aspects oriented towards prevention, early identification, diagnosis and correction of nutritional alterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Lytological characterization and hydrothermal alteration Infiernillo porphyry, provincia Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Rubinstein, N.; Kleiman, L.. E.mail: kleiman@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2007-01-01

    El Infiernillo porphyry copper and Mo deposit, in southern Mendoza, Argentina is hosted by ignimbrites of the Cochico Group (lower Permian). The alteration zone consists of a small central quartz neck with appreciable hematite surrounded by an intense quartz-injected zone with local pervasive potassic alteration. Outwards, there is a well-developed phyllic halo with intense bleaching which consists of pervasive and vein-type silicification, sericitization and pyritization. In the outer part of the alteration zone, small polymetallic veins with pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena and minor, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and electrum in quartz gangue crop out. New field, petro-mineralogic and geochemical data confirmed that the host rocks are equivalent to the dacitic and rhyodacitic ignimbrites of the Toba Vieja Gorda Member (Yacimiento Los Reyunos Formation, Cochico Group)

  11. Alterations in the developing testis transcriptome following embryonic vinclozolin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Tracy M; Savenkova, Marina I; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2010-11-01

    The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic days 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 differentially expressed genes were identified and the major cellular functions and pathways associated with these altered transcripts were examined. The sets of regulated genes at the different development periods were found to be transiently altered and distinct. Categorization by major known functions of altered genes was performed. Specific cellular process and pathway analyses suggest the involvement of Wnt and calcium signaling, vascular development and epigenetic mechanisms as potential mediators of the direct F1 generation actions of vinclozolin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Small molecule alteration of RNA sequence in cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lirui; Luo, Yiling; Ja, William W; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-10-18

    RNA regulation and maintenance are critical for proper cell function. Small molecules that specifically alter RNA sequence would be exceptionally useful as probes of RNA structure and function or as potential therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate a photochemical approach for altering the trinucleotide expanded repeat causative of myotonic muscular dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG) exp . The small molecule, 2H-4-Ru, binds to r(CUG) exp and converts guanosine residues to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine upon photochemical irradiation. We demonstrate targeted modification upon irradiation in cell culture and in Drosophila larvae provided a diet containing 2H-4-Ru. Our results highlight a general chemical biology approach for altering RNA sequence in vivo by using small molecules and photochemistry. Furthermore, these studies show that addition of 8-oxo-G lesions into RNA 3' untranslated regions does not affect its steady state levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pore Pressure Distribution and Flank Instability in Hydrothermally Altered Stratovolcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J. L.; Taron, J.; Hurwitz, S.; Reid, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Field and geophysical investigations of stratovolcanoes with long-lived hydrothermal systems commonly reveal that initially permeable regions (such as brecciated layers of pyroclastic material) can become both altered and water-bearing. Hydrothermal alteration in these regions, including clay formation, can turn them into low-permeability barriers to fluid flow, which could increase pore fluid pressures resulting in flank slope instability. We examined elevated pore pressure conditions using numerical models of hydrothermal flow in stratovolcanoes, informed by geophysical data about internal structures and deposits. Idealized radially symmetric meshes were developed based on cross-sectional profiles and alteration/permeability structures of Cascade Range stratovolcanoes. We used the OpenGeoSys model to simulate variably saturated conditions in volcanoes heated only by regional heat fluxes, as well as 650°C intrusions at two km depth below the surface. Meteoric recharge was estimated from precipitation rates in the Cascade Range. Preliminary results indicate zones of elevated pore pressures form: 1) where slopes are underlain by continuous low-permeability altered layers, or 2) when the edifice has an altered core with saturated, less permeable limbs. The first scenario might control shallow collapses on the slopes above the altered layers. The second could promote deeper flank collapses that are initially limited to the summit and upper slopes, but could progress to the core of an edifice. In both scenarios, pore pressures can be further elevated by shallow intrusions, or evolve over longer time scales under forcing from regional heat flux. Geometries without confining low-permeability layers do not show these pressure effects. Our initial scenarios use radially symmetric models, but we are also simulating hydrothermal flow under real 3D geometries with asymmetric subsurface structures (Mount Adams). Simulation results will be used to inform 3D slope

  14. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae in the Maghreb region: from biology to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa. This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the

  15. R7T7 glass alteration mechanism in an aqueous closed system: understanding and modelling the long term alteration kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chave, T.

    2007-10-01

    The long term alteration rate of the French R7T7 nuclear glass has been investigated since many years because it will define the overall resistance of the radionuclide containment matrix. Recent studies have shown that the final rate remains constant or is slightly decreasing with time. It never reaches zero. Though this residual rate is very low, only 5 nm per year at 50 C, it would be the dominant alteration phenomenon in a geological repository. Two mechanisms are suggested for explaining such behaviour: diffusion in solution of elements from glass through an amorphous altered layer and precipitation of neo-formed phases. The diffusion processes are in agreement with a solid state diffusion mechanism and can lead to secondary phase precipitation due to solution concentration increases. Observed phases are mainly phyllosilicates and zeolites, in specific conditions. Phyllosilicates are expected to maintain the residual kinetic rate whereas alteration resumption could be observed in presence of zeolites at very high pH or temperature (10.5 at 90 C or temperature above 150 C). Both diffusion and neo-formed phase precipitation have been investigated in order to better understand their impact on the residual alteration rate and have then been modelled by a calculation code, coupling chemistry and transport, in order to be able to better anticipate the long term behaviour of the glass R7T7 in an aqueous closed system. (author)

  16. Alterations in mtDNA, gastric carcinogenesis and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N

    2018-05-26

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.

  17. Diagenetic alteration in low-Mg calcite from macrofossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Korte, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    microscopy) and chemical (trace element abundances, isotopic ratios) screening techniques used to assess the alteration degree of low-Mg calcite macrofossils and summarize the findings on diagenetic trends observed for elemental and isotopic systems in such materials. For a robust evaluation...... of the preservation state of biogenic calcite, it is advisable to combine a set of complementary techniques. Absolute limiting values of element and isotope ratios for discarding diagenetically altered materials cannot be universally applied, but should rather be evaluated on a case to case basis. The evaluation can...

