Sample records for thallium sulfides

  1. Comparison of Polythionates as Precursors for the Formation of Thallium Sulfide Layers

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    Vitalijus JANICKIS


    Full Text Available The processes of obtaining layers of thallium, sulfides, TlxSy, by the sorption-diffusion method on polyamide 6 using solutions of lower polythionates - sodium trithionate and tetrathionate, Na2S3O6, Na2S4O6, potassium pentathionate, K2S5O6, and of dodecathionic acid, H2S12O6, as precursors of sulfur are compared. The concentration of sorbed sulfur increases with increasing the duration of treatment, the concentration and temperature of precursor solution. It rather significantly also depends on the nature - sulfurity of polythionate, i. e. on the number of sulfur atoms in the polythionate anion: effectiveness of sulfurization using solutions of dodecathionic acid is significantly higher than that of lower polythionates. Thallium sulfide layers are formed on the surface of polyamide after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Tl(I salt solution. The concentration of thallium in the layer increases with the increase of initial sulfurization duration and in case of H2S12O6 solution used - on the temperature of this process. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of thallium sulfide layers in the surface of polyamide 6. The phase composition of layer changes depending on the conditions of initial treatment in a H2S12O6 solution. Five thallium sulfide phases, two forms of TlS, Tl2S2, Tl4S3 and Tl2S5 were identified in the composition of the layers treated for different time with a solution of dodecathionic acid at the temperature of 20 °C and 30 °C and then with Tl(I salt solution by X-ray diffraction but the maxima of TlS and Tl2S5 phases predominate in the diffractograms.

  2. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S


    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  3. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun [Kosin University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  4. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch


    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ... (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  6. Repeat thallium-201 SPECT in cerebral lymphoma. (United States)

    Borggreve, F; Dierckx, R A; Crols, R; Mathijs, R; Appel, B; Vandevivere, J; Mariën, P; Martin, J J; De Deyn, P P


    The authors report on the contribution of Thallium-201 brain SPECT in the diagnosis and follow-up of a non-immunosuppressed patient, presenting with primary cerebral lymphoma. The tumoral process was at first not diagnosed on CT-scan, but Thallium-201 SPECT suggested a tumoral invasion. During corticosteroid treatment the tumor volume on CT-scan decreased, while on Thallium-201 SPECT there was an enhancement of the accumulation and an increasing tumor to non-tumor ratio. These scintigraphical findings more closely reflected the clinical course and the postmortem results.

  7. Thallium poisoning from maliciously contaminated food. (United States)

    Meggs, W J; Hoffman, R S; Shih, R D; Weisman, R S; Goldfrank, L R


    Four young adults presented two days after one of them had received marzipan balls packaged in a box from an expensive candy manufacturer. Two ate one candy ball, while two others shared a third. The next day, variable gastrointestinal symptoms developed. On the third day, two patients developed painful paresthesiae of the hands and feet, an early but nonspecific clinical marker of thallium poisoning. A tentative diagnosis of thallium poisoning was made based on symptoms, and treatment was initiated. The remaining candies were radiographed. Metallic densities in the candies supported the diagnosis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantitate thallium content. Each candy contained a potentially fatal dose. Five to seven days later, hypertension and tachycardia developed in the two patients who had ingested an entire candy. All patients developed alopecia but recovered without overt neurologic or other sequelae. While the diagnosis of thallium poisoning is often delayed until alopecia develops, an early diagnosis favors an effective treatment strategy.

  8. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

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    Bojakowska I.


    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  9. Examining of Thallium in Cigarette Smokers. (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; NasehGhafoori, Payam; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrzad, Fateme; Nekuei, Mina; Aaseth, Jan; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Mehrpour, Omid


    Smoking is one of the sources of thallium which is considered as a toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to determine urinary thallium levels and related variables in smokers, compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 56 participants who had smoked continuously during the year before they were referred to Kashan Smoking Cessation Clinic. Fifty-three nonsmokers who were family members or friends of the smokers were selected as the control group. Urinary thallium was measured in both groups (n = 109) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value (with SD) for urinary thallium in the smokers (10.16 ± 1.82 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.39 ± 0.63 μg/L). There was a significant relationship between smoking duration and urinary thallium levels (P = 0.003). In a subgroup of smokers who was addicted to opium and opium residues (n = 9), the mean level of thallium (37.5 ± 13.09 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the other smokers (4.93 ± 4.45; P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed opioid abuse, insomnia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), together were strong predictors of urinary thallium levels in smokers. There was no significant difference in thallium level in hookah smokers (P = 0.299) or in those with COPD compared to other smokers (P = 0.375). Urinary thallium levels of smokers with clinical signs of depression, sleep disorders, memory loss, and sweating were higher than those of smokers without these signs. Since thallium, as other toxic metals is accumulated in the body, and cigarette smoking also involves carcinogenic exposures and health hazards for passively exposed people, the need for cigarette control policies is emphasized.

  10. Selenium Sulfide (United States)

    Selenium sulfide, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium sulfide comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...

  11. Thallium-201 scintigraphy in unstable angina pectoris

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    Wackers, F.J.T.; Lie, K.I.; Liem, K.L.; Sokole, E.B.; Samson, G.; Van Der Schoot, J.B.; Durrer, D.


    Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed during the pain free period in 98 patients with unstable angina. Scintiscans were positive in 39 patients, questionable in 27 patients and normal in 32 patients. Eighty-one patients responded favorably to treatment (group I). Seventeen patients had complicated courses (group II) and despite maximal treatment with propranolol either developed infarction (six patients) or continued to have angina necessitating coronary surgery (11 patients). In group I during the pain free period 26 of 81 patients had positive thallium-201 scans, whereas 20 patients had an abnormal ECG at that time; during angina 18 patients had transient ECG changes. In group II during the pain free period 13 of 17 patients had positive scans, whereas two patients had abnormal ECG at that time; during angina 12 patients showed transient ECG changes. The sensitivity to recognize group II was 76% for thallium-201 scintigraphy, 11% for ECG during the pain free period; 70% for ECG during angina; 94% for the combination of either positive scans or abnormal ECG. Thus, positive thallium-201 scans occur in patients with unstable angina, positive scans can be obtained during the pain free period, thallium-201 scans are more frequently positive in patients with complicated course.

  12. Thallium-201 uptake in a benign thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campeau, R.J.; Ey, E.H.; Varma, D.G.


    A 68-year-old woman was admitted with atypical angina. A chest radiograph showed an anterior mediastinal mass that was confirmed on CT. The mass was relatively avascular and separate from the heart and great vessels. She underwent stress thallium testing that demonstrated no exercise-induced ischemia; however, an abnormal focus of thallium activity was present in the anterior mediastinum on stress and redistribution images. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a normal left ventriculogram, coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign thymoma arising in the right lobe of the thymus gland.

  13. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Sergio; Rios, Camilo [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, ' ' Manuel Velasco Suarez' ' , Departamento de Neuroquimica, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Soriano, Luz; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD{sub 50}. Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P < 0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain. (orig.)

  14. Thallium in fractions of soil formed on floodplain terraces. (United States)

    Jakubowska, Monika; Pasieczna, Anna; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz; Swit, Zbigniew; Lukaszewski, Zenon


    Two soils formed on the floodplain terrace of a rivulet flowing through the zinc-lead ore exploration area polluted with thallium and one soil from a floodplain terrace of the reference area were investigated in terms of thallium distribution between soil fractions. Such type of soil is formed on river floodplain terraces next to the main river channel and its composition records the history of river pollution. A sequential extraction of soil according to the BCR protocol was performed with an additional initial stage of extraction with water. Apart from labile thallium, thallium entrapped in the residual parent matter was also determined. Thallium was determined by flow-injection differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. In all three cases, the major fraction is thallium entrapped in parent matter. Top soil from the polluted area contains 49.3% thallium entrapped in the residual parent matter, the bottom soil contains 41% while the reference soil contains 80% in this fraction. The major part of labile thallium is located in the reducible fraction (27.7% of total thallium in the top soil, 27% in the bottom soil and 12.4% of the reference soil). Second in terms of significance is the fraction of oxidizable thallium. The top soil contains 12% of total thallium concentration, the bottom soil contains 19% of total concentration, while the reference soil contains 4.1% of total concentration. The acid soluble/exchangeable fraction of thallium has almost the same significance as the oxidizable fraction. The top soil contains 10.4% of the total concentration, while the bottom soil contains 12% of the total concentration. Water soluble thallium concentration is very small. Comparison of the top and the bottom soil show that thallium has not been transported from the river channel onto the floodplain terrace over a long period.

  15. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2007 physics pp. 467–479. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single crystals. I M ASHRAF, H A ELSHAIKH and A M BADR. Physics Department ... pendencies of carrier lifetime on light intensity, applied voltage and temperature are also ..... 14, 797 (1935) (in Japanese). [10] A T ...

  16. Thallium pollution in China: A geo-environmental perspective. (United States)

    Xiao, Tangfu; Yang, Fei; Li, Shehong; Zheng, Baoshan; Ning, Zengping


    It is well known that thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic metal to human health, but less is known about the geo-environmentally-induced Tl pollution and its associated health impacts. High concentrations of Tl that are primarily associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals have the potential of producing Tl pollution in the environment, which has been recognized as an emerging pollutant in China. This paper aims to review the research progress in China on Tl pollution in terms of the source, mobility, transportation pathway, and health exposure of Tl and to address the environmental concerns on Tl pollution in a geo-environmental perspective. Tl associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals has been documented to disperse readily and accumulate through the geo-environmental processes of soil enrichment, water transportation and food crop growth beyond a mineralized zone. The enrichments of Tl in local soil, water, and crops may result in Tl pollution and consequent adverse health effects, e.g. chronic Tl poisoning. Investigation of the baseline Tl in the geo-environment, proper land use and health-related environmental planning and regulation are critical to prevent the Tl pollution. Examination of the human urinary Tl concentration is a quick approach to identify exposure of Tl pollution to humans. The experiences of Tl pollution in China can provide important lessons for many other regions in the world with similar geo-environmental contexts because of the high mobility and toxicity of Tl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction separation of thallium (III) from thallium (I) with n-octylaniline. (United States)

    Shilimkar, Tulshidas N; Anuse, Mansing A; Patil, Kesharsingh J


    A novel method is developed for the extraction separation of thallium(III) from salicylate medium with n-octylaniline dissolved in toluene as an extractant. The optimum conditions have been determined by making a critical study of weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and effect of solvent on the equilibria. The thallium (III) from the pregnant organic phase is stripped with acetate buffer solution (pH 4.7) and determined complexometrically with EDTA. The method affords the sequential separation of thallium(III) from thallium(I) and also commonly associated metal ions such as Al(III), Ga(III), In(III), Fe(III), Bi(III), Sb(III) and Pb(II). It is used for analysis of synthetic mixtures of associated metal ions and alloys. The method is highly selective, simple and reproducible. The reaction takes place at room temperature and requires 15-20 min for extraction and determination of thallium(III).

  18. Thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic anisotropy examination. (United States)

    Mantsevich, S N


    Thallium bromide iodide crystal also known as KRS-5 is the well known material used in far infrared radiation applications for optical windows and lenses fabrication. The main advantage of this material is the transparency in wide band of wavelengths from 0.53 to 50μm. Despite such advantages as transparency and large acousto-optic figure of merit values, KRS-5 is rarely used in acousto-optics. Nevertheless this material seems to be promising for far infrared acousto-optic applications. The acoustic and acousto-optic properties of KRS-5 needed for the full use in optoelectronics are not well understood to date. In this paper the detailed examination of thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic properties is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical geology of arsenic, selenium and thallium in China. (United States)

    Li, Shehong; Xiao, Tangfu; Zheng, Baoshan


    Arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and thallium (Tl) are three trace metals (metalloids) of high concern in China because deficiency or excess expose can cause a range of endemic diseases, such as endemic arsenism, selenosis, Keshan disease (KD), Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and thallotoxicosis. These specific endemic diseases were attributable for overabundance or deficiency (mainly referring to selenium) of these three elements in the local environment as a result of natural geochemical processes and/or anthropologic activities. The geochemistry and human health impacts of these three trace elements have been intensively studied since the 1970s in China, in terms of geochemical sources, distribution, transportation, health impact pathways, and prevention/remediation measures. Endemic arsenism in China are induced from the exposures of high As in either drinking water or domestic combustion of As-rich coals. Both endemic selenium deficiency and selenosis occurred in China. The KD and KBD were related to the deficiency of Se in the low-Se geological belt with Se contents in soil less than 0.125mg/kg stretching from northeast to southwest of China. Endemic selenosis occurred in areas with high Se concentrations in soils derived from the Se-enriched black carbonaceous siliceous rocks, carbonaceous shale and slate. Endemic Tl poisoning occurred in southwestern China due to Tl contamination in local drinking water and vegetables surrounding the Tl-rich sulfide mineralized areas. Some measures have been taken to control and remedy the endemic diseases with significant effects in reducing health risk and damage of As, Se and Tl. However, the states of the endemic diseases of As, Se and Tl in China are still serious in some areas, and substantial research efforts regarding the health impacts of these elements are further required. This paper reviews the progress of medical geology of As, Se and Tl in China, and provides with some outlooks for future research directions. Copyright

  20. Thallium and its contents in Remata carbonate rocks

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    Kondelová Marcela


    Full Text Available The article presents at first the list of thallium own minerals and its isomorphic content in other minerals, especially in Slovakian ore deposits. This trace element was found in numerous dolomite-rock samples from Remata massif near Handlová. An interesting level of Tl content was analyzed in nonsilicified rocks; the highest content of Tl (and Ag are along the E – W line of disturbance. The presence of thallium in some limonitic aggregates in close Kremnica-gold deposit indicate any continuous relation. Some similarities to type gold deposits Carlin ( USA are discussed, even if no gold and discrete thallium phases were in Remata determined yet.

  1. Tracing thallium contamination in soils using isotopes (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Trubač, Jakub; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Rohovec, Jan; Penížek, Vít; Zádorová, Tereza; Pavlů, Lenka; Holubík, Ondřej; Drábek, Ondřej; Němeček, Karel; Houška, Jakub; Ash, Christopher


    We report the thallium (Tl) isotope record in moderately contaminated soils, which have been historically affected by emissions from coal-fired power plants. Our findings clearly demonstrate that Tl of anthropogenic (high-temperature) origin with light isotope composition was deposited onto the studied soils, where heavier Tl (ɛ205Tl -1) naturally occurs. The results show a positive linear relationship (R2 = 0.71) between 1/Tl and the isotope record, as determined for all the soils and bedrocks, also indicative of binary Tl mixing between two dominant reservoirs. We also identified significant Tl isotope variations within the products from coal combustion and thermo-desorption experiments with local Tl-rich coal pyrite. Bottom ash exhibited the heaviest Tl isotope composition (ɛ205Tl 0), followed by fly ash (ɛ205Tl between -2.5 and -2.8) and volatile Tl fractions (ɛ205Tl between -6.2 and -10.3), suggesting partial Tl isotope fractionations. Despite the evident role of soil processes in the isotope redistribution, we demonstrate that Tl contamination can be traced in soils, and propose that the isotope data represent a possible tool to aid our understanding of post-depositional Tl dynamics in surface environments for the future. This research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (grant no. 14-01866S and 17-03211S).

  2. Catalytic properties of Thallium-containing mesoporous silicas

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    A. Baradji


    Full Text Available The benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride over a series of Thallium-containing mesoporous silicas with different Tl contents has been investigated. These materials (Tl-HMS-n have been characterized by chemical analysis, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The mesoporous Thallium-containing materials showed both high activity and high selectivity for the benzylation of benzene. More interesting is the observation that these catalysts are always active and selective for large molecules like naphthenic compounds such as methoxynaphthalene.

  3. A comparison of the clinical relevance of thallium201 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thallium-201 is at present the radiotracer of choice for the clinical evaluation of myocardial blood flow. Although different technetium-99m-isonitrile agents have been synthesised recently, only 99mTc-melhoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc_MIBI) has proved to hold promise for clinical implementation. The myocardial distribution ...

  4. Een bepalingsmethode voor thallium in regenwater met behulp van voltammetrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs; J.; Wolfs; P.M.; Esseveld; F.G.van


    In dit rapport wordt een bepalingmethode beschreven voor thallium in het nanogram/liter-gebied, waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van differentiele pulse-anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) aan de dunne kwikfilm. Met deze techniek blijkt het mogelijk om de concentratie van dit element rechtstreeks

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (External Review Draft) (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certai...

  6. Band-Structure of Thallium by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtham, P. M.; Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    The relativistic band structure of thallium has been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method. The positions and extents of the bands were found to follow the Wigner-Seitz rule approximately, and the origin of the dispersion of the bands was established from the canonical s...

  7. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using ...

  8. High thallium content in rocks associated with Au-As-Hg-Tl and coal mineralization and its adverse environmental potential in SW Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, T.F.; Guha, J.; Boyle, D. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China)


    This study is focused on high concentrations of Tl in rocks in SW Guizhou, China, that are related to several widely scattered disseminated gold-mercury-arsenic and coal deposits, and a primary Tl deposit within an Au-As-Hg-Tl metallogenic belt of the Huijiabao anticline. The Tl, Hg and As in the Lanmuchang Hg-Tl deposit area are associated with the abundant occurrence of sulfide minerals such as lorandite, realgar, orpiment and cinnabar. Concentrations of Tl range from 100 to 35 000 ppm in sulfide ores, and 39-490 ppm in host rocks. The enrichment of Au, Tl, Hg, As, and Sb in the Yanshang gold mineralized area reflects the occurrence of Au mineralization and its mineral assemblage of Tl-Hg-As-Sb sulfides. Thallium ranges from 0.22 to 16 ppm in Au ores and host rocks. Thallium in coals is enriched up to 46 ppm within the Au-As-Hg-TI metallogenic belt, and is derived from the regional Au-As-Hg-Tl mineralization. Mercury and As show a similar distribution to Tl with high concentrations in sulfide ores, coals and host rocks. Human populations living near and downstream of Tl deposits and Tl-bearing ore deposits are susceptible to Tl contamination because of its high toxicity and high uptake rate by crops. The dispersion of Tl, Hg and As associated with the primary mineralization of Au-As-Hg-TI can be traced through physical erosion and chemical weathering, producing secondary dispersion into sods, groundwater and surface water and crops. Mining activities compound the natural processes, readily dispersing Tl into the surface environment.

  9. Cadmium sulfide membranes (United States)

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.


    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  10. Selective Thallium (I Ion Sensor Based on Functionalised ZnO Nanorods

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    Z. H. Ibupoto


    Full Text Available Well controlled in length and highly aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the gold-coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. ZnO nanorods were functionalised with selective thallium (I ion ionophore dibenzyldiaza-18-crown-6 (DBzDA18C6. The thallium ion sensor showed wide linear potentiometric response to thallium (I ion concentrations ( M to  M with high sensitivity of 36.87 ± 1.49 mV/decade. Moreover, thallium (I ion demonstrated fast response time of less than 5 s, high selectivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and negligible response to common interferents. The proposed thallium (I ion-sensor electrode was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration, and it has shown good stoichiometric response for the determination of thallium (I ion.

  11. Controls on thallium uptake during hydrothermal alteration of the upper ocean crust (United States)

    Coggon, Rosalind M.; Rehkämper, Mark; Atteck, Charlotte; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Cooper, Matthew J.


    , a correlation between the Tl and S concentrations of upper crustal basalts from Holes U1301B, 504B and 896A indicates that Tl is primarily incorporated into secondary sulfides. Given that some of these secondary sulfides formed as a result of microbial sulfate reduction, microbial action is at least indirectly responsible for Tl-uptake. Thallium-enrichment of ridge flank basalts requires a Tl-bearing fluid and physical, chemical and microbial conditions that favor secondary sulfide formation. Uptake of Tl occurs in reducing environments in the background rocks away from fluid flow pathways during early 'open' circulation of oxidizing seawater but more pervasively throughout the system during later 'restricted' circulation of reducing fluids. The Tl-isotope system is therefore a useful tracer of the fluid flux through both the 'open' and 'restricted' ridge flank hydrothermal regimes.

  12. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 8, 2005 ... surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using xylenol orange as indicator. ... Reproducible and accurate results are obtained in the concentration range 4–80 mg of thallium with a relative error ≤ ±0.6% .... soluble and stable 1:1 complex with Tl(I) so formed.22 This was.

  13. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  14. Thallium-isotopic compositions of euxinic sediments as a proxy for global manganese-oxide burial (United States)

    Owens, Jeremy D.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Horner, Tristan J.; Ostrander, Chadlin M.; Peterson, Larry C.


