Sample records for thanatology

  1. Comparative thanatology. (United States)

    Anderson, James R


    A quick guide on comparative thanatology, the study of death and dying, particular how individuals respond to a conspecific's death, across animal phylogeny. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The organization of thanatology. (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J; Heflin-Wells, E Neil; Martin, Terry L; Redmond, Lula M; Schachter, Sherry R


    This article explores, using Wilensky's Model of Professionalization, the emergence of professional organizations within the thanatology. The authors review the history of four organizations--The Foundation of Thanatology, Ars Moriendi, The Forum for Death Education and Counseling (now the Association for Death Education and Counseling: A Thanatology Organization [ADEC]), and The International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement (IWG). The authors speculate on some of the reasons that the first two failed while IWG and ADEC remain viable-while noting challenges that these remaining thanatological organizations will experience as they seek to continue to stay relevant.

  3. Qualitative research in thanatology. (United States)

    Carverhill, Philip A


    A new research paradigm has been emerging which holds significant potential for the field of death studies. The qualitative project is a diverse collection of methodologies that focuses its interests on the words, narratives, and stories of individuals and groups. Part of its appeal may lie in the inherent closeness of fit between qualitative inquiry and applied work with the dying and the bereaved. The author introduces the individual articles in this special issue and outlines the development of the project as well as some current issues in qualitative research in thanatology.

  4. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications (United States)

    Fraley, Lawrence E.


    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293

  5. The body of knowledge in thanatology: An outline. (United States)

    Chapple, Helen Stanton; Bouton, Barbara L; Chow, Amy Yin Man; Gilbert, Kathleen R; Kosminsky, Phyllis; Moore, Jane; Whiting, Peggy P


    The Association for Death Education and Counseling has updated its articulation of the body of knowledge in the field of thanatology. In doing so it has relinquished the use of a matrix format in favor of a more serviceable outline containing three major sections: Arenas of Thanatology, Practice Considerations for Professionals in the Field, and Contextual and Theoretical Considerations. Accompanying the outline is a new commentary on the state of the field itself, along with an annotated bibliography of recent relevant publications.

  6. Clinical Thanatology and Psychotherapy: Some Reflections on Caring for the Dying Person. (United States)

    Feigenberg, Loma; Shneidman, Edwin S.


    Explores the relationship between psychotherapy and clinical thanatology relative to working with dying patients and their survivors. Eight special characteristics of thanatological exchanges are explained including comments on time, transference, aspirations, and empathy. Conversation, heirarchical exchange, psychotherapy, and thanatological…

  7. [Today and tomorrow of forensic thanatology]. (United States)

    Raszeja, Stefan


    The essence of post-mortem examination and its special place among other disciplines of forensic medicine were presented. Attention was drawn to the role of better understanding of phenomena occurring during and directly after death in the development of forensic medicine. Progress in determination of the time of death and in estimation of the intravital character of injuries found on the corpse was discussed. The need for a wider application of results of bio- and thanatochemical analyses in determination of the cause of death and its mechanism was emphasized. Examples of progress in this domain were presented, based on a number of papers published in this field, especially in Poland. Finally, the author pointed to the necessity of upgrading training of medical doctors in the field of thanatology.

  8. Theory, Research, and Application: Some Critical Issues for Thanatology. (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert


    Illustrates current status of thanatological research by examining the most popular line of empirical investigation (death anxiety as assessed by self-report scales) and the most sweeping theoretical approach yet proposed (Freud's death instinct). Notes that the most popular vein of research and most spectacular theory have almost no relationship…

  9. [Prospects for using immunohistochemical methods in forensic medical thanatology]. (United States)

    Bogomolov, D V; Bogomolova, I N; Karavaeva, I E


    This review of Russian and foreign literature is focused on the use of immunohistochemical methods in forensic medical practice. It shows that forensic medical specialists not infrequently underestimate the value of these techniques. Recommendations are proposed for a more extensive application of immunohistochemical methods in practical and fundamental medico-legal thanatology.

  10. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying (United States)

    Reck, Andrew J.


    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  11. The emergence of thanatology and current practice in death education. (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; Testoni, Ines

    Thanatology is a recent field that contemplates death studies and employs an interdisciplinary approach to practice. This science emerged in a historical context marked by intense social, economic, and political changes that contributed to the concept of death being excluded from social life. This literature review aims to outline the history and evolution ofthanatology in Western society, delineating the contextual circumstances that led to its origin and drawing special attention to current works on death education. In our post-modern society, the call for studies in the field of thanatology appears to be increasing. However, although there have been significant contributions and promising research is underway, there are still many questions to be answered.


    Santos Mendes, Andreia; Moraes Gibaut, Mariana De Almeida; De Oliva Menezes, Tânia Maria; Carneiro Mussi, Fernanda


    Analyze the scientific production on Thanatology published in nursing journals. Systematic review, with quantitative approach, that aimed the characterization of the articles with regard to the year and journal of publication, and its Qualis CAPES, thematic approach, methodological focus, description of training area and qualification of authors. According to the selection criteria of the sample, 36 articles whose publication period was between the years 1986 and 2011 were extracted for analysis. It was noted the predominance of studies published in journals with high quality strata (A1 and A2), use of qualitative method and nurses educators as authors. The focus of the studies encompassed six central themes, and the prevailing ones were: "Thanatology in the academic training" and "The nurse in face of the dying process of patients and families under their cares". It is clear that the issue still presents itself in a timid manner, requiring an increased production on the subject.

  13. Teaching thanatology in a foreign country: implications for death educators. (United States)

    Shatz, Mark A


    Although an increasing number of death educators will have the opportunity to teach abroad, many may not be fully aware of the issues that arise in intercultural instruction and are not prepared to handle the pedagogical challenges associated with teaching thanatology in a foreign country. On the basis of experience of teaching in China, the author describes the challenges of intercultural teaching, strategies for adapting instruction to address the pedagogical obstacles, and the ways an international teaching experience can enrich instruction.

  14. Survey of Credit Courses in Thanatology Offered by Canadian Universities: 1971-80. (United States)

    Klug, Leo F.; Waugh, Earle H.


    Surveyed Canadian universities to determine how often full-semester credit courses in thanatology were offered. Results confirm a steady increase in the number of such courses offered from 1971-1980. Found all thanatology teachers held at least a masters degree. Departments of religion and philosophy offered 55 percent of the courses. (Author/JAC)

  15. Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Thanatology: Through a Prism of Religious Faiths (United States)

    Nandan, Monica


    Recent decades have witnessed an increase in thanatology education in colleges and universities. However, the infusion into thanatology curricula of religious faiths as they affect behaviors, experiences and emotions of dying individuals and survivors is still in its infancy. In this article I describe an effective approach I have used to…

  16. The practice of everyday death: Thanatology and self-fashioning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between the discourse of death, or thanatology, and self-fashioning, in John Chrysostom's thirteenth homily In epistulam ad Romanos. The study argues that thanatology became a very important feature in the care of the self in Chrysostom's thought. The central aim ...

  17. Some issues of shaping thanatology as a discipline: Ethnological and anthropological perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavicevic, Aleksandra


    .... We will also open the question and offer some answers on disciplinary identity of thanatology and, at the end, we will consider possibilities and needs for introducing the discipline in curriculum...

  18. [Role of modern cross-sectional imaging in thanatology: a pictorial essay]. (United States)

    Dedouit, F; Otal, P; Costagliola, R; Loubes Lacroix, F; Telmon, N; Rouge, D; Joffre, F


    The development of new imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is a new phenomenon in thanatology. The growing accessibility to these technologies allows, under some conditions, the acquisition of cross-sectional images on cadavers. The authors present a practical pictorial review of post-mortem changes and deadly injuries, illustrating the contributions of modern cross-sectional imaging techniques in thanatology.

  19. Publication Trends in Thanatology: An Analysis of Leading Journals. (United States)

    Wittkowski, Joachim; Doka, Kenneth J; Neimeyer, Robert A; Vallerga, Michael


    To identify important trends in thanatology as a discipline, the authors analyzed over 1,500 articles that appeared in Death Studies and Omega over a 20-year period, coding the category of articles (e.g., theory, application, empirical research), their content focus (e.g., bereavement, death attitudes, end-of-life), and for empirical studies, their methodology (e.g., quantitative, qualitative). In general, empirical research predominates in both journals, with quantitative methods outnumbering qualitative procedures 2 to 1 across the period studied, despite an uptick in the latter methods in recent years. Purely theoretical articles, in contrast, decline in frequency. Research on grief and bereavement is the most commonly occurring (and increasing) content focus of this work, with a declining but still substantial body of basic research addressing death attitudes. Suicidology is also well represented in the corpus of articles analyzed. In contrast, publications on topics such as death education, medical ethics, and end-of-life issues occur with lower frequency, in the latter instances likely due to the submission of such work to more specialized medical journals. Differences in emphasis of Death Studies and Omega are noted, and the analysis of publication patterns is interpreted with respect to overall trends in the discipline and the culture, yielding a broad depiction of the field and some predictions regarding its possible future.

  20. Research that matters: bridging the gap between research and practice in thanatology. (United States)

    Jordan, J R


    This article serves as an Introduction to this two-issue special series of Death Studies on the integration of research and practice in thanatology. After discussing the lack of dialogue between researchers and practitioners in the field, the author identifies some common elements of the research and clinical processes in thanatology. These include the central role of pragmatic theory building and the universal human encounter with loss. The author then offers suggestions for enhancing the exchange between researchers and clinicians, including improvements in theory, methodology, and the dissemination of research findings. Lastly, the individual articles in the series are introduced to the reader.