  18. Valuing hydrological alteration in Multi-Objective reservoir management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, S.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation for agricultural production, and flood risk mitigation. Advances in multi-objectives (MO) optimization techniques and ever growing computing power make it possible to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal tradeoffs between the multiple interests analysed. These progresses if on one hand are likely to enhance performances of commonly targeted objectives (such as hydropower production or water supply), on the other risk to strongly penalize all the interests not directly (i.e. mathematically) optimized within the MO algorithm. Alteration of hydrological regime, although is a well established cause of ecological degradation and its evaluation and rehabilitation are commonly required by recent legislation (as the Water Framework Directive in Europe), is rarely embedded as an objective in MO planning of optimal releases from reservoirs. Moreover, even when it is explicitly considered, the criteria adopted for its evaluation are doubted and not commonly trusted, undermining the possibility of real implementation of environmentally friendly policies. The main challenges in defining and assessing hydrological alterations are: how to define a reference state (referencing); how to define criteria upon which to build mathematical indicators of alteration (measuring); and finally how to aggregate the indicators in a single evaluation index that can be embedded in a MO optimization problem (valuing). This paper aims to address these issues by: i) discussing benefits and constrains of different approaches to referencing, measuring and valuing hydrological alteration; ii) testing two alternative indices of hydrological alteration in the context of MO problems, one based on the established framework of Indices of Hydrological Alteration (IHA, Richter et al., 1996), and a novel satisfying the

  19. Study on epigenetic alterations of ore-enclosing sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, I.A.; Komarova, G.V.

    1985-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks under effect of exogenous undeground waters of various types: near-surface, ground, stratum, and deep circulation waters, are considered. Association to postsedimentary tectonic structures, confinement of neogenesis to areas of high permeability (porous or crack one), geochemical contradictions between mineral neogenis and facial outlook of deposits, noncoincidence of variability gradient of authigenous mineral associations with variability of primary facial signs of deposits, regular position of mineral formations and ore concentrations in epigenetic mineralogo-geochemical zonation are referred to epigenetic criteria. The complex of epigenetic alterations accompanying mineralization is frequently used as a search sign of uranium deposit of a certain type

  20. MR alterations of the rotator cuff and anterior gienold labrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellin, I.; Ho, C.; Haghighi, P.; Kerr, R.; Trudell, D.; Cervilla, V.; Resnick, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the histopathologic causes of alterations in signal and morphology in the tendinous rotator cuff and glenoid labrum on shoulder MR images. MR imaging was performed in 13 cadaveric shoulders. Coronal oblique imaging of the rotator cuff was performed with spin-echo sequences (TR 2,000; TE 25/80). The labrum was examined with transaxial spin-echo, fat-suppression (HYBRID), and MPGR sequences. The shoulders then were frozen and sectioned at 3-mm intervals in the plane of interest. Areas corresponding to sites of MR alterations were examined histologically

  1. Structural Alterations of the Glomerular Wall And Vessels in Early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural Alterations of the Glomerular Wall And Vessels in Early Stages of Diabetes Mellitus: Light and Transmission Electron Microscopic Study. ... The second group of 20 (the experimental group) was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose of streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia. Rats were sacrificed after ten days, ...

  2. 14 CFR 21.289 - Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Delegation Option Authorization Procedures § 21.289 Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration. For types covered by a delegation option... any employee to execute and sign FAA Form 337 and make required log book entries if that employee— (1...

  3. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  4. Altered inflammatory responsiveness in serotonin transporter mutant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macchi, F.; Homberg, J.R.; Calabrese, F.; Zecchillo, C.; Racagni, G.; Riva, M.A.; Molteni, R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that alterations of the inflammatory/immune system contribute to the pathogenesis of depression. Indeed, depressed patients exhibit increased levels of inflammatory markers in both the periphery and the brain, and high comorbidity exists between major depression

  5. Altered mitochondrial regulation in quadriceps muscles of patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Bourbeau, Jean; Perrault, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Evidence exists for locomotor muscle impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including fiber type alterations and reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In this study high-resolution respirometry was used to quantify oxygen flux in permeabilized fibres from bi...

  6. Altered morphology of the nucleus accumbens in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Auer, Tibor; Metzger, F Luise; Euler, Harald A; Frahm, Jens; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures. The study included 33 right-handed participants who stutter and 34 right-handed control participants matched for sex, age, and education. Structural images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging to estimate volumetric characteristics of the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Volumetric comparisons and vertex-based shape comparisons revealed structural differences. The right nucleus accumbens was larger in participants who stutter compared to controls. Recent theories of basal ganglia functions suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a motivation-to-movement interface. A speaker intends to reach communicative goals, but stuttering can derail these efforts. It is therefore highly plausible to find alterations in the motivation-to-movement interface in stuttering. While behavioral studies of stuttering sought to find links between the limbic and sensorimotor system, we provide the first neuroimaging evidence of alterations in the limbic system. Thus, our findings might initialize a unified neurobiological framework of persistent developmental stuttering that integrates sensorimotor and social-motivational neuroanatomical circuitries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stuttering Inhibition via Altered Auditory Feedback during Scripted Telephone Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudock, Daniel; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overt stuttering is inhibited by approximately 80% when people who stutter read aloud as they hear an altered form of their speech feedback to them. However, levels of stuttering inhibition vary from 60% to 100% depending on speaking situation and signal presentation. For example, binaural presentations of delayed auditory feedback…

  8. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  9. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  10. Altered sense of agency in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark S; Kliim-Due, Mette

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Children diagnosed with spastic Cerebral Palsy (CP) often show perceptual and cognitive problems, which may contribute to their functional deficit. Here we investigated if altered ability to determine whether an observed movement is performed by themselves (sense of agency...

  11. Why climate change will invariably alter selection pressures on phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Reed, Thomas E.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal timing of lifecycle events is closely linked to individual fitness and hence, maladaptation in phenological traits may impact population dynamics. However, few studies have analysed whether and why climate change will alter selection pressures and hence possibly induce maladaptation in

  12. Smartphone-based assessment of blood alteration severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Xue, Jiaxin; Li, Wei; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Blood quality and safety management is a critical issue for cold chain transportation of blood or blood-based biological reagent. The conventional methods of blood alteration severity assessment mainly rely on kit test or blood-gas analysis required opening the blood package to get samples, which cause possible blood pollution and are complicate, timeconsuming, and expensive. Here we proposed to develop a portable, real-time, safety, easy-operated and low cost method aimed at assessing blood alteration severity. Color images of the blood in transparent blood bags were collected with a smartphone and the alteration severity of the blood was assessed by the smartphone app offered analysis of RGB color values of the blood. The algorithm is based on a large number sample of RGB values of blood at different alteration degree. The blood quality results evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study indicates the potential of smart phone in real time, convenient, and reliable blood quality assessment.

