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Sample records for thallium uranates

  1. Producing ammonium uranate in spherical particulate form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugua, J.

    1984-01-01

    A novel easily handled substantially particulate ammonium uranate with a mean diameter between 30 and 150 micrometers, an apparent untamped bulk density of 2 to 2.8 g/cm 3 , and a flowability measured on the Carr scale equal to or greater than 95, with a low sulfate ion content between 0.5 and 1%, is calimed together with a fluidized bed process for preparing such ammonium uranate by precipitation of a super-saturated solution of ammonium uranate. The ammonium uranate is obtained by reacting a uranium sulfate solution and an ammoniacal solution, operating at a pH of about 6.6 to 7.2

  2. Investigations on cesium uranates and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, A.B. van

    1976-01-01

    Crystal structures of cesium uranate are determined mainly by X-ray diffraction techniques. From phase studies it is concluded that of the Cs-U-O system, Cs 2 U 4 O 12 will play a prominent role in fuel elements of fast reactors due to fission product-fuel reactions causing swelling of the fuel and fuel-element failure. Crystal structures and lattice parameters are determined from Cs 2 U 4 O 12 , Cs 2 U 4 O 13 , Cs 2 U 5 O 16 , Cs 4 U 5 O 17 , Cs 2 U 7 O 22 , Cs 2 U 15 O 46 , Cs 2 UO 4 and Cs 2 U 2 O 7 . Finally some crystal structures of potassium and rubidium uranates are measured and a comparison of all available data on alkali uranates is made

  3. Cyclo nic separation of uranate dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadal, P.

    1976-01-01

    Size of particles of uranate dust which can be entrained by hot gases leaving a multiple-hearth furnace is determined. The convenience of the installation of a cyclone is discussed considering power of the fume-extractor and pressure-drop permissible in the system. (Author)

  4. Thermochemical evaluation and preparation of cesium uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kousaku; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi.

    1997-03-01

    Two kinds of cesium uranates, Cs 2 UO 4 and Cs 2 U 2 O 7 , which are predicted by thermochemical estimation to be formed in irradiated oxide fuels, were prepared from U 3 O 8 and Cs 2 CO 3 for measurements of the thermal expansions and thermal conductivities. In advance of the preparation, thermochemical calculations for the formation and decomposition of these cesium uranates were performed by Gibbs free energy minimizer. The preparation temperatures for Cs 2 UO 4 and Cs 2 U 2 O 7 were determined from the results of the thermochemical calculations. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the single phases of Cs 2 UO 4 and Cs 2 U 2 O 7 were formed. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were also performed on these samples, and the decomposition temperatures were evaluated. The experimental results were in good agreement with those of the thermochemical calculations. (author)

  5. Luminescence of the octahedral uranate group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair, J.Th.W. de

    1976-01-01

    The luminescence characteristics of the octahedral uranate group are described. Bands in the excitation spectra are assigned to charge transfer transitions from ligand m.o.'s to the 5f state of the hexavalent uranium ion. The emission is a parity-forbidden electric dipole transition 5f→tsub(1u) which is vibronically allowed by coupling with the ungerade vibrational modes of the UO 6- 6 octahedron. This is confirmed by the dependence of the decay time on temperature. Attention is paid to the difference between the vibrational patterns in the emission of the UO 6- 6 and the UO 2+ 2 groups. From measurements as a function of the uranium concentration it is deduced that energy transfer between uranate groups mutually proceeds over some 25 A. This explains why the vibrational pattern in the emission spectra depends on the uranium concentration. (Auth.)

  6. COGEMA Experience in Uranous Nitrate Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, E.; Bretault, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Separation and purification of plutonium by PUREX process is based on a sequence of extraction and back extraction which requires reducing plutonium Pu IV (extractable form) into Pu III (inextractable form) Different reducers can be used to reduce Pu IV into Pu III. Early plants such as that for Magnox fuel at Sellafield used ferrous sulfamate while UP 1 at Marcoule used uranous sulfamate. These reducers are efficient and easy to prepare but generates ferric and/or sulphate ions and so complicates management of the wastes from the plutonium purification cycle. Recent plants such as UP3 and UP2 800 at La Hague, THORP at Sellafield, and RRP at Rokkasho Mura (currently under tests) use uranous nitrate (U IV) stabilized by hydrazinium nitrate (N 2 H 5 NO 3 ) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN). In the French plants, uranous nitrate is used in U-Pu separation and alpha barrier and HAN is used in Pu purification. Compared to sulfamate, U IV does not generate extraneous chemical species and uranyl nitrate (U VI) generated by reducing Pu IV follows the main uranium stream. More over uranous nitrate is prepared from reprocessed purified uranyl nitrate taken at the outlet of the reprocessing plant. Hydrazine and HAN offer the advantage to be salt-free reagents. Uranous nitrate can be generated either by electrolysis or by catalytic hydrogenation process. Electrolytic process has been implemented in early plant UP 1 at Marcoule (when changing reducer from uranous sulfamate to uranous nitrate) and was used again in UP2 plant at La Hague. However, the electrolytic process presented several disadvantages such as a low conversion rate and problems associated with the use of mercury. Electrolysis cells with no mercury were developed for the Eurochemic plant in Belgium and then implemented in the first Japanese reprocessing plant in Tokai-Mura. But finally, in 1975, the electrolytic process was abandoned in favor of the catalytic hydrogenation process developed at La Hague. The

  7. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of sodium uranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.

    1966-01-01

    We describe the application of the quantometer to the analysis of sodium uranate. To determine boron, cadmium, phosphorus and molybdenum contents, the samples are mixed with graphite powder (1:30) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc with 4x4,,5 mm cup graphite rods, using silver as internal standard. A not se deep cup and a dilution factor of 90 are more suitable for calcium, copper, iron, silicon and vanadium determination; cobalt and chromium are the internal standards. (Author) 6 refs

  8. Thermochemical evaluation and preparation of cesium uranates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Masahide; Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kousaku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi

    1997-03-01

    Two kinds of cesium uranates, Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which are predicted by thermochemical estimation to be formed in irradiated oxide fuels, were prepared from U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for measurements of the thermal expansions and thermal conductivities. In advance of the preparation, thermochemical calculations for the formation and decomposition of these cesium uranates were performed by Gibbs free energy minimizer. The preparation temperatures for Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} were determined from the results of the thermochemical calculations. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the single phases of Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} were formed. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were also performed on these samples, and the decomposition temperatures were evaluated. The experimental results were in good agreement with those of the thermochemical calculations. (author)

  9. Structural characterization of ammonium uranate by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, A.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy have been used to investigate the chemical composition of some ammonium uranates. In this study, I have attempted to establish the interrelationship between the structure of the products, the character of their infrared spectra and x-ray diffraction data capable of consistent interpretation in terms of defining the compounds. (Author)

  10. Characteristics of monsoon waves off Uran, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.; Mandal, S.

    Waves were measured off Uran in the Dharamtar creek (lat. 18 degrees 50 minutes and long. 72 degrees 55 minutes) during monsoon months from 26 June to 20 September 1984 using a Datawell wave rider buoy. The wave records were analysed using Tucker...

  11. Solid state reactions of potassium uranates with ammonium sulphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Mudher, K.D.; Keskar, Meera; Krishnan, K.; Venugopal, V.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state reactions of potassium uranates with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 were studied with a view to understand the nature of the reaction products formed at different temperatures. The hexavalent uranates K 2 U 2 O 7 and K 2 U 4 O 13 formed double sulphates of U(VI) at 380 degC, whereas pentavalent KUO 3 and mixed valent K 2 U 4 O 12 reacted at the above temperature to form mixtures of potassium uranium double sulphates containing both U(IV) and U(VI). Thermal, x-ray and chemical methods were used to identify and characterise the products. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Alkali-iodide/urania systems at high temperatures. 1. Cesium uranate chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; LeBlanc, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Uranate compounds are likely to form in irradiated fuel from the reaction between UO 2 and fission products along UO 2 grain boundaries and in the fuel-cladding gap. Literature on the high-temperature chemistry of cesium and rubidium uranates was reviewed. Results from Knudsen cell experiments from 900 to 2600 K on cesium uranates are discussed. These studies indicate that the uranate phases formed depend on the oxygen potential of the system, which varies with the composition of the condensed phase. 62 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs., 2 appendices

  13. Thallium toxicity: A growing concern

    OpenAIRE

    Saha A

    2005-01-01

    This review article deals with the growing concern of the toxicity of thallium. This article describes the characteristics of thallium, its potential sources of exposure, kinetics, and toxicity on human being and diagnosis of thallium poisoning. This article also describes some episodes of thallium poisoning arising from both occupational and nonoccupational exposure.

  14. Applications of URANS on predicting unsteady turbulent separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinglei; Ma, Huiyang

    2009-06-01

    Accurate prediction of unsteady separated turbulent flows remains one of the toughest tasks and a practical challenge for turbulence modeling. In this paper, a 2D flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3,900 is numerically investigated by using the technique of unsteady RANS (URANS). Some typical linear and nonlinear eddy viscosity turbulence models (LEVM and NLEVM) and a quadratic explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) are evaluated. Numerical results have shown that a high-performance cubic NLEVM, such as CLS, are superior to the others in simulating turbulent separated flows with unsteady vortex shedding.

  15. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery.

  16. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  17. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M

    1997-08-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

  18. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...

  19. Thallium Toxicity in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetko, Petra; Cvjetko, Ivan; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element, widely distributed in the earth’s crust, but at very low concentrations. It does not have a known biological use and does not appear to be an essential element for life. It has been considered one of the most toxic heavy metals. Occasionally, there are reports on thallium poisoning as results of suicide or murder attempt or accident. The main threat to humans is through occupational exposure, environmental contamination, and accumulation in ...

  20. A numerical study of unsteady cavitation on a hydrofoil by LES and URANS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-ru; Zhang, Guang-ming; He, Wei; van Terwisga, Tom

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the unsteady cavitation phenomena on a NACA0015 hydrofoil is numerically simulated by unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in single-fluid approaches to multiphase modelling, respectively. It is observed that the large-scale structures and characteristic periodic shedding predicted by the URANS with the modified SST k-ω turbulence model show a good qualitative match with the experimental observations but with quantitative discrepancies, such as a different cavity length and volume, and a different location of shedding. Compared to the URANS results, the LES results reproduce more details of unsteady dynamics with an improved quantitative agreement.

  1. Urheilijarahasto : Urheilijarahaston rooli uran jälkeisen elämän turvaamisessa

    OpenAIRE

    Brander, Riku

    2017-01-01

    Ammattiurheilijoiden ansiovuodet urheilijana ovat varsin lyhyitä suhteessa tavalliseen palkansaajaan ja myös uran aikainen verotus kireää. Näin ollen myös urheilijan oman talouden hallinta on todella tärkeässä roolissa jo urheilu-uran aikana. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tutkia urheilijarahastointia Suomessa sekä urheilijoiden varautumista taloudellisesti uran jälkeiseen aikaan. Tavoitteena on selvittää, kuinka suomalaiset huippu-urheilijat hyödyntävät urheilijarahaston tuomia verotuksellis...

  2. Dipyridamole thallium imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, S.G.; Heo, J.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Dipyridamole cardiac imaging is a useful alternative to exercise stress testing in the evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. Intravenous dipyridamole has been approved recently for clinical use. Oral dipyridamole is widely available. The hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole include an increase in coronary blood flow in excess of the increase in myocardial oxygen consumption and cardiac output. The quality of the thallium images is better or similar to that of exercise thallium images. The optimal dose of intravenous dipyridamole is 0.56 mg/kg and the optimal oral dose is 300-375 mg, although higher doses may be necessary in some patients. The sensitivity and specificity of dipyridamole-thallium imaging, whether intravenous or oral, have been shown in a number of studies to be quite adequate and comparable to that achieved during exercise thallium imaging. Dipyridamole-thallium imaging has also been useful in identifying high-risk patients undergoing major elective vascular surgery. The relative merits of dipyridamole imaging versus exercise testing after acute myocardial infarction require further studies.83 references

  3. Thallium toxicity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Cvjetko, Ivan; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-03-01

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element, widely distributed in the earth's crust, but at very low concentrations. It does not have a known biological use and does not appear to be an essential element for life. It has been considered one of the most toxic heavy metals.Occasionally, there are reports on thallium poisoning as results of suicide or murder attempt or accident. The main threat to humans is through occupational exposure, environmental contamination, and accumulation in food, mainly in vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Increasing use in emerging new technologies and demanding high-tech industry constantly raise concern about exposure risk to all living organisms. Thallium is considered a cumulative poison that can cause adverse health effects and degenerative changes in many organs. The effects are the most severe in the nervous system. The exact mechanism of thallium toxicity still remains unknown, although impaired glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and disruption of potassium-regulated homeostasis may play a role. The lack of data about mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic effects of thallium compounds in humans calls for further research.

  4. Recuperation of uranous salt samples found in a laboratory in the capital city (Niamey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissata, N.; Hamadou, K.; Almoustapha, T.

    2008-01-01

    A large quantity of uranous salt samples was found in an unused laboratory in Niamey (Capital City). The National Center of Radiation Protection (Centre National de Radioprotection (CNRP)), in collaboration with the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MM/E), has carried out the recuperation of several hundred kilograms of uranous salt and the decontamination of the area. At the end of the operation, 1813 uranous salt samples with average mass of 250 grams and two old calibration sources were found. Such quantities of uranous salt powder, hold near the river without control is a real hazard for the public because of probable act of vandalism. The regulatory body might continue in informing and sensitizing workers and public for recovering other orphaned sources and prevent sanitary hazards as the one solved at the ONAREM Laboratory. (author)

  5. Thallium poisoning in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsmon, J; Taliansky, E; Landau, M; Neufeld, M Y

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of thallium poisoning in Israel in almost 30 years. A 40-year-old man was apparently poisoned by a business associate when, on several occasions, he unknowingly drank an alcoholic beverage containing the toxic substance. Delayed admission and recurrent thallium ingestion resulted in both acute and chronic symptoms being present concomitantly. Conventional treatment modalities (Prussian blue and forced diuresis) were employed. The patient survived, although neurological sequelae ensued. The problems encountered in diagnosis and treatment of this relatively uncommon entity are discussed.

  6. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiaosheng; Quan Zhigao

    1989-04-01

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  7. Thallium 201 Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    McKillop, James H.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive isotope thallium 201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The radionuclide emits 80 keV x-rays which are suitable for scintillation camera imaging.

  8. Selective recovery of uranium from Ca-Mg uranates by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomiro, Federico J.; Gaviría, Juan P.; Quinteros, Raúl D.

    2017-01-01

    A chlorination process is proposed for the uranium extraction and separation using Calcium−Magnesium uranates such as starting reactants which were obtained by precipitation from uranyl nitrate solutions with calcium hydroxide. The study is based on thermodynamic and reaction analysis using chlorine gas as chlorination agent. The results showed that the chlorination reaction of Ca uranate is more feasible to occur than the Mg uranate. The products obtained after chlorination reactions were washed with deionized water to remove the chlorides produced and analyzed. The XRD patterns of the washed products indicated that the chlorination between 400 and 500 °C result in a single phase of calcium uranate (CaUO 4 ) as reaction product. The formation of U 3 O 8 and MgU 3 O 10 was observed at temperatures between 600 °C and 700 °C for 8 hs. The optimal conditions to recover uranium were 3 l h −1 of chlorine and 10 hs of reaction at 700 °C being U 3 O 8 the single uranium product obtained. - Highlights: •The chlorination is an effective method for the recovery uranium from Ca-Mg uranates. •The optimal conditions were: 10 hs of reaction time at 700 °C using 3 l/h of Cl 2 (g). •U 3 O 8 is recovery by washing out the chlorination by-products.

  9. Management of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, P W

    2000-09-01

    A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage.

  10. Preparation of uranium dioxide by thermal decomposition and direct reduction of ammonium uranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez R, R.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium uranate has been studied by infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It has been show that ammonia remains in the solid until substantially 350 Centigrade degrees, when gaseous nitrogen is released. It is concluded that compounds derived from the calcination of ammonium uranate at atmospheric pressure, produced amorphous U O 3 at about 350-400 Centigrade degrees and transform to U 3 O 8 via α - U O 3 and/or α - U O 3 . The object of this study was to obtain reliable fundamental information regarding the character of the pure carbon monoxide-ammonium uranate-uranium trioxide-uranium octaoxide reaction, in the range of temperatures that has been used in commercial reduction processes. Through the use of high-purity samples and by the proper control of incidental variable, this object was realized. (Author)

  11. Methods of thallium-201 preparation from proton irradiated thallium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, M.D.; Sevast'yanova, A.S.; Malinin, A.B.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of thallium-201 preparation from Tl-targets irradiated by protons: oxidation-extraction (1) and extraction (2) - are developed. At first radioactive lead is separated from the target material - thallium macroquantities during ∼32 hours, then thallium-201 was separated from residual activity of lead radioisotopes and transformed it into the necessary chemical formula. The 1st and 2nd methods differ from each other by the 1st stage of target retreatment; only extraction was used to separate radioactive lead in the 2nd method. The target was solved in H 2 SO 4 . The 1st method permits to separate thallium-201 with chemical yield not less than 90 %, the 2nd one - higher than 95 %. Volumetric activity of thallium-201 prepared is more than 55 MBq/ml. 5 refs

  12. A new technique for measurement of carrier thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Manufacturers of thallium-201 use the Rhodamine-B spot test for detection of ''carrier'' or elemental thallium. A more exacting and simpler quantitative technique for measuring carrier thallium is described and this spectrophotofluorometric technique takes advantage of thallium's fluorescence

  13. A numerical study of unsteady cavitation on a hydrofoil by les and URANS method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zi Ru; Zhang, Guang Ming; He, Wei Dong; van Terwisga, T.J.C.; Farhat, M.; Müller, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the unsteady cavitation phenomena on a NACA0015 hydrofoil is numerically simulated by unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in single-fluid approaches to multiphase modelling, respectively. It is observed that the large-scale

  14. Selective recovery of uranium from Ca-Mg uranates by chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomiro, Federico J.; Gaviría, Juan P.; Quinteros, Raúl D.; Bohé, Ana E.

    2017-07-01

    A chlorination process is proposed for the uranium extraction and separation using Calciumsbnd Magnesium uranates such as starting reactants which were obtained by precipitation from uranyl nitrate solutions with calcium hydroxide. The study is based on thermodynamic and reaction analysis using chlorine gas as chlorination agent. The results showed that the chlorination reaction of Ca uranate is more feasible to occur than the Mg uranate. The products obtained after chlorination reactions were washed with deionized water to remove the chlorides produced and analyzed. The XRD patterns of the washed products indicated that the chlorination between 400 and 500 °C result in a single phase of calcium uranate (CaUO4) as reaction product. The formation of U3O8 and MgU3O10 was observed at temperatures between 600 °C and 700 °C for 8 hs. The optimal conditions to recover uranium were 3 l h-1 of chlorine and 10 hs of reaction at 700 °C being U3O8 the single uranium product obtained.

  15. THE SPEAKING OF POLITICIAN OF SINGLE POLITICAL PARTY: MODEL OF HİLMİ URAN / BİR TEK PARTİ POLİTİKACISININ PROPAGANDA KONUŞMALARI: HİLMİ URAN ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Fahri SAKAL

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There had been some policy changes of the Republican People’s Party(CHP in the period of transition from one-party system to multi party system in Turkey. The Speeches of Hilmi Uran who was considered second man in CHP had full of examples regarding policy changes. Uran had appeared to be a politician who was ready to acknowledge the principals of multi party system. Some changes carried out by H. Uran, such as alliance with the USA, introduction of religious course in public schools, awareness for Soviet and left wing threats, the virtues o democracy.

  16. FAAS DETERMINATION OF THALLIUM AFTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -S) and tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (TDBA) onto benzophenone in the pH range 10.0-11.5 from large volumes of aqueous solutions of various samples. After filtration, each solid mass consisting of thallium complex and ...

  17. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  18. Thallium in the solar atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. L.; Mallia, E. A.; Smith, G.

    1972-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of thallium in the sun is presented. Umbral spectra were found to contain an absorption feature at or near the predicted position for the Tl I 5350 A line. Analysis of the 5350 A line indicated that the solar thallium abundance is given by log N(Tl) values ranging from 0.72 to 1.07 on the standard scale log N(H) = 12.00. Unidentified blends, however, limit the accuracy of the abundance determination.

  19. Cytogenetic observations following thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantson, P; Desoir, R; Léonard, E D; Crutzen-Fayt, M C; Léonard, A; Mahieu, P

    1997-02-07

    Observations have been performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from a patient having ingested 200 mg thallium sulfate, in order to evaluate the ability of the compound to produce cytogenetic damage in vivo in humans. Our results demonstrate that neither the yield of structural chromosome aberrations nor sister chromatid exchanges were significantly modified. The drastic increase of binucleated cells with micronuclei indicates that thallium sulfate has in common with many metallic compounds the ability to interfere with chromosome distribution.

  20. Preparation of thallium 201 from enriched thallium targets using U-240 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Ageev, V.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.; Odintsov, A.A.; Demekhin, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    Possibility of thallium-201 preparation from enriched thallium targets (thallium-203 and 205) under proton irradiation at isochronous cyclotron U-240 is studied. Excitation functions of nuclear reactions, on which commercial method of thallium-201 preparation is based, are determined experimentally for the given conditions of irardiation. Perspectivity of multilayer targets application under proton irradiation in the energy range from 20 to 55 MeV is shown. Experimental thallium-201 quantities have been prepared by target set irradiation, consisting of lead-206, thallium-205 and thallium-203 with further extracting separation of a product

  1. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  2. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  3. Toxicity and pollution potential of thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko, V

    1975-07-01

    Toxicity and pollution potential of thallium are reviewed. Thallium is slightly more acutely toxic to mammals than mercury, and as acutely toxic as copper to fish. Its present industrial uses are too limited to generate pollution, but thallium, discharged in wastes from mines, ore-processing, and coal-burning plants, is contaminating the environment.

  4. URANS simulations of separated flow with stall cells over an NREL S826 airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlak, H.; Nishino, T.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2016-06-01

    A series of wind tunnel measurements and oil flow visualization was recently carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in order to investigate flow characteristics over a 14% thick NREL S826 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. This paper aims at presenting numerical simulations of the same airfoil using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach. Results of the simulations are demonstrated in terms of mean flow velocity, lift and drag, as well as pressure distribution, and validated against available experimental data. The simulations are carried out with a wide computational domain (with a span-to-chord ratio of 5) and it is illustrated that the URANS approach is capable of predicting 3D spanwise structures, known as stall cells.

  5. The application of extraction chromatography for analysis of alkali and alkaline earth uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazic, B.; Cukovic, M.

    1978-01-01

    A method for rapid analysis of alkali and alkaline earth uranates is proposed. The method is based on the use of an HDEHP extraction chromatographic column, which makes possible quantitative separations of alkaline earth ions from macroamounts of uranium(VI). Composition of alkaline earth uranates, based on regression analysis, are presented. The results, which show that under the given experimental conditions alkaline earth triuranates precipitate, are in good agreement with previous data from same laboratory. In addition the HDEHP extraction chromatographic column can be suggested as a tool for separation of representative fission products from irradiated uranium for the purpose of determination of the burn-up factor of nuclear reactor materials. (T.G.)

  6. Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Petra A; Merola, Valentina; Osborne, Tanasa; Bailey, Keith L; Meerdink, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necrotizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was determined to be thallium sulfate obtained by a person with the intent to harm family members. Although thallium has not been produced in the United States for 20 years, this report demonstrates the need to consider thallium toxicosis as a differential diagnosis for animals presenting with vague and mixed gastrointestinal and neurological signs.

  7. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of thallium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Gerber, G B

    1997-08-01

    The paper reviews the information available concerning the mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects of thallium. Data on mutagenic and carcinogenic risks of thallium and its compounds are extremely scanty but what is available does not indicate that thallium could be mutagenic or carcinogenic. At any rate, such risks, if they exist, would be submerged by the general high toxicity of thallium. On the other hand, thallium has some teratogenic properties, especially on cartilage and bone formation, although this seems to be more prominent in chicks than in mammals. Nevertheless, pregnant women should not be exposed to doses of thallium which might produce toxic symptoms; exposure to lower doses such as might occur near thallium-emitting plants is probably not embryotoxic.

  8. Thallium 201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium-201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The main clinical application of 201 Tl scintigraphy has been in myocardial imaging. Abnormalities due to ischemia usually are seen only on the stress image whereas fixed defects in both rest and stress studies usually indicate areas of infarction or scarring. The sensitivity of stress imaging for detecting significant coronary disease is of the order of 80 to 95% though computer processing of the images may be necessary to achieve the higher figure. The main clinical value of 201 Tl myocardial imaging is likely to be in the noninvasive screening of patients with atypical chest pain or with ambiguous findings on stress electrocardiographic tests. It has also proved useful in studying patients with variant angina or following a coronary bypass operation. It is doubtful whether the technique is clinically helpful in most patients with suspected or established acute myocardial infarction. Imaging of organs other than the heart with 201 Tl has received much less attention but has been reported in patients with peripheral vascular disease and various primary and secondary neoplasms

  9. Thallium 201 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKillop, J.H.

    1980-07-01

    Thallium-201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The main clinical application of /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy has been in myocardial imaging. Abnormalities due to ischemia usually are seen only on the stress image whereas fixed defects in both rest and stress studies usually indicate areas of infarction or scarring. The sensitivity of stress imaging for detecting significant coronary disease is of the order of 80 to 95% though computer processing of the images may be necessary to achieve the higher figure. The main clinical value of /sup 201/Tl myocardial imaging is likely to be in the noninvasive screening of patients with atypical chest pain or with ambiguous findings on stress electrocardiographic tests. It has also proved useful in studying patients with variant angina or following a coronary bypass operation. It is doubtful whether the technique is clinically helpful in most patients with suspected or established acute myocardial infarction. Imaging of organs other than the heart with /sup 201/Tl has received much less attention but has been reported in patients with peripheral vascular disease and various primary and secondary neoplasms.

  10. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of sodium uranate; Analisis espectroquimico de lectura directa de uranato sodico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.

    1966-07-01

    We describe the application of the quantometer to the analysis of sodium uranate. To determine boron, cadmium, phosphorus and molybdenum contents, the samples are mixed with graphite powder (1:30) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc with 4x4,5 mm cup graphite rods, using silver as internal standard. A not se deep cup and a dilution factor of 90 are more suitable for calcium, copper, iron, silicon and vanadium determination; cobalt and chromium are the internal standards. (Author) 6 refs.

  11. Osaamisen kehittämisen haasteet, esteet ja kannusteet työuran keskivaiheen muutostilanteissa

    OpenAIRE

    Törmälä-Rantala, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia osaamisen kehittämisen haasteita, esteitä ja kannusteita työuran puolivälissä. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, miksi toinen opiskelee ja koulutuksen avulla muuttaa työtilannettaan aktiivisesti, kun taas toinen jättää osaamisensa kehittämisen ja jämähtää samaan työtehtävään vuosiksi. Kartoitus toimi taustatietona Työterveyslaitoksen Taidot työhön –hankkeeseen. Hanke toteutettiin interventiona, ja siinä opastettiin ja kannustettiin ihmisiä parantamaan työllistymiskykyään...

  12. Swimming clusters in thallium-rich liquid caesium-thallium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aart, SA; van der Lugt, W; Badyal, YS; Verkerk, P

    The purpose of the work presented here is to obtain structural information on thallium-rich caesium-thallium alloys by means of neutron diffraction. The alloys exhibit a long-range (>1 nm) superstructure. This range increases with the thallium content. The results are interpreted with the help of a

  13. Thallium 201 Scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, James H.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive isotope thallium 201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The radionuclide emits 80 keV x-rays which are suitable for scintillation camera imaging. The main clinical application of 201TI scintigraphy has been in myocardial imaging. Abnormal uptake of the isotope results in a cold spot on the myocardial image. In patients with coronary artery disease, the differentiation of ischemic and infarcted myocardium is made by comparing images obtained after injecting the radionuclide at the peak of a maximal exercise test with those obtained after injection at rest. Abnormalities due to ischemia usually are seen only on the stress image whereas fixed defects in both rest and stress studies usually indicate areas of infarction or scarring. Some investigators believe that redistribution images obtained four to six hours after stress injection (without administering further 201TI) give the same information as a separate rest study. The sensitivity of stress imaging for detecting significant coronary disease is of the order of 80 percent to 95 percent, though computer processing of the images may be necessary to achieve the higher figure. The prediction of the extent of coronary disease from 201TI images is less reliable. An abnormal 201TI image is not entirely specific for coronary artery disease and the likelihood of an abnormal image being due to this diagnosis varies according to the clinical circumstances. The main clinical value of 201TI myocardial imaging is likely to be in the noninvasive screening of patients with atypical chest pain or with ambiguous findings on stress electrocardiographic tests. It has also proved useful in studying patients with variant angina or following a coronary bypass operation. It is doubtful whether the technique is clinically helpful in most

  14. A review of the high temperature oxidation of uranium oxides in molten salts and in the solid state to form alkali metal uranates, and their composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Trevor R.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.

    An extensive review of the literature on the high temperature reactions (both in melts and in the solid state) of uranium oxides (UO 2, U 3O 8 and UO 3) resulting in the formation of insoluble alkali metal (Li to Cs) uranates is presented. Their uranate(VI) and uranate(V) compounds are examined, together with mixed and oxygen-deficient uranates. The reactions of uranium oxides with carbonates, oxides, per- and superoxides, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates and nitrites under both oxidising and non-oxidising conditions are critically examined and systematised, and the established compositions of a range of uranate(VI) and (V) compounds formed are discussed. Alkali metal uranates(VI) are examined in detail and their structural, physical, thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties considered. Chemical properties of alkali metal uranates(VI), including various methods for their reduction, are also reported. Errors in the current theoretical treatment of uranate(VI) spectra are identified and the need to develop routes for the preparation of single crystals is stressed.

  15. Thallium in coal: Analysis and environmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    López Antón, María Antonia; Spears, D. Alan; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The ecotoxicological importance of thallium stems from its acute toxicity, the effects of which are as harmful to living organisms as those of lead and mercury. The main anthropogenic sources of thallium are the emissions from coal combustion processes, underlining the need to control this element in coal and coal by-products. Despite the threat posed by thallium, very little information has been published on its behaviour in coal-fired power plants or on its modes of occurrence in coal, its ...

  16. Spectral determination of thallium isotope composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyanskij, V.A.; Turkin, Yu.I.; Yakimova, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The photoelectric non-standard method for determination of the thallium isotope composition is developed. The analysis is carried out by measuring the brightness of the Hfs components in the line Tl Iλ535.04 nm. The relative standard deviation of the results of the isotope analysis of thallium as metal is 0.02 and of thallium salts - 0.02-0.05

  17. Determination of thallium in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arabinda K; Chakraborty, Ruma; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    Determination of thallium has become a major interest because of its high toxicity, especially as the monovalent cation. Thallium poisoning in the human body must be checked quickly by analysis of biological samples. This review highlights the development of highly sensitive detection techniques applied to the determination of thallium in biological samples, with or without pretreatment, based on the literature compiled in Analytical Abstracts from 1990.

  18. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by thallium poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, N; Talamon, C; Smadja, D; Said, G

    1997-10-01

    A 20-year-old man developed over three weeks a sensory and painful neuropathy associated with diffuse alopecia. There was motor weakness, and superficial and deep hypoesthesia of the inferior limbs. Deep tendon reflexes were normal. Electrophysiological study mainly showed axonal motor neuropathy. This patient was admitted six weeks after the first symptoms. The clinical picture suggested thallium poisoning, which was confirmed by thallium concentrations in plasma, urine, hair and nails. After search, thallium was identified in a rat poison.

  19. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  20. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  1. Isolation of radioactive thallium from lead targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, M.D.; Sevast'yanova, A.S.; Malinin, A.B.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of thallium-201 preperation from Pb-targets irradiated with protons: precipitation-extraction (1) and extraction (2) - are developed. When the target irraiated is extracted during the time necessary for bismuth-201 transformation into lead-201, lead macroquantity containing lead-201 was separated from undesirable thallium radionuclides, which are formed in direct nuclear reactions. The lead fraction was extracted to accumulate thallium-201, and it was separated from lead mocroquantity. The target was dissolved in the nitric acid. The 1st method differs from the 2nd one by the fact that before thallium-201 extraction, lead was precipitaed by the nitric acid. The 1st method permits to separate thallium-201 with chemical yield not less than 90 %, the 2nd one - ≥95 %. 2 refs

  2. The luminescence properties of the octahedral uranate group in oxides with perovskite structure, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair, J.Th.W. de

    1976-01-01

    This chapter describes how the luminescence properties of the octahedral uranate group are influenced by the chemical constitution of its environment. Especially the quenching temperature of the emission is very sensitive. It is stronger influenced by the nature of the neighbouring B cations in the [100] direction than by the A cations in the [111] direction. This variation of the quenching temperature as a function of the chemical constitution of the host lattice is discussed in terms of a configurational coordinate model. The luminescence properties of uranium-activated oxides A 2+ La 3+ B + B'O 6 are also discussed. Remarkably enough in SrLaNaWO 6 -U the luminescence originates from UO 2 2+ groups. (Auth.)

  3. Unified formulation for URANS and LES in DxUNSp code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin NAE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to find a unified and efficient implementation of a LES turbulence model in an existing URANS CFD code, initially based on unsteady RANS equations with a k-ε turbulence model. This code has the capability to be developed for nonreacting/reacting multifluid flows in research applications. The paper intends to present mainly three aspects of this implementation for unstructured mesh based solvers, for high Reynolds compressible flows: the influence of the numerical reconstruction scheme on the results for compressible LES, the influence of the compressible SGS modeling and the efficient implementation of a wall-law based approach for complex geometry. The results will be presented for a test case (3D flow over a square cylinder at Reynolds = 22.000 [0] and compared with experimental data and other simulations. Some details for the computational efficiency and implementation on parallel computer cluster at INCAS will also be presented [0].

  4. Thermal decomposition of ammonium uranous fluoride to anhydrous uranium tetrafluoride in freon - 12 atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, M.Y.; El-Fekey, S.A.; Rofail, N.H.

    1978-01-01

    A systematic study on the thermal decomposition of the double salt has been carried out. A range of temperature, duration, thickness of layers during heating and flow rate of gas were investigated and the physico-chemical properties of the resulting uranium tetrafluoride determined. The chemical analysis included the determination of U 4 , UO 2 formed, UF 4 assay and UO 2 F 2 formed. The X-ray analysis confirmed the formation of anhydrous uranium tetrafluoride after heating of 0.3-cm thick ammonium uranous fluoride layer at 350 0 C while passing 0.05 litre min -1 Freon-12 for four hours. Emission spectrographic analysis confirmed nuclear purity of the final product

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  6. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

    2016-01-04

    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  7. Assessing the fate and toxicity of Thallium I and Thallium III to three aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, C J; King, M; Huntsman-Mapila, P

    2015-05-01

    Thallium has been shown to significantly increase in both water and aquatic biota after exposure to metal mine effluent, however, there is a lack of knowledge as to its fate and effect in the aquatic environment. The objectives of this project were to assess (1) fate of thallium by conducting speciation analysis and determining the influence of water quality on toxicity and (2) effects of thallium (I) and (III) on three aquatic species; the algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia and the vertebrate Pimephales promelas. Speciation analysis proved challenging with poor recovery of thallium (I), however analysis with solutions >125μg/L revealed that over a 7-d period, recovery of thallium (III) was less than 15%, suggesting that the majority of thallium (III) was converted to Thallium (I). It was only in fresh solutions where recovery of Thallium (III) was greater than 80%. The lowest IC25s generated during our effects assessment for both Thallium (I) and (III) were more than 10-fold greater than the highest concentration recorded in receiving environments (8μg/L) and more than 100-fold greater than the current guideline (0.8μg/L). To assess the influence of water quality on thallium toxicity, the concentrations of both potassium and calcium were reduced in dilution water. When potassium was reduced for both C. dubia and P. subcapitata tests, the lowest IC25 generated was 5-fold higher than the current guideline, but within the range of concentrations reported in receiving environments for both Thallium (I) and (III). When calcium was reduced in dilution water, toxicity only increased in the Tl (III) tests with C. dubia; the IC25 for Tl(III), similar to the exposures conducted with reduced potassium, was within the range of total thallium concentrations reported in the receiving environment. Without an accurate, repeatable method to assess thallium speciation at low concentrations it is not possible to draw any firm conclusions

  8. Thallium poisoning from maliciously contaminated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, W J; Hoffman, R S; Shih, R D; Weisman, R S; Goldfrank, L R

    1994-01-01

    Four young adults presented two days after one of them had received marzipan balls packaged in a box from an expensive candy manufacturer. Two ate one candy ball, while two others shared a third. The next day, variable gastrointestinal symptoms developed. On the third day, two patients developed painful paresthesiae of the hands and feet, an early but nonspecific clinical marker of thallium poisoning. A tentative diagnosis of thallium poisoning was made based on symptoms, and treatment was initiated. The remaining candies were radiographed. Metallic densities in the candies supported the diagnosis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantitate thallium content. Each candy contained a potentially fatal dose. Five to seven days later, hypertension and tachycardia developed in the two patients who had ingested an entire candy. All patients developed alopecia but recovered without overt neurologic or other sequelae. While the diagnosis of thallium poisoning is often delayed until alopecia develops, an early diagnosis favors an effective treatment strategy.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    Thallium is known as a poison, its use initially suspected in the recent death of a Russian spy, but it has a variety of more important applications in everything from medical imaging to wireless communications.

  10. The treatment of large quantities of high fluorin contents UO2 by ammonium double uranate (ADU) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bangwu; Chen Ying

    2010-01-01

    The paper has discussed the sinter action of UO 2 in low temperature. The study indicates the over hot part of UO 2 by the deoxidization hot of oxidation uranate mostly results in the sinter in the process of trans form ADU into UO 2 . The UO 2 settling times in kiln little influences the sinter performance of UO 2 in the same condition of high fluorin contents UO 2 returning kiln, and high fluorin contents UO 2 returning kiln does not sinter UO 2 again. Experiment on large quantities of high fluorin contents UO 2 by Ammonium Double Uranate (ADU) techniques direct returning kiln, the result shows the sinter performance of UO 2 doesn't drop in the process of high fluor in contents UO 2 direct returning kiln, and the performance of UO 2 can meet specification. (authors)

  11. Value of thyroid scintigraphy using thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Parmentier, S.; Beauduin, M.; Schmitz, A.; Therasse, G.

    1986-01-01

    The value of thallium-201 scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules demonstrated on the thyroid scan with technetium-99m was emphasized. From the clinical results it can be deduced that if a cold nodule is positive with thallium-201 the lesion has a high percentage of being a high risk of malignancy. This information might be quite valuable in selecting patients for operation [fr

  12. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sty, J R; Starshak, R J

    1985-01-01

    The clinical applications of thallium-201 scintigraphy are less well defined in children than in adults. However, the published data indicate several potential applications including assessment of: 1) deficit in left ventricular myocardial perfusion, 2) early right ventricular volume or pressure overload, or both, and 3) the right ventricle in both cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease. In this report, the applications of thallium imaging to pediatric diseases are described and the advantages and disadvantages of the procedure are enumerated.

  13. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  14. Thallium-201 stress imaging in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, D.S.; Francis, C.K.; Black, H.R.; Wackers, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of hypertension on the results of thallium-201 stress imaging in patients with chest pain, 272 thallium-201 stress tests performed in 133 hypertensive patients and 139 normotensive patients over a 1-year period were reviewed. Normotensive and hypertensive patients were similar in age, gender distribution, prevalence of cardiac risk factors (tobacco smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus), medications, and clinical symptoms of coronary disease. Electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy were present in 16 hypertensive patients. Stepwise probability analysis was used to determine the likelihood of coronary artery disease for each patient. In patients with mid to high likelihood of coronary disease (greater than 25% probability), abnormal thallium-201 stress images were present in 54 of 60 (90%) hypertensive patients compared with 51 of 64 (80%) normotensive patients. However, in 73 patients with a low likelihood of coronary disease (less than or equal to 25% probability), abnormal thallium-201 stress images were present in 21 patients (29%) of the hypertensive group compared with only 5 of 75 (7%) of the normotensive patients (p less than 0.001). These findings suggest that in patients with a mid to high likelihood of coronary artery disease, coexistent hypertension does not affect the results of thallium-201 exercise stress testing. However, in patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease, abnormal thallium-201 stress images are obtained more frequently in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients

  15. Kinetic behaviour of thallium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameijer, W.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    In acute experiments anaesthetized rats were treated with a subthreshold dose of 204 Tl + , given intravenously. Thallium disappeared from whole blood by means of two different half-lives (5 and 196 min, respectively), whereas Vsub(Dβ) amounted to 1400 ml. The same kinetic parameters were found after chronic exposure to toxic amounts of Tl + . After chronic exposure to thallium (10 or 30 ppm in the drinking water), the distribution of thallium over various organs proved non-specific. However, a pronounced accumulation was found in the renal medulla. In view of the importance of the renal route in the elimination of Tl + from the body and also because of the established accumulation of the toxic metal in the kidney, the influence of potent diuretic agents like furosemide and ethacrynic acid on the excretion of Tl + was studied. The enhanced excretion of water and ions (Na + ,K + ,Cl - ) was accompanied by a significantly accelerated excretion of thallium ions. High doses of ethacrynic acid (25 mg/kg) proved particularly powerful in this respect. Between the enhanced excretion of thallium and potassium ions a significant correlation was obvious, thus supporting the well-known similarity in the behaviour of these ions. The marked increase in renal elimination of thallium upon intensive diuretic treatment may be useful in the management of thallotoxicosis. (orig./AJ) [de

  16. Radiometric measurement of lead-201 and thallium-201 activity in industrial production of thallium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokov, V.S.; Azbel', G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The spectrometric methods and equipment for 201 Pb and 201 Tl activity control in the prepared thallium chloride in industrial production are described. Estimation of thallium-201 activity is carried out in accord with the square of summary photopeak caused by γ-quanta at 167 keV energy. Attenuation is paid to spectrometer calibration. 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Prabhakar R

    2013-10-15

    Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substoichiometric radiochemical determination of thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, N.; Rangamannar, B.; Krishan, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the substoichiometric determination of thallium has been developed. Tl(I) labelled with 204 Tl was substoichiometrically oxidized to Tl(III) at room temperature by bromate in HCl medium. From the above solution, 1-2 M in HCl and containing a small amount of acetone, Tl(III) was extracted with iso-amyl acetate and the activity of 204 Tl in measured aliquot of the organic phase was determined. The optimum conditions for effective oxidation, separation and determination of Tl have been worked out. Determination of Tl by this method was successful in the range 2-500 μg Tl in 5 ml of the test solution. The effect of diverse ions on the determination Tl was also investigated. (author)

  19. In situ deposition of thallium-containing oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The number and variety of thallium based materials that can be made by in situ methods have grown consistently since the first report of successful thallium cuprate deposition by Face and Nestlerode in 1992. Processes for the deposition of superconductors, normal metals, and insulators have been developed. Most work to date has been done on the Tl-1212 phases, TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7 and (Tl,Pb)Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 7 . Recently however, the in situ thallium technique has been extended to other materials. For example, epitaxial thin films of thallium tantalate, an insulator of the pyrochlore structure and a potential buffer layer for thallium cuprate films, have been grown. Multilayers, important in the fabrication of Josephson junctions, have been demonstrated with the thallium lead cuprates. This paper reviews progress in the area of in situ thallium deposition technology which will make more complex thallium cuprate multilayer structures and devices possible

  20. Redox substoichiometric determination of thallium [Paper No. RA-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Rao, K.; Rao, A.A.P.; Rangamannar, B.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the redox substoichiometric determination of thallium employing chlorate as oxident for thallium(I) has been developed. The substoichiometric amount of Tl(III) formed was isolated by extraction with iso-amyl acetate. (author)

  1. Examining of Thallium in Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; NasehGhafoori, Payam; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrzad, Fateme; Nekuei, Mina; Aaseth, Jan; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2018-04-01

    Smoking is one of the sources of thallium which is considered as a toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to determine urinary thallium levels and related variables in smokers, compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 56 participants who had smoked continuously during the year before they were referred to Kashan Smoking Cessation Clinic. Fifty-three nonsmokers who were family members or friends of the smokers were selected as the control group. Urinary thallium was measured in both groups (n = 109) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value (with SD) for urinary thallium in the smokers (10.16 ± 1.82 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.39 ± 0.63 μg/L). There was a significant relationship between smoking duration and urinary thallium levels (P = 0.003). In a subgroup of smokers who was addicted to opium and opium residues (n = 9), the mean level of thallium (37.5 ± 13.09 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the other smokers (4.93 ± 4.45; P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed opioid abuse, insomnia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), together were strong predictors of urinary thallium levels in smokers. There was no significant difference in thallium level in hookah smokers (P = 0.299) or in those with COPD compared to other smokers (P = 0.375). Urinary thallium levels of smokers with clinical signs of depression, sleep disorders, memory loss, and sweating were higher than those of smokers without these signs. Since thallium, as other toxic metals is accumulated in the body, and cigarette smoking also involves carcinogenic exposures and health hazards for passively exposed people, the need for cigarette control policies is emphasized.

  2. Thallium (III) salts utilization in organic synthesis. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, H.M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The utilizations of thallium (III) salts in organic synthesis with carbonylic and acitylenic substrates are presented. The reactions of carbonylic substra3ts with kitones and the oxidation reactions of acetylenic substrates are shown. Others reactions including thallium (III) salts and non aromatic unsatured substracts, as cleasage of ethers and epoxide using thallium trinitrate, hydrazones treatments with thallium triacetates, etc, are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  3. Preparation of Bismuth- and Thallium-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    erage work period (29); early symptoms of thallium - poisoning include hair loss. Safety considerations in handling thallium compounds should include... Thallium -Based Cuprate Superconductors by S. A. Sunshine and T. A. Vanderah Chemistry Division, Research Department Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA...Technical Report #2 10/90-9/91 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Preparation of Bismuth- and Thallium -Based Cuprate Suoerconductors NOOO14-91 WX

  4. Erosion of nails following thallium poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A; Sadhu, H G; Karnik, A B; Patel, T S; Sinha, S N; Saiyed, H N

    2004-07-01

    This case report describes a patient with thallium poisoning caused by repeated exposure to low doses of thallium. Alopecia and nail changes were the most prominent features of this case. There was dystrophy of nails in the form of whitish lunular stripes. This is the first report of complete erosion of proximal parts of nails following thallium poisoning. This case is the first report of thallium poisoning from India occurring from repeated low dose exposure.

  5. Thallium Toxicity: The Problem; An Analytical Approach; An Antidotal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-15

    low body weights in newborns of Tl-in.,xicated mothers (80). 20 Teratogenicity and Carcinogenicity Thallium is teratogenic in chick embryos, causing...Placental transfer, embryo- toxicity and teratogenicity of thallium sulfate in normal and potassium-deficient rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 16:120-132, 1970...neurological disturbances. In humans, maternal exposure produces detectable thallium levels in amniotic fluid and breast milk. Thallium is teratogenic in chick

  6. Computer simulation studies of ternary uranate phases with alkali and alkaline-earth metals: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Solid-state computer simulation techniques have been used to study the alkali and alkaline-earth metal MUO 3 uranate phases. These compounds display an interesting gradation in their structures which, it is shown, is accompanied by a variation in their intrinsic defect chemistry. For example, in the alkali-metal series, LiUO 3 adopts the lithium niobate structure and lithium Frenkel disorder dominates whereas KUO 3 and RbUO 3 adopt regular perovskite structures with Schottky defects being dominant. For the alkaline-earth metal compounds, both the calculations and experiment show that only SrUO 3 and BaUO 3 are stable with respect to the binary oxides. Both of these phases adopt the GdFeO 3 distorted perovskite structure and both have anti-site defects as the dominant intrinsic disorder. The tendency for anti-site disorder is also seen in the oxidation behaviour of these compounds. The calculations suggest that the oxidation will occur through the formation of a secondary UO 2 fluorite phase by the movement of alkaline-earth ions onto uranium sites, leaving behind M vacancies. The calculated energies for such oxidation processes are particularly favourable. The solution of alkaline-earth oxide, M 11 O, in M 11 UO 3 is shown to occur via a mechanism in which the M 11 ions substitute onto both the M 11 and U sublattices. (author)

  7. Exercise thallium testing in ventricular preexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, S.; Gornick, C.; Grund, F.; Shafer, R.; Weir, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ventricular preexcitation, as seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, results in a high frequency of positive exercise electrocardiographic responses. Why this occurs is unknown but is not believed to reflect myocardial ischemia. Exercise thallium testing is often used for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with conditions known to result in false-positive electrocardiographic responses. To assess the effects of ventricular preexcitation on exercise thallium testing, 8 men (aged 42 +/- 4 years) with this finding were studied. No subject had signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease. Subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer to a double product of 26,000 +/- 2,000 (+/- standard error of mean). All but one of the subjects had at least 1 mm of ST-segment depression. Tests were terminated because of fatigue or dyspnea and no patient had chest pain. Thallium test results were abnormal in 5 patients, 2 of whom had stress defects as well as abnormally delayed thallium washout. One of these subjects had normal coronary arteries on angiography with a negative ergonovine challenge, and both had normal exercise radionuclide ventriculographic studies. Delayed thallium washout was noted in 3 of the subjects with ventricular preexcitation and normal stress images. This study suggests that exercise thallium testing is frequently abnormal in subjects with ventricular preexcitation. Ventricular preexcitation may cause dyssynergy of ventricular activation, which could alter myocardial thallium handling, much as occurs with left bundle branch block. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography may be a better test for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with ventricular preexcitation

  8. Thallium-201 for oncological imaging in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, H R

    1993-07-01

    Many pediatric centers are beginning to accumulate a large experience in the use of thallium-201 (201Tl) imaging with 201Tl requires a state-of-the-art high-resolution gamma camera computer system with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) capability and a physician-directed tailored examination. Tumor imaging with 201Tl, with its multifactorial localization mechanisms that are different from those for gallium-67, offers a distinct advantage over gallium tumor imaging with a short total imaging time. Tumors are variable in avidity and intensity of thallium uptake. Primary and metastatic disease can be detected with 201Tl scintigraphy. Baseline pretreatment determination of thallium avidity is crucial to its efficacy in therapeutic response assessment. Adjunctive SPECT imaging provides greater sensitivity for lesion detection and direct comparison of physiology (thallium uptake) with anatomy (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging). The sensitivity and specificity for detection of pediatric brain tumors has been reported as 77% and 93%, respectively. Thallium-201 brain SPECT also provides a less expensive and more readily available alternative to positron emission tomography for assessing the functional state of pediatric brain tumors. Extremity osteogenic sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma have 100% sensitivity for 201Tl uptake pretreatment. Early results confirm an association between 201Tl uptake and histological tumor response. The determination of residual/recurrent disease versus thymic rebound and other nonneoplastic change in thallium-avid lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and germ cell tumors that involve the thorax can be confirmed with a 201Tl SPECT examination. Soft-tissue tumors elsewhere in the body may be detected with 201Tl scintigraphy. Thallium-201 does not exhibit 100% specificity for tumors. False-positive 201Tl uptake has been seen in histiocytosis X, benign bone tumors, stress fractures, and inflammation.

  9. Visualization of atrial myocardium with thallium-201: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, M.J.; Coghlan, H.C.; Logic, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    An adult patient evaluated for cyanotic congenital heart disease was found to have pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, hypoplastic right ventricle, and right atrial enlargement. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging before surgical correction showed thallium activity in the right atrium. Following the establishment of a conduit from the right atrium to pulmonary artery, the right-atrial thallium uptake was even more prominent

  10. Radiochemical determination of thallium using hydrazine as a substoichiometric agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.A.; Rangamannar, B.

    1983-01-01

    A substoichiometric method has been developed for the determination of thallium based on the reduction of thallium(III) to thallium(I). The unreacted Tl(III) was separated from Tl(I) by extracting with iso-amyl acetate. 5-50μg Tl could be determined in case Cr(VI) was absent. (author)

  11. Superconducting thallium cuprates obtained by substitution of copper for thallium in the double-thallium layer cuprate (Tl2212)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Shivakumara, C.; Manivannan, V.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of superconducting thallium cuprates of nominal composition, (Tl 2-x Cu x )Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (0 c s in the range 110--99K. The phases are metastable, decomposing at higher temperatures (∼1,150K) to a mixture of thallium cuprates, CuO and BaCuO 2 . Significantly, x=1 member decomposes at 1,150K to mixture of Tl2223, CuO and BaCuO 2 . Chemical titrations involving oxidation of bromide ions reveals that the copper substituting for thallium in (Tl 2-x Cu x )Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 most likely occurs in the III oxidation state for x≤0.25 and in a mixed state (II,III) state for x>0.25

  12. [Thallium poisoning which stimulated systemic lupus erythematosus in a child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Cabrera, M A; Sauceda-García, J M; Escalante-Galindo, P; López-Morales, E

    1991-01-01

    We report the case of a preschool boy who, without knowledge of his relatives, ingested thallium sulfate in a dose calculated in 30 mg/kg. He presented a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome and only further alopecia oriented the diagnosis of thallium toxicosis; thallium blood levels were; 37.2 micrograms/dl and in urine: 2330 micrograms/L. Treatment with the chelating agent D. penicillamine was effective, the clinical picture disappeared and the decrease of the thallium levels was observed. Thallium intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis of connective tissue disease as the above mentioned.

  13. Analysis of nine cases of acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaojiang; Liu, Liang

    2007-04-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  14. Study on the treatment of acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Qiao, Bao-Ping; Liu, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Xian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Acute thallium poisoning rarely occurs but is a serious and even fatal medical condition. Currently, patients with acute thallium poisoning are usually treated with Prussian blue and blood purification therapy. However, there are few studies about these treatments for acute thallium poisoning. Nine patients with acute thallium poisoning from 1 family were treated successfully with Prussian blue and different types of blood purification therapies and analyzed. Prussian blue combined with sequential hemodialysis, hemoperfusion and/or continuous veno-venous hemofiltration were effective for the treatment of patients with acute thallium poisoning, even after delayed diagnosis. Blood purification therapies help in the clearance of thallium in those with acute thallium poisoning. Prussian blue treatment may do the benefit during this process.

  15. Thallium and arsenic poisoning in a small midwestern town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyniak, Daniel E; Furbee, R Brent; Kirk, Mark A

    2002-03-01

    Thallium and arsenic have been used as a means of criminal poisoning. Although both manifest characteristically with peripheral neuropathies, thallium is associated with alopecia and arsenic with gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the symptoms, physical findings, diagnostic test results, and outcomes in a group of men poisoned with thallium and arsenic. Seven patients had evidence of elevated thallium levels, and 2 patients had elevated arsenic and thallium levels. The most commonly reported symptoms included myalgias, arthralgias, paresthesias, and dysesthesias. Five patients developed alopecia. All patients with symptoms and peripheral neuropathies had characteristic blackening of their hair roots. Initially treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid, patients were switched to multiple-dose activated charcoal after testing revealed thallium poisoning. By 6 months, all patients' symptoms and peripheral neuropathies improved, but 5 patients had ongoing psychiatric problems. Thallium remains a means of criminal poisoning and should be considered in any patient with a rapidly progressing peripheral neuropathy with or without alopecia.

  16. Uptake of thallium from naturally-contaminated soils into vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlícková, Jana; Zbíral, Jirí; Smatanová, Michaela; Habarta, Petr; Houserová, Pavlína; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2006-05-01

    Thallium transfer from naturally (pedogeochemically) contaminated soils into vegetables was studied. Three different types of top-soil (heavy, medium, and light) were used for pot experiments. The soils were collected from areas with low, medium, and high levels of pedogeochemical thallium (0.3, 1.5 and 3.3 mg kg(-1)). The samples of vegetables were collected and analysed. The total content of thallium in soil and the type of soil (heavy, medium and light), plant species and plant variety were found to be the main factors influencing thallium uptake by plants. The uptake of thallium from soils with naturally high pedogeochemical content of this element can be high enough to seriously endanger the food chain. These findings are very important because of the high toxicity of thallium and the absence of threshold limits for thallium in soils, agricultural products, feedstuffs and foodstuffs in most countries, including the Czech Republic.

  17. Intravenous adenosine SPECT thallium imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.M.; Grossman, S.J.; Garrett, J.S.; Sharma, B.; Geller, M.; Sweeney, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper determines the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) adenosine in females for the evaluation of coronary artery disease, since only limited data are available. Eighty consecutive studies of 78 female subjects (aged 43-83 years) using IV adenosine (0.14 mg/kg per minute) with T1-201 SPECT imaging were reviewed. Fifty-eight (73%) had mild symptoms; mild dyspnea (24%), flushing (23%), chest pain (23%), headache (11%), dizziness (11%), weakness (9%), nausea (8%), abdominal pain (8%), arm pain (6%), chest tightness (4%), neck tightness (4%), dry mouth (4%), and dropped P waves (4%). Four had moderate symptoms: dyspnea requiring Proventil or aminophylline (2%), significant hypotension (1%), and third-degree atrioventicular heart block (1%). Two had severe symptoms (ventricular tachycardia requiring cardioversion (1%) and severe dyspnea requiring epinephrine (1%). Twenty-two (28%) underwent cardiac catheterization that demonstrated coronary artery disease or postangioplasty results. The thallium SPECT images were 94% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting significant disease. The one false-negative result was in a subject who experienced no symptoms for ECG changes during adenosine infusion. Ischemic ECG changes were 35% sensitive and 100% specific. Chest pain was 53% sensitive and 60% specific

  18. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Sergio; Rios, Camilo [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, ' ' Manuel Velasco Suarez' ' , Departamento de Neuroquimica, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Soriano, Luz; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD{sub 50}. Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P < 0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain. (orig.)