  1. Social support "internetworks," caskets for sale, and more: thanatology and the information superhighway. (United States)

    Sofka, C J


    A unique indicator of change in our culture's openness to and interest in death, dying, and bereavement is the availability of "thanatechnology": technological mechanisms such as interactive videodiscs and computer programs that are used to access information or aid in learning about thanatology topics. This article describes resources available through society's latest and most widely accessible type of thanatechnology, the Internet and World Wide Web. The conceptual framework of mediated interpersonal communication is used to illustrate sites available as resources for social support. Additional categories of thanatology sites, including narrative, commemorative, expressive, and experiential sites, are defined. Implications for the use of these resources in clinical practice, death education, and research are considered.

  2. Music for the dying: a personal account of the new field of music-thanatology--history, theories, and clinical narratives. (United States)

    Schroeder-Sheker, T


    Music-thanatology is a palliative medical modality employing prescriptive music to tend the complex physical and spiritual needs of the dying. "Infirmary music" was an intimate expression of French monastic medicine in 11th-century Cluny and anticipated the holism of both the hospice and palliative medical movements by almost 800 years. Although no longer an expression of any institutional religious identity, music-thanatology is nevertheless concerned with the possibility of a blessed death and the gift that conscious dying can bring to the fullness of life. Music-thanatology interns seek to integrate and model these contemplative and clinical values in daily practice: 18 interns deliver prescriptive music in bedside vigils serving the dying in home, hospital, and hospice settings with great effectiveness in oncology, respiratory illnesses, the slow degenerative diseases, and AIDS. This article is submitted to nurses to serve as an introduction to the field of music-thanatology, providing readers with a brief history, meaningful clinical narratives, some of the musical theories involved, research concerns (archival and medical), and milestones to be addressed for the future implementation of music-thanatology in hospitals and hospices and communities across the nation.

  3. „Dark Tourism“– Evaluation of Visitors Experience after Visiting Thanatological Tourist Attractions

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    Marijana Bittner


    Full Text Available Although thanatourism is a unique kind of tourism, whose history goes back to ancient times and the middle ages, literature on this touristic demand is still scarce, despite the fact that classification and categorization of thanatological tourist sites has existed for a certain number of years. Considering how the phenomenon of thanatourism, or „dark tourism“has not been sufficiently explored in Croatia, and there is not enough literature to qualitatively research it, this study represents an attempt to come to a conclusion whether visits to a thanatouristic site contribute to a better understanding of the broader subject to which the tourist site is related, using qualitative methods. Reviewing published literature on the subject of „dark tourism“ and using the method of semi-structured interviews on a sample of ten respondents of Croatian origin, we shall attempt to see whether thantological tourist sites are a part of the cultural and historical heritage, whether a visit to a thanatological tourist site develops a desire to visit another tourist site with similar features, and whether there is a need for a more detailed study on the subject matter which initiated the making of a certain thanatological site. It would also be interesting to view the lucrative side of such sites, i.e. their economic potential. The purpose of this study is to highlight pointers of maintenance and preservation of existing sites or the formation of new ones, mainly on the grounds of former Yugoslavia, as an area of frequent conflicts of various ethnic groups.

  4. Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konopka, Tomasz


    When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbook...

  5. Some issues of shaping thanatology as a discipline: Ethnological and anthropological perspectives

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    Pavićević Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Development of death studies, choice of topics and aspects of their interpretations were influenced by many factors, both global and local. The former were related to universal processes of medicalization, bureaucratization and professionalization of death and dying, as well as to processes of general secularization of society and culture. The latter were connected with specific and dominant local social and cultural praxes, politics and academic traditions. In this paper we will point out specificities of death studies development in different academic communities. We will also open the question and offer some answers on disciplinary identity of thanatology and, at the end, we will consider possibilities and needs for introducing the discipline in curriculum at different education levels. The aim of the paper is to settle preliminary frames for future investigation; the emphasis is placed on ethnological and anthropological perspective and on English and Serbian language bibliography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177028

  6. Death among geladas (Theropithecus gelada): a broader perspective on mummified infants and primate thanatology. (United States)

    Fashing, Peter J; Nguyen, Nga; Barry, Tyler S; Goodale, C Barret; Burke, Ryan J; Jones, Sorrel C Z; Kerby, Jeffrey T; Lee, Laura M; Nurmi, Niina O; Venkataraman, Vivek V


    Despite intensive study in humans, responses to dying and death have been a neglected area of research in other social mammals, including nonhuman primates. Two recent reports [Anderson JR, Gillies A, Lock LC. 2010. Pan thanatology. Current Biology 20:R349-R351; Biro D, Humle T, Koops K, Souse C, Hayashi M, Matsuzawa T. 2010. Chimpanzee mothers at Bossou, Guinea carry the mummified remains of their dead infants. Current Biology 20:R351-R352] offered exciting new insights into behavior toward dying and dead conspecifics in our closest living relatives-chimpanzees. Here, we provide a comparative perspective on primate thanatology using observations from a more distant human relative-gelada monkeys (Theropithecus gelada)-and discuss how gelada reactions to dead and dying groupmates differ from those recently reported for chimpanzees. Over a 3.75-year study period, we observed 14 female geladas at Guassa, Ethiopia carrying dead infants from 1 hr to ≥48 days after death. Dead infants were carried by their mothers, other females in their group, and even by females belonging to other groups. Like other primate populations in which extended (>10 days) infant carrying after death has been reported, geladas at Guassa experience an extreme climate for primates, creating conditions which may favor slower rates of decomposition of dead individuals. We also witnessed the events leading up to the deaths of two individuals and the responses by groupmates to these dying individuals. Our results suggest that while chimpanzee mothers are not unique among primates in carrying their dead infants for long periods, seemingly "compassionate" caretaking behavior toward dying groupmates may be unique to chimpanzees among nonhuman primates (though it remains unknown whether such "compassionate" behavior occurs outside captivity). © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Pan thanatology. (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Gillies, Alasdair; Lock, Louise C


    Chimpanzees' immediate responses to the death of a group-member have rarely been described. Exceptions include maternal care towards dead infants, and frenzied excitement and alarm following the sudden, traumatic deaths of older individuals [1-5]. Some wild chimpanzees die in their night nest [6], but the immediate effect this has on others is totally unknown. Here, with supporting video material, we describe the peaceful demise of an elderly female in the midst of her group. Group responses include pre-death care of the female, close inspection and testing for signs of life at the moment of death, male aggression towards the corpse, all-night attendance by the deceased's adult daughter, cleaning the corpse, and later avoidance of the place where death occurred. Without death-related symbols or rituals, chimpanzees show several behaviours that recall human responses to the death of a close relative. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Music thanatology: prescriptive harp music as palliative care for the dying patient. (United States)

    Freeman, Lindsay; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale; Rossa, Shirley; Dowdy, Ann; Partenheimer, Andrea


    Music thanatology represents an emerging area in which the raw materials of music, usually harp and/or voice, assist and comfort the dying patient. During prescriptive "music vigils, " the clinician-musician carefully observes physiological changes, cues, and breathing patterns, thereby synchronizing the music to reflect or support the patient's physiology and overall condition. Using data collected from 65 patients, this study was designed to assess the effectiveness of prescriptive harp music on selected palliative care outcomes using a sample of de-identified data forms from past music vigils. Patients were administered a 25- to 95-minute intervention of prescriptive harp music. Data collected included vital signs and observational indicators before (Ti) and after (T2) the vigil. Patients were more likely to experience decreased levels of agitation and wakefulness while also breathing more slowly and deeply with less effort at the conclusion of the music vigil. Results from this study suggest that a prescriptive vigil conducted by a trained music thanatologist could provide an effective form of palliative care for dying patients.

  9. Thanatology from a cinematographic point of view. Death of a Salesman (1985 and L'Amour à mort (1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Paola Aparicio Barrenechea


    Full Text Available It is easy to check the knowledge and advances that thanatology has contributed to society. The cinema, as an art form focused on human beings, provides its own analysis of death. The present article explores human responses to situations deriving from end-of-life issues, the loss of loved ones, types of death, individual-family grieving and other aspects in two representative films: Death of a Salesman (1985 by Wolker Schlöndoff  and L’Amour á mort (1984 by Michel Choquet.

  10. The practice of everyday death: Thanatology and self-fashioning in John Chrysostom’s thirteenth homily on Romans

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    Chris L. de Wet


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between the discourse of death, or thanatology, and self-fashioning, in John Chrysostom’s thirteenth homily In epistulam ad Romanos. The study argues that thanatology became a very important feature in the care of the self in Chrysostom’s thought. The central aim here is to demonstrate the multi-directional flow of death, as a corporeal discourse, between the realms of theology, ethics, and physiology. Firstly, the article investigates the link between the theological concepts of sin and death. Secondly, the study argues that death also becomes a highly paradoxical discourse when it enters the realm of Chrysostomic virtue-ethics, where the mortification of excessive passion leads to life, while ‘living’ in passion only results in death on every level of existence – death as a discourse therefore becomes interiorised, a process functioning as a subset of a more extensive biologisation of the spiritual life-cycle. Finally, Chrysostom also utilises death in a very physiological way, especially in his comments on the relationship between sin and the passions, and one’s physical health and appearance (which is also related to the soul.