  13. METHYLMERCURY IMPAIRS NEURONAL DIFFERENTIATION BY ALTERING NEUROTROPHIN SIGNALING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous in vivo studies, we observed that developmental exposure to CH3Hg can alter neocortical morphology and neurotrophin signaling. Using primed PC12 cells as a model system for neuronal differentiation, we examined the hypothesis that the developmental effects of CH3Hg ma...

  14. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests

  15. Altered central pain processing after pancreatic surgery for chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, S. A.; Ahmed Ali, U.; ten Broek, R. P.; Issa, Y.; van Eijck, C. H.; Wilder-Smith, O. H.; van Goor, H.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is common in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and may involve altered central pain processing. This study evaluated the relationship between pain processing and pain outcome after pancreatic duct decompression and/or pancreatic resection in patients with CP. Patients with CP

  16. Petrography of some altered intrusive rocks from the Lower Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography of some altered intrusive rocks from the Lower Benue Trough, Nigeria. Smart C Obiora, Alphonso C Umeji. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol 41(1): 1-9. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Neural Alterations in Acquired Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksha Anand Mudar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in older adults. Growing evidence suggests that hearing loss is associated with reduced cognitive functioning and incident dementia. In this mini-review, we briefly examine literature on anatomical and functional alterations in the brains of adults with acquired age-associated hearing loss, which may underlie the cognitive consequences observed in this population, focusing on studies that have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and event-related electroencephalography. We discuss structural and functional alterations observed in the temporal and frontal cortices and the limbic system. These neural alterations are discussed in the context of common cause, information-degradation, and sensory-deprivation hypotheses, and we suggest possible rehabilitation strategies. Although we are beginning to learn more about changes in neural architecture and functionality related to age-associated hearing loss, much work remains to be done. Understanding the neural alterations will provide objective markers for early identification of neural consequences of age-associated hearing loss and for evaluating benefits of intervention approaches.

  18. Altered biochemical specificity of G-quadruplexes with mutated tetrads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švehlová, Kateřina; Lawrence, M. S.; Bednárová, Lucie; Curtis, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 22 (2016), s. 10789-10803 ISSN 0305-1048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : G-quadruplex * G motif GTP aptamer * peroxidase deoxyribozyme Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/nar/article/44/22/10789/2333933/Altered-biochemical-specificity-of-G-quadruplexes

  19. Radiation induced alterations in the endotoxin of S. typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerkar, D P; Govekar, L G; Kumta, U S; Sreenivasan, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1977-09-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. typhimurium has been shown to be significantly detoxified after in vivo irradiation at 500 krad. Radiation is thus a useful method for converting endotoxin into toxoid. The structural alterations in the detoxified LPS were shown to be mainly in the lipid A molecule, resulting in the loss of ..beta..-hydroxymyristic acid.

  20. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  1. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  2. Altered erythropoiesis and iron metabolism in carriers of thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Jacqueline S.; Cominal, Juçara G.; Silva-Pinto, Ana Cristina; Olbina, Gordana; Ginzburg, Yelena Z.; Nandi, Vijay; Westerman, Mark; Rivella, Stefano; de Souza, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The thalassemia syndromes (α- and β-thalassemia) are the most common and frequent disorders associated with ineffective erythropoiesis. Imbalance of α- or β-globin chain production results in impaired red blood cell synthesis, anemia and more erythroid progenitors in the blood stream. While patients affected by these disorders show definitive altered parameters related to erythropoiesis, the relationship between the degree of anemia, altered erythropoiesis and dysfunctional iron metabolism have not been investigated in both α-thalassemia carriers (ATC) and β-thalassemia carriers (BTC). Here we demonstrate that ATC have a significantly reduced hepcidin and increased soluble transferrin receptor levels but relatively normal hematological findings. In contrast, BTC have several hematological parameters significantly different from controls, including increased soluble transferrin receptor and erythropoietin levels. These changings in both groups suggest an altered balance between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The index sTfR/log ferrin and (hepcidin/ferritin)/sTfR are respectively increased and reduced relative to controls, proportional to the severity of each thalassemia group. In conclusion, we showed in this study, for the first time in the literature, that thalassemia carriers have altered iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. PMID:25307880

  3. Accounting for Ecohydrologic Separation Alters Interpreted Catchment Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, M. R.; Ward, A. S.; Hrachowitz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that in in some catchments, compartmentalized pools of water supply either plant transpiration (poorly mobile water) or streamflow and groundwater (highly mobile water), a phenomenon referred to as ecohydrologic separation. Although the literature has acknowledged that omission of ecohydrologic separation in hydrological models may influence estimates of residence times of water and solutes, no study has investigated how and when this compartmentalization might alter interpretations of fluxes and storages within a catchment. In this study, we develop two hydrochemical lumped rainfall-runoff models, one which incorporates ecohydrologic separation and one which does not for a watershed at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (Oregon, USA), the study site where ecohydrologic separation was first observed. The models are calibrated against stream discharge, as well as stream chloride concentration. The objectives of this study are (1) to compare calibrated parameters and identifiability across models, (2) to determine how and when compartmentalization of water in the vadose zone might alter interpretations of fluxes and stores within the catchment, and (3) to identify how and when these changes alter residence times. Preliminary results suggest that compartmentalization of the vadose zone alters interpretations of fluxes and storages in the catchment and improves our ability to simulate solute transport.

  4. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied ...

  5. 78 FR 64196 - Privacy Act Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... records to COMMERCE/DEPARTMENT-20, Biographical Files and Social Networks. The amendment serves to modify... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE [Docket No. 130730666-3877-02] Privacy Act Altered System of Records AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice; Commerce/Department-20, Biographical Files. SUMMARY: The Department...

  6. Skeletal alterations in case of chronic exogenous intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A roentgenologic picture of characteristic bone alterations observed in chronic intoxications with phosphorus, lead, fluorine or their compounds is presented. Precise diagnosis of the disease, correct interpretation of roentgenologically revealed injuries become possible only with account of the corresponding analysis data and general clinical examination of a patient

  7. Histological and histochemical alterations in the kidney induced by lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrar, Bashir M.