    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potentially powerful paleoredox proxy that may track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the global burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ∼20 thousand years, which is longer than the ocean mixing time, and it has been inferred that modern oxic seawater is conservative with respect to both concentration and isotopes. Marine sources of Tl have nearly identical isotopic values. Therefore, the Tl sinks, adsorption onto manganese oxides and low temperature oceanic crust alteration (the dominant seawater output), are the primary controls of the seawater isotopic composition. For relatively short-term, ∼million years, redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant mechanism that alters the Tl isotopic composition of seawater is associated with manganese oxide burial because large variability in low temperature ocean crust alteration is controlled by long-term, multi-million years, average ocean crust production rates. This study presents new Tl isotope data for an open ocean transect in the South Atlantic, and depth transects for two euxinic basins (anoxic and free sulfide in the water column), the Cariaco Basin and Black Sea. The Tl isotopic signature of open ocean seawater in the South Atlantic was found to be homogeneous with ε205Tl = -6.0 ± 0.3 (±2 SD, n = 41) while oxic waters from Cariaco and the Black Sea are -5.6 and -2.2, respectively. Combined with existing data from the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, our Atlantic data establish the conservatism of Tl isotopes in the global ocean. In contrast, partially- and predominantly-restricted basins reveal Tl isotope differences that vary between open-ocean (-6) and continental material (-2) ε205Tl, scaling with the degree of restriction. Regardless of the differences between basins, Tl is quantitatively removed from their euxinic waters below the chemocline. The burial of Tl in euxinic sediments is estimated to be an order of magnitude

  15. Sodium dithionite as a selective demasking agent for the complexometric determination of thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sodium dithionite is proposed as a new demasking agent for the rapid and selective complexometric determination of thallium(III. In the presence of diverse metal ions, thallium (III was first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTAwas then titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer using Xylenol Orange as the indicator. The EDTAequivalent to thallium was then released selectively with sodium dithionite and back titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results were obtained in the range 4–100 mg of thallium with a relative error of ±27 % and a coefficient of variation (n = 6 of not more than 0.30 %. The effects of various diverse ions were studied. The method was applied to the determination of thallium in its complexes and in alloys.

  16. Chemistry and phase evolution during roasting of toxic thallium-bearing pyrite. (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Garrido, Fernando


    In the frame of a research project on microscopic distribution and speciation of geogenic thallium (Tl) from contaminated mine soils, Tl-bearing pyrite ore samples from Riotinto mining district (Huelva, SW Spain) were experimentally fired to simulate a roasting process. Concentration and volatility behavior of Tl and other toxic heavy metals was determined by quantitative ICP-MS, whereas semi-quantitative mineral phase transitions were identified by in situ thermo X-Ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses after each firing temperature. Sample with initial highest amount of quartz (higher Si content), lowest quantity of pyrite and traces of jarosite (lower S content) developed hematite and concentrated Tl (from 10 up to 72 mg kg-1) after roasting at 900 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. However, samples with lower or absent quartz content and higher pyrite amount mainly developed magnetite, accumulating Tl between 400 and 500 °C and releasing Tl from 700 up to 900 °C (from 10-29 mg kg-1 down to 4-1 mg kg-1). These results show the varied accumulative, or volatile, behaviors of one of the most toxic elements for life and environment, in which oxidation of Tl-bearing Fe sulfides produce Fe oxides wastes with or without Tl. The initial chemistry and mineralogy of pyrite ores should be taken into account in coal-fired power stations, cement or sulfuric acid production industry involving pyrite roasting processes, and steel, brick or paint industries, which use iron ore from roasted pyrite ash, where large amounts of Tl entail significant environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Efficiency of hemoperfusion on clearing thallium based on atomic absorption spectrometry]. (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Wang, Yongan; Nie, Zhiyong; Wang, Jiao; Peng, Xiaobo; Yuan, Ye; Li, Wanhua; Qiu, Zewu; Xue, Yanping; Xiong, Yiru


    To determine thallium in whole blood by atomic absorption detection method, and to investigate the eliminating effect of hemoperfusion (HP) for thallium in blood. The blood of Beagle dogs which had not exposed to thallium before were obtained for preparation of thallium nitrate ( TlNO3 )-containing solution in three concentrations according to the conversion formula based on animal weight and volume of blood. HP was performed in the simulated in vivo environment. The content of TlNO3 in blood of the next group was determined on the amount of TlNO3 for the last HP of the former dose group. Thallium quantity in different samples was measured with atomic absorption spectrometer blood samples before and after HP. Finally, the thallium concentration in blood was analyzed statistically. Thallium concentrations showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0-200 μg/L (r = 0.998 4). The intra-day precision (RSD) was lower than 4.913%, the intra-day recovery rate was 96.2%-111.9%; the inter-day precision (RSD) was lower than 7.502%, the inter-day recovery rate was 89.6%-105.2%. The concentration of thallium in blood was significantly reduced after HP per time in high, middle, and low dose groups [(453.43 ± 27.80) mg/L to (56.09 ± 14.44) mg/L in high dose group, F = 8.820, P = 0.003; (64.51 ± 13.60) mg/L to (3.19 ± 0.23) mg/L in middle dose group, F = 36.312, P = 0.000; (5.40 ± 0.98) mg/L to (0.38 ± 0.25) mg/L in low dose group, F = 46.240, P = 0.000 ]. The adsorption rate of four times of HP in high, middle and low dose group were (87.63 ± 2.48 )%, (95.06 ± 1.54 )% and (92.76 ± 4.87)%, respectively, without significant difference (F = 4.231, P = 0.070). The method for measuring thallium was established, and it shows a very stable, simple, sensitive for determination of thallium. HP can effectively remove thallium from blood. Thallium concentration can be reduced by 90% after four times of HP. HP is also effective even when thallium concentration is not high.

  18. Left ventricular dilatation and pulmonary thallium uptake after single-photon emission computer tomography using thallium-201 during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Nguyen, T.; Lyons, E.; Paugh, E. (Philadelphia Heart Institute, PA (USA))


    This study examined the implications of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and increased pulmonary thallium uptake during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia. The lung-to-heart thallium ratio in the initial images was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) than normal subjects; 0.48 +/- 0.16 in 3-vessel disease (n = 16), 0.43 +/- 0.10 in 2-vessel disease (n = 20), 0.43 +/- 0.08 in 1-vessel disease (n = 16) and 0.36 +/- 0.05 in normal subjects (n = 7) (p less than 0.001, 0.09 and 0.06, respectively). There was a significant correlation between the severity and the extent of the perfusion abnormality (determined from the polar maps) and the lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.51 and 0.52, respectively, p less than 0.0002). There was also a significant correlation between lung thallium washout and lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.42, p = 0.0009) and peak heart rate (r = -0.49, p less than 0.0001). The LV dilatation was mostly due to an increase in cavity dimension (30% increase) and to a lesser extent (6% increase) due to increase in LV size. (The cavity dimensions were measured from the short-axis slices at the midventricular level in the initial and delayed images). The dilation was seen in patients with CAD but not in the normal subjects. These changes correlated with the extent and severity of the thallium perfusion abnormality. Thus, adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia may cause LV dilation and increased lung thallium uptake on the basis of subendocardial ischemia.

  19. Early detection of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by exercise-redistribution Thallium scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Wijns (William); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)


    textabstractThe value of exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in predicting recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis after a primary successful transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was prospectively evaluated. In 89 patients, a symptom-limited exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and

  20. Oral zinc sulphate in treatment of patients with thallium poisoning: A clinical therapeutic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Thallium poisoning is usually associated with typical dermatological features simulating that of zinc deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of patients with thallium poisoning.Materials and methods: This clinical therapeutic trial study was conducted in Departments of Dermatology of Baghdad and Basrah Teaching Hospitals from February 2008 - February 2010, where a total of 37 patients with thallium poisoning were enrolled.A detailed history was taken from all patients and complete clinical examination was performed. All patients received zinc sulphate in a dose of 5 mg/kg three times a day few days before confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. Thallium in urine had been measured using the colorimetric method and was positive in all patients. After confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning, thallium antidotes Prussian blue was given to 32 patients.Results: Age range of 37 patients was 5-33 (24±5.3 years. The dermatological findings were mainly: anagen hair loss affected the scalp and limbs. Also, dusky ecchymotic red dermatitis like rash was observed on the face and dorsum of hands and legs, while neurological manifestations were mainly of peripheral neuropathy, were reported in 21 (55% patients. All patients but two responded promptly to a trial of zinc sulphate within few days.Conclusion: Oral Zinc sulphate appears to be an effective and safe treatment for thallium poisoning particularly for skin and hair features and in reducing its lethal progression and complications. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:133-7

  1. Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices (United States)


    THALLIUM(I) IN REVERSE OSMOSIS AND CHLORINATED WATER MATRICES ECBC-TR-1127 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Apr 2010 - Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices... osmosis (RO) and RO water with added chlorine (RO-Cl) was measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for a period of

  2. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England. (United States)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew


    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L(-1)) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L(-1) were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative evaluation of coronary flow during anesthetic induction using thallium-201 perfusion scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, B.; Henkin, R.E.; Glisson, S.N.; el-Etr, A.A.; Bakhos, M.; Sullivan, H.J.; Montoya, A.; Pifarre, R.


    Qualitative distribution of coronary flow using thallium-201 perfusion scans immediately postintubation was studied in 22 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Ten patients received a thiopental (4 mg/kg) and halothane induction. Twelve patients received a fentanyl (100 micrograms/kg) induction. Baseline thallium-201 perfusion scans were performed 24 h prior to surgery. These scans were compared with the scans performed postintubation. A thallium-positive scan was accepted as evidence of relative hypoperfusion. Baseline hemodynamic and ECG data were obtained prior to induction of anesthesia. These data were compared with the data obtained postintubation. Ten patients developed postintubation thallium-perfusion scan defects (thallium-positive scan), even though there was no statistical difference between their baseline hemodynamics and hemodynamics at the time of intubation. There was no difference in the incidence of thallium-positive scans between those patients anesthetized by fentanyl and those patients anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. The authors conclude that relative hypoperfusion, and possibly ischemia, occurred in 45% of patients studied, despite stable hemodynamics, and that the incidence of these events was the same with two different anesthetic techniques.

  4. Sulfidation kinetics of silver nanoparticles reacted with metal sulfides. (United States)

    Thalmann, Basilius; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaegi, Ralf


    Recent studies have documented that the sulfidation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP), possibly released to the environment from consumer products, occurs in anoxic zones of urban wastewater systems and that sulfidized Ag-NP exhibit dramatically reduced toxic effects. However, whether Ag-NP sulfidation also occurs under oxic conditions in the absence of bisulfide has not been addressed, yet. In this study we, therefore, investigated whether metal sulfides that are more resistant toward oxidation than free sulfide, could enable the sulfidation of Ag-NP under oxic conditions. We reacted citrate-stabilized Ag-NP of different sizes (10-100 nm) with freshly precipitated and crystalline CuS and ZnS in oxygenated aqueous suspensions at pH 7.5. The extent of Ag-NP sulfidation was derived from the increase in dissolved Cu(2+) or Zn(2+) over time and linked with results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of selected samples. The sulfidation of Ag-NP followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate coefficients increasing with decreasing Ag-NP diameter and increasing metal sulfide concentration and depending on the type (CuS and ZnS) and crystallinity of the reacting metal sulfide. Results from analytical electron microscopy revealed the formation of complex sulfidation patterns that seemed to follow preexisting subgrain boundaries in the pristine Ag-NP. The kinetics of Ag-NP sulfidation observed in this study in combination with reported ZnS and CuS concentrations and predicted Ag-NP concentrations in wastewater and urban surface waters indicate that even under oxic conditions and in the absence of free sulfide, Ag-NP can be transformed into Ag2S within a few hours to days by reaction with metal sulfides.

  5. Comparison of thallium deposition with segmental perfusion in pigs with chronic hibernating myocardium. (United States)

    Baldwa, Sunil; Rana, Muzamil; Canty, John M; Fallavollita, James A


    Viable, chronically dysfunctional myocardium with reduced resting flow (or hibernating myocardium) is an important prognostic factor in ischemic heart disease. Although thallium-201 imaging is frequently used to assess myocardial viability in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, there are limited data regarding its deposition in hibernating myocardium, and this data suggest that thallium retention may be supernormal compared with control myocardium. Accordingly, pigs (n=7) were chronically instrumented with a 1.5 mm Delrin stenosis on the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to produce hibernating myocardium. Four months later, severe anteroapical hypokinesis was documented with contrast ventriculography (wall motion score, 0.7+/-0.8; normal=3), and microsphere measurements confirmed reduced resting flow (LAD subendocardium, 0.78+/-0.34 vs. 0.96+/-0.24 ml.min(-1).g(-1) in remote; P<0.001). Absolute deposition of thallium-201 and insulin-stimulated [18F]-2 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) were assessed over 1 h and compared with resting flow (n=704 samples). Thallium-201 deposition was only weakly correlated with perfusion (r2=0.20; P<0.001) and was more homogeneously distributed (relative dispersion, 0.12+/-0.03 vs. 0.29+/-0.10 for microsphere flow; P<0.01). Thus after 1 h relative thallium-201 (subendocardium LAD/remote, 0.96+/-0.16) overestimated relative perfusion (0.78+/-0.32; P<0.0001) and underestimated the relative reduction in flow. Viability was confirmed by both histology and preserved FDG uptake. We conclude that under resting conditions, thallium-201 redistribution in hibernating myocardium is nearly complete within 1 h, with similar deposition to remote myocardium despite regional differences in flow. These data suggest that in this time frame thallium-201 deposition may not discriminate hibernating myocardium from dysfunction myocardium with normal resting flow. Since hibernating myocardium has been associated with a worse prognosis

  6. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of {sup 201}TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse (Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per {sup 201}TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl<2.5 have been conservatively managed because of slow tumour growth. The other two pts have Tl>3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid {sup 201}TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid {sup 201}TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, {sup 201}TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited

  7. Evaluation of muscular lesions in connective tissue diseases: thallium 201 muscular scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, G.; Guillet, J.; Sanciaume, C.; Maleville, J.; Geniaux, M.; Morin, P.


    We performed thallium 201 muscle scans to assess muscular involvement in 40 patients with different connective tissue diseases (7 with dermatomyositis, 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12 with progressive systemic scleroderma, 2 with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, 3 with monomelic scleroderma, 6 with morphea, and 3 with Raynaud's disease). Only 12 of these patients complained of fatigability and/or myalgia. Electromyography was performed and serum levels of muscle enzymes were measured in all patients. Comparison of thallium 201 exercise recording with the other tests revealed that scan sensitivity is greater than electromyographic and serum muscle enzymes levels. Thallium 201 scans showed abnormal findings in 32 patients and revealed subclinical lesions in 18 patients, while electromyography findings were abnormal in 25 of these 32 patients. Serum enzyme levels were raised in only 8 patients. Thallium 201 scanning proved to be a useful guide for modifying therapy when laboratory data were conflicting. It was useful to evaluate treatment efficacy. Because our data indicate a 100% positive predictive value, we believe that thallium 201 scanning should be advised for severe systemic connective tissue diseases with discordant test results.

  8. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro (Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine)


    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV{sub F} on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author).

  9. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  10. Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)


    Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Liu, Dezhao; Hansen, Michael Jørgen


    oxidizing bacteria but several fungal families including Trichocomaceae. A positive correlation was found between the presence of mold and sulfide uptake. However there have been no reports on fungi metabolizing hydrogen sulfide. We hypothesize that the mold increases the air exposed surface, enabling...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  12. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Dezhao, Liu; Hansen, Michael Jørgen

    oxidizing bacteria but several fungal families including Trichocomaceae. A positive correlation was found between the presence of mold and sulfide uptake. However there have been no reports on fungi metabolizing hydrogen sulfide. We hypothesize that the mold increases the air exposed surface, enabling...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  13. [Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of thallium in blood]. (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Gao, G


    Colloidal palladium was used as chemical modifier in the determination of blood thallium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood samples were precipitated with 5% (V/V)nitric acid, and then determined by GFAAS with colloidal palladium used as a chemical modifier. 0.2% (W/V)sodium chloride was added in the standard series to improve the matrix matching between standard solution and sample. The detection limit was 0.2 μg/L. The correlation coefficient was 0.9991. The recoveries were between 93.9% to 101.5%.The relative standard deviations were between 1.8% to 2.7%.The certified reference material of whole blood thallium was determined and the result was within the reference range Conclusion: The method is accurate, simple and sensitive, and it can meet the needs of detection thallium in blood entirely.

  14. Myocardial perfusion defect on thallium-201 imaging in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, P.P.; Weaver, Y.J.; Higginbotham, E.A.


    Six patients with angina pectoris had reversible perfusion defects on stress and redistribution thallium imaging. Three patients had a positive electrocardiographic response to exercise. No significant coronary artery lesions were seen on coronary arteriography in any of the six patients. All had mild to moderate hypoxemia at rest and physiologic evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by the decrease in the ratio of forced expiratory volume at 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC X 100) or decrease in the forced midexpiratory flow rate (FEF25-75), or both. None had clinical findings suggestive of any of the reported causes of positive thallium scans in patients with normal coronary arteriograms. Cellular dysfunction produced by hypoxemia affecting the uptake of thallium seems to be the most likely mechanism of this abnormality.

  15. Early and delayed thallium-201 scintigraphy in thyroid nodules: the relationship between early thallium-201 uptake and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derebek, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Biberoglu, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Kut, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yesil, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Saydam, S. [Dept. of Surgery, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yenici, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Igci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Gokce, O. [Dept. of Surgery, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Canda, S. [Dept. of Pathology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bueyuekgebiz, A. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Dogan, A.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Durak, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)


    Seventy-six patients with tyroid nodules were studied. Initially, 75 MBq of thallium-201 was injected. The thyroid gland was imaged 15 min (early) and 3 h (delayed) after the injection. Thereafter, 185 MBq technetium-99m pertechnetate was injected. Immediately after the injection, a 1-min perfusion image was acquired, followed by an image at 20 min. Increased early and delayed {sup 201}Tl uptake compared with the contralateral thyroid tissue was adopted as the criterion for malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive values were found to be 85%, 64% and 78%, respectively, in operated patients, but these values were 86%, 87% and 95%, respectively, in the whole group, including patients followed with fine-needle aspiration biopsy. With the purpose of investigating the relationship between perfusion and early {sup 201}Tl uptake, bot perfusion and early images were graded comparing nodular activity with contralateral thyroid activity. There was a poor correlation between perfusion and {sup 201}Tl uptake. The correlation was even worse in hyperactive nodules. It is concluded that early and delayed {sup 201}Tl imaging should not be used in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules and that early {sup 201}Tl uptake seems to be more closely related to factors other than perfusion. (orig.)

  16. Hydrogen sulfide intoxication. (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee L


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazard primarily in the oil and gas industry, agriculture, sewage and animal waste handling, construction (asphalt operations and disturbing marshy terrain), and other settings where organic material decomposes under reducing conditions, and in geothermal operations. It is an insoluble gas, heavier than air, with a very low odor threshold and high toxicity, driven by concentration more than duration of exposure. Toxicity presents in a unique, reliable, and characteristic toxidrome consisting, in ascending order of exposure, of mucosal irritation, especially of the eye ("gas eye"), olfactory paralysis (not to be confused with olfactory fatigue), sudden but reversible loss of consciousness ("knockdown"), pulmonary edema (with an unusually favorable prognosis), and death (probably with apnea contributing). The risk of chronic neurcognitive changes is controversial, with the best evidence at high exposure levels and after knockdowns, which are frequently accompanied by head injury or oxygen deprivation. Treatment cannot be initiated promptly in the prehospital phase, and currently rests primarily on supportive care, hyperbaric oxygen, and nitrite administration. The mechanism of action for sublethal neurotoxicity and knockdown is clearly not inhibition of cytochrome oxidase c, as generally assumed, although this may play a role in overwhelming exposures. High levels of endogenous sulfide are found in the brain, presumably relating to the function of hydrogen sulfide as a gaseous neurotransmitter and immunomodulator. Prevention requires control of exposure and rigorous training to stop doomed rescue attempts attempted without self-contained breathing apparatus, especially in confined spaces, and in sudden release in the oil and gas sector, which result in multiple avoidable deaths. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity. (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  18. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  19. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta


    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  20. New CZT cardiac cameras and myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium 201; Nouvelles cameras cardiaques a semi-conducteur cadmium -zinc- telluride (CZT) et scintigraphies myocardiques au thallium 201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songy, B. [Service de medecine et imagerie nucleaire, centre cardiologique du Nord (CCN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)


    Myocardial perfusion imaging is widely used for management of coronary artery disease. However, it suffers from technical limitations. New cardiac cameras using CZT detectors are now available and increase spatial (x2) and energy (x2) resolutions and photons sensitivity (x5). We describe here the General Electric Discovery NM 530c new camera and summarize the validation studies with technetium agents and with thallium 201, protocols to reduce doses, ultrafast protocols and perspectives offered with this new technology. (author)

  1. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.