  19. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Sergio; Soriano, Luz; Ríos, Camilo; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD(50). Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P<0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain.

  20. Noninvasive external cardiac pacing for thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.D.; Warren, S.E.; Gervino, E.V.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in noninvasive external cardiac pacing have led to a technique with reliable electrical capture and tolerable patient discomfort. To assess the use of this modality of pacing in combination with thallium scintigraphy as a noninvasive pacing stress test, we applied simultaneous noninvasive cardiac pacing, hemodynamic monitoring, and thallium-201 scintigraphy in 14 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for chest pain syndromes. Two patients had normal coronary arteries, while the remaining 12 had significant coronary artery disease. Thallium scintigraphic responses to pacing were compared to routine exercise thallium stress testing in nine of these 14 patients. All patients were noninvasively paced to more than 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate. Twelve patients demonstrated reversible thallium defects, which corresponded in 11 cases to significant lesions seen on coronary angiography. Of nine patients who underwent both pacing and exercise thallium stress tests, comparable maximal rate-pressure products were achieved. Moreover, thallium imaging at peak pacing and during delayed views did not differ significantly from exercise thallium scintigraphy. A limiting factor associated with the technique was local patient discomfort, which occurred to some degree in all patients. We conclude that noninvasive external cardiac pacing together with thallium scintigraphy is capable of detecting significant coronary artery disease and may be comparable to routine exercise thallium stress testing. This new modality of stress testing could be useful in patients unable to undergo the exercise required for standard exercise tolerance testing, particularly if improvements in the technology can be found to reduce further the local discomfort

  1. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2007 physics pp. 467–479. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single crystals. I M ASHRAF, H A ELSHAIKH and A M BADR. Physics Department ... pendencies of carrier lifetime on light intensity, applied voltage and temperature are also ..... 14, 797 (1935) (in Japanese). [10] A T ...

  2. Effect of eating on thallium myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Sullivan, P.J.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Morris, C.; Pohost, G.M.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if eating between initial and delayed thallium images alters the appearance of the delayed thallium scan, a prospective study was performed; 184 subjects sent for routine thallium imaging were randomized into two groups, those who ate a meal high in carbohydrates between initial and delayed thallium myocardial images (n = 106), and those who fasted (n = 78). The 201 Tl images were interpreted in blinded fashion for global myocardial and pulmonary clearance of 201 Tl myocardial defects. The eating group had a significantly lower incidence of transient myocardial defects compared to the noneating group (7 percent vs 18 percent, respectively; p less than 0.05). The time between initial and delayed images and the incidence of exercise-induced ischemic ST-segment depression or pathologic Q waves on the electrocardiogram were not significantly different between the two groups. These data suggest that eating a high-carbohydrate meal between initial and delayed 201 Tl images causes increased 201 Tl myocardial clearance rates and may alter 201 Tl myocardial redistribution over time

  3. Infrared Attenuation Of Thallium Bromoiodide Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John; Magilavy, Beryl

    1988-01-01

    Report presents measurements of attenuation of infrared signals in unclad 381-micrometer-diameter optical fibers of thallium bromoiodide. Measurements of attentuation in TI(Br,I) fibers in wavelength ranges of 1.2 to 3.4 micrometer and 3 to 11 micrometer compare with those of two other groups of researchers.

  4. [Consequences of thallium poisoning in adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kubik, Alicja; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Gergont, Aleksandra

    2005-01-01

    Thallium poisoning appears very rare in developmental age and its consequences are quite different. The aim of this study was to characterised the course of thallium poisoning in adolescent and especially electroneurophysiological consequences of it. In a 15 year old boy with sensory-motor polyneuropathy thallium poisoning was recognised in the third week duration of the symptoms. Hemodialysis and hemodiaperfusion were used in the therapy. Data of the repeated electroneurographic and videoEEG examinations were collected. First electroneurographic data showed axonal motor polyneuropathy. Control after 1 year presented the largest form of the motor-sensory polyneuropathy. On videoEEG tape rejestered in the 5th month of clinical symptoms of poisoning, present were tonic seizures (although EEG pattern was flat with short low voltage theta activity). After next the 3 months of encephalopathy and phenobarbital therapy, voltage of the EEG pattern was slightly higher without any background and seizure activity. Thallium poisoning may result with catastrophic clinical consequences of polyneuropathy and encephalopathy. Electroneurographic and electroencephalographic changes 1 year after indicate that clinical consequences of the poisoning are un-remediable.

  5. Substoichiometric radio chemical separation of thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, N.; Rangamannar, B.; Krishnan, V.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method of substoichiometric separation of microgram quantities of thallium has been developed' Tl(I) was substoichiometrically oxidized with bromate from 1-2 M HCl. Tl(III) thus formed was separate from unreacted Tl(I) by extraction into iso-amyl acetate. (orig.)

  6. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work elucidates the photoconductivity (PC) of thallium monosulfide single crystals. Results are obtained in the 77-300 K temperature range, 1500-4500 V lx excitation intensity, 6-18 V applied voltage, and in the 640-1500 nm wavelength range. Both the ac-photoconductivity (ac-PC) and the spectral distribution of the ...

  7. NANOMETER SUPERSTRUCTURE IN LIQUID ALKALI THALLIUM ALLOYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, R; VERKERK, P; HOWELLS, WS; DEWIJS, GA; VANDERHORST, F; VANDERLUGT, W

    1993-01-01

    Structure factors obtained from neutron diffraction measurements on liquid K-Tl and Cs-Tl alloys exhibit large prepeaks at approximately 0.77 angstrom-1 and 0.70 angstrom-1, respectively. It is concluded that the liquid contains large units of thallium atoms, possibly bearing some resemblance to

  8. Potassium and thallium uptake in dog myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, J B; Winkler, B; King, R B

    1997-02-01

    We sought to ascertain the rates and mechanisms of uptake of markers for regional myocardial blood flows. The rates of exchange of potassium and thallium across capillary walls and cell membranes in isolated blood-perfused dog hearts were estimated from multiple indicator dilution curves recorded for 131I-albumin, 42K and 201Tl from the coronary sinus outflow following injection into arterial inflow. Analysis involved fitting the observed dilution curves with a model composed of a capillary-interstitial fluid-cell exchange region and nonexchanging larger vessels. Capillary permeability surface products (PSc) for potassium and thallium were similar, 0.82 +/- 0.33 (mean +/- s.d., n = 19) and 0.87 +/- 0.32 ml min-1 g-1 (n = 24) with a ratio for simultaneous pairs of 1.02 +/- 0.27 (n = 19). For the myocardial cells, PSpc averaged 3.7 +/- 3.1 ml min-1 g-1 (n = 19) for K+ and 9.5 +/- 3.9 (n = 24) for Tl+; the ratio of potassium to thallium averaged 0.40 +/- 0.19 (n = 18), thereby omitting a single high value for potassium. This high cellular influx for thallium is interpreted as due to its passage through ionic channels for both Na+ and K+. The high permeabilities and large volumes of distribution make thallium and potassium among the best ionic deposition markers for regional flow. Their utility for this purpose is compromised by significant capillary barrier limitation retarding uptake; so regional flow is underestimated modestly in high-flow regions particularly.

  9. Removal of thallium by deferasirox in rats as biological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljooghi, Amir Sh; Fatemi, S Jamiladin

    2011-03-01

    The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of deferasirox in removing thallium after its administration for 30 days following two dose levels of 20 and 160 μm of thallium (III) chloride to male Wistar rats every day. After thallium administration some abnormal clinical signs such as red staining around the eyes, greenish mottling on the liver, weakness, loss of hair and weight, were observed in animals. Deferasirox was given orally to different groups of rats for a period of one week immediately after thallium administration. After chelation therapy, animals were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta, and then thallium and iron concentrations in various tissues were determined by standard addition method. The chelation therapy results showed that deferasirox was able to remove thallium ions from the body and clinical symptoms were also reduced. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: findings on thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, V.W.; Rosen, M.P.; Baum, A.; Cohen, S.E.; Cooley, T.P.; Liebman, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    No simple, noninvasive method is available for evaluating extracutaneous Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients or for following the tumor's response to treatment. We report our preliminary experience with thallium-201 scintigraphy in nine AIDS patients with proved Kaposi sarcoma. Eight of the nine had abnormal uptake of the radionuclide in skin, lymph nodes, oral cavity, vagina, and lungs. Only four of the nine had cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma at the time of scanning. All cutaneous and mucosal lesions were thallium avid. Two of the six patients with thallium-avid nodes underwent nodal biopsy. Both biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma. Cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma developed later in one of these patients, showing the efficacy of thallium scintigraphy for the early detection of extracutaneous lesions. These preliminary results show thallium avidity in Kaposi sarcoma involving the skin and various extracutaneous sites (lymph nodes, lung, mucosa, and vagina). Thallium scintigraphy is a potentially useful procedure for detecting extracutaneous Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients

  11. Thallium distribution in organs and brain regions of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Arzate, S; Ríos, C

    1994-05-31

    The concentration of thallium in body organs and brain regions was studied in rats as a function of the animals age from newborn to 20-days old. Thallium was analyzed at different times after a single sublethal i.p. injection of the metal (16 mg/kg). The results indicate that the brain is less permeable to thallium in the older animals, suggesting that reduced thallium transport into the brain is related to the establishment of the blood-brain barrier in the rats. Differences between weanling and newborn rats were also found in regard to regional distribution of thallium in the brain as the older animals showed a region-dependent distribution while newborn rats presented an homogeneous content of thallium among all regions.

  12. Organ/tissue disposition of thallium in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, E; Gregotti, C; Edel, J; Marafante, E; Di Nucci, A; Manzo, L

    1982-01-01

    The placental transfer of thallium was studied in rats treated with a toxic dose of thallium sulphate (10 mg Tl/kg b.wt. p.o.), as well as in animals injected intraperitoneally with 201Tl-labelled thallium in amounts as low as 2 micrograms Tl/rat. Rapid uptake and retention of thallium in both maternal and fetal organs were observed. The administration of potassium ferrihexacyanoferrate II (100 mg/kg b.wt. twice daily by gavage) to rats acutely intoxicated with thallium on day 17 of pregnancy resulted in significant decrease of thallium concentrations in various maternal tissues including brain, in the placenta as well as in the fetal liver and brain. Potassium ferrihexacyanoferrate II also reduced the mortality of pregnant animals in the 72-h interval after the intoxication.

  13. How reliable is reperfusion imaging without reinjection of thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.H.; Henkin, R.E.; Dillehay, G.L.; Mulvany, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    The standard procedure for reperfusion thallium imaging is a delay between stress and rest images. The authors have noted an increasing number of fixed lesions in patients. The imaging technique was changed by giving an additional 1 mCi of thallium before obtaining reperfusion images if stress images were abnormal. Before the additional thallium dose, a single view was obtained in the projection best demonstrating the stress thallium defect. Routine imaging was carried out after reinjection. Images were obtained in 50 patients and reviewed by two experienced nuclear physicians. Both physicians agreed that 13 patients had increased reversibility, and 22 patients were unchanged. In 15 cases, one of the two physicians identified greater reversibility. It is our authors' conclusion that reperfusion imaging without an additional thallium injection leads to underestimation of the reversibility of lesions on thallium images

  14. [Nervous system involvement in three children poisoned with thallium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergont, Aleksandra; Lankosz-Lauterbach, Janina; Pietrzyk, Jacek J; Kaciński, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Three children, aged 5, 10 and 16 years, poisoned with thallium were hospitalized. Two of them suffered from sensory-motor and third from sensory polyneuropathy and additionally in the youngest child severe encephalopathy was observed. The correlations between serum and urine thallium levels and the severity of the symptoms in the course of the disease were positive. The most severe symptoms and the highest thallium level were observed in the youngest child.

  15. Study and development recuperation of Thallium-203 from bombarded targets of this metal in production of Thallium-201 via addition of Thallium-201 radioisotope as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thallium-203 is the main material for 201 TlCl 3 radiopharmaceutical. It is very important to recover the remaining enriched Thallium-203 in every stage of the process to be reused in the production loop. In this research, the recuperation of Thallium-203 was studied with Dowex 50 WΧ8 ion exchange resin and Thallium-201 as a tracer. The results based on filling of ( 1 8 X 1.5) cm columns with this resin showed that the best flow rate of eluent is 2 ml/min. Also the most suitable volumes are 200 mL (HNO 3 0.05 M), 400 mL (solution of Thallium-203), 100 mL (H 2 O), 500 mL (Citric acid), 100 mL (H 2 0), 100 mL (EDTA 0.5 M and pH∼12.5). 60 mL (H 2 0), respectively

  16. [Thallium poisoning a clinical analysis of 5 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Wei, J; Li, S

    1998-08-01

    To sumarize the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of thallium poisoning by analysis of clinical cases. Five cases of thallium poisoning were reported. The clinical manifestations, quantitative-analysed thallium level, methods and effect of treatment, and prognosis were analysed. Three of the 5 cases were acute, and the other two chronic. Four of them had a history of poison contact. The clinical features included alopicia (4 cases), transverse white stripes in the nails (Mee's stripes, 2) polyneuropathy, cranial nerve and central nervous system impairments (5), and abdominal pain and other digestion disturbances (3). All of the 5 cases were treated with antidotes and other methods to increase thallium excretion. One case died of lung infection 3 days after diagnosis. The serum and urine thallium levels of the 4 survivors decreased to normal after treatment (3 recovered, one had neurologic sequelae). It is not difficult to diagnose thallium poisoning by definite poison contact history, classical manifestation, and serum or urine thallium quantitative analysis. Attention should be paid to those patients with indefinite exposure to thallium. For those suspected cases, it is necessary to measure the thallium level in blood and urine in order to verify the diagnosis.

  17. Pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics of some thallium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tultaev, A.V.; Tarasenko, Yu.I.; Popov, V.I.; Korsunskij, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics is studied, radiation doses to patients when using domestic thallium-201 chloride in diagnosis of the heart ischemic disease is estimated; contribution into the total dose of thallium-201 (1.5 %), thallium-201 (0.2 %) and lead-201 + lead-203 (0.05 %) radionuclide impurities is also determined. Internal doses were estimated for a heterogeneous phantom of a standard man; the calculations were carried out using a computer. Scanning of patients which were treated with radiopharmaceuticals to be diagnosed was carried out using a whole body counter and gamma-chamber. Large intestine, kidneys and thyroid are the critical organs when using thallium-201 chloride. The highest contribution into the dose to organs and the whole body from thallium-200 and thallium-202 impurities being contained in thallium-201, doesn't exceed 8.6 %. The contribution into the dose from lead-201 and lead-203 may be ignored. Doses from thallium-199 preparation per activity unit are ∼10 times less in comparison with those from thallium-201. 19 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  18. Comparison of thallium perfusion and electrocardiographic findings at exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy with coronary arteriographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Chiba, Hiroshi; Mitani, Isao; Yamagami, Hidetoshi; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Haze, Kazuo

    1989-01-01

    Findings of thallium-201 perfusion (Tl) and exercise electrocardiography (ECG) at exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy were compared with coronary arteriographic findings (CAG) in 283 patients. We classified these cases into four groups by Tl and ECG; [A] Tl(+)·ECG(+), [B] Tl(+)·ECG(-), [C] Tl(-)·ECG(+), [D] Tl(-)·ECG(-). Redistribution of thallium-201 was evaluated by qualitative (visual) analysis. Three percent of group A consisted of the patients with normal coronary artery, and thirty-eight percent of group D consisted of the patients with coronary artery disease. On exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic imagings, most of patients with normal coronary artery showed redistribution of inferior (24%) and septum (45%). On exercise electrocardiographic findings, most of patients with normal coronary artery showed ST-segment depression in II, III, aV F , V 5 and V 6 . In patients with coronary artery diseases, single vessel disease in group B was larger than that in group C (62% vs. 33%, p<0.05), and triple vessel disease and left main truncus disease in group C was larger than that in group B (37% vs. 10%, p<0.05). On exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic imagings, most of false negative in patients with coronary artery disease changed to true positive by quantitative analysis. The patients with less than 90% coronary stenosis in group C was larger than that in group B (65% vs. 100%). (author)

  19. Thallium-201 scintigraphy after intravenous infusion of adenosine compared with exercise thallium testing in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, E.P.; Belvedere, D.A.; Vande Streek, P.R.; Weiland, F.L.; Evans, R.B.; Spaccavento, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenously produced compound that has significant effects as a coronary and systemic vasodilator. Previous studies suggest that intravenous infusion of adenosine, coupled with thallium-201 scintigraphy, may have specific value as a noninvasive means of evaluating coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of adenosine thallium testing with that of standard exercise thallium testing. One hundred subjects were studied with exercise thallium imaging and thallium imaging after adenosine infusion, including 47 with angiographically proved coronary artery disease and 53 control subjects. The overall sensitivity of the thallium procedures was 81% for the exercise study and 83% for the adenosine study (p = NS); the specificity was 74% for the exercise study and 75% for the adenosine study (p = NS). The diagnostic accuracy of the exercise study was 77% and that of the adenosine study was 79%. Ninety-four percent of subjects had an adverse effect due to the adenosine infusion; however, most of these effects were mild and well tolerated. All adverse effects abated within 30 to 45 s of the termination of the study, consistent with the very brief half-life of the agent. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy after intravenous infusion of adenosine has a diagnostic value similar to that of exercise thallium testing for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Adenosine thallium testing may be particularly useful in evaluating patients unable to perform treadmill exercise testing

  20. Myocardial thallium-201 kinetics in normal and ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, A.M.; Watson, D.D.; Holzgrefe, H.H. Jr.; Irving, J.F.; Beller, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The net myocardial accumulation of thallium-201 after injection depends upon the net balance between continuing myocardial extraction from low levels of recirculating thallium in the blood compartment and the net rate of efflux of thallium from the myocardium into the extracardiac blood pool. These experiments were designed to measure separately the myocardial extraction and intrinsic myocardial efflux of thallium-201 at normal and at reduced rates of myocardial blood flow. The average myocardial extraction fraction at normal blood flow in 10 anesthetized dogs was 82 +/- 6% (+/- SD) at normal coronary arterial perfusion pressures and increased insignificantly, to 85 +/- 7%, at coronary perfusion pressures of 10--35 mm Hg. At normal coronary arterial perfusion pressures in 12 additional dogs, the intrinsic thallium washout in the absence of systemic recirculation had a half-time (T 1/2) of 54 +/- 7 minutes. The intrinsic cellular washout rate began to increase as distal perfusion pressures fell below 60 mm Hg and increased markedly to a T 1/2 of 300 minutes at perfusion pressures of 25--30 mm Hg. A second, more rapid component of intrinsic thallium washout (T 1/2 2.5 minutes) representing approximately 7% of the total initially extracted myocardial thallium was observed. The faster washout component is presumed to be due to washout of interstitial thallium unextracted by myocardial cells, whereas the slower component is presumed due to intracellular washout. The net clearance time of thallium measured after i.v. injection is much longer than the intrinsic myocardial cellular washout rate because of continuous replacement of myocardial thallium from systemic recirculation. Myocardial redistribution of thallium-201 in states of chronically reduced perfusion cannot be the result of increased myocardial extraction efficiency, but rather, is the result of the slower intrinsic cellular washout rate at reduced perfusion levels

  1. Kinetics of thallium exchange in cultured rat myocardial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, D; Zimmer, L J; Katz, A M

    1985-03-01

    The kinetics of thallium exchange in cultured rat myocardial cells were studied and compared to those of potassium in the same tissue. Studies were carried out using low concentrations (10 nM to 5 microM) of thallium-204, approximating those likely to be encountered during clinical myocardial scintigraphy. Both thallium uptake and release could be described by a single exponential with a half-time of exchange which was approximately half that of potassium and which was largely independent of extracellular thallium concentration. Some 60% of thallium uptake occurred via an "active" or ouabain-inhibitable mechanism which, in the absence of extracellular potassium, could be activated by low concentrations (10 nM to 5 microM) of thallium. The apparent Km for thallium on this active transport mechanism was 2-7 microM. Increasing extracellular potassium from 0-10 mM caused significant, concentration-dependent decreases in both the total and the active component of the thallium influx. Similarly nonradioactive thallium (0.10 microM to 0.10 mM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in active potassium influx. Analysis of these results by both Lineweaver-Burk plots and Dixon plots confirmed competitive inhibition, potassium on thallium influx and vice versa, for the active component of the fluxes, and noncompetitive in the remainder. These findings indicate that active transport accounts for the greater portion of the influx of thallium and potassium, and that this active transport occurs via a common mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Radiochemical determination of thallium by substoichiometric reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, N.; Rangamannar, B.; Krishnan, V.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of thallium by substoichiometric reduction of Tl(III) with thiourea and separation of the two oxidation states by the extraction of the former into iso-amyl acetate. Thiourea reduces Tl(III) at room temperature quantitatively, with a 2:1 stoichiometry. 2-25 μg Tl can be determined by this method with a precision of 4%. (author)

  3. Acute painful neuropathy in thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, H-C; Huang, C-C; Tsai, Y-T; Chu, C-C; Hsieh, S-T; Chu, N-S

    2005-07-26

    Dysesthesia, allodynia, distal muscle weakness, and sensory impairment were noted in two patients with acute thallium intoxication. Two months later, nerve conduction studies showed an axonal degeneration. Sural nerve biopsy disclosed a decreased fiber density in the large myelinated fibers. Quantitative sensory testing also revealed an impairment of pinprick, temperature, and touch sensations. Cutaneous nerve biopsy confirmed a loss of epidermal nerves indicating an involvement of the small sensory nerves.

  4. Thallium contents of 16 USGS standard rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F.O.; Campbell, E.Y.; Aruscavage, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    Thallium was determined in 16 USGS standard rocks by atomic absorption spectroscopy in which a heated graphite atomizer was used after extraction as thallium iodide into amyl acetate. Four subsamples from four bottles of each standard sample, except G-1 and W-1, were analyzed in random order, and the average thallium contents in parts per million (as Tl) were AGV-1, 0.41; GSP-1, 1.63; G-2, 1.08; BCR-1, 0.35; SDC-1, 0.80; MAG-1, 0.79; BHVO-1, 0.049; SCO-1, 0.79; SGR-1, 0.34; QLO-1, 0.23; RGM-1, 1.07 ; STM-1, 0.30; DTS-1, <0.005; and PCC-1, <0.005. The analysis of variance showed that all samples may be considered homogeneous at F0.975 and only GSP-1 may be considered heterogeneous at F0.95. The Tl contents of G-1 and W-1 are 1.0 and 0.12 ppm, respectively.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and molecular structure of tetraethylammonium pentakis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine)uranate(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, R.O.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Brown, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis of tetraethylammonium pentakis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine)uranate(IV) has been accomplished, and it was characterized by classical physical methods. The crystal and molecular structure was determined from single-crystal x-ray data collected by the theta-2theta technique on an automated diffractometer. The compound consists of pentakis(isothiocyanato)bis (2,2'-bipyridine)uranate(IV) anions and disordered tetraethylammonium cations. Uranium is bound to nine nitrogen atoms in a highly distorted monocapped square antiprism in which one bipyridine occupies a position bridging the cap and the near square while the other bipyridine spans the opposite edge of the far square. Distortion from the ideal geometry is caused by the small ligand bite of the bipyridine ligand. An alternative description of the coordination geometry is derived from the seven-coordinate pentagonal bipyramid in which each bipyridine ligand is assumed to occupy an axial position with the five thiocyanato ligands forming the pentagonal girdle. The U-N bond distances vary from 2.35 to 2.47 A for the thiocyanato ligands and from 2.61 to 2.65 A for the bipyridine ligands. The structure was solved by standard heavy-atom techniques and refined by large-block matrix least squares to a final R value of 0.083 for 3878 independent observed reflections. The compound crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /c, Z = 4, with lattice parameters a = 14.427 (10) A, b = 18.612 (17) A, c = 15.710 (10) A, and β = 105.17 (7) 0 , rho/sub obsd/ = 1.57 g cm -3

  6. Tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration in two-step thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Takeshita, Takayuki; Tateyama, Maki; Takeda, Atsushi; Aoki, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    Thallium intoxication was reported in cases with accidental ingestion, suicide attempt, and criminal adulteration. Reported cases were mostly one-time ingestion, therefore, the clinical course of divisional ingestion has not been fully known. Here, we report a case with two-step thallium intoxication manifesting as tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration. A 16-year-old adolescent was cryptically poisoned with thallium sulfate twice at an interval of 52days. After the first ingestion, neurologic symptoms including visual loss, myalgia, and weakness in legs developed about 40days after the development of acute gastrointestinal symptoms and alopecia. After the second ingestion, neurologic symptoms deteriorated rapidly and severely without gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging exhibited bilateral optic nerve atrophy. Nerve conduction studies revealed severe peripheral neuropathies in legs. Thallium intoxication was confirmed by an increase in urine thallium egestion. Most of the neurologic manifestations ameliorated in two years, but the visual loss persisted. The source of thallium ingestion was unraveled afterward because a murder suspect in another homicidal assault confessed the forepast adulteration. This discriminating clinical course may be attributable to the cumulative neurotoxicity due to the longer washout-time of thallium in the nervous system than other organs. It is noteworthy that the divisional thallium intoxication may manifest as progressive optic and peripheral neuropathy without gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thallium: a review of public health and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, A L John; Viraraghavan, T

    2005-05-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a rare but widely dispersed element. All forms of thallium are soluble enough to be toxic to living organisms. Thallium is more toxic to humans than mercury, cadmium, lead, copper or zinc and has been responsible for many accidental, occupational, deliberate, and therapeutic poisonings since its discovery in 1861. Its chemical behavior resembles the heavy metals (lead, gold and silver) on the one hand and the alkali metals (K, Rb, Cs) on the other. It occurs almost exclusively in natural waters as monovalent thallous cation. The solubility of thallous compounds is relatively high so that monovalent thallium is readily transported through aqueous routes into the environment. Tl can be transferred from soils to crops readily and accrues in food crops. The fascinating chemistry and high toxicity potential make thallium and its compounds of particular scientific interest and environmental concern. Thallium was detected in base-metal mining effluents. The conventional removal of heavy metals from wastewater has little effect on thallium. In this review, various treatment options and removal technologies are enumerated in order to protect the environment from thallium toxicity.

  8. Core excitations to the low lying states of thallium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenbaum, L.; Tomaselli, M.; Herold, D.

    1977-08-01

    The admixture of core excitations to the low lying states of A = 203 and A = 205 thallium isotopes has been calculated. The wave functions obtained reproduce the electromagnetic properties as well as the hyperfine splittings and the isomershifts of both thallium isotopes. (orig.) [de

  9. Acute Severe Thallium Poisoning: Early Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Livanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problems of diagnosis of severe thallium salt poisoning in early-stage intoxication, which are associated with the fact that alopecia, a clinical typical symptom of thallium toxicity, appears in the period exceeding two weeks. At the same time, in severe poisoning a fatal outcome occurs much more early and the first signs of intoxication are highly diversified and nonspecific. The clinical manifestations with no specificity at the early period of intoxication in conjunction with the absence of certain history data result in late (sometimes postmortem diagnosis in the vast majority of cases, particularly, in criminal cases. This comprises a danger of acute severe thallium poisoning since unrecognized intoxication leads to incorrect treatment and patient death. While making a differential diagnosis, attention should be given to a set of a number of symptoms that arouse suspicion of thallium poisoning, which is an indication for chemical and analytical studies of biological environments in these patients. This paper summarizes the available data on ethyology, pathogenesis and cliniu-cal manifestations of severe thallium poisoning and demonstrate own cases of thallium intoxication occurred recently in Yaroslavl and Saint Petersburg. Basic strategy of thallium poisoning treatment is presented and discussed. Key words: acute poisoning, thallium compounds, antidote therapy, diffeferential diagnosis.

  10. Thallium-201 scintigraphy in diagnosis of coronary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corne, R.A.; Gotsman, M.S.; Weiss, A.; Enlander, D.; Samuels, L.D.; Salomon, J.A.; Warshaw, B.; Atlan, H.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of rest and exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy for the detection of significant coronary artery disease and myocardial ischaemia was compared with rest and exercise electrocardiography in 46 patients with chest pain. Of 26 patients with greater that 70 per cent coronary stenosis, 16 had abnormal rest thallium-201 scintigrams and 13 had Q waves. Myocardial perfusion defects in the resting scintigram correlated very well with evidence of previous myocardial infarction (16 of 17 patients, 94%) significant Q waves were present in 13 of these 17 patients (76%). After exercise, abnormal thallium-201 scintigrams consistent with ischaemia were found in 21 patients (81%). Abnormal exercise electrocardiograms were present in 15 patients (58%). The combination of abnormal exercise thallium-201 scintigrams or exercise electrocardiograms (23/26, 88%) exceeded abnormal exercise electrocardiograms alone (15/26, 58%). The two procedures were thus complementary. Abnormal rest or exercise thallium-201 scintigrams were obtained in 25/26 patients (96%) compared with abnormal rest or exercise electrocardiograms in 21/26 patients (84%). Twenty patients with less than 50 per cent coronary stenosis had normal rest thallium-201 scintigrams and no Q waves. Two had abnormal exercise thallium-201 scintigrams and 7 had abnormal exercise electrocardiograms. Thus,exercise thallium scintigraphy has higher sensitivity than exercise electrocardiography in detecting exercise induced ischaemia and is more specific. Scintigraphy appears to have a higher sensitivity than electrocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease. (author)

  11. Comparison of myocardial potassium and thallium flux as studied by tracer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, J; Steinbeck, G; Lüderitz, B

    1980-06-01

    Although myocardial scintigraphy with 201thallium is widely applied in humans, the behavior of thallium at the cellular level is still under discussion. We compared the transmembrane fluxes of potassium and thallium in the isolated papillary muscle of guinea pigs. A qualitative conformity exists between potassium and thallium fluxes with respect to heart rate and temperature. Quantative comparison revealed a decreased flux rate of thallium for efflux when compared with potassium. The time dependence of thallium influx indicates that thallium scintigraphy of the myocardium reflects mainly an extracellular distribution.

  12. Clinical manifestations and management of acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guohua; Ding, Meiping; Zhang, Baorong; Lv, Wen; Yin, Houmin; Zhang, Liang; Ying, Zhilin; Zhang, Qiong

    2008-01-01

    Clinical information regarding 3 patients diagnosed with acute thallium poisoning was collected and retrospectively analyzed. All 3 patients presented with severe burning pain in the lower limbs and the abdomen. Diffuse alopecia, hepatic dysfunction and Mees' lines in the digits of each limb were observed between 2 and 3 weeks after onset. A physical examination demonstrated paresthesia of all 4 limbs, but normal deep tendon reflexes. Blood and urine thallium concentrations were significantly elevated. Treatment was initiated using hemoperfusion, hemodialysis, potassium supplementation, oral laxatives and B complex supplementation. Clinical symptoms improved as blood and urine thallium concentrations decreased, although a residual sensory neuropathy remained. This study demonstrated that the primary clinical manifestations of acute thallium poisoning include gastrointestinal symptoms, polyneuropathy and dermatological changes. Hemoperfusion and hemodialysis may be effective treatments for acute thallium poisoning. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A fatal case of thallium toxicity: challenges in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, R; Pandalai, S L; Schwartz, M; Kazzi, Z N

    2013-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic compound and is occasionally involved in intentional overdoses or criminal poisonings. Accidental poisonings also occur, but are increasingly rare owing to restricted use and availability of thallium. We report a fatal suicidal ingestion of thallium sulfate rodenticide in which multi-dose activated charcoal (MDAC) and Prussian Blue (PB) were both used without changing the outcome. A 36 year old man ingested an unknown amount of thallium sulfate grains from an old rodenticide bottle. He presented to an emergency department (ED) 45 minutes later with abdominal pain and vomiting. On examination he was agitated with a blood pressure of 141/60 mmHg and a heart rate of 146 beats per minute (bpm). He received MDAC during his initial ED management and was started on PB 18 hours post arrival; he was intubated on the following day for airway protection. The patient continued to be tachycardic and hypertensive and subsequently developed renal failure. On hospital day three, the patient developed hypotension that did not respond to fluids. The patient required vasopressors and was transferred to a tertiary care center to undergo continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The patient died shortly after his transfer. His last blood thallium concentration was 5369 mcg/L, a spot urine thallium >2000 mcg/L, and a 24- hour urine thallium was >2000 mcg/L. Though extremely rare, thallium intoxication can be lethal despite early administration of MDAC and use of Prussian blue therapy. Rapid initiation of hemodialysis can be considered in cases of severe thallium poisoning, to remove additional thallium, to correct acid-base disturbance, or to improve renal function.

  14. Is thallium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats connected with riboflavin and/or GSH?--reconsideration of hypotheses on the mechanism of thallium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, D; Winnefeld, K

    1999-01-01

    Adult female Wistar rats (Han:Wist) were injected with 2 mg of Tl2SO4 per 100 g body weight. Parameters of nephrotoxicity were urinary volume and protein excretion as well as blood urea nitrogen concentration. Thallium concentrations were determined in renal cortex and medulla. There was no effect of different schedules of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) treatment on thallium nephrotoxicity. Glutathione (GSH) concentration was not decreased by thallium in renal cortex or in medulla. The increase of GSH concentration in renal tissue by N-acetylcysteine pretreatment did not influence thallium nephrotoxicity. Buthionine sulphoximine diminished thallium nephrotoxicity by a significant decrease of thallium concentration in renal medulla, which was caused by enhanced urinary excretion of thallium. From our investigations we conclude that there is no relation between thallium-induced nephrotoxicity and riboflavin and/or GSH.

  15. Structural and electronic properties of thallium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Neetu; Srivastava, Vipul

    2016-05-01

    The tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA has been used to calculate structural and electronic properties of thallium pnictides TlX (X=Sb, Bi) at high pressure. As a function of volume, the total energy is evaluated. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a0), bulk modulus (B0), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed metallic behaviour in TlSb and TlBi compounds. The values of equilibrium lattice constants and bulk modulus are agreed well with the available data.

  16. Structural and electronic properties of thallium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliwal, Neetu, E-mail: neetumanish@gmail.com [Department of Physics, AISECT University Bhopal, 464993 (India); Srivastava, Vipul [Department of Engineering Physics, NRI Institute of Research & Technology, Raisen Road, Bhopal, 462021 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA has been used to calculate structural and electronic properties of thallium pnictides TlX (X=Sb, Bi) at high pressure. As a function of volume, the total energy is evaluated. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed metallic behaviour in TlSb and TlBi compounds. The values of equilibrium lattice constants and bulk modulus are agreed well with the available data.

  17. Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2005-07-01

    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture.

  18. Chelation of thallium by combining deferasirox and desferrioxamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljooghi, Amir Shokooh; Babaie, Maryam; Mendi, Fatemeh Delavar; Zahmati, Maliheh; Saljooghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that two known chelators deferasirox (4-[3,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid) and desferrioxamine (DFO) might be more efficient as combined treatment than as monotherapies in removing thallium from the body was tested in a new acute rat model. 7-week-old male Wistar rats received chelators: deferasirox (orally), DFO (intraperitoneal; i.p.), or deferasirox + DFO as 75 or 150 mg/kg dose half an hour after a single i.p. administration of 8 mg thallium/kg body weight in the form of chloride. Serum thallium concentration, urinary thallium, and iron excretions were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Both chelators were effective only at the higher dose level, while DFO was more effective than deferasirox in enhancing urinary thallium excretion, deferasirox was more effective than DFO in enhancing urinary iron excretion. In the combined treatment group, deferasirox did not increase the DFO effect on thallium and DFO did not increase the effect of deferasirox on iron elimination. Our results support the usefulness of this animal model for preliminary in vivo testing of thallium chelators. Urinary values were more useful because of the high variability of serum results. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Radiometric titration of thallium(III) with EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.R.S.; Pulla Rao, Ch.; Tataiah, G.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive solutions containing very small amounts of thallium(III) can be determined by radiometric titration using ammonia as hydrolysing agent. Aqueous solution of thallium(I) (both inactive and radioactive) is treated with bromine water till the appearance of the brown colour of bromine, and the solution is warmed to 80 deg C to expel the excess bromine. By this procedure all thallium(I) is quantitatively oxidised to thallium(III). An aqueous solution of ammonia is added to precipitate thallium(III) as thallic oxide. It is then filtered, washed with water to free it from bromide and then dissolved in 2N HCl and the solution is then standardised. 2 ml of this solution is transferred to a 20 ml volumetric flask, 1 ml of radioactive thallium(III) solution to be standardised is added as well as incremental amounts of EDTA solution and mixed thoroughly. Uncomplexed thallium(III) is then precipitated by the addition of an ammonia solution and diluted to 20 ml. Required amount of this mixture is centrifuged. The beta activity of the supernatant aliquot is measured using a GM counter. Quantitative determination of Tl(III) in the range of 1-10 μM can be carried out. The interference of cations such as Au(III), iron(III), Ga(III) can be eliminated by pretreatment of the Tl(III) solution before carrying out radiometric titration. The results obtained are reproducible and accurate to +-3%. (T.I.)

  20. Isoproterenol stress thallium scintigraphy for detecting coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Masuoka, Takeshi; Iida, Kaname; Sugishita, Yasuro; Ito, Iwao; Takeda, Tohru; Toyama, Hinako; Akisada, Masayoshi

    1989-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic value of isoproterenol (ISP) thallium scintigraphy. The findings were compared with those of ISP-ECG and exercise thallium scintigraphy. The study population consisted of 24 patients who had a history of chest pain without previous myocardial infarction. ISP was given at increasing doses of 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 μg/mg/min at 3-minutes intervals, and was terminated for any of the following reasons: angina, significant arrhythmia, significant ST segment depression, or target heart rate. Thallium scintigrams were obtained immediately after terminating ISP infusion, and after a 3-hour delay, redistribution scans were obtained. Scintigrams were considered positive when a reversible defect was present. After stress tests, coronary angiography was performed. According to the presence or absence of significant coronary artery stenosis, the patients were divided into coronary artery disease (CAD) group (n=12) and so-called normal coronary (NC) group (n=12). Among 12 patients in the CAD group, ISP induced anginal pain in six (50%), and ISP-ECT and ISP thallium scintigraphy were positive in 10 (83%) and in 11 (92%), compared with four(33%), four(33%) and two (17%) in the NC group. These data indicate that ISP-ECG had a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 67%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 75%; and the corresponding figures for ISP thallium scintigraphy were 92%, 83%, and 88%. Among nine patients who underwent both ISP thallium scintgraphy and exercise thallium scintigraphy, all patients, except for one false negative case on ISP thallium scintigraphy, were correctly diagnosed. No serious complications occurred in association with the ISP infusion test. ISP thallium scintigraphy was considered to be a safe, sensitive, and specific method for diagnosing CAD when exercise tests were intolerable. (N.K.)

  1. Thallium intoxication produces neurochemical alterations in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S F; Jairaj, K; Newport, G D; Lipe, G W; Slikker, W

    1990-01-01

    Thallium, a rodenticide, has been shown to produce several neurological symptoms including motor weakness, ataxia, tremor, convulsion, coma and death. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of acute or subacute exposure to thallium on several neurochemical biomarkers in rat brain. In the acute study, adult male CD rats were treated with 0 or 20 mg thallium/kg intraperitoneally (ip) and sacrificed 2, 6, or 24 hr after exposure. In the subacute study, animals were treated with 0 or 5 mg thallium/kg ip daily for 10 days and sacrificed 24 hr after the last dose. Acute injections of thallium produced in the frontal cortex significant increases in glutamine concentration after 6 hr and in taurine after 6 and 24 hr. In hippocampus, significant decreases in aspartic acid and taurine concentrations were found after 6 hr. Subacute exposure to thallium produced significant increases of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and serotonin (5-HT) in amygdala and increases in 5-HT concentration in hypothalamus. DA or muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) receptor binding did not show any significant alterations in caudate nucleus or frontal cortex after acute or subacute exposure to thallium. However, when membranes prepared from control caudate nuclei were incubated with thallium (1-100 microM) in vitro, we observed a dose-dependent decrease in DA and MCh receptor binding. These data suggest that the neurotoxicity produced by thallium exposure may be associated with changes in the concentrations of amino acids and other neurotransmitters in various regions of the rat brain.

  2. Brain regional thallium distribution in rats acutely intoxicated with Tl2SO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, C; Galván-Arzate, S; Tapia, R

    1989-01-01

    The content of thallium in seven body organs and eight brain regions of rats acutely exposed to Tl2SO4 was compared. Rats received a single i.p. injection of Tl2SO4 at three doses: 16, 32 and 48 mg/kg. At 24 h after treatment, thallium content in kidney was higher than in all other organs studied and whole brain had the lowest thallium concentration. A thallium differential distribution was found among brain regions. The highest thallium concentration was found in the hypothalamus and the lowest in the cortex. This distribution pattern was similar with the three doses used. Time course of thallium accumulation in brain was found to be considerably more rapid in the hypothalamus than in other regions, particularly the cortex, suggesting differences in thallium entry into brain parenchyma. Thallium brain regional differential distribution might be related to some of the symptoms of thallium central neurotoxicity.

  3. Thallium and its contents in Remata carbonate rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondelová Marcela

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents at first the list of thallium own minerals and its isomorphic content in other minerals, especially in Slovakian ore deposits. This trace element was found in numerous dolomite-rock samples from Remata massif near Handlová. An interesting level of Tl content was analyzed in nonsilicified rocks; the highest content of Tl (and Ag are along the E – W line of disturbance. The presence of thallium in some limonitic aggregates in close Kremnica-gold deposit indicate any continuous relation. Some similarities to type gold deposits Carlin ( USA are discussed, even if no gold and discrete thallium phases were in Remata determined yet.

  4. Cytogenetic investigation of thallium-poisoned people: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, A; Slozina, N; Neronova, E; Kharchenko, T; Sosukin, A; Scherbak, S; Sarana, A; Onikienko, S

    1999-12-24

    Thirteen blood samples of thallium-poisoned people were cytogenetically investigated. The thallium concentration in blood varied from 25 to 2700 microg/L. The mean frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the poisoned group significantly exceeded our control level (7.08+/--2.19% and 2.03+/--0.25, ppoisoned group (7.77+/-2.68% and 1.59+/-0.23%, pthallium is an S-dependent clastogenic agent because the majority of the structural aberrations are of the chromatid type. Irrespective of mechanisms, damage to genetic material was revealed in thallium-poisoned people.

  5. A Successfully Treated Case of Criminal Thallium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Tetsuya; Tsukahara, Kohei; Naito, Hiromichi; Iida, Atsuyoshi; Nakao, Atsunori

    2017-04-01

    Thallium was once commonly used as a household rodent or ant killer, but many countries have banned such use due to unintentional or criminal poisonings of humans. A common initial clinical manifestation of thallium poisoning is gastrointestinal symptoms followed by delayed onset of neurological symptoms and alopecia. These clinical characteristics can provide important diagnostic clues regarding thallium poisoning. Here, we report a 23-year-old woman who was poisoned by a business colleague when she unknowingly drank tea containing the toxic substance several times. The patient was treated with multi-dose activated charcoal with airway protection and Prussian blue.

  6. 201Tl-thallium chloride injections for cardiological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, P.; Zdrazil, K.; Svihla, P.

    1985-01-01

    The production is being prepared by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez of the cardiovascular diagnostic agent, 201 Tl-thallium chloride. The 201 Tl radionuclide will be produced by irradiating a thallium target in the U-120 M cyclotron at Rez. For this purpose, the 201 Tl production rate was measured in the proton energy range of 27 to 31 MeV, and the production conditions were optimized with respect to parasitic production of radionuclide contaminants 200 Tl and 202 Tl. A method was developed of chemically separating 201 Tl from the irradiated target. This will allow the production of 201 Tl-thallium chloride injections in the required quality. (author)

  7. Experimental neuromyopathy induced by thallium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Mendez-Armenta, M; Villeda-Hernandez, J; Rios, C; Galvan-Arzate, S

    1996-01-01

    A histopathological study, with a light microscope, of experimental neuromyopathy produced by thallotoxicosis was undertaken in 40 newborn Wistar rats. Treatment consisted of a single i.p. injection of an aqueous solution of 16 mg kg-1 thallium(I) acetate 1 day after birth. Groups of ten animals were euthanized at either 8 or 50 days of age. Sural nerves, as well as peroneus muscle, were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution for 15 days and then prepared for histopathological observation. At 8 days of age sural nerves of thallium-treated animals showed a moderate reduction in the large- and medium-sized fibres and several of the myelin sheaths had initial degeneration along the course of the axon. Interstitial oedema was found in both neural and muscular tissues. Distinct features of focal necrosis as well as small haemorrhages were seen in peroneus muscle. At 50 days of age, the lesions were more diffuse. Large and small myelinated fibres were found to be sinuous, fragmented and scanty. Alterations in the large- and medium-sized axons were seen and the myelin sheaths were altered along the course of the axon, suggesting a progressive distal axonopathy. Additionally, muscle fibres had myopathic changes with abnormal central nucleoli and the striated transverse fibres had disappeared in many areas of the sample. Several interstitial foci of muscular necrosis accompanied by phagocytosis and fibrosis were also present.

  8. Lithogenic thallium behavior in soils with different land use

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, A.; Chrastný, V.; Mihaljevič, M.; Drahota, P.; Grygar, Tomáš; Komárek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2009), s. 7-12 ISSN 0375-6742 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : thallium * speciation * Mn oxide Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.791, year: 2009

  9. A method for the production of thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, V.A.; Kljuchnikov, A.A.; Linev, A.F.; Khalkin, V.A.; Zaitseva, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    For the production of thallium-201 a target of at least 95% enriched pure lead-206 is irradiated by a proton beam of an energy of between 50 and 70 MeV. During irradiation the reaction 206 Pb(p,6n) 201 Bi takes place. The target is kept sufficiently long for the transition 201 Bi- 201 Pb- 201 Tl to take place. The target is then dissolved in acid. The thallium-201 contained in the acid is oxidized to the trivalent state followed by precipitation of the lead. Lead traces remaining in solution are separated from the thallium-201 through cation exchange following which the thallium-201 is eluted using hydrochloric acid

  10. Nanosized f.c.c. thallium inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Thoft, N.B.; Andersen, H.H.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation of pure aluminium with thallium induces the formation of nanosized crystalline inclusions of thallium with a f.c.c. structure. The size of the inclusions depends on the implantation conditions and subsequent annealing treatments and is typically in the range from 1 to 10 nm. The inclusions are aligned topotactically with the aluminium matrix with a cube-cube orientation relationship and they have a truncated octahedral shape bounded by {111} and {001} planes. The lattice parameter of the f.c.c. thallium inclusions is 0.484 ± 0.002 nm, which is slightly but significantly larger than in the high-pressure f.c.c. thallium phase known to be stable above 3.8 GPa. (Author)

  11. Thallium toxicity and the role of Prussian blue in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Thallium salts have been used as medicinal agents, as key ingredients in a variety of manufacturing processes, and as a potent rodenticide. Additionally, environmental concerns are growing, as thallium is a waste product of coal combustion and the manufacturing of cement. Thallium salts are rapidly and nearly completely absorbed by virtually all routes, with gastrointestinal exposure being the most common route to produce toxicity. Thallium enters cells by a unique process governed by its similarity in charge and ionic radius to potassium. Although the exact mechanism of toxicity has not been established, thallium interferes with energy production at essential steps in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Additional effects include inhibition of sodium-potassium-adenosine triphosphatase and binding to sulfhydryl groups. The major manifestations of toxicity consist of a rapidly progressive, ascending, extremely painful sensory neuropathy and alopecia. Unlike exposure to most metal salts, gastrointestinal symptoms of thallium toxicity are relatively minor, and constipation is more characteristic than diarrhoea. Many other findings such as an autonomic neuropathy, cranial nerve abnormalities, altered mental status, motor weakness, cardiac, hepatic, and renal effects are described, but are less specific. Thallium also crosses the placenta freely and produces abnormalities in animals as well as fetal demise, overt toxicity and congenital abnormalities in humans. There are no controlled trials of treatments in thallium-poisoned patients. Thus, the literature is predominated by very small animal studies and case reports with very limited data. Strong evidence speaks against the use of traditional metal chelators such as dimercaprol (British Anti-Lewisite) and penicillamine, and the latter may cause redistribution of thallium into the central nervous system. Likewise, forced potassium diuresis appears harmful. The use of single- or multiple

  12. Some aspects of thermal and elastic properties of thallium

    OpenAIRE

    Ramji Rao, R.; Rajput, A.

    1980-01-01

    A model based on Keating's approach is applied to the hcp metal thallium to work out its lattice heat capacity, third-order elastic (TOE) constants and thermal expansion. The calculated TOE constants are utilized to determine the low-temperature limit of volume thermal expansion and to investigate the pressure variation of the lattice parameters and volume of thallium. The results of calculations show good agreement with the corresponding available experimental data.

  13. Infrared attenuation of thallium bromo-iodide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magilavy, B.; Goebel, J.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of attenuation measurements in the near infrared of an unclad fiber of Thallium Bromo-Iodide (Th(Br,I)), a polycrystalline thallium halide, is presented. A general overview is given of the properties of fiber optics. Two groups of attenuation measurements, for the region 1.2 to 3.4 and for 3 to 11 microns, respectively, are presented, analyzed, and compared with those of two other groups of researchers.

  14. Thallium scintigraphy used in the evaluation of soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilloni, A.; Brooks, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use of thallium scintigraphy in tumour localisation is a promising diagnostic modality. Thallium has a good affinity for numerous tumour types including sarcomas. Its properties as a potassium analogue result in active uptake via the sodium- potassium ATP-ase pump enabling its use in evaluating tumour extent, viability, staging, localisation and treatment. This case illustrates the role of thallium in tumour staging. A 67-year-old woman with a fibrous histiocytoma resected from the right foot four months previously presented with pain in the ribs, lower back and feet. A bone scan was performed to assess the possibility of metastatic disease. Several abnormal foci were seen on the bone scan suggestive of metastatic disease. A thallium scan was performed to confirm the bone scan result after a subsequent CT scan showed no evidence of this extensive disease. Static images of the whole body were acquired on an Elscinct 400AG 20 minutes post i.v. injection of 3.5 mCi of thallium. Focal areas of increased thallium uptake were seen in the 11th rib posteriorly and in the left sacroiliac region corresponding with sites on the bone scan suggesting metastases. However, an extensive area of uptake was also observed in the right inguinal region which had no corresponding abnormalities in the bone study. This was thought to be tumour metastasis in an inguinal Iymph node, which was retrospectively confirmed on an earlier CT scan of the pelvis. This study demonstrates the usefulness of thallium in the detection of soft tissue tumours and metastases. Thallium also exhibits potential in the assessment of tumour extent and viability pre- and post-treatment. This potential needs to be explored further in patient management

  15. The thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, its possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Meindl, S.; Schmitz, A.; Utech, C.; Boettcher, D.

    1983-01-01

    The Thallium-201 Myocardial Scintigraphy, its Possibilities and limitations: The Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy is a simple non-invasive procedure to detect hypo- and non-perfused myocardial regions. In the he last years it was demonstrated to be a helpful method in the diagnostic strategy for the cardiologist. It can not replace the coronary angiogram, but in many cases it appears to be useful in selecting patients for coronary angiography. (orig.) [de

  16. Acute Severe Thallium Poisoning: Early Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Livanov; B. V. Batotsyrenov; Yu. N, Ostapenko; G. V Shestova; V RutkovskyG.; A. Yu. Malygin

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of diagnosis of severe thallium salt poisoning in early-stage intoxication, which are associated with the fact that alopecia, a clinical typical symptom of thallium toxicity, appears in the period exceeding two weeks. At the same time, in severe poisoning a fatal outcome occurs much more early and the first signs of intoxication are highly diversified and nonspecific. The clinical manifestations with no specificity at the early period of intoxication in conjun...

  17. Successful recovery of a patient with thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, A A; Cremers, H M; Lustermans, F A

    1995-09-01

    We describe a patient suffering from protracted and life-threatening thallium poisoning. She was treated with Prussian blue and forced diuresis, and made a good recovery. Cisapride may be effective in improving gastric emptying and relieving constipation resulting from the thallium and the treatment. Haematological abnormalities occurred in the early phase of the poisoning, with a prolonged fall in the CD4/8 lymphocyte ratio during recovery.

  18. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital γ camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na + , K + -ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na + , K + -ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na + , K + -ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na + , K + -ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  19. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuumi, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sunayama, Chiaki; Matsuda, Eizo; Asada, Naohiro; Taki, Junichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Miyauchi, Tsutomu; Tomita, Katsuro [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy in bone and soft tissue tumors. Pre-therapy scintigraphy was undertaken in a total of 136 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis, consisting of 74 with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, 39 with benign ones, 12 with diseases analogous to tumors, and 11 others. Thallium activity was graded on a scale of 0-4: 0=background activity, 1=equivocal activity, 2=definitive activity, but less than myocardium, 3=definite activity equal to myocardium, and 4=activity greater than myocardium. In the group of malignant tumors, thallium-201 uptake was found in 80%, although it was low for chondrosarcoma (2/8) and malignant Schwannoma (one/3). The group of benign tumors, however, showed it in only 41%, being restricted to those with giant cell tumors, chondroblastoma, fibromatosis, and osteoid osteoma. Thallium-201 uptake was also found in all 8 patients with metastatic tumors. In 23 patients undergoing thallium imaging before and after chemotherapy, scintigraphic findings revealed a high correlation with histopathological findings. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy may be potentially used to distinguish malignant from benign bone and soft tissue tumors, except for a few histopathological cases, as well as to determine loco-regional metastases and response to chemotherapy. (N.K.).

  20. Detection of high risk coronary artery disease by thallium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, M J; Lahiri, A; Whittington, J R; Crawley, J C; Raftery, E B

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and three patients who underwent coronary arteriography were studied by thallium imaging and the results analysed by Bayesian principles to assess the usefulness of semiquantitative stress thallium imaging for predicting the presence or absence of multivessel coronary disease. Significant disease was found in 80 patients, of whom 77 had abnormal thallium scans (sensitivity 96%). Thallium images were normal in 15 of 23 patients with no significant disease (specificity 65%). Multiple thallium segmental defects were found to be 90% sensitive and 65% specific for multivessel coronary artery disease and were present in 80% of patients with left main stem disease and in 93% of patients with triple vessel disease. A single thallium defect or normal scan excluded multivessel, left main, and triple vessel disease with 81%, 94%, and 91% predictive accuracy respectively. By Bayesian analysis the predictive accuracy for excluding multivessel disease was greater than 90% in patients with a pretest probability of multivessel disease of less than or equal to 40%. Coronary arteriography to exclude multivessel disease is therefore unnecessary in a high proportion of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:4005084

  1. [Thallium poisoning induced polyneuropathy--clinical and electrophysiological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Miklós

    2003-11-20

    The aim of the study was the electrophysiological investigation of thallium induced polyneuropathy. Beyond the rarity of the illness, the motivation of this work was the possibility of following up the pattern of neuronal damage. Thallium is one of the most toxic heavy metal and its wide use increases the chance of chronic or accidental acute poisoning. The entero-hepatic circulation makes the accumulation of this toxic agent in tissues possible, mostly in neurons, in the epithelial cells of the digestive tract, in the germinative cells of the skin and testicles. In addition to alopecia and digestive complaints, the clinical picture of thallium poisoning is dominated by neurological signs. Severe axonal polyneuropathy develops in almost all cases, with further damage to the retina and impairment of cognitive functions being not unusual. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding high levels of thallium in body fluids, especially in saliva and urine. Electrophysiological examination of our accidentally poisoned patient revealed severe, sensory-motor, predominant motor axonal polyneuropathy and pointed out some aspects of the pattern of neurotoxic process: the initially distal lesion, the dying-back course and the capacity for regeneration. Because thallium has the same molecular targets as potassium ion thus impairing the energetical supply of the nerve cell, the most effective treatment is carefully loading with potassium. If recognized and treated early, thallium poisoning has a favourable prognosis.

  2. Thallium poisoning from eating contaminated cake--Iraq, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-19

    Thallium is an odorless, tasteless, heavy metal formerly used in rodenticides and still used in some manufacturing processes (e.g., electronics, pharmaceuticals, and glass). Thallium also has been used for intentional poisonings. Acute thallium poisoning produces gastrointestinal symptoms and signs, such as vomiting and acute abdominal pain, in the first few hours after ingestion, and initially is indistinguishable from other causes of acute gastrointestinal toxicity. However, within several days of ingestion, acute thallium poisoning often produces neurologic symptoms, such as extreme pain and acute muscle weakness ascending from the lower extremities, consistent with heavy metal toxicity. On January 22, 2008, 10 of 12 members in two families in Baghdad, Iraq, developed gastrointestinal symptoms; four of those 10 persons subsequently died from acute thallium poisoning, and five developed neurologic symptoms but survived. The Jordan Field Epidemiology Training Program investigated this cluster at the request of the World Health Organization (WHO) representative in Iraq. The preliminary investigation indicated this was an intentional poisoning, and law enforcement officials began a criminal investigation. Physicians who see the sudden onset of painful peripheral neuropathy and hair loss in patients should consider the possibility of thallium poisoning.

  3. Soluble or insoluble prussian blue for radiocesium and thallium poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Callen, Erin D

    2004-09-01

    To review the available English-language literature concerning the efficacy of soluble and insoluble Prussian blue used as a therapeutic agent in radiocesium and thallium poisoning. A thorough search of MEDLINE, Toxline, and EMBASE databases (1960s-August 2003) was performed. Search terms included Prussian blue, thallium, and radiocesium poisoning. Bibliographies of relevant papers were reviewed for additional citations. study selection AND DATA EXTRACTION: Reports and studies of human trials and cases, along with animal and relevant in vitro data, were sought. Data were categorized as insoluble and soluble Prussian blue and by thallium and radiocesium poisoning. The majority of evidence describing the efficacy of Prussian blue for radiocesium poisoning is based on the use of the insoluble form. In contrast, the majority of data supporting the efficacy of Prussian blue in thallium poisoning involves the use of the soluble form. Insoluble Prussian blue has recently been approved in the US for treatment of both thallium and radiocesium poisoning. While there is sufficient evidence that the insoluble form of Prussian blue is effective in radiocesium poisoning, there is a paucity of analogous data supporting its use in thallium poisoning. Whether the physicochemical differences between soluble and insoluble Prussian blue have any effect on outcomes in human poisoning is not known.