    2003-01-01

    Although lead intoxication is one of the most common forms of metal intoxication,the histochemichal alterations in renal tissues due to chronic lead exposure is limited and has not yet been well identified. A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats were exposed to lead acetate trihydrate( 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2% for 1 to 12 months) in drinking water to investigate the histological and histochemical alterations in renal tissues due to lead. Chronic exposure to the subtoxic doses of lead produced distinct progressive tubular, glomerular and interstitial damages. Tubular changes occured earlier than the glomerular and interstitial ones,and included anisokaryosis, nuclear pyknosis,karyomeglay, development of intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions together with tubular dilation, necrosis,vacuolization, tubular hyperplasia and solid tubular adenoma. The glomrular alterations were mainly mesangial hypercellularity, segmental glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hyalinization and glomerular tuft alterations. The findings indicate that lead produces significant histological and histochemical changes in the kidney that lead to severe complications. (author)

  8. Alterations in the morphology of skeletal myofibres after 90 minutes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in the morphology of skeletal myofibres after 90 minutes of ischaemia and '- 3 hours of reperfusion. M.A. Gregory, M. Mars. Abstract. Morphometric, light and electron microscopic methods were employed to determine whether skeletal myofibres were damaged by 90 minutes of tourniquet-mediated ischaemia.

  9. A Study of the Effects of an Altered Workweek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood Educational Consultants, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of organizational change arising from alterations in the structuring of the workweek. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of management and nonmanagement personnel employed within the various branches of the Alberta Department of Education. The sample consisted of 132 standard…

  10. Pinyon pine mortality alters communities of ground-dwelling arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Delph; Michael J. Clifford; Neil S. Cobb; Paulette L. Ford; Sandra L. Brantley

    2014-01-01

    We documented the effect of drought-induced mortality of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) on communities of ground-dwelling arthropods. Tree mortality alters microhabitats utilized by ground-dwelling arthropods by increasing solar radiation, dead woody debris, and understory vegetation. Our major objectives were to determine (1) whether there were changes in...

  11. Study of glass alteration mechanisms in cement waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depierre, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the French deep geological repository concept, intermediate-level vitrified waste packages could be disposed of concrete medium. Chemical composition and pH of the interstitial leaching water are expected to influence the chemical durability of glass. Investigations have thus been carried out to study glass dissolution mechanisms and kinetics in contact with cement waters. Three cement pore waters were studied: the first two correspond to two stages of the Portland cement aging and the third corresponds to equilibrium with a low pH concrete. The S/V ratio (glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume ratio) and the chemistry of cement waters are the two main parameters that control glass alteration mechanisms. If the leaching flow from the glass allows a degree of supersaturation to be reached and maintained which leads to nucleation of secondary phases, then precipitation of these phases drives glass dissolution. At a very low S/V ratio, the calcium uptake into the alteration layer increases its passivating properties. Conversely, at a high S/V ratio, the calcium precipitates as cementitious phases consuming elements which form the alteration layer. The glass dissolution is maintained at a high rate. This study contributes to highlighting the beneficial role of low pH cement in glass alteration, and is a first step towards understanding the mechanisms between the glass and the cement medium. (author) [fr

  12. Altered carbon dioxide metabolism and creatine abnormalities in rett syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbach, Nicky S J; Smeets, Eric E J; Bierau, Jörgen; Keularts, Irene M L W; Plasqui, Guy; Julu, Peter O O; Engerström, Ingegerd Witt; Bakker, Jaap A.; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-01-01

    Despite their good appetite, many females with Rett syndrome (RTT) meet the criteria for moderate to severe malnutrition. Although feeding difficulties may play a part in this, other constitutional factors such as altered metabolic processes are suspected. Irregular breathing is a common clinical

  13. Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Schjørring, S.; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from...

  14. Aloe arborescens aqueous gel extract alters the activities of key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mogale

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... glucose uptake by fat and muscle cells; 3) altering the activity of some ... aqueous A. arborescens leaf gel extract on fasting blood glucose levels, insulin ..... weight loss of treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated alloxan ...

  15. Oxidative Stress and Heart Failure in Altered Thyroid States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased or reduced action of thyroid hormone on certain molecular pathways in the heart and vasculature causes relevant cardiovascular derangements. It is well established that hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with a faster heart rate, enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function whereas hypothyroidism is characterized by the opposite changes. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism represent opposite clinical conditions, albeit not mirror images. Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested the involvement of ROS tissue damage under altered thyroid status. Altered-thyroid state-linked changes in heart modify their susceptibility to oxidants and the extent of the oxidative damage they suffer following oxidative challenge. Chronic increase in the cellular levels of ROS can lead to a catastrophic cycle of DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, further ROS generation and cellular injury. Thus, these cellular events might play an important role in the development and progression of myocardial remodeling and heart failure in altered thyroid states (hypo- and hyper-thyroidism. The present review aims at elucidating the various signaling pathways mediated via ROS and their modulation under altered thyroid state and the possibility of antioxidant therapy.

  16. Geochemical behaviour of uranium in the cycle of alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervet, J.; Coulomb, R.

    1958-01-01

    The investigation of the genesis of secondary mineralized accumulations, and the prospecting of deposits from microchemical anomalies in the surface material, is requiring a well-developed knowledge of the geochemical properties of the uranium during the alteration phase. In the present work, the authors tried to track the uranium history during a part of his natural creeping. a) They describe some most typical mineralogical observations of alteration phenomena and material migration, picked up in place on the deposits. b) They give experimental results concerning the solubilities of the uranium minerals and the factors affecting this solubility. c) They study the water circulation in granitic batholites, and the influence of the occurrence of the uranium deposits on their composition. d) They observe the amplitude of phenomena restricting the dispersions: fixations, precipitations, etc., and the behaviour of growth in uraniferous areas. e) Finally, the opposition chemical alteration-radioactive equilibrium results in an important imbalance in altered materials. The authors tried to use the measurement of this imbalance to explain geochemical processes. (author) [fr

  17. Electromagnetic Evidence of Altered Visual Processing in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M.; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Bolte, Sven; Braun, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate intact or superior local processing of visual-spatial tasks. We investigated the hypothesis that in a disembedding task, autistic individuals exhibit a more local processing style than controls, which is reflected by altered electromagnetic brain activity in response to embedded stimuli…

  18. Connectomics and neuroticism : an altered functional network organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servaas, Michelle N; Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    The personality trait neuroticism is a potent risk marker for psychopathology. Although the neurobiological basis remains unclear, studies have suggested that alterations in connectivity may underlie it. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to shed more light on the functional network

  19. Rectal microcirculatory alterations after elective on-pump cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, E. C.; Kaiferova, K.; Konijn, A. J. M.; De Vries, J. W.; Buter, H.; Ince, C.

    Background. Hemodynamic changes, related to on-pump cardiac surgery, have been reported to impair intestinal perfusion. However, until recently, direct in vivo observation of the intestinal microcirculation was not clinically feasible, and the concept of altered intestinal blood flow in the setting

  20. The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gröbner, Susanne N; Worst, Barbara C; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Pan-cancer analyses that examine commonalities and differences among various cancer types have emerged as a powerful way to obtain novel insights into cancer biology. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of genetic alterations in a pan-cancer cohort including 961 tumours from children, adoles...