    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  2. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the diagnostic use of thallium-201 in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, K.T. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)); Donohoe, K.J. (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Baxter, Barbara; Memisoglu, Asli; Little, J.B.; Caggana, Michele; Liber, H.L. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))


    In order to investigate possible mutagenetic effects of in vivo exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation used in nuclear medicine, the authors examined hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutant fraction (MF) and chromosome aberration (CA) frequency in 24 nuclear medicine patients before and after injection of thallium-201. The mean MF of the thallium-201-exposed cohort was 5.2{+-}4.4 x 10{sup -6} before injection exposure. No significant difference in MF was observed 24 h later. In 11 patients who were studied on a 3rd occasion, 30 days after thallium-201 exposure, there was again no significant difference in post-exposure as compared with the pre-exposure MF. The frequency of CA in peripheral blood lymphocytes was not significantly different, comparing pre- and 24h to 1 month post-radionuclide exposure . Thus, thallium-201 exposure was not associated with significant elevations in MF or CA frequency in lymphocytes of exposed individuals. (author). 40 refs.; 3 tabs.

  3. Systematics of c-axis Phonons in the Thallium- and Bismuth-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A. A; Dulic, D.; Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Kaljushnaia, G. A.; Gorina, J. I.; Senturina, N. N.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Ren, Z. F.; Wang, J. H.; Menovsky, A. A.; Palstra, T. T. M.


    Published in: Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 13196 Citing articles (CrossRef) citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present grazing incidence reflectivity measurements in the far infrared region at temperatures above and below Tc for a series of thallium (Tl2Ba2CuO6, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8) and

  4. Dipyridamole-thallium-201 tomography documenting improved myocardial perfusion with therapy in Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Spielmann, R.P.; Hausdorf, G.


    Thallium-201 tomographic perfusion studies after pharmacologic vasodilation were performed in seven children (aged 2 years 8 months to 8 years 7 months), 3 to 20 months after the acute stage of the disease. In all patients coronary aneurysms were seen on cross-sectional echocardiograms. The scintigrams of six children showed no significant regional reduction of myocardial thallium-201 uptake. These children had remained asymptomatic in the follow-up period after the acute inflammatory stage of Kawasaki disease. Persistent and transient thallium defects were present in one child with acute posterolateral myocardial infarction; obstruction of two coronary vessels supplying the defect zones was confirmed by contrast angiography. After 8 months of treatment a follow-up nuclear scan showed marked reduction in the size of the defect and almost complete abolishment of the ischemic reaction. Thus tomographic thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy in conjunction with vasodilation stress is useful to assess myocardial perfusion in children with Kawasaki disease and demonstrates marked improvement in regional perfusion after adequate medical therapy.

  5. Complexometric determination of thallium(III using ethanethiol as a selective masking agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan J.


    Full Text Available A simple and selective complexometric method for the determination of thallium in presence of other metal ions is proposed based on the selective masking ability of ethanethiol towards thallium(III. Thallium present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5-6(hexamine using xylenol orange as the indicator. A 0.3% aqueous solution of ethanethiol is then added to displace EDTA from the Tl(III-EDTA complex. The released EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 3.70 mg to 74.07 mg of Tl (III with relative error less than ? 0.44% and coefficient of variation not more than 0.27%. The interference of various ions was studied and the method was used for the analysis of thallium in its synthetic alloy mixtures and also in complexes.

  6. Thallium-201: Autoradiography in pigmented mice and melanin-binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjaelve, H.; Nilsson, M.; Larsson, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))


    Autoradiography with /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in C57Bl mice showed a strong labelling of the eye melanin and of pigmented hair follicles. An analysis of the affinity of thallium for pigment from cow eyes indicated a binding to three groups of sites and showed a marked sensitivity to the addition of H/sup +/-ions. The results are consistent with the conception that a binding of thallium occurs to the free carboxyl groups of the melanin and that the structure of the polymer has a marked influence on the affinity. Similar results have previously been obtained with other cations. There was no indication that the strong in vivo affinity of thallium to melanin is due to a more firm binding than for other cations which do not localize on melanin in vivo. Instead, the ability of cations to pass the melanocyte membranes and reach the melanin granules is probably decisive for whether a melanin-binding will take place in vivo. Toxic effects on the eye and epilation are symptoms of thallium intoxication which may be related to its melanin-binding. The fate of /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in some other tissues is also described and discussed.

  7. Laser-assisted decay and optical spectroscopy studies of neutron-deficient thallium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beveren, Céline; Huyse, Mark

    The neutron-deficient thallium isotopes with one proton less than the Z = 82 shell closure, are situated in an interesting region of the nuclear chart, notorious for intruder states and shape coexistence. Shape coexistence is the remarkable phenomenon in which two or more distinct types of deformation occur at low energy in the same atomic nucleus. Shape coexistence has been studied intensively, experimentally as well as theoretically in different nuclei in the light-lead region and the isomerism in the thallium isotopes was among the first indications of this phenomenon. Different shapes, whose structure has been linked to specific proton orbitals above and below the Z = 82 shell closure, are present at low energy in the neutron-deficient odd-mass thallium nuclei. In the odd-odd nuclei, the coupling of an unpaired proton and unpaired neutron gives rise to multiplets of low-lying states from which some can be isomeric. Since thallium has one proton missing in the major proton shell, and when approaching neutr...

  8. Clinical features and applications of thallium-201. With reference to scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige


    Thallium-201 is not only used widely in myocardial imaging but also has a great potential in other various nuclear medicine imaging studies. This paper presents clinical features and applications of thallium-201, focusing on clinical trials with thallium-201 at the Shinshu University School of Medicine. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy offers information on (1) ventricular position and morphology, (2) hypertrophy or dilatation of the left ventricle, (3) hypertrophy or dilatation of the right ventricle, (4) site and extent of myocardial ischemia and infarct, (5) myocardial blood flow, (6) pulmonary congestion or interstitial pulmonary edema, and (7) pericardial effusion. It can be used in the following evaluation or diagnosis: (1) acute or old myocardial infarction, (2) angina pectoris, (3) treatment strategy or prognosis of ischemic heart disease, (4) treatment strategy or observation of bypass graft or drug therapy, (5) hypertrophic or dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy, (6) myocardial lesions induced by sarcoidosis, collagen disease, and neuro-muscular disease, (7) ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary edema, and (9) pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and systolic pericarditis associated with underlying disease. The significance of tumor, liver, bone marrow scintigraphies is also referred to. (Namekawa, K) 69 refs.

  9. Optimised thallium precipitation in a waste water treatment system of the flue gas desulphurisation; Optimierte Thalliumabscheidung einer RAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzerfeld, Guenter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany); Birngruber, Ingolf [RWE Power AG, Hamm (Germany); Muelder, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Ibbenbueren (Germany)


    When co-combusting substitute fuels in power plants, the element Thallium should be checked in the drain of the waste water treatment system of flue gas desulphurisation. In 2005 Thallium-concentrations exceeding the limit value were determined for the first time as a consequence of the modified analysis of the supervisory authority. The previous lower Thallium concentrations with graphite tube-atomic absorption spectrometry were caused by the high chloride concentration in RAA waste water. The RAA operating mode was checked and changed. Equipment-related weak spots were detected and corrected. (orig.)

  10. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong


    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  11. Thermodynamic Study of Tl6SBr4 Compound and Some Regularities in Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chalcohalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Mahammad Babanly


    Full Text Available The solid-phase diagram of the Tl-TlBr-S system was clarified and the fundamental thermodynamic properties of Tl6SBr4 compound were studied on the basis of electromotive force (EMF measurements of concentration cells relative to a thallium electrode. The EMF results were used to calculate the relative partial thermodynamic functions of thallium in alloys and the standard integral thermodynamic functions (-ΔfG0, -ΔfH0, and S0298 of Tl6SBr4 compound. All data regarding thermodynamic properties of thallium chalcogen-halides are generalized and comparatively analyzed. Consequently, certain regularities between thermodynamic functions of thallium chalcogen-halides and their binary constituents as well as degree of ionization (DI of chemical bonding were revealed.



    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov


    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  13. A calixarene-based ion-selective electrode for thallium(I) detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Ryan [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Sohail, Manzar [Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4556 (Australia); Ogden, Mark I.; Mocerino, Mauro [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Pretsch, Ernö [ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zürich (Switzerland); De Marco, Roland, E-mail: [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4556 (Australia)


    Highlights: • Tuning of metal binding cavities in thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Novel calixarene-based ionophores with improved selectivity for thallium(I). • Sandwich membrane characterization of thallium(I) binding in novel calixarenes. • Improved selectivity and sensitivity with novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Solid contact ion-selective electrodes for novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. - Abstract: Three new calixarene Tl{sup +} ionophores have been utilized in Tl{sup +} ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) yielding Nernstian response in the concentration range of 10{sup −2}–10{sup −6} M TlNO{sub 3} with a non-optimized filling solution in a conventional liquid contact ISE configuration. The complex formation constants (log β{sub IL}) for two of the calixarene derivatives with thallium(I) (i.e. 6.44 and 5.85) were measured using the sandwich membrane technique, with the other ionophore immeasurable due to eventual precipitation of the ionophore during these long-term experiments. Furthermore, the unbiased selectivity coefficients for these ionophores displayed excellent selectivity against Zn{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} with moderate selectivity against Pb{sup 2+}, Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, H{sup +}, K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cs{sup +}, noting that silver was the only significant interferent with these calixarene-based ionophores. When optimizing the filling solution in a liquid contact ISE, it was possible to achieve a lower limit of detection of approximately 8 nM according to the IUPAC definition. Last, the new ionophores were also evaluated in four solid-contact (SC) designs leading to Nernstian response, with the best response noted with a SC electrode utilizing a gold substrate, a poly(3-octylthiophene) (POT) ion-to-electron transducer and a poly(methyl methacrylate)–poly(decyl methacrylate) (PMMA–PDMA) co-polymer membrane. This electrode exhibited a slope of 58.4 mV decade

  14. Thallium Flux Assay for Measuring the Activity of Monovalent Cation Channels and Transporters. (United States)

    Weaver, C David


    Monovalent cation channels are critically important for physiological processes ranging from the control of neuronal excitability to the maintenance of solute balance. Mutations in these channels are associated with a multiplicity of diseases and monovalent cation channel-modulating drugs are used as therapeutics. Techniques that allow the measurement of the activity of these ion channels are useful for exploring their many biological roles as well as enabling the discovery and characterization of ion channel modulators for the purposes of drug discovery. Although there are numerous techniques for measuring the activity of monovalent cation channels, the thallium flux assay technique is a widely used fluorescence-based approach. Described herein is a method for using the thallium-flux technique for detecting and quantifying the activity of small-molecule potassium channel modulators in 384-well plates.

  15. Comparative studies on right ventricular pressure and volume overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, K.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kijima, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ono, K. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))


    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 44 patients with various heart diseases including mitral stenosis, atrial septal defect, primary pulmonary hypertension, and left atrial myxoma. The morphological findings of right ventricular (RV) free wall on the scintigram and RV/IVS (interventricular septum) uptake ratio of the images obtained from the left anterior oblique projection were studied in the patients with RV pressure or volume overloading.

  16. Tunable frequency-stabilization of UV laser using a Hallow-Cathode Lamp of atomic thallium

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Shy, Jow-Tsong; Liu, Yi-Wei


    A frequency-stabilized ultraviolet laser system, locked to the thallium resonant transition of 377.5 nm, was demonstrated using a novel bichromatic spectroscopy technique for tuning the zero-crossing laser-lock point. The atomic thallium system is a promising candidate in atomic parity violation and permanent electric dipole moment experiments, and its 377.5 nm 6P1/2->7S1/2 transition is important for thallium laser cooling and trapping experiment. The pressure shift, owing to the high pressure bu?er gas of the hollow-cathode lamp, was observed using an atomic beam resonance as reference. Such a shift was corrected by adjusting the peak ratio of the two Doppler-free saturation pro?les resulted from two pumping beams with a 130 MHz frequency di?erence. The resulted frequency stability of the ultraviolet laser is ?0.5 MHz at 0.1 sec integration time. This scheme is compact and versatile for stabilizing UV laser systems, which acquire a sub-MHz stability and frequency tunability.

  17. Detection of human collateral circulation by vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Salge, D.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Bleifeld, W. (University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.))


    Coronary arteriolar vasodilation may provoke redistribution of flow to collateral-dependent jeopardized myocardium. To assess the physiologic significance of collaterals, 80 consecutive post-infarction patients (age 58 +/- 8 years) underwent vasodilation-redistribution thallium-201 tomographic imaging after administration of 0.56 mg of intravenous dipyridamole/kg body weight. Circumferential profile analysis of thallium-201 uptake and redistribution in representative left ventricular tomograms provided quantitative assessment of transient and fixed defects and separation between periinfarctional and distant inducible hypoperfusion. Tomographic perfusion data were correlated to wall motion and collateral circulation between distinct anatomic perfusion territories. Patients were grouped according to presence (59%) or absence (41%) of angiographically visible collateral channels to jeopardized myocardium. In the presence of collaterals, distant reversible defects were larger than in absence of collaterals (p less than 0.05); the extent of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution was also larger in collateralized patients (p less than 0.025), whereas the size of the persistent perfusion defect was similar in both groups. By prospective analysis the tomographic perfusion pattern of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution revealed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 78% for the detection of significant collateral circulation in this group of patients. Thus, using the exhausted flow reserve as a diagnostic tool, vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography has the potential to identify and quantitate collateralized myocardium in post-infarction patients and may guide diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making.

  18. [Characterization of kale (Brassica oberacea var acephala) under thallium stress by in situ attenuated total reflection FTIR]. (United States)

    Yao, Yan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-Chun; Chen, Yong-Heng


    The experiment was designed based on consumption of carbon dioxide through the photosynthesis of Brassica oberacea var acephala leaf, and the photosynthesis of kale leaf under thallium stress was investigated by in situ attenuated total reflection FTIR (in situ ATR-FTIR). The ATR-FTIR showed that the absorption peaks of leaves had no obvious difference between plants growing in thallium stress soil and plants growing in non-thallium pollution soil, and the strong peaks at 3,380 cm(-1) could be assigned to the absorption of water, carbohydrate, protein or amide; the strong peaks at 2,916 and 2,850 cm(-1) assigned to the absorption of carbohydrate or aliphatic compound; the peaks at 1,640 cm(-1) assigned to the absorption of water. However, as detected by the in situ ATR-FTIR, the double peaks (negative peaks) at 2,360 and 2,340 cm(-1) that are assigned to the absorption of CO2 appeared and became high gradually. It was showed that kale was carrying photosynthesis. At the same time, the carbon dioxide consumption speed of leaf under thallium stress was obviously larger than that of the blank It was expressed that photosynthesis under thallium stress was stronger than the blank All these represented that kale had certain tolerance to the heavy metal thallium. Meanwhile, the carbon dioxide consumption of grown-up leaf was more than that of young leaf whether or not under thallium stress. It was also indicated that the intensity of photosynthesis in grown-up leaf is higher than that in young leaf.



    T. Lupascu; M. Ciobanu; V. Botan; T. Gromovoy; S. Cibotaru


    The process of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the underground water of the Hancesti town has been investigated. By oxygen bubbling through the water containing hydrogen sulfide, from the Hancesti well tube, sulfur is deposited in the porous structure of studied catalysts, which decreases their catalytic activity. Concomitantly, the process of adsorption / oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate take place. The kinetic research of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the Hancesti underground ...

  20. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  1. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  2. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S...

  3. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne


    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses. In contrast seegrasses grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to sulfide intrusion. Little is known about the strategies to survive sulfide intrusion, if there are detoxification mechanisms and sulfur ...

  4. Thallium and manganese complexes involved in the luminescence emission of potassium-bearing aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel A., E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, Javier, E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Garrido, Fernando, E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Townsend, Peter D., E-mail: [School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Marco, Jose-Francisco, E-mail: [Instituto de Química-Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Calle Serrano 119, Madrid E-28006 (Spain)


    The luminescence emission at 285 nm in natural K-feldspar has been studied by Russian groups and associated with thallium ions in structural positions of K{sup +} sites as artificially thallium-doped feldspars display the same emission band. Here attention is focussed on spectra of CL emission bands centered near 285 and 560 nm from paragenetic adularia, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions. With accesorial thallium they show clear resemblances to each other. Associated sedimentary and hydrothermal aluminosilicate samples collected from Guadalix (Madrid, Spain) were analyzed with a wide range of experimental techniques including Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) with an attached X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and a cathodoluminescence probe (CL) and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Differential and Thermogravimetric Analyses (DTA-TG), radioluminescence (RL), Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). The luminescence emission bands at 285 and 560 nm seem to be associated with hydrous thallium–manganese complexes bonded to potassium-bearing aluminosilicates since various minerals such as K-feldspar, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions display similar CL spectra, accesorial thallium and hydroxyl groups. The presence of iron introduces a brown color which is attributed to submicroscopic iron oxides detectable in the optical and chemical microanalysis, but this does not contribute to the luminescence emission. The XPS Mn 2p spectrum of the adularia sample at room temperature is composed of a spin–orbit doublet plus clear shake-up satellite structure ∼4 eV above the main photoemision lines and is consistent with Mn{sup 2+} in good agreement with the observed luminescence emission at 560 nm for aluminosilicates produced by a {sup 4}T1({sup 4}G)→{sup 6}A1({sup 6}S) transition in tetrahedrally

  5. Diagnostic value of 123I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic and thallium 201 perfusion imaging in stable coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Walamies, M; Turjanmaa, V; Koskinen, M; Uusitalo, A


    The diagnostic value of 123I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic cardiac imaging was studied in a group (n = 29) of patients with angiographically confirmed CAD using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A symptom-limited exercise test was first done with IPPA, and 2 days later with thallium. Medications were not withheld during testing. Fourteen healthy control subjects participated in parallel IPPA and 15 in thallium tests. Data acquisition and output were comparable in the two imaging modalities. By testing various relatively simple criteria for abnormality we found that the semiquantitative interpretation was more accurate than the visual readings. The best compromise of accuracy with the scored criteria consisted of a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 86%, obtained with IPPA polar tomograms (mild exercise defect) and a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 80% obtained with thallium (regionally decreased washout). With visual interpretation alone, a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 71% was detected with IPPA (mild exercise defect) and 72% and 73%, respectively, with thallium (partial reversibility). The sensitivity of the exercise ECG alone was 62%. The results of this study imply that IPPA imaging could be a rational, uncomplicated clinical method for non-invasive diagnosis of CAD. The diagnostic ability of IPPA is at least as good as that of thallium, and it is possible to use them in succession.