  11. The practice of everyday death: Thanatology and self-fashioning in John Chrysostom’s thirteenth homily on Romans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. de Wet


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between the discourse of death, or thanatology, and self-fashioning, in John Chrysostom’s thirteenth homily In epistulam ad Romanos. The study argues that thanatology became a very important feature in the care of the self in Chrysostom’s thought. The central aim here is to demonstrate the multi-directional flow of death, as a corporeal discourse, between the realms of theology, ethics, and physiology. Firstly, the article investigates the link between the theological concepts of sin and death. Secondly, the study argues that death also becomes a highly paradoxical discourse when it enters the realm of Chrysostomic virtue-ethics, where the mortification of excessive passion leads to life, while ‘living’ in passion only results in death on every level of existence – death as a discourse therefore becomes interiorised, a process functioning as a subset of a more extensive biologisation of the spiritual life-cycle. Finally, Chrysostom also utilises death in a very physiological way, especially in his comments on the relationship between sin and the passions, and one’s physical health and appearance (which is also related to the soul.

  12. Needs assessment in terminal patients through in-depth interviews and their follow-up with humanistic and thanatological counselling

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    Iliana Jiménez Zaraín


    Full Text Available The recent investigation of qualitative type had as a target to detect the psychological and physics necessities of the patients with some kind of terminal sickness. This took place in the I.S.S.S.T.E hospital, where through the application of an instrument proportionate by the hospital and the technical of a deep interview it was recollected some information, each interview had duration between 1 and 2 hours. There were 6 interviews with each one of the 3 patients, already interviewed and it was searched that this one was found on an isolated room to establish a confidential environment, those interviews were not realized in a continuous appropriated way to the patients disposition that in some occasions it was obstructed by their sickness or by their courage. To each patient, it was offered psychotherapy with humanistic and thanatological focus for their necessities.

  13. [Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University]. (United States)

    Konopka, Tomasz


    When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbooks. The greatest achievements date back to as early as the 18th and 19th centuries, when the morphological changes observed in the majority of types of deaths resulting from disease-associated and traumatic causes were described. Within the past 130 years, however, or in other words, in the period when autopsy protocols were written that are today collected in the archives of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine, the causes and mechanisms of death became understood even when the said factors were associated with discrete postmortem changes only or no no such changes whatsoever were left. At the end of the 19th century and for a long time afterwards, a difficult problem was posed by sudden deaths, where the postmortem examinations demonstrated solely atherosclerosis and the cause of death was described as "heart palsy". As it turned out, a great portion of such deaths represented individuals with myocardial infarction; in spite of its evident macroscopic presentation, the diagnostic management of the disease was progressing very slowly. Myocardial infarction, known at least since 1912, was associated by forensic medicine with the phenomenon of sudden death only in the forties, and the ability to detect myocardial infarction in practice developed only in the fifties of the last century. The achievement of the present dissertation is the formulation of a theory ascribing such a long delay in macroscopic diagnostics of myocardial infarction to forensic medicine specialists being attached to and fond of employing the "in situ" autopsy technique, which was unfavorable from the viewpoint of heart examination, since the organ was not dissected free and removed from the body in the course of a postmortem examination. When autopsies started to concentrate on

  14. Thanatology: A Thematic Approach to Teaching. (United States)

    McClaren, Adrian W.

    Students are faced with many subjects related to death in their everyday lives--war, euthanasia, disease, teenage suicide. A unit on death that focuses on literary and artistic conceptions of death, as well as historical trends concerning beliefs about death and burial, can help students express their feelings about death coherently and…

  15. Thanatology Research from Quebec: A Different Emphasis. (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L.


    Notes that contributors to special journal issue have attempted to incorporate best aspects of European critical thinking within interdisciplinary and contextual approach, showing clear awareness of sociopolitical forces that affect one's relationship with mortality. Illustrates points by discussing Kurosawa film, "Ikuru," which recounts…

  16. Thanatology for Everyone: Developmental Labs and Workshops (United States)

    O'Connell, Walter E.; And Others


    In an effort to "treat" the growing death concerns of many medical staffs, an experiential death and dying lab was created. Its evolution to meet changing needs is discussed, as well as future potential for work in this area. (Author)

  17. Desenvolvimento de conceitos: novas direções para a pesquisa em tanatologia e enfermagem Desarrollo de concepto: nueva dirección para la investigación en tanatología y enfermería Concept development: new directions for research in thanatology and nursing

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    Regina Szylit Bousso


    Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a importância do desenvolvimento de conceitos para a construção do corpo de conhecimentos em Tanatologia e Enfermagem. Aborda as etapas do Modelo Híbrido de Desenvolvimento de Conceitos e sua aplicação em uma pesquisa que busca desenvolver o conceito de morte digna na UTI pediátrica. A elucidação dos antecedentes, atributos e consequências do conceito de morte digna na UTI pediátrica na fase de campo permitiu mover o conceito de um vago domínio teórico para um fenômeno clínico mais concreto. Isso possibilita subsídios tanto para assistência à criança e à família, quanto para o avanço do ensino e da pesquisa sobre os cuidados de final de vida em pediatria.El artículo tiene como objetivo presentar la importancia del desarrollo de conceptos para la construcción del cuerpo de conocimientos en Tanatología y Enfermería. Aborda las etapas del Modelo Híbrido del Desarrollo de Conceptos y su aplicación en una investigación que busca desarrollar el concepto de muerte digna en la UCI pediátrica. La explicación de los antecedentes, atributos y consecuencias del concepto de muerte digna en la UCI pediátrica en la fase de campo, permitió mover el concepto de un vago dominio teórico para un fenómeno clínico más concreto. Eso posibilitó subsidios para la asistencia del niño y la familia, así como el avance de la educación y la investigación sobre los cuidados en el fin de la vida en pediatría.The article aims to present the importance of concept development for the construction of the body of knowledge in thanatology and nursing. Discusses the steps of the Hybrid Model of Concept Development and its application in a study that seeks to develop the concept of good death in a pediatric ICU. The elucidation of the antecedents, attributes and consequences of the concept of good death in a pediatric ICU during the field allowed moving the concept of a vacant field theory to a clinical

  18. Análise da formação tanatológica do aluno de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Brasil Análisis de la formación tanatológica del alumno de enfermería de la Universidad Federal deo Maranhão, Brasil Analysis of the training in thanatology of nursing students from the Federal University of Maranhao, Brazil

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    Elba Gomide Mochel


    guarantee the dignity of dying people. Methodology. Qualitative research with document (Pedagogical project of the class and subject’s curriculums and exploratory (Nursing students’ participant observation and analysis of their journals with experiences towards death analysis. Information was collected from 2008 to 2009. Results. Thanatological training is focused on theoretical contents and is not adequately systematized, what could lead to superstitious practices from the students. Conclusion. bThanatology training given to nursing students is not enough and needs to be improved in its theoretical and practical components.

  19. [Training in thanatology ; a map of the world.]. (United States)

    Des Aulniers, L


    To contribute to the training of workers in health and social fields concerning dying raises the whole question of their relationship to the world. And the very fact that, here in Quebec, we "give ourselves the luxury" of offering a training program on dying may be significant of new practices concerning dying. The possible social uses and the stakes of such training are briefly explored here : specialization of knowledge allowing for the emergence of a new "thanatocracy of death" ; the liberating of speech into behavioural models, etc. In reply to these stakes, a paradigm : it is the living who die, who, by their communication, may give rise to the development of a method of investigation of dying : in our relations with those who die, in our relation with the institution and more globally, in the types of death which our society generates.

  20. Content and Method in a Thanatology Training Program for Paraprofessionals. (United States)

    Harris, Audrey P.


    A training program of paraprofessionals was developed in a university teaching hospital. Trainees were exposed to seminars and a supervised practicum. The objectives of the experience included sensitization of persons in the natural helping network to psychosocial needs of seriously ill persons and their families. (Author)

  1. Thanatology and self-fashioning in John Chrysostom's thirteenth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 25, 2015 ... Foucault (1986), who considers it the central concept in ancient ethical thought – I rely very much on Foucault's formulation of the care of the self in this article. This usurpation of death by operations of subjectivation (and unbecoming) is laid bare in three discursive moments in the thought of Chrysostom:.

  2. Thanatology in protoplanetary discs. The combined influence of Ohmic, Hall, and ambipolar diffusion on dead zones (United States)

    Lesur, Geoffroy; Kunz, Matthew W.; Fromang, Sébastien


    Protoplanetary discs are poorly ionised due to their low temperatures and high column densities and are therefore subject to three "non-ideal" magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects: Ohmic dissipation, ambipolar diffusion, and the Hall effect. The existence of magnetically driven turbulence in these discs has been a central question since the discovery of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Early models considered Ohmic diffusion only and led to a scenario of layered accretion, in which a magnetically "dead" zone in the disc midplane is embedded within magnetically "active" surface layers at distances of about 1-10 au from the central protostellar object. Recent work has suggested that a combination of Ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion can render both the midplane and surface layers of the disc inactive and that torques due to magnetically driven outflows are required to explain the observed accretion rates. We reassess this picture by performing three-dimensional numerical simulations that include all three non-ideal MHD effects for the first time. We find that the Hall effect can generically "revive" dead zones by producing a dominant azimuthal magnetic field and a large-scale Maxwell stress throughout the midplane, provided that the angular velocity and magnetic field satisfy Ω·B > 0. The attendant large magnetic pressure modifies the vertical density profile and substantially increases the disc scale height beyond its hydrostatic value. Outflows are produced but are not necessary to explain accretion rates ≲ 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The flow in the disc midplane is essentially laminar, suggesting that dust sedimentation may be efficient. These results demonstrate that if the MRI is relevant for driving mass accretion in protoplanetary discs, one must include the Hall effect to obtain even qualitatively correct results. Appendices are available in electronic form at

  3. Virtual anthropology: useful radiological tools for age assessment in clinical forensic medicine and thanatology. (United States)

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Savall, Frédéric; Rousseau, Hervé; Crubézy, Eric; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert


    Virtual anthropology consists of the introduction of modern slice imaging to biological and forensic anthropology. Thanks to this non-invasive scientific revolution, some classifications and staging systems, first based on dry bone analysis, can be applied to cadavers with no need for specific preparation, as well as to living persons. Estimation of bone and dental age is one of the possibilities offered by radiology. Biological age can be estimated in clinical forensic medicine as well as in living persons. Virtual anthropology may also help the forensic pathologist to estimate a deceased person's age at death, which together with sex, geographical origin and stature, is one of the important features determining a biological profile used in reconstructive identification. For this forensic purpose, the radiological tools used are multislice computed tomography and, more recently, X-ray free imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound investigations. We present and discuss the value of these investigations for age estimation in anthropology.