  1. Cigarette smoke alters the secretome of lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossina, Alessandra; Lukas, Christina; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uhl, Franziska E; Mutze, Kathrin; Schamberger, Andrea; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia; Jia, Jie; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Königshoff, Melanie; Hauck, Stefanie M; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the most relevant risk factor for the development of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Many of its more than 4500 chemicals are highly reactive, thereby altering protein structure and function. Here, we used subcellular fractionation coupled to label-free quantitative MS to globally assess alterations in the proteome of different compartments of lung epithelial cells upon exposure to cigarette smoke extract. Proteomic profiling of the human alveolar derived cell line A549 revealed the most pronounced changes within the cellular secretome with preferential downregulation of proteins involved in wound healing and extracellular matrix organization. In particular, secretion of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, a matricellular protein that functions in tissue response to injury, was consistently diminished by cigarette smoke extract in various pulmonary epithelial cell lines and primary cells of human and mouse origin as well as in mouse ex vivo lung tissue cultures. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized acute response of lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke that includes altered secretion of proteins involved in extracellular matrix organization and wound healing. This may contribute to sustained alterations in tissue remodeling as observed in lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Arts Practice and Research: Locating Alterity and Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grennan, Simon

    2015-01-01

    There is still no agreed pedagogic definition of practice-based research. However, there is not a dearth of definitions, but rather a wide variety, predicated upon the developing programmes of individual places of study. This article will examine these definitions in terms of underlying concepts of intentionality and alterity and the ways in which…

  3. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Crispin Y.; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce ...

  4. Alterations in Anatomical Covariance in the Prematurely Born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty R; Schneider, Karen C; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2017-01-01

    Preterm (PT) birth results in long-term alterations in functional and structural connectivity, but the related changes in anatomical covariance are just beginning to be explored. To test the hypothesis that PT birth alters patterns of anatomical covariance, we investigated brain volumes of 25 PTs and 22 terms at young adulthood using magnetic resonance imaging. Using regional volumetrics, seed-based analyses, and whole brain graphs, we show that PT birth is associated with reduced volume in bilateral temporal and inferior frontal lobes, left caudate, left fusiform, and posterior cingulate for prematurely born subjects at young adulthood. Seed-based analyses demonstrate altered patterns of anatomical covariance for PTs compared with terms. PTs exhibit reduced covariance with R Brodmann area (BA) 47, Broca's area, and L BA 21, Wernicke's area, and white matter volume in the left prefrontal lobe, but increased covariance with R BA 47 and left cerebellum. Graph theory analyses demonstrate that measures of network complexity are significantly less robust in PTs compared with term controls. Volumes in regions showing group differences are significantly correlated with phonological awareness, the fundamental basis for reading acquisition, for the PTs. These data suggest both long-lasting and clinically significant alterations in the covariance in the PTs at young adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted with the objective of observing alterations in reducing sugars, which may play a part in distinguishing tolerant and susceptible genotypes. The experimental material consisted of thirteen wheat genotypes including eleven bread wheat advanced lines, one synthetic hexaploid and its durum ...

  6. Altered morphology of liver and pancreas tissues of offsprings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between consumption of charred meat, which is believed to be rich in nitrosamine by pregnant mothers and the adverse effects on the growth of their offsprings, alterations in morphology of tissues like liver and pancreas were studied. Meat was subjected to charcoal fire roasting without curing and was ...

  7. Speaking L2 in EFL Classes: Performance, Identity and Alterity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ross

    2014-01-01

    When teachers and students use L2 in Expanding Circle, Asian EFL classes, what kind of interpersonal roles do they perform, and what does this mean for the development of L2-mediated identity? The notion of alterity, or otherness, is used here to analyse the extent to which identity work occurs in EFL classes located in a Thai university context.…

  8. Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.

  9. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W L [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Div. (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests.

  10. 27 CFR 5.23 - Alteration of class and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alteration of class and type. 5.23 Section 5.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Identity for...

  11. Chronic zinc deficiency alters chick gut microbiota composition and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under co...

  12. The alteration of intracellular enzymes. III. The effect of temperature on the kinetics of altered and unaltered yeast catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRASER, M J; KAPLAN, J G

    1955-03-20

    1. The very large increase in catalase activity (Euler effect) which follows treatment of yeast cells with CHCl(3), UV and n-propanol is accompanied by highly significant changes in kinetic properties. With respect to the enzymatic decomposition of H(2)O(2), the thermodynamic constants of the activation process micro, DeltaHdouble dagger, DeltaSdouble dagger, DeltaFdouble dagger, decrease, following treatment of the intracellular enzyme, by 4.5 kcal., 4.5 kcal., 10.1 e.u. and 1.7 kcal., respectively, all these differences being significant at the 1 per cent level. 2. Similar differences exist between the untreated, intracellular enzyme on the one hand, and the extracted yeast and crystalline beef liver catalases on the other. Significant differences in these thermodynamic constants do not exist among the treated intracellular, extracted yeast, and crystalline liver catalases. 3. These data provide unequivocal confirmation of the phenomenon of enzyme alteration reported previously, and confirm previous evidence that the extracted and crystalline enzymes have also undergone enzyme alteration and have properties which are identical with, or very similar to, those of the catalase altered in situ. 4. With respect to the process of heat destruction of catalase, the greatly diminished stability to heat of the altered enzymes, previously reported, has been confirmed. The thermodynamic constants of activation of this process have likewise changed following alteration, in the case of micro, DeltaHdouble dagger, and DeltaSdouble dagger an increase of 20.6 kcal., 20.6 kcal., and 70 e.u., respectively, and of DeltaFdouble dagger a decrease of 2.8 kcal. 5. All these data have been shown to be consistent with, and in some cases predictable from, the interfacial hypothesis, which states that the unaltered catalase exists within the cell adsorbed to some interface, in a partially, but reversibly, unfolded configuration of relatively low specificity; enzyme alteration consists, in

  13. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B.; Rivkees, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20–60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3–65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:25354728

  14. Altered Mucin and Glycoprotein Expression in Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Denise N; McNamara, Nancy A