  6. Dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging: A new marker of triple-vessel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Ikeda, K.; Komatani, A.; Tsuiki, K.; Yasui, S. (Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))


    To investigate the significance and mechanism of dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging, we performed both dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging and dipyridamole radionuclide angiography on 83 patients with known angiograms. The dipyridamole/delayed ratio of the left ventricular dimension from the thallium-201 image was defined as the left ventricular dilatation ratio (LVDR). An LVDR greater than the mean + two standard deviations in patients without coronary artery disease was defined as abnormal. Twenty-two of 83 patients showed an abnormal LVDR, and 18 of the 22 patients (82%) had triple-vessel disease. By defect and washout analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying the patients as having triple-vessel disease was 72% and 76%, respectively, whereas LVDR had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 93%. When LVDR was used in combination with the defect and washout criteria, sensitivity increased to 84% without a loss of specificity. In those 22 patients with abnormal LVDRs, end-diastolic volume measured by radionuclide angiography did not change after dipyridamole infusion. Dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging reflected relative subendocardial hypoperfusion induced by dipyridamole rather than actual chamber enlargement. The LVDR was moderately sensitive and highly specific for triple-vessel disease and provided complementary information to dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lupascu


    Full Text Available The process of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the underground water of the Hancesti town has been investigated. By oxygen bubbling through the water containing hydrogen sulfide, from the Hancesti well tube, sulfur is deposited in the porous structure of studied catalysts, which decreases their catalytic activity. Concomitantly, the process of adsorption / oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate take place. The kinetic research of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the Hancesti underground water, after its treatment by hydrogen peroxide, proves greater efficiency than in the case of modified carbonic adsorbents. As a result of used treatment, hydrogen sulfide is completely oxidized to sulfates

  8. A preliminary investigation and evaluation of the thallium environmental impacts of the unmined Xiangquan thallium-only deposit in Hexian, China (United States)

    Zhou, Taofa; Fan, Yu; Yuan, Feng; Cooke, David; Zhang, Xin; Li, Liangjun


    The Xiangquan Thallium-only deposit in Hexian, east China is a newly found near-surface and unmined shallow-seated thallium deposit. The 250t Tl deposit is hosted in Lower Ordovician Lunshan Group as lenticular and confined by northeast F1, F2 faults. The metallic minerals are dominated by pyrite, more than 95% Tl occurs in pyrite as tiny individual grains or as ‘‘invisible thallium”. Tl and other trace elements pollution in ecosystems such as soils, surface and ground waters and water sediments, plants and crops, and animal and human beings in Xiangquan near the Tl ore deposit have been investigated and evaluated. Results show that Tl as well as As and Sb in ecosystems in Xiangquan around the deposit have enriched, they came from Tl-pyrite in the ore bodies and in the parent rocks of weathered soils on top of the ore bodies and went into the nearby ecosystems through weathering, leaching and dissolving. In 2 km2 around the Xiaolongwang Mountain where the Tl ore deposit seated, soils, vegetables, crops have been polluted or heavily polluted by Tl, As and Sb. Farmlands near the ore body are not fit to grow vegetables and crops. Thermal Spring water in Xiangquan town and pond water close to the Tl deposit are not potable. Tl also enriches in human hair and urinate of villagers who live close to the Tl deposit. Even through the Tl-only deposit has put clear environmental impacts on the local environment and ecosystems around it, no serious consequences of Tl pollution have so far taken place due to unmining of the Tl deposit as well as the screen effect of the silicficious breccia cap on top of it. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behavior in unmined Tl deposit, and also benefit to the local environmental protection and the future mineral resources exploration.

  9. {sup 201}Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellen, K


    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of {sup 201}Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imagingfor astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the

  10. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd


    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  11. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings induced by thallium. (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra; Glavas, Katarina; Roje, Vibor; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana


    Thallium (Tl) is a metal of great toxicological concern because it is highly toxic to all living organisms through mechanisms that are yet poorly understood. Since Tl is accumulated by important crops, the present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of Tl in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as well as the plant's antioxidative defense mechanisms usually activated by heavy metals. Thallium toxicity was related to production of reactive oxygen species in leaves and roots of broad bean seedlings following short-term (72 h) exposure to thallium (I) acetate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/L) by evaluating DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters as well as antioxidative response. The possible antagonistic effect of potassium (K) was tested by combined treatment with 5 mg/L of Tl (Tl+) and 10 mg/L of potassium (K+) acetate. Accumulation of Tl+ in roots was 50 to 250 times higher than in broad bean shoots and was accompanied by increase in dry weight and proline. Despite responsive antioxidative defense (increased activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and pyrogallol peroxidase), Tl+ caused oxidative damage to lipids and proteins as evaluated by malondialdehyde and carbonyl group levels, and induced DNA strand breaks. Combined treatment caused no oxidative alternations to lipids and proteins though it induced DNA damage. The difference in Tl-induced genotoxicity following both acellular and cellular exposure implies indirect DNA damage. Results obtained indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of Tl toxicity and that the tolerance of broad bean to Tl is achieved, at least in part, through the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Thallium Intoxication Treated with Long-Term Hemodialysis, Forced Diuresis and Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Solgaard, Per Bent; Freund, L. Gade


    A 56 yr old woman, who ingested 2 g of thallium sulfate, was successfully treated with long-term hemodialysis for 200 h during 10 days, combined with forced diuresis and Prussian blue. The effect of the artificial kidney dialysis was determined by repeated analysis of the Tl concentration...... in the dialysis bath and in blood samples. During the 1st 120 h of hemodialysis, 143 mg of Tl was eliminated via the artificial kidney and 110 mg via the urinary tract. The present case of acute Tl intoxication is the 1st in which long-term hemodialysis has been used in the acute phase...

  13. Experimental excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natural thallium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Rebeles, R., E-mail: [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Van den Winkel, P.; Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen H-4026 (Hungary)


    Excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natural thallium leading to the formation of {sup 204m,203m2+m1+g,202m,201m+g,200}Pb and {sup 202,201m+g,200m+g}Tl isotopes were determined up to 50 MeV. The cross sections were measured by an activation technique using stacked foil irradiation. The excitation functions of the investigated reactions are compared with data reported in literature and also with the theoretical results of TALYS nuclear reaction code. From the measured cross section data, the thick target yield for the medical interesting {sup 203}Pb isotope is calculated.

  14. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  15. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Szopa, Sebastian; Jabłońska, Magdalena; Łyko, Aleksandra


    Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices. PMID:22654649

  16. Evaluation of myocardial abnormalities in collagen diseases by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Kagoshima, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kiyotaka (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)) (and others)


    This study was performed to evaluate myocardial abnormalities in patients with collagen diseases by exercise and rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams. A total of 65 patients without ischemic ECG changes, consisting of 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 18 with polymyositis (PM), 8 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and 21 with Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS), was enrolled in this study. Reversible exercise-induced defects scintigraphically suggesting myocardial ischemia were noted in 8 cases of SLE, 4 cases of PM, 4 cases of PSS, and 3 cases of SjS. Nineteen patients had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization, 8 of whom had normal coronary angiograms. Fixed hypoperfusion areas were observed in one case of SLE, 6 cases of PM and 3 cases of SjS. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigram disclosed hypoperfusion areas which were not induced by exercise in 2 cases of SLE, 3 cases of PM, one case of PSS and 5 cases of SjS. Echocardiogram showed no significant differences in ejection fraction and % fractional shortening between the disease groups and healthy control group. These findings suggest that patients with collagen diseases have abnormalities of coronary circulation at the level of the intramural vasculature before cardiac function impairment, myocardial fibrosis and functional abnormalities at the cell membrane. (author).

  17. Follow-up Thallium-201 scintigraphy after mantle field radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierga, J.Y.; Girinski, T.; Henry-Amar, M. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)); Maunoury, C.; Valette, H.; Tchernia, G.; Desgrez, A. (Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)); Socie, G. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France) Hopital St Louis, Paris (France)); Cosset, J.M. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France) Institut Curie, Paris (France))


    Assessment of the long-term cardiac effects of mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease, by Thallium scintigraphy. 32 patients (14 males and 18 females) who underwent mantle field radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease were included in this study. Twenty patients received 4 fractions of 2.5 Gy per week and 12, five fraction of 2 Gy per week, delivered on alternate days. All the patients, except three, performed exercise testing electrocardiogram and Thallium-201 tomoscintigraphy. The average time interval from completion of treatment to the study was 7 years (range 3--13 years). No patients had clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Mean age at the time of the study was 35 years (range 23--48 years). Two electrocardiograms revealed left bundle branch block and the patients were excluded from the study. Only one out of 27 exercise electrocardiograms was abnormal in a patient with mitral valve prolapse, who was also excluded from the study. Twenty-six scintigraphies were evaluable. Twenty-two (85%) were clearly abnormal with partial or complete redistribution on delayed images. The anterior region was affected in 19 of these cases (86%). Four explorations were undoubtedly normal. Coronary angiography was not performed for ethical reasons in these asymptomatic patients. Despite possible false positive tests, the high rate of abnormality (85%) in this small series is striking. These preliminary data justify larger studies and a close long-term follow-up of these patients. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  19. [Detecting Thallium in Water Samples using Dispersive Liquid Phase Microextraction-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Li, Yan; Zheng, Bo; Tang, Wei; Chen, Xiao; Zou, Xiao-li


    To develope a method of solvent demulsification dispersive liquid phase microextraction (SD-DLPME) based on ion association reaction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) for detecting thallium in water samples. Methods Thallium ion in water samples was oxidized to Tl(III) with bromine water, which reacted with Cl- to form TlCl4-. The ionic associated compound with trioctylamine was obtained and extracted. DLPME was completed with ethanol as dispersive solvent. The separation of aqueous and organic phase was achieved by injecting into demulsification solvent without centrifugation. The extractant was collected and injected into GFAAS for analysis. With palladium colloid as matrix modifier, a two step drying and ashing temperature programming process was applied for high precision and sensitivity. The linear range was 0.05-2.0 microg/L, with a detection limit of 0.011 microg/L. The relative standard derivation (RSD) for detecting Tl in spiked water sample was 9.9%. The spiked recoveries of water samples ranged from 94.0% to 103.0%. The method is simple, sensitive and suitable for batch analysis of Tl in water samples.

  20. Sulfidation mechanism for zinc oxide nanoparticles and the effect of sulfidation on their solubility. (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Michel, F Marc; Brown, Gordon E; Lowry, Gregory V


    Environmental transformations of nanoparticles (NPs) affect their properties and toxicity potential. Sulfidation is an important transformation process affecting the fate of NPs containing metal cations with an affinity for sulfide. Here, the extent and mechanism of sulfidation of ZnO NPs were investigated, and the properties of resulting products were carefully characterized. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that transformation of ZnO to ZnS occurs readily at ambient temperature in the presence of inorganic sulfide. The extent of sulfidation depends on sulfide concentration, and close to 100% conversion can be obtained in 5 days given sufficient addition of sulfide. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed formation of primarily ZnS NPs smaller than 5 nm, indicating that sulfidation of ZnO NPs occurs by a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism. The solubility of partially sulfidized ZnO NPs is controlled by the remaining ZnO core and not quenched by a ZnS shell formed as was observed for partially sulfidized Ag NPs. Sulfidation also led to NP aggregation and a decrease of surface charge. These changes suggest that sulfidation of ZnO NPs alters the behavior, fate, and toxicity of ZnO NPs in the environment. The reactivity and fate of the resulting ZnS particles remains to be determined.

  1. The learning machine in quantitative chemical analysis : Part I. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Cadmium, Lead and Thallium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Jasink, G.


    The linear learning machine method was applied to the determination of cadmium, lead and thallium down to 10-8 M by anodic stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode. With a total of three trained multicategory classifiers, concentrations of Cd, Pb and Tl could be predicted with an

  2. Thallium chloride 201Tl combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charabi, Samih Ahmed; Lassen, N A; Thomsen, J


    Thallium chloride 201Tl combined with SPECT was performed in a series of 29 patients with neuroradiological evidence of vestibular schwannoma (VS). The relative tumor uptake (U) and relative tumor concentration (C) of the radiotracer 201Tl was determined, and the cerebellum served as a reference...

  3. Micro and nano sulfide solid lubrication

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haidou; Liu, Jiajun


    Sulfide solid lubrication is a vital field of tribology with the potential to save both energy and materials. This book examines the low-temperature sulfuration technology developed in China, as well as two-step methods for preparing sulfide lubrication films.

  4. Bis(2-mercapto-1-R-imidazolyl)hydroborato complexes of aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium: compounds possessing gallium-gallium bonds and a trivalent thallium alkyl. (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Coleman, Fergal; Parkin, Gerard


    The reactions of bis(mercaptoimidazolyl)hydroborato derivatives [Bm(R)]M' (R = Me, Bu(t); M' = Li, Na, Tl) with MX(3) trihalides of aluminium, gallium and indium yield both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of the types [Bm(R)]MX(2) and [Bm(R)](2)MX, respectively. Structurally characterized examples of the [Bm(R)]MX(2) series include [Bm(Me)]AlCl(2), [Bm(Me)]GaI(2), [Bm(Me)]InI(2), [Bm(Bu(t))]AlCl(2) and [Bm(Bu(t))]GaX(2) (X = Cl, Br, I), while structurally characterized examples of the [Bm(R)](2)MX series include [Bm(Bu(t))](2)InX (X = Cl, Br, I). In addition to the halide complexes, the trivalent dimethyl thallium complex [Bm(Bu(t))]TlMe(2) has been synthesized via the reaction of [Bm(Bu(t))]Tl with Me(2)TlCl. The reactions of [Bm(R)]M' with the monovalent halides, "GaI", InCl and InI, result in disproportionation. In the case of indium, the mononuclear complexes [Bm(Bu(t))](2)InI and [Bm(Bu(t))]InCl(kappa(2)-mim(Bu(t))) are obtained, whereas for gallium, dinuclear compounds that feature Ga-Ga bonds, namely [Bm(R)](GaI)(GaI)[Bm(R)] (R = Me, Bu(t)) have been isolated.

  5. Thallium stress testing does not predict cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley, J.L.; Fenton, R.A.; Arthur, R.S. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))


    This study assessed the usefulness of thallium stress testing as a predictor of perioperative cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Demographic factors influencing the exercise performance in these patients were also examined. The medical records of 189 consecutive patients with diabetic nephropathy who were evaluated for cadaveric renal transplantation were reviewed. Thallium stress testing was the initial examination of cardiovascular status in 141 patients. An adequate examination was one in which at least 70% of maximum heart rate was achieved. A thallium stress test was normal if there were no ST segment depressions on the electrocardiogram and no perfusion abnormalities on the thallium scan. Forty-four patients underwent cardiac catheterization as the initial evaluation (Group C) and four patients underwent transplantation without a formal cardiovascular evaluation (Group D). Sixty-four of the 141 patients undergoing thallium stress testing had an adequate and normal examination (Group A). The incidence of perioperative cardiac events in this group was 2%. Seventy-seven patients (Group B) had an abnormal (n = 41) or an inadequate (n = 36) thallium stress test and most (n = 61) then underwent coronary angiography. The use of beta-blockers was the only predictor of an abnormal or inadequate thallium stress test. Forty-three percent of patients with inadequate or abnormal thallium stress tests had significant coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. The perioperative risk of cardiac events was not different in Group A versus Groups B, C, and D combined. Survival of Group A and B patients was not different but was significantly longer than that of Group C patients.

  6. Evaluation of thallium-201 scanning for detection of latent coronary artery disease (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Deboer, L.; Jhingran, S.


    The use of thallium imaging as a noninvasive method to accurately screen shuttle passengers for latent coronary artery disease was investigated. All radionuclide procedures were performed using an Anger type camera with a high resolution collimator. A minimum of 200,000 counts were collected for each image using a 20% window centered on the 69-83 keV X-rays. For the images obtained following injection with the patient at rest, the testing was begun 10 minutes after injection. Injections of TT during exercise were made at a point near the termination of the treadmill procedure as determined by either the appearance of ST segment changes on the electrocardiogram consistant with subendocardial ischemia, the appearance of angina-like chest pain in the patient or fatigue in the patient which required cessation of the test. The severity of heart disease was based on the medical history, physical exam, exercise electrocardiograms, chest X-rays and the coronary arteriogram.

  7. Thallium Analysis in Environmental Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; Analisis de Talio en Muestras Ambientales por Espectrometria de Masas con Fuente de Plasma de Acoplamiento Inductivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higueras, I.; Fernandez, M.; Conde, E.; Gajate, A.


    Due to its high toxicity, thallium has been considered by the US Environmental Protection Agency as one of the priority pollutants to be controlled. While being a highly toxic element, thallium has been studied to a much lesser degree than other toxic elements, mainly because thallium is often undetected by classical analytical methods. Thallium is a rare and dispersed element that occurs mainly in sulfur-containing ores. Thus, it is a potential pollutant to surrounding environment, if Tl-rich mineral and/or their industrial wastes are not properly disposed. In this work an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analytical procedure has been developed in order to determine thallium in environmental solid samples and its application to the study of this element as a potential pollutant associated with natural and anthropogenic activities. The analytical procedure has been validated by the use of appropriate reference materials, and through the isotope dilution technique as a primary method of measurement. Finally, the developed procedure has been applied to several samples from a mining area, as one of the scenarios where thallium it is likely to occur. (Author) 87 refs.

  8. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China. (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers case-control study to investigate the association between prenatal Tl exposure and LBW. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to high levels of Tl may be associated with an increased risk of LBW. Xia W, Du X, Zheng T, Zhang B, Li Y, Bassig BA, Zhou A, Wang Y, Xiong C, Li Z, Yao Y, Hu J, Zhou Y, Liu J, Xue W, Ma Y, Pan X, Peng Y, Xu S. 2016. A case-control study of prenatal thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169;

  9. Evaluation of myocardial abnormalities in patients with collagen diseases by thallium-201 myocardial scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))


    This study was performed to evaluate myocardial lesions in patients with collagen diseases by rest and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphies. A total of 76 patients without ischemic ECG changes, consisting of 27 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 17 cases of polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM[center dot]DM), 11 cases of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and 21 cases of Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS), were enrolled in this study. Reversible exercise-induced defects suggesting myocardial ischemia were noted in 12 cases of SLE, 5 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 3 cases of PSS, and 3 cases of SjS. Of the 23 patients who had exercise-induced defects, 9 patients showed normal coronary angiograms by cardiac catheterization. Fixed hypoperfusion areas were observed in 5 cases of SLE, 6 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 4 cases of PSS and 3 cases of SjS. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy disclosed hypoperfusion areas, which were not induced by exercise, in 1 case of SLE, 4 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 1 case of PSS and 5 cases of SjS. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed on 20 patients. Myocardial lesions in PM[center dot]DM and PSS were more severe and wide spread than in SLE. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening evaluated by echocardiography had no significant differences between each disease group and the healthy control group. These findings suggest that patients with collagen diseases show the presence of abnormalities of coronary circulation at the level of the intramyocardial vasculature in the stage before impairment of cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis and functional abnormalities of the cell membrane level that were not dependent on myocardial ischemia. (author).

  10. Development and Applications of Thallium isotopes: a new proxy tracking the extent of manganese oxide burial (United States)

    Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; Ostrander, C.; Peterson, L. C.; Anbar, A. D.


    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potential powerful paleoredox proxy with the possibility to track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ~20 thousand years, which is long enough to render modern oxic seawater conservative with respect to concentration and isotopes. The isotopic signature of Tl in the global ocean is driven mainly by two outputs (1) adsorption onto manganese oxides and (2) low temperature oceanic crust alteration. Importantly, the isotopic inputs of Tl are all nearly the same value; thus, the isotopic composition and flux of the outputs almost exclusively set the seawater signature. For relatively short term redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant isotope fractionation process is associated with manganese oxide precipitation because low temperature alteration is controlled by long-term average ocean crust production rates. We present a broad range of modern samples that span several open ocean profiles combined with water column and sediment profiles from the permanently anoxic basins of the Black Sea and Cariaco Basins. The open ocean shows no variation in depth profiles that encompass most of the major water masses in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The anoxic basins, however, reveal Tl isotope signatures closer to their inputs, which is likely due to basinal restriction. The authigenic fraction of organic-rich sediments from the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin capture the Tl isotope value of the overlying water column, which shows that Tl isotopes could be applied as a faithful deep time redox proxy. For the first time, we will present new data showing that Tl isotopes is tracking bottom water ocean oxygenation. We are applying this isotope system to ancient samples, testing the spatial and temporal variability of ocean oxygenation coinciding with major biogeochemical events.

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfide Signaling. (United States)

    Kimura, Hideo


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to have physiological roles such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection, oxygen sensing, inflammatory regulation, and cell growth. Recently, hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) have been found to be produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase and to regulate the activity of ion channels, tumor suppressers, and protein kinases. Furthermore, some of the effects previously reported to be mediated by H2S are now ascribed to H2Sn. Cysteine persulfide and cysteine polysulfide may also be involved in cellular redox regulation. The chemical interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO) can also produce H2Sn, nitroxyl, and nitrosopersulfide, suggesting their involvement in the reactions previously thought to be mediated by NO alone. This Forum focuses on and critically discusses the recent progress in the study of H2Sn, H2S, and NO as well as other per- or polysulfide species. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  12. Structural studies in limestone sulfidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenouil, Laurent A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This study investigates the sulfidation of limestone at high temperatures (700--900°C) as the first step in the design of a High-Temperature Coal-Gas Clean-Up system using millimeter-size limestone particles. Several workers have found that the rate of this reaction significantly decreases after an initial 10 to 15% conversion of CaCO3 to CaS. The present work attempts to explain this feature. It is first established that millimeter-size limestone particles do not sinter at temperatures up to the CaCO3 calcination point (899°C at 1.03 bar CO2} partial pressure). It is then shown that CaS sinters rapidly at 750 to 900°C if CO2 is present in the gas phase. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) data reveal that the CaS product layer sinters and forms a quasi-impermeable coating around the CaCO3 grains that greatly hinders more H2S from reaching the still unreacted parts of the stone. Moreover, most of the pores initially present within the limestone structure begin to disappear or, at least, are significantly reduced in size. From then on, subsequent conversion is limited by diffusion of H2S through the CaS layer, possibly by S2- ionic diffusion. The kinetics is then adequately described by a shrinking-core model, in which a sharp front of completely converted limestone is assumed to progress toward the center of the pellet. Finally, experimental evidence and computer simulations using simple sintering models suggest that the CaS sintering, responsible for the sharp decrease in the sulfidation rate, is surface-diffusion controlled.