  4. [The process of death in the intensive care unit (ICU). From a medical, thanatological and legislative point of view]. (United States)

    Kaneko-Wada, Francisco de J Takao; Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Colmenares-Vásquez, Ariadna Marcela; Santana-Martínez, Paola; Gutiérrez-Mejía, Juan; Arroliga, Alejandro C


    Traditional goals in the intensive care unit are to reduce morbidity and mortality. Despite medical and technological advances, death in the intensive care unit remains commonplace and the modern critical care team should be familiar with palliative care and legislation in Mexico. Preserving the dignity of patients, avoiding harm, and maintaining communication with the relatives is fundamental. There is no unique, universally accepted technical approach in the management of the terminal critical care patient, so it is important to individualize each case and define objectives together under the legal framework in Mexico.

  5. [Characteristic of fatal thrombotic complications based on the materials from the Thanatology Department of Forensic Medicine Bureau of the Rostov region, for 2004-2007]. (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, D P; Kolkutin, V V; Kovtunov, V V; Kornienko, I V


    The authors report statistical data on the spectrum and frequency of fatal thrombotic complications based on the analysis of materials available from the regional bureau of forensic medical examination collected in the period from 2004 to 2007. All lethal cases are categorized in terms of the patients' age, gender, time and clinical characteristics of the injury, time of surgical intervention. Results of the analysis indicate the necessity of examination of fatal cases of thrombotic complications following a standardized protocol.

  6. A Study of Meeting the Emotional Needs of Dying Patients and their Families at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)


    for the creation of a special thanatology team called "The Care Team". This interdisciplinary team consisting of volunteer physicians, nurses, social...the status quo, (2) establish a fully operational hospice, or (3) establish a thanatology team that is specifically designed to help dying patients... Thanatology Team To some the status quo is not acceptable, yet at the same time establishing a fully operational hospice at Walter Reed Army Medical Center

  7. Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death. (United States)

    Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.


    Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

  8. Death Threat and Death Concerns in the College Student. (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome; Eckstein, Daniel


    Thanatology students reported significantly lesser death threat and significantly greater death concerns. Trait anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of change in death threat in the Thanatology Group, with lesser anxiety associated with greater decline in death threat. (Author)

  9. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society. (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert


    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  10. Death and Grief in the Military: An Attitudinal Focus. (United States)


    important item of concern. C. DEATH EDUCATION: WHY? Though many diverse motives for studying death and dying appear throughout the thanatological ...Paulus, Trina. Hope for the Flowers. New York: Paulist Press, 1972. " Thanatology 1". Time, 8 January 1978, p. 36. "Therapeutic Friendship". Time, 3 May

  11. Hannelore Wass as a Teacher. (United States)

    Thornton, Gordon


    As an educator, Hannelore Wass had a major influence on young professionals who were teaching in the field of thanatology. She influenced new professors by mentoring and providing an exceptional example of a compassionate, competent professional in the fields of thanatology and educational methodology. As a strong advocate for death education for all ages, Hannelore was a supporter of death educators. Her books provided a solid knowledge base in dying, death, and bereavement and thereby helped professionals learn the body of information in thanatology.

  12. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bride price] on the young Basotho couples prior to marriage, Abstract PDF. DK Semenya. Vol 71, No 1 (2015), The practice of everyday death: Thanatology and self-fashioning in John Chrysostom's thirteenth homily on Romans, Abstract PDF.

  13. Building the ship of death: part I. (United States)

    Murfin, Sharon; Haberman, Mel


    This is the first in a series of two consecutive articles, both of which present the results of original research from a team of music-thanatology musician-clinicians working in Spokane, Washington. This article presents not only an overview of the music-thanatology narration style (through direct excerpts from clinical narratives), it also describes the interconnected physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of 11 dying persons and their families as they occur in a hospital setting. Core to narrative medicine practice, in the first article, we welcome these excerpts from patient, provider, and caregiver experiences to stand on their own, in their own voice, without interpretation. The second article will be published in the following issue and will focus on the clinical practice of music-thanatology, as well as the documentation of the palliation it offers to meet the complex physical, emotional, and spiritual needs described below.

  14. Ethical Issues in Bereavement Research: An Overview. (United States)

    Cook, Alicia Skinner


    Guidelines for the conduct of ethical research are reviewed and applied to the field of thanatology. Unique aspects of bereavement studies are identified and are discussed in the context of socially sensitive research. Topics include: freedom for subjects to withdraw from research, consideration of risks and benefits, and the qualifications of…

  15. "Cold Sassy Tree": A New Solution to an Ancient Problem. (United States)

    Gabbert, Leslie S.


    Describes how a high school English teacher used the novel "Cold Sassy Tree" in an elective course entitled Thanatology: A Literary Approach. Notes that the novel clearly addresses virtually every aspect of death, dying, grieving, and loss through an artful array of three-dimensional characters. (RS)

  16. Scholarship, Students, and Practitioners: Bringing Scholarship into the Expectations of Practitioners (United States)

    Balk, David E.


    Increased attention is being given to bridging the gap separating thanatology researchers and practitioners. College undergraduates studying to be human service professionals represent a cohort with a significant stake in bridging this gap. Inculcating in college students expectations as well as expertise to use research as practitioners not only…

  17. Notes and Observations on Teaching "The Psychology of Death" (United States)

    Bluestein, Venus


    A model is described for teaching about death and dying with emphasis on mental health aspects. The author relates personal observations from her experience as a death educator and suggests precautions for individuals organizing thanatology courses for the first time. (AV)

  18. Life as Death Scholars: Passion, Personality, and Professional Perspectives (United States)

    Schim, Stephanie Myers; Briller, Sherylyn; Thurston, Celia; Meert, Kathleen


    In death-averse American society, the field of thanatology is often socially and academically isolating. The purpose of this article is to describe the experiences of a group of death scholars and share insights gained as members of an interdisciplinary team. They discuss the ways in which they have created a special "safe" space for death study…

  19. Wither Thou Goest?: Introduction. (United States)

    Bluebond-Langner, Myra


    Introduces special journal issue focusing on research in thanatology. Notes that the possibility of nuclear and biological annihilation requires further research that is broad-based, interdisciplinary, multi-method, and collaborative, and that will be useful to researchers, clinicians, social planners, and legislators. (Author/NB)

  20. How to Deal with the Subject of Death with Students in Grades K-12. (United States)

    Lockard, Bonnie Elam

    The relatively new field of thanatology provides a rich supply of resources for teachers to use in developing an understanding of death and in preparing to deal with the subject with children. This review of the literature was completed with the primary purpose of providing teachers with a summary of effective teaching methods and resources to use…

  1. Perspectives on Death: An Experiential Course on Death Education. (United States)

    Stefan, Edwin S.


    Describes and evaluates a college psychology course on death education (thanatology). Course objectives were to help students become aware of the feelings involved in facing death, encourage discussion on the subject of death, motivate students to change their attitudes about death, and encourage practical planning for funeral arrangements.…

  2. A Modest Proposal about Bereavement and Recovery (United States)

    Balk, David E.


    The author argues that the term "recovery" aptly describes the trajectory following the bereavement of most persons. While the term "resilience" has gained ascendancy in the thanatology literature and the term "recovery" has been dismissed as inappropriate to denote responses over time to being bereaved, the irony is that all dictionaries of the…

  3. Death Writ Large (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert


    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  4. A Proposed Curriculum on Death and Dying for the Allied Health Student. (United States)

    Dietrich, Marie C.


    This article summarizes the existing curricular models on death education for health professions students. A proposed course design for allied health professions students modified from Bloch's medical education objectives for a thanatology course is presented. The development of listening skills is given special emphasis. (Author/CT)

  5. Poems for Giving Life and Loss New Meaning (United States)

    Roos, Susan


    The author reviews "Rainbow in the Stone: Selected Poems," by Robert A. Neimeyer, showing its relevance to the field of thanatology. Most applicable to "Death Studies" readers are the poems from the "Lessons of Loss" section which express the language of loss and deep emotion. The reviewer finds the poem "Visitor" most poignant in its description…

  6. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de Wet, Chris L. Vol 71, No 1 (2015) - Articles The practice of everyday death: Thanatology and self-fashioning in John Chrysostom's thirteenth homily on Romans Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0259-9422. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graven, Vibeke Poulsen

    Hospicefilosofi i praksis – eksistentiel/åndelig omsorg for døende på hospice er resultatet af et ph.d.-projekt indenfor forskningsområdet Humanistisk palliation og thanatologi. Afhandlingen bidrager til en tværvidenskabelig forståelse af eksistentiel/åndelig omsorg for døende som en praksis, der...