  4. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for bone and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuumi, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sunayama, Chiaki; Matsuda, Eizo; Asada, Naohiro; Taki, Junichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Miyauchi, Tsutomu; Tomita, Katsuro

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy in bone and soft tissue tumors. Pre-therapy scintigraphy was undertaken in a total of 136 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis, consisting of 74 with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, 39 with benign ones, 12 with diseases analogous to tumors, and 11 others. Thallium activity was graded on a scale of 0-4: 0=background activity, 1=equivocal activity, 2=definitive activity, but less than myocardium, 3=definite activity equal to myocardium, and 4=activity greater than myocardium. In the group of malignant tumors, thallium-201 uptake was found in 80%, although it was low for chondrosarcoma (2/8) and malignant Schwannoma (one/3). The group of benign tumors, however, showed it in only 41%, being restricted to those with giant cell tumors, chondroblastoma, fibromatosis, and osteoid osteoma. Thallium-201 uptake was also found in all 8 patients with metastatic tumors. In 23 patients undergoing thallium imaging before and after chemotherapy, scintigraphic findings revealed a high correlation with histopathological findings. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy may be potentially used to distinguish malignant from benign bone and soft tissue tumors, except for a few histopathological cases, as well as to determine loco-regional metastases and response to chemotherapy. (N.K.)

  5. Quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Nariaki; Hoer, G.; Johost, S.; Maul, F.-D.; Standke, R.

    1981-01-01

    The method of quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy using computer assisted technique was described. Calculated indices are washout factor, vitality index and redistribution factor. Washout factor is the ratio of counts at certain period of time after exercise and immediately after exercise. This value is neccessary for the evaluation of redistribution to the ischemic areas in serial imagings to correct the Tl-201 washout from the myocardium under the assumption that the washout is constant in the whole myocardium. Vitality index is the ratio between the Tl-201 uptake in the region of interest and that of the maximum. Redistribution factor is the ratio of the redistribution in the region of interest in serial imagings after exercise to that of immediately after exercise. Four examples of exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigrams and the quantitative analyses before and after the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were presented. (author)

  6. Starting up stress thallium cardiac imaging services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, R G; Neubecker, J S

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of alternative methods for a hospital to establish stress thallium cardiac imaging services at a group of physicians' office. Volume-cost-profit analysis, break-even analysis and capital budgeting techniques were used to determine the most feasible method from a financial perspective without sacrificing quality of services. The main focus of this evaluation centers upon three alternative methods of procuring an imaging camera: (1) purchasing a new camera, (2) purchasing used equipment, or (3) leasing a new camera. Budgeted income statements were constructed using relevant revenue and cost information for each alternative. The payback period, net present value and the internal rate of return for each method of procuring a camera was computed. In addition, the break-even point was also determined for each alternative. After the analysis was completed, it was concluded that the method of choice, without sacrificing quality of service delivery, was that of purchasing a used camera.

  7. Mechanisms of thallium-201 myocardial accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackers, F.J.Th.; Samson, G.

    1980-01-01

    The practical advantages of 201 Tl over other suitable myocardial imaging agents such as potassium-43 ( 43 K), rubidium-81 ( 81 Rb), and cesium-129 ( 129 Cs), are its relatively low energy photons which makes it possible to employ high-resolution low-energy collimators and its physical half-life of 73 hr which provides sufficiently long shelf-life for practical clinical imaging. Toxicological considerations do not play a role using 201 Tl as thallous chloride. The concentration of thallous chloride in a dose of 2 mCi of 201 Tl is less than 4μg. The LD 50 of thallous chloride is a factor 10 4 more. The minimal lethal dose in man is reported to be 12 mg/kg. The kinetics of 201 Tl, its tissue distributions and radiation doses are assessed, and the effect of cardiac drugs on thallium-201 uptake are discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Kinetic behavior of thallium in the rat. Accelerated elimination of thallium owing to treatment with potent diuretic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameijer, W; van Zwieten, P A

    1977-08-09

    1. In acute experiments anesthetized rats were treated with a subthreshold dose of 204Tl+, given intravenously in order to study the elimination kinetics of Tl+. Thallium disappeared from whole blood by means of two different half-lives (5 and 196 min, respectively), whereas VDbeta amounted to 1400 ml. The same kinetic parameters were found after chronic exposure to toxic amounts of Tl+. 2. After chronic exposure to thallium (10 or 30 ppm in the drinking water), the distribution of thallium over various organs proved non-specific. However, a pronounced accumulation was found in the renal medulla. 3. In view of the importance of the renal route in the elimination of Tl+ from the body and also because of the established accumulation of the toxic metal in the kidney, the influence of potent diuretic agents like furosemide and ethacrynic acid on the excretion of Tl+ was studied. The enhanced excretion of water and ions (Na+, K+, Cl-) was accompanied by a significantly accelerated excretion of thallium ions. High doses of ethacrynic acid (25 mg/kg) proved particularly powerful in this respect. Between the enhanced excretion of thallium and potassium ions a significant correlation was obvious, thus supporting the well-known similarity in the behaviour of these ions. The marked increase in renal elimination of thallium upon intensive diuretic treatment may be useful in the management of thallotoxicosis.

  9. Thallium dynamics in the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, Philipp; Schnetger, Bernhard; Beck, Melanie; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2018-04-01

    In open ocean waters thallium (Tl) belongs to the group of conservative elements, even though deviations from this trend have been observed in NW German coastal waters. Here, we report on tidal, seasonal and spatial dynamics of Tl along with Mo and Mn in the water column of a backbarrier tidal flat close to the island of Spiekeroog, the Jade system (Inner Jade and Jade Bay) and the adjacent offshore region. Dissolved thallium (Tldiss) displays strong tidal and seasonal variations (∼25-60 pM) unrelated to salinity. In all study areas, Tldiss clearly deviates from conservative behavior. In general, Tldiss is low during low tide (with a loss of up to 50%) and inversely related to Mndiss, except in summer. The tidal Tl variations as well as the loss of Tl in the water column may be due to Tl removal from pore waters in reducing sediments and drainage of Tl-free but Mn-rich pore waters into the water column during low tide. The negative Tl anomaly can be traced offshore for more than 40 km to the island of Helgoland. The redox chemistry of Tl is not well studied, and Tl removal from pore waters was previously suggested to only occur under anoxic/sulfidic conditions. By contrast, our preliminary pore water results suggest that Tl could be removed already under slightly reducing (suboxic) conditions, likely along with microbially induced Mn reduction in the sediments. Therefore, this study supports the biological involvement in the aqueous cycling of Tl. We propose the use of Tldiss next to Mndiss as valuable indicator of suboxic or anoxic pore water discharge to the coastal realm.

  10. Human fatality due to thallium poisoning: autopsy, microscopy, and mass spectrometry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangxun; Huang, Wen; Duan, Yijie; Xing, Jingjun; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Thallium has been responsible for many intoxications since its discovery; however, toxicological profiles for thallium in human fatalities have not been updated recently. Autopsy, microscopic investigations, and toxicological analyses were performed on a married couple who died from thallium sulfate intended homicidal poisoning. The distribution of thallium was established by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hair samples showing the highest thallium concentration. Electron microscopy revealed a dystrophic condition of hair with disorganized cuticle and atrophy of the hair bulb. Thallium interacts with cells at different levels, with prominent ultrastructural injuries in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and high concentration of electron dense granules observed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of several organs. Alopecia, toxic encephalopathy, and peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed in the victims and suggested to be crucial implications for thallium poisoning. The analytical procedures used in this case are of considerable forensic importance in the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Is thallium-201 of use in the measurement of total exchangeable potassium in man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, A; Davies, D L; Horton, P W

    1978-08-01

    Simultaneous measurements of exchangeable potassium were made in seven normal male subjects using potassium-43 and thallium-201. Exchangeable potassium values obtained using the 'thallium-201 space' were unreliable.

  12. [Detoxification effects of two drugs in thallium -poisoned mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; He, Yue-zhong; Zhang, Xi-gang

    2012-06-01

    To observe the thallium eliminating effect of prussian blue, pentetate zinc trisodium (Zn-DTPA), and their combined use in the treatment of acute thallium poisoning in mice. Thallium poisoned mice were reproduced by oral administration of 0.2 ml thallous nitrate (3 mg/ml). They were assigned randomly to four groups according to the random number table method, namely, model group, prussian blue group, Zn-DTPA group and the combination therapy group, with 10 mice in each group. Prussian blue was administered orally [4.52 g×kg(-1)×d(-1), total four times], and Zn-DTPA was injected intraperitoneally [500 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1), one time]4 hours after giving thallium. The dosage of both drugs in combination treatment was as the same as described above. After treatment for 5 days, all the animals were sacrificed. Brain, intestine, kidney and liver of 1 mouse from each group were collected for pathological examination to observe the necrosis. Thallium contents of blood, brain, urine and feces from the other mice were determined. Pathological examination showed that the damage to intestine, kidney and liver was less obvious in treatment group compared with those of the model group. The effect was most obvious in the combination treatment group. However, brain damage was slightly improved. Thallium content in blood (mg/ml) of prussian blue group and the combination treatment group decreased obviously compared with the model group, and the decrease was more obvious in the combination treatment group (0.05 ± 0.01 vs. 0.18 ± 0.02). Thallium content in urine (mg/ml) and feces (mg/kg) was significantly increased after treatment, and the thallium elimination was most significant in the combined treatment group (urine: 11.34 ± 0.81 vs. 0.02 ± 0.01, feces: 13.11 ± 1.84 vs. 0.21 ± 0.07, both P Thallium content in brain was similar among all the groups. The single and combined use of prussian blue and Zn-DTPA could reduce the damage in intestine, kidney and liver. Combined use of

  13. Thallium poisoning. Diagnosis may be elusive but alopecia is the clue.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D; House, I; Dixon, A

    1993-01-01

    Thallium is a heavy metal whose salts are used in some rodent poisons and in the manufacture of optical lenses, semiconductors, scintillation counters, low temperature thermometers, and switching devices, green coloured fireworks, and imitation jewelery, and as chemical catalysts. In clinical practice thallium isotopes are used in cardiac scanning, but the use of thallium salts to treat scalp ringworm was abandoned earlier this century because of their toxicity. The sale of thallium in Britai...

  14. Presence of thallium in the environment: sources of contaminations, distribution and monitoring methods

    OpenAIRE

    Karbowska, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Thallium is released into the biosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased its content. Atmospheric emission and deposition from industrial sources have resulted in increased concentrations of thallium in the vicinity of mineral smelters and coal-burning facilities. Increased levels of thallium are found in vegetables, fruit and farm animals. Thallium is toxic even at very low con...

  15. Electron microscopic study of the effects of thallium poisoning on the rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M; Ashraf, I; Bajpai, V K

    1978-01-01

    Rats were given thallium acetate (5 mg elemental thallium/kg body weight) intra-peritoneally daily for 7 days. The brain was fixed by perfusion-fixation and small pieces of the cerebellum were processed for electron microscopy. Variegated mitochondrial profiles, increased incidence of electron--dense bodies and proliferation of Golgi zones were observed in the thallium--poisoned rat cerebellum. Multilamellar cytoplasmic bodies were discernible in the cerebellar cortex of the thallium-treated rats.

  16. [Action of the salts of univalent thallium on the liver mitochondria of the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skul'skiĭ, I A; Ivanova, T I; Savina, M V

    1984-01-01

    Using light scattering and electron microscopic techniques, studies have been made of the swelling of liver mitochondria in isotonic sucrose solutions containing different concentrations of nitrate or acetate of monovalent thallium. It was concluded that the injurious effect of thallium on the mitochondria is associated with both its penetration into intramitochondrial space, and interaction of the external thallium with mitochondrial membranes.

  17. Intake and health effects of thallium among a population living in the vicinity of a cement plant emitting thallium containing dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhaus, A; Dolgner, R; Ewers, U; Krämer, U; Soddemann, H; Wiegand, H

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the degree of thallium exposure in a population living around a thallium emitting cement plant in a small city in North-West Germany thallium levels in 24 h urine samples of 1,265 subjects and in hair samples of 1,163 subjects were determined. Urinary thallium levels in two groups of subjects living in an urban and a rural area of West Germany were determined for reference. As compared to these subjects the population living around the cement plant exhibited obvious signs of increased thallium intake. The mean urinary thallium concentration was 2.6 micrograms/l and ranged up to 76.5 micrograms/l. In contrast, the mean urinary thallium levels of the two reference groups were 0.2 and 0.4 micrograms/l, respectively. Hair thallium levels of the population living around the cement plant were also markedly increased (mean: 9.5 ng/g). The major route of the population's increased intake of thallium was found to be the consumption of vegetables and fruit grown in private gardens in the vicinity of the cement plant. As was shown by chemical analyses vegetables and fruit grown in these gardens were contaminated by thallium-containing atmospheric dust fall-out caused by emissions of the cement plant. The pulmonary route of uptake as well as other sources did not seem to play a significant role in the population's exposure to thallium. Polyneuritic symptoms, sleep disorders, headache, fatigue and other signs of psychasthenia were found to be the major health effects associated with increased thallium levels in urine and hair. No positive correlation was found between the thallium levels in hair and urine and the prevalence of skin alterations, hair-loss and gastro-intestinal dysfunctions.

  18. Estudio preliminar de la mineralización uranífera en la cordillera oriental, San Ramón, Oxapampa

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia, Jacinto

    2014-01-01

    Rocas intrusivas del magmatismo permo-triásico de la cordillera oriental, constituidas por granitos de San Ramón y Oxapampa, presentan buena favorabilidad como rocas fértiles en uranio, un granito de facie roja denominado monzo-granito; esta condición es el resultado de la ejecución del proyecto de cooperación del OIEA PER 2/16, a cargo de IPEN, “Mejora del conocimiento del potencial uranífero del Perú”. Los trabajos de campo han consistido en la revisión geológico-radiométrica y toma de mues...

  19. Experimental Study of Thallium 201 Redistribution in Transient Myocardial Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Mandal, Ashis K.; Wong, Dennis Q.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of differential washout on the redistribution phenomenon of thallium 201 chloride deposited in ischemic myocardium was investigated. Two groups of dogs had serial scintigraphic images and tissue counting performed. The first group had ischemia produced prior to the injection of the thallium and, following the control image after production of ischemia, the occlusion was released and serial images obtained over a three-hour period. The second group received thallium initially and after a control scintigraph was taken, ischemia was created and maintained for three hours via transthoracic ligature. Activity distribution was followed by serial images. Thallium content of ischemic areas was compared to the normal area by computer assisted data analysis. Tissues from the ischemic and normal areas from both groups were obtained after the serial images and counted. In the first group, prompt redistribution of activity into the ischemic areas was seen within 30 minutes of releasing the occlusion and was verified by tissue counting. Neither scintigraphic image changes nor tissue uptake differences were observed in the second group. The restoration of blood flow and consequently increased avidity for thallium probably accounted for the redistribution seen in the first group as there appeared to be no differential washout of activity in the second group from either the ischemic or normal areas to contribute to the redistribution phenomenon. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7120444

  20. Serial Myocardial Imaging after a Single Dose of Thallium-201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Kamata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy has been established for the detection of myocardial ischemia and viability, little is known regarding the myocardial thallium-201 kinetics during angioplasty. Herein, we report a 77-year old man with angina pectoris, in whom serial myocardial imaging after a single dose of thallium-201 was helpful in identifying not only the culprit lesion and myocardial viability, but also the dynamic changes in myocardial perfusion during angioplasty. Thallium-201 images after exercise showed a perfusion defect in the inferior wall, with a trivial redistribution 3 hours after the exercise and a marked improvement 24 hours later. Coronary angiography, performed 27 hours after exercise scintigraphy, showed severe stenosis in the right coronary artery. Guidewire crossing of the lesion interrupted the antegrade flow, which was restored after balloon dilation and stent implantation. Thallium-201 images, 2 hours after angioplasty (i.e., 30 hours after exercise, showed a decreased tracer uptake in the inferior wall, which improved the next day (i.e., 48 hours after exercise. Cardiac biomarkers were negative in the clinical course.

  1. Contribution to the study of thallium 201 myocardium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annweiler, Marc.

    1976-01-01

    In this work a new isotope was tested in the field of myocardium scintigraphy: thallium 201. The different radioisotopes used so far in myocardium scintigraphy are reviewed to begin with. The main biological and physical characteristics of thallium and the scintillation camera used for this work are described next. In our opinion thallium 201 owing to its biological behavior similar to that of potassium and to its physical characteristics, appears as one of the better -if not the best- known tracer suitable for use in myocardium scintigraphy. Its properties are suited to the use of a scintillation camera, which considerably shortens the examination time and thus allows an isotopic exploration of the myocardium from several incidences. The only disadvantage of this cyclotron-produced isotope seems to be its high price which will probably limit its use on a large scale. Fifty thallium 201 myocardium scintigraphs were practised on forty-eight coronary thrombosis patients. From this was established a precise topographic correlation between the electrocardiographic diagnosis and the scintigraph. The two corresponded in 47 cases out of 50. The few disagreements between ECG and scintigraphic results seem to be due either to poor-quality images or to an overall myocardium hypofixation connected with a very extensive necrosis. This means that thallium 201 myocardium scintigraphy is a reliable method of examination in the great majority of cases, giving a direct picture of the heart muscle and its necrotic lesions [fr

  2. O granito São Timóteo no perfil Monsenhor Bastos, província uranífera de Lagoa Real: mineralogia, geoquímica e fluidos

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Eustáquio Dias Amorim

    2012-01-01

    Foram estudados corpos graníticos localizados no setor Monsenhor Bastos, porção sudoeste da Província Uranífera de Lagoa Real (PULR). A amostragem foi desenvolvida nas pedreiras de Lagoa Linda (LL), Pedreira Nova (PN) e no granitoide Lajedo (GR) este ultimo que aflora imediatamente a leste da anomalia uranífera AN02. O trabalho focaliza aspectos mineralógicos, geoquímicos, tipológicos e de fluidos desses granitoides, a fim de classificá-los mineralogica, textural e quimicamente. Foram util...

  3. Quantitative assessment of thallium myocardial washout rate: Importance of peak heart rate and lung thallium uptake in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahiro; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka

    1987-01-01

    Traditionally, the results of exercise thallium scintigraphy were interpreted by transient defect analysis using initial and delayed images. Recently, washout rate analysis has been used for the relative quantification of exercise thallium scintigraphy. A diffuse slow washout from all myocardial regions has been defined as the indicator of extensive coronary artery disease. However, slow washout has occasionally been observed in normal cases and in healthy myocardial segments which are not supplied by a stenosed artery in patients with single or double vessel disease. We evaluate the factors influencing washout rate in 100 normal patients and 63 patients with angina pectoris (33 cases of single vessel disease and 30 cases of double vessel disease). The washout rates were calculated using circumferential profile analysis. In normal patients, washout rate was closely related to peak heart rate (r=0.72) and inversely related to lung thallium uptake (r=-0.56). A diffuse slow washout was observed in seven (7%) of 100 normal patients, six (18%) of 33 cases of single vessel disease and eight (24%) of 30 cases of double vessel disease. The patients with diffuse slow washout showed significantly higher lung thallium uptake values and lower peak heart rates than those without diffuse slow washout (P<0.01). Thus, this false positive slow washout should be considered in the interpretation of quantitative exercise thallium scintigraphy. (orig.)

  4. Detection of viability by percent thallium uptake with conventional thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kamon; Araki, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Kou-ichi; Yumikura, Sei; Saito, Satoshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Kan-matsuse, Katsuo; Hagiwara, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    Thallium myocardial scintigraphy (TMS) is used for diagnosis of viability in infarcted myocardium before coronary revascularization. Underestimation of viability by TMS has been reported by many investigators. To evaluate viability precisely, thallium re-injection method or 24 hour delayed imaging is performed. However, these techniques are not convenient and are difficult to perform in clinical practice. Percent T1-uptake method was developed for predicting myocardial viability. To evaluate usefulness of this method, TMS was performed before and after PTCA in 23 patients with myocardial infarction. Left ventricle was divided into 3 layers, then each layer was divided into 4 segments (12 segments in total). Forth three segments showed recovery of perfusion on TMS after PTCA. Viability in infarcted myocardium is predicted by 1) redistribution (RD), 2) %T1-uptake≥45% on the image immediately after exercise (TE), and 3) %T1-uptake≥45% on delayed image (TD). Sensitivity was RD: 60%, TE: 90% and TD: 95% (p<0.001 vs. RD). Specificity was RD: 74%, TE: 68%, and TD: 60% (NS). Predictive accuracy (PA) was RD: 69%, TE: 77%, TD: 73% (NS). Compared with RD, %T1-uptake, either TE or TD, increased sensitivity with slightly improved PA, but decreased specificity slightly. Therefore %T1-uptake would be a sensitive and useful predictor to find patients who are most likely to benefit from re-vascularization. (author)

  5. Thallium-201 production at the National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, N.R.

    1993-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) began commercial production of thallium-201 chloride radiochemical solution in May 1993. This material is supplied to the laboratories of Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) at Lucas Heights where it is the active ingredient in the manufacture of the radiopharmaceutical thallous ( 201 Tl) chloride injection BP. Complete substitution of imported material will not occur immediately but should take place gradually over the next 12 months or so. The nuclear medicine community in Australia has shown an interest in such issues as price, availability and full Australian manufacturing capability of thallium-201 owing to its large-scale usage. This brief article explains how thallium-201 is generally made and how NMC production should evolve as experience in cyclotron production of radioisotopes begins to be accumulated in Australia

  6. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric study of thallium complexes with nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frańska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The complexes between Tl + , K + , and nucleosides were studied by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. It was found that for complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry, thallium complexes with cytidine were the most abundant and thallium complexes with guanosine were the second most abundant ones. The relative abundances of cytidine-Tl + to cytidine-K + complexes depended on stoichiometry (at higher stoichiometry the potassium complexes were more abundant). In other words, the relative affinity of Tl + and K + to form cytidine complexes depends on the stoichiometry of the formed complexes. Guanosine-Tl + complexes were more abundant than guanosine-K + complexes, irrespective of stoichiometry. Both guanosine tetramer and mixed cytidine/guanosine tetramer were more abundant when they were stabilized by thallium than potassium. Therefore, Tl + may affect the K + stabilization of these tetramers.

  7. Clinical indications for Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.J.; Kelly, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning can assess regional myocardial perfusion non-invasively. As it is both time-consuming and expensive its use should be restricted to specific diagnostic problems. The clinical indications in known or suspected coronary artery disease are reviewed. In suspected coronary artery disease thallium scanning is most useful in patients with chest pain when the exercise ECG is uninterpretable, in men with probable angina but a negative exercise ECG, or conversely a positive exercise ECG without typical angina, and in women with probable angina and either a positive or a negative exercise ECG. In known coronary artery disease, thallium scanning may help determine the functional significance of a coronary obstruction found at angiography and may determine the site of myocardial ischaemia when multiple obstructions are present

  8. Thallium-avid leiomyosarcoma of the chest wall: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaManna, M.M.; Lumia, F.J.; Feierstein, M.; Maranhao, V.

    1988-01-01

    A patient presented with leiomyosarcoma of the chest wall and parietal pleura, low grade malignant type, probably recurring from a section of a tumor of the parietal pleura diagnosed in 1979. During the course of pre-operative cardiac clearance, a resting thallium scan was performed. Examination of the study demonstrates dramatic thallium uptake in the left lung corresponding to the patient's lung mass. Extra cardiac accumulation of 201 Tl has been described in pulmonary neoplasms. The authors present an interesting case of a thallium-avid leiomyosarcoma of the chest wall which presented rather dramatic and discrete uptake of the isotope clearly distinguishable from the pulmonary activity which is seen left ventricular dysfunction, or low-level stress

  9. Placental transfer and retention of 201Ti-thallium in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rade, J E; Marafante, E; Sabbioni, E; Gregotti, C; Di Nucci, A; Manzo, L

    1982-05-01

    Placental transfer of thallium was evidenced in rats treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 2 micrograms 201T1-labelled thallium/rat on the 13th day of pregnancy. Both maternal and fetal organs showed remarkable thallium retention, approx. 10% of the dose being unexcreted 8 days after injection. The highest thallium accumulation was found in maternal muscle and brain tissues. Fetal brain exhibits higher thallium uptake and faster decay rate of thallium levels than maternal brain. It is suggested that the reduced activity of the mechanisms regulating ion movements and composition of nervous tissue and the immaturity of the blood-brain barrier play a role in the peculiar pattern of thallium kinetics in the developing rat brain.

  10. A safety study of thallium-containing ceramic superconductor material in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, J P; Oehme, F W

    1998-02-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic cumulative poison in humans and animals. The use of the metal as a component in ceramic superconductor material (CSM) raised concern about the health risk of CSM to children accidentally swallowing some of the CSM or to occupationally-exposed workers in the electronics industry. This study examined the biological availability of CSM by quantifying the thallium content in organs, blood and fecal matter of Sprague-Dawley rats after a single acute oral exposure to CSM and compares these values to similar thallium measurements from identical exposure to thallium sulfate. The CSM-exposed group had significantly less thallium than the thallium sulfate-exposed group in all tissues/fluids analyzed. This suggested that CSM poses a lower health risk to exposed persons than thallium sulfate.

  11. Placental transfer and retention of 201Tl-thallium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rade, J.E.; Marafante, E.; Sabbioni, E.

    1982-01-01

    Placental transfer of thallium was evidenced in rats treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 2 μg 201 Tl-labelled thallium/rat on the 13th day of pregnancy. Both maternal and fetal organs showed remarkable thallium retention, approx. 10% of the dose being unexcreted 8 days after injection. The highest thallium accumulation was found in maternal muscle and brain tissues. Fetal brain exhibited higher thallium uptake and faster decay rate of thallium levels than maternal brain. It is suggested that the reduced activity of the mechanisms regulating ion movements and composition of nervous tissue and the immaturity of the blood-brain barrier play a role in the peculiar pattern of thallium kinetics in the developing rat brain. (Auth.)

  12. Placental transfer and retention of /sup 201/Tl-thallium in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rade, J.E.; Marafante, E.; Sabbioni, E. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Gregotti, C.; Di Nucci, A.; Manzo, L. (Pavia Univ. (Italy))

    1982-05-01

    Placental transfer of thallium was evidenced in rats treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 2 ..mu..g /sup 201/Tl-labelled thallium/rat on the 13th day of pregnancy. Both maternal and fetal organs showed remarkable thallium retention, approx. 10% of the dose being unexcreted 8 days after injection. The highest thallium accumulation was found in maternal muscle and brain tissues. Fetal brain exhibited higher thallium uptake and faster decay rate of thallium levels than maternal brain. It is suggested that the reduced activity of the mechanisms regulating ion movements and composition of nervous tissue and the immaturity of the blood-brain barrier play a role in the peculiar pattern of thallium kinetics in the developing rat brain.

  13. Genetic toxicology of thallium: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mercado, Juan José; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín

    2013-07-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge about the general toxicity of thallium (Tl) and its environmental sources, with special emphasis placed on its potential mutagenic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects on both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tl is a nonessential heavy metal that poses environmental and occupational threats as well as therapeutic hazards because of its use in medicine. It is found in two oxidation states, thallous (Tl(+)) and thallic (Tl(3+)), both of which are considered highly toxic to human beings and domestic and wild organisms. Many Tl compounds are colorless, odorless and tasteless, and these characteristics, combined with the high toxicity of TI compounds, have led to their use as poisons. Because of its similarity to potassium ions (K(+)), plants and mammals readily absorb Tl(+) through the skin and digestive and respiratory systems. In mammals, it can cross the placental, hematoencephalic, and gonadal barriers. Inside cells, Tl can accumulate and interfere with the metabolism of potassium and other metal cations, mimicking or inhibiting their action. The effects of Tl on genetic material have not yet been thoroughly explored, and few existing studies have focused exclusively on Tl(+). Both in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that Tl compounds can have a weak mutagenic effect, but no definitive effect on the induction of primary DNA damage or chromosomal damage has been shown. These studies have demonstrated that Tl compounds are highly toxic and lead to changes in cell-cycle progression.

  14. Management of thallium poisoning in patients with delayed hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong-Wen; Xu, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Zhang-Suo; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Sun, Cheng-Ye; Wang, Lexin

    2012-01-01

    To describe the clinical features and management of thallium poisoning in patients with delayed hospital admission. Fourteen patients (median age 36 years) were admitted 9-19 days after ingesting food poisoned with thallium. Clinical and laboratory data, including blood and urine thallium concentrations, were collected. Patients were treated with oral Prussian blue, a chelating agent sodium dimercaptosulfonate, and hemodialysis. All patients experienced a triad of symptoms of acute gastrointestinal upset, painful combined polyneuropathy, and hair loss after consuming poisoned food. Fatigue and skin pigmentation were observed in all patients. Abnormal liver function tests were found in 6 (42.9%) and delirium and coma were identified in 4 (28.6%). Two weeks after the poisoning, the blood and urine thallium concentration ranged from 219.0 to 1414.4 μg/L (median: 535.3) and 956.5 to 11285.0 μg/L (median: 7460.0), respectively. One patient (7.1%) with a previous history of pulmonary fibrosis died of respiratory failure in hospital. Symptoms were improved and blood or urine thallium levels were normalized in the remaining 13 patients before discharge. After a 6.5 ± 1-month follow-up, 1 patient (7.1%) developed deep venous thrombosis in the left lower limb. In another patient (7.1%), numbness in the lower limbs remained. Acute thallium poisoning is commonly manifested by gastrointestinal upset, painful polyneuropathy, and significant hair loss. Treatment strategies included Prussian blue and hemodialysis, which were associated with a good outcome in this case series.

  15. Effect of hypoxia on thallium kinetics in cultured chick myocardial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, B.J.; Beihn, R.; Friedman, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the effect of hypoxia on cellular thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) uptake and washout independent of coronary flow, we studied thallium kinetics during normoxia and hypoxia in cultured chick ventricular cells. Monolayers of contracting ventricular cells grown on coverslips were placed in a chamber and perfused to asymptote with media containing 201 Tl. Perfusates were equilibrated with 5% CO 2 -95% air or 5% CO 2 -95% nitrogen for normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. Washout thallium kinetics were then observed during perfusion with unlabeled media. Twenty paired experiments were performed, randomly alternating the sequence of normoxia and hypoxia. Pharmacokinetics for thallium were determined by computer using standard formulae. Thallium uptake and washout were best described by assuming that intracellular thallium was contained within a single compartment. Cellular thallium uptake, as well as transfer rate constants for thallium uptake and for thallium washout during normoxia and hypoxia, were compared using paired t-tests. During normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, thallium uptake was 22 +/- 7% and 19 +/- 7% of asymptote (p less than 0.01); the compartmental rate constant for uptake by the cell was 0.16 +/- 0.07 min-1 and 0.15 +/- 0.06 min-1 (N.S.); and the transfer rate constant for washout from the cell was 0.26 +/- 0.06 min-1 and 0.23 +/- 0.05 min-1 (p less than 0.01). We conclude that there was a small (14%) decrease in thallium uptake during hypoxia. The rate of thallium uptake and washout was slightly less during hypoxia, although only the rate of washout was significantly less. These data show that cellular accumulation of thallium and the rate of washout of thallium were minimally decreased by hypoxia independent of blood flow

  16. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy in evaluating aortocoronary bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Haaz, W.; Segal, B.L.; Kane, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty patients with recurrent symptoms after aortocoronary bypass graft surgery underwent angiography as well as exercise thallium 201 imaging. Exercise imaging has been shown to be highly specific (100 percent in our study) in evaluating patients after bypass surgery. Patients with complete revascularization have normal thallium 201 images. Similarly, exercise-induced defects are seen only in the presence of incomplete revascularization. There are patients, however, with incomplete revascularization with normal exercise images, but these generally limited to the right coronary artery or the diagonal vessels or their grafts

  17. Catalytic properties of Thallium-containing mesoporous silicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baradji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride over a series of Thallium-containing mesoporous silicas with different Tl contents has been investigated. These materials (Tl-HMS-n have been characterized by chemical analysis, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The mesoporous Thallium-containing materials showed both high activity and high selectivity for the benzylation of benzene. More interesting is the observation that these catalysts are always active and selective for large molecules like naphthenic compounds such as methoxynaphthalene.

  18. Band-Structure of Thallium by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtham, P. M.; Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1977-01-01

    The relativistic band structure of thallium has been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method. The positions and extents of the bands were found to follow the Wigner-Seitz rule approximately, and the origin of the dispersion of the bands was established from the canonical s...... and p bands for the HCP structure. Energy bands have been evaluated both with and without spin-orbit coupling which is particularly large in thallium. Energy bands close to the Fermi level were found to be mainly 6p like in character. The 6s states lay below the 6p bands and were separated from them...

  19. Skin signs in the diagnosis of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromme, I; Van Neste, D; Dobbelaere, F; Bouffioux, B; Courtin, C; Dugernier, T; Pierre, P; Dupuis, M

    1998-02-01

    A 45-year-old man developed a painful and rapidly progressive sensory-motor polyneuropathy associated with confusion and convulsions. This resulted in hypoventilation and led to respiratory failure and coma. A rapid and diffuse alopecia occurred after 3 weeks in the intensive care unit. Examination of hair roots under polarized light detected dystrophic anagen hairs with dark bands caused by empty spaces in the disorganized cortex. These dark zones were originally reported in patients with thallium poisoning and a toxicological investigation confirmed thallium exposure. The classical systemic symptoms and the various dermatological signs are reviewed, and the origins of contamination and physiopathology discussed.

  20. Quantitation of extent, depth, and severity of planar thallium defects in patients undergoing exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, S.; Maddahi, J.; Van Train, K.; Garcia, E.; Berman, D.

    1986-01-01

    Previous quantitation of exercise-redistribution planar 201 TI scintigraphy has shown high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of coronary artery disease and improved detection of individual coronary stenoses over visual analysis. By using similar methodology based on the circumferential profile method, we studied 133 patients to quantitatively assess the extent, depth, and severity of thallium defects compared with consensus visual analysis. These quantitative measurements are objective, requiring only three operator interactions. In comparing quantitative and visual results, a close correlation was found for measurement of extent of thallium defect (r = 0.73) and severity of defect (r = 0.79). In detecting patients with the high-risk scintigraphic pattern of a severe stress thallium defect, a quantitative depth score of greater than or equal to 36 had an 81% sensitivity and an 82% specificity. Thus, this nearly automatic, computerized quantitative method allows objective determination of extent, severity, and depth of planar 201 TI defects

  1. Repeated surveillance of exposure to thallium in a population living in the vicinity of a cement plant emitting dust containing thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgner, R.; Brockhaus, A.; Ewers, U.; Wiegand, H.; Majewski, F.; Soddemann, H.

    1983-01-01

    Several medical surveys were carried out among a population living near a cement plant that emitted dust containing thallium until August, 1979. Air, soil, plants, and domestic animals in the area were contaminated leading to increased intake of thallium in the population, mainly due to the consumption of home-grown vegetables and fruit. In order to assess the degree of the individuals' exposure to thallium, thallium levels in 24-h urine samples (TlU) were determined. Subjects with relatively high exposure or those suffering from health disorders that might be related to an increased intake of thallium, were reexamined several times from 1979-1981. Special attention was also given to children attending a kindergarten situated about 0.5 km from the cement plant. As compared to an ''unexposed'' reference population (mean TlU: 0.3 microgram/l), the majority of the population living in the cement plant area had significantly elevated urinary thallium levels (range: less than 0.1-76.5 micrograms/l) indicating a substantially increased environmental exposure. A reduction of the intake of thallium was mainly achieved by the fact that the population, as advised by the authorities, largely avoided the consumption of home-grown, potentially contaminated foodstuffs. Reports on the teratogenicity of thallium in certain animal species caused great concern that thallium might have exerted teratogenic effects on the newborn of women exposed to thallium during pregnancy. Therefore, an investigation of children born between January, 1978 and August, 1979 (n . 297) was carried out. Although the number of congenital malformations was greater than expected, we conclude, considering carefully all data available, that there is likely no causal relationship between thallium and the occurrence of congenital malformations in the children investigated.

  2. Thallium exists in opioid poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Oghabian, Zohreh; Moradi, Valiallah; Afshari, Reza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2015-08-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that exists in nature. Tl poisoning (thallotoxicosis) may occur in opioid addicts. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and level of urinary Tl in opioid abusers. In addition, clinical findings were evaluated. A total of 150 subjects were examined. Cases with a history of at least 3 years of abuse were admitted in the Imam Reza Hospital as the case group; 50 non-opioid abusers from the target population were included as the control group. Twenty-four hour urinary qualitative and quantitative Tl analyses were performed on both groups. Out of the 150 subjects, 128 (85 %) were negative for qualitative urinary Tl, followed by 5 % (trace), 7 % (1+), 2 % (2+), and 1 % (3+). Mean (standard error (SE), Min-Max) quantitative urinary Tl level was 14 μg/L (3.5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L). Mean urinary Tl level in the case group was 21 μg/L (5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L) and that in the controls was 1 μg/L (0.14 μg/L, 0-26 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.001). The most frequent clinical findings were ataxia (86 %), sweating (81 %), and constipation (54 %). In all cases (n = 150), the mean (SE) value for cases with positive qualitative urinary Tl was 26.8 μg/L (0.9 μg/L) and that in the negative cases was 2.3 μg/L (0.2 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.002). This study showed that long-term opioid abuse may lead to Tl exposure. In opioid abusers with the clinical manifestation of thallotoxicosis, urinary Tl should be determined.

  3. Analysis of the degree of pulmonary thallium washout after exercise in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.S.; Garcia, E.; Van Train, K.; Maddahi, J.; Swan, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    An abnormal increase in pulmonary thallium activity may be visualized on post-stress thallium images in patients with coronary artery disease. Because this increased pulmonary thallium activity usually disappears by the time of redistribution imaging, this study was designed to assess whether measurement of the degree of pulmonary thallium washout between stress and redistribution might improve the detection of increased pulmonary thallium activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Quantitative analysis revealed abnormal (that is, greater than 2 standard deviations of normal values) pulmonary thallium washouts in 59 (64%) of 92 patients with coronary artery disease, but in only 2 (25%) of 8 subjects with angiographically normal arteries (p less than 0.06). By comparison, the visual analysis of pulmonary thallium washout and use of initial pulmonary to myocardial thallium ratio were significantly (p less than 0.05) less sensitive in detecting abnormality in patients with coronary artery disease. Abnormal pulmonary thallium washout was related to both the anatomic extent and functional severity of disease: it occurred with greatest frequency in patients with multivessel disease and in those with exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction (p less than 0.005). When added to the quantitative analysis of myocardial scintigraphy, the analysis of pulmonary thallium washout increased the detection of coronary artery disease from 84 to 93% (p less than 0.05), but the sample size was too small to assess specificity

  4. Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic correlation of dipyridamole-thallium stress testing with isometric handgrip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, S.; Aurigemma, G.; Pape, L.; Leppo, J.

    1991-01-01

    To determine how frequently new wall-motion abnormalities that are indicative of ischemia accompany thallium redistribution, 47 consecutive patients underwent two-dimensional, echocardiography during routine dipyridamole-thallium stress testing. A secondary aim of the study was to determine whether the addition of isometric handgrip exercises to the standard dipyridamole imaging protocol increased the frequency of wall-motion abnormalities or thallium redistribution. Echocardiograms and thallium scans were independently interpreted, and wall-motion abnormalities that appeared with dipyridamole, handgrip exercise, or both were compared with results of thallium imaging. Five of 24 patients with thallium redistribution had new wall-motion abnormalities, and the extent (number of segments) of thallium redistribution in these five patients was significantly greater than in those who did not have well-motion abnormalities (p less than 0.03). The addition of isometric handgrip exercises to the imaging protocol did not distinguish between patients with and without new wall-motion abnormalities or thallium redistribution. Thus new wall-motion abnormalities infrequently accompany thallium redistribution in routine dipyridamole stress testing in spite of the addition of handgrip exercises, but when new wall-motion abnormalities are present, they are associated with a greater area of thallium redistribution

  5. Comparison of urinary thallium levels in non-occupationally exposed people and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, James F; Cotton, Richard J; Warren, Nicholas D; Morton, Jackie

    2014-04-01

    To determine a reference background urinary thallium level; to compare urinary thallium data from workers to this background level; to investigate factors affecting these levels and whether creatinine correction is appropriate. Urine samples from non-occupationally exposed people (n = 273, from 113 individuals) and workers (n = 896, from 447 individuals) were analysed for thallium by ICP-MS. A reference background level was calculated, defined as the 95th percentile value of a non-occupationally exposed population. Worker data were divided into two subsets: thallium workers (those who work directly with thallium or its compounds) and general workers; and compared to the background level. Bayesian linear mixed effects modelling was used to investigate factors affecting urinary thallium concentration and the efficacy of creatinine correction for the determination of urinary thallium. The reference background urinary thallium level is 0.27 μmol/mol creatinine (creatinine-corrected) or 0.40 μg/l (uncorrected). Median values were 0.11 μmol/mol creatinine or 0.17 μg/l for non-occupationally exposed people, 0.12 μmol/mol creatinine or 0.20 μg/l for general workers and 0.19 μmol/mol creatinine or 0.41 μg/l for thallium workers. Variation was lower in creatinine-corrected models. Nine per cent of samples from general workers and 39 % of samples from thallium workers exceeded the creatinine-corrected background level. By 2010, 90 % of all workers had urinary thallium levels below the 95th percentile reference background level. Urinary thallium concentrations were higher in thallium workers than non-occupationally exposed people and general workers. Creatinine correction is appropriate.

  6. Biosorption and bioaccumulation of thallium by thallium-tolerant fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jialong; Zou, Xiao; Xiao, Tangfu; Jia, Yanlong; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Liu, Yizhang; Jiang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the biosorption and bioaccumulation capacity of thallium (Tl) by microorganisms that occur in Tl-polluted soil. The present study focused on characterizing the biosorption and bioaccumulation of Tl by Tl-tolerant fungi isolated from Tl-polluted soils. Preliminary data showed a positive correlation between the biomass and the biosorbed Tl content. The Tl-tolerant strains were capable of bioaccumulating Tl, up to 7189 mg kg(-1) dry weight. The subcellular distribution of Tl showed obvious compartmentalization: cytoplasm ≫ cell wall > organelle. The majority of Tl (up to 79%) was found in the cytoplasm, suggesting that intracellular compartmentalization appeared to be responsible for detoxification. These findings further suggest the applicability of the fungal isolates for cleanup of Tl in Tl-polluted water and soil.

  7. Thallium (III) salts utilization in organic synthesis. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, H.M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of thallium (III) salts in organic synthesis is cited, consisting in oxidation of non aromatic unsatured substrats, as olefins. The reactions with simple olefin, diene, rings rearrangement and cydization reaction of alcohols and unsatured carboxylics acids are discussed. (C.G.C.) [pt

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certai...

  10. IN-VIVO SYNCHROTRON ANALYSIS OF THALLIUM IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is a metal of great toxicological concern and its prevalence in the natural environment has steadily increased as a result of manufacturing and combustion practices. Due to its low natural abundance and the increasing demand, TI is the fourth most expensive metal, t...

  11. IN VIVO SYNCHROTRON ANALYSIS OF THALLIUM IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium is a metal of great toxicological concern and its prevalence in the natural environment has steadily increased as a result of manufacturing and combustion practices. Due to its low natural abundance and the increasing demand, TI is the fourth most expensive metal, thus, ...

  12. IN VIVO SYNCHROTRON INVESTIGATION OF THALLIUM HYPERACCUMULATION - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is a metal of great toxicological concern and its prevalence in the natural environment has steadily increased as a result of manufacturing and combustion practices. Due to its low natural abundance and the increasing demand, TI recovery and reuse could be a profita...

  13. Thallium poisoning: Clinical observations through two outbreaks in Basrah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Thallium is one of the most suitable agentsfor criminal poisoning of human as it is tasteless andodorless. The aim of this study was to report clinical featuresof thallium poisoning in two outbreaks.Materials and methods: This case descriptive study wasconducted in Basrah Teaching Hospital from January2009 to February 2010, where a total of 32 patients withthallium poisoning were enrolled. At the first outbreak,poisoning occurred due to ingestion of cake, while thesecond outbreak was due to accidental ingestion of ratpoisons. A detailed history was taken and complete clinicalexamination was performed. Thallium in urine wasmeasured using the colorimetric method and was foundas positive in all patients.Results: Thirty two patients were evaluated. The firstoutbreak included 17 patients (mean age 24 years, andthe second outbreak included 15 patients (mean age15years. Among both outbreaks the dermatological findingswere mainly hair loss in diffuse and patchy patternaffected the scalp and limbs. Also dusky ecchymotic reddermatitis like rash was observed on the face, especiallyperioral region and dorsum of hands and legs. Neurologicmanifestations, mainly of peripheral neuropathy,were seen in 50% patients of the second group. Patientserroneously had received zinc-sulphate before correctdiagnosis. Thirty patients were improved and two died.Conclusion: Outbreak of thallium poisoning may be resultof accidental ingestion or criminal purposes. It givescharacteristic cutaneous, neurological and psychologicalfeatures that can lead to the definite diagnosis. J Clin ExpInvest 2010; 2 (1: 11-15

  14. Initial sensorimotor and delayed autonomic neuropathy in acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, T; Andersen, E B; Mogensen, P H

    1998-06-01

    In a 27-year old male with acute thallium poisoning, signs of initially severe sensorimotor neuropathy with complete remission after two weeks were demonstrated. Signs of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy were initially absent, but developed after a latency period of one week with marked improvement after seven months. Delayed autonomic neuropathy may be caused by a late affection of small unmyelinated autonomic nerve fibers.

  15. Thallium poisoning: emphasis on early diagnosis and response to haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, U K; Kalita, J; Yadav, R K; Ranjan, P

    2003-02-01

    Thallium poisoning is known for its diverse manifestations and these can delay the diagnosis if a clear history of poisoning is not forthcoming. A 42 year old man presented on the third day of illness with flaccid quadriparesis and paresthesia, which were confused with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because of associated loose motions, skin lesions, and liver and kidney dysfunction arsenic poisoning was considered. In the second week he developed ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, and neck tremor and later developed alopecia, and thallium poisoning was suspected. His serum thallium level on the 18th day of illness was 40 980 micro g/ml. He was subjected to haemodialysis, potassium supplementation, laxatives, and B complex supplementation. He showed significant improvement after haemodialysis and at three months he was able to walk with support. At six months of follow up he was independent for activities of daily living. Severe paresthesia, ophthalmoplegia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs, and alopecia are highly suggestive of thallium poisoning. Haemodialysis may be effective even in the third week of poisoning.

  16. Thallium scintigraphy for the prognosis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Toshikazu; Furuno, Takashi; Kitaoka, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Yamasaki, Naohito; Doi, Yoshinori

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the significance of perfusion defects demonstrated by thallium-201 and age in the prognosis of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Seventy-four dilated cardiomyopathy patients underwent thallium scintigraphy as well as clinical and hemodynamic examination. Abnormal perfusion defects were present in 23 of 38 patients aged <60 years (61%) and in 26 of 36 elderly patients aged ≥60 years (72%; NS). Univariate analysis showed that such perfusion defects were a significant predictor of cardiac death only in patients aged <60 years (p=0.015). Stepwise discriminant analysis also revealed that perfusion defects were a significant predictor in patients aged <60 years (Wilks' lambda 0.499, chi-square test 20.2, p=0.003). Perfusion defects were not more important than the history of syncope or stroke in elderly dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Twenty-one patients died of disease-related causes during 58±43 months. The five-year survival rate was better in patients aged <60 years without than in those with perfusion defects (100% vs 58.4%, respectively), but not affected in patients aged ≥60 years (66.7% vs 62.2%). Thallium scintigraphy is valuable for the prognosis of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy aged <60 years who are usually candidates for heart transplantation. Absence of thallium perfusion defects may indicate good long-term prognosis. (author)

  17. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-10-08

    Oct 8, 2005 ... A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate ...

  18. Simultaneous Removal of Thallium and EDTA by Fenton Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruibing; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Huosheng; Su, Minhua; Chen, Diyun

    2018-01-01

    The wastewater containing heavy metals and organic pollutants is widely discharged from industries. Because of the coexistence of heavy metals and organic pollutants, the treatment of such wastewater is very difficult. Fenton process is considered to be one of the most effective approaches for the degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution due to the strong oxidative ability of hydroxyl radical which generated from the Fenton process. Apart from this, heavy metals are able to be removed during Fenton process owning to the synergic effect of coagulation and precipitation. In this work, pollutants of thallium and EDTA were successfully removed via the Fenton process. A series of single-factor experiments were designed and performed to achieve an optimal reaction conditions for the removal of both thallium and EDTA. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of thallium and TOC could be as high as 96.54% and 70.42%, respectively. The outcomes from our study demonstrate that Fenton process is a promising method for the purification of wastewater containing thallium and EDTA.

  19. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using ...

  20. Thallium scintigraphy for the prognosis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabe, Toshikazu; Furuno, Takashi; Kitaoka, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Yamasaki, Naohito; Doi, Yoshinori [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluated the significance of perfusion defects demonstrated by thallium-201 and age in the prognosis of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Seventy-four dilated cardiomyopathy patients underwent thallium scintigraphy as well as clinical and hemodynamic examination. Abnormal perfusion defects were present in 23 of 38 patients aged <60 years (61%) and in 26 of 36 elderly patients aged {>=}60 years (72%; NS). Univariate analysis showed that such perfusion defects were a significant predictor of cardiac death only in patients aged <60 years (p=0.015). Stepwise discriminant analysis also revealed that perfusion defects were a significant predictor in patients aged <60 years (Wilks' lambda 0.499, chi-square test 20.2, p=0.003). Perfusion defects were not more important than the history of syncope or stroke in elderly dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Twenty-one patients died of disease-related causes during 58{+-}43 months. The five-year survival rate was better in patients aged <60 years without than in those with perfusion defects (100% vs 58.4%, respectively), but not affected in patients aged {>=}60 years (66.7% vs 62.2%). Thallium scintigraphy is valuable for the prognosis of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy aged <60 years who are usually candidates for heart transplantation. Absence of thallium perfusion defects may indicate good long-term prognosis. (author)

  1. A comparison of the clinical relevance of thallium- 201 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... A comparison of the clinical relevance of thallium- .... 99rnTc_MIBI scanning yielded a better value than 20lTl scanning ... P values of. <0,05 were considered significant. Coronary angiography. Coronary angiography was performed in multiple projections employing the transcutaneous femoral Seldinger ...

  2. Een bepalingsmethode voor thallium in regenwater met behulp van voltammetrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs; J.; Wolfs; P.M.; Esseveld; F.G.van

    1985-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een bepalingmethode beschreven voor thallium in het nanogram/liter-gebied, waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van differentiele pulse-anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) aan de dunne kwikfilm. Met deze techniek blijkt het mogelijk om de concentratie van dit element rechtstreeks

  3. Thallium-201 imaging in children with osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.K.; Koutsiofi, M.; Rossleigh, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Thallium(Tl)-201 scintigraphy has been utilised in the imaging of a variety of tumours. This study evaluates its usefulness in children with osteogenic sarcoma. Five patients (3 male, 2 female) whose ages ranged from 11 to 15 years were investigated. Each child underwent a baseline 201 Tl study at diagnosis to determine the initial avidity of the tumour and a follow up study following chemotherapy, just prior to surgical excision, to assess tumour response to chemotherapy. This tumour response was confirmed by histopathological examination of the operative specimen. 201 Tl scintigraphy was undertaken 20 minutes following the intravenous administration of a weight adjusted dose of 201 Tl (minimum dose 20 MBq, adult dose 120 MBq). Whole body studies as well as planar images of the primary tumour were performed. All primary tumours were thallium avid on the baseline study. On the follow-up examination after therapy, a variety of patterns of uptake were seen and these correlated with the pathological findings. In one patient, complete loss of thallium accumulation following treatment corresponded to 100% tumour necrosis histologically. In another patient, persistent thallium uptake in the tumour following chemotherapy correlated with viable tumour cells on pathology and this patient died of his disease. In the other 3 patients, intermediate grade thallium appearances were demonstrated. In conclusion, 201 Tl scintigraphy is an excellent marker of osteogenic sarcoma and follow-up studies after chemotherapy accurately reflect residual tumour activity when correlated with histology. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Non-invasive investigation of lower limb revascularisation using resting thallium peripheral perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnshaw, J.J.; Hopkinson, B.R.; Makin, G.S.; Hardy, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Resting thallium thigh and calf imaging was performed in 11 patients with lower limb ischaemia before and after revascularisation. Eight patients had successful revascularisation but in the other three the procedure failed to improve the circulation. Despite symptomatic improvement and increases in ankle systolic pressures after successful revascularisation there was no change in thallium uptake. Thallium imaging was compared with radionuclide angiography and blood pool imaging in six patients. Radionuclide angiograms confirmed the presence of well developed collateral circulation in some patients with increased thallium uptake in the symptomatic limb and in all cases the angiograms were clinically useful. There was no correlation between thallium and blood pool images. Resting lower limb blood flow did not change after revascularisation and thallium peripheral perfusion imaging did not aid the assessment of the response to lower limb revascularisation. (orig.)

  5. Extracardiac Uptake of Thallium-201 during Myocardial Perfusion Imaging with Pharmacologic Vasodilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chung Il; Kwark, Dong Suk; Chung, Byung Cheon; Park, Moo Keun; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Myocardial perfusion imaging with {sup 201}T1-chloride following exercise or vasodilator-induced hyperemia has been effective in detecting the presence of coronary artery disease. An increased lung uptake of thallium has been reported as a sensitive marker of severe and extensive coronary artery disease and associated with poor prognosis. Thallium has also been noted to concentrate in a variety of malignant lesions. We report 5 cases of extracardiac uptake of thallium during myocardial perfusion scan with pharmacologic vasodilation. Accumulation of thallium was found in the lesions of a breast cancer, a lung cancer, a Castleman's disease and 2 cases of thymoma. We believe that the presence of focal extracardiac uptake of thallium during myocardial perfusion scan should suggest the need for further clinical evaluation to detect the tumor and must differentiate the increased lung uptake of thallium due to left ventricular dysfunction in coronary artery disease.

  6. Study of Solar-Terrestrial Connections in the Highlight of Simultaneous Observations with STEREO and UTR-2, URAN, NDA Ground-Based Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Rucker, H. O.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Lecacheux, A.; Falkovich, I. S.

    In the present paper new opportunities, which will be appeared at simultaneous observations by STEREO and ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2, URAN, NDA), in study of solar sporadic phenomena, having essential effects on the Earth, are discussed. CMEs, which manifest themselves in radio emission as Type II and Type IY bursts, are the most important of them. Studying of these bursts during simultaneous observations with the help of STEREO and ground-based radio telescopes will allow to find the direction of CME movement, 3D images of CME, its beaming pattern, bulk energy of both CME and shock before it, particle acceleration sites and directions of propagation of accelerated particles. Analyses of radio observations of active and quiet Sun will allow to understand pre-CME conditions in the solar corona and will give an opportunity to forecast CME appearance. Observations of different types of sporadic radio emissions (Type III bursts, drift pairs, s-bursts, bursts in absorption etc.) with high sensitivity, high frequency and time resolutions in decameter range by ground-based radio telescopes and detection of regions, where this radio emission goes out from (using STEREO results), will allow to diagnose the coronal plasmas (to define their density, magnetic fields, parameters of inhomogenieties) at altitudes 0.5-2Rs and to build adequate model of CME formation and its evolution. Using of interplanetary scintillation methods tested on UTR-2 and URAN radio telescope as well as in situ measurements on STEREO will give the information about both CME structure and shock associated with it, about spectra of density fluctuations and turbulences connected with CME at distances about 1a.u. from the Sun.

  7. Sodium dithionite as a selective demasking agent for the complexometric determination of thallium

    OpenAIRE

    PRAKASH SHETTY; NITYANANDA SHETTY

    2005-01-01

    Sodium dithionite is proposed as a new demasking agent for the rapid and selective complexometric determination of thallium(III). In the presence of diverse metal ions, thallium (III) was first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTAwas then titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer) using Xylenol Orange as the indicator. The EDTAequivalent to thallium was then released selectively with sodium dithionite and back titrated with a standard zinc sulphate ...

  8. Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    THALLIUM (I) IN REVERSE OSMOSIS AND CHLORINATED WATER MATRICES ECBC-TR-1127 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Apr 2010 - Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fate of Thallium (I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT: This is the final report for a limited thallium fate study in support of the Joint Chemical Biological Radiological

  9. Oral zinc sulphate in treatment of patients with thallium poisoning: A clinical therapeutic trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi; Adil A. Noaimi; Khalifa E. Sharquie; Khalil I. Al-Hamdi

    2011-01-01

    Thallium poisoning is usually associated with typical dermatological features simulating that of zinc deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of patients with thallium poisoning.Materials and methods: This clinical therapeutic trial study was conducted in Departments of Dermatology of Baghdad and Basrah Teaching Hospitals from February 2008 - February 2010, where a total of 37 patients with thallium poisoning were enrolled.A detailed h...