  13. Thallium myocardial tomoscintigraphy: detection of ischemia during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Tomoscintigraphie myocardique au thallium: detection de l'ischemie provoquee par le sevrage de la ventilation assistee chez le bronchiteux chronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, L.; Valette, H.; Obama, S.; Archambaud, F.; Richard, C.; Teboul, J.L.; Hebert, J.L.; Auzepy, P.; Desgrez, A. (Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (FR))


    In order to evidence myocardial ischemia-leading to ventricular dysfunction-during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thallium myocardial tomography and gated blood pool studies were performed in 9 patients during mechanical ventilation and during weaning from mechanical ventilation. During the latter, results of gated blood pool studies showed a diffuse homogeneous left ventricular dysfunction. A fixed lower thallium uptake in the septum than in the lateral wall was found with the quantitative analysis of myocardial tomograms. Partial volume effect is likely the cause of this septal defect. The hypothesis of a diffuse ischemia cannot be excluded; but, without the absolute quantification of tomographic data, it cannot be proven.

  14. Iron-sulfide crystals in probe deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming


    : (1) impact of low viscous droplets of iron sulfide; and (2) sulfur diffusion. Previous research on the influence of pyrite on slagging focused on the decomposition of pyrite into pyrrhotite and especially on the oxidation stage of this product during impact on the heat transfer surfaces......Iron-sulfides were observed in deposits collected on a probe inserted at the top of the furnace of a coal-fired power station in Denmark. The chemical composition of the iron-sulfides is equivalent to pyrrhotite (FeS). The pyrrhotites are present as crystals and, based on the shape of the crystals...

  15. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation of sulfides. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Graham E; Ford, Alan; Maguire, Anita R


    Copper-catalyzed asymmetric sulfoxidation of aryl benzyl and aryl alkyl sulfides, using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant, has been investigated. A relationship between the steric effects of the sulfide substituents and the enantioselectivity of the oxidation has been observed, with up to 93% ee for 2-naphthylmethyl phenyl sulfoxide, in modest yield in this instance (up to 30%). The influence of variation of solvent and ligand structure was examined, and the optimized conditions were then used to oxidize a number of aryl alkyl and aryl benzyl sulfides, producing sulfoxides in excellent yields in most cases (up to 92%), and good enantiopurities in certain cases (up to 84% ee).

  16. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others


    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  17. Studies of photon spectra from a thallium-204 foil source as an aid to dosimetry and shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, T M


    Beta ray foil sources incorporating nuclides such as thallium-204, promethium-147 and strontium-90 plus yttrium-90 ar increasingly used in industrial devices such as thickness gauges. These sources are so constructed that they give rise to complex photon spectra containing low energy Bremsstrahlung and X-rays characteristic of the constructional materials. The energy response of practical monitoring instruments is such that they are likely to underestimate the dose due to such spectra unless they are calibrated using appropriate spectra. This report describes a series of measurements carried out on a commercially available thallium-204 foil source and five commonly used shielding materials. The measurements made with a NaI(T1) spectrometer have been corrected for instrumental distortions to obtain the photon spectra in air. These spectra are presented and have been used to compute dose in air with the help of published data on mass energy-absorption coefficients. Also included in the report are data derived f...

  18. Septal myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 in the diagnosis of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichard, A.D.; Wiener, I.; Martinez, E.; Horowitz, S.; Patterson, R.; Meller, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Gorlin, R.; Herman, M.V.


    The use of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) to identify obstructive coronary disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery proximal to the first septal perforator (prox LAD) was studied in 60 patients. Perfusion of the septum and anteroapical areas with thallium-201 injected during exercise was compared to results of coronary arteriography. Septal MPI defect was found in 92.3% of patients with obstruction of the proximal LAD, 27.7% of patients with obstruction of LAD distal to first septal perforator, 0% in patients with obstructions involving right or circumflex arteries, and in 10.5% of patients without coronary disease. Anteroapical MPI defects were found with similar frequency in the three groups with obstructive coronary disease. Septal MPI defect had a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 85.4% in the diagnosis of proximal LAD disease. Normal septal perfusion with thallium-201 virtually excluded proximal LAD disease.

  19. Usefulness of rest-redistribution thallium scan for the indication of PTCA in an interesting case with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Mitani, Isao; Matsuo, Takeshi; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Haze, Kazuo


    A 72-year-old woman with acute myocardial infarction was received coronary thrombolytic therapy. After percutaneous transluminal coronary recanalization (PTCR), the stenosis of LAD became from 99 % to 90 %. Left ventriculogram showed dyskinesis of anterior wall in acute phase. After PTCR, she complained of postinfarctional angina. Thus, in order to evaluate the viability of anterior wall, serial thallium scintigraphy was performed at rest, which showed perfusion defect and redistribution of anterior wall. After percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), anterior wall motion became almost normal. The perfusion defect of anterior wall was also gradually disappeared. The serial thallium scintigraphy at rest is an useful method not only to evaluate the viability of myocardium in acute myocardial infarction, but also to follow the effect of PTCA.

  20. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.


    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  1. Formic acid electrooxidation on thallium-decorated shape-controlled platinum nanoparticles: an improvement in electrocatalytic activity


    Busó-Rogero, Carlos; Perales-Rondón, Juan V.; Farias, Manuel J.S.; Vidal-Iglesias, Francisco J.; Solla-Gullón, José; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M.


    Thallium modified shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles were prepared and their electrocatalytic activity towards formic acid electrooxidation was evaluated in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The electrochemical and in situ FTIR spectroscopic results show a remarkable improvement in the electrocatalytic activity, especially in the low potential region (around 0.1–0.2 V vs. RHE). Cubic Pt nanoparticles modified with Tl were found to be more active than the octahedral Pt ones in the entire range of Tl coverag...

  2. Usefulness and limitations of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in delineating location and size of prior myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niess, G.S.; Logic, J.R.; Russell, R.O. Jr.; Rackley, C.E.; Rogers, W.J.


    Thirty-two patients were evaluated at a mean of 7 +- 2 months after infarction with a 12-lead ECG, resting /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigram, biplane left ventriculogram, and coronary angiograms. From the left ventriculogram, asynergy was quantified as percent abnormally contracting segment (% ACS), the percent of end-diastolic circumference which was either akinetic or dyskinetic. Using a computerized planimetry system, we expressed /sup 201/Tl perfusion defects as a percentage of total potential thallium uptake. Of 21 patients with ECG evidence of prior transmural infarction, a /sup 201/Tl defect was present in 20, and angiographic asynergy was present in all 21. The site of prior infarction by ECG agreed with the /sup 201/T1 defect location in 24 of 32 patients and with site of angiographic asynergy in 23 of 32 patients. Scintigraphic defects were present in only four of 10 patients with ACS less than or equal to 6%, but scintigraphic defects were found in 20 of 22 patients with ACS > 6%. Thallium defect size correlated marginally with angiographic left ventricular ejection fraction but correlated closely with angiographic % ACS. Thallium defect size was similar among patients with one-, two-, or three-vessel coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% stenosis), but thallium defect size was larger in patients with electrocardiographic evidence of transmural infarction or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > 12 mm Hg. Thus, resting /sup 201/T1 myocardial scintigraphy is useful in localizing and quantifying the extent of prior myocardial infarction, but is insensitive to small infarcts (ACS < 6%).

  3. Platinum Metals in Magmatic Sulfide Ores (United States)

    Naldrett, A. J.; Duke, J. M.


    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example.

  4. Crossett Hydrogen Sulfide Air Sampling Report (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the EPA’s hydrogen sulfide air monitoring conducted along Georgia Pacific’s wastewater treatment system and in surrounding Crossett, AR, neighborhoods in 2017.

  5. Determination of thallium at ultra-trace levels in water and biological samples using solid phase spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S; El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Kassem, Mohammed A


    A new simple, very sensitive, selective and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of thallium(III) by solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS) has been developed. The procedure is based on fixation of Tl(III) as quinalizarin ion associate on a styrene-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin. The absorbance of resin sorbed Tl(III) ion associate is measured directly at 636 and 830 nm. Thallium(I) was determined by difference measurements after oxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) with bromine. Calibration is linear over the range 0.5-12.0 μg L(-1) of Tl(III) with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.40% (n=10). The detection and quantification limits are 150 and 495 ng L(-1) using 0.6 g of the exchanger. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity are also calculated and found to be 1.31×10(7) L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.00156 ng cm(-2), respectively. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to determine thallium in water, urine and serum samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The efficient removal of thallium from sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater in ferrous metallurgy using emulsion liquid membrane. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Xiao, Jiangping; Shen, Yi; Liu, Xian; Li, Wensong; Wang, Weiyan; Yang, Yunquan


    The removal of thallium ions in flue gas desulfurization wastewater from ferrous metallurgic industry was studied by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) method using 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507) as carrier, aviation kerosene (AK) as organic solvent, polyisobutylene succinimide (T154) as surfactant, polyisobutylene (PIB) as additive, and sulfuric acid as internal reagent. Some important influence parameters such as concentrations of carrier, surfactant and stripping agent, agitation speed, extraction time, volume ratios of feed solution to emulsion phase and internal phase to membrane phase, and their effects on the removal efficiency of Tl in the ELM process were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum operating conditions of 2% of carrier, 5% of surfactant, 0.5 M of stripping agent, 350 rpm of agitation speed, 12.5:1 of volume ratio of feed solution to emulsion phase, and 3:1 volume ratio of membrane to internal phase, the maximum extraction efficiency of thallium reached 99.76% within 15-min reaction time. The ICP-MS analysis indicated that the thallium concentration in treated wastewater was below 5 μg/L and could meet the emission standard demand for industrial wastewater enacted by the local government of Hunan province of China. Meanwhile, the extraction of impurity ions calcium and magnesium in the ELM system was investigated. The result showed that an acidic environment would be in favor of the removal of Tl from calcium and magnesium contained in wastewater. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  7. Thallium isotopes in metallurgical wastes/contaminated soils: A novel tool to trace metal source and behavior. (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Trubač, Jakub; Chrastný, Vladislav; Penížek, Vít; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Voegelin, Andreas; Zádorová, Tereza; Oborná, Vendula; Drábek, Ondřej; Holubík, Ondřej; Houška, Jakub; Pavlů, Lenka; Ash, Christopher


    Thallium (Tl) concentration and isotope data have been recorded for contaminated soils and a set of industrial wastes that were produced within different stages of Zn ore mining and metallurgical processing of Zn-rich materials. Despite large differences in Tl levels of the waste materials (1-500mgkg-1), generally small changes in ε205Tl values have been observed. However, isotopically lighter Tl was recorded in fly ash (ε205Tl∼-4.1) than in slag (ε205Tl∼-3.3), implying partial isotope fractionation during material processing. Thallium isotope compositions in the studied soils reflected the Tl contamination (ε205Tl∼-3.8), despite the fact that the major pollution period ended more than 30 years ago. Therefore, we assume that former industrial Tl inputs into soils, if significant, can potentially be traced using the isotope tracing method. We also suggest that the isotope redistributions occurred in some soil (subsurface) horizons, with Tl being isotopically heavier than the pollution source, due to specific sorption and/or precipitation processes, which complicates the discrimination of primary Tl. Thallium isotope analysis proved to be a promising tool to aid our understanding of Tl behavior within the smelting process, as well as its post-depositional dynamics in the environmental systems (soils). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sulfide as a soil phytotoxin - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon P M Lamers


    Full Text Available In wetland soils and underwater sediments of marine, brackish and freshwater systems, the strong phytotoxin sulfide may accumulate as a result of microbial reduction of sulfate during anaerobiosis, its level depending on prevailing edaphic conditions. In this review, we compare an extensive body of literature on phytotoxic effects of this reduced sulfur compound in different ecosystem types, and review the effects of sulfide at multiple ecosystem levels: the ecophysiological functioning of individual plants, plant-microbe associations, and community effects including competition and facilitation interactions. Recent publications on multi-species interactions in the rhizosphere show even more complex mechanisms explaining sulfide resistance. It is concluded that sulfide is a potent phytotoxin, profoundly affecting plant fitness and ecosystem functioning in the full range of wetland types including coastal systems, and at several levels. Traditional toxicity testing including hydroponic approaches generally neglect rhizospheric effects, which makes it difficult to extrapolate results to real ecosystem processes. To explain the differential effects of sulfide at the different organizational levels, profound knowledge about the biogeochemical, plant physiological and ecological rhizosphere processes is vital. This information is even more important, as anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into freshwater ecosystems and organic loads into freshwater and marine systems are still much higher than natural levels, and are steeply increasing in Asia. In addition, higher temperatures as a result of global climate change may lead to higher sulfide production rates in shallow waters.

  9. Air-water transfer of hydrogen sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yongsiri, C.; Vollertsen, J.; Rasmussen, M. R.


    The emissions process of hydrogen sulfide was studied to quantify air–water transfer of hydrogen sulfide in sewer networks. Hydrogen sulfide transfer across the air–water interface was investigated at different turbulence levels (expressed in terms of the Froude number) and pH using batch...... experiments. By means of the overall mass–transfer coefficient (KLa), the transfer coefficient of hydrogen sulfide (KLaH2S), referring to total sulfide, was correlated to that of oxygen (KLaO2) (i.e., the reaeration coefficient). Results demonstrate that both turbulence and pH in the water phase play...... a significant role for KLaH2S. An exponential expression is a suitable representation for the relationship between KLaH2S and the Froude number at all pH values studied (4.5 to 8.0). Because of the dissociation of hydrogen sulfide, KLaH2S increased with decreasing pH at a constant turbulence level. Relative...

  10. sulfide – reality or fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Brodek


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a signaling gasotransmitter, involved in different physiological and pathological processes. H2S regulates apoptosis, the cell cycle and oxidative stress. H2S exerts powerful effects on smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclear transcription factors. H2S is known to be produced from L-cysteine, D-cysteine and L-homocysteine in the body. Four enzymes – cystathionine-b synthase (CBS, mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST, cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT – are involved in H2S synthesis. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of H2S from D-cysteine involves 3-MST and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO. The therapeutic potential of H2S is not clear. However, recently results have demonstrated that H2S has protective action for ischemic heart disease or hypertension, and protects against ischemia of the brain. This review summarizes the negative and the positive roles of H2S in various biological systems, for example the cardiovascular system and nervous system. We also discuss the function of classical, therapeutic and natural (for example garlic donors of H2S in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  11. Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villa Gomez, D.K.; Cassidy, J.; Keesman, K.J.; Sampaio, R.M.; Lens, P.N.L.


    Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4 2- ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing

  12. Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors. (United States)

    Villa-Gomez, D K; Cassidy, J; Keesman, K J; Sampaio, R; Lens, P N L


    Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4(2-) ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The sulfide was measured using a sulfide ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters. The experiments were performed in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with automated operation using the LabVIEW software version 2009(®). A rapid response and high sulfide increment was obtained through a stepwise increase in the CODin concentration, while a stepwise decrease to the HRT exhibited a slower response with smaller sulfide increment. Irrespective of the way the OLR was decreased, the pS response showed a time-varying behavior due to sulfide accumulation (HRT change) or utilization of substrate sources that were not accounted for (CODin change). The pS electrode response, however, showed to be informative for applications in sulfate reducing bioreactors. Nevertheless, the recorded pS values need to be corrected for pH variations and high sulfide concentrations (>200 mg/L). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thallium isotopes as a potential tracer for the origin of cratonic eclogites (United States)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Williams, Helen M.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman; Viljoen, Fanus


    Cratonic eclogites are inferred to originate either from subducted ocean crust or mantle melts accreted onto the roots of continents. These models have different implications for the growth of continents, but it is currently difficult to determine the origin of individual eclogite suites. Upper ocean crust altered at low temperatures and marine sediments both display high thallium (Tl) concentrations and strongly fractionated Tl isotope signatures relative to the ambient upper mantle. In this study we carry out the first examination of the suitability of Tl isotopes as a tracer for an ocean-crust origin of cratonic eclogites. We have analysed the Tl isotope composition of clinopyroxene and garnet in six eclogites from the Kaalvallei and Bellsbank kimberlite pipes in South Africa. Minerals were pre-cleaned with an HCl leaching technique and the leachates display variably light Tl isotope ratios. These most likely reflect low-temperature hydrothermal alteration occurring after eruption of the kimberlite that carried the eclogites to the surface. The leached mineral pairs all display identical Tl isotope ratios, strongly suggesting that the source of the analysed Tl is identical for each mineral pair. It is, however, not possible to exclude the possibility that the analysed Tl originates from kimberlitic material that was not removed by the cleaning procedure. Only one of the six samples exhibits a Tl isotope composition different from ambient mantle. Assuming that the Tl isotope signatures indeed represent the eclogite minerals and not any form of contamination, the Tl isotope composition in this sample is consistent with containing a minor component (low temperatures. Thallium isotopes may become one of the most sensitive indicators for the presence of low-T altered ocean crust because of the stark contrast in Tl concentration and isotopic composition between the mantle and altered ocean crust. In fact, no other chemical or isotopic tracer could have provided an

  14. Thallium-201 SPECT in the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. (United States)

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Balm, A J; Hilgers, F J; Koops, W; Loftus, B M; Tan, I B; Muller, S H; Hoefnagel, C A; Gregor, R T


    The accuracy of SPECT with 201Tl-chloride for the diagnosis of primary tumors, lymph node metastases and recurrences in head and neck cancer was evaluated for clinical applicability. SPECT images, obtained 60 min after administration of 150 MBq 201Tl-chloride, were compared with clinical, CT and/or MRI and histology results. In addition, whole-body images were obtained to detect distant metastases. In 79 patients studied for primary tumors (principally larynix, hypopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx and oral cavity), 201Tl SPECT correctly identified 69 of 73 (95% versus 88% for CT/MRI) histologically confirmed malignancies including 63 squamous-cell carcinomas. The method localized four occult naso- and oropharynx carcinomas not seen on CT/MRI and was correctly negative in two patients without tumor and in three of four patients with no confirmed primary tumor in the head and neck. With respect to regional spread, only patients who had cervical lymph node dissection were evaluated, and the findings were recorded per side of the neck. Thallium-201 SPECT correctly identified metastases in 31 of 36 neck dissections with proven lymph node involvement (86%), was correctly negative in nine and false-positive in one. Although the sensitivity of CT/MRI was clearly higher (97%), considerably more false-positive cases affected its accuracy (81% versus 87% for SPECT). In 30 patients investigated for recurrences, 201Tl SPECT correctly identified 27 of 29 microscopically confirmed tumor sites (93%) and was correctly negative in seven. Sensitivity of CT/MRI was lower (76%), and a greater number of false-positives (seven versus three for SPECT) further decreased its accuracy (64% versus 87% for SPECT). Distant metastases were detected in five patients. Thallium-201 SPECT appears to be an accurate method for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. The method is particularly useful for detection of occult head and neck tumors and for assessing recurrences. It also may be of

  15. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland. (United States)

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  16. In-situ pre-concentration through repeated sampling and pyrolysis for ultrasensitive determination of thallium in drinking water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Zheng, Huaili; Xu, Bincheng; Xiao, Lang; Chigan, Yong; Zhangluo, Yilan


    In this paper, a procedure for in-situ pre-concentration in graphite furnace by repeated sampling and pyrolysis is proposed for the determination of ultra-trace thallium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Without any other laborious enrichment processes that routinely result in analyte loss and contamination, thallium was directly concentrated in the graphite furnace automatically and subsequently subject to analysis. The effects of several key factors, such as the temperature for pyrolysis and atomization, the chemical modifier, and the repeated sampling times were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a limit of detection of 0.01µgL -1 was obtained, which fulfilled thallium determination in drinking water by GB 5749-2006 regulated by China. Successful analysis of thallium in certified water samples and drinking water samples was demonstrated, with analytical results in good agreement with the certified values and those by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Routine spike-recovery tests with randomly selected drinking water samples showed satisfactory results of 80-96%. The proposed method is simple and sensitive for screening of ultra-trace thallium in drinking water samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Experimental simulations of sulfide formation in the solar nebula. (United States)

    Lauretta, D S; Lodders, K; Fegley, B


    Sulfurization of meteoritic metal in H2S-H2 gas produced three different sulfides: monosulfide solid solution [(Fe,Ni)1-xS], pentlandite [(Fe,Ni)9-xS8], and a phosphorus-rich sulfide. The composition of the remnant metal was unchanged. These results are contrary to theoretical predictions that sulfide formation in the solar nebula produced troilite (FeS) and enriched the remaining metal in nickel. The experimental sulfides are chemically and morphologically similar to sulfide grains in the matrix of the Alais (class CI) carbonaceous chondrite, suggesting that these meteoritic sulfides may be condensates from the solar nebula.