  8. Literature for Young People: Nonfiction Books about Death. (United States)

    Bernstein, Joanne E.


    Literature for young people that allows issues related to death and suicide to be addressed openly included nonfiction material from various vantage points: anthropology, biology, ecology, theology, thanatology, and more. Exploration of grief and mourning are accomplished in a manner that is scholarly and compassionate. (Author)

  9. Hannelore Wass: Death Education--An Enduring Legacy. (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J


    Hannelore Wass's enduring contribution to the field of thanatology focused on death education In addition to developing a journal initially focused on that topic, Wass also created one of the first text books in the field. This article explores the factors that caused death education to emerge in the late 1960s as well as issues that death education still faces as it continues to evolve.

  10. Living Beyond the Other


    McCune, Susana Lauraine


    This article attempts to bring philosophy to clinical psychological practice by applying philosophical concepts to autobiographical experience. Through reflective engagement with personal narratives, the author tells three personal stories to illustrate ways in which the concept of Dasein in the philosophy of Martin Heidegger and Emmanuel Levinas?s development of an ethical responsibility to the Other, in tandem with thanatology, helped the author come to terms with existential dilemmas evoke...

  11. [Resuscitational aspects of evolution of history of death teaching and interpretation of concept of death as bioethical category]. (United States)

    Akhaladze, V M


    The aim of the research was to determine the role of resuscitation science and practice in development of new trends in thanatology; and to determine the significance of integrated interdisciplinary approach to notion "death" as "biological, medical, and bioethical" categories. The author discusses nine distinct concepts of death and concludes that only complex scientific approach can enrich the knowledge about the notion of death. The list of different aspects of interdisciplinary bioethical definition of notion "death" was developed.

  12. Discovering Hannelore Wass. (United States)

    Formaini, Jolene


    As a strong proponent of death education, Dr. Hannelore Wass was a respected pioneer in the field of thanatology. She had a philosophy that, in order to effectively work with grieving children and adolescents, one must be like and think like a child; indeed, to see things through the eyes of a child. This article demonstrates the far-reaching effects of Wass's work beyond her students to another generation of educators.

  13. About death and dying: a space for observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Yamaguchi Ferreira


    Full Text Available This article discusses thoughts and concepts about Palliative Care and Thanatology, sciences that deal with issues such as death and the dying process, aiming to broaden the already existing observations, analysis and discussions about the theme, in order to help the layman public as well as the health professionals, to handle death and the dying process in a more humanized and approachable way, considering that these are conditions that relate to each and every human being.  

  14. E. キュブラー=ロスの思想と死にゆく子どもの問題 : unfinished business を手掛かりにして


    青柳, 路子


    This paper describes thought of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, who is well-known as an expert on the subjects of death and dying, or a pioneer on Thanatology. Further, according to her texts, the writer attempts to deal with issues surrounding the dying child, which come to the front by the description of her thought-especially the image of "butterfly and cocoon" symbolized Death as transition, and unfinished business. According to her texts, unfinished business has the following three aspects; First...

  15. Hannelore Wass: Insights Into Creative Teaching and Other Ways of Knowing When Facing Aging and Mortality. (United States)

    Bertman, Sandra


    Art is about freeze framing life and making it available for contemplation. This article describes creative strategies for teaching meaning-making and critical thinking through the use of imagery and the visual arts and how they have been influenced by the wisdom and guidance of Dr. Hannelore Wass. Dr. Wass's passion for encouraging death educators to explore "other ways of knowing" is reflected in the connections between visual imagery and topics such as caregiving, aging, self-care, and professional boundaries. The group known as Women in Thanatology as a mechanism for professional mentoring and support is described, including Dr. Wass's role in its history and evolution.

  16. Innovations in bereavement education. (United States)

    Wright, Patricia Moyle


    Advanced practice nursing students provide care for clients and families in numerous settings where they will encounter end-of-life issues. Thus, graduate nursing education should include information on current trends in thanatology, such as the debate over the proposed complicated grief criteria and the paradigmatic shift toward evidence-based grief theory. In this article, an innovative approach to teaching bereavement content to graduate nursing students during a 3-hour class is presented. The assignments were developed specifically for adult learners with clinical experience. Students' responses to the learning activities and recommendations for modifications of the teaching methods are presented. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Tanatologia della critica. Le riviste nell’epoca della valutazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Pinto


    Full Text Available Thanatology of critics. The journals in the age of evaluation. This article deals with the issue of the transformation of the role of the journals induced by the new mechanisms of evaluation of research, focusing on the humanities journals as a specific form of critical culture. The thesis is that the standardization processes in progress – a policy of digitalisation which is primarily a digitization of politics – lead to the extinction of the journal as a place for the discussion of the “Fragwürdige” and to the extinction of the essay as form.

  18. Suicide: a Socratic revenge. (United States)

    Kantha, S S


    2400 years have passed since the occurrence in Athens, Greece of one of the famous suicides recorded in human history. This autobiographical essay provides a montage on the history of suicide, with snippets from the final hours of Socrates, as described by Plato. Suicide in contemporary Japanese culture is also explored briefly, with reference to the deaths of internationally acclaimed movie directors Akira Kurosawa and Juzo Itami. The author also questions why no researcher has yet been honoured for the past 99 years with a Medicine Nobel prize for his or her work on suicidology or thanatology.

  19. [Training and research in forensic medicine: present situation and future challenges for medical schools in Chile]. (United States)

    González, Leonardo; Inzunza, José Antonio; Bustos, Luis; Vallejos, Carlos; Gutiérrez, René


    Lawyers need some medical knowledge and physicians must know about forensics. To explore training and research programs in forensic medicine in Chilean universities. Deans of all Medicine Faculties in Chile were contacted by e-mail and invited to answer a questionnaire containing 21 questions. A survey of Chilean publications on forensic medicine was performed in Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases. Fourteen deans answered the questionnaire. In all the responding faculties, forensic medicine is an obligatory course, generally during the fifth year and mostly combining theory with practice. In seven faculties, forensic medicine concepts are included in other courses. Forensics is taught in only two of 10 dental schools, two of 17 nursing schools, one of nine midwives schools and one of nine medical technology schools. It is not taught in phonoaudiology, kinesiology and nutrition schools. There are 74 physicians that teach the specialty but only 10 are certified by the National Board of Medical Specialty Certification (CONACEM). Treatment of most topics on forensics is insufficient. Thanatology is the strongest topic and forensic dentistry is the weakest. There are 52 publications in the area, mostly on "medical law". Forensic medicine is taught in medical schools mostly as thanatology. The knowledge of forensics among medical students is limited and must be improved.

  20. Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). (United States)

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Mouna, Mohamed; Qarro, Mohamed; Waterman, James; Majolo, Bonaventura


    The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant) and the age class of the deceased. Responses included several behaviors with potential adaptive explanations or consequences. These included exploration, caretaking (guarding, carrying, and grooming), and proximity to wounded individuals or corpses, and immediate as well as longer-lasting distress behaviors from other group members following death, all of which have been reported in other non-human primate species. These observations add to a growing body of comparative evolutionary analysis of primate thanatology and help to highlight the multifaceted impacts of human-induced fatalities on an endangered and socially complex primate.

  1. The temple vision in palliative care. (United States)

    Schneck, Linda M


    Music-thanatology draws as much historical inspiration from the Asclepian ideal as it does from the practice of Cluniac monastic medicine. In both traditions, the patient initiates the social drama and is a most active agent in the healing process. In both traditions, the patient has the central voice and is listened to and responded to by the caregivers and clinicians, who facilitate and support in the spirit of service rather than direct/control. In both traditions, we may find death-bed healing without curing and be struck by the urgent, transcendental role of Beauty, as expressed in nature (human and elemental), the arts, architecture, and music. Clearly, our guest author envisions a profound end-of-life music-thanatology clinical practice in which the well-known, empirical Hippocratic and the lesser known, sacred Asclepian are integrated into the ideals of monastic medicine. In so doing, not only are pain and suffering uniquely met, but a blessed, peace-filled or conscious transitus may occur, and each death-bed setting has the potential to become nothing less than a sanctuary for completion.

  2. Learning through loss: implementing lossography narratives in death education. (United States)

    Bolkan, Cory; Srinivasan, Erica; Dewar, Alexis R; Schubel, Stacey


    Students may have a greater willingness to discuss issues of death and loss through written assignments; however, there is little guidance for instructors regarding how to manage these sensitive assignments, nor how students benefit from them. The authors implemented and evaluated a "lossography" assignment in an undergraduate thanatology course in which students wrote about their losses and anonymously shared these narratives with their classmates. Although many themes of loss emerged, the most frequently reported significant loss was death of a grandparent. Additionally, most significant losses occurred in childhood/adolescence. Prominent themes related to student learning included gaining self-awareness, knowledge about grief responses, and compassion for others. Students (N = 64) also completed a survey reflecting on their course learning. Of all aspects of course delivery, 44% identified the lossography as the most beneficial, whereas 97% recommended this assignment for future students. The implications of the assignment for death education are also discussed.

  3. Publication Patterns in Death Studies: 40 Years On. (United States)

    Neimeyer, Robert A; Vallerga, Michael


    As a living legacy to the founding editorship of Hannelore Wass, Death Studies has played a leading role in promoting scholarship in the field of thanatology for nearly 4 decades. In this article, the authors analyze publication patterns in the journal in the 25 years since Wass handed off the journal's editorial management to her successor, focusing on changing patterns of authorship, topical focus, and methodological emphasis of articles across this period. The results document the increasing feminization of the field, the impressive internationality of the research networks driving its development, and the substantial empirical foundation for major lines of research concerned with bereavement, death attitudes, and suicide. Placed against the backdrop of early trends in publication during Wass's overview, such findings suggest the maturation of research in this interdisciplinary specialty and validate her long-range anticipation of the field's prospects as this flagship journal moves toward its fifth decade of publication.