  10. Role of exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in predicting prognosis in suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, J.H.; Kobren, S.M.; Grunwald, A.M.; Bodenheimer, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    While exercise thallium imaging has improved sensitivity and specificity for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), its predictive value for morbid cardiac events is unclear. Of 532 consecutive patients who underwent exercise thallium imaging, follow-up was complete in 515 (97%) after an average of 36 months (range 31 to 48). Two hundred six patients had an abnormal exercise thallium response and 309 had a normal response. Twenty morbid cardiac events occurred (13 deaths and 7 acute myocardial infarctions [AMI]). Of the 13 patients who died, 12 had abnormal thallium results. Overall, 5.8% of the patients with abnormal thallium results died, in contrast to 0.3% of patients with normal results. Of the 7 patients who had a nonfatal AMI, 3 had abnormal exercise thallium results. Moreover, similar proportions of patients (1.4% and 1.3%) with normal and abnormal exercise thallium results had nonfatal AMI. Presence or absence of pathologic Q waves and inclusion of exercise electrocardiographic results did not significantly alter the results. Thus, although a normal exercise thallium response significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular death, its predictive value for nonfatal AMI is limited. Moreover, the relatively low event rate for patients with a positive exercise thallium response further limits its prognostic value

  11. Method for the preparation of thallium-containing superconducting materials by precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Bruce C.; Lamppa, Diana L.; Voigt, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention provides improved methods for the preparation of precursor powders that are used in the preparation of superconducting ceramic materials that contain thallium. A first solution that contains the hydrogen peroxide and metal cations, other than thallium, that will be part of the ceramic is quickly mixed with a second solution that contains precipitating anions and thallium (I) to form a precipitate which is dried to yield precursor powders. The precursor powders are calcined an sintered to produce superconducting materials that contain thallium.

  12. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in Korean soils determined by single and sequential extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10% to 8.20% of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination.

  13. A case of severe thallium poisoning successfully treated with hemoperfusion and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Zhang, X; Li, G; Jiang, Y; Wang, Q; Tian, R

    2014-05-01

    Thallium poisoning is a rare condition that is often misdiagnosed, delaying appropriate treatment. Left untreated, thallium toxicity can permanently damage the nervous and digestive systems or, in severe cases, lead to paralysis and death. It is most often treated by an oral administration of Prussian blue. Thallium has a long physiological half-life, and Prussian blue cannot sequester thallium outside the digestive tract. Therefore, the first priority in treating severe thallium poisoning is to lower blood levels as soon as possible. We report the case of a patient with supralethal blood levels of thallium treated successfully using combined hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). Three rounds of HP alone decreased blood thallium levels by 20.2%, 34.8%, and 32.2%, while each of the five subsequent rounds of CVVH reduced thallium blood levels by 63.5%, 64.2%, 42.1%, 18.6%, and 22.6%. The reversal of symptoms and prevention of lasting neurological damage indicates that HP, CVVH, 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate, neuroprotective agents along with supportive therapy were used successfully to treat a case of severe thallium poisoning.

  14. Quantitation of postexercise lung thallium-201 uptake during single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, J.K.; Carry, M.M.; McGhie, I.; Pippin, J.J.; Akers, M.S.; Corbett, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that analysis of lung thallium uptake measured during single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) yields supplementary clinical information as reported for planar imaging, quantitative analysis of lung thallium uptake following maximal exercise was performed in 40 clinically normal subjects (Group 1) and 15 angiographically normal subjects (Group 2). Lung thallium uptake was measured from anterior projection images using a ratio of heart-to-lung activities. Seventy subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group 3) determined by angiography (greater than or equal to 70% luminal stenosis) underwent thallium perfusion SPECT. Thirty-nine percent of these subjects had multivessel and 61% had single vessel CAD. Lung thallium uptake was elevated in 47 of 70 (67%) Group 3 subjects. Group 3 subjects with elevated lung thallium uptake did not differ from Group 3 subjects with normal lung thallium uptake with respect to extent or distribution of coronary artery disease, left ventricular function, or severity of myocardial ischemia as determined by exercise and redistribution thallium SPECT. Thus, the measurement of thallium lung uptake from anterior projection images obtained during SPECT frequently identifies patients with CAD, but it may not provide supplementary information regarding the extent of myocardial ischemia or ventricular dysfunction

  15. Thallium toxicosis in a dog consequent to ingestion of Mycoplasma agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Basso, Marguerite M; Graham, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    A 1-year-old dog ingested a mixture of blood agar and Mycoplasma agar plates. The Mycoplasma agar plates contained thallium acetate, which resulted in an estimated minimum dose of 5 mg thallium acetate/kg bodyweight. Clinical signs over the course of 2-3 weeks included vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, alopecia, dysphonia, ataxia, paresthesia, intension tremors, megaesophagus with subsequent aspiration pneumonia, and several seizure episodes. The dog was treated with intravenous fluids and placement of a gastric feeding tube. Thallium concentrations in hair were 8.2 µg/g in samples taken on day 19, 16.4 µg/g in samples taken 3 months after exposure, 13.4 µg/g in samples taken 5 months after exposure, and nondetectable in samples taken 7 months after exposure. The blood thallium concentration was 190 µg/l on day 19 and nondetec table 3 months after exposure. Megaesophagus and dysphonia continued for 10 months after exposure. This case of thallium poisoning following ingestion of mycoplasma agar plates demonstrates that unusual sources of thallium still exist and suggests that thallium toxicosis should be included in the list of differential diagnoses in dogs presented with megaesophagus, especially if alopecia and other unexplained peripheral neuropathies are present. Hair and blood samples are useful specimens to reach an accurate diagnosis even if taken several weeks post exposure. The postexposure blood and hair thallium concentrations reported in this case are useful data for diagnosticians investigating dogs with potential thallium poisoning.

  16. Presence of thallium in the environment: sources of contaminations, distribution and monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowska, Bozena

    2016-11-01

    Thallium is released into the biosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased its content. Atmospheric emission and deposition from industrial sources have resulted in increased concentrations of thallium in the vicinity of mineral smelters and coal-burning facilities. Increased levels of thallium are found in vegetables, fruit and farm animals. Thallium is toxic even at very low concentrations and tends to accumulate in the environment once it enters the food chain. Thallium and thallium-based compounds exhibit higher water solubility compared to other heavy metals. They are therefore also more mobile (e.g. in soil), generally more bioavailable and tend to bioaccumulate in living organisms. The main aim of this review was to summarize the recent data regarding the actual level of thallium content in environmental niches and to elucidate the most significant sources of thallium in the environment. The review also includes an overview of analytical methods, which are commonly applied for determination of thallium in fly ash originating from industrial combustion of coal, in surface and underground waters, in soils and sediments (including soil derived from different parent materials), in plant and animal tissues as well as in human organisms.

  17. Thallium poisoning. Diagnosis may be elusive but alopecia is the clue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; House, I; Dixon, A

    1993-01-01

    Thallium is a heavy metal whose salts are used in some rodent poisons and in the manufacture of optical lenses, semiconductors, scintillation counters, low temperature thermometers, and switching devices, green coloured fireworks, and imitation jewelery, and as chemical catalysts. In clinical practice thallium isotopes are used in cardiac scanning, but the use of thallium salts to treat scalp ringworm was abandoned earlier this century because of their toxicity. The sale of thallium in Britain is strictly licensed because of its toxicity and potential for use in murder, which is helped by the fact that thallous salts are colourless, tasteless, and odorless. The more water soluble salts (such as thallium sulphate, acetate, or carbonate) have higher toxicity, and although the toxic dose is variable most deaths occur after the ingestion of 10-15 mg/kg of soluble salt. Most cases of thallium toxicity occur after oral ingestion but severe toxicity has been reported after inhalation of contaminated dust from pyrite burners, in zinc and lead smelting, and in the manufacture of cadmium, after dermal absorption through protective rubber gloves, and after snorting what was thought to be cocaine. The elimination half time of thallium is between 1.7 and 30 days depending on the time since, and chronicity of, ingestion. The elimination time phases are apparent and because of the long terminal elimination half time thallium may act as a cumulative poison. We present two cases of thallium poisoning with intent to kill. Images FIG 3 PMID:8518684

  18. Prognostic importance of thallium uptake by the lungs during exercise in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.B.; Ruddy, T.D.; Newell, J.B.; Finkelstein, D.M.; Strauss, H.W.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the value of thallium imaging as compared with clinical and exercise-test variables in predicting cardiac events occurring over five years in 525 consecutive patients referred for thallium-exercise testing in 1979. Follow-up was obtained on 467 patients (89 percent). There were 105 cardiac events--25 cardiac deaths, 33 myocardial infarctions, and 47 coronary bypass procedures. A Cox survival analysis identified increased thallium uptake by the lungs, a marker of left ventricular dysfunction during exercise, as the best predictor of a cardiac event (relative risk ratio = 3.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 5.4). The next most powerful predictors were a history of typical angina, a previous myocardial infarction, and ST-segment depression during exercise (relative risk ratios = 2.1, 1.8, and 1.7, respectively). No combination of variables made up for the loss in prognostic power when the variable of increased thallium uptake by the lungs was removed from the model. Cardiac events occurred over five years in 10 (5 percent) of 192 patients with a normal thallium scan, 41 (25 percent) of 163 patients with an abnormal thallium scan but normal thallium activity in the lungs, and 54 (67 percent) of 81 patients with increased thallium uptake by the lungs (P less than 0.0001). We conclude that increased uptake of thallium by the lungs during exercise predicts a high risk of subsequent cardiac events

  19. Quantitative determination of thallium binding to ferric hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Faustino, Patrick J; Progar, Joseph J; Brownell, Charles R; Sadrieh, Nakissa; May, Joan C; Leutzinger, Eldon; Place, David A; Duffy, Eric P; Yu, Lawrence X; Khan, Mansoor A; Lyon, Robbe C

    2008-04-02

    Ferric hexacyanoferrate, (Fe(4)(III)[Fe(II)(CN)(6)](3)), also known as insoluble Prussian blue (PB), is the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Radiogardase which is the first approved drug product (DP) for treatment of thallium and radiocesium poisoning. The aim of this study is (1) to determine the in vitro thallium binding capacity and binding rates of insoluble PB; and (2) to evaluate the effect of physiological pH conditions, PB particle size and storage conditions on the binding to PB. Experimental pH levels from 1.0 to 7.5 were used to cover the range of pH levels that PB may encounter when traveling through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans. Measurements of thallium binding were made between 1 and 24h, to cover gastric and intestinal tract residence time. PB was found to have a binding capacity of approximately 1400 mg/g at pH 7.5. When the pH decreased, the binding decreased as well. The results indicated that the hydration state of PB influences the thallium binding process. It was also found that there exits a direct correlation between the moisture loss in PB and the thallium binding rate constant. The PB with 17 mol of water had a binding rate constant of 0.52, which was reduced to 0.32 when PB was dehydrated to 2.5 mol of water. Significant differences were observed in both binding capacity and binding rate constant among PB fractions with different particle size ranges. PB fraction with particle size of 220-1000 microm had a binding rate constant of 0.43, which increased to 0.64 when the particle size was reduced to 32-90 microm. Batch-to-batch variation in thallium binding was also observed among the APIs and the DPs and this was related to particle size and hydration state. These findings can be utilized to evaluate and predict drug product quality under certain manufacturing and dry storage conditions.

  20. Repeated surveillance of exposure to thallium in a population living in the vicinity of a cement plant emitting dust containing thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgner, R; Brockhaus, A; Ewers, U; Wiegand, H; Majewski, F; Soddemann, H

    1983-01-01

    From 1979 to 1981, several medical surveys were carried out among a population living in the vicinity of a cement plant that emitted dust containing thallium until August, 1979. Air, soil, plants, and domestic animals in the area were contaminated by thallium and this led to an increased intake of thallium in the population, mainly due to the consumption of home-grown vegetables and fruit. In order to assess the degree of the individuals' exposure to thallium, thallium levels in 24-h urine samples (TlU) were determined. Three surveys were carried out from September to December, 1979 to assess the degree of thallium exposure of different parts of the general population. Subjects with relatively high exposure, as indicated by the results of the above mentioned population surveys, or those suffering from health disorders that might be related to an increased intake of thallium, were reexamined several times from 1979-1981. Special attention was also given to children attending a kindergarten situated about 0.5 km from the cement plant. As compared to an "unexposed" reference population (mean TlU: 0.3 microgram/l), the majority of the population living in the cement plant area had significantly elevated urinary thallium levels (range: less than 0.1-76.5 micrograms/l) indicating a substantially increased environmental exposure. A reduction of the intake of thallium was mainly achieved by the fact that the population, as advised by the authorities, largely avoided the consumption of home-grown, potentially contaminated foodstuffs. Reports on the teratogenicity of thallium in certain animal species caused great concern that thallium might have exerted teratogenic effects on the newborn of women exposed to thallium during pregnancy. Therefore, an investigation of children born between January, 1978 and August, 1979 (n = 297) was carried out. Although the number of congenital malformations was greater than expected, we conclude, considering carefully all data available

  1. The cryptonephridial system in the mealworm Tenebrio molitor: transport of radioactive potassium, thallium and sodium; a functional and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, B M

    1975-12-29

    Larvae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor were injected with radioactive potassium, sodium or thallium solution. It was found that the rectal complex of the animal was labelled with potassium and thallium, but not with sodium. Potassium and thallium labelled the complex to the same level as if the two ions were tracers for each other. Ramsay has found that potassium is actively transported to the complex from the hemocoel and there are reasons to believe that T1+ follows the same pathway. Therefore animals injected with thallium were investigated both by light and electron microscopy. The results suggest that thallium spreads from the hemocoel through the leptophragma to the neighbouring ordinary tubular cells, and in moist mealworms thallium is further found in the perirectal space. Due to diffusion and washing out of thallium during fixation it can not be determined whether T1+ and K+ follow identical pathways, but it is possible to determine how far thallium has penetrated during the experiments.

  2. Anhydrous thallium hydrogen L-glutamate: polymer networks formed by sandwich layers of oxygen-coordinated thallium ions cores shielded by hydrogen L-glutamate counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Thomas; Wirnsberger, Bianca; Albering, Jörg; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2011-11-07

    Anhydrous thallium hydrogen L-glutamate [Tl(L-GluH)] crystallizes from water (space group P2(1)) with a layer structure in which the thallium ions are penta- and hexacoordinated exclusively by the oxygen atoms of the γ-carboxylate group of the hydrogen L-glutamate anions to form a two-dimensional coordination polymer. The thallium-oxygen layer is composed of Tl(2)O(2) and TlCO(2) quadrangles and is only 3 Å high. Only one hemisphere of the thallium ions participates in coordination, indicative of the presence of the 6s(2) lone pair of electrons. The thallium-oxygen assemblies are shielded by the hydrogen l-glutamate anions. Only the carbon atom of the α-carboxylate group deviates from the plane spanned by the thallium ions, the γ-carboxylate groups and the proton bearing carbon atoms, which are in trans conformation. Given the abundance of L-glutamic and L-aspartic acid in biological systems on the one hand and the high toxicity of thallium on the other hand, it is worth mentioning that the dominant structural motifs in the crystal structure of [Tl(L-GluH)] strongly resemble their corresponding analogues in the crystalline phase of [K(L-AspH)(H(2)O)(2)].

  3. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-01-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T 3 -RU, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  4. Evaluation of thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.G.; McKillop, J.H.; Bessent, R.G.; Turner, J.G.; Lorimer, A.R.; Hutton, I.; Greig, W.R.; Lawrie, T.D.V.

    1979-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging provides a non-invasive technique in the investigation of patients with suspected coronary heart disease. This study was designed to evaluate thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) scintigraphy in predicting the presence or absence of coronary heart disease in 50 patients presenting with chest pain. The results suggest that computer analysed 201 Tl exercise scintigraphy is a valuable technique for identifying patients with significant coronary artery disease. 201 Tl image data were highly sensitive for detecting the presence of coronary artery disease though accuracy in predicting the extent of disease was limited in patients with multiple vessel disease. The data provides further justification for the use of exercise 201 Tl scintigraphy especially in conjunction with exercise electrocardiography in the investigation of patients with chest pain. (author)

  5. Culturable microbial groups and thallium-tolerant fungi in soils with high thallium contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jialong; Zou, Xiao; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Peng, Jingquan; Xiao, Tangfu

    2012-12-15

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soil exerts a significant threat to the ecosystem health due to its high toxicity. However, little is known about the effect of Tl on the microbial community in soil. The present study aimed at characterizing the culturable microbial groups in soils which experience for a long time high Tl contamination and elevated Hg and As. The contamination originates from As, Hg and Tl sulfide mineralization and the associated mining activities in the Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Our investigation showed the existence of culturable bacteria, filamentous fungi and actinomyces in long-term Tl-contaminated soils. Some fungal groups grow in the presence of high Tl level up to 1000 mg kg⁻¹. We have isolated and identified nine Tl-tolerant fungal strains based on the morphological traits and ITS analysis. The dominant genera identified were Trichoderma, Penicillium and Paecilomyces. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggested that certain microbes were able to face high Tl pollution in soil and maintain their metabolic activities and resistances. The highly Tl-tolerant fungi that we have isolated are potentially useful in the remediation of Tl-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of hepatocyte cytotoxic mechanisms for thallium (I) and thallium (III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Daraei, Bahram

    2010-10-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal though up to now its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we comparatively investigated the cytotoxic mechanisms of Tl(I) and Tl(III) in isolated rat hepatocytes. Both Tl(I) and Tl(III) cytotoxicities were associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases cascade, lysosomal membrane leakiness, and cellular proteolysis. Hepatocyte glutathione (GSH) was also rapidly oxidized. GSH-depleted hepatocytes were more resistant to Tl(I)-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and lipid peroxidation. This suggests that Tl(I) is reductively activated by GSH. On the other hand, GSH-depleted hepatocytes were much more sensitive to Tl(III)-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation, and lipid peroxidation. This suggests that GSH only plays an antioxidant role against Tl(III) cytotoxicity. Our results also showed that CYP2E1 involves in Tl(I) and Tl(III) oxidative stress cytotoxicity mechanism and both cations detoxified via methylation. In conclusion, both Tl(I) and Tl(III) cytotoxicities were associated with mutual mitochondrial/lysosomal injuries (cross-talk) initiated by increased ROS formation resulted from metal-CYP2E1 destructive interaction or metal-induced disruption of mitochondrial electron transfer chain. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2010.

  7. Dimercaptosuccinic acid and Prussian Blue in the treatment of acute thallium poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyniak, Daniel E; Kao, Louise W; Nanagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A; Furbee, R Brent; Brizendine, Edward J; Wilmot, Paul E

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned as a pesticide, thallium still results in human and animal poisonings. Current recommended treatments include the use of the chemical Prussian Blue. Limitations in its availability may result in Prussian Blue not being obtainable in the thallium-poisoned patient. The chelator 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is currently FDA-approved for use in childhood lead poisoning and has been reported to be beneficial in treating other heavy metal poisonings. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of DMSA as a treatment for thallium poisoning by studying mortality and whole-brain concentrations in thallium poisoned rats. Rats were gavaged with 30 mg/kg of thallium. After 24 hours they were randomized to DMSA (n = 20) 50 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days, Prussian Blue (n = 20) 50 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days, or control (n = 30). Animals were monitored twice daily for weight loss and mortality. Animals losing greater than 20% of their starting weight were euthanized and counted as a mortality. All surviving rats at 120 hours had their brains harvested and digested and underwent subsequent thallium analysis. The rate of survival in DMSA-treated animals compared to control was 45% vs. 21%, p = 0.07. Mean whole-brain thallium concentrations between DMSA and control rats were 3.4 vs. 3.0 microg/g, p = 0.06. Prussian Blue-treated rats had significantly improved survival (70% vs. 21%, p thallium concentrations (1.6 vs. 3.0 microg/g, p thallium concentrations in rats poisoned with thallium and had an indeterminate effect on mortality while Prussian Blue significantly reduces both brain thallium concentrations and mortality.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of right ventricular overload with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Toshiya; Miyakoda, Hiroyuki; Koike, Yoshihiro; Itatsu, Hidetaka; Kawai, Naoki; Sotobata, Iwao.

    1983-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and right-heart catheterization were performed on patients with right ventricular pressure overload (RVPO) or right ventricular volume overload (RVVO). In 18 patients with RVPO, right ventricular systolic pressure correlated significantly both with the RV/LV wall thallium-201 uptake ratios (r=0.54, p<0.02) and the RV wall/background thallium-201 uptake ratios (r=0.70, p<0.01). RV/LV work ratios also significantly correlated with RV/LV wall thallium-201 uptake ratios (r=0.57, p<0.02). In 19 patients with RVVO, Qp/Qs and RV/LV work ratios both significantly correlated with RV/LV wall thallium-201 uptake ratios (r=0.78 and 0.87, respectively; p<0.001 for both) and RV wall/background thallium-201 uptake ratios (r=0.69, p<0.01 for both parameters). Right ventricular systolic pressure also correlated with RV/LV wall thallium-201 uptake ratios (r=0.57, p<0.02). Feasibility of the differentiation between RVPO and RVVO was suggested with use of ''transitional view angle'' and RV/LV diameter ratios obtained from the scintigram. In patients who underwent cardiac surgery, post-operative alleviations of the right ventricular overload were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in RV/LV wall thallium-201 uptake ratios, but no significant decrease in RV wall/background thallium-201 uptake ratios in patients with RVPO. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease both in RV/LV wall thallium-201 uptake ratios and RV wall/background thallium-201 uptake ratios in patients with RVVO. No significant changes were observed between the scintigraphic measurements obtained 1 month and 1 year after the surgery, irrespective of the type of right ventricular overloading. (J.P.N.)

  9. Experimental search for parity nonconservation in atomic thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commins, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    In the lecture an experimental search for parity nonconservation in the 6 2 P/sub 1/2/--7 2 P/sub 1/2/ transition in atomic thallium is described. The reason for the choice of this particular transition, a description of the method, the results to data, and a brief description of the future plans are given. The very preliminary results suggest that the Weinberg--Salam model correctly describes parity nonconservation effects in atoms. 5 references

  10. A case of localized retinal damage in thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, D; Bach, M; Gerling, J

    1997-01-01

    To determine the cause of visual impairment and to document the late eye disturbances in a case of thallium poisoning. A 44-year-old woman presented with a history of repeated attacks of complete alopecia over a period of several months, diffuse pain in both legs, transient gastrointestinal disturbances, abasia with a progressive paraparesis, paresthesia in the fingertips, and polyneuropathy. She complained of slowly progressive visual deterioration in both eyes which began about six months after the first attack of alopecia. The optic discs showed distinct signs of temporal atrophy together with a deep temporal excavation. The Goldmann perimetry revealed an absolute central scotoma. Traces of thallium were found in the urine and in the serum. The district attorney later discovered that her husband had been trying to poison her with thallium. The clinical and electrophysiological examinations included visual evoked potentials (VEP) and electroretinography (flash ERG, multifocal ERG and pattern ERG). The VEP showed a reduction in amplitude and a prolonged latency indicating a conduction block. The pattern ERG was initially normal. At a follow-up examination 6 years later, a slight amplitude reduction in the pattern ERG was found. The multifocal ERG showed a diminished amplitude in the center of the retina (up to +/- 10 degrees visual angle). The electrophysiological investigations in our patient--who had an optic atrophy--indicated a conduction block of the retinal nerve fibers (VEP) and an additional lesion at or before the retinal bipolar cells (multifocal ERG), localized in the central +/- 10 degrees. These findings suggest that thallium poisoning can lead to a combined lesion of the retinal nerve fibers and the neural retina.

  11. Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of 201 Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of 201 Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy

  12. Computed tomography of the heart using thallium-201 in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, S; Hill, T C; VanPraagh, R; Holman, B L

    1979-09-01

    Thallium-201 emission computed tomography (ECT) was performed in 3 pediatric patients in whom conventional scintigraphy was normal but there was a strong clinical suspicion of myocardial disease. Abnormalities in the distribution of myocardial perfusion appeared sharply. Single photon ECT provides a three dimensional reconstruction which results in greater enhancement since activity in overlying structures does not interfere. Its widespread use is limited only by the cost of the imaging device.

  13. Computed tomography of the heart using thallium-201 in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treves, S.; Hill, T.C.; VanPraagh, R.; Holman, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thallium-201 emission computed tomography (ECT) was performed in 3 pediatric patients in whom conventional scintigraphy was normal but there was a strong clinical suspicion of myocardial disease. Abnormalities in the distribution of myocardial perfusion appeared sharply delineated with ECT compared to normal conventional gamma camera scintigraphy. Single photon ECT provides a three dimensional reconstruction which results in greater enhancement since activity in overlying structures does not interfere. Its widespread use is limited only by the cost of the imaging device

  14. Isotope dilution-surface ionization mass spectrometry of thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Igarashi, Tatsushi

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-micro amount of thallium could be determined by the isotope dilution-surface ionization mass spectrometry by using 203 Tl as a spike. After thallium was separately extracted into 10 ml of 0.00125% dithizone chloroform solution from the solution of the sample isotopically equilibrated with the 203 Tl spike, it was back extracted into 5 ml of 1% nitric acid. The nitric acid solution was treated with a mixture of 0.2 ml of 14 N nitric acid and 0.1 ml of 60% perchloric acid, and evaporated to dryness in a pyrex glass oven supplied with highly pure nitrogen. The residue was dissolved in a mixture of 60 μl of water with 0.015% silica gel suspension and 5 μl of 2% phosphoric acid solution. An aliquot of this mixture was loaded onto a rhenium single filament as an ionization equipment of a Hitachi RMU-6 type mass spectrometer. The detection limit of the present method was 10 -15 -- 10 -14 g for thallium. The precision concerning mass spectroscopic analysis, as a coefficient of variation for the measurements of 205 Tl/ 203 Tl ratios, was 0.1 -- 0.5%. The application of the present method to environmental materials such as Japanese standard rocks and Orchard Leaves delivered by N.B.S. has shown that the precision of repeated analyses was 0.2 -- 0.7% for a concentration of ppm level. This method has revealed that concentration of thallium in the ocean increased with increasing depth at a ppt level. (author)

  15. Exercise thallium imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus. Prognostic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felsher, J.; Meissner, M.D.; Hakki, A.H.; Heo, J.; Kane-Marsch, S.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-02-01

    We used exercise thallium 201 imaging in 123 patients with diabetes mellitus (77 men and 46 women, aged 56 +/- 8 years), 75% of whom had angina pectoris (typical or atypical). During exercise testing, 18 patients (15%) had angina pectoris, 28 (23%) had ischemic ST changes, and 69 (56%) had abnormal thallium images. During follow-up (up to 36 months), there were 12 cardiac events; four patients died of cardiac causes and eight had nonfatal acute myocardial infarction. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis identified two independent predictors of cardiac events: the event rate was significantly less in patients with normal images and exercise heart rate over 120 beats per minute than in patients with abnormal images and exercise heart rate of 120 beats per minute or less (0% vs 22%). The patients with abnormal images or exercise heart rate of 120 beats per minute or less had an intermediate event rate (11.5%). Furthermore, two of the 54 patients with normal images and ten of 69 patients with abnormal images had subsequent cardiac events. Thus, exercise thallium imaging is useful in risk stratification in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  16. Detection of Myocardial Sarcoidosis by Thallium 201 Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, L. Julian; Sharma, Om P.; Siegel, Michael E.; Siegel, Robert J.; Gottlieb, Stephen L.; Caldwell, John; Siemsen, Jan K.

    1982-01-01

    Thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scanning revealed focal left ventricular defects at rest in four of 30 patients (13 percent) with systemic sarcoidosis. All the defects decreased in size during thallium stress imaging, a finding opposite of that usually seen in myocardial ischemia. Nine patients had abnormal right ventricular visualization at rest. Thus, 11 of 30 (37 percent) had abnormal resting myocardial scand. Two of the four patients with left ventricular defects were studied serially for up to 1.5 years to evaluate response to corticosteroid therapy. The myocardial defect diminished in one patient, whereas the second patient, maintained for 2 years on low doses of steroids, had no resolution. In patients suspected of focal myocardial involvement by sarcoidosis on thallium scanning dynamic changes in scan defects can occur during exercise which are the reverse of those usually seen in coronary artery disease. These defects probably represent myocardial sarcoid. Right ventricular uptake generally appears to correlate with the severity of pulmonary involvement by sarcoidosis, yet does not appear to be a specific finding. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7143469

  17. Central nervous system effects in acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Tai; Huang, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Shen, Wu-Shiun; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chu, Nai-Shin

    2006-03-01

    We report the central nervous system manifestations, neuropsychological studies and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of two patients with acute thallium intoxication. Neurologically the patients suffered from confusion, disorientation, and hallucination in the acute stage, followed by anxiety, depression, lack of attention, and memory impairment, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Neuropsychological tests revealed an impairment of memory function, including reversed digital span, memory registration, memory recall, memory recognition, similarity, proverb reasoning, and verbal fluency. High concentrations of thallium were found in the urine, blood, and drinking water of these two patients. Brain MRI showed lesions in the corpus striatum in one patient. During the follow-up periods, the clinical manifestations and neuropsychological studies showed a slowly progressive improvement, and a follow-up brain MRI 1.5 months later demonstrated a resolution of the lesions. We conclude that thallium intoxication might induce encephalopathy, and brain MRI studies demonstrated the acute-stage brain lesions in a severe intoxicated patient. In addition, neuropsychological tests also confirmed memory deficits, although the brain lesions in the corpus striatum might resolve.

  18. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest ( -1 ) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L -1 were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (∼1400 ng L -1 ) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: → Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. → Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. → Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  19. Risk-benefit of dipyridamole loading thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, Kenji; Ogiu, Naonori; Musha, Takehiko; Moriai, Naoki; Miyakawa, Tomohisa; Nakai, Kenji; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of dipyridamole-stressed thallium-201 scintigraphy in the detection of myocardial ischemia, as well as the associated complications and their background factors. Fifty consecutive patients (33 men and 17 women; a mean age of 67 years) unable to undergo exercise thallium imaging were examined. R waves on resting ECG, the occurrence of ischemic changes on exercise ECG, asynergy on left ventriculography and dobutamine-stressed two-dimensional echocardiography, uptake of FEG on PET, and coronary angiographic findings were comprehensively assessed to determine the accuracy of the present scintigraphy. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 60.4%, 94.2%, 89.7%, 83.0%, and 82.9%, respectively. These findings yielded satisfactory detectability of dipyridamole-stressed thallium-201 scintigraphy for myocardial ischemia. The present scintigraphy had a high sensitivity and specificity for the left anterior descending artery; however, it had a high specificity but low sensitivity for the other arteries. A majority of complications during the scintigraphy was transient, mild decrease in blood pressure, which was found especially when ischemia was present in the left circumflex artery and chest pain occurred during dipyridamole stress. Dipyridamole stress is considered to be contraindicated for patients with unstable angina. (N.K.)

  20. Exercise thallium imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus. Prognostic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsher, J.; Meissner, M.D.; Hakki, A.H.; Heo, J.; Kane-Marsch, S.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    We used exercise thallium 201 imaging in 123 patients with diabetes mellitus (77 men and 46 women, aged 56 +/- 8 years), 75% of whom had angina pectoris (typical or atypical). During exercise testing, 18 patients (15%) had angina pectoris, 28 (23%) had ischemic ST changes, and 69 (56%) had abnormal thallium images. During follow-up (up to 36 months), there were 12 cardiac events; four patients died of cardiac causes and eight had nonfatal acute myocardial infarction. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis identified two independent predictors of cardiac events: the event rate was significantly less in patients with normal images and exercise heart rate over 120 beats per minute than in patients with abnormal images and exercise heart rate of 120 beats per minute or less (0% vs 22%). The patients with abnormal images or exercise heart rate of 120 beats per minute or less had an intermediate event rate (11.5%). Furthermore, two of the 54 patients with normal images and ten of 69 patients with abnormal images had subsequent cardiac events. Thus, exercise thallium imaging is useful in risk stratification in patients with diabetes mellitus

  1. Role of exercise thallium 201 imaging in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Segal, B.L.; Frankl, W.S.; Kane-Marsch, S.; Unger, J.

    1986-01-01

    This prospective study examined the impact of results of exercise thallium 201 imaging on the estimation of probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) and patient management among cardiologists and internists in our institution. Before exercise testing, the probability of CAD in the 100 patients enrolled in this study was considered low in 31, intermediate in 28, and high in 41 patients. The probability of CAD after exercise thallium imaging was different in four patients (10%) in the high group, 22 patients (79%) in the intermediate group, and three patients (10%) in the low group. Further, the results of exercise testing resulted in changes in patient management in 29 patients (71%) in the high group, 26 patients (93%) in the intermediate group, and 16 patients (52%) in the low group. Overall, the management changed in 71% of the patients. This change included changes in medications, physical activity, frequency of office visits, need for cardiac catheterization, and need for coronary arterial bypass grafting. Thus, exercise thallium imaging is useful in clinical decision making: the diagnostic certainty is improved in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD; and some degree of change in patient management is observed, even in patients in whom the probability of CAD is not altered

  2. Thallium in fractions of sediments formed during the 2004 tsunami in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewski, Zenon; Karbowska, Bozena; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz; Siepak, Marcin

    2012-06-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic element. Its concentration in sediment fractions from the 2004 tsunami in Thailand was investigated. A modified BCR procedure was used for sequential extraction. Tl was determined by flow injection differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. It was found that the majority of thallium in the investigated tsunami sediments (86-97 percent) is entrapped in the alumosilicate parent matter i.e. it is entirely immovable. Only the total destruction of this residual fraction with hydrofluoric acid made this thallium available. The conclusion strongly supports the hypothesis that thallium is mainly entrapped in alumosilicate parent matter. Total thallium concentration in the investigated tsunami sediments was divergent in various samples from 0.37 to 1.13 μg g(-1) and significantly different from the reference area (0.05 μg g(-1)). Tsunami sediment fractions from different sampling points are divergent in terms of total thallium concentration and concentration of mobile thallium. Generally, mobile thallium concentration was growing in sequence: water soluble fractionthallium concentration in the reducible fraction was higher than in the oxidizable fraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

  4. Time sequential single photon emission computed tomography studies in brain tumour using thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Kaji, Yasuhiro; Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Futami, Shigemi

    1993-01-01

    Time sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies using thallium-201 were performed in 25 patients with brain tumours to evaluate the kinetics of thallium in the tumour and the biological malignancy grade preoperatively. After acquisition and reconstruction of SPECT data from 1 min post injection to 48 h (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 15-20 min, followed by 4-6, 24 and 48 h), the thallium uptake ratio in the tumour versus the homologous contralateral area of the brain was calculated and compared with findings of X-ray CT, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral angiography and histological investigations. Early uptake of thallium in tumours was related to tumour vascularity and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. High and rapid uptake and slow reduction of thallium indicated a hypervascular malignant tumour; however, high and rapid uptake but rapid reduction of thallium indicated a hypervascular benign tumour, such as meningioma. Hypovascular and benign tumours tended to show low uptake and slow reduction of thallium. Long-lasting retention or uptake of thallium indicates tumour malignancy. (orig.)

  5. Target preparation by electroplating of enriched thallium-203 and its quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rayyes, A. H.; Ailouti, Y.

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the optimum conditions of enriched thallium-203 electroplating on copper holders have been determined starting from different electroplating electrolytes. These conditions include current intensity and thallium concentration. The different solutions were: Newly prepared electrolyte using 203 Tl 2 O 3 , depleted solution used in a previous operations of electroplating, and recovery solutions, coming from Tl-203 separation from lead-201.(author)

  6. Clinical evaluation of desferrioxamine (DFO) for removal of thallium ions in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S J; Amiri, A; Bazargan, M H; Tubafard, S; Fatemi, S N

    2007-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the ability of DFO following the administration of thallium salt in male Wistar rats. Thallium was introduced to several groups of weanling male Wistar rats via different means, through drink, food and intraperitoneal injection. A control group was fed on a diet containing a normal level of iron. After a period of 30 days, all the rats administered thallium were severely anemic and showed toxicity symptoms through loss of hair, an increase in thallium and a decrease in iron levels in the blood. Chelation therapy was carried out to remove the toxic element from the body. The ability of desferrioxamine (DFO) in removing thallium was investigated by injection of this chelator for one week to the remaining rats of similar groups. The results showed that the thallium level present in the blood was significantly reduced and, at the same time, the iron concentration returned to the normal level. It was concluded that DFO chelator is able to remove thallium from the body and could be used for the treatment of complications and eradication of symptoms of thallium intoxication.

  7. Thallium poisoning during pregnancy: a case report and comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R S

    2000-01-01

    Thallium salts were once used to treat a variety of disorders such as tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and ringworm of the scalp. Although the clinical manifestations and treatment of patients with thallium poisoning are well characterized, little information is available on the outcome of pregnancy in thallium-poisoned women. A case of thallium poisoning that began during the first trimester of pregnancy and resulted in fetal demise is reported. An extensive literature search identified reported cases of thallium poisoning during pregnancy from 1903 until the present time. All articles were obtained, translated, and abstracted using a standardized data collection form. References were hand-searched and abstracted to identify additional cases. From a total of 25 cases identified, only 18 met satisfactory criteria for inclusion. Five exposures occurred during the first trimester, 5 during the second trimester, and 8 during the third trimester. Mothers developed classic signs and symptoms of thallium poisoning. Summary of these cases demonstrates a range of fetal effects from severe toxicity with residual sequelae to outwardly normal development. Interestingly, some newborns appeared normal despite severe maternal toxicity. The only consistent effect identified was a trend toward prematurity and low birth weight in children exposed during early gestation. These cases document the transfer of thallium both across the placenta and in breast milk. Insufficient data are available to evaluate prognostic markers of fetal outcome, or the risks and benefits of various treatment regimens in pregnant patients with thallium poisoning.

  8. Clinical utility and problem of thallium myocardial imaging after coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Tamai, Takuya; Nakamura, Mashio; Miyahara, Masatoshi; Isaka, Naoki; Nakano, Takeshi.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to assess the value and limits of stress thallium myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of reclosure after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and (2) to determine how myocardial viability, as determined on thallium imaging, influenced the therapeutic option. In study 1, 117 segments, which were treated with PTCA, were examined. Of 52 segments that showed thallium defects, 27 were treated with repeated PTCA. Of the other 25 segments, 12 were found to be reclosed. On the other hand, 65 other segments showed redistribution on thallium imaging, and 60 of these had no reclosure. The remaining 5 segments that were reclosed reflected no evidence of myocardial viability. These findings suggest that coronary arteriography may omitted when redistribution is seen on stress thallium imaging after PTCA. The population in Study 2 included 39 patients who were diagnosed as having myocardial necrosis on thallium imaging. In 22 of these patients, thallium findings ruled out coronary revascularization. One other patient did not undergo coronary revascularization because of technical problems. Thus, the remaining 16 patients were treated with coronary revascularization combined with bypass surgery for necrotic zones (n=10) or with PTCA for preserved collateral circulation (n=6). For necrotic zones evidenced on thallium imaging, factors other than necrosis were considered in determining coronary revascularization. (N.K.)

  9. Differences in Thallium-201 uptake in reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.A.; Becker, L.C.; Bulkley, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The respective importance of flow and cellular viability in determining initial myocardial thallium uptake was studied in reperfused and nonreperfused experimental myocardial infarction. Open-chest dogs were subjected to permanent coronary artery occlusion of 70-minute (n . 3) or 5-hour duration (n . 5), or to a 3-hour temporary occlusion followed by reflow (n . 14). Thallium uptake 10 minutes after intravenous injection was compared directly with radioactive microspheres in myocardial samples from excised hearts. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining was used to differentiate necrotic and viable samples with confirmation by electron microscopy. In nonreperfused infarcts, thallium uptake occurred despite necrosis, and a close correlation was found between thallium uptake and regional myocardial blood flow. In reperfused infarcts, thallium uptake again occurred, but was reduced relative to flow in necrotic myocardium and, to a lesser extent, in reperfused viable areas. However, because of the high levels of reflow, actual thallium uptake was often more than 50% of normal in reperfused necrotic regions. This study demonstrates that the presence of thallium uptake is an unreliable indicator of myocardial injury and that reperfused necrotic tissue may have remarkably high levels of thallium uptake

  10. Usefulness of thallium-201 SPECT imaging for the evaluation of local recurrence of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Yukiharu; Ozaki, Yutaka; Shindoh, Noboru; Kyogoku, Shinsuke; Katayama, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the accumulation of thallium-201 in recurrent tumors in patients who had undergone resection of colorectal cancer and to evaluate the usefulness of thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images for distinguishing recurrent tumors from postoperative changes. Thallium-201 SPECT images and CT images of 22 consecutive patients suspected to have local recurrence of colorectal cancer based on clinical symptoms and signs were reviewed. CT was performed on all patients. In nine of the 11 patients who had local recurrence, SPECT images showed positive thallium uptake, but in 10 of the 11 patients confirmed to have no recurrence, SPECT images showed negative thallium uptake. Sensitivity was 81.8% (9/11), specificity was 90.9% (10/11), and accuracy was 86.4% (19/22). There were five patients in whom CT results were inconclusive. All of them had rectal cancer and had undergone Miles' operation, and all were correctly diagnosed by thallium-201 SPECT. Thallium-201 exhibited intense uptake in recurrent colorectal cancer. Thallium-201 SPECT is considered to be a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of recurrence of colorectal cancer, particularly in patients with inconclusive CT results. (author)

  11. Sodium dithionite as a selective demasking agent for the complexometric determination of thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAKASH SHETTY

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium dithionite is proposed as a new demasking agent for the rapid and selective complexometric determination of thallium(III. In the presence of diverse metal ions, thallium (III was first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTAwas then titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer using Xylenol Orange as the indicator. The EDTAequivalent to thallium was then released selectively with sodium dithionite and back titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results were obtained in the range 4–100 mg of thallium with a relative error of ±27 % and a coefficient of variation (n = 6 of not more than 0.30 %. The effects of various diverse ions were studied. The method was applied to the determination of thallium in its complexes and in alloys.

  12. The value of 201thallium-SPECT imaging in childhood brainstem gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadvi, S S; Ebrahim, F S; Corr, P

    1998-08-01

    To compare 201thallium (T1) uptake and SPECT with MRI in children with brainstem gliomas. Ten children with brainstem gliomas were prospectively evaluated by 201Tl-SPECT and MRI. Histological verification was obtained in eight children - two died prior to surgery. Quantitative thallium uptake index (UI) was obtainable in five cases and was compared to tumour grade. In addition, two patients with known benign brainstem lesions (neurofibromatosis and tuberculoma) were similarly prospectively evaluated. All children with brainstem glioma accumulated thallium. (Mean U1 3.23, 100% sensitivity). The single patient with brainstem tuberculoma also accumulated thallium (UI 2.80, 91.7% specificity). There was no correlation between thallium uptake and tumour grade. Uptake could not be conclusively correlated with the following MR features: gadolinium enhancement, exophytic or intrinsic gliomas, necrosis and location of glioma within the brainstem. 201T1-SPECT is a promising imaging adjunct in the assessment of childhood brainstem gliomas.

  13. Effect of ischemia-related metabolic factors on thallium exchange in cultured rat myocardial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, D; Zimmer, L J; Katz, A M

    1986-01-01

    Failure of the myocardium to take up Thallium-201 is widely used as a diagnostic marker for ischemia or infarction. Although this is commonly related to a reduction in coronary flow or myocardial perfusion, other possible metabolic factors are poorly understood. The present studies investigated the influence of various interventions, designed to simulate the metabolic consequences of ischemia, on thallium-204 uptake and release in cultured myocardial cells. In these cells, where thallium exchanged rapidly (t 1/2 = 5 min.), and 60% of thallium uptake occurred via the sodium pump, thallium uptake was markedly influence by changes in extracellular potassium. Increasing extracellular potassium from a physiologic level of 5 mM to those levels reported to occur in ischemic myocardium (7.5 mM to 18 mM) effected a 25% to 60% reduction in thallium influx. The decrease in thallium influx produced by increasing extracellular potassium was rapid (30 sec.) in onset and readily reversible by restoring extracellular potassium towards normal. Changes in extracellular pH in the range 6.4 to 8.0 had no demonstrable effect on thallium uptake despite the fact that this was accompanied by similar, although less marked, changes in intracellular pH. Addition of adenine nucleosides, adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine, to the incubating solution in concentrations from 1 nM to 0.1 mM had no effect on thallium influx or efflux in the cells. This observation held true even when 10 microM dipyridamole was used to inhibit nucleoside uptake by the cells. Addition of 1 mM 2, 4-dinitrophenol or 4 mM potassium cyanide to the cultures maximally inhibited 42% of the thallium influx within 30 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Myocardial kinetics of thallium-201 after stress in normal and perfusion-reduced canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the emerging use of quantitative computer programs for assessing myocardial thallium uptake and clearance after exercise, little is known about the kinetics of thallium after exercise stress. Accordingly, 11 mongrel dogs with experimental left anterior descending coronary stenoses were given thallium during norepinephrine infusion to simulate exercise. The infusion was discontinued and thallium activity was monitored regionally using miniature radiation detectors for 3 hours. Heart rate, arterial pressure and double product all increased significantly during norepinephrine infusion. The mean fractional myocardial thallium clearance was lower (0.47 +/- 0.03 [+/- standard error of the mean]) for the stenosis zone than for the no-stenosis zone (0.57 +/- 0.03) (p less than 0.0001). The stress blood flow ratio (stenosis/no-stenosis zone = 0.27 +/- 0.06) was significantly lower than the final thallium activity ratio (0.68 +/- 0.07) (p less than 0.001), consistent with thallium redistribution occurring over the 3-hour period. Myocardial thallium activity in the stenosis zone peaked in a mean of 2.2 minutes, then washed out biexponentially with a final decay constant of 0.0035 +/- 0.0005 min-1. Myocardial thallium activity in the no-stenosis zone peaked within 1 minute in all dogs, then washed out biexponentially, with a final decay constant of 0.0043 +/- 0.0003 (p less than 0.001 compared with stenosis zone). In conclusion, fractional clearance of thallium can differentiate myocardium distal to a coronary artery stenosis from that supplied by a normal coronary vessel

  15. [Efficiency of hemoperfusion on clearing thallium based on atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Wang, Yongan; Nie, Zhiyong; Wang, Jiao; Peng, Xiaobo; Yuan, Ye; Li, Wanhua; Qiu, Zewu; Xue, Yanping; Xiong, Yiru

    2015-04-01

    To determine thallium in whole blood by atomic absorption detection method, and to investigate the eliminating effect of hemoperfusion (HP) for thallium in blood. The blood of Beagle dogs which had not exposed to thallium before were obtained for preparation of thallium nitrate ( TlNO3 )-containing solution in three concentrations according to the conversion formula based on animal weight and volume of blood. HP was performed in the simulated in vivo environment. The content of TlNO3 in blood of the next group was determined on the amount of TlNO3 for the last HP of the former dose group. Thallium quantity in different samples was measured with atomic absorption spectrometer blood samples before and after HP. Finally, the thallium concentration in blood was analyzed statistically. Thallium concentrations showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0-200 μg/L (r = 0.998 4). The intra-day precision (RSD) was lower than 4.913%, the intra-day recovery rate was 96.2%-111.9%; the inter-day precision (RSD) was lower than 7.502%, the inter-day recovery rate was 89.6%-105.2%. The concentration of thallium in blood was significantly reduced after HP per time in high, middle, and low dose groups [(453.43 ± 27.80) mg/L to (56.09 ± 14.44) mg/L in high dose group, F = 8.820, P = 0.003; (64.51 ± 13.60) mg/L to (3.19 ± 0.23) mg/L in middle dose group, F = 36.312, P = 0.000; (5.40 ± 0.98) mg/L to (0.38 ± 0.25) mg/L in low dose group, F = 46.240, P = 0.000 ]. The adsorption rate of four times of HP in high, middle and low dose group were (87.63 ± 2.48 )%, (95.06 ± 1.54 )% and (92.76 ± 4.87)%, respectively, without significant difference (F = 4.231, P = 0.070). The method for measuring thallium was established, and it shows a very stable, simple, sensitive for determination of thallium. HP can effectively remove thallium from blood. Thallium concentration can be reduced by 90% after four times of HP. HP is also effective even when thallium concentration is not high.

  16. Quantitative analysis of sodium di-uranate for Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na by flame-atomic absorption spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, J.R.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Subba Rao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) receives Sodium Di-Uranate (SDU) from Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) for producing sinterable UO 2 pellets for manufacturing fuel sub assemblies. Several impurities present in ore find their way into SDU during its conversion. Stringent specification have been laid down by the reactor designs for achieving the optimum performance of the fuel and several impurity element like Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na among others affects severely performance of UO 2 fuel. Most of the impurity including the above mentioned elements are generally analysed by ICP-OES method. However, determination of Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Na by ICP-OES requires lot of dilution as they are present at high levels in SDU. Apart from introducing dilution error, dilution process is very tedious and time consuming work and not a preferred choice in an industrial lab like control lab where large analytical load exists and time bound analysis is a requirement. To avoid these difficulties a simple and reliable Flame Atomic absorption spectrometric technique has been developed for regular analysis. Present method involves dissolution of SDU sample in Conc. HNO 3 and after the complete dissolution the sample solution has been evaporated to near dryness on a hot plate. Subsequently sample solution has been brought into 4N HNO 3 medium

  17. 201Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellen, K.

    1999-10-01

    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of 201 Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imaging for astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the anatomical

  18. Quantitative evaluations in planar myocardial scintigraphy using 201-thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The observation that the judgements of myocardial images obtained by 201-thallium scintigraphy tend to vary considerably between investigators has prompted us to develop two versions of a quantitative evaluation technique which - after orthogonal-polar adjustment of the coordinates (with the centre of the left ventricle being the origin of the coordinate system) - would allow the counting rates to be expressed as goniometric functions and shown in graphs. The methods under investigation did, however, not appear to give reasonable approximations to a 'normal range', on the basis of which it would be possible to make clearer distinctions between scintiscans with and without pathological findings. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Synthesis, structure and electrical properties of the thallium ruthenate pyrochlores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryoji; Haung, Jinfan; Sleight, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    The thallium ruthenate pyrochlores, Tl 2 Ru 2 O 7-δ , were synthesized and their structures were determined by neutron diffraction measurements. The low-temperature (LT) and high-temperature (HT) phases were obtained at reaction temperatures of 500 and 900degC, respectively. Neutron diffraction measurements indicated the compositions of Tl 2 Ru 2 O 7 and Tl 2 Ru 2 O 6.71 for the HT phase and the LT phase, respectively. Electrical resistivity measurements showed metallic property for the HT phase and semiconducting property for the LT phase. The relationship between the electrical properties and the structural changes is discussed. (author)

  20. Non-invasive assessment of coronary artery disease with stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Hamada, Seiki; Maeno, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Miyazaki, Shun-ich; Nonogi, Hiroshi [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    Recent studies have reported a low specificity of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Thus this study was undertaken to reassess the ability of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging to detect deseased coronary vessels. The subjects were 469 patients, who consisted of 397 with a significant {>=}75% stenosis and the other 72 with normal coronary vessels on coronary arteriography done within 6 months before and after thallium imaging. Using the coronary arteriogram as the arbiter, the sensitivity and specificity of stress thallium imaging were 91% and 43%, respectively. Forty-one patients with no angiographic evidence of coronary stenosis were assessed as having coronary stenosis on thallium imaging (false-positive cases). All the 41 patients had cardiovascular diseases or symptoms, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, complete left bundle branch block, chest pain of unknown etiology, and abnormalities on stress ECG. This suggested the possibility that dysfunctional segments may be manifested by exercise stress even though these are not shown on coronary arteriography at rest. Thus the low specificity of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease may not contribute to the essential disadvantage of thallium imaging, but may reflect dysfunctional segments that are not shown by morphological manifestation of coronary arteriography. (N.K.).

  1. [Thallium content in adults older than 45 ages at Hezhang County of Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Yao, Dancheng; Feng, Jiali; Zeng, Dong; Fan, Di; Shang, Qi

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feature of Thallium content in adults of heavy metal contaminated district due to mining of Hezhang County, Guizhou Province. METHODS The subjects older than 45 ages were randomly recruited from the mineralized district (Magu village) and no-mineralized district (Salaxi viillage) , urine of villagers were collected and thallium content in urine were detected with ICP-MS. The average thallium contents in urine of Magu villagers were higner than those of Salaxi villagers,The urinary thallium contents of female were higner than those of male. The urinary thallium contents of residents in two districts were mostly under the upper limit of exposure in human bodies. There was no villager suffered from chronic poisoning of thallium in the two observing districts, the 95% upper limits of urinary thallium content for nonoccupational women older than 45 ages in Magu village was 8 microg/gCr and those for other nonoccupational subjects older than 45 ages was 5 microg/gCr.

  2. Slow late myocardial clearance of thallium: a characteristic phenomenon in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklar, J.; Kirch, D.; Johnson, T.; Hasegawa, B.; Peck, S.; Steele, P.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers extended the quantitative seven-pinhole method to follow the dynamics of thallium redistribution after exercise. Researchers observed a pattern of slow late thallium clearance that appears to be characteristic of myocardium supplied by obstructed coronary arteries. In 28 subjects, quantitative thallium scintigrams and blood samples for thallium concentration were taken immediately, 2 hours and 4 hours after maximal treadmill exercise. Twenty subjects had coronary artery disease (CAD) and eight were normal. The rate of thallium clearance from the blood (TCB) was compared with the rate of thallium clearance from each segmental region of myocardium between the 2- and 4-hour images. In seven of the eight normal subjects, TCM exceeded TCB in all regions of all images. Seventeen of the 20 CAD patients had at least one region where TCM was less than TCB. Of the 13 patients with multivessel CAD 11 had multiple regions with TCM less than TCB. Using this criterion, we detected 31 of 39 obstructed coronary arteries. Of the 37 regions that were abnormal by this analysis, 30 corresponded to obstructed coronary arteries. In contrast, while conventional circumferential count profile analysis also was abnormal in 17 of the 20 CAD patients, it diagnosed multivessel CAD in only five of the 13 patients that had it. These results show that slow late thallium clearance from myocardium is characteristic of regions of myocardium supplied by diseased coronary arteries and that observation of this phenomenon may improve diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of multivessel CAD

  3. The clinical role of thallium-201 scintigraphy in the management and prognosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, M.D.; Murray, D.P.; Rafiqi, E.; Murray, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the clinical impact of thallium-201 scintigraphy in coronary artery disease, the indications, diagnostic yield and contribution to patient management were reviewed retrospectively in 103 patients referred for routine investigations. Exercise and redistribution image data were collected in multiple projections and interpreted by visual and semi-quantitative means. A segmental image defect was accepted as indicating the presence of coronary artery disease. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed as a diagnostic procedure in 71 patients (69%) who had equivocal evidence of coronary artery disease. In 57 (80%) of these patients, thallium-201 scintigraphy was normal and 53 (75%) were spared diagnostic coronary arteriography. Despite normal thallium-201 scintigrams, arteriography was performed in 4 patients with persisting symptoms and demonstrated normal vessels in 2 patients and single vessel disease in 2 patients. Conversely, arteriography was normal in 2 of 14 patients (14%) with unequivocal image defects. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed as a functional complement to coronary arteriography in 32 patients, influencing the decision for coronary surgery in 10, for angioplasty in 4 and against surgery in 2. Myocardial ischaemia was confirmed in 8 and refuted in 8 patients with questionable arteriographic coronary disease. Positive management decisions were taken as a result of thallium-201 scintigraphy in 80 of these 103 patients (78%). These data confirm the vital role of thallium-201 scintigraphy in the evaluation and management of patients with suspected and proven coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  4. Electrochemical separation and isotopic determination of thallium at the nanogram level by surface ionisation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid low-blank procedure is described for the co-separation of thallium and lead by sequential cathodic and anodic electrodeposition from natural samples, especially complex natural silicates, for subsequent mass spectrometry. A micro anion-exchange procedure is also described for the separation of thallium and lead. Ion currents of 10 - 10 A can be obtained from 1 ng of thallium. The isotopic composition of 1 ng of thallium can be measured on a Faraday detector with a precision of 0.05-0.1%. The total procedural blank is 3 pg. By using stable isotope dilution, 0.2 ng of thallium can be measured with a precision of 0.6% with only a 2% blank correction. This allows the accurate determination of thallium in natural samples down to concentration levels of about 50 pg g - 1 . The detection limit is 50 fg. This procedure has been applied to meteorites and terrestrial rocks. The stable isotope dilution technique is suitable for geochemical, environmental and toxicological studies requiring a highly sensitive, accurate and precise method for the determination of thallium. (Auth.)

  5. SPECT thallium-201 scintigraphy for the detection of left-ventricular aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, K.A.; Alazraki, N.P.; Taylor, A.T.; Datz, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    We have noted that the presence of left ventricular anterior/apical aneurysm on contrast ventriculography or echocardiography correlates well with the finding of failure of convergence of the left ventricular walls toward the apex on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium-201 images. To assess this observation, we analyzed the SPECT thallium scans of 74 sequential patients who had SPECT thallium scintigraphy and contrast ventriculography and/or echocardiography for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Immediate post-stress and 4-hr redistribution thallium-201 SPECT images, obtained following i.v. administration of 2 mCi of thallium-201, were reconstructed with no attenuation correction using three-dimensional linear and nonlinear filters and displayed in short, vertical-long, and horizontal-long axes. Of the 74 patients, contrast ventriculography and/or echocardiography showed anterior/apical aneurysms in 15 and a posterolateral aneurysm in one. SPECT thallium scans detected 14 of the 16 aneurysms, based on the criterion of failure of convergence of the ventricular walls toward the apex. There were two false-positives. Thus SPECT thallium-201 scintigraphy for the detection of left-ventricular aneurysm in this series had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 97%, and an accuracy of 96%

  6. Non-invasive assessment of coronary artery disease with stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Hamada, Seiki; Maeno, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Miyazaki, Shun-ich; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a low specificity of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Thus this study was undertaken to reassess the ability of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging to detect deseased coronary vessels. The subjects were 469 patients, who consisted of 397 with a significant ≥75% stenosis and the other 72 with normal coronary vessels on coronary arteriography done within 6 months before and after thallium imaging. Using the coronary arteriogram as the arbiter, the sensitivity and specificity of stress thallium imaging were 91% and 43%, respectively. Forty-one patients with no angiographic evidence of coronary stenosis were assessed as having coronary stenosis on thallium imaging (false-positive cases). All the 41 patients had cardiovascular diseases or symptoms, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, complete left bundle branch block, chest pain of unknown etiology, and abnormalities on stress ECG. This suggested the possibility that dysfunctional segments may be manifested by exercise stress even though these are not shown on coronary arteriography at rest. Thus the low specificity of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease may not contribute to the essential disadvantage of thallium imaging, but may reflect dysfunctional segments that are not shown by morphological manifestation of coronary arteriography. (N.K.)