  18. Early and Late Stage Metals and Sulfides in Diogenites (United States)

    Sideras, L. C.; Domanik, K. J.; Lauretta, D. S.


    Diogenites are typically highly brecciated orthopyroxenites that contain 84-100 vol.% orthopyroxene. Common accessory minerals include olivine, chromite, Ca-pyroxene, plagioclase, silica, troilite and Fe-Ni metal. Metal and sulfides are minor phases in diogenites with an average abundance of copper and copper sulfide minerals; ii) Textural evidence that at least some of the metal and sulfide occurring interstitially between, and as inclusions within, orthopyroxene formed from an early immiscible sulfide-oxide liquid; iii) That this sulfide- oxide liquid subsequently fractionated into assemblages containing either Fe-Ni metal, troilite, and chromite or pentlandite, troilite, and copper-bearing sulfide.

  19. The ECG component of Thallium-201 exercise testing impacts on cardiac intervention rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deague, J.; Salehi, N.; Grigg, L.; Lichtenstein, M.; Better, N. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiology


    Full text: Thallium exercise testing (Tlex) offers superior sensitivity and specificity to exercise electrocardiography (ECG), but the value of the ECG data in Tlex remains poorly studied. While a normal Tlex is associated with an excellent prognosis, patients with a positive Tlex have a higher cardiac event rate. We aimed to see if a negative ECG Component of the Tlex (ECGTl) was associated with an improved outcome compared with a positive ECGTl, in those patients with a reversible Tlex defect. We followed 100 consecutive patients retrospectively with a reversible defect on Tlex (50 with negative and 50 with positive ECGTI) for 12 months. The ECG was reviewed as positive (1mm ST depression 0.08 seconds after J point or >2mm if on digoxin or prior ECG changes), negative, equivocal or uninterpretable. We excluded patients with pharmacological testing, and those with equivocal or uninterpretable ECGs. End-points included angiography, cardiac interventions and cardiac event rate (CER) incorporating unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac death. In conclusion 24% of patients with reversible defects on Tlex who had a negative ECGTI still proceeded to PTCA or CABG. Those with a positive ECGTI had a higher incidence of angiography and cardiac revascularisation, but this difference was only evident in patients with mild to moderate reversibility

  20. Redox-controlled release dynamics of thallium in periodically flooded arable soil. (United States)

    Antić-Mladenović, Svetlana; Frohne, Tina; Kresović, Mirjana; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Savić, Dubravka; Ličina, Vlado; Rinklebe, Jörg


    To our knowledge, this is the first work to mechanistically study the impact of the redox potential (E H ) and principal factors, such as pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), chlorides (Cl - ) and sulfates (SO 4 2- ), on the release dynamics of thallium (Tl) in periodically flooded soil. We simulated flooding using an automated biogeochemical microcosm system that allows for systematical control of pre-defined redox windows. The E H value was increased mechanistically at intervals of approximately 100 mV from reducing (-211 mV) to oxidizing (475 mV) conditions. Soluble Tl levels (0.02-0.28 μg L -1 ) increased significantly with increases in E H (r = 0.80, p soils along with a determination of the Tl species and monitoring of the Tl content in plants to achieve more detailed insight into soluble Tl behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Gökhan BAŞARAN


    Full Text Available Determination of larval growth rate of and forensic analysis of the age of Calliphoridae larvae on a corpse are useful evidence in legal investigations for the estimation of exact death time and time duration after death; post mortem interval. However many factors, such as temperature, tissue type and contamination of drugs and toxins, effect larval development of blow fly larvae and consequently theestimation of post mortem interval. The present study examined the larval growth rate of a forensically important blow fly species, Lucilia sericata Meigen 1826 in different concentrations (0,12; 0,25; 0,50; 1 and 2 μg/g of toxic heavy metal Thallium under controlled laboratory conditions. Body length and weight, death ratio of larvae and pupa between experimental and control groups were compared. Results demonstrated that the development rate of larvae between uncontaminated and contaminated diets varies significantly. In short, they molted later, reached maximum length more slowly and sometimesproduced significantly smaller pupae in contaminated food source. These results emphasized that the importance of determining the contamination rate of toxins in tissue for the forensic entomologist,while using development rates from standard curves based on larvae fed non-contaminated mediums.

  2. Value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Shiga, Kouji; Umamoto, Ikuo (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy in 80 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 50 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Twenty persons without either coronary artery stenosis or heart disease were served as controls. Areas surrounded by maximum count points on the line of each 10deg on the short axis slice through the mid-cavity of the left ventricle were obtained at 10 minutes and at 3 hours after exercise. Transient dilation index (TDI) was obtained by dividing the area on early image by that on delayed image. TDI was significantly higher in patients with two or three vessel disease in the IHD group than the control group. High TDI was observed in 8% for one vessel disease, 40% for two vessel disease, and 80% for three vessel disease, contributing to the detection of multivessel IHD. In the HCM group of 80 patients, 24 (48%) had high TDI which was frequently associated with a history of chest pain and positive ECG findings at exercise. When these 24 HCM patients underwent exercise blood pool scintiscanning, left ventricular enddiastolic volume was similar before and at 10 minutes after exercise. These findings suggest that transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity after exercise may reflect subendocardial ischemia in both IHD and HCM. TDI would become a useful indicator for transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity. (N.K.).

  3. Clinicopathologic correlation study of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in diagnosis of myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chida, Kouji; Sugiura, Masaya; Ohkawa, Shin-ichiro


    In a series of 1,000 consecutive autopsy cases, we evaluated the clinical utility of thallium-201 (Tl-201) myocardial scintigraphy and electrocardiography (ECG) in 101 patients who had been studied while alive. Fifty-five cases had myocardial infarctions (MI) at autopsy. The Tl-201 scintigram and ECG in diagnosis of MI showed sensitivities of 68 % and 60 %, specificities of 87 % and 83 %, and diagnostic accuracies of 76 % and 70 %, respectively. The sensitivity of the Tl-201 scintigram was 70 % in anterior MI, 80 % in postero-inferior MI, 25 % in lateral and subendocardial infarction. The sensitivity was 88 % for large massive MI, but was low in scattered (50 %) or middle-sized MI (17 %). The diagnostic limit of the resolution of Tl-201 scintigrams was 4.5 cm in long diameter. All 8 cases with MI of less than 4 cm could not be diagnosed with the technique. There were 48 cases of large MI (more than 5 cm), but 8 cases could not be diagnosed by scintigraphy because of non-transmural or scattered MI. A comparison of the Tl-201 scintigram and ECG showed that 27 cases out of 60 cases were diagnosed by both methods, 14 only by the Tl-201 scintigram, 9 only by ECG and 10 by neither method.

  4. Evaluation of myocardial damage in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Takuhisa; Shibuya, Noritoshi (Kawatana National Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan)); Hashiba, Kunitake; Oku, Yasuhiko; Mori, Hideki; Yano, Katsusuke


    Myocardial damage and cardiopulmonary functions in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) were assessed using thallium-201 myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and technetium-99m multigated radionuclide angiography. Twenty-five patients with DMD were divided into 4 groups according to percent of perfusion defect (%PD) calculated by the bull's-eye method and age. PD was detected in 24 (96.0%) of 25 patients with DMD, and it spread from the left ventricular lateral wall to the anterior wall and/or interventricular septum. PD was detected even in a 6-year-old DMD boy. Patients in Group I (%PD[>=]10% and age<15 years old) were shown to have a higher risk of left-sided heart failure without respiratory failure. Patients in Group II (%PD[>=]10 and age[>=]15) showed decreased pulmonary function and worsened arterial blood gas values as compared with Group IV (%PD<10 and age[>=]15). There was no significant difference in cardiac function among the 4 groups. It is postulated that myocardial damage in Group II patients is dependent primarily on a deficiency of dystrophin and on chronic respiratory failure, and that some of them are at risk of cardiopulmonary failure. It is concluded that myocardial SPECT is useful for the early diagnosis of myocardial damage and evaluation of cardiopulmonary function in DMD patients. (author).

  5. Role of relativity in high-pressure phase transitions of thallium. (United States)

    Kotmool, Komsilp; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bovornratanaraks, Thiti; Ahuja, Rajeev


    We demonstrate the relativistic effects in high-pressure phase transitions of heavy element thallium. The known first phase transition from h.c.p. to f.c.c. is initially investigated by various relativistic levels and exchange-correlation functionals as implemented in FPLO method, as well as scalar relativistic scheme within PAW formalism. The electronic structure calculations are interpreted from the perspective of energetic stability and electronic density of states. The full relativistic scheme (FR) within L(S)DA performs to be the scheme that resembles mostly with experimental results with a transition pressure of 3 GPa. The s-p hybridization and the valence-core overlapping of 6s and 5d states are the primary reasons behind the f.c.c. phase occurrence. A recent proposed phase, i.e., a body-centered tetragonal (b.c.t.) phase, is confirmed with a small distortion from the f.c.c. phase. We have also predicted a reversible b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at 800 GPa. This finding has been suggested that almost all the III-A elements (Ga, In and Tl) exhibit the b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at extremely high pressure.

  6. High thallium concentrations in soils from sites of historical Ag, Pb, and Zn mining in western Małopolska (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woch M. W.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess thallium concentration in topsoil originating from sites of historical mining of Ag, Pb and Zn in western Małopolska (S Poland. Soil samples were collected from 63 sites, sieved, ground and digested in hot HClO4. Thallium concentration was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thallium concentrations averaged 20.84 mg kg-1 and varied from 4.42 to 49.82 mg kg-1. In all studied soils they exceeded values typical for uncontaminated soils (0.02 to 2.8 mg Tl kg-1. This indicates that Tl contamination may threaten the environment and public health. Routine monitoring of Tl contamination in southern Poland is required.

  7. Preconcentration of thallium(III) with 2,6-bis( N-phenyl carbamoyl) pyridine on microcrystalline naphthalene prior to its trace determination in human serum spectrophotometrically (United States)

    Rezaei, B.; Meghdadi, S.; Majidi, N.


    A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of thallium on 2,6-bis( N-phenyl carbamoyl)pyridine-naphthalene adsorbent in the pH range 5.0-10.0, prior to its spectrophotometric determination, based on the oxidation of bromopyrogallol red at λ = 518 nm. This method makes it possible to quantitize thallium in the range of 3.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -5 M, with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 1.2 × 10 -9 M. This procedure has been successfully applied to determine the ultra trace levels of thallium in the environmental and biological samples, free from the interference of some diverse ions. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation of three measurements is better than 4.17%.

  8. 21 CFR 872.1870 - Sulfide detection device. (United States)


    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1870 Sulfide detection device. (a) Identification... presence of sulfides in periodontal pockets, as an adjunct in the diagnosis of periodontal diseases in...

  9. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne


    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with sca......Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... of the detoxification occurred in underground tissues, where sulfide intrusion was greatest. Elemental sulfur was a major detoxification compound, precipitating on the inner wall of the aerenchyma of underground tissues. Sulfide was metabolized into thiols and entered the plant sulfur metabolism as well as being stored...

  10. Sulfide-induced sulfide-quinone reductase activity in thylakoids of Oscillatoria limnetica. (United States)

    Arieli, B; Padan, E; Shahak, Y


    Sulfide-dependent partial electron-transport reactions were studied in thylakoids isolated from cells of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica, which had been induced to perform sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis. It was found that these thylakoids have the capacity to catalyze electron transfer, from sulfide to externally added quinones, in the dark. Assay conditions were developed to measure the reaction either as quinone-dependent sulfide oxidation (colorimetrically) or as sulfide-dependent quinone reduction (by UV dual-wavelength spectrophotometry). The main features of this reaction are as follows. (i) It is exclusively catalyzed by thylakoids of sulfide-induced cells. Noninduced thylakoids lack this reaction. (ii) Plastoquinone-1 or -2 are equally good substrates. Ubiquinone-1 and duroquinone yield somewhat slower rates. (iii) The apparent Km for plastoquinone-1 was 32 microM and for sulfide about 4 microM. Maximal rates (at 25 degrees C) were about 75 mumol of quinone reduced per mg of chlorophyll.h. (iv) The reaction was not affected by extensive washes of the membranes. (v) Unlike sulfide-dependent NADP photoreduction activity of these thylakoids, which is sensitive to all the specific inhibitors of the cytochrome b6f complex, the new dark reaction exhibited differential sensitivity to these inhibitors. 2-n-Nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide was the most potent inhibitor of both light and dark reactions, working at submicromolar concentrations. 5-n-Undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole also inhibited the two reactions to a similar extent, but at 10 times higher concentrations than 2-n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. 2,5-Dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, 2-iodo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-2',4,4'-trinitrodiphenyl ether, and stigmatellin had no effect on the dark reaction at concentrations sufficient to fully inhibit the light reaction from sulfide. We propose that the sulfide-induced factor which enables the use of sulfide as the electron

  11. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others


    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  12. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.


    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease.

  13. Influence of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock starting potential on the parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes in cesium and thallium (United States)

    Perger, W. F.; Das, B. P.


    The parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes for the 6s1/2-7s1/2 transition in cesium and the 6p1/2-7p1/2 transition in thallium have been calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The effects of using different Dirac-Hartree-Fock atomic core potentials are examined and the transition amplitudes for both the length and velocity gauges are given. It is found that the parity-nonconserving transition amplitudes exhibit a greater dependence on the starting potential for thallium than for cesium.

  14. Assessment of myocardial viability by dynamic tomographic iodine 123 iodophenylpentadecanoic acid imaging: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium 201 imaging. (United States)

    Iskandrian, A S; Powers, J; Cave, V; Wasserleben, V; Cassell, D; Heo, J


    This study examined the ability of dynamic 123I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) imaging to detect myocardial viability in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction caused by coronary artery disease. Serial 180-degree single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images (five sets, 8 minutes each) were obtained starting 4 minutes after injection of 2 to 6 mCi 123I at rest in 21 patients with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] 34% +/- 11%). The segmental uptake was compared with that of rest-redistribution 201Tl images (20 segments/study). The number of perfusion defects (reversible and fixed) was similar by IPPA and thallium (11 +/- 5 vs 10 +/- 5 segments/patient; difference not significant). There was agreement between IPPA and thallium for presence or absence (kappa = 0.78 +/- 0.03) and nature (reversible, mild fixed, or severe fixed) of perfusion defects (kappa = 0.54 +/- 0.04). However, there were more reversible IPPA defects than reversible thallium defects (7 +/- 4 vs 3 +/- 4 segments/patient; p = 0.001). In 14 patients the EF (by gated pool imaging) improved after coronary revascularization from 33% +/- 11% to 39% +/- 12% (p = 0.002). The number of reversible IPPA defects was greater in the seven patients who had improvement in EF than in the patients without such improvement (10 +/- 4 vs 5 +/- 4 segments/patient; p = 0.075). 123I-labeled IPPA SPECT imaging is a promising new technique for assessment of viability. Reversible defects predict recovery of LV dysfunction after coronary revascularization.

  15. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MACS) of the thallium superconducting phases (United States)

    Bayya, S. S.; Snyder, R. L.


    This paper explores the speed of reaction as a parameter to minimizing thallium loss. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MACS) were developed for the synthesis of Tl-2212 and Tl-2223 superconductors using Cu metal powder as a fuel. A kitchen microwave oven was used to carry out MACS reactions. The samples were reacted for few seconds and led to the formation of the superconducting phases. Further explorations and modifications in the processing could lead to the formation of single phases by MACS.

  16. Tracking along-arc sediment inputs to the Aleutian arc using thallium isotopes (United States)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Yogodzinski, Gene; Prytulak, Julie; Plank, Terry; Kay, Suzanne M.; Kay, Robert W.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Owens, Jeremy D.; Auro, Maureen; Kading, Tristan


    Sediment transport from the subducted slab to the mantle wedge is an important process in understanding the chemical and physical conditions of arc magma generation. The Aleutian arc offers an excellent opportunity to study sediment transport processes because the subducted sediment flux varies systematically along strike (Kelemen et al., 2003) and many lavas exhibit unambiguous signatures of sediment addition to the sub-arc mantle (Morris et al., 1990). However, the exact sediment contribution to Aleutian lavas and how these sediments are transported from the slab to the surface are still debated. Thallium (Tl) isotope ratios have great potential to distinguish sediment fluxes in subduction zones because pelagic sediments and low-temperature altered oceanic crust are highly enriched in Tl and display heavy and light Tl isotope compositions, respectively, compared with the upper mantle and continental crust. Here, we investigate the Tl isotope composition of lavas covering almost the entire Aleutian arc a well as sediments outboard of both the eastern (DSDP Sites 178 and 183) and central (ODP Hole 886C) portions of the arc. Sediment Tl isotope compositions change systematically from lighter in the Eastern to heavier in the Central Aleutians reflecting a larger proportion of pelagic sediments when distal from the North American continent. Lavas in the Eastern and Central Aleutians mirror this systematic change to heavier Tl isotope compositions to the west, which shows that the subducted sediment composition is directly translated to the arc east of Kanaga Island. Moreover, quantitative mixing models of Tl and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes reveal that bulk sediment transfer of ∼0.6-1.0% by weight in the Eastern Aleutians and ∼0.2-0.6% by weight in the Central Aleutians can account for all four isotope systems. Bulk mixing models, however, require that fractionation of trace element ratios like Ce/Pb, Cs/Tl, and Sr/Nd in the Central and Eastern Aleutians occurs after

  17. Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, P.H.


    This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) ..-->.. 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude ..beta..E to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S ..-->.. 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(..beta..E), and can be distinguished from M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam.

  18. MRI and thallium-201 SPECT in the prediction of survival in glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, Maaike J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Neurology, PO Box 432, The Hague (Netherlands); Berkhof, Johannes [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bosma, Ingeborg; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Heimans, Jan J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Postma, Tjeerd J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sanchez, Esther [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buter, Jan [VU University Medical Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Noske, David P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology Research Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    This paper aims to study the value of MRI and Thallium 201 ({sup 201}Tl) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the prediction of overall survival (OS) in glioma patients treated with temozolomide (TMZ) and to evaluate timing of radiological follow-up. We included patients treated with TMZ chemoradiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and with TMZ for recurrent glioma. MRIs and {sup 201}Tl SPECTs were obtained at regular intervals. The value of both imaging modalities in predicting OS was examined using Cox regression analyses. Altogether, 138 MRIs and 113 {sup 201}Tl SPECTs in 46 patients were performed. Both imaging modalities were strongly related to OS (P {<=} 0.02). In newly diagnosed GBM patients, the last follow-up MRI (i.e., after six adjuvant TMZ courses) and SPECT (i.e., after three adjuvant TMZ courses) were the strongest predictors of OS (P = 0.01). In recurrent glioma patients, baseline measurements appeared to be the most predictive of OS (P < 0.01). The addition of one imaging modality to the other did not contribute to the prediction of OS. Both MRI and {sup 201}Tl SPECT are valuable in the prediction of OS. It is adequate to restrict to one of both modalities in the radiological follow-up during treatment. In the primary GBM setting, MRI after six adjuvant TMZ courses contributes significantly to the prediction of survival. In the recurrent glioma setting, baseline MRI appears to be a powerful predictor of survival, whereas follow-up MRIs during TMZ seem to be of little additional value. (orig.)