  4. Exploiting loss?: ethical considerations, boundaries, and opportunities for the study of death and grief online. (United States)

    Carmack, Heather J; DeGroot, Jocelyn M

    More people are turning to the Internet to communicate about dying, death, and grief experiences. This theoretical article explores the ethical dilemmas, challenges, and opportunities presented to researchers interested in exploring how death and grief are communicated online. Weaving together the literatures of computer-mediated communication and thanatology (dying and death), we discuss the ways in which many common ethical dilemmas uniquely manifest related to death and grief. We also explore the emotional impact studying death and grief online has on researchers and the importance of thinking about researcher emotions on scholars who study these issues. We end with recommendations of how to move forward in the dialogue about ethics and studying death and grief online.

  5. University students' perspectives on a psychology of death and dying course: exploring motivation to enroll, goals, and impact. (United States)

    Buckle, Jennifer L


    This study provides an in-depth investigation of the motivations, goals, and impact on 23 university students enrolled in a Psychology of Death and Dying course. Through a grounded theory analysis of precourse perspective and postcourse reflection assignments, several key themes emerged. Participants were motivated to enroll in the course by their self-identified lack of knowledge on the topic and its professional and personal relevance. They identified three main course goals: cognitive comfort, preparation to support others, and personal growth. At the end of the course, participants noted heightened awareness of personal mortality and increased comfort with death-related topics, as well as reduced fear, surprise at the depth of the thanatology field, and enriched context for their experiences with death and dying. The implications of the results for death educators, researchers, and students are discussed.

  6. Cause of death--so-called designed event acclimaxing timed happenings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M


    Full Text Available Cause-of-death as an established global medical institution faces its greatest challenge in the commonplace observation that the healthy do not necessarily survive and the diseased do not necessarily die. A logical analysis of the assumed relationships between disease and death provides some insights that allow questioning the taken-for-granted relationship between defined disease/s and the final common parameter of death. Causalism as a paradigm has taken leave of all advanced sciences. In medicine, it is lingering on for anthropocentric reasons. Natural death does not come to pass because of some (replaceable missing element, but because the evolution of the individual from womb to tomb has arrived at its final destination. To accept death as a physiologic event is to advance thanatology and to disburden medical colleges and hospitals of a lot of avoidable thinking and doing.

  7. Ubiquitous media in everyday practices of grief and commemoration on children’s graves and online memorial sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    ’s graves in urban cemeteries. It is, however, also similarly apparent in the formation of network and peer-to-peer associations and, not the least, in the establishment of online networks and sites of grief and commemoration on social media. Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are media alive with discussions...... studies of specific fields, such as practices related to burial traditions, grave traditions and so on, however, in recent years the field has developed into becoming increasingly cross-disciplinary and forming networks across countries. The research tradition has evolved out of clinical practices (Rando...... The Nordic Network of Thanatology (see Jacobsen 2013). At the same time, anthropologists have studied death as an inherent social phenomenon and the social technologies surrounding it in classical death studies such as Hertz 1907 and more recent studies like Bloch & Parry 1982. These studies are most often...

  8. Renaissance of criticism on the concept of brain death--the role of legal medicine in the context of the interdisciplinary discussion. (United States)

    Markert, L; Bockholdt, B; Verhoff, M A; Heinze, S; Parzeller, M


    In the practice of legal medicine in Germany, the assessment of brain death is of minor importance and attracts little attention. However, since several years, international criticism on the concept of brain death has culminated. By reviewing literature and the results of a questionnaire distributed among the participants of the 93rd Annual Congress of the Germany Society of Legal Medicine, the state of knowledge and the current views on brain death were evaluated. Literature search of recent publications regarding brain death was performed (PubMed database, references of legal medicine, Report of the President's Council on Bioethics, USA 2008). A questionnaire was developed and distributed among the participants of the Congress. The assumption that individual and brain death are synonymous is criticized. Internationally, there are trends to harmonize the very different clinical criteria to assess brain death. The diagnostic advantage of novel techniques such as CT angiography is controversially discussed. It becomes apparent that procedures which record the blood flow and perfusion of the brain will be applied more in the future. Regrettably, these developments are not described in the literature of legal medicine. Moreover, among German forensic scientists, different views concerning brain death exist. The majority favors its equivalent treatment with individual death. The thanatological background can be improved concerning certain aspects of brain death as well as its legal implications. Teaching and research in legal medicine should include the subject brain death. Expertise in forensic science may contribute to the interdisciplinary discussion on brain death. The transfer of actual knowledge, also on disputed ethical aspects of thanatology, to physicians of all disciplines is of great importance.

  9. [The perception of death and dying of professionals working in a long-term care institution for the elderly]. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Peres; Amaral, Juliana Gimenez; Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra


    Population aging and a shortage of caregivers result in a growing demand for institutionalization, and finitude is one the reflections that permeates aging. Living with death is part of the daily routine of health professionals resulting in emotional overload. This study sought to ascertain the experiences of the process of dying and death of health care professionals in a long-stay institution for the elderly. Methodological and theoretical Grounded Data Theory and Symbolic Interaction were used, respectively. Twenty health professionals from varied backgrounds were interviewed. The core topic of the results was: reconstructing ways to deal with the circumstances of dying and death. This led to the following categories: seeing death as part of human existence; seeking to acquire knowledge to handle cases of death and dying; reflecting on one's own death. Without fertile ground for the systematic examination of the topic, the interaction among workers about the exchange of experiences on death and dying remain restricted to the subjective level. In the conclusion, the importance of a metamorphosis in the institutional context and in health education, with more specific focus on thanatology, is emphasized.

  10. [The application of the methods for the measurement of tissue pressure during the comprehensive evaluation of the state of cadaveric tissues for the purpose of forensic medical expertise]. (United States)

    Édelev, N S; Vorob'ev, V G; Kraev, I P; Bushkov, V M


    The present paper reports the results of the application of measurements of cadaveric tissue pressure (CTP) in forensic medical thanatology for the determination of the initial position of the corpse and the identification of the visually undetectable bleeding sites on the scalp during examination at the place of its discovery. Moreover, the study of the tissue pressure parameters in the affected tissues may be used to determine the intravitality of the injury and dynamics of its prescription. The parameters of intra-organ tissue pressure suggest its dependence not only on the prescription of the death and manifestations of the postmortem processes but also on the character and extent of the pathological process in the tissues of the organ of interest; these findings can be used for the verification of various diagnostic procedures including those for the objective elucidation of the cause of the death. It is concluded that the investigations along these lines extend the possibilities for the use of quantitative parameters of CTP for the substantiation of expert conclusions based on the results of forensic medical examination.

  11. Inglaterra y el Turismo Oscuro: los orígenes de la thanaptosis

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    Maximiliano Korstanje


    Full Text Available Resumen La presente pieza de revisión interroga sobre los orígenes y evolución del turismo oscuro dentro del Reino Unido. A primera vista, esta nación ofrece un fértil terreno de exploración para las prácticas de turismo oscuro, que por varios motivos no se han replicado en América Latina. Los objetivos del presente ensayo son dobles. Por un lado, hacemos una revisión profunda de la historia cultural de Inglaterra a la vez, que por el otro,  situamos el concepto de Thanaptosis que discute la literatura vigente, dentro del contexto cultural del protestantismo, y del capitalismo mortuorio. Palabras Claves: Muerte, Turismo Oscuro, Inglaterra, Logro, Protestantismo. Abstract The present piece interrogates on the roots and cultural evolution of Dark tourism within England. At a closer look, this country offered a fertile ground for the rise of dark tourism practices while in other regions as Latin America, it failed to be adopted as a main activity. Basically, the goals of this essay review are twofold. On one hand, we review the historic background for England to serve as a platform to thanatology. On another, it situates as an interesting discussion to expand the current understanding on Thanaptosis as finely-ingrained into Protestant World. Key Words: Death, Dark Tourism, England, Achievement, Protestant

  12. The Functional Role of Music in Communicating Death through/in YouTube Videos

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    Panagiotis Pentaris


    Full Text Available Since the establishment of thanatology, the science of death, in the early 20th century, death has not only been considered a controversial subject, but it has also been regarded as a taboo topic. Various ways of communicating death have developed over the last few decades. With the advent of different mass and social media and their increasing impact on everyday life in the 21st century, death can now be communicated via a number of media platforms, such as television, radio, and online videos. This type of communication is underpinned by a series of dimensions, in particular music, that shape the conveyed message. Music has been extensively used in the dissemination of information in the wider media outlet. It is widely seen as a means of evoking emotions and of facilitating the process of assimilating information that is communicated via media. This paper seeks to discuss the functional role of music in communicating death in online video platforms. In particular, the example of the YouTube platform is used to identify the links between death, music and video platforms. This paper is part of a large-scale study on the functional role of music in communicating death through YouTube videos. It is suggested that music may serve as a link between media and death. The conclusions that are drawn in this paper are supported by the authors’ current and ongoing study and critical analysis of the deployment of music in the communication of death.