    2015-09-01

    Mucins are among the many important constituents of a healthy tear film. Mucins secreted and/or associated with conjunctival goblet cells, ocular mucosal epithelial cells, and the lacrimal gland must work together to create a stable tear film. Although many studies have explored the mechanism(s) whereby mucins maintain and protect the ocular surface, the effects of dry eye on the structure and function of ocular mucins are unclear. Here, we summarize current findings regarding ocular mucins and how they are altered in dry eye. We performed a literature review of studies exploring the expression of mucins produced and/or associated with tissues that comprise the lacrimal functional unit and how they are altered in dry eye. We also summarize new insights on the immune-mediated effects of aqueous tear deficiency on ocular surface mucins that we discovered using a mouse model of dry eye. Although consistent decreases in MUC5AC and altered expression of membrane-bound mucins have been noted in both Sjögren and non-Sjögren dry eye, many reports of altered mucins in dry eye are contradictory. Mechanistic studies, including our own, suggest that changes in the glycosylation of mucins rather than the proteins themselves may occur as the direct result of local inflammation induced by proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1. Altered expression of ocular mucins in dry eye varies considerably from study to study, likely attributed to inherent difficulties in analyzing small-volume tear samples, as well as differences in tear collection methods and disease severity in dry eye cohorts. To better define the functional role of ocular mucin glycosylation in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, we propose genomic and proteomic studies along with biological pathway analysis to reveal novel avenues for exploration.

  15. Autoradiography in Studying the Alteration of Rocks; L'Autoradiographie dans l'Etude de l'Alteration des Roches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P.; Vigneaux, M. [Institut de Geologie du Bassin d' Aquitaine, Faculte des Sciences de l' Universite de Bordeaux (France)

    1967-06-15

    The alteration of rocks intended for use as the foundations of large-scale civil-engineering projects, for building construction and for rock piling has been studied and numerous tests carried out; some of these tests have been standardized in varying degrees. The conventional method of autoradiography has been used to develop one of the processes for estimating alteration due, in particular, to thermal shocks. By using {sup 35}S and {sup 32}P, the authors were able to follow the progressive alteration of different rocks in the form of microfissurations. This process is considerably more accurate than that based solely on utilization of the characteristics of rocks in normal or polarized light. In addition, it permits absolute comparison of the initial microfissuration conditions of the sample and the microfissuration found after an increasing number of thermal shock cycles. The results of the process are given in the paper. (author) [French] L'alterabilite des roches destinees, soit a des fondations de grands travaux de genie civil, soit a la construction d'immeubles, soit enfin a l'etablissement d'enrochements, a fait l'objet de nombreux essais dont certains ont ete normalises, ou tout au moins ont subi un debut de normalisation. Un des procedes de determination du processus d'alteration du notamment aux chocs thermiques a ete mis au point a partir de la methode classique d'autoradiographie. L'utilisation de {sup 35}S et de {sup 32}P a permis de suivre la progression de l'alteration par microfissuration dans des roches diverses. Ce procede est notablement plus precis que celui qui est fonde sur la seule utilisation des caracteristiques des roches en lumiere naturelle ou polarisee. De plus, il permet la comparaison en valeur absolue de l'etat de microfissuration initial de l'echantillon avec la microfissuration obtenue apres un nombre croissant de cycles de chocs thermiques. Les resultats obtenus grace a ce procede sont donnes dans le memoire. (author)

  16. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nosarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM and white matter (WM maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001. WM volume in posterior corpus

  17. THC alters alters morphology of neurons in medial prefrontal cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens and alters the ability of later experience to promote structural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Bryan; Li, Yilin; Robinson, Terry; Parker, Linda A

    2018-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). To determine if drugs other than psychomotor stimulants will also interfere with later experience-dependent structural plasticity we gave Long-Evans rats THC (0.5 mg/kg) or saline for 11 days before placing them in complex environments or standard laboratory caging for 90 days. Brains were subsequently processed for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology and spine density mPFC, orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and NAcc. THC altered both dendritic arborization and spine density in all three regions, and, like psychomotor stimulants, THC influenced the effect of later experience in complex environments to shape the structure of neurons in these three regions. We conclude that THC may therefore contribute to persistent behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with prolonged use of the drug. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Phage Pl mutants with altered transducing abilities for Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.D.; Harriman, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for mutants of the coliphage P1 with altered transducing frequencies. A method was developed for the rapid assay of transducing frequencies in single plaques using prophage lambda as the transduced bacterial marker. This procedure selects for mutants altered in their ability to package host DNA. Mutants with 5 to 10 times higher or 10 to 20 times lower frequencies than those of wild-type P1 were found. Not only are the markers used for the detection of the mutants affected, but all other markers are similarly affected (not always to the same extent). One of the high transducing frequency mutants is a suppressible amber, indicating that loss of a function increases P1's ability to package host DNA preferentially. (U.S.)

  19. Insulin resistance alters islet morphology in nondiabetic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezza, Teresa; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Sorice, Gian Pio

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by poor glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and manifests when insulin secretion fails to cope with worsening insulin resistance. In addition to its effects on skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue metabolism, it is evident that insulin resistance also affects...... pancreatic β-cells. To directly examine the alterations that occur in islet morphology as part of an adaptive mechanism to insulin resistance, we evaluated pancreas samples obtained during pancreatoduodenectomy from nondiabetic subjects who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive. We also compared...... insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and incretin levels between the two groups. We report an increased islet size and an elevated number of β- and α-cells that resulted in an altered β-cell-to-α-cell area in the insulin- resistant group. Our data in this series of studies suggest that neogenesis from...

  20. Hydrothermal alteration in the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, Ethopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklemariam, M. [Ethiopian Institute of Geological Surveys, Addis Adaba (Ethiopia). Geothermal Exploration Project; Battaglia, S.; Gianelli, G.; Ruggieri, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Ist. Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche

    1996-12-01

    The hydrothermal mineral assemblages found in eight wells (with a depth range of 1320-2500 m) of the active geothermal field of Aluto-Langano (Ethiopia) indicate a complex evolution of water-rock interaction processes. The zone of upflow is characterized by high temperatures (up to 335{sup o}C) and the presence of a propylitic alteration (epidote, calcite, quartz and chlorite, as major phases) coexisting with calcite and clay minerals. The zone of lateral outflow is characterized by mixing of deep and shallow waters and the occurrence of a calcite-clay alteration that overprints a previous propylitic assemblage. Clay minerals have a mushroom-shaped zonal distribution consistent with the present thermal structure of the field. Microprobe analyses have been carried out on chlorite and illite in order to apply several geothermometers. (author)

  1. Multichannel perimetric alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus treated with hydroxychloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; Monllor, Begoña; Camps, Vicente J; de Fez, Dolores