  19. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ktari, L. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelhedi, M. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bouhlel, N. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Dammak, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)


    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  20. Electrochemical properties of modified copper-thallium hexacyanoferrate electrode in the presence of different univalent cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Stroka, Jadwiga [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Galus, Zbigniew [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail:


    The preparation of copper(II) hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) films on the surface of gold electrodes as well as their characterization in solutions of various alkali metal and NH{sub 4}{sup +} cations and in the presence of thallium(I) are described. The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetric techniques were used. In 0.50 M lithium nitrate, even at submillimolar concentration of Tl(I), the formal potential of CuHCF was shifted to more positive values. At higher Tl(I) concentrations, the formal potential of the CuHCF redox reaction changed linearly with the logarithm of Tl(I) concentration (in the 0.50 M solution of lithium or another alkali metal nitrate). From such dependencies, selectivity coefficients K{sub Tl/M} were calculated, and they show that the CuHCF film on the gold electrode interacts preferentially with Tl(I). High affinity of Tl(I) to copper hexacyanoferrate, that was observed in the presence of alkali metal cations, was explained by relatively strong donor-acceptor interactions of Tl(I) ions with nitrogen in CN groups of the CuHCF film. It was also shown for simple M{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] metal ferrocyanate salts (where M = Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +} and Tl{sup +}) that there is a preferential interaction of Tl{sup +} with CN group consistent with formation of a Tl-NC-Fe bridge.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in coronary artery diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikada, Ken-etsu (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Quantitative indices from circumferential profile curves of thallium-201 ([sup 201]Tl) myocardial scintigram were evaluated for diagnostic utility in coronary artery diseases (CAD). Myocardial [sup 201]Tl scintigrams with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were obtained 5 minutes (early) and 4 hours (delayed) after exercise in 20 normal subjects and 66 cases of CAD, of which 20 were angina pectoris without myocardial infarction (AP), 14 were subendocardial infarction (non-QMI) and 32 were Q-wave infarction (QMI). Tl counts, %Tl uptake and washout ratio (WR) were measured in 81 segments (9 apical segments of the slice from the longitudinal axis and all 72 segments of two slices from the short axis). A mean early defect (MED), a mean delayed defect (MDD), a mean delta washout rate (MDR), and a [Sigma] delayed defect ([Sigma]DD) were calculated from the areas which were below the two standard deviations of the mean %Tl uptake in normal subjects. A mean filling-in (MFI) was calculated from the difference of the %Tl uptake between early and delayed curves in each patient. In patients with CAD, the MED and MFI were higher, but MDW was lower with a more severe coronary stenosis, indicating that these indices were useful to detect myocardial hypo-perfuion. In severely stenotic regions, the MDD was higher in QMI than in AP and non-QMI, indicating that the ratio of infarct to the myocardium in the region was higher in QMI. In QMI, [Sigma]DD correlated well (r=0.723) with Total Wall Motion Scores with two-dimentional echocardiography which was directly related with infarct size. Further, MED, MFI and MDW were improved after aortocoronary bypass only in patients with patent graft. It is concluded that this quantitative evaluation with [sup 201]Tl-SPECT can provide an objective and quantitative estimate of regional myocardial ischemia and infarct. (author).

  2. Thallium-201 for cardiac stress tests: residual radioactivity worries patients and security. (United States)

    Geraci, Matthew J; Brown, Norman; Murray, David


    A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in duress and stated he was "highly radioactive." There were no reports of nuclear disasters, spills, or mishaps in the local area. This report discusses the potential for thallium-201 (Tl-201) patients to activate passive radiation alarms days to weeks after nuclear stress tests, even while shielded inside industrial vehicles away from sensors. Characteristics of Tl-201, as used for medical imaging, are described. This patient was twice detained by Homeland Security Agents and searched after he activated radiation detectors at a seaport security checkpoint. Security agents deemed him not to be a threat, but they expressed concern regarding his health and level of personal radioactivity. The patient was subsequently barred from his job and sent to the hospital. Tl-201 is a widely used radioisotope for medical imaging. The radioactive half-life of Tl-201 is 73.1h, however, reported periods of extended personal radiation have been seen as far out as 61 days post-administration. This case describes an anxious, but otherwise asymptomatic patient presenting to the ED with detection of low-level personal radiation. Documentation should be provided to and carried by individuals receiving radionuclides for a minimum of five to six half-lives of the longest-lasting isotope provided. Patients receiving Tl-201 should understand the potential for security issues; reducing probable tense moments, confusion, and anxiety to themselves, their employers, security officials, and ED staff. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Usefulness of thallium-201 SPECT in the evaluation of tumor natures in intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tetsuji; Nakano, Takahiro; Asano, Kenichiroh; Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki [Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hirosaki (Japan)


    Although intracranial meningiomas are regarded as benign tumors, some of them behave clinically as malignant tumors. Past reports suggest that MIB 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postoperative tumor specimens correlate with the aggressive nature of tumors, but preoperative prediction of such a nature is more useful for therapeutic planning for the tumor. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of preoperative thallium-201 chloride single-photon emission computed tomography (Tl SPECT) to evaluate biological behavior in intracranial meningiomas. Tl SPECT was performed on 39 patients with intracranial meningioma and Tl uptake indices were calculated. The difference in the Tl uptake index between atypical meningiomas and other pathological types of meningioma was evaluated. Moreover, correlation of Tl uptake indices with the MIB1 labeling index was estimated. Tl uptake indices were also compared between VEGF strongly positive and weakly positive meningiomas. The delayed index of atypical meningioma was significantly higher than that of the other pathological types (p = 0.036). Significant correlation was found between the Tl uptake index in the delayed image and MIB1 labeling index (p < 0.0001, R{sup 2} = 0.36). Moreover, VEGF strongly positive meningiomas exhibited a significantly higher Tl uptake index compared to VEGF weakly positive meningiomas in both the early image and the delayed image (p = 0.029, 0.023, respectively). Tl uptake index may be a possible preoperative surrogate marker of MIB1 and VEGF that is useful in detecting aggressive natures in intracranial meningiomas. (orig.)

  4. Effective removal of trace thallium from surface water by nanosized manganese dioxide enhanced quartz sand filtration. (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan


    Thallium (Tl) has drawn wide concern due to its high toxicity even at extremely low concentrations, as well as its tendency for significant accumulation in the human body and other organisms. The need to develop effective strategies for trace Tl removal from drinking water is urgent. In this study, the removal of trace Tl (0.5 μg L -1 ) by conventional quartz sand filtration enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) has been investigated using typical surface water obtained from northeast China. The results indicate that nMnO 2 enhanced quartz sand filtration could remove trace Tl(I) and Tl(III) efficiently through the adsorption of Tl onto nMnO 2 added to a water matrix and onto nMnO 2 attached on quartz sand surfaces. Tl(III)-HA complexes might be responsible for higher residual Tl(III) in the effluent compared to residual Tl(I). Competitive Ca 2+ cations inhibit Tl removal to a certain extent because the Ca 2+ ions will occupy the Tl adsorption site on nMnO 2 . Moreover, high concentrations of HA (10 mgTOC L -1 ), which notably complexes with and dissolves nMnO 2 (more than 78%), resulted in higher residual Tl(I) and Tl(III). Tl(III)-HA complexes might also enhance Tl(III) penetration to a certain extent. Additionally, a higher pH level could enhance the removal of trace Tl from surface water. Finally, a slight increase of residual Tl was observed after backwash, followed by the reduction of the Tl concentration in the effluent to a "steady" state again. The knowledge obtained here may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide


    Gregory, Gerald L; Douglas D. Davis; Thornton, Donald C; James E. Johnson; Bandy, Alan R.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Barrick, John D


    This paper reports results of NASA's Chemical Instrumentation and Test Evaluation (CITE 3) during which airborne measurements for carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were intercompared. Instrumentation included a gas chromatograph using flame photometric detection (COS, H2S, and CS2), a gas chromatograph using mass spectrometric detection (COS and CS2), a gas chromatograph using fluorination and subsequent SF6 detection via electron capture (COS and CS2)...

  6. Audio magnetotelluric Investigation of Sulfide Mineralization in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dhanjori Volcanics along with high geothermal gradient and rifted margin gives rise to metallogeny in form of rifted phase greenstone belts with gold enriched sulfide mineralization. The conductivity model indicated the presence of shallow conductors but could not be resolved due to lack of high frequency data. However ...

  7. Microbial Fuel Cells for Sulfide Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, K.; Sompel, van de S.; Maignien, L.; Boon, N.; Aelterman, P.; Clauwaert, P.; Schamphelaire, de L.; The Pham, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Verhaege, M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.


    Thus far, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to convert carbon-based substrates to electricity. However, sulfur compounds are ubiquitously present in organic waste and wastewater. In this study, a MFC with a hexacyanoferrate cathodic electrolyte was used to convert dissolved sulfide to

  8. 30 CFR 250.490 - Hydrogen sulfide. (United States)


    ... indicate a different classification is needed. (d) What do I do if conditions change? If you encounter H2S..., how these positions fit into your organization, and what the functions, duties, and responsibilities... done in a manner that ensures resistance to sulfide stress cracking. (q) General requirements when...

  9. Microaeration reduces hydrogen sulfide in biogas (United States)

    Although there are a variety of biological and chemical treatments for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas, all require some level of chemical or water inputs and maintenance. In practice, managing biogas H2S remains a significant challenge for agricultural digesters where labor and opera...

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide in Preeclampsia : Potential Therapeutic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Kim


    The thesis provide insights into the production and possible therapeutic effect of the gaseous molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in preeclampsia (PE). H2S is an important molecule in the (human) body. It is among others involved in blood pressure regulation, stimulation of vascular growth and

  11. Comparison of Hydrogen Sulfide Analysis Techniques (United States)

    Bethea, Robert M.


    A summary and critique of common methods of hydrogen sulfide analysis is presented. Procedures described are: reflectance from silver plates and lead acetate-coated tiles, lead acetate and mercuric chloride paper tapes, sodium nitroprusside and methylene blue wet chemical methods, infrared spectrophotometry, and gas chromatography. (BL)

  12. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.S.


    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  13. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes


    , sulfide emission and thereby potential hydrogen sulfide buildup in the sewer atmosphere is of particular importance in sewers constructed with large diameter pipes, in sewers constructed with steep slopes and in sewers conveying low pH wastewater. Precipitation of metal sulfides is only important when......Sulfide buildup in sewer networks is associated with several problems, including health impacts, corrosion of sewer structures and odor nuisance. In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks have been made. This paper...

  14. Electrochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahimi-Nasarabadi


    Full Text Available Electrosynthesis process has been used for preparation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Zinc sulfide nanoparticles in different size and shapes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of zinc plate as anode in sodium sulfide solution. Effects of several reaction variables, such as electrolysis voltage, sulfide ion concentration as reactant, stirring rate of electrolyte solution and temperature on particle size of prepared zinc sulfide were investigated. The significance of these parameters in tuning the size of zinc sulfide particles was quantitatively evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Also, optimum conditions for synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles via electrosynthesis reaction were proposed. The structure and composition of prepared nanoparticles under optimum condition was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry techniques.

  15. Sulfide removal by moderate oxygenation of anaerobic sludge environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zee, F.P.; Villaverde, S.; Polanco, F. [Valladolid Univ., Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Garcia, P.A.


    Treating wastewater through anaerobic bioreactors results in the formation of hydrogen sulfide. The sulfide can be removed from the biogas by introducing air directly into the anaerobic bioreactor system. This study presents the results of batch experiments that provided a better insight into the fate of sulfur compounds and oxygen during microaerobic sulfide oxidation in granular sludge. It was shown that sulfide could be removed rapidly upon introduction of low amounts of oxygen to the sulfide-amended batch vials with granular sludge treating vinasse. Initially, the sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and polysulfide. Significant production of sulfate did not occur. The introduction of oxygen, however, could result in the growth of aerobic organic-chemical oxygen demand-oxidizing bacteria that compete with sulfide oxidation for oxygen. 6 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  16. Reduced left ventricular cavitary activity ("black hole sign") in thallium-201 SPECT perfusion images of anteroapical transmural myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Civelek, A C; Shafique, I; Brinker, J A; Durski, K; Weiss, J L; Links, J M; Natarajan, T K; Ozguven, M A; Wagner, H N


    Apparently reduced left ventricular (LV) cavitary thallium activity in both planar and tomographic perfusion images has been previously observed by these and other investigators. With single-photon emission computerized tomography, we have clinically noted that this "black hole sign" was associated with an aneurysm in the setting of a transmural anterior or anteroapical perfusion defect. We have now prospectively studied the etiology and predictive value of this sign in 84 consecutive patients with an anterior, anteroapical transmural perfusion defect. Of the 84 patients, 49 had both LV aneurysm (confirmed by contrast ventriculography, echocardiography or gated blood pool studies) and a black hole sign. Only 1 patient with an aneurysm did not have the black hole sign, and 2 without aneurysm did. Thus, it is concluded that this sign is highly accurate in diagnosing LV aneurysm. Because thallium-201 single-photon emission computerized tomography imaging is often performed as one of the first diagnostic tests soon after myocardial infarction, this has important clinical management implications.

  17. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGoldrick, P.J.; Robinson, P. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)


    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  18. Pentoxifylline (Trental) does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia: Implications for dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.A.; Slinker, B.K. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))


    Dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is often performed in patients unable to exercise because of peripheral vascular disease. Many of these patients are taking pentoxifylline (Trental), a methylxanthine derivative which may improve intermittent claudication. Whether pentoxifylline inhibits dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia like other methylxanthines such as theophylline and should be stopped prior to dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the hyperemic response to dipyridamole in seven open-chest anesthetized dogs after pretreatment with either pentoxifylline (0, 7.5, or 15 mg/kg i.v.) or theophylline (3 mg/kg i.v.). Baseline circumflex coronary blood flows did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Dipyridamole significantly increased coronary blood flow before and after 7.5 or 15 mm/kg i.v. pentoxifylline (p less than 0.002). Neither dose of pentoxifylline significantly decreased the dipyridamole-induced hyperemia, while peak coronary blood flow was significantly lower after theophylline (p less than 0.01). We conclude that pentoxyifylline does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia even at high doses.

  19. Thallium-201 scintigraphy after dipyridamole infusion with low-level exercise. III Clinical significance and additional diagnostic value of ST segment depression and angina pectoris during the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G-J. Laarman (GertJan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.F. Verzijlbergen (Fred); C.A.P.L. Ascoop (Carl); J. Azar


    textabstractIntravenous dipyridamole thallium testing is a useful alternative procedure for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients who are unable to perform maximal exercise tests. Ischaemic ST segment depression and angina pectoris are frequently observed during the test, in particular

  20. Indium-111 antimyosin antibody imaging and thallium-201 imaging. A comparative myocardial scintigraphic study using single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takehiko; Matsumori, Akira; Nohara, Ryuji; Konishi, Junji; Sasayama, Shigetake [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Tamaki, Nagara


    Indium-111 antimyosin antibody imaging (a tracer of myocardial necrosis) and thallium-201 imaging (a tracer of myocardial perfusion) were compared in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. The distribution of each tracer and antimyosin/thallium-201 overlapping were evaluated with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Scintigraphic data were classified into 5 patterns according to the distribution of both images and were compared with histologic findings of endomyocardial biopsy: AM-D, intense and diffuse antimyosin uptake and no perfusion abnormality (active myocarditis); AM-L, localized antimyosin uptake and no perfusion abnormality (active myocarditis); HM, no antimyosin uptake with or without perfusion abnormality (healed myocarditis); DCM-NH, diffuse antimyosin uptake and inhomogeneous thallium-201 uptake (dilated cardiomyopathy); DCM-PD, diffuse or localized antimyosin uptake and myocardial perfusion defect(s) (dilated cardiomyopathy). Patients with dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were frequently found in the DCM-PD group. Taken together, comparative antimyosin/thallium-201 SPECT images are useful for evaluating the activity of myocarditis and ongoing myocardial damage even in areas with no perfusion in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  1. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in patients with normal coronary arteries and normal left ventriculogram. Comparison with hemodynamic, metabolic and morphologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loesse, B.; Kuhn, H.; Rafflenbeul, D.; Kroenert, H.; Hort, W.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Loogen, F.


    36 consecutive patients with chest pain and/or severe ventricular dysrhythmias, but normal coronary arteries and normal left ventriculogram, underwent thallium-201 myocardial imaging at rest and during exercise. The myocardial scintigram was abnormal in 27 patients (group A) and normal in only 9 patients (group B).

  2. Preconcentration of thallium (I) by single drop microextraction with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy detection using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as extractant system. (United States)

    Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossien; Darroudi, Abolfazl; Salehi, Thiery


    A simple single drop liquid-phase microextraction (SDME) technique, combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) is developed both to preconcentrate and determine thallium (I) ions in aqueous solutions. The ions were transferred from 10.0 ml of aqueous sample (donor phase) containing 0.5 ml of 1% picric acid as the ion-pair agent into a 3 microl microdrop of nitrobenzene (acceptor phase) containing dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as the complexing agent. The latter will help to improve the extraction efficiency of the analyte. After the ions have been extracted, the acceptor drop was directly injected into a graphite furnace for thallium (I) determination. Several parameters such as the extracting solvent, extraction time, temperature, concentration of picric acid and crown ether, drop volume and stirring rate were examined. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit (L.O.D.) was 0.7 ng ml(-1). The relative standard deviation for five replicate analysis of 10 ng ml(-1) of thallium (I) was 5.1%. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 3-22 ng ml(-1). The results for determination of thallium in reference material, spiked tap water and seawater demonstrated the accuracy, recovery and applicability of the presented method. The enrichment factor was 50.

  3. Synthesis and application of a novel nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer for the preconcentration and determination of thallium(I) ions in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayazi, M., E-mail: [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, M. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taher, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, R. [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati, M.R. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • A novel nanostructured thallium(I)-imprinted polymer was evaluated for trace detection of Tl(I). • The prepared sorbent displayed rapid extraction rate, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The proposed methodology was applied for quantification of Tl(I) in different water samples. - Abstract: A novel synthesized nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) was investigated for the determination of trace amount of thallium(I). For this purpose, the thallium(I) IIP particles were synthesized using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, methyl-2-[2-(2-2-[2-(methoxycarbonyl) phenoxy] ethoxyethoxy) ethoxy] benzoate as the chelating agent and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The prepared IIP particles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Various experimental factors such as pH, the amount of IIP particles, sorption and desorption time, sample volume, elution condition, and potentially interfering ions systematically examined. Under the optimum conditions, a sensitive response to Tl(I) within a wide concentration range (0.05–18 μg L{sup −1}) was achieved. The limit of detection (LOD, 3S{sub b}/m) was 6.3 ng L{sup −1}. The maximum adsorption capacity of the novel imprinted adsorbent for Tl(I) was calculated to be 18.3 mg g{sup −1}. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eight replicate detections of 0.1 μg L{sup −1} of thallium(I) was found to be 4.0%. An enrichment factor (EF) of 100 was obtained by this method. The proposed technique was successfully applied to monitoring thallium in different water samples and the certified reference material.

  4. L-Tyrosine immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes: A new substrate for thallium separation and speciation using stabilized temperature platform furnace-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Pablo H.; Gil, Raul A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica de San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, CP 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Smichowski, Patricia, E-mail: [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, CP C1033 AAJ, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia Quimica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); Polla, Griselda [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Av.Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); Martinez, Luis D., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica de San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, CP 5700, San Luis (Argentina)


    An approach for the separation and determination of inorganic thallium species is described. A new sorbent, L-tyrosine-carbon nanotubes (L-tyr-CNTs), was used and applied to the analysis of tap water samples. At pH 5.0, L-tyr was selective only towards Tl(III), while total thallium was determined directly by stabilized temperature platform furnace-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (STPF-ETAAS). The Tl(III) specie, which was retained by L-tyrosine, was quantitatively eluted from the column with 10% of nitric acid. An on-line breakthrough curve was used to determine the column capacity, which resulted to be 9.00 {mu}mol of Tl(III) g{sup -1} of L-tyr-CNTs with a molar ratio of 0.14 (moles of Tl bound to moles of L-tyr at pH 5). Transient peak areas revealed that Tl stripping from the column occurred instantaneously. Effects of sample flow rate, concentration and flow rate of the eluent, and interfering ions on the recovery of the analyte were systematically investigated. The detection limit for the determination of total thallium (3{sigma}) by STPF-ETAAS was 150 ng L{sup -1}. The detection limit (3{sigma}) for Tl(III) employing the separation system was 3 ng L{sup -1}, with an enrichment factor of 40. The precision of the method expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) resulted to be 3.4%. The proposed method was applied to the speciation and determination of inorganic thallium in tap water samples. The found concentrations were in the range of 0.88-0.91 {mu}g L{sup -1} of Tl(III), and 3.69-3.91 {mu}g L{sup -1} of total thallium.