  13. Prevalence of Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Death in Moscow in 2005–2009

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    Leonid Makarov


    Full Text Available Background. The sudden out-of-hospital cardiac death (SOHCD in Russia is poorly investigated. The aim of study was to determine structure of SOHCD in Moscow. Methods. SOHCD were analyzed according to data for 2005–2009 from the 2nd Thanatology Department of Forensic Medicine of Moscow that serves 2502836 citizens in Moscow. Results. Prevalence of SOHCD was 49.1% of autopsies for all age groups and in 8.9% in the group aged 1–45 (22.3 cases per 100000 population/year. The frequency of SOHCD progressively increased with age. Most SOHCD victims (82% were males. The diagnosis of cardiomyopathy was prevalent (80–96% in the age 1–45 group; in 11–15 more 30% had normal heart; after 35 years of age, the role of ischaemic heart disease increased. In 67% of the people aged 19–25 SOHCD was associated with traces of alcohol (0.3–3.0 promile. Conclusion. The proportion of SOHCD in the Moscow population over all age groups has reached 123.2 per 100000 citizens annually. In the age group 1–45, the prevalence of SOHCD was 22.3 cases per 100000 citizens per year. The risk of SOHCD was greater in males. Possibly the role of alcohol in SOHCD in people older than 20 increased.


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    L. S. Kokov


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The review analyzes the possibility of multislice computed tomography (MSCT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI use in the forensic examination of corpses of adults. We present the critical analysis of literature on post-mortem imaging in terms of forensic thanatology. The review is based on basic Internet resources: Scientific Electronic Library (elibrary, Scopus, PubMed. The review includes articles that discuss both advantages and limitations of post-mortem MSCT and MRI imaging in forensic examination of the corpse.Through studying the available literature, the authors attempted to answer two questions: 1 which method was more suitable for the purposes of forensic examination of the corpse - MSCT or MRI; 2 whether the virtual autopsy replaced the traditional autopsy in the near future?Conclusion: comprehensive study of the corpse often requires both imaging methods; in cases of death under mechanical damage, MSCT exceeds the range of possibilities of MRI; today, virtual autopsy cannot completely replace traditional autopsy in forensic science, since there are no convincing evidence-based comparative studies, as well as the legal framework of the method. 

  15. [The influence of mourning on feeding habits and its implications for nutritional behavior]. (United States)

    Campos, Maria Teresa Fialho de Sousa


    The lack of preparation for dealing with death and the absence of the loved one may lead to organic and psychological reactions that, due to the adaptive capacity of the individual to the period of mourning, may result in interference in feeding habits and consequently on the person's nutritional status. This article addresses the effects of recent mourning on feeding behavior, followed by the analysis of the dietary interview from various standpoints. This includes the postmortem nutrition and feeding habits of the bereaved and the implications of this process on hunger, on thirst and on family cooking, with a focus on nutritional behavior and on the decisions that surround it. This is a review of the literature on the theme of death and mourning, which seeks to contextualize this theme around reflections based on this experience. It emphasizes the interaction of nutrition with the science of thanatology, which is an area still not properly examined and lacking study. The identification of this influence and its implications enables better planning of food strategies, contributing greatly to actions for coping and support during mourning.

  16. Psychology and death. Meaningful rediscovery. (United States)

    Feifel, H


    The place of death in psychology is reviewed historically. Leading causes for its being slighted as an area of investigation during psychology's early years are presented. Reasons for its rediscovery in the mid-1950s as a legitimate sector for scientific inquiry are then discussed, along with some vicissitudes encountered in carrying out research in the field. This is followed by a description of principal empirical findings, clinical perceptions, and perspectives emerging from work in the thanatological realm. The probability that such urgent social issues as abortion, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and euthanasia, and such destructive behaviors as drug abuse, alcoholism, and certain acts of violence are associated with attitudes toward death offers a challenge to psychology to enhance the vitality of human response to maladaptive conduct and loss. Recognition of personal mortality is a major entryway to self-knowledge. Although death is manifestly too complex to be the special sphere of any one discipline, psychology's position as an arena in which humanist and physicist-engineer cultures intersect provides us with a meaningful opportunity to advance our comprehension of how death can serve life.

  17. Family members' views on the benefits of harp music vigils for terminally-ill or dying loved ones. (United States)

    Ganzini, Linda; Rakoski, Alexa; Cohn, Sharilyn; Mularski, Richard A


    Music-thanatology is a palliative modality that uses harp and voice to provide bedside vigils, particularly for terminally ill or actively dying. We sought to determine the benefits of music vigils for terminally ill patients. Survey of 55 family members, whose terminally ill loved one experienced a music vigil during hospitalization, regarding effects on the patient's breathing, relaxation, comfort, pain and ability to sleep. Written comments on negative and positive results of the vigils were coded using content analysis. Family members perceived that the vigils resulted in modest improvement in the patients' breathing, relaxation, comfort, and ability to sleep, with fewer positive effects on pain, and almost no negative effects. Open ended comments focused on the positive benefit in increasing calm, relaxation, comfort. Comments on the positive effects for the family were almost as common as comments on the positive results for the patient. The use of music-vigils in palliative care should be investigated more extensively as our study supports that this intervention has benefits, almost no risk, minimal cost, and may improve patient-family experience of the dying process.

  18. [The academic discipline 'forensic medicine' as an important component of the training of dental practitioners]. (United States)

    Romodanovsky, P O; Barinov, E Kh; Zharov, V V; Mikheeva, N A

    The authors discuss the conceptual issues of the academic program designed to teach forensic medicine to the students of the stomatological faculties of educational medical institutions. The program has been elaborated in conformity with the federal state educational standard of higher professional education in the speciality stomatology'. It defines the goals and objectives of this discipline, the scope of its competences, the subject matter and the content, the requirements to the studies and educational work, control over the level of its success, academic progress, and other aspects of the training activities, with special emphasis being placed on the formation of the general professional competence of the students to enable them to work independently after they graduated from the institute. The program takes into consideration the latest achievements in forensic medical science and their practical applications. Much attention is given to the organizational and processual aspects of forensic medicine, thanatology, general and special traumatology, mechanical asphyxia, effects of the environmental factors, intoxication, forensic medical expertise of living subjects and material evidence.

  19. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack (United States)

    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.


    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  20. The Multidimensional Orientation Toward Dying and Death Inventory (MODDI-F): Factorial Validity and Reliability in a U.S. Sample. (United States)

    MacDougall, Elizabeth E; Farreras, Ingrid G


    Death anxiety has been hypothesized to be a transdiagnostic construct, meaning that the fear of death may increase one's vulnerability to the development or maintenance of a number of psychological disorders. As such, effective and efficient measurement of this construct becomes a priority for hospice and palliative medicine specialists. The Multidimensional Orientation Toward Dying and Death Inventory (MODDI-F) is the only factor-analytically constructed multidimensional scale with a conceptual rationale that measures both the fear and acceptance of dying and death. To determine the factor structure of the MODDI-F with an English-speaking sample, so as to expand the scale's potential for use in hospice and palliative medicine, clinical psychology, and thanatology research. Participants comprise a random sample of 404 adults ranging in age from 20 to 85, stratified by sex, age, and ethnicity. They completed the 47-item MODDI-F/eng and were contacted five months later for a test-retest follow-up survey. Although confirmatory factor analyses did not fit the models previously found for the German- and Chinese-language versions of the MODDI-F, exploratory factor analyses resulted in a five-factor fear dimension and a two-factor acceptance dimension that were empirically and conceptually similar to the German- and Chinese-language versions. Additional psychometric analyses yielded evidence for the internal consistency reliability, five-month test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the seven-factor scores of the English-language MODDI-F. The results from this psychometric investigation of the English-language version of the MODDI-F are promising and warrant further investigation with clinical populations in hospice and palliative care settings. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychometric characteristics of the Reasons for Death Fear Scale among Iranian nurses

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    Mahboubeh Dadfar


    Full Text Available Objectives: Death fear is the main subject in thanatology. Several researchers have defined different reasons for fear of death. This study aimed to explore the performance of the Farsi version of the Reasons for Death Fear Scale (RDFS among a convenience sample of Iranian nurses (n = 106. Methods: The nurses were selected by the convenience sampling method and were asked to complete the RDFS, Death Concern Scale, Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale, Death Anxiety Scale, Death Depression Scale, and Death Obsession Scale. Results: For the RDFS, the Cronbach's a coefficient was 0.90, and the 2-week test–retest reliability was 0.64. The RDFS was correlated at 0.34, 0.39, 0.50, 0.35, and 0.39 to the above-mentioned five scales, indicating its good construct and criterion-related validity. Based on the exploratory factor analysis, the RDFS-identified four factors accounted for 66.20% of the variance and were labeled as “Fear of Pain and Punishment,” “Fear of Losing Worldly Involvements,” “Religious Transgressions and Failures,” and “Parting from Loved Ones.” Conclusions: The RDFS presents good validity and reliability and can be used in clinical and research settings in Iran. Keywords: Reasons for Death Fear Scale, Factorial structure, Hospital, Nurses, Reliability, Validity

  2. Aura fractal, fins da arte e capitalismo primitivista

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    Leonardo Carvalho Bertolossi