  7. Comparison of rest and exercise thallium-201 kinetics in man and implications for quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, M.R.; Kanwar, N.; Armstrong, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    To develop a technique for quantitative analysis of resting thallium scintigrams, an understanding of thallium kinetics at rest is required. This study evaluates in normal man the thallium distribution and washout rates of thallium at rest and compares these findings to similar data obtained during exercise. The thallium half-life in normal resting myocardium is significantly longer than after exercise, 10.2 +/- 1.4 hours versus 3.9 +/- 0.3 hours (P less than .01). Differences in resting thallium half-life exist between the anterior, 45 degrees left anterior oblique (LAO), and 70 degrees LAO views and are 11.4 +/- 1.0, 10.6 +/- 1.0, 8.8 +/- 0.7 hours, respectively (all significantly different from each other by ANOVA, P less than or equal to .01); these differences are related to the imaging sequence. After exercise, the thallium half-life also varies according to imaging sequence, but in the opposite direction; i.e., anterior, 45 degrees LAO, and 70 degrees LAO views are 3.6 +/- 0.1, 3.9 +/- 0.3, 4.2 +/- 0.3 hours, respectively (P less than or equal to .01). Since imaging sequence and time of acquisition at rest and exercise were similar, this finding may be related to earlier maximal uptake of thallium after exercise as compared to rest. There are also significant segmental differences in thallium half-life at rest in the 45 degrees LAO view (9.8 +/- 0.9, septal vs. 11.0 +/- 0.9, posterolateral, P less than .01) and 70 degrees LAO view (8.3 +/- 0.4, anteroseptal vs. 9.2 +/- 0.6, inferior, P less than or equal to .01)

  8. Acute Toxicity of Thallium and Indium toward Brackish-Water and Marine Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Onikura, Norio; Nakamura, Akiko; Kishi, Katsuyuki; 鬼倉, 徳雄; 中村, 亜希子; 岸, 克行

    2008-01-01

    We examined the toxic effects of thallium and indium on brackish-water and marine species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted on Americamysis bahia, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia salina, and Sillago japonica. The LC50 values of thallium ranged from 3.48 to 100 mg/L, and this metal exhibited the strongest toxic effects on A. bahia. With regard to indium toxicity, the LC50 values ranged from 24 to 51 mg/L, and the strongest toxic effects were noted in B. plicatilis. The toxicity of thallium i...

  9. Diagnostic advantages of the association of electrocardiograms and thallium 201 exercise scintigraphy in detecting coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubau, J.F.; Chaitman, B.R.; Dupras, G.; Waters, D.D.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    Thallium 201 exercise scintigraphy combined with 14-lead exercise electrocardiography detects coronary artery disease in 95-96 percent of the patients, whether men or women. When both tests were positive, 93 percent of the men and 100 percent of the women had coronary artery disease. In women, thallium 201 seems to do better than 14-lead exercise electrocardiogram, detecting the presence of coronary artery disease in 72 percent and its absence in 83 percent of the cases. In approximately 50 percent of the cases, the results of thallium 201 and multiple-lead exercise testing were discordant; in these cases, an accurate clinical history is helpful. (author) [fr

  10. Left ventricular dilatation and pulmonary thallium uptake after single-photon emission computer tomography using thallium-201 during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Nguyen, T.; Lyons, E.; Paugh, E.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the implications of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and increased pulmonary thallium uptake during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia. The lung-to-heart thallium ratio in the initial images was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) than normal subjects; 0.48 +/- 0.16 in 3-vessel disease (n = 16), 0.43 +/- 0.10 in 2-vessel disease (n = 20), 0.43 +/- 0.08 in 1-vessel disease (n = 16) and 0.36 +/- 0.05 in normal subjects (n = 7) (p less than 0.001, 0.09 and 0.06, respectively). There was a significant correlation between the severity and the extent of the perfusion abnormality (determined from the polar maps) and the lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.51 and 0.52, respectively, p less than 0.0002). There was also a significant correlation between lung thallium washout and lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.42, p = 0.0009) and peak heart rate (r = -0.49, p less than 0.0001). The LV dilatation was mostly due to an increase in cavity dimension (30% increase) and to a lesser extent (6% increase) due to increase in LV size. (The cavity dimensions were measured from the short-axis slices at the midventricular level in the initial and delayed images). The dilation was seen in patients with CAD but not in the normal subjects. These changes correlated with the extent and severity of the thallium perfusion abnormality. Thus, adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia may cause LV dilation and increased lung thallium uptake on the basis of subendocardial ischemia

  11. Environmental concerns related to high thallium levels in soils and thallium uptake by plants in southwest Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tangfu; Guha, Jayanta; Boyle, Dan; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Chen, Jingan

    2004-01-05

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soils poses a significant threat to human health due to the high toxicity of Tl and its ready assimilation by crops. This study is focused on high concentrations of Tl in soils in the Lanmuchang area of southwest Guizhou, China, which is related to natural processes of Tl-rich sulfide mineralization. Thallium contents range from 40 to 124 mg/kg in soils originating from the mining area, from 20 to 28 mg/kg in slope wash materials, from 14 to 62 mg/kg in alluvial deposits downstream, from 1.5 to 6.9 mg/kg in undisturbed natural soils and Thallium concentration in plants exhibit species-dependent preferences. Thus, the enrichment of Tl in the edible parts of crop species decreases in the following order: green cabbage>carrot>chili>Chinese cabbage>rice>corn. The highest level of Tl in green cabbage is up to 500 mg/kg as dry wt., surpassing the values of Tl in the soils in which the green cabbages grow. In contrast, Hg and As are relatively less concentrated in local plants. The average daily uptake of Tl by the villagers of the Lanmuchang area through consumption of locally planted crops has been estimated to be 1.9 mg/person, which is 50 times the daily ingestion of individuals from the Tl-free background area. The daily ingestion of As and Hg from the study area are 0.03 and 0.01 mg, respectively. This indicates that Tl in the contaminated soils related to the natural Tl mineralization is being readily transferred to the human body through the food chain, and poses a significant threat to the health of the local villagers. Arsenic may pose a lesser health hazard, but mercury has an insignificant health risk. This study illustrates a real environmental concern related to land use and human health in areas containing high contents of Tl in soils associated with the natural occurrence of Tl-rich sulfides and coals, with or without mining activities. Thallium contamination in soils should be a critical parameter for proper land use and

  12. Resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile cardiac imaging in chronic coronary artery disease: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuocolo, A.; Maurea, S.; Pace, L.; Nicolai, E.; Nappi, A.; Imbriaco, M.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 19 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 33%±8%) by resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) and rest-redistribution thallium-201 cardiac imaging. Thallium and 99m Tc-MIBI studies were visually analysed. Of 285 segments, 203 (71%) had normal thallium uptake, 48 (17%) showed reversible thallium defects and 34 (12%) showed irreversible thallium defects. Of these 34 irreversible thallium defects, 19 (56%) were moderate and 15 (44%) were severe. Of the corresponding 285 segments, 200 (70%) had normal 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, while 37 (13%) showed moderate and 48 (17%) showed severe reduction of MIBI uptake. Myocardial segmental agreement for regional uptake score between initial thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 90% (κ=0.78). Segmental agreement between delayed thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 77% (κ=0.44). In particular, in 26 (9%) segments 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was severely reduced while delayed thallium uptake was normal or only moderately reduced. These data suggest that although rest-redistribution thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI cardiac imaging provide concordant results in the majority of myocardial segments, some segments with severely reduced resting 99m Tc-MIBI uptake may contain viable but hypoperfused myocardium. Thus, conclusions on myocardial viability based on 99m Tc-MIBI uptake should be made with caution in chronic coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  13. Clinical evaluation of stress thallium spect in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Osamu; Kimura, Nazuna; Soeki; Takeshi; Takeichi, Naoki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Thallium SPECT was performed in patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 67 cases were after maximal exercise and 74 cases were during coronary vasodilation induced by ATP (adenosine triphosphate) infusion. In patients suspected of angina pectoris, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) were 88%, 78% and 82% for exercise SPECT, and 100%, 72% and 84% for ATP SPECT studies, respectively. In patients with old myocardial infarction, these were 73%, 100% and 88% for exercise SPECT and 71%, 100% and 81% for ATP SPECT. These were 75%, 49% and 60% for treadmill exercise test in the patient group including both angina and myocardial infarction. For detection of diseased vessels, the diagnostic accuracy for left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery lesions was almost equal for ATP and exercise SPECT study, but ATP SPECT study was more sensitive than exercise SPECT study in detection of left circumflex artery lesions. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies occasionally gave false positive results in patients with single-vessel disease. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies underestimated the severity of multi-vessel disease. In general, the results of ATP SPECT imaging were highly concordant with the results of exercise SPECT imaging. ATP stress thallium SPECT imaging provided a safe and highly accurate diagnostic tool for detection of CAD. (author)

  14. Desulfurization Activated Phosphorothioate DNAzyme for the Detection of Thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2015-10-20

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal situated between mercury and lead in the periodic table. While its neighbors have been thoroughly studied for DNA-based sensing, little is known about thallium detection. In this work, in vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes is carried out using Tl(3+) as the target metal cofactor. Both normal DNA and phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA are tested for this purpose. While no Tl(3+)-dependent DNAzymes are obtained, a DNA oligonucleotide containing a single PS-modified RNA nucleotide is found to cleave by ∼7% by Tl(3+) at the RNA position. The remaining 93% are desulfurized. By hybridization of this PS-modified oligonucleotide with the Tm7 DNAzyme, the cleavage yield increases to ∼40% in the presence of Tl(3+) and Er(3+). Tm7 is an Er(3+)-dependent RNA-cleaving DNAzyme. It cleaves only the normal substrate but is completely inactive using the PS-modified substrate. Tl(3+) desulfurizes the PS substrate to the normal substrate to be cleaved by Tm7 and Er(3+). This system is engineered into a catalytic beacon for Tl(3+) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM, which is below its maximal contamination limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (10 nM).

  15. Dependence of quality of Thallium-201 on irradiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari, I.; Aslani, G.; Dehghan, M. K.; Shirazi, B.; Shafie, M.; Shadanpour, N.; Winkel, P. V.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thallium-201 is produced through 203 Tl (p,3 n) 201 pb 201 Tl reaction by cyclotron. This radioisotope has known as one of the cyclotron radioisotopes which is used for myocardial perfusion in the coronary artery disease, Ti-201 after chemical purification and quality control in the form of 201 Tl-chloride is ready to send the hospitals. Materials and methods: In this work the effect of the proton energy on quality of a Ti-201, was studied. Radionuclidic purity was determined by high purity Ge (H P Ge) detector Gamma spectrometer, in production time and after one half-life (73 h). The targets were coated with Enriched Thallium-203 (97%). Results: The variation of thickness of targets was 18.3±1.3μm. The different energies of bombardment on quality of Tl-201 and Tl-200, Tl-202, and Pb-203 (as impurity) were studied. The results have been that optimum energy for proton was 28.5 MeV. Conclusion: The variation energy of bombardment can change the purity of Tl-201 but all results were in standard range according to the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia

  16. Preparation of carrier-free radioactive thallium for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Crouzel, C.

    1975-01-01

    Radioactive thallium for medical use have been prepared by proton or deuteron bombardment of HgO or metallic Hg. The carrier free thallium is separated from mercury by ether extraction of the chloride. The yield of production for the isotopes 198m to 202 is given for different energies of protons and deuterons. The irradiated substances consisted of red mercury oxide containing less than 1 ppm iron, and high-purity (99.999%) metallic mercury. The red mercury oxide targets were irradiated with 15 MeV deuterons (M.R.C. cyclotron, Hammersmith Hospital-London and Saclay Van de Graff tandem) or 50 and 14 MeV protons (Grenoble Nuclear Physics Institute cyclotron and S.H.F.J. compact cyclotrons). The metallic mercury target was irradiated with 14, 16 and 20 MeV protons (S.H.F.J. compact cyclotron and Saclay variable-energy cyclotron). The particle current never exceeded 10 μA for irradiation times between 15 minutes and a few hours. (F.Gy.)

  17. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality; possibilities for thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Faced with a diagnosis of cold thyroid nodule as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, the clinician has to determine whether this nodule is malignant or not. This is a serious problem since, according to literature, 7-20 per cent of cold thyroid nodules are malignant. In 1982 some Japanese authors demonstrated the possibility of using 201 T1 in diagnosing thyroid tumors. This study refers to 120 patients who underwent an operation for thyroid disorders characterized by the presence of one or several cold nodules (as evaluated with conventional scintigraphy) and enables a comparison between a thorough evaluation of the thyroidal status and the 201 T1 scintigrams. These were obtained with a gamma-camera using a pinhole collimator. If a cold nodule is positive with 201 T1, surgery is incontestably indicated, as such a finding correlates with the existence of a thyroid tumor (benign follicular adenoma or carcinoma) in 89.5 per cent of the observed cases. In the cancer group the sensibility of the Thallium test is of 85 per cent and its specificity 80 per cent. We may assert that there is a very low risk of Thallium negative (old) nodules being malignant. The pre-operative 201 T1 scintigraphy is easy to perform in any Nuclear Medicine department. Nowadays, the combination of aspiration cytology and 201 T1 scintigraphy should make it possible to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid cancers [fr

  18. High-resolution mapping of neuronal activity by thallium autometallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Zuschratter, Werner; Scheich, Henning

    2004-10-01

    Different methods are available for imaging neuronal activity in the mammalian brain with a spatial resolution sufficiently high to detect activation patterns at the level of individual functional modules such as cortical columns. Severe difficulties exist, however, in visualizing the different degree of activity of each individual neuron within such a module, and mapping neuronal activity with a spatial resolution of single axons has remained impossible thus far. Here, we present a novel method for mapping neuronal activity that is able to visualize activation patterns with light and electron microscopical resolution. The method is based on the tight coupling of neuronal activity and potassium (K(+)) uptake. We have injected Mongolian gerbils with the K(+) analogue thallium (Tl(+)), stimulated the animals with pure tones of different frequencies and analyzed, by an autometallographic method, the Tl(+) distribution in the auditory cortex (AC). We find tonotopically organized columns of increased Tl(+)-uptake in AC. Within columns, the spatial patterns of neuronal activity as revealed by thallium autometallography are highly elaborated. Tl(+)-uptake differs in different layers, sublayers, and cell types, being especially high in large multipolar inhibitory interneurons in layer IV. A prominent feature of the columnar activation pattern is the presence of vertical modules of minicolumnar dimensions. Clusters of layer Vb pyramidal cells and their apical dendrite bundles are clearly visible in the center of the columns.

  19. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Isao; Handa, Shunnosuke; Yamazaki, Hajime; Nakamura, Yoshiro

    1984-01-01

    Right heart catheterization is needed for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), though the procedure was reported to have an unusually high risk. We examined the usefulness of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy for the evaluation of right ventricular overloading in patients with PPH. This study includes 5 patients with PPH, diagnosed by the clinical criteria of research committee of PPH in the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan (1976). Autopsy was done and diagnosis was confirmed in 4 cases. The right ventricular (RV) free wall was visualized in all cases. They were divided into 2 groups by the degree of visualization. The cases with heavier visualization had a higher pulmonary arterial resistence. The shape of the interventricular septum was deformed in all cases. It was straight in 3 cases and convex to the left ventricle (LV) in 3. In the later group, a systolic LV-RV pressure difference was less than 25 mmHg. One of these 3 cases showed reversed pressure difference. We concluded that thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy could non-invasively assess the degree of RV overloading in PPH. (author)

  20. Simultaneous maximal exercise radionuclide angiography and thallium stress perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahara, K.A.; Mena, I.; Maublant, J.C.; Brizendine, M.; Criley, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Gold-195m is a new ultra-short-lived radionuclide that can be used for cardiac studies. Accurate, reproducible ejection fraction and ventricular wall motion studies can be obtained from first-transit angiography using commercially available imaging and image-processing equipment. The short half-life of gold-195m (30.5 seconds) makes simultaneous dual isotope imaging possible and substantially reduces the radiation exposure from the isotope angiography. The feasibility and possible benefits of performing dual radionuclide studies were evaluated during a single exercise stress test in 24 subjects with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and in 20 normal volunteers. High-quality first-transit angiograms were obtained in all subjects. An 83% sensitivity and 95% specificity for detecting CAD with thallium-201 imaging was noted in this investigation, suggesting that its diagnostic accuracy was not altered by simultaneous dual isotone imaging. When segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion was compared with thallium-201 perfusion imaging, divergent results were noted in 15 of 44 subjects. An analysis of the ejection fraction (EF) results at rest and stress provided additional information that could be useful in assessing the clinical significance of such differences in segmental wall motion and perfusion. Simultaneous dual isotope imaging appears to be appropriate for situations in which both LV perfusion and function require evaluation. The use of gold-195m allows such information to be obtained from a single exercise test and can thereby reduce the cost and time required for noninvasive evaluations of patients for CAD

  1. Sorption of thallium(I) ions by peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robalds, Artis; Klavins, Maris; Dreijalte, Liga

    2013-01-01

    The increasing industrial use of thallium has raised the need for removal of this highly toxic element from wastewater. Thallium is more toxic than cadmium, copper, zinc, lead and mercury and as it is easily accumulated in humans, animals and plants, it poses a threat to both the environment and human health. Peat has been used as an effective, relatively cheap and easily available sorbent to treat waters containing heavy metals. In this study, peat was characterized and used as sorbent for the removal of Tl(I) ions from aqueous solution. The effect of initial Tl(I) concentration, pH, contact time, temperature and ionic strength was studied in batch mode. The maximum sorption capacity of peat reached 24.14 mg/g at 20 °C and initial Tl(I) concentration of 500 mg/L. Sorption capacity was found to be pH dependent and maximum uptake occurred at pH 10. Kinetic data revealed that sorption was relatively rapid - 82.8% of Tl(I) ions were sorbed in the first 10 min. The kinetics of sorption was analyzed using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Results show that peat can be used as an effective sorbent to remove Tl(I) ions from aqueous solutions.

  2. Evaluation of hibernating myocardium with exercise thallium-201 myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yasunori; Yamabe, Hiroshi; Yasaka, Yoshinori; Namura, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazumi; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro

    1991-01-01

    Seven patients with left ventricular wall motion abnormality underwent exercise thallium-201 myocardial SPECT before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the infarct-related artery. Both redistribution (Rd) images and %Tl uptake were examined to evaluate the capability of SPECT to diagnose pre-PTCA hibernation of the myocardium. Of 7 patients (18 segments), 5 (13 segments) were found to have an improvement of wall motion abnormality on left ventricular cineangiogram, leading to a diagnosis of hibernating myocardium. For all of the 5 patients, delayed SPECT images showed complete Rd in one patient (2 segments) and incomplete Rd in 4 patients (11 segments). In addition, %Tl uptake on early images was 54.3±19.4% before PTCA and 78.8±19.2% after PTCA. These results indicated that exercise thallium-201 myocardial SPECT may be useful for diagnosis of hibernating myocardium. It should, however, be noted that of 13 segments diagnosed with hibernation, 6 had Rd on post-PTCA SPECT in spite of the absence of restenosis. (N.K.)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nano-pore thallium (III) ion-imprinted polymer as a new sorbent for separation and preconcentration of thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossien; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Zohuri, Golamhossien; Darroudi, Abolfazl

    2011-01-15

    Thallium (III) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles were synthesized by preparing the ternary complex of thallium (III) ions with 5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol (DCQ) and 4-vinylpyridine (VP). Thermal copolymerization with methyl methacrylate (functional monomer, MMA) and ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (cross-linking monomer, EGDMA) was then performed in the presence of acetonitrile (porogen) and 2,2- azobisisobutyronitrile(initiator, AIBN). The imprinted ion was removed from polymer by stirring of the above particles with 5M HNO(3) to obtain the leached IIP particles. Moreover, control polymer (CP) particles were similarly prepared without the thallium (III) ions. The unleached and leached IIP particles were characterized by surface area analysis (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preconcentration of thallium (III) from aqueous solution was studied during rebinding with the leached IIP particles as a function of pH, the weight of the polymer material, the uptake and desorption times, the aqueous phase and the desorption volumes. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was employed for determination of thallium in aqueous solution. The limit of detection for the method was 0.02 ng mL(-1), while the relative standard deviation for five replicates was 2.6%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thallium poisoning presenting as paresthesias, paresis, psychosis and pain in abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Kumar, R; Kumar, R

    2006-01-01

    Due to involvement of multiple systems, thallium poisoning is notorious for complexity and seriousness as symptoms of toxicity are non-specific and diverse. Alopecia and painful neuropathy are its cardinal features, others being gastrointestinal disturbances, encephalopathy, tachycardia, ataxia, hepatorenal and cardiac damage etc. We report a case of thallium poisoning who presented initially with gastrointestinal symptoms and later developed neurological features (peripheral neuropathy and delirium). Various diagnoses were entertained in this case and thallium poisoning was suspected only after he developed alopecia and neuropsychosis. He made a significant recovery by conservative management in spite of delay in diagnosis. We conclude that a high level of suspicion should be kept for thallium poisoning, especially in patients with painful, peripheral neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms which appear earlier than alopecia, since prognosis is more rewarding with early diagnosis, leading to complete recovery.

  5. Thallium scintigraphy in experimental toxic pulmonary edema: relationship to extravascular pulmonary fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.A.; Higgins, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary fluid volumes (PBV = lung blood volume; EVLW = extravascular lung water) were examined to define the effects of oleic acid injury and then to examine the relationship between edema formation and accumulation of pulmonary thallium. In six dogs, pulmonary fluid compartments were monitored during the induction of pulmonary injury by oleic acid (0.15 cc/kg i.v.). By 30 min after the injection, EVLW had doubled; it continued to increase slowly for 180 min, whereas PBV declined. In six anesthetized dogs, similar measurements were made in an identical preparation and pulmonary fluid volumes were compared with pulmonary counts derived from sequential thallium scintigrams obtained after the injection of oleic acid. Measures of EVLW and PBV were obtained sequentially along with thallium scintigrams. The authors conclude that sequential thallium scintigrams provide useful information about the degree of change of EVLW over time in a model of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema

  6. Investigation of thallium evaporation by the method of laser resonance photoionization of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhlibaev, O; Temorov, Zh.P.

    1998-01-01

    Using the method of laser stepwise resonance photoionization the evaporation rate the vapor pressure were measured for metallic thallium in the temperature range of 480-1205 K. The minimal pressure having been measured equals 10 -9 Pa

  7. Effects of coronary artery bypass surgery on regions showing persistent defects in thallium myocardial images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yutaka; Ban, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Yoshifumi

    1989-01-01

    The indications for revascularization surgery and its effects on myocardial regions showing persistent defects in thallium myocardial images are controversial. The effects of aortocoronary bypass surgery on myocardial perfusion and wall motion in the regions with persistent defects were evaluated in 47 patients with thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography and left ventriculography. In areas showing persistent thallium defects preoperatively the rate of improvement of perfusion was only 24% by postoperative thallium imaging, and 57% by wall motion analysis. These results were significantly inferior to those of regions with transient defects, which were 84% and 82%, respectively. A persistent defect may not be a definitive marker of a non-viable scar, but the results of surgery on such regions were unsatisfactory. It is concluded, therefore, that revascuralization surgery in regions with persistent defects is not always recommended and that the indications for surgery should be individually determined with operative risk balanced against benefits. (author)

  8. Early detection of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by exercise-redistribution Thallium scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Wijns (William); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe value of exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in predicting recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis after a primary successful transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was prospectively evaluated. In 89 patients, a symptom-limited exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and

  9. Reliability of stress thallium-201 scanning in the clinical evaluation of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolzenbert, J.; London, R.

    1979-01-01

    Stress thallium-201 scanning proved to be a highly sensitive and specific screening procedure for myocardial ischemia in 52 consecutive cases with coronary arteriograms. Stress thallium-201 scanning was considerably more accurate and more specific than the exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) as evidenced by a sensitivity of 83% compared to 55%, and a specificity of 94% compared to 82%. When submaximal stress tests were excluded, improved sensitivity of thallium scan to exercise ECG was 95% to 64% with no change in specificity. Factors producing negative thallium scans in the presence of coronary artery disease were: delay in obtaining the first post-exercise scan, positioning and observing variability, severe three-vessel disease uniformly affecting all myocardial segments, and failure to achieve maximal stress testing due to attenuation of the heart-rate response by propranolol or somatic complaints

  10. A comparative study of the results of thallium scintigraphy and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelmesaeth, J.; Rynning, S.; Halvorsen, E.; Otterstad, J.E.; Vatne, K.; Nitter-Hauge, S.

    1993-01-01

    The value of exercise-redistribution thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was evaluated in 23 patients who were subsequently submitted to coronary angiography. Reversible perfusion defects indicating myocardial ischemia were found in 22 patients, of whom 18 had angiographically significant coronary artery stenoses. 2 patients had negative thallium scans, 1 had normal angiogram and 1 had single vessel disease. Thus 18 of 19 patients with angiographically verified coronary heart disease had a positive thallium scan. The majority of patients with left main stenosis and triple vessel disease had scintigraphic evidence of double or triple vessel disease. The scintigraphic method identified the correct anatomical localization in 73% of the angiographically verified coronary artery stenoses. A positive exercise-redistribution thallium scan had a high predictive value in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, whereas its value in estimating the number and localization of stenoses was more limited. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  11. FAAS determination of thallium after preconcentration using nitroso-S and TDBA onto benzophenone

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Taher; Sayed Ziae Mohammadi Mobarakeh; Fatameh Saber Mahani

    2005-01-01

    Thallium is quantitatively retained by 2-nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (nitroso-S) and tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (TDBA) onto benzophenone in the pH range 10.0-11.5 from large volumes of aqueous solutions of various samples. After filtration, each solid mass consisting of thallium complex and benzophenone is dissolved with 5 mL of dimethylformamide and the metal was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Eight replicate determinations of 10.0 μg...

  12. Lung uptake of thallium-201 on resting myocardial imaging in assessment of pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Yamamoto, K. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1981-03-01

    We have noted increased lung uptake of thallium-201 on resting myocardial images in patients with congestive heart failure. To evaluate this phenomenon, lung uptake of thallium on resting myocardial imaging was examined in 328 patients with various cardiovascular diseases. Increased lung uptake was observed in 117 cases (78%) with myocardial infarction, 32 (37%) with angina pectoris, 6 (27%) with hypertensive heart disease, 7 (30%) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 6 (100%) with congestive cardiomyopathy, 11 (100%) with valvular heart disease, and 7 (71%) with congenital heart disease, however, only one (5%) of normal subjects revealed increased uptake. Left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated in 32 cases with ischemic heart disease on the same day and it was significantly decreased as the lung uptake of thallium increased. Increased thallium activity in the lung seemed to be another noninvasive marker of lift heart failure in ischemic heart disease. Lung uptake of thallium was compared with pulmonary congestive signs on chest X-ray in 29 cases. The uptake was well correlated with the degree of pulmonary edema, and thallium myocardial image revealed remarkably increased lung uptake in all the patients accompanied with pulmonary interstitial edema on chest X-ray. Therefore, this phenomenon will demonstrate pulmonary edema, since thallium may be extracted to the increased interstitial distribution space of the lung as well as the myocardium in a patient with pulmonary edema. We conclude that thallium myocardial scintigraphy is useful not only in identification and localization of myocardial ischemia or infarction, but also in evaluation of pulmonary edema at the same time.

  13. Oral zinc sulphate in treatment of patients with thallium poisoning: A clinical therapeutic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thallium poisoning is usually associated with typical dermatological features simulating that of zinc deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of patients with thallium poisoning.Materials and methods: This clinical therapeutic trial study was conducted in Departments of Dermatology of Baghdad and Basrah Teaching Hospitals from February 2008 - February 2010, where a total of 37 patients with thallium poisoning were enrolled.A detailed history was taken from all patients and complete clinical examination was performed. All patients received zinc sulphate in a dose of 5 mg/kg three times a day few days before confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. Thallium in urine had been measured using the colorimetric method and was positive in all patients. After confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning, thallium antidotes Prussian blue was given to 32 patients.Results: Age range of 37 patients was 5-33 (24±5.3 years. The dermatological findings were mainly: anagen hair loss affected the scalp and limbs. Also, dusky ecchymotic red dermatitis like rash was observed on the face and dorsum of hands and legs, while neurological manifestations were mainly of peripheral neuropathy, were reported in 21 (55% patients. All patients but two responded promptly to a trial of zinc sulphate within few days.Conclusion: Oral Zinc sulphate appears to be an effective and safe treatment for thallium poisoning particularly for skin and hair features and in reducing its lethal progression and complications. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:133-7

  14. Serial thallium-201 imaging after dipyridamole for coronary disease detection: quantitative analysis using myocardial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    After dipyridamole, canine studies have demonstrated a slower rate of myocardial thallium-201 clearance from zones distal to a coronary artery stenosis compared to normal zones. To determine if criteria based on canine myocardial thallium-201 clearance rates could be applied clinically, 40 patients with and 26 patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) had serial thallium-201 images obtained for 2 to 5 hours after dipyridamole. Regions of interest were manually placed over six left ventricular segments in two projections for each of three imaging times. The myocardial thallium-201 clearance rate was calculated for each of the six segments and, using the clearance rate criterion found in canine studies, was considered abnormal if less than 6.5%/hr. Using this criterion alone, 22 of 26 patients (85%) without CAD had normal and 30 of 40 patients (75%) with CAD had abnormal myocardial thallium-201 clearance rates. A quantitative analysis of regional inhomogeneity in tracer distribution (normal was greater than or equal to 25% difference between segments) was negative in 24 of 26 patients (92%) without CAD and positive in 20 of 40 patients (50%) with CAD. When both clearance rate and regional inhomogeneity were considered, 21 of 26 patients (81%) without CAD had negative and 36 of 40 patients (90%) with CAD had positive results. Thus, post-dipyridamole myocardial clearance rate criteria derived from canine studies can be applied to clinical thallium imaging. Quantitative analysis of serial thallium-201 images after dipyridamole is optimized by using myocardial thallium-201 clearance rates. Such an approach is independent of regional inhomogeneities in tracer distribution

  15. Stabilized thallium bromide radiation detectors and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Cedric Rocha; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    According to one embodiment, a crystal includes thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants. According to another embodiment, a system includes a monolithic crystal including thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants; and a detector configured to detect a signal response of the crystal.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in fatal thallium poisoning: evidence for delayed distribution into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adhi N; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2004-06-01

    The neurologic manifestations of thallium poisoning include a severely painful ascending peripheral neuropathy, autonomic dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, and a toxic encephalopathy. Although thallium has a short half-life, these neurologic manifestations commonly progress, even as the blood concentration of thallium decreases. This suggests either that thallium persists in neuronal tissues or that it initiates an injury cascade that takes time to fully manifest. As the latter mechanism is consistent with many toxin exposures, the concept of a central nervous system reservoir for thallium is often discounted. A recent case provided a unique opportunity to evaluate this possibility. A 48-year-old man was acutely and chronically thallium poisoned by his common-law wife. During his initial exposures, only gastrointestinal symptoms manifested. Following an acute ingestion, hospitalization was required. Over 3 days, his symptoms rapidly progressed from a severely painful neuropathy to slurred speech, ptosis, confusion, coma, respiratory insufficiency, and death. Because of considerations of alternative diagnoses, 2 lumbar punctures were performed, one on admission and another on the day of his death. Serum thallium concentrations obtained from stored blood samples were paired with spinal fluid concentrations from the same days. On day 1, serum and spinal fluid concentrations were 8700 mu/L and 1200 mu/L, respectively. On day 3, although the serum concentration had fallen to 7200 mu/L, the spinal fluid concentration had increased to 2100 mu/L. This case provides evidence to support the hypothesis that thallium distributes into the central nervous system more slowly than the blood compartment, and this may in part account for the progression of neurologic findings in the setting of decreasing serum concentrations.

  17. Comparison of the distribution of some thallium chemical species in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitjean, Francoise.

    Scintigraphic images obtained after injection of radioactive thallium show a strong uptake on the kidneys but also on the intestines, which means that quantitative interpretation of the kidney images is troubled by the superposition of these organs. This study is an attempt to find a chemical form of thallium tending less to fix on the intestinal mucous membrane but keeping its affinity for the medullary zone of the kidney. Various agents forming stable complexes with the metal were investigated. Radiothallium is generally used in the chemical form of monovalent thallium chloride. However the degree of oxidation I is unsuitable for stable complex formation and therefore trivalent thallium was also used. Separation of Tl(I) and Tl(III) with ion exchange resin showed the instability of trivalent chloride at low concentration and when the solution is more than 2 hours old the trivalent thallium solutions injected are 10 -5 M. Calculation of the complex formation constants revealed the absence or formation of monovalent thallium complexes. In all monovalent thallium solutions (with or without carrier, with EDTA or HEDTA) the predominant chemical species is Tl + . In the case of trivalent thallium three solutions with carrier were used; the predominant species is TlCl 6 3- when the solution contains Cl - and EDTA and TlEDTA when Cl - , NO 3 - and EDTA are present. These solutions were injected intraveinously into mice in order to study the radiothallium distribution in the kidney and intestine by comparison with that of TlCl while the chemical species varied from one preparation to another no great difference in the radiothallium distribution was observed [fr

  18. Lung uptake of thallium-201 on resting myocardial imaging in assessment of pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    1981-01-01

    We have noted increased lung uptake of thallium-201 on resting myocardial images in patients with congestive heart failure. To evaluate this phenomenon, lung uptake of thallium on resting myocardial imaging was examined in 328 patients with various cardiovascular diseases. Increased lung uptake was observed in 117 cases (78%) with myocardial infarction, 32 (37%) with angina pectoris, 6 (27%) with hypertensive heart disease, 7 (30%) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 6 (100%) with congestive cardiomyopathy, 11 (100%) with valvular heart disease, and 7 (71%) with congenital heart disease, however, only one (5%) of normal subjects revealed increased uptake. Left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated in 32 cases with ischemic heart disease on the same day and it was significantly decreased as the lung uptake of thallium increased. Increased thallium activity in the lung seemed to be another noninvasive marker of lift heart failure in ischemic heart disease. Lung uptake of thallium was compared with pulmonary congestive signs on chest X-ray in 29 cases. The uptake was well correlated with the degree of pulmonary edema, and thallium myocardial image revealed remarkably increased lung uptake in all the patients accompanied with pulmonary interstitial edema on chest X-ray. Therefore, this phenomenon will demonstrate pulmonary edema, since thallium may be extracted to the increased interstitial distribution space of the lung as well as the myocardium in a patient with pulmonary edema. We conclude that thallium myocardial scintigraphy is useful not only in identification and localization of myocardial ischemia or infarction, but also in evaluation of pulmonary edema at the same time. (author)

  19. Preoperative evaluation of myocardial viability by thallium-201 imaging in patients with old myocardial infarction who underwent coronary revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    The myocardial uptake and redistribution in thallium scintigraphy and the regional wall motion by echocardiography were evaluated by a semi-quantitative method in 42 patients who previously had myocardial infarction (50 target vessels) and underwent coronary revascularization. The aim of this study was to elucidate the significance of the initial image, delayed image and redistribution on thallium-201 scintigraphy for clinical diagnosis of the myocardial viability. As a semi-quantitative analysis, we used a bull's-eye display for thallium image and centerline method for echocardiographic wall motion, and compared the results before and after revascularization. As a result, the thallium grade improved postoperatively in all 17 areas which preoperatively had showed redistribution, and also in 11 of the 32 areas without preoperative redistribution. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of preoperative thallium redistribution for predicting myocardial viability were 61%, 100% and 78%, respectively, when the postoperative improvement in the thallium grade was used as the standard. The postoperative probability of improvement in the thallium grade increased in proportion to the preoperative grade (delayed image)(p<0.01). There was no correlation between the preoperative thallium delayed image and postoperative improvement in wall motion. Postoperative improvement in thallium image and wall motion could not be predicted from the preoperative wall motion. Thus, postoperative improvement in thallium images can be anticipated if redistribution is present on the preoperative thallium image, and the preoperative thallium delayed image is useful for predicting myocardial viability. Improvement in wall motion could not be predicted preoperatively by these methods. (author)

  20. Qualitative evaluation of coronary flow during anesthetic induction using thallium-201 perfusion scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, B.; Henkin, R.E.; Glisson, S.N.; el-Etr, A.A.; Bakhos, M.; Sullivan, H.J.; Montoya, A.; Pifarre, R.

    1986-01-01

    Qualitative distribution of coronary flow using thallium-201 perfusion scans immediately postintubation was studied in 22 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Ten patients received a thiopental (4 mg/kg) and halothane induction. Twelve patients received a fentanyl (100 micrograms/kg) induction. Baseline thallium-201 perfusion scans were performed 24 h prior to surgery. These scans were compared with the scans performed postintubation. A thallium-positive scan was accepted as evidence of relative hypoperfusion. Baseline hemodynamic and ECG data were obtained prior to induction of anesthesia. These data were compared with the data obtained postintubation. Ten patients developed postintubation thallium-perfusion scan defects (thallium-positive scan), even though there was no statistical difference between their baseline hemodynamics and hemodynamics at the time of intubation. There was no difference in the incidence of thallium-positive scans between those patients anesthetized by fentanyl and those patients anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. The authors conclude that relative hypoperfusion, and possibly ischemia, occurred in 45% of patients studied, despite stable hemodynamics, and that the incidence of these events was the same with two different anesthetic techniques

  1. Qualitative evaluation of coronary flow during anesthetic induction using thallium-201 perfusion scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, B.; Henkin, R.E.; Glisson, S.N.; el-Etr, A.A.; Bakhos, M.; Sullivan, H.J.; Montoya, A.; Pifarre, R.

    1986-02-01

    Qualitative distribution of coronary flow using thallium-201 perfusion scans immediately postintubation was studied in 22 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Ten patients received a thiopental (4 mg/kg) and halothane induction. Twelve patients received a fentanyl (100 micrograms/kg) induction. Baseline thallium-201 perfusion scans were performed 24 h prior to surgery. These scans were compared with the scans performed postintubation. A thallium-positive scan was accepted as evidence of relative hypoperfusion. Baseline hemodynamic and ECG data were obtained prior to induction of anesthesia. These data were compared with the data obtained postintubation. Ten patients developed postintubation thallium-perfusion scan defects (thallium-positive scan), even though there was no statistical difference between their baseline hemodynamics and hemodynamics at the time of intubation. There was no difference in the incidence of thallium-positive scans between those patients anesthetized by fentanyl and those patients anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. The authors conclude that relative hypoperfusion, and possibly ischemia, occurred in 45% of patients studied, despite stable hemodynamics, and that the incidence of these events was the same with two different anesthetic techniques.

  2. Clinical significance of normal exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in subjects with abnormal exercise electrocardiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Chiba, Hiroshi; Mitani, Isao; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic findings and clinical features (chest pain, risk factors, resting electrocardiography, exercise electrocardiography and prognosis) was studied in the 234 patients with profound ST-segment depression (J 80 ≥ -2 mm) or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. We classified these cases into two groups by exercise thallium perfusion; (I) normal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 24), (II) abnormal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 210). The incidence of female in group I was larger than that in group II. In resting electrocardiography, left ventricular hypertrophy was found more frequent in group I. In exercise electrocardiography, most of ST-segment depression in group I revealed up-slope type and a rapid recovery to baseline. Group I had lower incidence of cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting). In conclusion, normal thallium-201 perfusion in exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy was more useful indicator for prognosis, even if the patients had the findings of profound ST-segment depression or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. (author)

  3. Chelation of Thallium (III) in Rats Using Combined Deferasirox and Deferiprone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Samie; Saljooghi, Amir Sh.; Badiee, Somayeh; Moqadam, Mojtaba Mashmool

    2017-01-01

    Thallium and its compounds are a class of highly toxic chemicals that cause wide-ranging symptoms such as gastrointestinal disturbances; polyneuritis; encephalopathy; tachycardia; skin eruptions; hepatic, renal, cardiac, and neurological toxicities; and have mutagenic and genotoxic effects. The present research aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the chelating agents deferasirox (DFX) and deferiprone (L1) in reducing serum and tissue thallium levels after the administration of thallium (III), according to two different dosing regimens, to several groups of Wistar rats for 60 days. It was hypothesized that the two chelators might be more efficient as a combined therapy than as monotherapies in removing thallium (III) from the rats’ organs. The chelators were administered orally as either single or combined therapies for a period of 14 days. Serum and tissue thallium (III) and iron concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum and tissue thallium (III) levels were significantly reduced by combined therapy with DFX and L1. Additionally, iron concentrations returned to normal levels and symptoms of toxicity decreased. PMID:29071014

  4. Submaximal exercise thallium-201 SPECT for assessment of interventional therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.E.; Kander, N.; Juni, J.E.; Ellis, S.G.; O'Neill, W.W.; Schork, M.A.; Topol, E.J.; Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    Submaximal thallium-201 stress testing has been shown to provide important diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the diagnostic value of early submaximal stress testing and thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after interventional therapy. Scintigraphic results from 56 patients with infarctions, who underwent acute thrombolytic therapy, angioplasty, or both, were compared with late (6 weeks) functional outcome as assessed by radionuclide ventriculography and with results of discharge coronary angiography. A linear correlation was found between the extent of thallium-201 SPECT perfusion defect and late ventricular function (r = 0.74, p less than 0.01). Forty-two percent of patients with large SPECT perfusion defects had normal left ventricular ejection fractions, suggesting an overestimation of infarct size by early imaging. Sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 SPECT for detection of coronary artery stenosis in noninfarct territories was 57% and 46%, respectively, indicating limited diagnostic definition of extent of underlying coronary artery disease. Results of follow-up coronary angiography showed a significant relationship between the size of the initial perfusion defect and early restenosis or reocclusion of the infarct artery. Thus the extent of early thallium-201 perfusion defects correlates with late functional outcome but appears to overestimate the degree of injury. Submaximal thallium-201 stress testing allows only limited characterization of underlying coronary artery disease. Early assessment of infarct size may identify a patient population at high risk for reocclusion of the infarct artery

  5. Detection of coronary artery disease - comparison of exercise stress radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium stress perfusion scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jengo, J.A.; Freeman, R.; Brizendine, M.; Mena, I.; St. Mary Medical Center, Long Beach, Calif.)

    1980-01-01

    Exercise thallium scanning and stress radionuclide angiography were compared in 16 normal subjects and 42 patients with more than 75% coronary arterial obstruction in studies using upright exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Studies at rest were subsequently obtained. Exercise thallium scans in the control group were normal in 15 and showed a defect in 1. Ejection fraction increased in all 16. During exercise, regional wall motion increased uniformly. In the group with coronary artery disease, thallium scanning revealed a new defect in the distribution of the involved arteries in 24 patients. In 15 who had a defect at rest, no new defect developed, but in 9 of the 15 new segmental wall motion defects were evident on radionuclide angiography. With exercise, ejection fraction decreased slightly. Regional wall motion abnormalities developed in the areas corresponding to thallium defects in all. Thallium scanning had a 93% and radionuclide angiography a 98% sensitivity value in detecting coronary artery disease. The respective specificity values were 94 and 100%. In patients with prior myocardial infarction who manifested new exercise abnormalities, 50% showed new thallium defects and 81% new wall motion defects

  6. Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy in normal subjects and patients with normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, M.G.; St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein; Laarman, G.J.; Lelbach, S.; Cramer, M.J.; Ascoop, C.A.P.L.; Verzijlbergen, J.F.; Wall, E.E. van der; Zwinderman, A.H.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy was tested in two patient populations representing alternative standards for cardiac normality: group I comprised 18 male uncatherized patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 41 patients with normal coronary arteriograms. Group I patients were younger, they achieved a higher rate-pressure product than group II patients; all had normal findings by phisical examination and electrocardiography at rest and exercise. Group II patients comprised 21 females, 11 patients showed abnormal electrocardiography at rest, and five patients showed ischemic ST depression during exercise. Twelve patients had sign of minimal CAD. Twelve patients revealed abnormal visual and quantitative thallium findings, three of these patients had minimal CAD. Profiles of uptake and washout of thallium-201 were derived from both patient groups, and compared with normal limits developed by Maddahi et al. Furthermore, low likelihood and angiographically normal patients may differ substantially, and both sets of normal patients should be considered when establishing criteria of abnormality in exercise thallium imaging. When commercial software containing normal limits for quantitative analysis of exercise thallium-201 imaging is used in clinical practice, it is mandatory to compare these with normal limits of uptake and washout of thallium-201, derived from the less heterogeneous group of low-likelihood subjects, which should be used in selecting a normal population to define normality. (author). 37 refs.; 3 figs; 1 tab

  7. A serial changes of thallium-201 myocardial images in a patient with nontransmural myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Itoh, Yukiyoshi; Takayama, Yasuo

    1986-01-01

    A 66 year old man had suffered from inferior myocardial infarction one year ago and then suffered from effort angina. Recently rest angina attack frequently occurred and he was admitted because of angina attack refractory to TNG. The patient was diagnosed as broad nontransmural infarction. A serial thallium-201 myocardial imagings at rest and thallium-201 lung uptake imagings were performed and some interesting findings were obtained as followings. Myocardial imagings on 3rd day after admission showed no significant deffect, however EF was 34 %. Immediately after severe ischemic attack marked defect was noted at posterolateral region and ECG showed prominent precordial ST depression without accompanying significant ST change in II, III, aVF. On 3rd day after severe attack under hemodynamically and electrocardiographically stable state posterolateral defect improved, though still persisted. EF was 28 %. On 3rd day postop no marked defects were noted in myocardial imagings, so posterolateral defect at rest after severe ischemic attack was proved to be transient defect. In this case thallium-201 lung uptake was not noted before attack. Immediately after severe attack thallium lung uptake increased and maximal uptake was noted at basal zone of lung, however in chest X-P typical butterfly shadow was noted at upper zone of lung. On 3rd day after severe attack hemodynamics improved and butterfly shadow ceased, though thallium lung uptake increased and noted at upper zone of lung. After operation thallium lung uptake improved. (J.P.N.)

  8. Thallium scintigraphy during dobutamine infusion: nonexercise-dependent screening test for coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.R.; Palac, R.T.; Freeman, M.L.; Virupannavar, S.; Loeb, H.S.; Kaplan, E.; Gunnar, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Exercise thallium scintigraphy has proven to be a sensitive method for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD). However, early redistribution of thallium and inadequate exercise can reduce its sensitivity. In this study, dobutamine was infused in incremental doses (5, 10, 15, and 20 micrograms/kg/min) in 24 patients being evaluated for chest pain. Thallium scintigraphy was completed during the maximum dose of dobutamine tolerated and repeated 4 hours later. Significant CAD was present in 16 patients; the remaining eight had normal coronaries. Exercise ECG was obtained in 23 patients. During dobutamine thallium scintigraphy, reversible perfusion defects occurred in 15 of 16 CAD and in one of eight non-CAD patients, resulting in a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 87%. Exercise ECG had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 63%. We conclude that: (1) dobutamine thallium scintigraphy appears to be a sensitive method for detecting significant CAD and provided a more sensitive screening test than exercise ECG; (2) dobutamine thallium scintigraphy is especially useful in patients who cannot exercise; and (3) because imaging occurs during dobutamine infusion, the problem of early redistribution may be mitigated

  9. Removal of thallium by combining desferrioxamine and deferiprone chelators in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Asghar; Fatemi, S Jamilaldine; Fatemi, S Nabilaldine

    2007-04-01

    The hypothesis that two known chelators deferiprone (1,2-dimethy1-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, L1) and desferrioxamine (DFO) might be more efficient as combined treatment than as monotherapies in removing thallium from the body was tested in rats. Six-week-old male Wistar rats received chelators: L1 (p.o.), DFO (i.p.) or L1 + DFO as 110 or 220 mg/kg dose half an hour after a single i.p. administration of 8 mg Tl/kg body weight in the form of chloride. Serum thallium concentration, urinary thallium and iron excretions were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Both chelators were effective only at the higher dose level, while DFO was more effective than L1 in enhancing urinary thallium excretion, L1 was more effective than DFO in enhancing urinary iron excretion. In the combined treatment group, L1 did not increase the DFO effect on thallium and DFO did not increase the effect of L1 on iron elimination. Our results support the usefulness of this animal model for preliminary in vivo testing of thallium chelators. Urinary values were more useful because of the high variability of serum results. Result of combined chelators treatment should be confirmed in a different experimental model before extrapolation to other systems.

  10. Chelation of Thallium (III) in Rats Using Combined Deferasirox and Deferiprone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Samie; Saljooghi, Amir Sh; Badiee, Somayeh; Moqadam, Mojtaba Mashmool

    2017-10-01

    Thallium and its compounds are a class of highly toxic chemicals that cause wide-ranging symptoms such as gastrointestinal disturbances; polyneuritis; encephalopathy; tachycardia; skin eruptions; hepatic, renal, cardiac, and neurological toxicities; and have mutagenic and genotoxic effects. The present research aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the chelating agents deferasirox (DFX) and deferiprone (L1) in reducing serum and tissue thallium levels after the administration of thallium (III), according to two different dosing regimens, to several groups of Wistar rats for 60 days. It was hypothesized that the two chelators might be more efficient as a combined therapy than as monotherapies in removing thallium (III) from the rats' organs. The chelators were administered orally as either single or combined therapies for a period of 14 days. Serum and tissue thallium (III) and iron concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum and tissue thallium (III) levels were significantly reduced by combined therapy with DFX and L1. Additionally, iron concentrations returned to normal levels and symptoms of toxicity decreased.

  11. Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) associated with abnormal stress thallium scans in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegele, R A; Connelly, P W; Cullen-Dean, G; Rose, V

    1993-08-15

    Plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease in adults with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We hypothesized that Lp(a) concentrations in children with FH were higher among those with myocardial ischemia on stress thallium scans and among those with a family history of premature coronary artery disease. Twenty-nine asymptomatic heterozygotes with FH (range 9 to 23 years) and 7 homozygotes (range 4 to 13 years) were evaluated with clinical assessment, lipoprotein measurement and stress thallium scans. Compared with subjects with normal stress thallium scans, mean Lp(a) was significantly higher in homozygotes with stress thallium abnormalities (79 +/- 18 vs 15 +/- 5.5 mg/dl, p = 0.03), and tended to be higher in heterozygotes with stress thallium abnormalities (39 +/- 12 vs 20 +/- 4.2 mg/dl, p = 0.10). Lp(a) tended to be higher in heterozygotes with a family history of premature coronary artery disease (30 +/- 6.4 vs 14 +/- 4.1 mg/dl, p = 0.12). It is concluded that Lp(a) is higher in hypercholesterolemic children who have abnormal stress thallium scans. Lp(a) may be useful in assessing coronary artery disease risk in children with FH.

  12. Prognostic value of dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy for evaluation of ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendel, R.C.; Layden, J.J.; Leppo, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise testing alone or in combination with thallium scintigraphy has significant prognostic value. In contrast, dipyridamole thallium imaging is not dependent on patients achieving adequate levels of exercise, but no long-term prognostic studies have been reported. Accordingly, imaging results of 516 consecutive patients referred for dipyridamole thallium studies were correlated with subsequent cardiac events, death (n = 23) and myocardial infarction (n = 43) over a mean follow-up period of 21 months. Patients with a history of congestive heart failure, prior myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus or abnormal scans were significantly more likely to have a cardiac event (p less than 0.03). With use of logistic regression analysis, an abnormal scan was an independent and significant predictor of subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiac death and increased the relative risk of any event more than threefold. The presence of redistribution on thallium scanning further increased the risk of a cardiac event. Survival analysis demonstrated a significant difference between patients with an abnormal or normal thallium scan over a 30 month period. In conclusion, dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy demonstrates prognostic value in a large unselected population and may be an adequate clinical alternative to physiologic exercise testing in the evaluation of coronary heart disease

  13. Computer-enhanced thallium scintigrams in asymptomatic men with abnormal exercise tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, G.S.; Kay, T.N.; Hickman, J.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The use of treadmill testing in asymptomatic patients and those with an atypical chest pain syndrome is increasing, yet the proportion of false positive stress electrocardiograms increases as the prevalence of disease decreases. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of computer-enhanced thallium perfusion scintigraphy in this subgroup of patients, multigated thallium scans were obtained after peak exercise and 3 or 4 hours after exercise and the raw images enhanced by a computer before interpretations were made. The patient group consisted of 191 asymptomatic U.S. Air force aircrewmen who had an abnormal exercise electrocardiogram. Of these, 135 had normal coronary angiographic findings, 15 had subcritical coronary stenosis (less than 50 percent diameter narrowing) and 41 had significant coronary artery disease. Use of computer enhancement resulted in only four false positive and two false negative scintigrams. The small subgroup with subcritical coronary disease had equivocal results on thallium scintigraphy, 10 men having abnormal scans and 5 showing no defects. The clinical significance of such subcritical disease in unclear, but it can be detected with thallium scintigraphy. Thallium scintigrams that have been enhanced by readily available computer techniques are an accurate diagnostic tool even in asymptomatic patients with an easily interpretable abnormal maximal stress electrocardiogram. Thallium scans can be effectively used in counseling asymptomatic patients on the likelihood of their having coronary artery disease

  14. Pseudonormalization of transmitral flow pattern during exercise thallium-201 imaging in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Tsuguya; Takenaka, Katsu; Amano, Keiko; Amano, Wataru; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Otake, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Tsuneaki

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of Doppler parameters and transmitral blood velocity for detecting abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic function during low-level exercise thallium-201 imaging. The study population consisted of 16 thallium perfusion defect patients with coronary artery disease (mean 61±8 years) and 21 age-matched control subjects (mean 55±5 years) without any thallium perfusion defect. Of the 16 thallium perfusion defect patients, 12 were examined by coronary arteriography, of whom single vessel coronary artery disease was seen in 2 and multivessel coronary artery disease in 10. Patients with mitral regurgitant murmurs were excluded from the study. Peak mitral blood flow velocity was measured in early diastole (E) and during atrial systole (A) and the A/E ratio was calculated. The changes in blood pressure and heart rate after low-level exercise were not significantly different between control and thallium perfusion defect groups. The A/E ratio increased slightly in control subjects from 93±14% at baseline to 100±15% during low-level exercise (p<0.05), whereas in patients with thallium perfusion defect, it decreased significantly from 119±33% at baseline to 92±23% during low-level exercise (p<0.01). Thus pseudonormalization of the A/E ratio during low-level exercise may be valuable in the evaluation of patients with severe or multivessel coronary artery disease. (author)

  15. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Redistribution of thallium-201 into right ventricle through collateral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Hajime; Ohkubo, Toshitaka; Takaoka, Shigeru; Ohshige, Tamao; Miyahara, Kenkichi.

    1984-01-01

    The cases of reversible right ventricular ischemia, which demonstrated redistribution of thallium (Tl)-201 into the right ventricular free wall (RVFW) through collateral channels, were reported. Two cases with complete obstruction in the proximal right coronary artery accompanied by collateral channels (left coronary artery to distal right coronary artery) underwent submaximal exercise stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging. Although the RVFW was not visualized on immediate myocardial images in one or both of the 30 0 and 60 0 left anterior oblique views in each case, three-hour delayed myocardial images showed redistribution of Tl-201 into the RVFW. It was concluded that collateral circulation affects the occurrence of redistribution of Tl-201 into the RVFW. (author)

  17. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging in acute-myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackers, F.J.Th.; Lie, K.I.; Sokole, E.B.; Wellens, H.J.J.; Samson, G.; Schoot, J.B. van der

    1980-01-01

    Thallium-201 scintigraphy has proven to be an early and highly sensitive technique to detect myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction. During the early phase of acute myocardial infarction, patients may be hemodynamically and electrically unstable. Therefore, scintigraphy is performed preferably at the bed side in the Coronary Care Unit using a mobile gamma camera. Additionally, in order to shorten imaging time in these often critically ill patients, the authors recommend injecting no less than 2 mCi of 201 Tl. Using this dosage, the imaging time per view will be approximately five minutes. Routinely, three views are taken: the first view is a supine 45 0 left-anterior-oblique view, followed by a supine anterior view and finally a left-lateral view, the latter with the patient turned on the right side. (Auth.)