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. We report the first case of SLE in which visual alterations were evaluated with multichannel perimetry. Some achromatic and color vision alterations may be present in SLE, especially when treated with hydroxychloroquine. The sensitivity losses detected in the chromatic channels in the central zone of the visual field were consistent with the results of the FM 100 Hue color test. Likewise, the multichannel perimetry detected sensitivity losses in the parafoveal area for both chromatic channels, especially for the blue-yellow. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  3. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-01-01

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel and the UO 2+x , in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO 2 2+ polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO 2+x , to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements

  4. Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiebenthal-Millow, Kirsten; Greenough, Thomas C.; Bretttler, Doreen B.; Schindler, Michael; Wildum, Steffen; Sullivan, John L.; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2003-01-01

    HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression

  5. Potential alteration of precipitation chemistry by epiphytic lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, G E; Reiners, W A; Heier, R K

    1976-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen growth is abundant on the boles and branches of balsam fir trees at high elevations in New Hampshire. These lichens absorb elements needed for growth from solutions flowing over their surfaces and from direct impaction of water droplets. This study describes how epiphytic lichens and fir needles altered the chemistry of simulated rain water solutions under laboratory conditions. Experiments showed: 1) lichens absorbed ammonium and nitrate from solution; the rate of uptake increased with increasing temperature of the solution, 2) lichens lost calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen to the solution, 3) lichen thalli also initially lost potassium, but in time, net movement was reversed back into the thallus, 4) cation movement increased with increasing temperature, and 5) fir needles responded in a manner similar to that of the lichens, but the amount of change was much less. From these results it seems that epiphytic lichens have potential ecological importance in altering the chemistry of throughfall and stemflow.

  6. Sleep deprivation alters valuation signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo eLibedinsky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Even a single night of total sleep-deprivation (SD can have dramatic effects on economic decision making. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that SD influences economic decisions by altering the valuation process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we identified value signals related to the anticipation and the experience of monetary and social rewards (attractive female faces. We then derived decision value signals that were predictive of each participant’s willingness to exchange money for brief views of attractive faces in an independent market task. Strikingly, SD altered decision value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC in proportion to the corresponding change in economic preferences. These changes in preference were independent of the effects of SD on attention and vigilance. Our results provide novel evidence that signals in VMPFC track the current state of the individual, and thus reflect not static but constructed preferences.

  7. Prostate Cancer: Epigenetic Alterations, Risk Factors, and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankgopo M. Kgatle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most prevalent urological cancer that affects aging men in South Africa, and mechanisms underlying prostate tumorigenesis remain elusive. Research advancements in the field of PCa and epigenetics have allowed for the identification of specific alterations that occur beyond genetics but are still critically important in the pathogenesis of tumorigenesis. Anomalous epigenetic changes associated with PCa include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and noncoding miRNA. These mechanisms regulate and silence hundreds of target genes including some which are key components of cellular signalling pathways that, when perturbed, promote tumorigenesis. Elucidation of mechanisms underlying epigenetic alterations and the manner in which these mechanisms interact in regulating gene transcription in PCa are an unmet necessity that may lead to novel chemotherapeutic approaches. This will, therefore, aid in developing combination therapies that will target multiple epigenetic pathways, which can be used in conjunction with the current conventional PCa treatment.

  8. Major depressive disorder alters perception of emotional body movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKaletsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research has shown an association between mood disorders and an altered emotion perception. However, these studies were conducted mainly with stimuli such as faces. This is the first study to examine possible differences in how people with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls perceive emotions expressed via body movements. 30 patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls observed video scenes of human interactions conveyed by point–light displays (PLDs. They rated the depicted emotions and judged their confidence in their rating. Results showed that patients with MDD rated the depicted interactions more negatively than healthy controls. They also rated interactions with negative emotionality as being more intense and were more confident in their ratings. It is concluded that patients with MDD exhibit an altered emotion perception compared to healthy controls when rating emotions expressed via body movements depicted in PLDs.

  9. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Altered cortical causality after remifentanil administration in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodayari-Rostamabad, Ahmad; Graversen, Carina; Olesen, Soren S

    2014-01-01

    and after infusion of remifentanil and placebo. Additionally, to assess cognitive function and analgesic effect, continuous reaction time (CRT) and bone pressure and heat pain were assessed, respectively. The causality information was extracted from the EEG by phase slope index (PSI). Among the features...... being reproducible between the two baseline recordings, several PSI features were altered by remifentanil administration in comparison to placebo. Furthermore, several of the PSI features altered by remifentanil were correlated to changes in both CRT and pain scores. The results indicate...... that remifentanil administration influence the information flow between several brain areas. Hence, the EEG causality approach offers the potential to assist in deciphering the cortical effects of remifentanil administration....

  11. Preliminary evaluation of alterant geophysical tomography in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of alterant geophysical tomography to delineate flow paths in a welded tuff rock mass has been preliminarily evaluated based on the results of a field experiment. Electromagnetic measurements were made before, during and after a water-based, dye tracer flowed through the rock mass. Alterant geophysical tomographs were generated and compared with independent evidence - borescope logs, neutron logs and dyed rock samples. Anomalies present in the tomograph match the location and orientation of fractures mapped with a borescope. The location of tracer-stained fractures coincides with the location of some image anomalies; other geophysical anomalies exist where tracer-stained fractures were not observed, perhaps due to poor core recovery. Additional drilling to locate stained flow paths and other experiments are planned so that the applicability of the technique can be further evaluated

  12. Epilepsy in patients with GRIN2A alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stülpnagel, Celina; Ensslen, M; Møller, R S

    2017-01-01

    indicate that children with epilepsy due to pathogenic GRIN2A mutations present with different clinical phenotypes and a spectrum of seizure types in the context of a pharmacoresistant epilepsy providing information for clinicians treating children with this form of genetically determined epileptic......OBJECTIVE: To delineate the genetic, neurodevelopmental and epileptic spectrum associated with GRIN2A alterations with emphasis on epilepsy treatment. METHODS: Retrospective study of 19 patients (7 females; age: 1-38 years; mean 10.1 years) with epilepsy and GRIN2A alteration. Genetic variants were...... classified according to the guidelines and recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG). Clinical findings including epilepsy classification, treatment, EEG findings, early childhood development and neurodevelopmental outcome were collected with an electronic questionnaire. RESULTS: 7...