    Full Text Available Objetiva-se refletir sobre as relações entre as artes visuais e a antropologia a partir do texto seminal de Walter Benjamin sobre a aura para pensar sobre as finalidades e os fins da metafísica da arte no Ocidente diante dos diagnósticos de fim de mundo/fim da história da arte, e da vitória do espetáculo e da indústria cultural no capitalismo contemporâneo. O artigo apresenta alguns dos sentidos da arte no mundo ocidental e em especial no romantismo, avança sobre a crise e o fim dos modelos estruturais e cognitivos do pensamento artístico moderno, destaca o interesse pela política e pela vida, e se indaga sobre a retomada do primitivismo nas artes visuais e na antropologia contemporânea como redenção e renovação das mortes anunciadas. ABSTRACT The objective is to reflect on the relations between the visual arts and anthropology from Walter Benjamin's seminal text on the aura to think about the purposes and ends of the metaphysics of art in the West in the face of end-of-world/end-of-art history, and the victory of spectacle and cultural industry in contemporary capitalism. The article presents some of the meanings of art in the Western world and especially in Romanticism, advances on the crisis and the end of the structural and cognitive models of modern artistic thought, highlights the interest in politics and life, and inquires about the resumption of Primitivism in the visual arts and contemporary anthropology as redemption and renewal of the announced deaths. KEYWORDS Anthropology of art, aura, soul, thanatology, primitivism

  3. [Education of medical examiners qualified for death certification]. (United States)

    Alempijević, Djordje; Savić, Slobodan


    Death certification is very important from public health perspective, in particular, referring to gathering of data for mortality statistics on local and national level. When examining the deceased, medical examiner is capable of detecting indications of violent death and report the case for further inquest. The Public Health Care Act of the Republic of Serbia defines the responsibilities of medical examiner (ME) to certify death and estimate the time and cause of death. On the territory of Belgrade, this Service is organized by Department of Public Health of the City Council. Education of doctors-medical examiners certifying death in Belgrade area was organized during 2002 and 2003. Demonstrate the structure of the Program of continual medical education (CME) of medical examiners in Belgrade area, to look into some aspects of their professional career, and to analyze the results of their testing. Based on the Program of CME for medical examiners, test consisting of 13 questions was prepared. These questions were related to thanatology and current legislation. The evaluation of test results as well as particular characteristics (age, duration of professional engagement, etc.) of tested doctors was carried out. A total of 138 participants of CME Program were subjected to test. Mean age of tested MEs was 40.27 +/- 8.06 years, while an average duration of professional engagement was 13.43 +/- 8.00 years. Almost 2/3 of tested MEs were employed as general practitioners, while the rest were specialists, mainly in internal medicine and emergency medicine. Slightly more than 1/5 of tested MEs (21.7%) failed on the test (less than 60% of maximum score). Given the fact that slightly more than 1/5 of tested MEs (21.7%), regardless of duration of their professional engagement, did not pass the test, the level of their specific knowledge of death certification was not sufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to organize periodical CME on specific topics, including practice

  4. O Estudo da Morte e dos Cuidados Paliativos: Ausências no Currículo de Medicina./ The Study of Death and Palliative Care: Curriculum in the Absence of Medicine.

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    Maria das Graças Mota Cruz de Assis Figueiredo


    Full Text Available O presente artigo acompanha a história da formação médica no Brasil e levanta algumas das origens do cenário atual da prática da medicina no país, considerada como bastante resolutiva na busca da cura do corpo, mas despreparada para a abordagem do sofrimento global que acompanha o processo de adoecimento e da morte. As autoras enfatizam a necessidade de reavaliação crítica dos currículos das escolas de formação médica, buscando-se aliar à excelência técnica da prática profissional, valores como o cuidado integral ao doente por detrás da doença, e a atenção às necessidades deste e da família quando se avizinha a morte. Com base na sua experiência no ensino da Disciplina de Tanatologia e Cuidados Paliativos em duas Faculdades de Medicina, o artigo aponta como um dos caminhos para a construção de uma nova base curricular, mais responsivo à necessidade de profissionais e doentes, o ensino desta Disciplina nas diversas escolas médicas do país. This article outlines the history of medical education in Brazil and raises some of the origins of the current scenario of medical practice in the country, considered as quite resolute in the pursuit of healing the body, but unprepared for addressing global suffering that accompanies the process of illness and death. The author emphasizes the need for critical reappraisal of curricula of medical education, seeking to combine technical excellence in professional practice, values ​​as comprehensive care for the patient behind the disease, and attention to the needs of the family and when approaching death. Based on his experience in teaching discipline Thanatology and Palliative Care in two medical schools, the article points out how one of the ways to build a new base curriculum more responsive to the needs of professionals and patients, the teaching of this discipline in several medical schools in the country.

  5. Determination of cocaine and its major metabolite benzoylecgonine in several matrices obtained from deceased individuals with presumed drug consumption prior to death. (United States)

    Alvear, Eduardo; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia; Hitschfeld, Antonieta


    In the field of forensic toxicology, femoral blood is the most useful sample for the determination and quantification of drugs; however, cases in which blood is unavailable are common. In such cases, validated methodologies for drug determination in alternative matrices can be decisive in the investigation of a case. In particular, when femoral blood is unavailable for analysis for the presence of systemic exposure to cocaine and its principal metabolite, benzoylecgonine, validated methodologies from matrices other than blood that can be obtained in the autopsy room would be useful to the forensic toxicologist in the evaluation of a specific forensic case. To address this issue, we implemented and compared in our study the systematic evaluation of extraction, chromatographic separation, and quantification of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in different biological matrices (right and left cardiac blood, femoral arterial and venous blood, urine, vitreous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, brain accumbens nucleus, brain ventral tegmental area, and liver). The studied matrices were those most likely to be obtained from different autopsy rooms at the time of forensic testing in deceased individuals who are presumed of antemortem drug consumption. Solid phase extraction of analytes from the different matrices was performed using C-8/SCX mixed-phase columns, and gas chromatographic mass spectrometry separation was performed using detection in single-ion monitoring mode. The methodological validation was performed for all the studied matrices, and the results showed similar sensitivity and recoveries without statistical differences between the studied matrices. The methods were applied to evaluate a thanatological case using all the study matrices, showing unequal postmortem distribution of cocaine and benzoylecgonine throughout the different matrices tested. The present work opens the option of applying appropriate methodologies in the analysis of matrices, other than the usual

  6. O envolvimento do enfermeiro no processo de morrer de bebês internados em Unidade Neonatal El involucramiento del enfermero en el proceso de morir de niños hospitalizados en una unidad de neonatología Nurses experiences with death in the neonatal intensive care unit

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    Isabella Rocha Aguiar


    úsqueda del equilibrio entre el cuidar del otro y de sí mismo.ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: to understand Neonatal Intensive Care nurses experiences caring for dying neonates. METHODS: this was an qualitative exploratory study. Ten Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses from a school-affiliated hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará participated in this study. Data were collected during May and June, 2003. RESULTS: the following categories emerged from the analysis: feelings in the presence of death; interacting with the family in the process of dying; and, educational inadequacies coping with a terminally ill neonate. The feelings expressed by the nurses included loss, sadness, misery, weakness, and detachment. The nurses also see themselves involved with the grieving family, although the majority of them reported not having enough foundational knowledge with grief and thanatology. CONCLUSION: those nurses who deal with death in the workplace, such as the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, are trying to keep a balance between caring for others and themselves.

  7. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation

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    Taise Ribeiro Morais


    they interfere directly in the likely donor’s family decision. Perhaps, they lack the study of Thanatology. These professionals deal directly with death but do not investigate death, mourning. The family situation at the time of mourning, hardened by the difficult decision of donating the organs of their beloved one, should form a strong synergistic relationship, as it comes into question the shock of death and the decision to save other people’s lives. It has also been disclosed that religion is considered one of the reasons to refuse the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation. It is, thus, necessary to give greater attention to people’s religious beliefs and values by the time of the loss of their relatives. The literature is rich in references demonstrating that the mass media, despite their high national and global spreading power, are not best suited to provide sufficient explanation on such contentious issues as it is, among others, the organ donation. Instead, the means, the symbology and the repertoire often used by mass media cause more confusion than clarification(4.A study in Spain found that a lot of information spread in the media could be an alternative to the clarification of doubts, however, it sometimes reproduce misinformation, superficial and prejudice-based ideas, being unable to modify negative behavior related to organ donation.A research conducted with people attending health centers in Spain showed that only 7% of the respondents received information about transplantation from primary care professionals. Although the negative information has been quite absorbed, the study indicates that, even in small proportion, the positive information has generated a new way of interpreting organ donation(6We here emphasize the importance of discussing the issue “organ donation” with friends and family, because people, being well educated, are capable of promoting discussions, which that can be understood as promotion of donation

  8. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p253

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    Taise Ribeiro Morais


    they interfere directly in the likely donor’s family decision. Perhaps, they lack the study of Thanatology. These professionals deal directly with death but do not investigate death, mourning. The family situation at the time of mourning, hardened by the difficult decision of donating the organs of their beloved one, should form a strong synergistic relationship, as it comes into question the shock of death and the decision to save other people’s lives. It has also been disclosed that religion is considered one of the reasons to refuse the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation. It is, thus, necessary to give greater attention to people’s religious beliefs and values by the time of the loss of their relatives. The literature is rich in references demonstrating that the mass media, despite their high national and global spreading power, are not best suited to provide sufficient explanation on such contentious issues as it is, among others, the organ donation. Instead, the means, the symbology and the repertoire often used by mass media cause more confusion than clarification(4.A study in Spain found that a lot of information spread in the media could be an alternative to the clarification of doubts, however, it sometimes reproduce misinformation, superficial and prejudice-based ideas, being unable to modify negative behavior related to organ donation.A research conducted with people attending health centers in Spain showed that only 7% of the respondents received information about transplantation from primary care professionals. Although the negative information has been quite absorbed, the study indicates that, even in small proportion, the positive information has generated a new way of interpreting organ donation(6We here emphasize the importance of discussing the issue “organ donation” with friends and family, because people, being well educated, are capable of promoting discussions, which that can be understood as promotion of donation