  18. Biphasic 201thallium scintgraphy after dipyridamole in mitral valve diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoliner, R.; Dudczak, R.; Kronik, G.; Moesslacher, H.; Kletter, K.; Frischauf, H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of biphasic 201 thallium scintigraphy after dipyridamole i.v. could neither prove nor exclude the presence of small focal lesions in the myocardium of 17 patients with mitral valve diseases. The frequent finding of a decrease in activity in the anterolateral myocardium is probably due to a relative increase in activity in the region of the inferior wall with superimposed areas of the papillary muscle and right ventricular myocardium. If the right ventricle is visualized in stress- or redistribution images, an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure can be accepted. According to Cohen's criteria, a grade 2 or 3 virtually proves the existence of pulmonary hypertension, a grade 1 makes this finding rather probable. The possibility of pulmonary hypertension can not be excluded if the right ventricular myocardium is not visualized. (orig.) [de

  19. Polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, G.A.; Dzhurka, G.F.; Kozhushko, G.M.; Kravtsova, K.F.; Magda, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets without preliminary separation of elements was developed. Mercury-dropping electrode was used as an indicator, and saturated calomel electrode was used as an auxiliary electrode. A recording of reduction currents was performed in the potential interval from -0.25 up to 1.15 V at potential sweep speed of 200 mV/min. Optimum conditions of sample acidic decomposition and polarography were presented. A solution of ethylene diamine (0.5 M), of ammonia (0.25 M) and of potassium chloride (0.05 M) served as a background electrolyte. The suggested technique allows one to determine component contents in tablets with a satisfactory accuracy. A period of one tablet analysis constitutes 1.5 h

  20. Effect of thallium impurity on hole scattering in lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdanov, V.I.; Nemov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hole mobility in PbTe monocrystalline specimens in the temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K has been investigated. Detected is a sharp increase in scattering cross section of light and heavy holes in the specimens having the Hall hole concentration p approximately (5+-9)x10 19 cm -3 explained by resonant scattering into a band of quasilocal states of thallium located lower than the ceiling of heavy carrier zone by 0.01+-0.01 eV. Very large differences in resonant scattering of current carriers into the quasilocal states of In and Tl in PbTe result from the inertial polarizability of a crystal. The same mechanism is used to explain long-lived relaxation of zone electron concentration in lead telluride and Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te doped with indium [ru

  1. Thallium-technetium-subtraction scintigraphy in secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adalet, I.; Hawkins, T.; Clark, F.; Wilkinson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1992 thallium-technetium subtraction scintigraphy (TTS) was performed on 74 patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-five of the 53 investigations since 1988 were conducted on patients with renal failure with a suspicion of secondary hyperparathyroidism. In a retrospective study we have evaluated radioisotope scintigraphy for patients with adenoma and for renal failure patients with possible parathyroid hyperplasia. Thirty of 74 patients underwent neck exploration. Scintigraphy detected 17 of 24 parathyroid adenomas (sensitivity 71%). In contrast, in six renal patients who came to operation, scintigraphy localised only 5 of 20 hyperplastic parathyroid glands (sensitivity 25%) and in one renal patient we localised a parathyroid adenoma. A review of the literature shows low detection rates for hyperplasia by TTS to be a common observation. Based on these findings a rational approach is offered for parathyroid localisation in renal patients prior to neck exploration. (orig.)

  2. Rapid gated Thallium-201 perfusion SPECT - clinically feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B.; Wilkinson, D.; Abatti, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Standard dose energy window optimised Thallium-201 (Tl-201) SPECT has about half the counts of a standard dose from Technetium-99m Sestamibi (Tc99m-Mibi) gated perfusion SPECT. This study investigates the clinical feasibility of rapid energy window optimised Tl-201 gated perfusion SPECT (gated-TI) and compares quantitative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and visually assessed image quality for wall motion and thickening to analogous values obtained from Tc99m-Mibi gated perfusion SPECT (gated - mibi). Methods: We studied 60 patients with a rest gated Tl-201 SPECT (100 MBq, 77KeV peak, 34% window, 20 sec/projection) followed by a post stress gated Sestamibi SPECT (1GBq, 140KeV, 20% window, 20 sec/projection) separate dual isotope protocol. LVEF quantitation was performed using commercially available software (SPECTEF, General Electric). Visual grading of image quality for wall thickening and motion was performed using a three-point scale (excellent, good and poor). Results: LVEF for gated Tl-201 SPECT was 59.6 ± 12.0% (Mean ± SD). LVEF for gated Sestamibi SPECT was 60.4 ±11.4% (Mean ± SD). These were not significantly different (P=0.27, T-Test). There was good correlation (r=0.9) between gated-TI and gated-mibi LVEF values. The quality of gated-Tl images was ranked as excellent, good and poor in 12, 50 and 38% of the patients respectively. Image quality was better in gated-mibi SPECT, with ratings of 12, 62 and 26% respectively. Conclusion: Rapid gated Thallium-201 acquisition with energy window optimisation can be effectively performed on majority of patients and offers the opportunity to assess not only myocardial perfusion and function, as with Technetium based agents, but also viability using a single day one isotope protocol

  3. Gated intracoronary thallium-201 scintigraphy: feasibility and potential clinical advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.E.; Chen, D.C.; Lee, K.; Rasmussen, D.; Colletti, P.; Thom, P.; Rahimtoola, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Visualization of ventricular walls with true global motion and myocardial thickening is not possible with use of present scintigraphic techniques. When thallium 201 (201TI) is injected intravenously (IV), only about 5% reaches the myocardium. However, if 201TI is injected intracoronarily, 100% reaches, and approximately 88% localizes in, the myocardium, which results in higher count rates than when given IV, permitting acceptable acquisition times for gated true wall motion studies. The authors describe a new technique using intracoronary (IC) 201TI to acquire high count rate, high contrast, and short acquisition time in gated true wall motion studies. Thirteen patients were studied at rest with gated IC thallium. Six of these patients also had resting IV 201TI myocardial studies. After routine coronary angiography, 0.75 mCi of 201TI was injected into each coronary artery. Multiple sequential one-minute gated studies were obtained in LAO and RAO projections, followed by sequential five-minute images for two hours to determine 201TI redistribution kinetics. Regions of interest over segments of left and right ventricles and background permitted definition of temporal and spatial distributions. Three one-minute gated studies were summed with a total count of 2,100 K for a three-minute acquisition. Myocardium-to-background ratios were as high as 13:1 with a mean of 11.4:1 in the IC study compared with 2.3:1 in the IV studies. Washout half-time in normal myocardium was 95 +/- 5 min. The detectability and size of perfusion defects were different on gated diastolic and systolic, nongated, and IV studies. Questionable defects seen on nongated studies or after IV administration were easily noted on gated diastolic images

  4. Radionuclide-determined changes in pulmonary blood volume and thallium lung uptake in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise-induced increases in radionuclide-determined pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and thallium lung uptake have been described in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and have been shown to correlate with transient exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction. To compare these 2 techniques in the same patients, 74 patients (59 with and 15 without significant CAD) underwent supine bicycle exercise twice on the same day--first for thallium myocardial and lung imaging and then for technetium-99m gated blood pool imaging for the PBV ratio determination. Thallium activity of lung and myocardium was determined to calculate thallium lung/heart ratio. Relative changes in PBV from rest to exercise were expressed as a ratio of pulmonary counts (exercise/rest). Previously reported normal ranges for thallium lung/heart ratio and PBV ratio were used. The PBV ratio and thallium lung/heart ratio were abnormal in 71 and 36%, respectively, of patients with CAD (p less than 0.01). Both ratios were normal in all patients without CAD. Although the resting ejection fractions did not differ significantly in patients with normal versus those with abnormal PBV ratios or thallium lung/heart ratios, abnormal PBV ratios and thallium lung/heart ratios were associated with an exercise-induced decrease in ejection fraction. Propranolol use was significantly higher in patients with abnormal than in those with normal thallium lung/heart ratios (p less than 0.01). No significant difference in propranolol use was present in patients with abnormal or normal PBV ratios. In conclusion: (1) the prevalence of an abnormal thallium lung/heart ratio is less than that of the PBV ratio in patients with CAD; (2) both tests are normal in normal control subjects; (3) propranolol does not cause abnormal results in normal control subjects; however, propranolol may influence lung thallium uptake in patients with CAD; and (4) when both tests are abnormal, there is a high likelihood of multivessel disease

  5. Usefulness of semiquantitative analysis of dipyridamole-thallium-201 redistribution for improving risk stratification before vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, J.R.; Boucher, C.A.; Coley, C.M.; Guiney, T.E.; Strauss, H.W.; Eagle, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Preoperative dipyridamole-thallium-201 scanning is sensitive in identifying patients prone to ischemic cardiac complications after vascular surgery, but most patients with redistribution do not have an event after surgery. Therefore, its positive predictive value is limited. To determine which patients with thallium redistribution are at highest risk, dipyridamole-thallium-201 images were interpreted semiquantitatively. Sixty-two consecutive patients with redistribution on preoperative dipyridamole-thallium-201 planar imaging studies were identified. Each thallium scan was then analyzed independently by 2 observers for the number of myocardial segments out of 15, the number of thallium views out of 3 and the number of coronary artery territories with redistribution. Seventeen patients (27%) had postoperative ischemic events, including unstable angina pectoris, ischemic pulmonary edema, myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Thallium predictors of ischemic operative complications included thallium redistribution greater than or equal to 4 myocardial segments (p = 0.03), greater than or equal to 2 of the 3 planar views (p = 0.005) and greater than or equal to 2 coronary territories (p = 0.007). No patient with redistribution in only 1 view had an ischemic event (0 of 15). Thus, determining the extent of redistribution by dipyridamole-thallium-201 scanning improves risk stratification before vascular surgery. Patients with greater numbers of myocardial segments and greater numbers of coronary territories showing thallium-201 redistribution are at higher risk for ischemic cardiac complications. In contrast, when the extent of thallium redistribution is limited, there is a lower risk despite the presence of redistribution

  6. A model to predict multivessel coronary artery disease from the exercise thallium-201 stress test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, S.G.; Abbott, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Watson, D.D.; Kaul, S.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine whether nonimaging variables add to the diagnostic information available from exercise thallium-201 images for the detection of multivessel coronary artery disease; and (2) to develop a model based on the exercise thallium-201 stress test to predict the presence of multivessel disease. The study populations included 383 patients referred to the University of Virginia and 325 patients referred to the Massachusetts General Hospital for evaluation of chest pain. All patients underwent both cardiac catheterization and exercise thallium-201 stress testing between 1978 and 1981. In the University of Virginia cohort, at each level of thallium-201 abnormality (no defects, one defect, more than one defect), ST depression and patient age added significantly in the detection of multivessel disease. Logistic regression analysis using data from these patients identified three independent predictors of multivessel disease: initial thallium-201 defects, ST depression, and age. A model was developed to predict multivessel disease based on these variables. As might be expected, the risk of multivessel disease predicted by the model was similar to that actually observed in the University of Virginia population. More importantly, however, the model was accurate in predicting the occurrence of multivessel disease in the unrelated population studied at the Massachusetts General Hospital. It is, therefore, concluded that (1) nonimaging variables (age and exercise-induced ST depression) add independent information to thallium-201 imaging data in the detection of multivessel disease; and (2) a model has been developed based on the exercise thallium-201 stress test that can accurately predict the probability of multivessel disease in other populations

  7. Effect of decreased blood flow and ischemia on myocardial thallium clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effect of reduced coronary blood flow on myocardial thallium-201 clearance over a range of flows, miniature radiation detectors were inserted into the left ventricular apex and positioned against the anterior and posterior endocardial walls in 21 dogs. Thallium was administered intravenously and myocardial tracer activity was monitored continuously for 1 hour in both walls. A balloon occluder was then partially inflated around the left anterior descending coronary artery in 19 dogs, producing a range of anterior wall blood flow reductions as assessed by the microsphere technique. Thallium activity was monitored continuously for 3 hours in both walls. Two dogs served as control animals and had no coronary artery occlusion at 1 hour. At the end of the 4 hour experiment, the dogs were sacrificed and the hearts counted in a well counter. The 19 dogs with coronary artery stenosis were divided into three groups (mild, moderate and severe flow reduction groups) on the basis of their poststenosis anterior/posterior wall regional myocardial blood flow ratios. The two control dogs had similar thallium clearances in the anterior and posterior left ventricular walls during the 3 hour period, as assessed by the radiation detectors, and by a final anterior/posterior wall thallium ratio near unity. All three groups of dogs with coronary stenosis had comparable fractional thallium clearances from the anterior and posterior walls before and after the balloon occluder inflation. The final anterior/posterior left ventricular wall thallium ratios were not significantly different than unity for all three groups of dogs

  8. Prenatal and postnatal thallium exposure in rats: effect on development of vasomotor reactivity in pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F; Marrazzo, R; Berrino, L; De Santis, D; Lisa, M; Susanna, V; Montanaro, C; Fici, F; Marmo, E

    1988-01-01

    Vasomotor reactivity has been evaluated in rats exposed perinatally and postnatally to thallium sulphate (1 mg/dl in their drinking water ad libitum). Prenatal and postnatal exposure to thallium did not modify the values of the systolic arterial blood pressure on the 30th and 60th day in pups of normotensive and DOCA-hypertensive rats. The hypertensive responses induced by endosinusal carotid hypotension and by 1-noradrenaline in pups of normotensive and DOCA-hypertensive rats, exposed or not exposed to thallium sulphate, were more intensive on the 60th than on the 30th day. Similar effects were observed for the hypotensive responses induced by 1-isoprenaline and acetylcholine. Prenatal exposure to thallium did not modify hypertensive responses induced by endosinusal carotid hypotension on the 30th and 60th days, but it caused a decrease of hypertensive responses induced by 1-noradrenaline on the 30th and 60th days and hypotensive responses induced by 1-isoprenaline and acetylcholine exclusively on the 60th day. Postnatal exposure to thallium did not modify hypertensive responses induced by endosinusal carotid hypotension and hypotensive responses induced by acetylcholine, but it caused a decrease of hypertensive responses induced by 1-noradrenaline on the 30th and 60th days in pups of normotensive rats and exclusively on the 60th day in pups of DOCA-hypertensive rats. Moreover, postnatal exposure to thallium caused a decrease of the hypotensive response induced by 1-isoprenaline exclusively on the 60th day. Our findings show that prenatal and postnatal exposure to thallium sulphate modifies the rat's developing vascular autonomic nervous system with a reduction of the alpha, beta-adrenergic and muscarinic vasomotor reactivity.

  9. Cardiac inotropic reserve examined by postextrasystolic potentiation and redistribution of exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Adachi, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of regional contractile reserve and the viability of an infarcted segment of the myocardium is very important in determining the indications for aorto-coronary bypass after myocardial infarction and in predicting the prognosis. Regional wall motion of the left ventricle after postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) was studied in 18 patients with old myocardial infarction, and compared with indices of redistribution of thallium after exercise. Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) using Tc 99m HSA was performed at rest and after PESP produced by a programmable cardiac stimulator via a right ventricular catheter. Regional ejection fractions (REF) were determined, and wall motion was observed visually. The relative thallium activity (RTA) and washout rate (WOR) were obtained from exercise myocardial scintigraphy performed 10 minutes, and 3 hours after thallium-201 injections. Wall motion improved in 12 of 23 infarcted segments after PESP. Regional ejection fraction and relative thallium activity (in three hours, or the difference between the activities of the initial and three hours after exercise) in the improved segments were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in the unchanged segments. Washout rate was lower (p < 0.02) in the improved segments. Significant correlation was observed between the change in regional ejection fraction and relative thallium activity (3 hours after exercise) (r = 0.654, p < 0.05). Thus, the wall motion of some infarcted regions of the myocardium improved after PESP, and thallium was redistributed during three hours after exercise. It is concluded that contractility and viability might be preserved even in the infarcted site following myocardial infarction, and that these results are indications for aorto-coronary bypass surgery in cases of old myocardial infarction. Both PESP assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography and exercise thallium scintigraphy are useful means for these evaluations. (author)

  10. Influence of peak exercise heart rate on normal thallium-201 myocardial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, S.; Chesler, D.A.; Pohost, G.M.; Strauss, H.W.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial clearance rates between initial and delayed images is a major justification for adding computer quantification to the interpretation of exercise 201 TI images. To clarify the range of normal thallium clearance and its relationship to the level of exercise achieved, exercise thallium images in 89 normal subjects were analyzed: 45 asymptomatic subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group I), and 44 patients with chest pain found to have no significant CAD on angiography (Group II). Mean initial regional thallium uptake was similar in the two groups, but myocardial thallium clearance (mean +/- 1 s.d.) was slower in Group II, expressed as a longer half-life in the myocardium (8.2 +/- 7.6 hr compared with 3.4 +/- 0.7 hr p less than 0.001). Analysis of variance using ten clinical and exercise variables as covariates showed that the slower clearance in Group II was related to a lower peak exercise heart rate (HR) (154 +/- 27 compared with 183 +/- 11, respectively, p less than 0.001). By linear regression analysis, a decrease in peak HR of 1 beat/min was associated with a slower thallium clearance (longer half-life) of 0.05 hr. Using this formula, the clearance value in each patient was then corrected for peak exercise heart rate by decreasing measured clearance by 0.05 hr multiplied by the amount peak exercise heart rate which was below 183 (the mean value in Group I). There were no differences in the corrected clearance between the two groups. We conclude that thallium myocardial clearance after exercise is related in part to factors other than the presence of CAD, being slower when peak exercise HR is lower. Therefore, thallium clearance rates alone uncorrected for peak exercise heart rate should be used with caution when diagnosing CAD

  11. Thallium myocardial scintigraphy: its role in exploration of coronary diseases. La tomoscintigraphie myocardique au thallium: sa place dans l'exploration de la maladie coronaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, A.; Vigoni, F. (Centre cardiologique du Nord, 93 - Saint-Denis (FR))

    1989-01-01

    After a brief description of the method and its practical realization, the role of thallium tomoscintigraphy for identifying and localizing coronary artery diseases, its participation to coronarography, revascularization or medical treatment indications are evaluated. Only the methodological aspect of the study is described.

  12. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  13. Serial thallium-201 myocardial imaging after dipyridamole infusion: diagnostic utility in detecting coronary stenoses and relationship to regional wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppo, J.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Newell, J.B.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    After a 4-minute i.v. dipyridamole infusion, 0.14 mg/kg/min, serial thallium-201 scans were obtained in 60 patients undergoing cardia catheterization. Forty patients had significant (greater than or equal to50% stenosis) coronary artery disease (CAD), and 20 patients had normal coronary arteries or trivial lesions. The images were graded qualitatively for thallium activity by three observers. Sensitivity was 93% (37 of 40) and specificity was 80% (16 of 20). The sensitivity and specificity of the thallium-201 study were not affected by the extent of CAD, the presence of Q waves, or propranolol therapy. Twenty-seven of 37 patients who had initial defects (73%) had complete thallium redistribution of one or more defects. Patient-by-patient anlaysis using a regression model of all patients showed that the fate of a segmental thallium defect predicted abnormal wall motion by angiography better than ECG Q waves. The presence of propranolol therapy or collaterals did not significantly affect the thallium redistribution results. It is concluded that qualitative interpretation by multiple observers of thallium images after dipyridamole infusion is a highly sensitive and specific test for CAD. After dipyridamole, as with exercise stress, the extent of thallium redistribution is related to the degree of myocardial wall motion abnormality

  14. Activation analysis of thallium in urine using the 203Tl(n,2n) 202Tl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korob, R.O.; Cohen, I.M.; Lage, M.; Baro, G.B.

    1976-04-01

    The method developed by the authors of thallium determination in human urine, based on the 203 Tl(n,2n) 202 Tl reaction followed by chemical separation and measurement of the produced 202 Tl by gamma spectrometry, is described. Its application in some cases of intoxication by thallium is reported. The advantages and limitations of the described technique are discussed. (author) [es

  15. Effects of Prussian blue and N-acetylcysteine on thallium toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, W J; Cahill-Morasco, R; Shih, R D; Goldfrank, L R; Hoffman, R S

    1997-01-01

    Thallium poisoning is now rare but still occurs as a result of homicide attempts. Prussian blue's efficacy in the treatment of experimental thallium poisoning has been demonstrated in animal models, and its use in humans is supported by anecdotal data. Since thallium binds sulfhydryl groups, the use of N-acetylcysteine is also considered as a potential antidote. To compare the efficacy of Prussian blue and N-acetylcysteine in a murine model of thallium poisoning. Female Swiss albino mice with free access to food and water were used. Two study doses of thallium, given as a subcutaneous injection of thallium acetate dissolved in sterile water, were chosen: 70 mg/kg (LD90) and 85 mg/kg (> LD100). A randomized, placebo controlled study was conducted with survival at 120 h chosen as the outcome measure. Four treatment groups were studied: control, Prussian blue, N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of Prussian blue and N-acetylcysteine. Prussian blue was dissolved in water and given by oral gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg. N-acetylcysteine was diluted in normal saline and given as intraperitoneal injections of 200 mg/kg. Sterile water by gavage and normal saline by peritoneal injection were given as control treatments whenever an active agent was not given. Survival was recorded over a 120 h study period and compared at 120 h by a Fisher's exact test. At 120 h following subcutaneous injection of thallium 70 mg/kg, only 10% of the control animals survived. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine or Prussian blue increased survival to 35% (p = 0.13) and 50% (p = 0.014), respectively. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to Prussian blue offered no benefit over Prussian blue therapy alone. Prussian blue was found to decrease mortality from thallium poisoning at a dose equal to the LD90 in this model, but not a dose greater than the LD100. No role for N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of thallium poisoning was demonstrated by this study.

  16. Thallium-201 imaging of brain tumors using single photon emission CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Yuzo; Imao, Yukinori; Hirata, Toshifumi; Andoh, Takashi; Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiromu (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-11-01

    Single photon emission CT using thallium-201 chloride, injected intravenously, was performed on 28 cases of cerebral lesions, among which were 16 gliomas, 2 meningiomas, 5 other brain tumors, 3 metastatic brain tumors and 2 cerebral radiation necroses. The degree of thallium-201 accumulation was evaluated by a new method called the thallium index (TLI); that is, TLI was expressed as (T-C)/C (T and C indicate relative counts in a pixel of a lesion and in non-affected normal brain tissue, respectively). Thallium-201 accumulation occurred in 86% (24) of the evaluated cases. In general, there was a tendency in high-grade or recurrent gliomas, as well as in metastatic brain tumors for the TLI values to be high. Moreover, high TLI values were noticed in cases of meningioma, radiation necrosis of cerebellum and in cases involving subacute stages of cerebral infarction. It is particularly noteworthy that the meningioma TLI values were about two times higher than those of the glioblastomas. The CT contrast-enhancement of lesions was clearly correlated with the TLI values, and the relationship between the TLI values and the number of vessels observed microscopically in the specimen was statistically significant. From the above results, it was concluded that thallium-201 accumulation in lesions might be strongly influenced by the development of vascularity in lesions, and/or the interference with the blood brain barrier due to the tumor itself. However, this malignancy diagnostic method is probably limited to the diagnosis of glioma. (author).

  17. Implications of abnormal right ventricular thallium uptake in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestico, P.F.; Hakki, A.H.; Felsher, J.; Heo, J.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The correlates of abnormal right ventricular (RV) thallium uptake were examined in 116 patients with documented acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent predischarge thallium-201 scintigraphy at rest, radionuclide angiography and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. The patients were separated into 2 groups: patients group 1 (n = 31) had increased RV thallium uptake and those in group 2 (n = 85) had no such uptake. The 2 groups were comparable in age, type and site of AMI, peak creatine kinase level, systolic blood pressure and heart rate. However, compared with group 2, group 1 had a lower mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (33 +/- 15% vs 39 +/- 14%, p less than 0.05), higher prevalence of increased lung thallium uptake (45% vs 22%, p less than 0.02), more extensive LV perfusion defects (4.4 +/- 2.9 vs 3.0 +/- 3.0 segments, p less than 0.03) and more complex ventricular arrhythmias (55% vs 35%, p less than 0.05). At a mean follow-up of 6 months, 17 patients (8 in group 1 and 9 in group 2) died from cardiac causes. Actuarial life-table analysis showed that the survival rate was better in group 2 than in group 1 (Mantel-Cox statistics = 4.62, p = 0.03). Thus, patients with AMI and abnormal RV thallium uptake have worse LV function, more complex ventricular arrhythmias and worse prognosis

  18. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro

    1990-01-01

    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV F on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author)

  19. Stability of Tl(III) in the context of speciation analysis of thallium in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Monika; Biaduń, Ewa; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents both "good" and "bad" results obtained during speciation analysis of thallium in plant tissues of a hyperaccumulator of this metal. The object was white mustard - Sinapis alba L. In this plant there were found traces of trivalent thallium. The crucial point of this study (especially in the case of so unstable thallium form as Tl(III)) was to prove that the presence of Tl(III) was not caused by the procedure of sample preparation itself, and that the whole analytical method provides reliable results. Choice of the method for conservation of the initial speciation, extraction with the highest efficiency and proving the correctness of the obtained data were the most difficult parts of the presented study. It was found that: both freezing and drying cause significant changes in the speciation of thallium; quantitative analysis could be performed only with fresh tissues of mustard plants; only short-term storage of an extract from fresh plant tissues is possible; the methodology is not the source of thallium (III); only the presence of DTPA can greatly limit the reduction of TI(III) to TI(I) (up to 1-3%); the UV irradiation results in disintegration of TI(III)DTPA in the presence of plant matrix (reduction up to 90%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serial assessment of myocardial thallium perfusion and fatty acid utilization in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the advantage of free fatty acid imaging on the detection of hypertrophied myocardium, we compared sequentially myocardial thallium and BMIPP (15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methyl pentadecanoic acid) distribution in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) using dual tracer autoradiography and in vivo pin-hole imaging. Autoradiography and pin-hole imaging showed uniform myocardial distribution of BMIPP and thallium within less than 27 weeks age SHR. In 40 weeks age SHR, thallium myocardial distribution showed uniform, however, BMIPP had focal decrease. Quantitative analysis of pin-hole images showed that myocardial BMIPP and thallium uptake ratio decreased according to the ages of SHR. Our data suggest that hypertension is associated with uniform myocardial perfusion and focal alternation in the substrate used for the performance of myocardial work. Based on the above autoradiographic and in vivo pin-hole imagings, I-123 BMIPP imaging may have a potential for early detection on hypertrophic myocardium compared to thallium perfusion in clinically hypertensive patients. (author)

  1. Misdiagnosis and long-term outcome of 13 patients with acute thallium poisoning in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J M; Wang, W; Lei, S; Zhao, L L; Zhou, D; Xiong, H

    2014-03-01

    To analyze clinical feature and evaluate long-term outcome of patients with thallium poisoning. An observational series of cases with acute thallium poisoning was analyzed retrospectively in West China Hospital of Sichuan University between 2000 and 2010. The clinical data including symptom, determination of thallium level, treatment, neurophysiological examination, and neuropsychological evaluation were analyzed. The patients were followed up until December 2012. Seven men and six women were enrolled in the study. The median patient age was 37 years (range: 15-53 years). The median duration of hospitalization was 44 days (range: 7-72). All the patients were misdiagnosed initially. One patient died in the hospital. The other 12 patients were followed for a median of 7 years (range: 1-12 years) after discharge from hospital. One patient died from leukemia in the first year of follow-up. Long-term outcome results showed peripheral neuropathy improved substantially. However, many patients have mild or moderate sequelae in sensory nerve fibers of distal lower extremity. A sural nerve biopsy in one patient revealed shrunken axons, distorted myelin sheath, and myelinated fibers loss. During follow-up period, problem of intelligence (4/12 patients, 33%), memory impairment (4/12, 33%), anxiety (6/12, 50%), and depression (5/12, 42%) were demonstrated. Neurological symptoms may lead to misdiagnosis of thallium poisoning. Mild or moderate neurological sequelae may last for a long time after thallium poisoning.

  2. [Measurement of thallium content in human urine by atomic absorption spectrometry after acute poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzanova, I S; Pletneva, T V; Maksimova, T V; Salomatin, E M; Lutskiĭ, Ia M

    2008-01-01

    The problem of poisoning with thallium-containing substances continues to be of current concern. According to the Bureau of Forensic Medical Examination, Moscow, specimens of biological materials from more than 20 victims of such poisoning were delivered for analysis in 2006. The total number of thallium poisoning episodes during the period since 1996 exceeded 50. Materials for thallium determination in biological fluids (human blood and urine) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry were prepared by dry mineralization of accurately weighed samples; acidic solutions of the products of mineralization were used for analysis. Due to peculiar kinetic features of thallium ion absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract, blood could not be used as a biological marker of poisoning. The level of thallium in urine samples was found to vary from 1.00 to 4,600 mcg/l (with the estimation of confidence intervals in each case). Results of chemical analysis correlated with pathological symptoms derived from the patients' discharge summaries and literature reports on dose-effect relationships. Based on these findings, practically all the examined cases were characterized as severe acute poisoning.

  3. A probable case of chronic occupational thallium poisoning in a glass factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M; Taoda, K; Ono-Ogasawara, M; Takaya, M; Hisanaga, N

    1998-07-01

    A male worker who handled thallium-containing raw material for glass manufacturing over a period of four years complained of alopecia, abdominal pain, diarrhea and tingling in the four extremities. Neurological examination of this patient revealed signs of mild glove-stocking-type polyneuropathy. Lower sensory nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve in the right hand than in the left hand suggested that conduction function in the dominant hand was reduced. The thallium content of the hair, as determined by an ICP-MS method, was 20 ng/g for the patient and 576 ng/g for his successor in the time of 32 months and 13 months, respectively, after they had ceased their glass production work. Those levels of thallium exposure were considered high, compared with the control levels so far reported. The clinical course of signs and symptoms, neurophysiological findings and thallium content of hair suggested that the patient suffered from chronic poisoning due to occupational exposure to thallium-containing dust.

  4. Atrial pacing and thallium 201 scintigraphy: combined use for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratmann, H.G.; Mark, A.L.; Walter, K.E.; Fletcher, J.W.; Williams, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial pacing and thallium 201 scintigraphy were performed in 36 patients with stable angina pectoris who were unable to perform an adequate exercise stress test. All patients underwent cardiac catheterization. Nine patients had previously undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. Significant CAD (one or more lesions greater than or equal to 50%) was present in 33 patients. Atrial pacing produced ischemic ST segment depression (greater than or equal to 1 mm) in 18 (55%) patients with CAD, and angina in 20 patients (61%). As the number of vessels with CAD increased, there was no significant change in the sensitivities of pacing-induced angina or ST segment depression for detecting CAD. In the 3 patients without CAD, ST segment depression occurred in 1 patient and angina in none. Thallium 201 scintigraphy demonstrated perfusion defects in 27 (82%) patients with CAD, with fixed defects seen in 13 studies (39%) and reversible defects in 15 (45%). In the 3 patients without CAD, no perfusion defects were seen. The thallium 201 scan successfully predicted the presence of CAD in patients with single-vessel disease but usually underestimated the number of vessels involved in patients with multivessel disease. Combined sensitivity of pacing-induced ST segment depression and an abnormal thallium 201 scan finding for detecting CAD was 91%. The authors conclude that combined atrial pacing and thallium 201 scintigraphy is a useful test for detecting CAD in patients unable to perform an adequate exercise stress test

  5. Two-year follow-up of two patients after severe thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclová, D; Urban, P; Ridzon, P; Senholdová, Z; Lukás, E; Diblík, P; Lacina, L

    2009-05-01

    Information on the prognosis and electrophysiological follow-up of severe thallium poisoning is limited. We report two patients (mother and daughter) who were repeatedly exposed to thallium poisoning experienced hair loss, polyneuropathy, and visual impairment. Nerve conduction studies (NCSs), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) changes, and optical neuropathy developed within a few months latency after the first subjective signs. Normal findings of these electrophysiological methods in the first 2 weeks therefore led in one of our patients to exclusion of thallium as the cause of symptoms. Thallium poisoning was, however, later confirmed by toxicological analysis of blood and/or urine and feces in both the patients and in the microscopic hair analysis of the daughter. Both patients were treated with Prussian blue that increased the elimination of thallium in urine and feces. The hair loss was fully reversible. During a 2-year follow-up after the poisoning, polyneuropathy in the lower extremities improved substantially, but residual impairment in both motor and sensory function, NCSs, VEP, and BAEP remained. Additionally, severe asymmetrical vision impairment persists in both women, with central scotomata and impaired color discrimination in both eyes. Substantial improvement of their visual function is unlikely.

  6. Comparative value of thallium and glucose SPECT imaging in childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, B L; Drane, W E; Mastin, S T; Jimenez, L A

    1998-11-01

    Thallium-201 chloride (201Tl) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) detects a high percentage of histologically and anatomically diverse pediatric brain tumors. Thallium-201 chloride SPECT and F-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) are the most commonly used radionuclide techniques in neuro-oncology. Having developed a methodology to image 18F-FDG with SPECT, the authors performed SPECT scans coupled with magnetic resonance imaging to assess the comparative sensitivity of 201Tl and 18F-FDG in 19 children with brain tumors. Tumors were detected using 201Tl SPECT in 14 of 19 patients. Five of five postoperative residual tumors were detected by 201Tl SPECT, and six of seven after irradiation recurrences were detected. F-18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose SPECT detected tumors in only three of 19 patients, all of whom had abnormal 201Tl studies (all three after therapy recurrences). Thallium-201 chloride SPECT could be interpreted in 18 of 19 patients without magnetic resonance imaging confirmation, but none of the 19 18F-FDG SPECT studies could be interpreted without magnetic resonance imaging. Thallium-201 chloride SPECT is more sensitive than 18F-FDG SPECT in the detection of primary or recurrent childhood brain tumors. The failure of 18F-FDG SPECT in follow-up after therapy is primarily a problem of limited fluoro-deoxy-glucose uptake, not spatial resolution. Thallium-201 chloride SPECT is a promising imaging modality in neuro-oncology.

  7. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro (Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-01-01

    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV{sub F} on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author).

  8. Evaluation of muscular lesions in connective tissue diseases: thallium 201 muscular scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, G.; Guillet, J.; Sanciaume, C.; Maleville, J.; Geniaux, M.; Morin, P.

    1988-01-01

    We performed thallium 201 muscle scans to assess muscular involvement in 40 patients with different connective tissue diseases (7 with dermatomyositis, 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12 with progressive systemic scleroderma, 2 with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, 3 with monomelic scleroderma, 6 with morphea, and 3 with Raynaud's disease). Only 12 of these patients complained of fatigability and/or myalgia. Electromyography was performed and serum levels of muscle enzymes were measured in all patients. Comparison of thallium 201 exercise recording with the other tests revealed that scan sensitivity is greater than electromyographic and serum muscle enzymes levels. Thallium 201 scans showed abnormal findings in 32 patients and revealed subclinical lesions in 18 patients, while electromyography findings were abnormal in 25 of these 32 patients. Serum enzyme levels were raised in only 8 patients. Thallium 201 scanning proved to be a useful guide for modifying therapy when laboratory data were conflicting. It was useful to evaluate treatment efficacy. Because our data indicate a 100% positive predictive value, we believe that thallium 201 scanning should be advised for severe systemic connective tissue diseases with discordant test results

  9. Evaluation of muscular lesions in connective tissue diseases: thallium 201 muscular scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, G.; Guillet, J.; Sanciaume, C.; Maleville, J.; Geniaux, M.; Morin, P.

    1988-04-01

    We performed thallium 201 muscle scans to assess muscular involvement in 40 patients with different connective tissue diseases (7 with dermatomyositis, 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12 with progressive systemic scleroderma, 2 with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, 3 with monomelic scleroderma, 6 with morphea, and 3 with Raynaud's disease). Only 12 of these patients complained of fatigability and/or myalgia. Electromyography was performed and serum levels of muscle enzymes were measured in all patients. Comparison of thallium 201 exercise recording with the other tests revealed that scan sensitivity is greater than electromyographic and serum muscle enzymes levels. Thallium 201 scans showed abnormal findings in 32 patients and revealed subclinical lesions in 18 patients, while electromyography findings were abnormal in 25 of these 32 patients. Serum enzyme levels were raised in only 8 patients. Thallium 201 scanning proved to be a useful guide for modifying therapy when laboratory data were conflicting. It was useful to evaluate treatment efficacy. Because our data indicate a 100% positive predictive value, we believe that thallium 201 scanning should be advised for severe systemic connective tissue diseases with discordant test results.

  10. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy in the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, T.S.; Diamond, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the discriminant accuracy of exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. This is a survey of the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database. The key medical subject headings used were coronary disease, myocardial infarction, radionuclide imaging, and thallium. A total of 122 retrieved studies were considered relevant and were reviewed in depth. Only studies reporting both the sensitivity and specificity of thallium scintigraphy were analyzed. Discriminant accuracy for diagnosis and prognosis was summarized in terms of pooled sensitivity and specificity. Exercise thallium scintigraphy is useful in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease, especially in patients with abnormal resting electrocardiograms, restricted exercise tolerance, and intermediate probability of having disease at the time of testing as well as of defining the prognosis of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, especially in those with previous myocardial infarction. Because of various shortcomings in the published record, however, the marginal discriminant accuracy and cost effectiveness of thallium scintigraphy compared with conventional clinical assessment and exercise electrocardiography remain controversial. 193 references

  11. Raw material uranium; Rohstoff Uran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    Uranium is an important raw material in human life. Mostly using nuclear fission uranium is used in nuclear medicine, industry and research. The most important application is the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants. Due to the global availability the worldwide uranium supply is guaranties for a long time. The contribution covers the issues medicine, neutron research, energy generation, occurrence, mining, processing, recycling and disposal.

  12. Decrease in the ability to detect elevated lung thallium due to delay in commencing imaging after exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothendler, J.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.; Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Post-exercise elevation of the lung/myocardial thallium ratio and a high lung clearance rate between initial and delayed images have been reported to be markers for exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The authors performed thallium exercise tests on 60 patients, 42 with CAD, in order to determine the effect of delaying initial imaging on detection of elevated lung thallium. In addition to images obtained at 2 minutes and at 2 hours after exercise, 18-minute images were also obtained to simulate such a delay. Because of rapid isotope clearance in those with initially elevated lung activity, there was decreased sensitivity of both the initial lung/myocardial ratio and lung thallium clearance for detecting CAD, using the 18-minute image as the initial post exercise study. They conclude that initial imaging should be done in the anterior view early after exercise to optimize detection of elevated lung thallium

  13. Predicting the extent and location of coronary artery disease during the early postinfarction period by quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; Taylor, G.J.; Watson, D.D.; Stebbins, P.T.; Martin, R.P.; Crampton, R.S.; Beller, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy to predict the extent and location of coronary artery disease before hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated in 52 patients. All patients underwent coronary angiography and serial thallium-201 imaging either at rest (10 patients) or after submaximal exercise stress (42 patients; target heart rate 120 beats/min). Two or three vessel disease was designated if abnormal thallium-201 uptake or washout patterns, or both, were seen in two or three vascular segments, respectively. Thus, 2 weeks after myocardial infarction, exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy is useful for predicting the extent and location of coronary artery disease, particularly stenoses in the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. Moreover, thallium-201 imaging at rest is reliable in assessing the extent of coronary disease in hospitalized patients who cannot undergo exercise testing because of unstable angina, uncompensated heart failure, poorly controlled arrhythmias or physical limitations

  14. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of {sup 201}TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse (Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per {sup 201}TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl<2.5 have been conservatively managed because of slow tumour growth. The other two pts have Tl>3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid {sup 201}TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid {sup 201}TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, {sup 201}TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited

  15. Comparison of electrocardiography and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy for the detection of ergonovine-induced coronary artery spasm: angiographic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanes, J.G.; Pavel, D.; Blend, M.

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the sensitivity of thallium imaging vs ECG monitoring for detecting coronary artery spasm noninvasively following intravenous ergonovine administration as compared to simultaneous coronary angiography. Thirty-two patients with insignificant coronary artery disease and chest pain underwent 12-lead ECG monitoring, thallium imaging, and coronary arteriography following the administration of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg of ergonovine given 5 minutes apart or until chest pain occurred. One minute following the last dose of ergonovine, 2.5 mCi of thallium-201 was injected intravenously, and a final ECG was recorded and repeat coronary arteriography performed. Within 10 minutes following the injection of thallium, imaging was performed in the 40-degree and 70-degree left anterior oblique and anterior projections. The ECG, thallium study, and coronary arteriogram were read blindly and results were compared. The ECG, angiogram, and thallium study were read as positive if the following occurred, respectively: greater than or equal to 1 mm ST segment elevation, depression, or T wave reversal; greater than 50% vessel narrowing,; and reversible perfusion defect. Five patients were excluded from analysis because of either catheter-induced spasm, suboptimal thallium studies, or protocol violations. Of the 27 patients included for analysis, six had chest pain, five had a positive angiogram, five had a positive thallium study, and one had a positive ECG. The sensitivity of thallium vs ECG monitoring was 80% vs 25%, and the accuracy was 92% vs 80%. We conclude that thallium imaging greatly increases the noninvasive detection of ergonovine-induced coronary spasm as compared with the ECG with no loss of accuracy

  16. Thallium reinjection after stress-redistribution imaging. Does 24-hour delayed imaging after reinjection enhance detection of viable myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Smeltzer, W.R.; Freedman, N.M.; Dextras, R.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Thallium reinjection immediately after conventional stress-redistribution imaging improves the detection of viable myocardium, as many myocardial regions with apparently 'irreversible' thallium defects on standard 3-4-hour redistribution images manifest enhanced thallium uptake after reinjection. Because the 10-minute period between reinjection and imaging may be too short, the present study was designed to determine whether 24-hour imaging after thallium reinjection provides additional information regarding myocardial viability beyond that obtained by imaging shortly after reinjection. We studied 50 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease undergoing exercise thallium tomography, radionuclide angiography, and coronary arteriography. Immediately after the 3-4-hour redistribution images were obtained, 1 mCi thallium was injected at rest, and images were reacquired at 10 minutes and 24 hours after reinjection. The stress, redistribution, reinjection, and 24-hour images were then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Of the 127 abnormal myocardial regions on the stress images, 55 had persistent defects on redistribution images by qualitative analysis, of which 25 (45%) demonstrated improved thallium uptake after reinjection. At the 24-hour study, 23 of the 25 regions (92%) with previously improved thallium uptake by reinjection showed no further improvement. Similarly, of the 30 regions determined to have irreversible defects after reinjection, 29 (97%) remained irreversible on 24-hour images. These findings were confirmed by the quantitative analysis. The mean normalized thallium activity in regions with enhanced thallium activity after reinjection increased from 57 +/- 13% on redistribution studies to 70 +/- 14% after reinjection but did not change at 24 hours (71 +/- 14%)

  17. Myocardial uptake and clearance of thallium-201 in normal subjects: comparison of dipyridamole-induced hyperemia with exercise stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.D.; Gill, J.B.; Finkelstein, D.M.; Strauss, H.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thallium-201 uptake and clearance after dipyridamole infusion may differ from that after exercise stress because the hemodynamic effects of these two interventions are different. In this study of normal volunteers, thallium kinetics after dipyridamole (n = 13) were determined from three serial image sets (early, intermediate and delayed) and from serial blood samples and compared with thallium kinetics after exercise (n = 15). Absolute myocardial thallium uptake was greater after dipyridamole compared with exercise (p less than 0.0001), although the relative myocardial distribution was similar. The myocardial clearance (%/h) of thallium was slower after dipyridamole than it was after exercise. Comparing dipyridamole and exercise, the differences in clearance were large from the early to the intermediate image (anterior, -11 +/- 17 versus 24 +/- 5, p = 0.0005; 50 degrees left anterior oblique, -7 +/- 11 versus 15 +/- 8, p = 0.004; 70 degrees left anterior oblique, 3 +/- 9 versus 21 +/- 6, p = 0.001). In contrast, the differences in clearance were small from the intermediate to the delayed image (anterior, 15 +/- 4 versus 20 +/- 2, p = 0.025; 50 degrees left anterior oblique, 15 +/- 4 versus 19 +/- 3, p = 0.13; 70 degrees left anterior oblique, 15 +/- 3 versus 18 +/- 2, p = 0.047). Thallium uptake and clearance in the liver, splanchnic region and spleen were greater after dipyridamole (p less than 0.001). Blood thallium levels were greater after dipyridamole (p less than 0.05) and cleared more slowly (p = 0.07). Thus, myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance after dipyridamole infusion differ from thallium kinetics after exercise. This difference is, in part, related to associated differences in extracardiac and blood kinetics. Diagnostic criteria for the detection of abnormal thallium-201 clearance must be specific for the type of intervention

  18. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease

  19. Noninvasive ergonovine maleate provocative testing for coronary artery spasm: the need for routine thallium-201 imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanes, J.G.; Krone, R.J.; Fisher, K.; Shah, B.; Eisenkramer, G.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    We administered ergonovine and used both electrocardiographic monitoring and thallium- 201 [ 201 Tl] imaging to detect reversible ischemia in 100 patients. Patients already established as having coronary artery spasm and those with nonbypassed, proximal, high-grade coronary artery stenosis were excluded. No complication occurred in any patient. The use of thallium imaging in addition to electrocardiographic monitoring resulted in a higher degree of sensitivity than did ECG monitoring alone. Fourteen patients demonstrated evidence of coronary artery spasm as documented by 201 Tl imaging but of the 14, significant ECG changes occurred in only 50%, and classic ST segment elevation in 21%. Thus, in carefully selected patients the noninvasive provocation of coronary spasm can be accomplished safely, but ECG monitoring must be combined with thallium- 201 imaging to achieve an acceptable degree of sensitivity

  20. Discordance of exercise thallium testing with coronary arteriography in patients with atypical presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungo, M. W.; Leland, O. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with diagnostically difficult clinical presentations suggesting coronary artery disease underwent symptom-limited maximal-exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and exercise radionuclide scanning with thallium-201 followed by coronary angiography. Results showed that in nearly half of the patients (47%) these tests were in agreement, while either exercise thallium or ETT was positive in 94% of patients with coronary artery disease. It was found that agreement between exercise thallium and ETT tests predicted disease in 92% of the instances or excluded disease in 82% of the instances. It is concluded that despite frequent discord between these two tests in 53% of the cases, a significant gain in exclusive diagnostic capability is realized when applied to a patient population anticipated to have a disease prevalence equal to the 67% encountered in this study.

  1. [Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of thallium in blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Gao, G

    2016-04-20

    Colloidal palladium was used as chemical modifier in the determination of blood thallium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood samples were precipitated with 5% (V/V)nitric acid, and then determined by GFAAS with colloidal palladium used as a chemical modifier. 0.2% (W/V)sodium chloride was added in the standard series to improve the matrix matching between standard solution and sample. The detection limit was 0.2 μg/L. The correlation coefficient was 0.9991. The recoveries were between 93.9% to 101.5%.The relative standard deviations were between 1.8% to 2.7%.The certified reference material of whole blood thallium was determined and the result was within the reference range Conclusion: The method is accurate, simple and sensitive, and it can meet the needs of detection thallium in blood entirely.

  2. ESR and structural reconstructions of heteropolynuclear vanadium (4) - thallium (1) dithiocarbamate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Heteropolynuclear vanadium (4) - thallium (1) dithiocarbamate compleses were studied. In the systems studied formation of complexes of the composition Tl 2 VO(Dtc) 4 and TlVO(Dtc) 3 was ascertained. The structure of the complexes is ascertained and spin density on thallium atoms is calculated. It is shown that for binuclear complexes the presence of three modifications, differing in molecular structure, is characteristic. The structural changes of molecular level, observed during mutual transfers of the modifications, are mainly related to the change in coordimation number of oxovanadium (2), methoid of coordination of part of dithiocarbamate ligands and charge in mutual disposition of vanadium and thallium atoms in molecules of the complexes

  3. Alternative radiochemical heavy ion activation methods for the production and separation of thallium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta.; Ramaswami, A.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy ion activation of natural gold foil with a 7 Li beam results in the formation of carrier-free 199-201 Pb radionuclides along with their corresponding decay products, 199-201 Tl, in the matrix. At 49 MeV projectile energy, the production of 199 Tl through its precursor 199 Pb is maximal, while that of other thallium radionuclides is minimal. Another way for the direct production of carrier-free thallium radionuclides is to irradiate natural platinum foil with a 7 Li beam; on this case, production of 199 Tl is maximal at 43 MeV projectile energy. The carrier-free thallium radionuclides have been separated from the bulk target matrix gold and platinum by liquid-liquid extraction using trioctylamine as a liquid anion exchanger

  4. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging with single photon emission CT in Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Syuhei

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-five patients with Kawasaki disease underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and planar imaging with thallium-201 after dipyridamole in order to evaluate the usefulness of detecting the complication of coronary artery disease (CAD). The results of SPECT with a three reconstruction imaging study (short axis, vertical long axis, horizontal long axis) and of planar imaging study with thallium-201 were compared with coronary angiography. The overall sensitivity of detecting CAD was 86.7% with SPECT and 66.7% with planar imaging. The sensitivity in identifying individual vessels was 76.0% with SPECT and 44.0% with planar imaging. SPECT was especially superior to planar imaging in detecting localized stenosis. (53.8% vs 15.4%) The specificity of SPECT did not differ from the planar imaging study. Dipyridamole thallium-201 SPECT is a useful non-invasive method to detect CAD due to Kawasaki disease. (author)

  5. Intestinal absorption and excretion of thallium (201Tl) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, E; Di Nucci, A; Edel, J; Gregotti, C; Marafante, E; Manzo, L

    1984-01-01

    The gastrointestinal transport of 201Tl-labelled monovalent thallium has been studied in normal and rats with cannulated bile ducts using an in vivo ligated loop technique. A marked difference in the Tl absorptive capacity among the various sections of the gut was observed. 201Tl was taken up more quickly from the colon than from any other segment and the uptake from the ileum and jejunum was higher than from the stomach. In addition, considerable amounts of the intravenously administered thallium were excreted into the intestinal lumen. The biliary excretion was very low compared with the direct transfer of 201Tl across the gastrointestinal wall that occurred against a tissue-to-plasma concentration gradient. In the rat, the large intestine seems to be the major area for the enteral reabsorption and recycling of thallium (I) ions.

  6. Electron microscope study of thallium-induced alterations in the oligodendrocytes of the rat area postrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M; Bajpai, V K; Shipstone, A C

    1977-01-01

    Thallotoxicosis following accidental ingestion of thallium in rodenticides and in cases of homicidal and suicidal ingestion are well documented in the literature. The mechanism of action of thallium, in particular the pathogenesis of its neurotoxic manifestations, is not entirely clear. This is the first electron microscopic investigation dealing with the effect of thallium on the oligodendrocytes of the area postrema. The area postrema is devoid of a blood-brain barrier, indicating that the hemoneural transport of thallous ions may be quite substantial in this region. Rats weighing 155-175 g were given intraperitoneal injections of 5 mg/kg thallous acetate for 7 days (35 mg/kg total dose). Following perfusion-fixation, ultrathin sections of area postrema were examined with an electron microscope. The oligodendrocytes exhibited pleomorphic vacuolated dense bodies in their perikaryon. The findings were also suggestive of the fact that either the multiplication of oligodendrocytes or their aggregation to form "giant cell" was operative.

  7. The action of thallium acetate on neuromuscular transmission in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, H; Csicsaky, M; Krämer, U

    1984-03-01

    In the isolated phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation from the rat, thallium acetate induced a dose-dependent irreversible paralysis. There was a major time lag between the onset of the exposure and the decline in the indirectly elicited muscle twitches. The slope of the decline was in proportion to the applied concentration, which ranged from 1 X 10(-3) to 5 X 10(-6) mol/l. The paralysis was definitively manifest after approximately 40 min of incubation. In the phase of paralysis, both electrical stimulation of the muscle and chemical stimulation by addition of K+ were fully effective. However, addition of 4-aminopyridine and/or guanidine restored the indirect muscle twitches, indicating a previous reduction of synaptic activity by thallium. Lowering the Ca2+-concentration resulted in a reduced paralysis time. From these results it is suggested that thallium interferes with synaptic transmission by presynaptically antagonizing Ca2+-dependent processes.

  8. Comparison of myocardial thallium and β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) distribution in cardiomyopathy hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Sago, Masayoshi

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of fatty acid imaging in the detection of cardiomyopathy was evaluated by comparing thallium and BMIPP myocardial distribution in Bio 14.6 Syrian Hamster (25 week ages). Autoradiography was performed in 3 using 3.7 MBq (100 μCi) of 125 I-BMIPP and 37 MBq (1 mCi) of 201 TlCl. In vivo pin-hole imaging was performed in 3 using 37 MBq (1 mCi) of 123 I-BMIPP and 37 MBq (1 mCi) of 201 TlCl. In all cardiomyopathy hamsters, decreased uptake of BMIPP compared to that of thallium was demonstrated. These findings suggest dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with severe focal alternation in the substrate used for the performance of myocardial work. In conclusion, myocardial imaging using BMIPP may be useful for early detection of myocardial degeneration compared to thallium in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  9. Effect of exercise supplementation on dipyridamole thallium-201 image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, S.; Greenberg, I.D.; Corne, R.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effect of different types of exercise supplementation on dipyridamole thallium image quality, 78 patients were prospectively randomized to one of three protocols: dipyridamole infusion alone, dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip, and dipyridamole with low-level treadmill exercise. Heart-to-lung, heart-to-liver, and heart-to-adjacent infradiaphragmatic activity ratios were generated from anterior images acquired immediately following the test. Additionally, heart-to-total infradiaphragmatic activity was graded semiquantitatively. Results showed a significantly higher ratio of heart to subdiaphragmatic activity in the treadmill group as compared with dipyridamole alone (p less than 0.001) and dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip exercise (p less than 0.001). No significant difference was observed between patients receiving the dipyridamole infusion, and dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip exercise. The authors conclude that low-level treadmill exercise supplementation of dipyridamole infusion is an effective means of improving image quality. Supplementation with isometric handgrip does not improve image quality over dipyridamole alone

  10. Biomonitoring of thallium availability in two estuaries of southwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Turner, Deborah; Braungardt, Charlotte

    2013-04-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose biogeochemical behaviour in the marine environment is poorly understood. We measured Tl in sediments, macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) and deposit-feeding invertebrates (Hediste diversicolor, Arenicola marina and Scrobicularia plana) from two estuaries of south west England (Plym and Fal) draining mineralised catchments. In the Plym, and for a given sample type, concentrations of Tl were rather invariant between sample locations and averaged about 500 μg kg(-1) for sediment, 30 μg kg(-1) for macroalgae and 10 μg kg(-1) for the invertebrates. In the Fal, respective concentrations were of a similar order of magnitude but exhibited greater variation between sample locations. Normalisation of Tl concentrations to K, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl(+), revealed bioenrichment of about 20 for all organisms in the Plym and bioenrichment ranging from about 3 (H. diversicolor) to 170 (F. ceranoides) in the Fal. Despite the low bioaccumulation of Tl relative to other metals measured concurrently, it is recommended that Tl be more closely monitored and better studied in the estuarine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thallium Toxicity: General Issues, Neurological Symptoms, and Neurotoxic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Rico, Laura; Santamaria, Abel; Galván-Arzate, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Thallium (Tl + ) is a ubiquitous natural trace metal considered as the most toxic among heavy metals. The ionic ratio of Tl + is similar to that of potassium (K + ), therefore accounting for the replacement of the latter during enzymatic reactions. The principal organelle damaged after Tl + exposure is mitochondria. Studies on the mechanisms of Tl + include intrinsic pathways altered and changes in antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, cytochrome c, and caspases. Oxidative damage pathways increase after Tl + exposure to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in physical properties of the cell membrane caused by lipid peroxidation, and concomitant activation of antioxidant mechanisms. These processes are likely to account for the neurotoxic effects of the metal. In humans, Tl + is absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and then is widely distributed throughout the body to be accumulated in bones, renal medulla, liver, and the Central Nervous System. Given the growing relevance of Tl + intoxication, in recent years there is a notorious increase in the number of reports attending Tl + pollution in different countries. In this sense, the neurological symptoms produced by Tl + and its neurotoxic effects are gaining attention as they represent a serious health problem all over the world. Through this review, we present an update to general information about Tl + toxicity, making emphasis on some recent data about Tl + neurotoxicity, as a field requiring attention at the clinical and preclinical levels.

  12. Improved spectrometric characteristics of thallium bromide nuclear radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y

    1999-01-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with a high atomic number and wide band gap. In this study, nuclear radiation detectors have been fabricated from the TlBr crystals. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using the materials purified by many pass zone refining. The crystals were characterized by measuring the resistivity, the mobility-lifetime (mu tau) product and the energy required to create an electron-hole pair (the epsilon value). Improved energy resolution has been obtained by the TlBr radiation detectors. At room temperature the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the 59.5, 122 and 662 keV gamma-ray photo peak obtained from the detectors were 3.3, 8.8 and 29.5 keV, respectively. By comparing the saturated peak position of the TlBr detector with that of the CdTe detector, the epsilon value has been estimated to be about 5.85 eV for the TlBr crystal.

  13. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar

    2018-02-01

    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  14. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning: recommendations from the EXTRIP Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S; Roberts, Darren M; Mactier, Robert; Mowry, James B; Dargan, Paul I; Maclaren, Robert; Hoegberg, Lotte C; Laliberté, Martin; Calello, Diane; Kielstein, Jan T; Anseeuw, Kurt; Winchester, James F; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Bunchman, Timothy E; Li, Yi; Juurlink, David N; Lavergne, Valery; Megarbane, Bruno; Gosselin, Sophie; Liu, Kathleen D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-10-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl). After an extensive search, the co-chairs reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify disagreement. Blinded votes were compiled, returned, and discussed during a conference call. A second vote determined the final recommendations. Forty-five articles met inclusion criteria. Only case reports and case series were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 74 patients, including 11 who died, were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that Tl is slightly dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe Tl poisoning (1D). ECTR is indicated if Tl exposure is highly suspected on the basis of history or clinical features (2D) or if the serum Tl concentration is >1.0 mg/L (2D). ECTR should be initiated as soon as possible, ideally within 24-48 hours of Tl exposure (1D), and be continued until the serum Tl concentration is poisoning.