  13. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0173 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...hypothesized that occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reduces dopamine (DA) terminal densities in the basal ganglia. We found...motor function in women compared to similarly aged men with similar bone lead levels. These latter findings are the first to demonstrate a sexual

  14. Iron isotope fractionation during hydrothermal ore deposition and alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Gregor; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Wagner, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Iron isotopes fractionate during hydrothermal processes. Therefore, the Fe isotope composition of ore-forming minerals characterizes either iron sources or fluid histories. The former potentially serves to distinguish between sedimentary, magmatic or metamorphic iron sources, and the latter allows the reconstruction of precipitation and redox processes. These processes take place during ore formation or alteration. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the suitability of this new isotope method as a probe of ore-related processes. For this purpose 51 samples of iron ores and iron mineral separates from the Schwarzwald region, southwest Germany, were analyzed for their iron isotope composition using multicollector ICP-MS. Further, the ore-forming and ore-altering processes were quantitatively modeled using reaction path calculations. The Schwarzwald mining district hosts mineralizations that formed discontinuously over almost 300 Ma of hydrothermal activity. Primary hematite, siderite and sulfides formed from mixing of meteoric fluids with deeper crustal brines. Later, these minerals were partly dissolved and oxidized, and secondary hematite, goethite and iron arsenates were precipitated. Two types of alteration products formed: (1) primary and high-temperature secondary Fe minerals formed between 120 and 300 °C, and (2) low-temperature secondary Fe minerals formed under supergene conditions (illustrates the potential of the new technique in deciphering ore formation and alteration processes. Isotope ratios are strongly dependent on and highly characteristic of fluid and precipitation histories. Therefore, they are less suitable to provide information on Fe sources. However, it will be possible to unravel the physico-chemical processes leading to the formation, dissolution and redeposition of ores in great detail.

  15. Altered Affective Response in Marijuana Smokers: An FMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Staci A.; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers’ responses to affective stimuli. The anterior ...

  16. Altered affective response in marijuana smokers: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers' responses to affective stimuli. The anterior cingulate and amygdala play key roles in the inhibition of impulsive behavior and affective regulation, and studies using PET and fMRI have demonstrated changes within these regions in marijuana smokers. Given alterations in mood and perception often observed in smokers, we hypothesized altered fMRI patterns of response in 15 chronic heavy marijuana smokers relative to 15 non-marijuana smoking control subjects during the viewing of masked happy and fearful faces. Despite no between-group differences on clinical or demographic measures, smokers demonstrated a relative decrease in both anterior cingulate and amygdalar activity during masked affective stimuli compared to controls, who showed relative increases in activation within these regions during the viewing of masked faces. Findings indicate that chronic heavy marijuana smokers demonstrate altered activation of frontal and limbic systems while viewing masked faces, consistent with autoradiographic studies reporting high CB-1 receptor density in these regions. These data suggest differences in affective processing in chronic smokers, even when stimuli are presented below the level of conscious processing, and underscore the likelihood that marijuana smokers process emotional information differently from those who do not smoke, which may result in negative consequences.

  17. Radiodiagnosis of pulmonary alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.; Kajzerman, I.A.; Sinyachenko, O.V.; Dyadyk, A.I.; Nikolenko, Yu.I.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray examination was carried out in 170 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Certain parameters of specific immunity were studied in 60 of them, while X-ray data were compared with morphological findings on autopsy in 20 cases. A tendency toward escalation of specific cell and humoral parameters was discovered in pulmonary lesion, predetermined by vasculitis and perivasculitis, as well as inflammatory and fibrotic alterations in the interstitial tissue

  18. Influence on radiogenic alterations in hematopoiesis - Situation and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrberg, G.; Rose, H.; Saul, G.; Riessbeck, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Radiogenic alterations of hematopoiesis are a main topic in radiobiological investigations. By further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms possibly follow new starting points to accelerate the regeneration of stem cells, still capable of proliferating, or differentiation of most endangered and nearly irretrievable cell populations by drugs. The present state is discussed concerning the application of anabolics, endotoxins, thymic extracts, cyanoethylurea, and lithium carbonate as well as parenteral nutrition and competition of stem cells. (author)

  19. Fish extinctions alter nutrient recycling in tropical freshwaters

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Peter B.; Jones, Laura E.; Flecker, Alexander S.; Vanni, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that species extinctions jeopardize the functioning of ecosystems. Overfishing and other human influences are reducing the diversity and abundance of fish worldwide, but the ecosystem-level consequences of these changes have not been assessed quantitatively. Recycling of nutrients is one important ecosystem process that is directly influenced by fish. Fish species vary widely in the rates at which they excrete nitrogen and phosphorus; thus, altering fish communiti...

  20. Modelling of Pb release during Portland cement alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benard, A. [INERIS Mediterrannee, F-13545 Aix En Provence 04 (France); Rose, J.; Borschneck, D.; Bottero, J.Y. [Univ Paul Cezanne, CNRS, UMR 6635, CEREGE, IFR PMSE 112, F-13545 Aix En Provence, (France); Hazemann, J.L. [CNRS, Cristallog Lab, F-38042 Grenoble 09 (France); Proux, O. [Univ Grenoble 1, CNRS, UMR, LGIT, F-38400 St Martin Dheres (France); Trotignon, L. [CEA Cadarache, DTN, SMTM, Lab Modelisat Transferts Environm, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Nonat, A. [Univ Bourgogne, CNRS, UMR 5613, Fac Sci Mirande, Lab Rech Reactivite Solides, F-21078 Dijon (France); Chateau, L. [ADEME, F-49004 Angers (France)

    2009-07-01

    Complex cementitious matrices undergo weathering with environmental exchange and can release metallic pollutants during alteration. The molecular mechanisms responsible for metal release are difficult to identify, though this is necessary if such processes are to be controlled. The present study determines and models the molecular mechanisms of Pb release during Portland cement leaching. As Pb release is strongly related to its speciation (i.e. atomic environment and the nature of bearing phases), the first objective of the present study was to investigate the evolution of Pb retention sites together with the evolution of the cement mineralogy during leaching. Complementary and efficient investigation tools were used, namely X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption fine structures. The second objective was to reproduce our results with a reactive transport code (CHESS/HYTEC) in order to test the proposed speciation model of Pb. Combined results indicate that in both the unaltered core and the altered layer of the leached cement, Pb(II) would be retained through C-S-H 'nano-structure', probably linked to a Q(1) or Q(2P) silicate tetrahedra. Moreover in the altered layer, the presence of Fe atoms in the atomic environment of Pb is highly probable. Unfortunately little is known about Fe phases in cement, which makes the interpretation difficult. Can Fe-substituted hydrogranet (C(3)AH(6)) be responsible for Pb retention? Modelling results were consistent with Pb retention through C-S-H in layers and also in an additional, possibly Fe-containing, Pb-retention phase in the altered layer. (authors)