  15. Effect of thallium-201 blood levels on reversible myocardial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.W.; Wilson, R.A.; Angello, D.A.; Palac, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if 201 Tl plasma blood levels correlate with the presence of reversible myocardial defects during exercise testing, 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent two separate exercise 201 Tl stress tests. Between initial and delayed imaging, on one test the patients drank an instant breakfast drink (eating) and on the other they drank an equivalent volume of water as a control (H 2 O). Thallium-201 imaging was performed immediately postexercise, immediately after eating/H 2 O and 210 min after eating/H 2 O. Between initial and immediate post eating/H 2 O images 201Tl reversible defects occurred in 27/38 regions in the H 2 O test versus 15/38 regions in the eating test (p = 0.02). Over this early time period, plasma 201 Tl activity was significantly higher in the H 2 O test than eating test (p less than 0.05). In conclusion, early reversal of 201 Tl defects may, in part, be the result of higher plasma 201 Tl activity early after initial postexercise 201 Tl imaging

  16. GEMAS: Geochemical Distribution of Thallium in European Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Alecos; Birke, Manfred; Reimann, Clemens; Mann, Alan; Kaminari, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Thallium concentrations are reported for the Portugal, Massif Central in France, and Bohemian Massif in Czechia). The median Tl concentration of Ap soil samples in the mobile metal ion (MMI®) partial extraction is 0.0006 mg/kg, and almost 50% of all samples report concentrations below detection. There is no pronounced difference between northern and southern Europe anymore, and the ice age limit of the last glaciation remains invisible. The main anomaly is related to the alkaline volcanic rocks in Italy. Many granitic intrusions are indicated by somewhat enhanced Tl concentrations (e.g., northern Portugal, north-western Spain, Massif Central in France, south-west England, and Bohemian Massif in Czechia). An interesting NE to SW anomalous pattern occurs in Scotland, partly following the Great Glen fault, and occurrences of granitic intrusions. Almost all of central Europe is marked by enhanced Tl values, and one wonders whether agriculture might have had an impact on this unusual pattern. Finally, the GEMAS data set defines the geochemical background variation of Tl in aqua regia and MMI® extraction for European agricultural and grazing land soil at the 2008 timeline.

  17. Thallium and Silver binding to dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M. F.; Martin, L.; Simonucci, C.; Viollier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Silver (Ag) and thallium (Tl) are potential contaminants at the vicinity of mining sites and are harmful pollutants. Silver can be found in mine but also as released by the dissolution of Silver nanoparticles, a major new emerging contaminant. Tl is both lithophilic and calcophilic elements and found in sulphur ores (associated with lead, zinc, antimony…) or in rocks containing K-feldspar. Speciation of Ag and Tl is poorly known mainly due to their low concentrations in aquatic environments. Review of Ag and Tl geochemistry clearly shows a lack of quantitative information about interactions with natural organic matter. Organic ligands could play an important role in Ag or Tl bioavailability, chemical reactivity (adsorption or photo oxidation inhibition or catalysis) and hence geochemical transfers. Based on equilibrium between two solutions that are separated by a selectively permeable membrane, the so-called "Donnan membrane technique" (DMT) provides a measure of free ion concentrations. Analytes measurements are performed by HR-ICP-MS Element 2 (Thermo Scientific). Experimental setup allows the Donnan equilibrium to be reached after 100 and 120 hours for Tl. Experiments performed with purified natural organic matter allow calculating complexation constants in multiple pH conditions. With this work, we contribute new data and interpretations to an active debate on Ag and Tl geochemical modeling. In conclusion, this work brings a new view on risk assessment for mining activities.

  18. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging for evaluation of pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, Yoshiyasu

    1979-01-01

    Thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial scintigraphy (TMS) was performed in 54 patients. The images were analysed semi-quantitatively by measuring the extent of radioisotope concentration in the right ventricular free wall and the size of the right ventricular cavity. The extent of radioisotope concentration (four degrees) was expressed as the right ventricular activity score (RVAS) and the size of the right ventricular cavity (three degrees) was expressed as the right ventricular cavity score (RVCS). The scores were added for a right ventricular total score (RVTS). To establish criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by means of TMS, these scores were compared with the values of pulmonary arterial mean pressure (PAMP). The criteria were evaluated by comparing them with conventional criteria for electrocardiographic diagnosis of right ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with a 2-point RVAS had a significantly higher PAMP than those with a 0 or 1-point RVAS (p 201 Tl myocardial scintigrams is a useful non-invasive method for evaluating PH and its severity. (J.P.N.)

  19. Chest Pain with Normal Thallium-201 Myocardial Perfusion Image – Is It Really Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pang-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lin, Li-Fan; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Yang, Shih-Ping; Liou, Jun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Although a normal thallium-201 MPI result is generally considered to be a good prognosis and further coronary angiogram is not recommended, there are still a few patients who suffer from unexpected acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical prognosis in patients with normal thallium-201 MPI. Methods From January 2006 to August 2012, a total 22,003 patients undergoing thallium-201 MPI in one tertiary center were screened. Of these, 8092 patients had normal results and were investigated retrospectively. During follow-up, 54 patients underwent coronary angiogram because of refractory typical angina pectoris or unexpected acute coronary events. These 54 patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 26 (48.1%) patients with angiography-proven significant coronary artery stenosis, and group II consisted of 28 (51.9%) patients without significant stenosis. Results Patients in group I had a higher prevalence of prior coronary stenting and electrocardiographic features of ST depression compared with patients in group II. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that both prior coronary stenting and ST depression were risk predictors of unexpected acute coronary events in the patients with normal thallium-201 MPI [odds ratio (OR), 5.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-34.06, p = 0.05 and OR, 7.10; 95% CI: 1.28-39.51, p = 0.03,respectively]. Conclusions Although there is a low incidence of unexpected acute coronary events in patients with chest pain and normal thallium-201 MPI, physicians should be aware of the potentials risk in certain patients in this specific population. PMID:27274174

  20. Thallium brain SPECT and MRI correlation in the evaluation of tumour recurrence versus radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, P.D.; Mahoney, D.S.; Mullan, B.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: This study compares different methods of determining thallium tumour uptake indices. Correlation with MR was performed to evaluate features that may affect the thallium index (TI) and to improve specificity for differentiation of recurrent tumor from radiation necrosis. 23 patients who had received radiotherapy for a brain neoplasm were included. The TI was determined using three different methods including large and small regions-of-interest (ROI). The concordance between the thallium SPECT and MRI was assessed. The effect of central necrosis on the different thallium indices derived was evaluated. 18 patients were determined to have recurrent tumor and five had inactive disease. The optimal TI cut-off values was statistically delivered and sensitivity and specificity was 78-94% and 80% respectively for cut-off values between 2.0 and 2.6 depending on the method used to calculate the TI. When compared with MRI, the majority of SPECT abnormalities correlated well with location and degree of uptake and enhancement. Seven cases showed central necrosis and the degree of necrosis had less effect on the TI when a small ROI was used in these cases. In conclusion thallium brain SPECT is a sensitive technique for detecting recurrent tumour. When performing semi-quantitative assessment of thallium uptake, a smaller ROI over the most intense area of uptake will reduce the underestimation of the TI in the presence of necrosis and a Tl cut-off value of 2.6 gave optimal accuracy using this method. Correlation with MRI aids in localization, particularly where there is anatomic distortion and enables more accurate analysis of these lesions by avoiding areas of necrosis. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. Spectrofluorimetric determination of thallium in silicate rocks with rhodamine b in the presence of aluminum chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnepfe, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure with rhodamine B in the presence of aluminum chloride is given for determining submicrogram and microgram quantities of thallium in silicate rocks. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids and then treated with hydrochloric acid. Thallium is extracted as its dithizonate with chloroform from an alkaline medium containing ascorbate, citrate, and cyanide and then back-extracted with dilute nitric acid. After destruction of the organic matter and treatment with bromine, hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and rhodamine B, the {A table is presented}. ?? 1975.

  2. Role of valence electrons in phase transformation kinetics of thallium and its dilute alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.; Ahmed, S.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the phase transformation of thallium and its dilute alloys were investigated using XRD and calorimetry. Pure thallium exhibits a beta(bcc) to alpha(hcp) phase transformation on cooling at 508 K. With alloying additions, the crystal structure for each phase does not change, although the size of the unit cell increases. The enthalpy and the temperature of phase transformation of each alloy have been determined. The chemical free energy change associated with the phase transformation of each alloy was calculated. The valence electrons make an outstanding contribution to the chemical free energy change required for the phase change.

  3. Clinical value of delayed thallium-201 myocardial imaging in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, J H; Turner, J G; Gray, H W; Bessent, R G; Greig, W R

    1978-01-01

    Fifty patients with acute chest pain had thallium-201 myocardial imaging performed three to six days after emergency admission to hospital. The image was abnormal in 20 out of 22 patients with acute transmural myocardial infarcts but in only 1 of 5 with acute subendocardial infarcts. Indistinguishable scan abnormalities caused by old infarcts were seen in 7 patients, and caused by myocardial ischaemia in 1 patient. A single thallium-201 myocardial scan some days after the onset of symptoms appears to be of little value in the clinical assessment of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Images PMID:687488

  4. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2016-09-02

    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  5. Distribution of indium, thallium and bismuth in the environmental water of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, A; Kimura, A; Tao, H

    2012-12-01

    Indium, thallium and bismuth are toxic and it is important to know the distribution of these elements in environmental water. The concentrations of these elements were measured in 50 sampling points in Japan and the reasons of high concentrations in several samples were discussed. The average concentrations (ng/L) of dissolved and particulate indium in river, lake and coastal seawater were 1.4-3.0 and 2.4-9.1, respectively. Those for thallium were 7.2-11.3 and 3.5-36.0. Those for bismuth were 12.7-24.0 and 12.1-52.7.

  6. Cyclization of lapachol induced by thallium salts; Ciclizacao do lapachol induzida por sais de talio III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Magno R.; Souza, Pablo P. de; Ferreira, Leticia L.D.M.; Pinto, Lia A.; Almeida, Leonardo S. de; Jesus, Janaina G. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: gqocmrr@vm.uff.br

    2008-07-01

    This work describes the cyclization of lapachol (1) induced by thallium triacetate (TTA) and thallium trinitrate (TTN) in several solvents using magnetic stirring and under microwave irradiation. {alpha}-Xyloidone (2) - dehydro-a-lapachone - was obtained as the main product in these reactions in 20 - 75% yield. However, rhinacanthin-A (4) was isolated as main product in a 40% yield, using TTA and acetic anhydride:water (1:1) as solvent, and dehydroiso- a-lapachone (3) in 21% yield, using TTA and dichloromethane as solvent. The reaction time decreased drastically under microwave conditions, but the yields of these reactions were not the expected. (author)

  7. Myocardial viability in cases with persistent perfusion defects on the dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigram. A comparative study with autopsy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Masafumi; Mashima, Saburo; Ohkawa, Shin-ichiro; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of myocardial infarction among persistent perfusion defects in dipyridamole-stress thallium scintigraphy by inspecting autopsied hearts and to evaluate whether the regional thallium activity of a scintigraphic defect can predict the presence of infarction. Autopsied hearts were compared with dipyridamole myocardial scintigrams undertaken during life in 27 patients (mean age 85±8 years). The time interval from stress testing until death was 428±351 days. Regional thallium uptake of delayed perfusion defect was calculated on the short axis images. The grade of regional myocardial fibrosis in autopsy specimens was also quantified to correlate with the corresponding regional thallium uptake. In 6 of 15 (40%) regions with persistent defects on the scintigram, myocardial infarction was not found at autopsy. Regional thallium-201 uptake of delayed defects < 50% diagnosed infarction with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80%. A linear correlation (r=-0.67) was observed between percent thallium-201 uptake and the degree of myocardial fibrosis. In conclusion, perfusion defects at 4-hour imaging in dipyridamole-stress testing may overestimate the presence of myocardial infarction and regional thallium-201 activity is helpful in distinguishing between defects with and without infarction. (author)

  8. Toxicity of thallium on isolated rat liver mitochondria: the role of oxidative stress and MPT pore opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M R; Mashayekhi, Vida; Aslani, Majid; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2015-02-01

    Thallium(I) is a highly toxic heavy metal; however, up to now, its mechanisms are poorly understood. The authors' previous studies showed that this compound could induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, reduced glutathione (GSH) oxidation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse in isolated rat hepatocyte. Because the liver is the storage site of thallium, it seems that the liver mitochondria are one of the important targets for hepatotoxicity. In this investigation, the effects of thallium on mitochondria were studied to investigate its mechanisms of toxicity. Mitochondria were isolated from rat liver and incubated with different concentrations of thallium (25-200 µM). Thallium(I)-treated mitochondria showed a marked elevation in oxidative stress parameters accompanied by MMP collapse when compared with the control group. These results showed that different concentrations of thallium (25-200 µM) induced a significant (P thallium(I)-induced liver toxicity is a result of the disruptive effect of this metal on the mitochondrial respiratory complexes (I, II, and IV), which are the obvious causes of metal-induced ROS formation and ATP depletion. The latter two events, in turn, trigger cell death signaling via opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and cytochrome c expulsion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Photon activation therapy of RG2 glioma carrying Fischer rats using stable thallium and monochromatic synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberg, Crister; Jönsson, Bo-Anders; Prezado, Yolanda; Pommer, Tobias; Nittby, Henrietta; Englund, Elisabet; Grafström, Gustav; Edvardsson, Anneli; Stenvall, Anna; Strömblad, Susanne; Wingårdh, Karin; Persson, Bertil; Elleaume, Hélène; Baldetorp, Bo; Salford, Leif G; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2012-12-21

    75 RG2 glioma-carrying Fischer rats were treated by photon activation therapy (PAT) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation and stable thallium. Three groups were treated with thallium in combination with radiation at different energy; immediately below and above the thallium K-edge, and at 50 keV. Three control groups were given irradiation only, thallium only, or no treatment at all. For animals receiving thallium in combination with radiation to 15 Gy at 50 keV, the median survival time was 30 days, which was 67% longer than for the untreated controls (p = 0.0020) and 36% longer than for the group treated with radiation alone (not significant). Treatment with thallium and radiation at the higher energy levels were not effective at the given absorbed dose and thallium concentration. In the groups treated at 50 keV and above the K-edge, several animals exhibited extensive and sometimes contra-lateral edema, neuronal death and frank tissue necrosis. No such marked changes were seen in the other groups. The results were discussed with reference to Monte Carlo calculated electron energy spectra and dose enhancement factors.

  10. Identification of novel KCNQ4 openers by a high-throughput fluorescence-based thallium flux assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunyi; Rottländer, Mario; Xu, Mingkai; Christoffersen, Claus Tornby; Frederiksen, Kristen; Wang, Ming-Wei; Jensen, Henrik Sindal

    2011-11-01

    To develop a real-time thallium flux assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of human KCNQ4 (Kv7.4) potassium channel openers, we used CHO-K1 cells stably expressing human KCNQ4 channel protein and a thallium-sensitive dye based on the permeability of thallium through potassium channels. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the cell line expressing the KCNQ4 protein were found to be in agreement with that reported elsewhere. The EC(50) values of the positive control compound (retigabine) determined by the thallium and (86)rubidium flux assays were comparable to and consistent with those documented in the literature. Signal-to-background (S/B) ratio and Z factor of the thallium influx assay system were assessed to be 8.82 and 0.63, respectively. In a large-scale screening of 98,960 synthetic and natural compounds using the thallium influx assay, 76 compounds displayed consistent KCNQ4 activation, and of these 6 compounds demonstrated EC(50) values of less than 20 μmol/L and 2 demonstrated EC(50) values of less than 1 μmol/L. Taken together, the fluorescence-based thallium flux assay is a highly efficient, automatable, and robust tool to screen potential KCNQ4 openers. This approach may also be expanded to identify and evaluate potential modulators of other potassium channels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photon activation therapy of RG2 glioma carrying Fischer rats using stable thallium and monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberg, Crister; Jönsson, Bo-Anders; Prezado, Yolanda; Pommer, Tobias; Nittby, Henrietta; Englund, Elisabet; Grafström, Gustav; Edvardsson, Anneli; Stenvall, Anna; Strömblad, Susanne; Wingårdh, Karin; Persson, Bertil; Elleaume, Hélène; Baldetorp, Bo; Salford, Leif G.; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2012-12-01

    75 RG2 glioma-carrying Fischer rats were treated by photon activation therapy (PAT) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation and stable thallium. Three groups were treated with thallium in combination with radiation at different energy; immediately below and above the thallium K-edge, and at 50 keV. Three control groups were given irradiation only, thallium only, or no treatment at all. For animals receiving thallium in combination with radiation to 15 Gy at 50 keV, the median survival time was 30 days, which was 67% longer than for the untreated controls (p = 0.0020) and 36% longer than for the group treated with radiation alone (not significant). Treatment with thallium and radiation at the higher energy levels were not effective at the given absorbed dose and thallium concentration. In the groups treated at 50 keV and above the K-edge, several animals exhibited extensive and sometimes contra-lateral edema, neuronal death and frank tissue necrosis. No such marked changes were seen in the other groups. The results were discussed with reference to Monte Carlo calculated electron energy spectra and dose enhancement factors.

  12. Effects of reduced coronary flow on thallium-201 accumulation and release in an in vitro rat heart preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, S Z; Newell, J B; Ingwall, J S; Pohost, G M; Alpert, N M; Fossel, E T

    1983-03-01

    To study the relation between myocardial thallium-201 (TI-201) uptake, TI-201 release, and reduced coronary flow, isolated Langendorff rat hearts (n = 8) were perfused for 3 hours at constant flows ranging from physiologic (12 ml/min) to severely ischemic (1.5 ml/min); thallium activity was monitored with a scintillation probe. Each heart was perfused for 1 hour with thallium buffer, followed by 2 hours with thallium-free buffer at the same flow rate. Accumulation curves for all 4 flows were monoexponential. However, release curves during the 2 hours of washout with thallium-free buffer demonstrated a biexponential configuration. The early fast release component decreased with reductions in coronary flow, and the later slow release component did not vary significantly with flow. These data show that thallium clearance has at least 2 components: a rapid (possibly extracellular) component related to coronary flow and a slow (possibly intracellular) component independent of coronary flow. These findings should be useful in providing a better understanding of thallium redistribution observed clinically.

  13. Effects of reduced coronary flow on thallium-201 accumulation and release in an in vitro rat heart preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, S.Z.; Newell, J.B.; Ingwall, J.S.; Pohost, G.M.; Alpert, N.M.; Fossel, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    To study the relation between myocardial thallium-201 (TI-201) uptake, TI-201 release, and reduced coronary flow, isolated Langendorff rat hearts (n . 8) were perfused for 3 hours at constant flows ranging from physiologic (12 ml/min) to severely ischemic (1.5 ml/min); thallium activity was monitored with a scintillation probe. Each heart was perfused for 1 hour with thallium buffer, followed by 2 hours with thallium-free buffer at the same flow rate. Accumulation curves for all 4 flows were monoexponential. However, release curves during the 2 hours of washout with thallium-free buffer demonstrated a biexponential configuration. The early fast release component decreased with reductions in coronary flow, and the later slow release component did not vary significantly with flow. These data show that thallium clearance has at least 2 components: a rapid (possibly extracellular) component related to coronary flow and a slow (possibly intracellular) component independent of coronary flow. These findings should be useful in providing a better understanding of thallium redistribution observed clinically

  14. Assessment of single vessel coronary artery disease: results of exercise electrocardiography, thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Port, S.C.; Oshima, M.; Ray, G.; McNamee, P.; Schmidt, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity of the commonly used stress tests for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease was analyzed in 46 patients with significant occlusion (greater than or equal to 70% luminal diameter obstruction) of only one major coronary artery and no prior myocardial infarction. In all patients, thallium-201 perfusion imaging (both planar and seven-pinhole tomographic) and 12 lead electrocardiography were performed during the same graded treadmill exercise test and radionuclide angiography was performed during upright bicycle exercise. Exercise rate-pressure (double) product was 22,307 +/- 6,750 on the treadmill compared with 22,995 +/- 5,622 on the bicycle (p = NS). Exercise electrocardiograms were unequivocally abnormal in 24 patients (52%). Qualitative planar thallium images were abnormal in 42 patients (91%). Quantitative analysis of the tomographic thallium images were abnormal in 41 patients (89%). An exercise ejection fraction of less than 0.56 or a new wall motion abnormality was seen in 30 patients (65%). Results were similar for the right (n = 11) and left anterior descending (n = 28) coronary arteries while all tests but the planar thallium imaging showed a lower sensitivity for isolated circumflex artery disease (n = 7). The specificity of the tests was 72, 83, 89 and 72% for electrocardiography, planar thallium imaging, tomographic thallium imaging and radionuclide angiography, respectively. The results suggest that exercise thallium-201 perfusion imaging is the most sensitive noninvasive stress test for the diagnosis of single vessel coronary artery disease

  15. Enhanced detection of ischemic but viable myocardium by the reinjection of thallium after stress-redistribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Rocco, T.P.; Freedman, N.M.; Leon, M.B.; Bonow, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    The identification of ischemic but viable myocardium by thallium exercise scintigraphy is often imprecise, since many of the perfusion defects that develop in ischemic myocardium during exercise do not fill in on subsequent redistribution images. We hypothesized that a second injection of thallium given after the redistribution images were taken might improve the detection of ischemic but viable myocardium. We studied 100 patients with coronary artery disease, using thallium exercise tomographic imaging and radionuclide angiography. Patients received 2 mCi of thallium intravenously during exercise, redistribution imaging was performed three to four hours later, and a second dose of 1 mCi of thallium was injected at rest immediately thereafter. The three sets of images (stress, redistribution, and reinjection) were then analyzed. Ninety-two of the 100 patients had exercise-induced perfusion defects. Of the 260 abnormal myocardial regions identified by stress imaging, 85 (33 percent) appeared to be irreversible on redistribution imaging three to four hours later. However, 42 of these apparently irreversible defects (49 percent) demonstrated improved or normal thallium uptake after the second injection of thallium, with an increase in mean regional uptake from 56 +/- 12 percent on redistribution studies to 64 +/- 10 percent on reinjection imaging (P less than 0.001). Twenty patients were restudied three to six months after coronary angioplasty. Of the 15 myocardial regions with defects on redistribution studies that were identified as viable by reinjection studies before angioplasty, 13 (87 percent) had normal thallium uptake and improved regional wall motion after angioplasty. In contrast, all eight regions with persistent defects on reinjection imaging before angioplasty had abnormal thallium uptake and abnormal regional wall motion after angioplasty

  16. New CZT cardiac cameras and myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium 201; Nouvelles cameras cardiaques a semi-conducteur cadmium -zinc- telluride (CZT) et scintigraphies myocardiques au thallium 201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songy, B. [Service de medecine et imagerie nucleaire, centre cardiologique du Nord (CCN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-08-15

    Myocardial perfusion imaging is widely used for management of coronary artery disease. However, it suffers from technical limitations. New cardiac cameras using CZT detectors are now available and increase spatial (x2) and energy (x2) resolutions and photons sensitivity (x5). We describe here the General Electric Discovery NM 530c new camera and summarize the validation studies with technetium agents and with thallium 201, protocols to reduce doses, ultrafast protocols and perspectives offered with this new technology. (author)

  17. Electronic Transport Properties of Single Crystal THALLIUM-2201 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandrofski, Robert Michael

    1992-11-01

    Four-probe resistance measurements on single crystals of the calcium-free thallium-based superconducting rm Tl_2Ba_2CuO_{6+delta } phase (Tl-2201) were performed in magnetic fields up to 12 Telsa. Single crystals of sizes approaching 5mm x 1mm x.2mm were grown by a self-flux technique and were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and X-ray Dispersive Analysis. Field measurements were taken both at dc and at low frequencies using a lock-in technique. Techniques were developed to oxygen-anneal the as-grown single crystals to generate single crystal samples of the same Tl-2201 phase with varying transition temperature T_{rm c}. Resistivity measurements indicate a gradual cross-over from linear temperature-dependent resistivity at high T_ {rm c} (i.e., low oxygen doping), to a predominantly quadratic temperature dependent resistivity at low T_{rm c} (i.e., high oxygen doping). These results are correlated with theories describing the gradual change in the nature of charge carrier scattering as the system is over-doped with holes. Four-probe resistivity measurements indicate that severe anisotropies in the resistivity profiles exist at all oxygen concentrations, with the out-of-plane resistivity measuring two to three orders of magnitude higher than the in-plane resistivity. Magnetic field results indicate the presence of an irreversibility transition, with a signature for a Kosterlitz-Thouless (or "melting") transition in the vortex lattice at low fields occuring in samples with the lower T_{rm c}. Such data suggest a quasi-two-dimensional behavior in this system. Measurements of the fluctuation conductivity also suggest a quasi-two -dimensional fluctuation regime. Experimental results are discussed within the framework of Fermi liquid theory.

  18. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar

    2017-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  19. Thallium stimulates ethanol production in immortalized hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Lactate and ethanol (EtOH) were determined in cell culture medium (CCM) of immortalized hippocampal neurons (HN9.10e cell line) before and after incubation with Thallium (Tl). This cell line is a reliable, in vitro model of one of the most vulnerable regions of central nervous system. Cells were incubated for 48 h with three different single Tl doses: 1, 10, 100 μg/L (corresponding to 4.9, 49 and 490 nM, respectively). After 48 h, neurons were “reperfused” with fresh CCM every 24/48 h until 7 days after the treatment and the removed CCM was collected and analysed. Confocal microscopy was employed to observe morphological changes. EtOH was determined by head space—solid phase microextraction -gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS), lactate by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Tl exposure had significant effects on neuronal growth rate and morphology. The damage degree was dose-dependent. In not exposed cells, EtOH concentration was 0.18 ± 0.013 mM, which represents about 5% of lactate concentration (3.4 ± 0.10 mM). After Tl exposure lactate and EtOH increased. In CCM of 100 and 10 μg/L Tl-treated cells, lactate increased 24 h after reperfusion up to 2 and 3.3 times the control value, respectively. In CCM of 10 and 100 μg/L Tl-treated cells 24 h after reperfusion, EtOH increased up to 0.3 and 0.58 mmol/L. respectively. These results are consistent with significant alterations in energy metabolism, despite the low doses of Tl employed and the relatively short incubation time. PMID:29161327

  20. Tracing anthropogenic thallium in soil using stable isotope compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Michael; Xiao, Tangfu; Kreissig, Katharina; Brett, Alex; Coles, Barry J; Rehkämper, Mark

    2014-08-19

    Thallium stable isotope data are used in this study, for the first time, to apportion Tl contamination in soils. In the late 1970s, a cement plant near Lengerich, Germany, emitted cement kiln dust (CKD) with high Tl contents, due to cocombustion of Tl-enriched pyrite roasting waste. Locally contaminated soil profiles were obtained down to 1 m depth and the samples are in accord with a binary mixing relationship in a diagram of Tl isotope compositions (expressed as ε(205)Tl, the deviation of the (205)Tl/(203)Tl ratio of a sample from the NIST SRM 997 Tl isotope standard in parts per 10(4)) versus 1/[Tl]. The inferred mixing endmembers are the geogenic background, as defined by isotopically light soils at depth (ε(205)Tl ≈ -4), and the Tl emissions, which produce Tl-enriched topsoils with ε(205)Tl as high as ±0. The latter interpretation is supported by analyses of the CKD, which is also characterized by ε(205)Tl ≈ ± 0, and the same ε(205)Tl value was found for a pyrite from the deposit that produced the cocombusted pyrite roasting waste. Additional measurements for samples from a locality in China, with outcrops of Tl sulfide mineralization and associated high natural Tl backgrounds, reveal significant isotope fractionation between soils (ε(205)Tl ≈ +0.4) and locally grown green cabbage (ε(205)Tl between -2.5 and -5.4). This demonstrates that biological isotope fractionation cannot explain the isotopically heavy Tl in the Lengerich topsoils and the latter are therefore clearly due to anthropogenic Tl emissions from cement processing. Our results thus establish that isotopic data can reinforce receptor modeling for the toxic trace metal Tl.

  1. Thallium stimulates ethanol production in immortalized hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombaioni, Laura; Onor, Massimo; Benedetti, Edoardo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Lactate and ethanol (EtOH) were determined in cell culture medium (CCM) of immortalized hippocampal neurons (HN9.10e cell line) before and after incubation with Thallium (Tl). This cell line is a reliable, in vitro model of one of the most vulnerable regions of central nervous system. Cells were incubated for 48 h with three different single Tl doses: 1, 10, 100 μg/L (corresponding to 4.9, 49 and 490 nM, respectively). After 48 h, neurons were "reperfused" with fresh CCM every 24/48 h until 7 days after the treatment and the removed CCM was collected and analysed. Confocal microscopy was employed to observe morphological changes. EtOH was determined by head space-solid phase microextraction -gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS), lactate by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Tl exposure had significant effects on neuronal growth rate and morphology. The damage degree was dose-dependent. In not exposed cells, EtOH concentration was 0.18 ± 0.013 mM, which represents about 5% of lactate concentration (3.4 ± 0.10 mM). After Tl exposure lactate and EtOH increased. In CCM of 100 and 10 μg/L Tl-treated cells, lactate increased 24 h after reperfusion up to 2 and 3.3 times the control value, respectively. In CCM of 10 and 100 μg/L Tl-treated cells 24 h after reperfusion, EtOH increased up to 0.3 and 0.58 mmol/L. respectively. These results are consistent with significant alterations in energy metabolism, despite the low doses of Tl employed and the relatively short incubation time.

  2. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  3. Thallium stimulates ethanol production in immortalized hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Colombaioni

    Full Text Available Lactate and ethanol (EtOH were determined in cell culture medium (CCM of immortalized hippocampal neurons (HN9.10e cell line before and after incubation with Thallium (Tl. This cell line is a reliable, in vitro model of one of the most vulnerable regions of central nervous system. Cells were incubated for 48 h with three different single Tl doses: 1, 10, 100 μg/L (corresponding to 4.9, 49 and 490 nM, respectively. After 48 h, neurons were "reperfused" with fresh CCM every 24/48 h until 7 days after the treatment and the removed CCM was collected and analysed. Confocal microscopy was employed to observe morphological changes. EtOH was determined by head space-solid phase microextraction -gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS, lactate by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Tl exposure had significant effects on neuronal growth rate and morphology. The damage degree was dose-dependent. In not exposed cells, EtOH concentration was 0.18 ± 0.013 mM, which represents about 5% of lactate concentration (3.4 ± 0.10 mM. After Tl exposure lactate and EtOH increased. In CCM of 100 and 10 μg/L Tl-treated cells, lactate increased 24 h after reperfusion up to 2 and 3.3 times the control value, respectively. In CCM of 10 and 100 μg/L Tl-treated cells 24 h after reperfusion, EtOH increased up to 0.3 and 0.58 mmol/L. respectively. These results are consistent with significant alterations in energy metabolism, despite the low doses of Tl employed and the relatively short incubation time.

  4. Thallium pollution in China: A geo-environmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tangfu; Yang, Fei; Li, Shehong; Zheng, Baoshan; Ning, Zengping

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic metal to human health, but less is known about the geo-environmentally-induced Tl pollution and its associated health impacts. High concentrations of Tl that are primarily associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals have the potential of producing Tl pollution in the environment, which has been recognized as an emerging pollutant in China. This paper aims to review the research progress in China on Tl pollution in terms of the source, mobility, transportation pathway, and health exposure of Tl and to address the environmental concerns on Tl pollution in a geo-environmental perspective. Tl associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals has been documented to disperse readily and accumulate through the geo-environmental processes of soil enrichment, water transportation and food crop growth beyond a mineralized zone. The enrichments of Tl in local soil, water, and crops may result in Tl pollution and consequent adverse health effects, e.g. chronic Tl poisoning. Investigation of the baseline Tl in the geo-environment, proper land use and health-related environmental planning and regulation are critical to prevent the Tl pollution. Examination of the human urinary Tl concentration is a quick approach to identify exposure of Tl pollution to humans. The experiences of Tl pollution in China can provide important lessons for many other regions in the world with similar geo-environmental contexts because of the high mobility and toxicity of Tl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of thallium exposure and its relation with preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yangqian; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Pan, Xinyun; Liu, Wenyu; Jin, Shuna; Huo, Wenqian; Liu, Hongxiu; Peng, Yang; Sun, Xiaojie; Zhang, Hongling; Zhou, Aifen; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a well-recognized hazardous toxic heavy metal that has been reported to have embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity. However, little is known about its association with preterm birth (PTB) in humans. We aimed to evaluate the predictors of Tl exposure and assessed its relation with PTB. The study population included 7173 mother-infant pairs from a birth cohort in Wuhan, China. Predictors of Tl concentrations were explored using linear regression analyses, and associations of Tl exposure with risk of PTB or gestational age at birth were estimated using logistic regression or generalized linear models. The geometric mean and median values of urinary Tl concentrations were 0.28 μg/L (0.55 μg/g creatinine) and 0.29 μg/L (0.53 μg/g creatinine). We found that maternal urinary Tl concentrations varied by gestational weight gain, educational attainment, multivitamin and iron supplementations. Women with Tl concentrations higher than 0.80 μg/g creatinine were at higher risk of giving birth prematurely versus those with Tl concentrations lower than 0.36 μg/g creatinine [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.55 (1.05, 2.27)], and the association was more pronounced in PTB with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) rather than in PTB without PROM. About 3-fold increase in creatinine-corrected Tl concentrations were associated with 0.99-day decrease in gestational length (95% CI: -1.36, -0.63). This is the first report on the associations between maternal Tl exposure and the risk of PTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic implications of normal exercise thallium-201 images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, J.; Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kay, H.

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of exercise-thallium-201 imaging (ETI) in the evaluation of patients (pts) with suspected coronary heart disease (CHD) is well established. A more far-reaching use of the method is, however, in risk stratification. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of pts with normal ETI results. The study group consisted of 432 pts (218 men and 214 women with a mean age of 51 years) who underwent ETI for suspected CHD. Of those, 305 (71%) had typical or atypical angina pectoris and 65% achieved ≥85% of maximum predicted heart rate. The exercise ECG was positive in 65 pts (15%), inconclusive in 153 (35%) and negative in 214 (50%). At a mean follow-up of 13.5 mos (range 4 to 44), 6 pts had cardiac events: 1 had fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and 5 had non-fatal MI's, (one pt with non-fatal MI had spasm by coronary angiography). Two other pts had coronary artery bypass grafting. Of the 6 pts with events, none had positive exercise ECG's, 2 had typical angina, 2 had atypical angina, and 2 had non-anginal chest pain. The authors conclude the following: (1) normal ETI results identify pts at a very low risk for future cardiac events (death: 0.2%, MI: 1.2%) which is comparable to that reported in pts with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary angiograms, (2) pts with positive exercise ECG's but normal ETI results have good prognosis, none of the 65 pts in this study had cardiac events, and, (3) ETI is a far better prognostic indicator than exercise ECG, because of the high incidence of inconclusive exercise ECG results (35%) and the good prognosis in pts with positive results

  7. Medical geology of arsenic, selenium and thallium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shehong; Xiao, Tangfu; Zheng, Baoshan

    2012-04-01

    Arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and thallium (Tl) are three trace metals (metalloids) of high concern in China because deficiency or excess expose can cause a range of endemic diseases, such as endemic arsenism, selenosis, Keshan disease (KD), Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and thallotoxicosis. These specific endemic diseases were attributable for overabundance or deficiency (mainly referring to selenium) of these three elements in the local environment as a result of natural geochemical processes and/or anthropologic activities. The geochemistry and human health impacts of these three trace elements have been intensively studied since the 1970s in China, in terms of geochemical sources, distribution, transportation, health impact pathways, and prevention/remediation measures. Endemic arsenism in China are induced from the exposures of high As in either drinking water or domestic combustion of As-rich coals. Both endemic selenium deficiency and selenosis occurred in China. The KD and KBD were related to the deficiency of Se in the low-Se geological belt with Se contents in soil less than 0.125mg/kg stretching from northeast to southwest of China. Endemic selenosis occurred in areas with high Se concentrations in soils derived from the Se-enriched black carbonaceous siliceous rocks, carbonaceous shale and slate. Endemic Tl poisoning occurred in southwestern China due to Tl contamination in local drinking water and vegetables surrounding the Tl-rich sulfide mineralized areas. Some measures have been taken to control and remedy the endemic diseases with significant effects in reducing health risk and damage of As, Se and Tl. However, the states of the endemic diseases of As, Se and Tl in China are still serious in some areas, and substantial research efforts regarding the health impacts of these elements are further required. This paper reviews the progress of medical geology of As, Se and Tl in China, and provides with some outlooks for future research directions. Copyright

  8. Thallium-201 scintigraphy in complete left bundle branch block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirzel, H.O.; Senn, M.; Nuesch, K.; Buettner, C.; Pfeiffer, A.; Hess, O.M.; Krayenbuehl, H.P.

    1984-03-01

    Nineteen symptomatic patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) were examined by thallium-201 (TI-201) exercise scintigraphy and selective coronary arteriography. All elicited significant anteroseptal perfusion defects in the exercise scintigrams, but in only 4 was coronary artery disease (CAD) involving the left anterior descending coronary artery present. To further elucidate the effect of LBBB on septal TI-201 uptake in the absence of CAD, TI-201 scintigrams combined with regional myocardial blood flow measurements using radioactive microspheres were carried out in 7 dogs during right atrial and right ventricular pacing (LBBB in the ECG) at similar heart rates. During right atrial pacing, TI-201 uptake was homogeneous in the entire left ventricle, as were tissue flows. During right ventricular pacing, TI-201 activity was reduced to 69% of maximal TI-201 activity within the septum, whereas it averaged 90% in the lateral wall (p less than 0.05) in 6 dogs. Correspondingly, regional myocardial blood flow was lower within the septum as compared with that in the lateral wall, averaging 89 and 120 ml/min/100 g, respectively (p less than 0.005). In 1 dog, normal TI-201 distribution and tissue flows were found in both studies. Thus, symptomatic patients with LBBB may elicit abnormal TI-201 exercise scintigrams, suggesting anteroseptal ischemia despite normal coronary arteries. The electrical induction of LBBB in dogs results, in most instances, in a comparable reduction in septal TI-201 uptake associated with diminished septal blood flow. Therefore, exercise-induced septal perfusion defects in the presence of LBBB do not necessarily indicate CAD even in symptomatic patients, but may reflect functional ischemia due to asynchronous septal contraction.

  9. Dipyridamole-thallium-201 tomography documenting improved myocardial perfusion with therapy in Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Spielmann, R.P.; Hausdorf, G.

    1988-01-01

    Thallium-201 tomographic perfusion studies after pharmacologic vasodilation were performed in seven children (aged 2 years 8 months to 8 years 7 months), 3 to 20 months after the acute stage of the disease. In all patients coronary aneurysms were seen on cross-sectional echocardiograms. The scintigrams of six children showed no significant regional reduction of myocardial thallium-201 uptake. These children had remained asymptomatic in the follow-up period after the acute inflammatory stage of Kawasaki disease. Persistent and transient thallium defects were present in one child with acute posterolateral myocardial infarction; obstruction of two coronary vessels supplying the defect zones was confirmed by contrast angiography. After 8 months of treatment a follow-up nuclear scan showed marked reduction in the size of the defect and almost complete abolishment of the ischemic reaction. Thus tomographic thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy in conjunction with vasodilation stress is useful to assess myocardial perfusion in children with Kawasaki disease and demonstrates marked improvement in regional perfusion after adequate medical therapy

  10. A comparison of maximal exercise and dipyridamole thallium-201 planar gated scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.; Tweddel, A.C.; Main, G.; Hutton, I.

    1992-01-01

    Both symptom-limited maximal exercise and intravenously given dipyridamole stress (0.56 mg/kg over 4 min with a 2 min walk) gated thallium scans were performed in 22 patients undergoing coronary arteriography for the assessment of chest pain. All scans were acquired gated to the electrocardiogram in 3 projections and were reported for the presence and extent of defects in 5 myocardial segments in each view. In addition, left and right ventricular myocardial uptake and estimates of right and left lung and liver to left ventricular uptake were assessed relative to the injected dose of thallium-201. Overall, 190/310 segments were abnormal with exercise compared with 169/310 with dipyridamole. Segments were scored greater in extent in 90/310 cases with exercise, compared with 46/310 in which the defect was more extensive with dipyridamole. Non-attenuation corrected percentage myocardial thallium uptakes were similar for both stresses. Left and right lung and liver to left ventricle ratios were all significantly higher with dipyridamole than with exercise. High right and left lung uptakes with dipyridamole were strongly correlated with high exercise values. The liver uptake was weakly correlated between the 2 different stress tests. These results demonstrate that dipyridamole induces fewer and less extensive thallium perfusion defects than maximal exercise, and that liver and lung to myocardial ratios are higher with dipyridamole than with exercise. (orig./MG)

  11. Laser-assisted decay and optical spectroscopy studies of neutron-deficient thallium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beveren, Céline; Huyse, Mark

    The neutron-deficient thallium isotopes with one proton less than the Z = 82 shell closure, are situated in an interesting region of the nuclear chart, notorious for intruder states and shape coexistence. Shape coexistence is the remarkable phenomenon in which two or more distinct types of deformation occur at low energy in the same atomic nucleus. Shape coexistence has been studied intensively, experimentally as well as theoretically in different nuclei in the light-lead region and the isomerism in the thallium isotopes was among the first indications of this phenomenon. Different shapes, whose structure has been linked to specific proton orbitals above and below the Z = 82 shell closure, are present at low energy in the neutron-deficient odd-mass thallium nuclei. In the odd-odd nuclei, the coupling of an unpaired proton and unpaired neutron gives rise to multiplets of low-lying states from which some can be isomeric. Since thallium has one proton missing in the major proton shell, and when approaching neutr...

  12. Clinical features and applications of thallium-201. With reference to scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige

    1988-12-01

    Thallium-201 is not only used widely in myocardial imaging but also has a great potential in other various nuclear medicine imaging studies. This paper presents clinical features and applications of thallium-201, focusing on clinical trials with thallium-201 at the Shinshu University School of Medicine. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy offers information on (1) ventricular position and morphology, (2) hypertrophy or dilatation of the left ventricle, (3) hypertrophy or dilatation of the right ventricle, (4) site and extent of myocardial ischemia and infarct, (5) myocardial blood flow, (6) pulmonary congestion or interstitial pulmonary edema, and (7) pericardial effusion. It can be used in the following evaluation or diagnosis: (1) acute or old myocardial infarction, (2) angina pectoris, (3) treatment strategy or prognosis of ischemic heart disease, (4) treatment strategy or observation of bypass graft or drug therapy, (5) hypertrophic or dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy, (6) myocardial lesions induced by sarcoidosis, collagen disease, and neuro-muscular disease, (7) ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary edema, and (9) pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and systolic pericarditis associated with underlying disease. The significance of tumor, liver, bone marrow scintigraphies is also referred to. (Namekawa, K) 69 refs.

  13. FAAS determination of thallium after preconcentration using nitroso-S and TDBA onto benzophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Taher

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thallium is quantitatively retained by 2-nitroso-1-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (nitroso-S and tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (TDBA onto benzophenone in the pH range 10.0-11.5 from large volumes of aqueous solutions of various samples. After filtration, each solid mass consisting of thallium complex and benzophenone is dissolved with 5 mL of dimethylformamide and the metal was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS. Eight replicate determinations of 10.0 μg/mL of thallium in final dimethylformamide (DMF solution gave a mean absorbance of 0.150 with a relative standard deviation of 1.9%. The sensitivity for 1% absorption was 0.293 μg/mL. The method of extraction and preconcentration is economical, rapid, sensitive, highly selective and satisfactory. The interference of a number of anions and cations has been studied and the optimized conditions developed were utilized for the trace determination of thallium in various samples.

  14. Thallium dynamics in contrasting light sandy soils-Soil vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic contamination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, A.; Chrastný, V.; Komárek, M.; Galušková, I.; Drahota, Petr; Grygar, Tomáš; Tejnecký, V.; Drábek, O.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 173, 1/3 (2010), s. 717-723 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : thallium * soil * LMWOA * retention * mobility Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2010

  15. Complexometric determination of thallium(III using ethanethiol as a selective masking agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and selective complexometric method for the determination of thallium in presence of other metal ions is proposed based on the selective masking ability of ethanethiol towards thallium(III. Thallium present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5-6(hexamine using xylenol orange as the indicator. A 0.3% aqueous solution of ethanethiol is then added to displace EDTA from the Tl(III-EDTA complex. The released EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 3.70 mg to 74.07 mg of Tl (III with relative error less than ? 0.44% and coefficient of variation not more than 0.27%. The interference of various ions was studied and the method was used for the analysis of thallium in its synthetic alloy mixtures and also in complexes.

  16. Thallium Intoxication Treated with Long-Term Hemodialysis, Forced Diuresis and Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Solgaard, Per Bent; Freund, L. Gade

    1978-01-01

    A 56 yr old woman, who ingested 2 g of thallium sulfate, was successfully treated with long-term hemodialysis for 200 h during 10 days, combined with forced diuresis and Prussian blue. The effect of the artificial kidney dialysis was determined by repeated analysis of the Tl concentration...

  17. Determination of nickel and thallium concentration in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard, Neamat; Zare Javid, Ahmad; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Ardeshirzadeh, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals with high bioaccumulation capacity are considered as important contaminants and may be available in high concentrations in environment and biota samples. The main aim of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel and thallium in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary. Sixty-seven fish samples were collected from Musa estuary during five intervals of 15 days in summer 2013. After biometric measurements, the concentrations of nickel and thallium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of nickel and thallium in muscle tissue of fish samples was 2.458 ± 0.910 and 0.781 ± 1.754 mg kg -1 /ww, respectively. The GLM analysis showed a significant negative relationship between nickel concentration and length. In addition, there was a significant positive relationship between thallium concentration and fish length. Nickel concentration exceeded the allowable standards of WHO and FDA in Cynoglossus arel. Therefore, regarding with high consumption of seafood in this region, it is recommended that these fishes should be consumed under a nutritionist counseling.

  18. Detection of thallium and uranium in well water and biological specimens of an eastern Croatian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curković, Mario; Sipos, Laszlo; Puntarić, Dinko; Dodig-Ćurković, Katarina; Pivac, Nela; Kralik, Kristina

    2013-09-01

    Abstract Using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we measured the concentrations of thallium and uranium in local water resources from three villages (Ćelije, Draž, and Potnjani) in eastern Croatia, with the aim to determine if they were associated with the levels of these same elements in the serum, urine, and hair collected from the residents of this area. The exposure of the local population to thallium and uranium through drinking water was generally low. ICP-MS was capable of measuring the levels of both of the elements in almost all of the analysed samples. Although there were differences in the concentrations of both elements in water samples and biological specimens taken from the residents, they did not reach the maximum contaminant level in any of the four sample types studied. Although hair was previously reported as an excellent indicator of occupational and environmental exposure to various elements, our study did not confirm it as a reliable biological material for tracing thallium and uranium levels, mainly due to the very low concentrations of these elements, often well below the detection limit. However, our results have shown that the concentration of thallium and uranium in drinking water can be effectively traced in urine samples.

  19. IN VIVO SYNCHROTRON STUDY OF THALLIUM SPECIATION AND COMPARTMENTATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is a metal of great toxicological concern and its prevalence in the natural environment has steadily increased as a result of manufacturing and combustion practices. Due to its low natural abundance and increasing demand, TI is the fourth most expensive metal, thus,...

  20. Reconstruction of a case of thallium poisoning using LA-ICP-SFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephan; Latkoczy, Christopher; Bereuter, Thomas L; Prohaska, Thomas; Stingeder, Gerhard; Reiter, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The unique capabilities of laser ablation in combination with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-SFMS) were employed to reconstruct details of a homicide by thallium poisoning, which took place 38 years ago in Austria. Thallium was determined in several human bone samples after acid digestion in a microwave oven. The ICP-SFMS results showed that the thallium concentration in the victim's bones was in the range 1.07-2.63 microg g(-1), which is up to 170 times higher compared to concentrations found in bones of persons who have died due to natural causes. The results were in accordance with the values obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Laser ablation ICP-SFMS was applied to assess the time interval between the victim's poisoning and death. Several line scans with a laser spot size of 50 mum were performed on a thumbnail of the poisoned person and on a reference thumbnail by laser ablation ICP-SFMS. Thallium peaks were detected on the nail of the victim at a distance of 2.5 mm from the younger edge of the nail.

  1. Correlates of lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, S.; Kaul, S.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    We studied 306 patients with chest pain (262 with coronary artery disease and 44 with no coronary artery disease) to determine which of 23 clinical, exercise, thallium, and angiographic variables best discriminate between patients with increased lung/heart ratios of thallium versus those with normal ratios. Normal lung/heart ratio values were defined using an additional 45 subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease. The number of diseased vessels was the best discriminator between patients with increased ratios versus those with normal ratios. Double product at peak exercise, number of segments with abnormal wall motion, patient gender, and duration of exercise were also significant discriminators. Using discriminant function analysis these variables could correctly identify 81% of cases with increased lung/heart ratios and 72% of cases with normal ratios. These results indicate that an increased lung/heart ratio of thallium reflects exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction and affords a better understanding of why this thallium parameter is a powerful prognostic indicator in patients with chest pain

  2. Thallium increases monoamine oxidase activity and serotonin turnover rate in rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Rico, L; Galván-Arzate, S; Ríos, C

    1995-01-01

    The effect of thallium acetate administration on monoaminergic pathways was studied in male Wistar rats using 30 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg acute IP doses. We found that thallium activated both monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and serotonin turnover rate in rat brain regions, that may contribute to the neuronal damage mechanism of the agent. MAO activity in midbrain and pons was increased at both doses (at 30 mg/kg dose by 27.7% and 37%; at 50 mg/kg dose by 48% and 47%, respectively vs. control group). Serotonin turnover rate in pons was also increased at the 30 mg/kg dose (172%) while midbrain and pons serotonin turnover was increased only at the 50 mg/kg dose (56% and 166%, respectively vs. control group). Dopamine turnover rate was not significantly changed. The results indicate that thallium induced a significant increase in pons and midbrain MAO activity and also in serotonin turnover rate as compared with control animals, and this could led to behavioral and toxic alterations in the rats intoxicated with thallium.

  3. Thallium-201: Autoradiography in pigmented mice and melanin-binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjaelve, H.; Nilsson, M.; Larsson, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiography with /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in C57Bl mice showed a strong labelling of the eye melanin and of pigmented hair follicles. An analysis of the affinity of thallium for pigment from cow eyes indicated a binding to three groups of sites and showed a marked sensitivity to the addition of H/sup +/-ions. The results are consistent with the conception that a binding of thallium occurs to the free carboxyl groups of the melanin and that the structure of the polymer has a marked influence on the affinity. Similar results have previously been obtained with other cations. There was no indication that the strong in vivo affinity of thallium to melanin is due to a more firm binding than for other cations which do not localize on melanin in vivo. Instead, the ability of cations to pass the melanocyte membranes and reach the melanin granules is probably decisive for whether a melanin-binding will take place in vivo. Toxic effects on the eye and epilation are symptoms of thallium intoxication which may be related to its melanin-binding. The fate of /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in some other tissues is also described and discussed.

  4. Incomplete revascularization in multivessel percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: the role for stress thallium-201 imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisblatt, W.M.; Barnes, J.V.; Weiland, F.; Spaccavento, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of patients with multivessel coronary disease for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty raises the question: Is incomplete revascularization an acceptable procedure in these patients, or does complete revascularization need to be performed, as in coronary artery bypass grafting? To provide an answer the present study utilized exercise thallium imaging as a guide to the performance of angioplasty in 85 patients with multivessel coronary disease. Preangioplasty exercise thallium imaging helped to identify the primary stenosis (culprit lesion) in 93% of patients. Two weeks to 1 month after dilation of this lesion, repeat thallium imaging identified two patient groups: Group 1, 47 patients with no evidence of ischemia in a second vascular distribution and Group 2, 38 patients with evidence of further angioplasty. In Group 2 47% of patients had angioplasty of a second vessel and 79% required multivessel angioplasty at 1 year follow-up. In contrast, only six Group 1 patients (13%) required angioplasty of a second vessel at 1 year. Thus, incomplete revascularization may be an acceptable approach in many patients with multivessel coronary disease. Stress thallium-201 imaging may be a useful technique in the evaluation and management of these patients

  5. Sub-stoichiometric isotope dilution analysis for the determination of thallium by liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, N.; Subramanian, M.S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-12-01

    A sensitive and selective sub-stoichmetric isotope dilution method for the determination of trace amounts of thallium is described. The method is based on the extraction of the ion-association complex with a sub-stoichiometric amount of Victoria Blue B into toluene from 0.5 mol l[sup -1] HCI. The [beta] activity of thallium-204 was measured by liquid scintillation counting. The counting efficiency was found to be 95%. The calibration graph was linear in the range 0-4 [mu]g of Tl[sup III] in a final volume of 30 ml. The method is sensitive down to 0.2 [mu]g of TI[sup III] in a final volume of 30 ml. The interferences of Hg[sup II], Sb[sup III], As[sup III] and Mo[sup VI] were overcome by collecting thallium on PbS. The method was found to be useful for the determination of thallium in flue dust, zinc ore, zinc base die castings, rock samples, cadmium turnings and cabbage leaf samples. (Author).

  6. [The morphological signs of hair disease in children poisoned by thallium and boron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Iu V; Alisievich, V I

    1995-01-01

    Morphologic signs of hair disease of children aged 1 to 5 (town of Chernovtsy, Ukraine) with poisoning are presented. Using scanning electron and light microscopy revealed a number of morphologic signs in the radicular part and bulbs of hairs, which are commonly observed in thallium poisoning.

  7. Frequency of late reversibility in stress-redistribution thallium-201 SPECT using an early reinjection protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiat, H.; Friedman, J.D.; Wang, F.P.; Van Train, K.F.; Maddahi, J.; Takemoto, K.; Berman, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of an early thallium-201 reinjection protocol for reducing the need for late redistribution imaging, the frequency of thallium-201 late reversibility was prospectively assessed in 62 patients who had stress-redistribution thallium-201 studies by single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and who received 1 mCi of thallium-201 reinjection immediately following stress tomographic acquisition. These patients also demonstrated greater than or equal to 2 segments with nonreversible defects at 4-hour imaging and underwent late (18-to 72-hour) redistribution imaging. When the criterion of late reversibility was defined as greater than or equal to 1 segment with a 4-hour nonreversible defect demonstrating late reversibility, late reversibility was present in 36 (58%) of the 62 patients and in 88 (24%) of 368 SPECT segments. When the criterion of greater than or equal to 2 segments was used, late reversibility was found in 21 (34%) of the 62 patients and in 73 (20%) of the 368 segments. Of the 21 patients who had greater than or equal to 2 late reversible segments, 12 (57%) exhibited late reversibility in greater than or equal to 3 segments. The frequency of detected reversible defects increased from 32% by 4-hour imaging to 48% by combined 4-hour and late imaging (p less than 0.0001). The patients who demonstrated late reversibility could not be distinguished from those who had only late nonreversible defects by analysis of the clinical, exercise, and electrocardiographic (ECG) variables

  8. Systematics of c-axis Phonons in the Thallium- and Bismuth-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A. A; Dulic, D.; Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Kaljushnaia, G. A.; Gorina, J. I.; Senturina, N. N.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Ren, Z. F.; Wang, J. H.; Menovsky, A. A.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Published in: Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 13196 Citing articles (CrossRef) citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present grazing incidence reflectivity measurements in the far infrared region at temperatures above and below Tc for a series of thallium (Tl2Ba2CuO6, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8) and

  9. Determination of thallium in potassium chloride and electrolyte replenishers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Horiguchi, Ryo; Seitoh, Hiroyuki; Ohzeki, Kunio; Miyashita, Fumihide

    2004-01-01

    Thallium in potassium chloride and electrolyte replenishers was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) with direct injection of a resin suspension. Thallium(III) was extracted on fine particles of a cellulose nitrate resin (CNR) from dilute HCl (pH 1.6) in the presence of ammonium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate. The CNR particles were collected on a membrane filter by filtration under suction, suspended in 1.0 mL 10mM HNO3, and then delivered directly to ETAAS as the suspension. The effects of chloride ions were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that the addition of 0.5mM NaCl to the suspension (10mM HNO3) was recommended, after CNR and a membrane filter holding the CNR were washed thoroughly with 0.025M HCl, to eliminate interference from chloride ions. No chemical modifier was required. Extraction from the solution containing up to 2M chloride ion was allowable. The proposed method gave a concentration factor of 50 for a 50 mL sample volume. The detection limit (3sigma, n = 5) was 1 ng (20 pg/mL). The relative standard deviation was 4.9% (n = 5) at 30 ng level of thallium. The content of thallium in potassium chloride was 15.7-32.8 ng/g, and in electrolyte replenishers was 0.18-4.16 ng/mL.

  10. Arm exercise-thallium imaging testing for the detection of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balady, G.J.; Weiner, D.A.; Rothendler, J.A.; Ryan, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with lower limb impairment are often unable to undergo a standard bicycle or treadmill test for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. To establish an alternative method of testing, 50 subjects (aged 56 +/- 10 years) performed arm ergometry testing in conjunction with myocardial thallium scintigraphy. All underwent coronary angiography; significant coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% stenosis) in at least one vessel was present in 41 (82%) of the 50 patients. Thallium scintigraphy was found to have an 83% sensitivity and 78% specificity for detecting coronary disease, compared with a sensitivity and specificity of 54% (p less than 0.01) and 67% (p = NS), respectively, for exercise electrocardiography. In the subgroup of 23 patients who had no prior myocardial infarction or left bundle branch block and were not taking digitalis, thallium scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 80% versus 50% for exercise electrocardiography. Scintigraphy yielded a sensitivity of 84, 74 and 90% for one, two and three vessel disease, respectively. Noninvasive arm ergometry exercise-thallium imaging testing appears to be reliable and useful and should be considered in the evaluation of coronary artery disease in patients with lower limb impairment

  11. Tc99m-Tetrofosmin and Thallium-201 SPECT imaging of pituitary tumors: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarman, S.; Mudun, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: It has been reported that pituitary adenomas accumulate Thallium -201(Tl-201), Tc99m-sestamibi and In111-Octreotide. These agents maybe useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of pituitary adenomas. Tc99m-tetrofosmin also has been shown as an tumor seeking agent in various tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accumulation of Tc99m-tetrofosmin in pituitary adenomas and compare the results to Tl-201 SPECT. Methods: We performed Tc99m-Tetrofosmin and Tl-201 SPECT imaging on 5 patients (pts) with pituitary tumors, 3 patients with acromegaly, 1 patient with macro prolactinoma, and 1 patient with nonfunctional tumor (1 female, 4 male, age range: 26-50). SPECT imaging of cranium were obtained 20 min after intravenous injection of 111 MBq Tl-201 and 555 MBq Tc99m-Tetrofosmin on different days with a dual head gamma camera. All but one patient had surgical therapy. One patient had medical treatment. One patient had post surgical imaging with both Tetrofosmin and Tl-201 and 2 pts had only with Thallium. Semiquantitative analysis were performed by calculating tumor to background ratio from the mean counts of the created ROI's. Results: All adenomas showed prominent uptake with both Thallium and Tetrofosmin. The mean tumor to background ratios were 2.3 (range: 1.2-4.29) with Thallium and 3.57 (range: 1.6-6.86) with Tetrofosmin. Post therapy images showed no significant uptake in pituitary region with both agents in 2 patients. Post therapy mean Thallium uptake ratio in 3 pts was 1.64. One patient with acromegaly showed no decrease in thallium uptake, but showed some decrease in tetrofosmin uptake. Conclusion: Although our patient number is limited, these preliminary results indicate that Tc99m-tetrofosmin has also strong affinity for pituitary adenomas as does Thallium, either the adenoma is functioning or non-functioning. It may have a potential value to evaluate the response to therapy

  12. Brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (¹⁸FDG PET) in patients with acute thallium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Lin, K J; Wang, H M; Kuo, H C; Chuang, W L; Weng, Y H; Shih, T S; Huang, C C

    2013-03-01

    Thallium toxicity induces cellular injury through impaired Na-K-ATPase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate functional imaging and the long-term clinical-imaging correlations of thallium toxicity. We measured thallium concentrations in blood, urine, stools, and hair of a 48-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man (patients 1 and 2) in the first 3 months after exposure to thallium containing water, and studied their neuropsychological functions. Using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) scans, we examined the brain involvement and correlated the image findings with the clinical presentations. On the 1st, 30th, and 61st days after exposure, the thallium concentrations in patient 1 were 2056, 311, and 7.5 μg/L in the blood, and 11400, 4570, and 36.4 μg/L in the urine. The concentrations in patient 2 were 956, 235, and 15.6 μg/L in the blood, and 11900, 2670, and 101 μg/L in the urine. On the 40th, 50th and 89th days after exposure, the thallium concentration in the stools were 21.6, 3.6, and 0.35 μg/g in patient 1, and 22.2, 3.2, and 0.37 μg/g in patient 2. Executive function, perceptual motor speed, and learning memory were initially abnormal but recovered particularly within the first year. The first (18)FDG PET studies of both patients disclosed a decreased uptake of glucose metabolism in the cingulate gyrus, bilateral frontal, and parietal lobes 2-5 months after exposure. The follow-up (18)FDG PET scan of patient 2 revealed a partial recovery. This study indicates that damage to the central nervous system after acute thallium poisoning may be reversible after a long-term follow-up. Brain (18)FDG PET demonstrated the brain involvement and was correlated with cognitive impairment.

  13. A rapid improved method for Gamma-Spectrometry determination of Thallium-202 impurities, in [Thallium 201]labelled radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppi, F.; Bonardi, M.; Birattari, C.; Gini, L.; Guariglia, S.; Mainardi, C.

    2002-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, the readily commercially available univalent cation [2 01T l]Tl (t 1/2 = 72.912 h) in very high specific activity No Carrier Added form, is a radionuclide of widespread diffusion, for use in infarction radiodiagnostic and several other cardiovascular and even cerebral Nuclear Medicine investigations by γ-camera and SPECT 1 - 10 ), even if its whole body excretion half-life can be considered as long ∼ 10 days. 2 01T l decays by EC (100 %) and emits a principal γ-ray at 167.437 keV (10.0 %) greatly Internally Converted (IC) by the K, L, M, N shells of Hg). Actually, this emission is a doublet, having a small component at 165.887 keV (0.155 %). Thus in the analysis of the γ-spectra, a total emission intensity of 10.0 + 0.155 (10.155 %) should be used. These energies are just in the range suitable for γ-camera and SPECT imaging, as well as for use as a radiotracer to follow the fate of different inorganic and organo-metallic chemical forms of thallium, in short- and medium-term metallo-toxicological studies on both cell cultures and laboratory animals. In this last case, also the longer-lived 2 02T l (t 1/2 = 12.23 d, EC+ β+ = 100%) can be efficiently used for medium-term experiments). On the contrary, the presence of 2 02T l is unavoidable in 2 01T l radiopharmaceuticals: it leads not only to increased radiation dose to patients, medical and paramedical personnel and the general public, but the medium energy γ-rays emitted by 2 02T l (439.56, 520.13 and 959.7 keV)) contribute to increased signal to noise ratios and to the degradation of the contrast of SPECT images

  14. Thallium isotope composition of the upper continental crust and rivers - An investigation of the continental sources of dissolved marine thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S.G.; Rehkamper, M.; Porcelli, D.; Andersson, P.; Halliday, A.N.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Latkoczy, C.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    The thallium (Tl) concentrations and isotope compositions of various river and estuarine waters, suspended riverine particulates and loess have been determined. These data are used to evaluate whether weathering reactions are associated with significant Tl isotope fractionation and to estimate the average Tl isotope composition of the upper continental crust as well as the mean Tl concentration and isotope composition of river water. Such parameters provide key constraints on the dissolved Tl fluxes to the oceans from rivers and mineral aerosols. The Tl isotope data for loess and suspended riverine detritus are relatively uniform with a mean of ??205Tl = -2.0 ?? 0.3 (??205Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 997 Tl in parts per 104). For waters from four major and eight smaller rivers, the majority were found to have Tl concentrations between 1 and 7 ng/kg. Most have Tl isotope compositions very similar (within ??1.5 ??205Tl) to that deduced for the upper continental crust, which indicates that no significant Tl isotope fractionation occurs during weathering. Based on these results, it is estimated that rivers have a mean natural Tl concentration and isotope composition of 6 ?? 4 ng/kg and ??205Tl = -2.5 ?? 1.0, respectively. In the Amazon estuary, both additions and losses of Tl were observed, and these correlate with variations in Fe and Mn contents. The changes in Tl concentrations have much lower amplitudes, however, and are not associated with significant Tl isotope effects. In the Kalix estuary, the Tl concentrations and isotope compositions can be explained by two-component mixing between river water and a high-salinity end member that is enriched in Tl relative to seawater. These results indicate that Tl can display variable behavior in estuarine systems but large additions and losses of Tl were not observed in the present study. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Thallium-201 per rectum for the diagnosis of cirrhosis in patients with asymptomatic chronic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arienzo, A.; Celentano, L.; Scuotto, A.; Di Siervi, P.; Lombardi, V.; Squame, G.; Mazzacca, G.

    1988-07-01

    In normal subjects, thallium-201, administered per rectum, is taken up mainly by the liver (heart/liver ratio in normal subjects: 0.04 to 0.12). It has been claimed that an increased heart/liver ratio is suggestive of portal-caval shunting and portal hypertension. To evaluate the possibility of using thallium-201 as a test to diagnose cirrhosis, we administered this substance per rectum to 33 patients with biochemical evidence, but no clinical symptoms, of liver disease. Laparoscopy and liver biopsy revealed chronic active hepatitis without cirrhosis in 18 patients, and chronic active hepatitis with cirrhosis in the others. The results of conventional liver function tests were similar in both groups. A significant difference, however, was found between the means of fasting serum bile acid concentrations (9.8 +/- 3.2 and 18.3 +/- 4.2 microM per liter) in chronic active hepatitis without cirrhosis and cirrhotic patients, and between the means of the heart/liver ratios 20 min after thallium-201 administration (heart/liver: 0.09 +/- 0.03 and 0.54 +/- 0.13, respectively). Unlike the serum bile acid concentration which gave some overlapping values, the thallium-201 test clearly distinguished the chronic active hepatitis without cirrhosis group from the cirrhotics. In the cirrhotic group, there was a significant correlation between the heart/liver ratio and signs of portal hypertension such as esophageal varices, increased diameter of the vena porta and hypersplenism. The thallium-201 test is therefore useful in discriminating between chronic active hepatitis with and without cirrhosis in clinically asymptomatic subjects with biochemical evidence of moderate liver function impairment. A heart/liver uptake ratio much higher than normal (above 0.30) strongly suggests the development of hepatic cirrhosis.

  16. Kinetics of thallium-201 in reperfused canine myocardium after coronary artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    To study the kinetics of thallium-201 in nonsalvaged acutely infarcted myocardium and salvaged myocardium, the tracer was administered after experimental left anterior descending coronary artery reperfusion 2 hours after occlusion. In 19 dogs, thallium activity was then monitored for 4 hours in the reperfused anterior wall and normal posterior wall using miniature cadmium telluride radiation detectors. After sacrifice, 13 of the dogs were found to have an infarcted anterior wall by triphenyltetrazolium-chloride staining. In these dogs, mean (+/- standard deviation) fractional 4 hour thallium clearance was 0.33 +/- 0.08 for the infarct zone and 0.15 +/- 0.06 for the normal control zone (p less than 0.001). When computer-modeled, the clearance curve from the infarct zone was biexponential. The second exponential clearance curve from the infarct zone began 19.1 +/- 3.2 minutes after tracer administration, and was indistinguishable from the monoexponential clearance curve from the normal control zone. Thallium clearance from the blood pool was triexponential, the final exponential clearance curve being indistinguishable from the normal control zone clearance curve. Six dogs were found to have a salvaged noninfarcted anterior wall by triphenyltetrazolium-chloride staining. In these dogs, mean fractional 4 hour thallium clearance was 0.20 +/- 0.07 for the reperfused zone, and 0.19 +/- 0.08 for the normal control zone (p . NS). When computer-modeled, clearance curves for the reperfused and control zones were monoexponential. The monoexponential clearance curve for the salvaged reperfused zone was indistinguishable from the monoexponential clearance curve for normal myocardium

  17. Comparison of Polythionates as Precursors for the Formation of Thallium Sulfide Layers

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    Vitalijus JANICKIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of obtaining layers of thallium, sulfides, TlxSy, by the sorption-diffusion method on polyamide 6 using solutions of lower polythionates - sodium trithionate and tetrathionate, Na2S3O6, Na2S4O6, potassium pentathionate, K2S5O6, and of dodecathionic acid, H2S12O6, as precursors of sulfur are compared. The concentration of sorbed sulfur increases with increasing the duration of treatment, the concentration and temperature of precursor solution. It rather significantly also depends on the nature - sulfurity of polythionate, i. e. on the number of sulfur atoms in the polythionate anion: effectiveness of sulfurization using solutions of dodecathionic acid is significantly higher than that of lower polythionates. Thallium sulfide layers are formed on the surface of polyamide after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Tl(I salt solution. The concentration of thallium in the layer increases with the increase of initial sulfurization duration and in case of H2S12O6 solution used - on the temperature of this process. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of thallium sulfide layers in the surface of polyamide 6. The phase composition of layer changes depending on the conditions of initial treatment in a H2S12O6 solution. Five thallium sulfide phases, two forms of TlS, Tl2S2, Tl4S3 and Tl2S5 were identified in the composition of the layers treated for different time with a solution of dodecathionic acid at the temperature of 20 °C and 30 °C and then with Tl(I salt solution by X-ray diffraction but the maxima of TlS and Tl2S5 phases predominate in the diffractograms.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.774

  18. Adsorption interaction of carrier-free thallium species with gold and quartz surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, A.; Eichler, R.; Tuerler, A.; Wittwer, D.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Bern Univ.; Dressler, R.; Piquet, D.; Voegele, A.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption interactions of thallium and its compounds with gold and quartz surfaces were investigated. Carrier-free amounts of thallium were produced in nuclear fusion reactions of alpha particles with thick gold targets. The method chosen for the studies was gas thermochromatography and varying the redox potential of the carrier gases. It was observed that thallium is extremely sensitive to trace amounts of oxygen and water, and can even be oxidized by the hydroxyl groups located on the quartz surface. The experiments on a quartz surface with O 2 , He, H 2 gas in addition with water revealed the formation and deposition of only one thallium species - TlOH. The adsorption enthalpy was determined to be Δ H ads SiO 2 (TlOH) = -134 ± 5 kJ mol -1 . A series of experiments using gold as stationary surface and different carrier gases resulted in the detection of two thallium species - metallic Tl (H 2 as carrier gas) and TlOH (O 2 , O 2 + H 2 O and H 2 + H 2 O as pure carrier gas or carrier gas mixture) with Δ H Au ads (Tl) = -270 ± 10 kJ mol -1 and Δ H Au ads (TlOH) = -146 ± 3 kJ mol -1 . These data demonstrate a weak interaction of TlOH with both quartz and gold surfaces. The data represent important information for the design of future experiments with the heavier homologue of Tl in group 13 of the periodic table - element 113 (E113). (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of myocardial and skeletal muscular involvement with thallium-201 myocardial emission computed tomography and whole body scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Matsushima, Hideo; Sotobata, Iwao; Suzuki, Akio; Indo, Toshikatsu; Matsuoka, Yukihiko

    1986-01-01

    Thallium-201 (Tl-201) myocardial emission computed tomography and whole body scintigraphy were performed using a rotating gamma camera in 64 patients with neurologic disease and 14 normal subjects. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects were seen in 40 % of the muscular involvement in 47 patients with muscular dystrophy (MD), in whom morphological abnormality of the heart was common. There was strong relationship between the degree of left ventricular perfusion defects and the degree of pulmonary uptake of Tl-201. Thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy showed homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in the extremities in normal subjects, and perfusion defects in 73 % of the muscular lesions in MD patients. Muscular and skeletal lesions for MD appear to progress independently. Thallium-201 imaging seems to be of clinical value in assessing the muscular and skeletal lesions. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Thermodynamic Study of Tl6SBr4 Compound and Some Regularities in Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chalcohalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Mahammad Babanly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-phase diagram of the Tl-TlBr-S system was clarified and the fundamental thermodynamic properties of Tl6SBr4 compound were studied on the basis of electromotive force (EMF measurements of concentration cells relative to a thallium electrode. The EMF results were used to calculate the relative partial thermodynamic functions of thallium in alloys and the standard integral thermodynamic functions (-ΔfG0, -ΔfH0, and S0298 of Tl6SBr4 compound. All data regarding thermodynamic properties of thallium chalcogen-halides are generalized and comparatively analyzed. Consequently, certain regularities between thermodynamic functions of thallium chalcogen-halides and their binary constituents as well as degree of ionization (DI of chemical bonding were revealed.

  1. ETAAS determination of thallium and silver from water matrix after colloidal precipitate flotation using lead(II hexamethylenedithiocarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRAJCE STAFILOV

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Afast method for the preconcentration of thallium and silver in nanogram quantities in fresh drinking waters (source, well, tap and waters for irrigation using colloidal precipitate flotation is described. Lead(II hexamethylenedithiocarbamate, Pb(HMDTC2 played the role of flotation collector. The experimental conditions for the successful separation of thallium and silver (mass of Pb, amount ofHMDTC-, pHof the system, induction time, type of surfactant etc. were optimized. After flotation separation from the mother liquor, the solid sublate containing traces of thallium and silver was dissolved and the analytes were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS. The results of the ETAAS analysis are compared with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The detection limit for thallium by this method is 0.027 mg/l, and for silver 0.005 microg/l.

  2. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in infants and children. Value in distinguishing anomalous left coronary artery from congestive cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutgesell, H P; Pinsky, W W; DePuey, E G

    1980-03-01

    In infants and children, anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (ALCA) from the pulmonary artery may be difficult to distinguish from congestive cardiomyopathy (CCM) of other causes. We performed thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in seven children with ALCA and in nine with CCM to study the usefulness of this technique in distinguishing between these lesions. Localized abnormalities of thallium uptake were present in each of the seven patients with ALCA, including two asymptomatic 4-year-old children. Thallium distribution was normal in five patients with CCM, diffusely irregular in three, and was absent in the lateral and posterobasal portions of the left ventricle in one patient. We conclude that thallium-201 imaging is a sensitive noninvasive method of detecting ALCA. However, perfusion abnormalities are not limited to patients with coronary artery abnormalities, and may be present in patients with myocardial ischemia or infarction of other causes.

  3. Speciation analysis of thallium using electrothermal AAS following on-line pre-concentration in a microcolumn filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, R.A.; Pacheco, P.H.; Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D.; Smichowski, P.

    2009-01-01

    The enrichment ability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated and a new method established for the determination of trace thallium species in environmental samples using electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The CNTs were employed as sorbent substrate in a continuous flow system coupled to ETAAS. Parameters influencing the recoveries of thallium were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit and precision of the method were 0.009 μg L -1 and 3.9 %, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of thallium in real environmental samples and the recoveries were in the range from 96 to 100 %. This system was able to separate thallium (I) from the matrix, which allowed its selective determination. The total thallium content was then determined by reducing Tl(III) with hydroxylamine. All these experimental results indicated that this new procedure can be applied to the determination of trace thallium in drinking water samples. (author)

  4. Prospective assessment of regional myocardial perfusion before and after coronary revascularization surgery by quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D.; Taylor, G.J.; Crosby, I.K.; Wellons, H.L.; Holt, N.D.; Beller, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Because thallium-201 uptake relates directly to the amount of viable myocardium and nutrient blood flow, the potential for exercise scintigraphy to predict response to coronary revascularization surgery was investigated in 47 consecutive patients. All patients underwent thallium-201 scintigraphy and coronary angiography at a mean (+/- standard deviation) of 4.3 +/- 3.1 weeks before and 7.5 +/- 1.6 weeks after surgery. Thallium uptake and washout were computer-quantified and each of six segments was defined as normal, showing total or partial redistribution or a persistent defect. Persistent defects were further classified according to the percent reduction in regional thallium activity; PD25-50 denoted a 25 to 50% constant reduction in relative thallium activity and PD greater than 50 denoted a greater than 50% reduction. Of 82 segments with total redistribution before surgery, 76 (93%) showed normal thallium uptake and washout postoperatively, versus only 16 (73%) of 22 with partial redistribution (probability [p] . 0.01). Preoperative ventriculography revealed that 95% of the segments with total redistribution had preserved wall motion, versus only 74% of those with partial redistribution (p . 0.01). Of 42 persistent defects thought to represent myocardial scar before surgery, 19 (45%) demonstrated normal perfusion postoperatively. Of the persistent defects that showed improved thallium perfusion postoperatively, 75% had normal or hypokinetic wall motion before surgery, versus only 14% of those without improvement (p less than 0.001). Whereas 57% of the persistent defects that showed a 25 to 50% decrease in myocardial activity demonstrated normal thallium uptake and washout postoperatively, only 21% of the persistent defects with a decrease in myocardial activity greater than 50% demonstrated improved perfusion after surgery (p . 0.02)

  5. Evaluation of thallium redistribution in infarcted area in accordance with time interval from the onset of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Hase, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the time after onset of myocardial infarction and thallium redistribution in infarcted areas in a total of 123 patients with anterior infarction who underwent exercise thallium scintiscanning. Complete or incomplete redistribution of thallium was visually evaluated for transient perfusion defect by three physicians. Ischemic and defect scores were quantitatively determined by using circumferential profile analysis. The patients were divided into three groups: 64 patients receiving thallium scintiscanning within 3 months after onset of myocardial infarction (Group A), 25 patients receiving it at 3 months to one year after that (Group B), and 34 patients receiving it one year or later (Group C). Complete and incomplete redistributions were seen in 4% and 96%, respectively, for Group A, 38% and 62% for Group B, and 53% and 47% for Group C; and the rate of incomplete redistribution was significantly higher in Group A than the other two groups. Ischemic score was 50±32 for Group A, 46±29 for Group B, and 37±19 for Group C; and defect scores for these groups were 25±16, 24±16, and 20±18, respectively. Both ischemic and defect scores tended to be lower as the time after onset of myocardial infarction was longer. Eighteen patients, comprising 7 in Group A, 4 in Group B, and 7 in Group C, were also reinjected with thallium 201 and then reimaged at rest. These scans for Group A showed a significantly lower defect scores than the conventional thallium scans. Conventional exercise thallium scintiscanning seemed to underestimate thallium redistribution when performed early after onset of myocardial infarction. (N.K.)

  6. A portable solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectrometer for the rapid determination of thallium in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Wenchuan; Wang, Yu; Yang, Xiaotao; Liu, Cong

    2017-10-01

    A novel and high performance method for rapid determination of thallium in water samples was established by using a portable solution cathode glow discharger with a fiber-optical spectrometer. The operating conditions including the solution acidity, the electrolyte cathode, etc were optimized with 1.0mgL -1 thallium standard solution. The resolution of the fiber-optical spectrometer investigated with the peak width at half height of thallium was tested to be about 1.8nm,and thallium was determined at the emission wavelength of 535.0nm. The caliberation curve was favorably linear when the concentrations of thallium standard solutions were in the range of 0.1mgL -1 ~ 5.0mgL -1 . Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for thallium was 11.8ngmL -1 , and the precision evaluated by relative standard deviation was 3.2% for six times 1.0mgL -1 standard solution replicates. This method was used for detection of thallium in water samples. The results were satisfying, and the average recoveries for thallium spiked samples were found to be in the range of 91.3~107.5%,which showed this method was applicable for real samples analysis. Besides,this method is suitable for field tests due to the portable instrumental size and weight as well as the less consumption of time and reagent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in the area of fill-in after thallium reinjection in patients with prior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Fujino, Susumu; Nishikawa, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1995-01-01

    Myocardial fatty acid utilization in the area with thallium fill-in after reinjection was assessed using 123 I-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl) 3R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP). We studied 22 patients with prior myocardial infarction that revealed persistent defects on standard exercise-redistribution thallium imaging. In each patient, exercise-redistribution-reinjection thallium imaging was performed. Within two weeks of the thallium study, resting BMIPP imaging was performed 20 min after injection of BMIPP (148 MBq). Following qualitative analysis of the obtained thallium and BMIPP images, quantitative analysis was performed on the basis of relative regional uptake. Of 199 myocardial segments that showed persistent defects on exercise-redistribution images, 73 segments showed apparent fill-in on the reinjection images (fill-in positive), and the remaining 126 segments did not (fill-in negative). When BMIPP images were compared with the corresponding thallium reinjection images, reduced BMIPP uptake compared with thallium was frequently observed in the area of fill-in positive segments (65 of 73 segments, 89%). Quantitative analysis also showed decrease in BMIPP activity compared to thallium activity in the area of fill-in (49.7±16.1 vs. 65.8±16.0%, p<0.001). In contrast, only 24 of the 126 fill-in negative segments (19%) showed lower BMIPP uptake than thallium. These results suggest that impaired fatty acid utilization in the area of thallium new fill-in after reinjection already exists at resting condition. Thus, BMIPP imaging combined with exercise-redistribution-reinjection thallium imaging provides insights to understanding fatty acid utilization in ischemic but viable myocardium identified by thallium reinjection in patients with prior myocardial infarction. (author)

  8. Evaluation of initial uptake and redistribution on stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion images in patients with myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Tonooka, Ichiroh; Kanaya, Tohru; Tsuiki, Kai; Yasui, Shouji.

    1984-01-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed on 29 patients with previous myocardial infarction and 29 patients with angina pectoris at exercise to evaluate thallium-201 kinetics in ischemic heart disease. Four views of thallium-201 images (right anterior oblique, antero-posterior, left anterior oblique and left lateral views) were obtained at 5 min after treadmill exercise with administration of 2 mCi of thallium-201 chloride (initial image) and at 3 hours later (delayed image). Myocardial images were divided into 6 segments (anterior, lateral, inferior, posterior, apical and septal segments) and initial uptake (IU) and redistribution index (RDI, the ratio of the maximal washout rate to a washout rate in each segment) were calculated in order to assess the relations of thallium-201 kinetics to wall motion abnormality and coronary artery stenosis. In myocardial infarction, IU and RDI were decreased in proportion to the severity of wall motion abnormality and coronary artery stenosis. Contrarily, in angina pectoris, IU was decreased but RDI was increased proportionally to the severity of coronary arterial stenosis. In conclusion, IU and redistribution of thallium-201 were affected essentially by both the grade of coronary arterial stenosis and the amount of residual viable heart muscle in patients with ischemic myocardial disease. (author)

  9. Relationship between segmental thallium-201 uptake and regional myocardial blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.B.; Weiss, M.B.; Sciacca, R.R.; Cannon, P.J.; Blood, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between the spatial distribution of thallium-201 in myocardial perfusion scintigrams and the distribution of left ventricular regional myocardial blood flow was examined in 25 patients undergoing coronary arteriography. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams were obtained after symptom-limited exercise and after a 4 hr delay. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured by the xenon-133 clearance method in patients at rest and during rapid atrial pacing to a double product comparable with that achieved during exercise stress testing. Patterns of regional thallium-201 activity and regional myocardial blood flow, recorded in similar left anterior oblique projections, were compared for left ventricular segments supplied by the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (CIRC) arteries. In 11 patients without significant lesions of the left coronary artery (group 1), thallium-201 was homogeneously distributed in the LAD and CIRC distributions in scintigrams taken during peak exercise; these scintigrams correspond to homogeneous regional myocardial blood flow in the LAD and CIRC regions during pacing-induced stress. In 14 patients with significant lesions of the left coronary artery (group 2), ratios of regional thallium-201 activity in the LAD and CIRC distributions of exercise scintigrams correlated well (r . .84) with ratios of regional myocardial blood flow measured during rapid pacing. Background subtraction altered the relationship between relative thallium-201 uptake and regional myocardial blood flow, causing overestimation of the magnitude of flow reduction on exercise scintigrams

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of the Trace Amount of Thallium in Water and Urine Samples by Novel Oxidative Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nagaraja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method has been proposed for the trace determination of thallium by spectrophotometric detection. This method is based on the oxidation of MBTH (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride by thallium(III to form diazonium cation, which couples with IPH (Imipramine hydrochloride in phosphoric acid medium at room temperature giving a blue colored species having a maximum absorption at 635 nm. The reagents and manifold variables influences on the sensitivity were investigated and the optimum reaction conditions have been established. The calibration curve was found to be linear over the range 0.1-5 μg mL-1 with the molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of 2.9x104 L mol-1 cm-1, 0.0071 μg cm-2 respectively. The tolerance limit of the method towards various ions usually associated with thallium has been detected. The relative standard deviation for five replicate determination of 2μg mL-1 thallium was 0.47%. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of thallium(ІΙΙ and thallium(I in synthetic, standard reference materials, water and urine samples with satisfactory results. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of student’s t-test and variance ratio F-test, to find out the significance of proposed method over the reported methods.

  11. Estimation of right ventricular pressure in children by thallium-201 myocardial imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, T; Yoshikawa, M; Otaki, S; Nakasato, M; Suzuki, H; Sato, S; Sato, T

    1992-03-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography was performed to estimate right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure in 34 children (aged 4.1 to 16.1 years, mean 7.9 +/- 2.9). Acquisition of the images was performed using a semicircular arc of 180 degrees. On a short-axis slice, a line drawn perpendicular to the ventricular septum so as to cross the RV free wall showing maximum uptake was defined as the region of interest. Thallium-201 counts in regions of interest over both RV and left ventricular (LV) free walls were measured. The ratio of RV-to-LV peak thallium-201 counts was compared with RV peak systolic pressure and the ratio of RV-to-LV peak systolic pressure measured at cardiac catheterization. Both RV peak systolic pressure and the ratio of RV-to-LV peak systolic pressure correlated well with the ratio of RV-to-LV peak thallium-201 counts (r = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively). The ratio of RV-to-LV peak thallium-201 counts greater than or equal to 0.45 could predict RV pressure overloading with a sensitivity of 92%, and a specificity of 88%. Thus, the quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography permits the noninvasive and accurate estimation of RV systolic pressure in children.

  12. Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. III; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%

  13. The use of thallium-201 scintigraphy in the assessment and management of bone and soft tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, I.; Schlicht, S.M.; Smith, P.; J Slavin; Powell, G.; Choong, P.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Thallium-201 scintigraphy is routinely performed on all patients presenting to the bone and soft tissue sarcoma service at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne. Methods: As part of the multimodality approach to patients presenting to the service, Thallium-201 planar images are obtained at 30 minutes following a resting injection of tracer with delayed planar and where possible SPECT images at 4 hours. Uptake is qualitatively assessed using adjacent muscle uptake at the time of the scan. All thallium-201 scans are read in conjunction with the correlative structural images performed. Results: High grade bone and soft tissue sarcomas typically show significant retention of tracer relative to background activity and adjacent anatomically structures. Benign lesions may show early activity but typically washout on the delayed images. However, some lesions may show marked thallium-201 activity which will be discussed. At our institution the thallium-201 scans are used for assessment of metabolic activity and tumour grade, planning of image guided pre-treatment biopsies and monitoring of treatment response particularly following radiotherapy. Conclusion: Thallium-201 scintigraphy plays a vital role in assessment and management of bone and soft tissue tumours at our institution. (authors)

  14. A calixarene-based ion-selective electrode for thallium(I) detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Ryan; Sohail, Manzar; Ogden, Mark I.; Mocerino, Mauro; Pretsch, Ernö; De Marco, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tuning of metal binding cavities in thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Novel calixarene-based ionophores with improved selectivity for thallium(I). • Sandwich membrane characterization of thallium(I) binding in novel calixarenes. • Improved selectivity and sensitivity with novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Solid contact ion-selective electrodes for novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. - Abstract: Three new calixarene Tl + ionophores have been utilized in Tl + ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) yielding Nernstian response in the concentration range of 10 −2 –10 −6 M TlNO 3 with a non-optimized filling solution in a conventional liquid contact ISE configuration. The complex formation constants (log β IL ) for two of the calixarene derivatives with thallium(I) (i.e. 6.44 and 5.85) were measured using the sandwich membrane technique, with the other ionophore immeasurable due to eventual precipitation of the ionophore during these long-term experiments. Furthermore, the unbiased selectivity coefficients for these ionophores displayed excellent selectivity against Zn 2+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Al 3+ with moderate selectivity against Pb 2+ , Li + , Na + , H + , K + , NH 4 + and Cs + , noting that silver was the only significant interferent with these calixarene-based ionophores. When optimizing the filling solution in a liquid contact ISE, it was possible to achieve a lower limit of detection of approximately 8 nM according to the IUPAC definition. Last, the new ionophores were also evaluated in four solid-contact (SC) designs leading to Nernstian response, with the best response noted with a SC electrode utilizing a gold substrate, a poly(3-octylthiophene) (POT) ion-to-electron transducer and a poly(methyl methacrylate)–poly(decyl methacrylate) (PMMA–PDMA) co-polymer membrane. This electrode exhibited a slope of 58.4 mV decade −1 and a lower detection limit of 30.2 nM. Due to the presence of an undesirable

  15. A calixarene-based ion-selective electrode for thallium(I) detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Ryan [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Sohail, Manzar [Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4556 (Australia); Ogden, Mark I.; Mocerino, Mauro [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Pretsch, Ernö [ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zürich (Switzerland); De Marco, Roland, E-mail: rdemarc1@usc.edu.au [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4556 (Australia)

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • Tuning of metal binding cavities in thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Novel calixarene-based ionophores with improved selectivity for thallium(I). • Sandwich membrane characterization of thallium(I) binding in novel calixarenes. • Improved selectivity and sensitivity with novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Solid contact ion-selective electrodes for novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. - Abstract: Three new calixarene Tl{sup +} ionophores have been utilized in Tl{sup +} ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) yielding Nernstian response in the concentration range of 10{sup −2}–10{sup −6} M TlNO{sub 3} with a non-optimized filling solution in a conventional liquid contact ISE configuration. The complex formation constants (log β{sub IL}) for two of the calixarene derivatives with thallium(I) (i.e. 6.44 and 5.85) were measured using the sandwich membrane technique, with the other ionophore immeasurable due to eventual precipitation of the ionophore during these long-term experiments. Furthermore, the unbiased selectivity coefficients for these ionophores displayed excellent selectivity against Zn{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} with moderate selectivity against Pb{sup 2+}, Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, H{sup +}, K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cs{sup +}, noting that silver was the only significant interferent with these calixarene-based ionophores. When optimizing the filling solution in a liquid contact ISE, it was possible to achieve a lower limit of detection of approximately 8 nM according to the IUPAC definition. Last, the new ionophores were also evaluated in four solid-contact (SC) designs leading to Nernstian response, with the best response noted with a SC electrode utilizing a gold substrate, a poly(3-octylthiophene) (POT) ion-to-electron transducer and a poly(methyl methacrylate)–poly(decyl methacrylate) (PMMA–PDMA) co-polymer membrane. This electrode exhibited a slope of 58.4 mV decade

  16. Reações de contração de anel promovidas por sais de tálio(III Ring contraction reactions promoted by thallium(III salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. C. Ferraz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium(III salts promote a number of different reactions useful in organic synthesis. In this paper, the ring contraction of ketones and olefins, mediated by thallium(III salts, is exhaustively reviewed.

  17. The Study of the Influence of Urea and Hexa Methylene Tetramine (HMTA) Additive on the Total Gelation Process of Uranium on the Chemical Characteristic of the Poly (Uranate-Vinyl Alcohol) Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damunir

    2007-01-01

    The study of the influence of urea and Hexa methylene tetramine (HMTA) additive on the total gelation process of uranium on the chemical characteristic of the poly (uranate-vinyl alcohol) gel was done. First of all the 1M uranyl nitrate solution was heated at 70 °C, then variation the 1,2,3,4 and 5M urea additive was studied. Urea was added to the hot solution, and stirred for 10 minutes, producing the colloid particles of UO 3 . The mixing and heating up for 20 minutes, the colloid of UO 3 solution reacted by mixed of THF-PVA 1:1 solution. The solution was cooled at 32°C for 2 hours, and then variation the 1,2,3,4 and 5M HMTA additive was studied. HMTA was added into solution at 32°C and was stirred to form the homogenous sol solution. For the poly (urinate-vinyl) gel formation, the sol solution was dropped to the medium solution of 5M NH 5 OH at ambient condition. Gel formatted was microsphere then soaked, washed by NH 4 OH and hot water to release the chemical matters which were unreacted, was dried at 60°C and then dried at 150°C for 4 hours. The chemical characteristic of gel was made, covering the analyzed of colour, shape and diameter microsphere using optical microscope. Next, the analysis of molecular composition of the gel, using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopic (FTIR), was made. The analytical were the qualitative analysis of the absorption band of infra red spectrum on O-U-O-U-O bond, U-O bond and NH 3 , C-OH, C-H and OH functional group at 300-4000 wave numbers. The result of the research showed that the addition of urea and HMTA additive influences on chemical characteristic of the poly (uranate-vinyl alcohol) gel. The optimum condition was at 2-3 M urea and 2- M HMTA concentration. The analyze of absorption band of infra red spectrum showed that the molecular composition of poly (vinyl alcohol) gel was the uranium trioxide, ammonia, water and polyvinyl alcohol molecular contain with the molecular formulas of [2UO 3 .2 NH 3 .H 2 O

  18. Le thallium dans les sols et les végétaux supérieurs. I. Le thallium dans les sols

    OpenAIRE

    Tremel, A.; Mench, M.

    1997-01-01

    Le thallium est un métal trace non essentiel qui, malgré sa forte toxicité pour tous les organismes, a peu intéressé jusqu’à ce jour la communauté scientifique. Le but de cette synthèse est de faire le point des connaissances récentes disponibles et les plus significatives concernant les concentrations et le comportement de ce métal dans le sol, ainsi que les aspects réglementaires et les problèmes de réhabilitation qui se rattachent à sa présence dans celui-ci.

  19. Two new examples of very short thallium-transition metal contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karanovic, Ljiljana; Poleti, Dejan; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2008-01-01

    > are 2.438 and 2.259 angstrom, respectively). The thallium atom Tl1 is surrounded by eight S atoms forming a square anti-prism (: 3.393 for 1 and 3.356 angstrom for 2), while the coordination polyhedron of Tl2 can be described as a significantly distorted trigonal prism or as an extremely...... distorted octahedron (: 3.236 angstrom for 1 and 3.238 angstrom for 2). Thallium Tl3 is surrounded by six atoms (one Ag, four S at shorter and one S at longer distance), which form a distorted trigonal prism (: 3.165 angstrom in 1 and 3.155 angstrom in 2). The second slab consists...

  20. Clinical and electrodiagnostic follow-up of an adolescent poisoned with thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, A; Ammendola, E; Argenzio, F; Tedeschi, G

    2007-08-01

    We report a six-year clinical and electrodiagnostic follow-up of an adolescent patient with acute thallium poisoning from attempted suicide. During the acute stage the patient showed gastrointestinal disturbances, alopecia, and clinical and electrodiagnostic signs of severe polyneuropathy. Three years after poisoning, his neurological symptomatology was making progress, and electrophysiologic signs of peripheral neuropathy were mainly confined to lower limbs. Six years after intoxication, he was still complaining of weakness and sensory disturbances at the level of distal lower extremities; his neurologic and electrodiagnostic abnormalities affected mainly the feet. In this case report we underline the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to prevent neurological damage and the role of serial electromyographic and nerve conduction studies in thallium poisoning. These investigations allowed the authors to depict the electrophysiologic course of peripheral nervous system involvement over six years following poisoning.

  1. Evaluation of myocardial involvement in Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Naoki; Sotobata, Iwao; Okada, Mitsuhiro

    1985-01-01

    Myocardial involvement in progressive muscular dystrophy of the Duchenne type was evaluated in 19 patients using thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging. A qualitative analysis was performed from five projection images by three experienced physicians. Distinct perfusion defects were shown in 13 patients, especially in the LV posterolateral or posterior wall (11 patients). There was no significant relationship between the presence of perfusion defects and the skeletal muscle involvements or thoracic deformities assessed by transmission computed tomography. Extensive perfusion defects were shown in 2 patients who died of congestive heart failure 1 to 2 years after the scintigraphic study. Progression of the myocardial scintigraphic abnormalities were considered to be minimal in 7 of 9 patients who underwent two serial scintigraphic studies over 2 to 3 years. It was concluded that thallium myocardial perfusion imaging is a useful clinical technique to assess myocardial involvement in Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy. (author)

  2. Thallium-201 exercise myocardial imaging to evaluate myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, H.O.; Nuesch, K.; Sialer, G.; Horst, W.; Krayenbuehl, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy in evaluating myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery, imaging was performed after submaximal bicycle ergometry and at rest in 54 patients before and within 24 +- 10 (SD) weeks after operation. Scintigraphy identified 8 out of 20 patients who were symptom free after operation and showed normal exercise electrocardiograms as still having exercise-induced ischaemia and thus as having not truly benefited from the surgical intervention. In contrast, improvement in perfusion was documented in 17 out of 31 patients despite further complaints of chest pain and persistence of a pathological exercise electrocardiogram in 6 of them. Bypass graft patency rate paralleled the scintigraphic findings in the 35 patients who were restudied arteriographically. It was concluded that thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy is a useful technique to document changes in regional perfusion after surgery and is definitely superior to the clinical evaluation of patients including the exercise electrocardiogram. (author)

  3. Thallium Flux Assay for Measuring the Activity of Monovalent Cation Channels and Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C David

    2018-01-01

    Monovalent cation channels are critically important for physiological processes ranging from the control of neuronal excitability to the maintenance of solute balance. Mutations in these channels are associated with a multiplicity of diseases and monovalent cation channel-modulating drugs are used as therapeutics. Techniques that allow the measurement of the activity of these ion channels are useful for exploring their many biological roles as well as enabling the discovery and characterization of ion channel modulators for the purposes of drug discovery. Although there are numerous techniques for measuring the activity of monovalent cation channels, the thallium flux assay technique is a widely used fluorescence-based approach. Described herein is a method for using the thallium-flux technique for detecting and quantifying the activity of small-molecule potassium channel modulators in 384-well plates.

  4. Significance of positive or negative thallium-201 scintigraphy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Dohlen, T.W.; Prisant, L.M.; Frank, M.J. (Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Myocardial ischemia, fibrosis and infarction may occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease. To determine their prevalence and relation with common characteristics, stress thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed in 28 patients. Eleven (39%) had positive scans despite normal epicardial coronary arteries (7 patients) or a pretest risk of coronary disease less than or equal to 5% (4 patients). There was no relation between thallium defects and age, sex, chest pain or outflow tract gradients at rest. However, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in those with perfusion abnormalities compared with those without (64 +/- 15 vs 75 +/- 11%, respectively, p less than 0.05). Also, the mean ventricular septal thickness was greater in patients with positive scans (27 +/- 7 vs 21 +/- 6 mm, p less than 0.05), and there was a nonparametric relation between increasing septal thickness and the frequency of positive scans (p less than 0.025). Seven of 11 patients with positive scans had ventricular tachycardia compared with none among those who had negative scans (p less than 0.001), and 5 of these 11 patients had conduction system disease requiring permanent pacemaker insertion compared with 1 of 17 with negative scans (p less than 0.025). It is concluded that thallium perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with HC in the absence of epicardial coronary disease, and are strongly associated with potentially lethal arrhythmias. Thallium scintigraphy appears to identify a subset of patients with HC at increased risk for sudden death, who therefore require closer follow-up.

  5. [Distribution of heavy metals in waters and pollution assessment in thallium contaminated area of Yunfu, Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-ping; Qi, Jian-ying; Wang, Chun-lin; Chen, Yong-heng

    2011-05-01

    Distribution of Thallium(T1), Cadmium( Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) in water and sediments of Yunfu pyrite mine area was studied. The environmental risk assessment was conducted systematically using Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and Hakanson potential ecological risk index. The results indicated that concentration range of Tl in stream water was 0.19-65.25 microg/L, which is higher than the environmental quality standards for surface water. Concentration ranges of Tl, Zn, As, Cd, Pb in sediments were 5.89-63.0 mg/kg, 1215-5754 mg/kg, 208.4-1327 mg/kg, 4.20-17.5 mg/kg, 282-13,770 mg/kg. According to Sediments Quality Guidelines, sediments was moderately to severe level of pollution since concentrations of Tl, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Zn were much higher than LEL (lowest effect level) values, and the concentrations of Pb, As, Zn were higher than SEL (severe effect level) values, the others were partly higher than SEL values, which may result in severe negative biota effects in the watersheds. Compared to soil background values of Guangdong province, the metals in stream sediment showed strong to severe strong ecological risk, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in the descending order of Tl, Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu. Besides, the sediments were severe contained by toxic element thallium and cadmium. Besides, the mainly ecological risk of heavy metal is thallium. More emphasis should be placed on thallium and cadmium control and disposal in

  6. Prussian blue as an antidote for radioactive thallium and cesium poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altagracia-Martinez M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marina Altagracia-Martínez, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich, Juan Manuel Martínez-Núñez, Camilo Ríos-Castañeda, Francisco López-NaranjoDepartments of Biological Systems and Health Care, Biological and Health Sciences Division, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico DF, MexicoBackground: Following the attacks on the US on September 11, 2001, potentially millions of people might experience contamination from radioactive metals. However, before the specter of such accidents arose, Prussian blue was known only as an investigational agent for accidental thallium and cesium poisoning. The purpose of this review is to update the state of the art concerning use of Prussian blue as an effective and safe drug against possible bioterrorism attacks and to disseminate medical information in order to contribute to the production of Prussian blue as a biodefense drug.Methods: We compiled articles from a systematic review conducted from January 1, 1960 to March 30, 2011. The electronic databases consulted were Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus.Results: Prussian blue is effective and safe for use against radioactive intoxications involving cesium-137 and thallium. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Prussian blue as a drug, but there is only one manufacturer providing Prussian blue to the US. Based on the evidence, Prussian blue is effective for use against radioactive intoxications involving cesium-137 and thallium, but additional clinical research on and production of Prussian blue are needed.Keywords: Prussian blue, radioactive cesium, thallium, intoxication, biodefense drug

  7. Experimental and theoretical study on the complexation of the thallium cation with dibenzo-18-crown-6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Toman, Petr; Vaňura, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2012), s. 199-202 ISSN 1318-0207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : thallium cation * dibenzo-18-crown-6 * complexation, Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.135, year: 2012 http://acta.chem-soc.si/59/59-1-199.pdf

  8. Determination of opium and strychnos alkaloids by radiometric titrations with potassium thallium(I) iodide reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.; Singh, N.J.; Tandon, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The titrations were carried out by the batch method in test tubes, using 204 Tl-labelled potassium thallium(I) iodide as precipitant for alkaloids such as codeine, morphine, narcotine, papaverine, thebaine, strychnine and brucine. Direct and reverse titrations were investigated including sensitivity and accuracy. Codeine and narcotine were determined in some pharmaceutical preparations such as codeine sulfate tablets, codopyrin tablets and coscopin syrup

  9. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide and Curcumin Separately against Thallium-Induced Toxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Abdou, Rania H.

    2015-01-01

    Thallium acetate (TI) is a cumulative poison intimately accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation that represents an important risk factor for tissue injury and malfunction. This study aims to determine the possible hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) from garlic and curcumin from turmeric against TI-induced liver injury and oxidative stress (OS) in rats. This in vivo animal study divided rats into six groups of 8 rats p...

  10. Oxidation of tertiary homoallylic alcohols by thallium trinitrate: fragmentation versus ring contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Luiz F.; Quintiliano, Samir A.P.; Ferraz, Helena M.C.; Santos, Leonardo S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of tertiary homoallylic alcohols with thallium trinitrate (TTN) was investigated. The alcohols bearing an allylic methyl group lose a molecule of acetone via a fragmentation reaction that leads to isomeric secondary allylic alcohols as major products, together with their corresponding acetylated derivatives. On the other hand, treating analogous tertiary alcohols without the allylic methyl group with TTN gives indans, through a ring contraction reaction. (author)

  11. Systematics of c-axis phonons in the thallium- and bismuth-based cuprate superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A.A.; Dulic, Diana; Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Kaljushnaia, G.A.; Gorina, J.I.; Senturina, N.N.; Kolesnikov, N.N.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H.; Menovsky, A.A.; Palstra, T.T.M.

    1999-01-01

    We present grazing incidence reflectivity measurements in the far-infrared region at temperatures above and below Tc for a series of thallium- (Tl2Ba2CuO6, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8) and bismuth- (Bi2Sr2CuO6, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8, and Bi2-xPbxSr2CaCu2O8) based cuprate superconductors. From the spectra, which are

  12. Usefulness of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chronic cor pulmonale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, S.; Tanaka, N.; Sawada, M.; Sakaguchi, K.; Fujita, K. (Osaka Prefectural Habikino Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    To open up the possibility of exact clinical diagnoses of chronic cor pulmonale, we performed thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy on patients with chronic pulmonary disease. From the thallium activity in the left ventricle (plus ventricular septum) and right ventricle counted scintigraphically, we determined the thallium activity ratio of left to right ventricle (TAR). The intra- and inter-observer variations of this ratio were negligible. We compared TAR with pulmonary hemodynamic findings and with left to right ventricular mass ratio measured at autopsy, and obtained the following results. 1) Left to right ventricular mass ratio determined in 11 autopsied patients by the method of Fulton et al. was closely correlated with TAR values (r = 0.90, p < 0.001). 2) In patients with chronic pulmonary disease, there were highly significant exponential inverse correlations between TAR and pulmonary arterial mean pressure, total pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular systolic pressure with the coefficients of -0.75, -0.72 or -0.77, respectively (p < 0.001). These results suggested the possibility that the severity of pulmonary circulatory disturbance may be ascertained non-invasively by TAR measurement. Thus, thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is able to reveal non-invasively right ventricular hypertrophy in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, and it might be a useful means of clinically diagnosing chronic cor pulmonale. If TAR obtained from scintigrams is smaller than 2, the patient concerned may possibly have right ventricular hypertrophy and he or she may be diagnosed as having chronic cor pulmonale.

  13. Myocardial thallium scintigraphy after dipyridamole injection. Application to the diagnosis and evaluation of coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foult, J.M.; Weinmann, P.; Moretti, J.L.; Le Guludec, D.; Faraggi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Myocardial thallium scintigraphy performed after intravenous injection of dipyridamole is a non-invasive method to diagnose and evaluate coronary disease.It be used as an alternative to post-exercise scintigraphy, both methods having similar sensitivity and specificity. The dipyridamole test is contraindicated in patients with a history of bronchospasm and uncontrolled angina pectoris. Close clinical and electrocardiographic monitoring is required. The wide use of tomographic techniques has notably improved this examination

  14. Localization of coronary artery disease with exercise electrocardiography: correlation with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.F.; Freedman, B.; Bailey, I.K.; Uren, R.F.; Kelly, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    In 61 patients with single vessel coronary artery disease (70 percent or greater obstruction of luminal diameter in only one vessel) and no previous myocardial infarction, the sites of ischemic changes on 12 lead exercise electrocardiography and on thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning were related to the obstructed coronary artery. The site of exercise-induced S-T segment depression did not identify which coronary artery was obstructed. In the 37 patients with left anterior descending coronary artery disease S-T depression was most often seen in the inferior leads and leads V4 to V6, and in the 18 patients with right coronary artery disease and in the 6 patients with left circumflex artery disease S-T depression was most often seen in leads V5 and V6. Although S-T segment elevation was uncommon in most leads, it occurred in lead V1 or a VL, or both, in 51 percent of the patients with left anterior descending coronary artery disease. A reversible anterior defect on exercise thallium scanning correlated with left anterior descending coronary artery disease (probability [p] less than 0.0001) and a reversible inferior thallium defect correlated with right coronary or left circumflex artery disease (p less than 0.0001). In patients with single vessel disease, the site of S-T segment depression does not identify the obstructed coronary artery; S-T segment elevation in lead V1 or aVL, or both, identifies left anterior descending coronary artery disease; and the site of reversible perfusion defect on thallium scanning identifies the site of myocardial ischemia and the obstructed coronary artery

  15. Effect of ischemia and postischemic dysfunction on myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-labeled methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinusas, A.J.; Watson, D.D.; Cannon, J.M. Jr.; Beller, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The myocardial uptake of a new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial perfusion agent, methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI), and thallium-201 was correlated with microsphere flow in an open chest canine model of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction. Eighteen dogs were given an injection of thallium-201 (0.5 mCi) and Tc-99m MIBI (5 mCi) either after 40 min of partial left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group I, 10 dogs) or during reperfusion after 15 min of left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group II, 8 dogs). Regional dysfunction was documented during injection in both groups by quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography. Regional blood flow was assessed by radiolabeled microspheres. The heart was excised 15 min after radionuclide injection and the left ventricle divided into 96 segments for gamma well counting. Among Group I dogs, central ischemic thallium-201 and Tc-99m MIBI activity (expressed as a percent of the activity in the corresponding nonischemic zone) was comparable, respectively, for endocardial (54 +/- 17% and 52 +/- 17%), mid-wall (71 +/- 20% and 69 +/- 17%) and epicardial (89 +/- 13% and 94 +/- 9%) segments and increased proportionally with flow. There was a good linear correlation among these endocardial segments between flow and both thallium-201 (r = 0.78) and Tc-99m MIBI (r = 0.85) activity. Among Group II dogs, central ischemic endocardial flow (59 +/- 14%) was comparable to thallium-201 (70 +/- 18%) and Tc-99m MIBI (74 +/- 12%) activity. Similarly, relative endocardial flow in the intermediate ischemic region (71 +/- 11%) was comparable to thallium-201 (77 +/- 11%) and Tc-99m MIBI (81 +/- 10%) activity. Thus, myocardial uptake of Tc-99m MIBI and thallium-201 is comparable under conditions of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction and closely parallels flow alterations

  16. [Characterization of kale (Brassica oberacea var acephala) under thallium stress by in situ attenuated total reflection FTIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-Chun; Chen, Yong-Heng

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was designed based on consumption of carbon dioxide through the photosynthesis of Brassica oberacea var acephala leaf, and the photosynthesis of kale leaf under thallium stress was investigated by in situ attenuated total reflection FTIR (in situ ATR-FTIR). The ATR-FTIR showed that the absorption peaks of leaves had no obvious difference between plants growing in thallium stress soil and plants growing in non-thallium pollution soil, and the strong peaks at 3,380 cm(-1) could be assigned to the absorption of water, carbohydrate, protein or amide; the strong peaks at 2,916 and 2,850 cm(-1) assigned to the absorption of carbohydrate or aliphatic compound; the peaks at 1,640 cm(-1) assigned to the absorption of water. However, as detected by the in situ ATR-FTIR, the double peaks (negative peaks) at 2,360 and 2,340 cm(-1) that are assigned to the absorption of CO2 appeared and became high gradually. It was showed that kale was carrying photosynthesis. At the same time, the carbon dioxide consumption speed of leaf under thallium stress was obviously larger than that of the blank It was expressed that photosynthesis under thallium stress was stronger than the blank All these represented that kale had certain tolerance to the heavy metal thallium. Meanwhile, the carbon dioxide consumption of grown-up leaf was more than that of young leaf whether or not under thallium stress. It was also indicated that the intensity of photosynthesis in grown-up leaf is higher than that in young leaf.

  17. Quantification of reversible perfusion abnormality using exercise-stress thallium SPECT before and after coronary revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kazuhiko; Nakata, Tomoaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi

    1994-01-01

    Reversible myocardial perfusion abnormality was quantified by bull's eye and unfolded surface mapping methods in exercise thallium SPECT before and after coronary revascularization in 47 patients with angina pectoris, including 34 patients with previous myocardial infarction (PMI) and 13 with effort angina (AP). There was no difference in the incidence or extent of myocardial ischemia between the 2 groups before revascularization. However, the ischemic scores were significantly smaller in PMI group preoperatively than the reductions of the ischemic scores after revascularization. The ischemic scores, preoperatively estimated reversible perfusion abnormality was 32%, 69% and 48% of the improvement of the ischemic score (extent score, severity score, and ischemic area, respectively). Using the 3 ischemic scores, the improvement of perfusion abnormality was well predicted in 70-89% of AP patients but 35-57% of PMI patients. Thus, quantitative analysis in stress thallium SPECT is useful for detecting myocardial ischemia and evaluating the effect of coronary revascularization. However, about a half of myocardial viability was underestimated in one third of PMI patients by the conventional exercise-stress thallium SPECT study. (author)

  18. Determination of the partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure lamp arcs: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.; Aubes, M.

    1986-01-01

    The partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure Hg-TlI discharges with different mercury, thallium, and electron pressures has been measured by using the optically thin line Tl 655 nm and the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm. The partial pressure of the arc axis has been measured from the line Tl 655nm. The effective partial pressure has been measured from the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm on the basis of the multiparameter method, and it has been calculated from the known axis pressure of thallium and the calculation of its radial variation by taking into account the chemical reactions. The experimental results confirm the dispersion character of the blue wing of the line Tl 535 nm. The systematic difference obtained between the measured and calculated effective pressure, particularly at the moment of minimum electron density, may be interpreted by deviations from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) caused by overpopulation of the upper level of the line Tl 535 nm

  19. EFFECTS OF THALLIUM SALTS ON NEURONAL MITOCHONDRIA IN ORGANOTYPIC CORD-GANGLIA-MUSCLE COMBINATION CULTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter S.; Peterson, Edith R.; Madrid A., Ricardo; Raine, Cedric S.

    1973-01-01

    A functionally coupled organotypic complex of cultured dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord peripheral nerve, and muscle has been employed in an experimental approach to the investigation of the neurotoxic effects of thallium. Selected cultures, grown for up to 12 wk in vitro, were exposed to thallous salts for periods ranging up to 4 days. Cytopathic effects were first detected after 2 h of exposure with the appearance of considerably enlarged mitochondria in axons of peripheral nerve fibers. With time, the matrix space of these mitochondria became progressively swollen, transforming the organelle into an axonal vacuole bounded by the original outer mitochondrial membrane. Coalescence of adjacent axonal vacuoles produced massive internal axon compartments, the membranes of which were shown by electron microprobe mass spectrometry to have an affinity for thallium. Other axoplasmic components were displaced within a distended but intact axolemma. The resultant fiber swelling caused myelin retraction from nodes of Ranvier but no degeneration. Impulses could still propagate along the nerve fibers throughout the time course of the experiment. Comparable, but less severe changes were seen in dorsal root ganglion neurons and in central nerve fibers. Other cell types showed no mitochondrial change. It is uncertain how these findings relate to the neurotoxic effects of thallium in vivo, but a sensitivity of the nerve cell and especially its axon to thallous salts is indicated. PMID:4125375

  20. Recovery of 201Tl by ion exchange chromatography from proton bombarded thallium cyclotron targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, T.N. van der; Naidoo, C.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on ion exchange chromatography is presented for the recovery of 201 Tl and its precursor 201 Pb from proton bombarded natural thallium cyclotron targets. After bombardment the target is dissolved in diluted nitric acid. Water, hydrazine and ammonium acetate are added to the solution and the lead radioisotopes separated from the thallium by cation exchange chromatography on a Bio-Rex 70 column. The sorbed lead radioisotopes are eluted with dilute nitric acid and the separation repeated on a second Bio-Rex 70 column. After elution of the remaining thallium the column is left for 32 hours and the 201 Tl formed by decay of 201 Pb is eluted with an ammonium acetate solution. The 201 Tl eluate is acidified with a HNO 3 -HBr-Br 2 mixture and the resulting solution is passed through an AG MP-1 anion exchanger column to remove any remaining lead isotopes. The 201 Tl is eluted with a hydrazine solution, the eluate evaporated to dryness and the 201 Tl finally dissolved in an appropriate solution to produce a 201 TlCl solution suitable for medical use. A high quality 201 Tl product is obtained containing ≤ 0.1 μg of Tl/mCi (37 MBq) 201 Tl. The radionuclidic impurities are less than the maximum values specified by the US Pharmacopoeia and the British Pharmacopoeia. (orig.)