  5. Tracing subducted sediment inputs to the Ryukyu arc-Okinawa Trough system: Evidence from thallium isotopes (United States)

    Shu, Yunchao; Nielsen, Sune G.; Zeng, Zhigang; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuai


    Sediments are actively subducted in virtually every arc worldwide. However, quantifying their contributions to arc lavas and thereby establishing budgets of how sediments participate in slab-mantle interaction is challenging. In this contribution we use thallium (Tl) abundances and isotopic compositions of lavas from the Ryukyu arc (including south Kyushu) and its back-arc basin, Okinawa Trough, to investigate the influence of sediments from arc to back-arc. We also present extensive geochemical data for sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC) outboard of the northern (DSDP Sites 296, 442B, 443 and 444) and central (DSDP Sites 294 and 295) part of the Ryukyu arc. The Tl isotopic compositions of sediments change systematically from lighter outboard of northern Ryukyu arc to heavier outboard of central Ryukyu arc. The feature reflects the dominance of terrigenous material and pelagic sedimentation outboard of the northern and central Ryukyu arc, respectively. Central and northern sections of Ryukyu arc and Okinawa Trough display larger range of Tl isotopic variation than southern section, which is consistent with more pelagic provenance for sediments outboard of central and northern Ryukyu arcs than that of expected sediments outboard of southern Ryukyu arc. Identical Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope variations are found when comparing arc and back arc lavas, which indicates that sediments fluxes also account for the Tl isotopic variations in the Okinawa Trough lavas. Two-end-member mixing models of Tl with Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes require sediment inputs ofsediment end members predict very similar sediment fluxes when using Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes, which indicates that fractionation of these elements must have happened after mixing between mantle and sediments. This conclusion is corroborated by model calculations of mixing between sediment melts with fractionated Sr/Nd ratios and mantle wedge, which show that no arc lava plot on such mixing lines. Thus bulk sediment

  6. Comparison of arbutamine stress and treadmill exercise thallium-201 SPECT: Hemodynamics, safety profile and diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiat, H.; Berman, D.S. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre, Los Angeles, California, LA (United States)


    Full text: Arbutamine (ARB), a new pharmacologic stress agent with enhanced chronotropic property compared to dobutamine, was compared with treadmill (TM) exercise testing (Ex) in a multicenter study using thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT. Of the total of 184 patients who underwent ARB, 69 also had TM stress and quantitative coronary angiography. Fifty-eight patients with a low pretest likelihood of CAD also underwent ARB study for evaluation of test specificity (normalcy rate). Tl scans were scored by a central laboratory using a 20 segment (seg)/scan visual analysis (5 point system: 0=normal, 4-absent uptake). Maximum heart rate (HR) by ARB and Ex was 122 vs 141 bpm (p<0.05). Mean %HR change from baseline was similar (79% vs 82%, respectively, p=ns). Maximum systolic BP for ARB and Ex was 173 vs 175 mmHg, and mean % change from baseline was 24% vs 28% (p=ns). Sensitivity for detecting CAD (270% stenosis) by ARB Tl was 94% and 97% by Ex Tl (p=ns). Stress Tl SPECT segmental agreement for presence of defect between ARB and Ex was 92% (kappa=0.8, p<0.001). Exact segmental stress Tl score (0-4 grading) agreement was 83 % (kappa=0.7, p<0.001). Among 346 segs with stress defects by both ARB and Ex defect reversibility agreement was 86% (kappa=0.7, p<0.001). The normalcy rate for ARB TI-SPECT among patients with a low likelihood of CAD was 90%. Adverse events were mostly mild (tremor: 23%, flushing: 10%, headache: 10%, paraesthesia: 8%, dizziness: 8%, hot flushes: 4%). Arrhythimia of clinical concern occurred in 8% (10/122) of ARB patients who had cardiac catheterisation and in 1.4% (1/69) of patients who had stress Tl. Of all 184 patients with ARB stress, ARB was discontinued due to arrhythmia in 7(5%) and 1 patient had IV Metoprolol for frequent ventricular couplets. Sustained arrhythmias were not observed

  7. Thallium Isotopes Tracking Mn-Oxide Burial - A Proxy for Deoxygenation During Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (United States)

    Ostrander, C.; Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.


    Thallium (Tl) is proving to be a useful paleoredox proxy given that the Tl isotope composition of seawater is highly dependent on the magnitude of manganese (Mn) oxide burial in the ocean. In turn, Mn oxides require oxygen at the sediment-water interface to precipitate, linking the Tl isotope cycle to ocean oxygenation. Currently, the marine residence time of Tl is ~20kyrs and the Tl isotope composition of seawater is invariant, which suggests Tl isotopes could be a global tracer of marine Mn-oxide burial. Importantly, recent research suggests sediments deposited under a euxinic water column faithfully record the Tl isotope value of the overlying oxic water column (e.g. Black Sea and Cariaco Basin). Therefore, analysis of organic-rich black shales may prove useful in evaluating the seawater Tl isotope composition of past oceans and, hence, large-scale burial of Mn-oxides and the extent of bottom water ocean oxygenation. A logical test for this proxy is during the well-studied Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event termed Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2) at ~94 Ma. It is known that the global extent of anoxia and euxinia increased during this event, however, to what extent global bottom water deoxygenation occured is unconstrained. If deep water deoxygenation occurred, it would be hypothesized that Mn-oxide precipitation would decrease, resulting in a positive Tl isotope excursion during OAE-2. We have analyzed the Tl isotope composition of organic-rich black shales from Site 1258 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) spanning the period before, during, and after OAE-2. Based on Fe redox proxies, the entire section is euxinic and thus no Mn-oxides are present (i.e. no local redox changes). Before the event, Tl isotope compositions are similar or slightly heavier than modern seawater values. Just prior to the onset of OAE-2, a positive shift occurs and is maintained until recovery, slightly before the termination of the event. The shift to heavier values and subsequent

  8. Geochemical translocation of thallium in the sediments from the North River, China (United States)

    Liu, J.


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare heavy metal. As a sulphophile element, it usually occurs in numerous sulphide minerals (such as pyrite, galena, sphlerite). Guangdong north region, known as the hometown of nonferrous metals, has abundant containing Tl mineral resources. Numerous industrial activities, such as mining, smelting, and electroplating are also flourishing. In 2010, a serious Tl pollution in the North River (a major river in the Northern Guangdong Province) shocked the society. The Tl pollution in water appeared to be under control after that incident. But in fact, even if the wastewater discharge of pollution sources has been controlled, the potential risk of heavy metal pollution in the sediments of the North River still exists, for the metals are easy to precipitate and accumulate into sediment from water. So far, Tl pollution in sediments has been studied to a very limited extent. In this paper, we investigated the content and vertical distribution characteristics of Tl and some other related heavy metals in a typical sediment profile from the North River by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Then the Pb isotopic compositions in the sediments were measured by using multi-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Several sediments from typical layers were also subjected to sequential extraction procedure for investigating the geochemical fractions of Tl. The risk of Tl and other metal pollution was finally assessed by calculating geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and potential ecological risk. The results showed that: (1) Tl concentrations range 1.03 mg/kg to 3.13 mg/kg with a mean of 1.89 mg/kg, three times higher than that in local background soil; (2) Tl content generally increased with depth with some fluctuations and significant correlations were found between Tl and Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni; (3) About 46 % to 70 % in sediment cores were resided in the residual fraction; (4) Igeo showed that the studied

  9. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina (United States)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne


    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, and stable isotope tracing coupled with a mass balance of sulfur compounds. We found that Z. marina detoxified gaseous sediment-derived sulfide through incorporation and that most of the detoxification occurred in underground tissues, where sulfide intrusion was greatest. Elemental sulfur was a major detoxification compound, precipitating on the inner wall of the aerenchyma of underground tissues. Sulfide was metabolized into thiols and entered the plant sulfur metabolism as well as being stored as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments. PMID:26030258

  10. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries (United States)

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L


    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  11. Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Species: Carbonyl Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul


    A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts satisfact...... by the competition between chain‐branching and ‐propagating steps; modeling predictions are particularly sensitive to the branching fraction for the OCS + O reaction to form CO + SO or CO2 + S.......A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts...

  12. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan Jr., T. J.


    The present invention relates to a process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide which frequently becomes entrained in drilling fluid during the course of drilling operations through subterranean formations. The process consists of introducing a solid oxidant in powdered form into the circulating drilling fluid when hydrogen sulfide is encountered. The solid oxidants are selected from the group consisting of calcium hypochlorite (Ca-(OCl)/sub 2/), sodium perborate (NaBO/sub 3/), potassium permanganate (KMnO/sub 4/), and potassium peroxydisulfate (K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/). The solid oxidants are soluble in the drilling fluid, promoting fast and complete scavenging reactions without adversely altering the drilling fluid rheology.

  13. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J


    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  14. Various communications concerning sulfigran (sodium sulfide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, H.; Montfort, F.; Wickert; Horn; Junkermann; Wissel, K.; Pier, M.


    Most of these communications concerned the problems experienced by Poelitz when its regular supplier of Sulfigran (sodium sulfide), the I.G. Farbenindustrie plant at Luverkusen, had to shut down for repairs and Poelitz had to get an impure form of Sulfigran mixture (a crude melt of ore) from other suppliers, including the I.G. Farbenindustrie plant at Wolfen (Bitterfeld). Various problems arose in the transition, including the fact that the mixture supplied was not ground finely enough for the coal-paste-preparing machinery at Poelitz to handle without damage. An analysis of one sample of the raw melt mixture gave 68.8% sodium sulfide, 12.0% carbon, 1.5% hydrogen, 1.6% silicon dioxide, 1.8% iron, 1.0% aluminum, 0.6% calcium, traces of magnesium and sulfate, and 15.4% water-insoluble. An analysis for another sample showed about 1.8% less sodium sulfide, 1.5% more silicon dioxide, 0.7% less iron, 0.5% less aluminum, 0.6% more calcium, etc., than the previous analysis. Finally one of the communications was a letter in which Ludwigshafen responded favorably to Poelitz's question about whether it would be advantageous to add Sulfigran directly to the first oven of a hydrogenation chamber instead of grinding it with the coal paste. Ludwigshafen said that in some experiments it had observed deposits at places where Sulfigran and coal paste encountered each other in preheater tubes. The deposits consisted of sodium sulfide and iron compounds. 3 tables.

  15. Source and distribution of sedimentary thallium in the Bohai Sea: Implications for hydrodynamic forces and anthropogenic impact (United States)

    Hu, Ningjing; Liu, Jihua; Shi, Xuefa


    Source and distribution of sedimentary thallium in the Bohai Sea: Implications for hydrodynamic forces and anthropogenic impact Hu Ningjing, Liu Jihua, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Thallium (Tl), a non-essential and highly toxic trace metal, is listed as priority toxic pollutant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (Keith and Telliard, 1979). However, its geochemical cycling in aquatic environment has received far less attention than that of many other trace metals. This has been attributed to relatively little commercial interest in Tl and, until recently, problems inherent in its detection at environmental concentrations (Meeravali and Jiang, 2008). In this study, we investigated the sources, distribution and fate of Tl in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea (BS), China, based on the datasets of total Tl and chemical speciation of Tl of 408 surface sediment samples in the total entire BS. The enrichment factors and chemical speciation of Tl indicated that Tl in BS was dominated by natural Tl, although anthropogenic Tl contamination was observed in the Liuguhe River mouth; the mud deposits are the sinks of Tl and the regional currents and tide systems play a key role on the accumulation of Tl in BS. The distribution of Tl consistent with that of MnO and Fe2O3 as well as the level of Fe-Mn fraction is relatively high, indicating MnO and Fe2O3 influence the geochemical behaviors of Tl in the BS. Although the positive correlation between Tl and TOC is observed for the samples in the BS, however, level of Tl in oxidizable faction could be neglected, suggesting TOC might not be a major factor affecting the concentration of Tl in BS. The low proportion of Tl in the non-residual fraction dominated by the Fe-Mn oxides suggested that the labile Tl was controlled by the Fe-Mn oxides and Tl has a low bioavailability and a minor potential threat to biota in BS. Acknowledgements: this work

  16. Two new examples of very short thallium-transition metal contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karanovic, Ljiljana; Poleti, Dejan; Balic Zunic, Tonci


    Two new sulphosalts Tl3Ag3Sb2S6, (1) and Tl(3)Ag(3)AS(2)S(6), (2) were prepared in reaction of synthetic binary sulfides: argentite (Ag2S), carlinite (Tl2S) and orpiment (As2O3) or stibnite (Sb2S3), and their crystal structures have been determined using single-crystal data. The compounds are iso....... It is also pointed out that if only valence shell electrons are considered (Tl-Ag)(2+) group is isoelectronic with the (Hg-Hg)(2+) ion, therefore new examples of short Tl-Ag contacts could be expected. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration (United States)

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.


    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  18. A sulfide-saturated lunar mantle? (United States)

    Brenan, James M.; Mungall, James E.


    Although much work has been done to understand the controls on the sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) for terrestrial melt compositions, little information exists to evaluate the SCSS for the high FeO compositions typical of lunar magmas, and at the reduced conditions of the Moon's interior. Experiments were done to measure the SCSS for a model low Ti mare basalt with 20 wt% FeO at 1400oC as a function of fO2 and pressure. Synthetic lunar basalt was encapsulated along with stoichiometric FeS in capsules made from Fe-Ir alloy. The fO2 of the experiment can be estimated by the heterogeneous equilibrium: Femetal + 1 /2 O2 = FeOsilicate Variation in the metal composition, by addition of Ir, serves to change the fO2 of the experiment. Capsule compositions spanning the range Fe25Ir75 to Fe96Ir4 (at%) were synthesized by sintering of pressed powders under reducing conditions. Fe100 capsules were fabricated from pure Fe rod. For a melt with 20 wt% FeO, this range in capsule composition spans the fO2 interval of ˜IW-1 (Fe100, Fe96Ir4) to IW+2.2 (Fe25Ir75). Experiments were done over the pressure interval of 0.1 MPa to 2 GPa. Results for experiments involving Fe100capsules indicate that the SCSS decreases from ˜2000 ppm (0.1 MPa) to 700 ppm (2 GPa). Experiments done thus far at 1 GPa, involving the range of capsule compositions indicated, show a marked decrease in SCSS as the Fe content of the capsule increases (fO2 decreases). Complementary to the decrease in SCSS is a drop in the sulfur content of the coexisting sulfide melt, from ˜50 at% at ΔIW = +2.2 to ˜20 at% at ΔIW-1. In fact, both the composition of the sulfide melt and the SCSS are essentially indistinguishable for Fe96Ir4 and Fe100 compositions. Results thus far indicate that at reduced conditions and high pressure, the SCSS for high FeO lunar compositions is low, and overlaps with Apollo 11 melt inclusion data. Importantly, such low SCSS does not require Fe metal saturation, and suggests that some

  19. Immature Flavor of Beer by Hydrogen Sulfide and its Exclusion


    高橋, 俊明; タカハシ, トシアキ; TOSHIAKI, TAKAHASHI


    In the brewing industry, bottom fermeting brewer's yeast has produced hydrogen sulfide during the primary fermentation process. Hydrogen sulfide has given the unpleasant immature flavor such as rotten egg into the primary or secondary fermenting liquor. However, in the normaly produced final beer the immature flavor has disappeared in general. In spite of the above mentioned fact, sometimes the immature flavor based on the hydrogen sulfide have found in final beer during the imperfect control...

  20. Remediation of sulfidic wastewater by catalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Maitra, Saikat; Dutta, Binay Kanti; Ahmad, Farooq


    Oxidation of sulfide in aqueous solution by hydrogen peroxide was investigated in the presence of hydrated ferric oxide catalyst. The ferric oxide catalyst was synthesized by sol gel technique from ferric chloride and ammonia. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction analysis, scanning electrom microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The catalyst was quite effective in oxidizing the sulfide by hydrogen peroxide. The effects of sulfide concentration, catalyst loading, H2O2 dosing and temperature on the kinetics of sulfide oxidation were investigated. Kinetic equations and activation energies for the catalytic oxidation reaction were calculated based on the experimental results.

  1. Fractionation and Mobility of Thallium in Volcanic Ashes after Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) in Iceland. (United States)

    Karbowska, Bozena; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz


    Volcanic ash contains thallium (Tl), which is highly toxic to the biosphere. The aim of this study was to determine the Tl concentration in fractions of volcanic ash samples originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A sequential extraction scheme allowed for a study of element migration in the environment. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a flow measuring system was selected as the analytical method to determine Tl content. The highest average content of Tl in volcanic ash was determined in the fraction entrapped in the aluminosilicate matrix (0.329 µg g(-1)), followed by the oxidizable fraction (0.173 µg g(-1)). The lowest content of Tl was found in the water soluble fraction (0.001 µg g(-1)); however, this fraction is important due to the fact that Tl redistribution among all the fractions occurs through the aqueous phase.

  2. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree such si...

  3. Hydrogen sulfide generation and detection system. (United States)

    Ackley, M W


    A test system has been devised for generation and measurement of hydrogen sulfide/air mixtures. Such a system has numerous applications, including toxicology studies, detector badge and tube evaluation, sorbent capacity measurements, and respirator cartridge or canister breakthrough testing. The system in this study utilizes an HNU photoionization analyzer for detection of H2S concentrations of 1.0 ppm to 26.0 ppm. Generation techniques for these low concentration levels, and also for much higher H2S concentrations, have been described. Special consideration has been given to H2S permeation of transfer tubing, and to the effects of water vapor interference upon the analyzer.

  4. Determination of gold, indium, tellurium and thallium in the same sample digest of geological materials by atomic-absorption spectroscopy and two-step solvent extraction (United States)

    Hubert, A.E.; Chao, T.T.


    A rock, soil, or stream-sediment sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric acid, aqua regia, and hydrobromic acid-bromine solution. Gold, thallium, indium and tellurium are separated and concentrated from the sample digest by a two-step MIBK extraction at two concentrations of hydrobromic add. Gold and thallium are first extracted from 0.1M hydrobromic acid medium, then indium and tellurium are extracted from 3M hydrobromic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid to eliminate iron interference. The elements are then determined by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The two-step solvent extraction can also be used in conjunction with electrothermal atomic-absorption methods to lower the detection limits for all four metals in geological materials. ?? 1985.

  5. Effect of Soluble Sulfide on the Activity of Luminescent Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang


    Full Text Available Sulfide is an important water pollutant widely found in industrial waste water that has attracted much attention. S2−, as a weak acidic anion, is easy hydrolyzed to HS and H2S in aqueous solution. In this study, biological tests were performed to establish the toxicity of sulfide solutions on luminescent bacteria. Considering the sulfide solution was contained three substances—S2−, HS and H2S—the toxicity test was performed at different pH values to investigate which form of sulfide increased light emission and which reduced light emission. It was shown that the EC50 values were close at pH 7.4, 8.0 and 9.0 which were higher than pH 5 and 10. The light emission and sulfide concentrations displayed an inverse exponential dose-response relationship within a certain concentration range at pH 5, 6.5 and 10. The same phenomenon occurred for the high concentration of sulfide at pH 7.4, 8 and 9, in which the concentration of sulfide was HS >> H2S > S2−. An opposite hormesis-effect appeared at the low concentrations of sulfide.

  6. Microbial selenium sulfide reduction for selenium recovery from wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, S.P.W.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Stams, A.J.M.; Cappellen, van P.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Microbial reduction of selenium sulfide (SeS2) is a key step in a new treatment process to recover selenium from selenate and selenite streams. In this process, selenate is first reduced to selenite, and subsequently selenite is reduced by sulfide and precipitates from the solution as SeS2. The

  7. Sulfide Concentration and Redox Potential Patterns in Mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata occur in coastal areas with reducing sediment that contain high sulfide concentrations. However, in this study a glasshouse experiment demonstrated that the establishment of seedlings from these species did not occur in sediment with high sulfide ...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide. (United States)


    ... zinc sulfide in facial makeup preparations shall not exceed 10 percent by weight of the final product... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity... coloring externally applied facial makeup preparations and nail polish included under § 720.4(c)(7)(ix) and...

  9. Hierarchical Architecturing for Layered Thermoelectric Sulfides and Chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jood


    Full Text Available Sulfides are promising candidates for environment-friendly and cost-effective thermoelectric materials. In this article, we review the recent progress in all-length-scale hierarchical architecturing for sulfides and chalcogenides, highlighting the key strategies used to enhance their thermoelectric performance. We primarily focus on TiS2-based layered sulfides, misfit layered sulfides, homologous chalcogenides, accordion-like layered Sn chalcogenides, and thermoelectric minerals. CS2 sulfurization is an appropriate method for preparing sulfide thermoelectric materials. At the atomic scale, the intercalation of guest atoms/layers into host crystal layers, crystal-structural evolution enabled by the homologous series, and low-energy atomic vibration effectively scatter phonons, resulting in a reduced lattice thermal conductivity. At the nanoscale, stacking faults further reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. At the microscale, the highly oriented microtexture allows high carrier mobility in the in-plane direction, leading to a high thermoelectric power factor.

  10. Influence of Water Salinity on Air Purification from Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leybovych L.I.


    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of «sliding» water drop motion in the air flow was performed in software package FlowVision. The result of mathematical modeling of water motion in a droplet with diameter 100 microns at the «sliding» velocity of 15 m/s is shown. It is established that hydrogen sulfide oxidation occurs at the surface of phases contact. The schematic diagram of the experimental setup for studying air purification from hydrogen sulfide is shown. The results of the experimental research of hydrogen sulfide oxidation by tap and distilled water are presented. The dependence determining the share of hydrogen sulfide oxidized at the surface of phases contact from the dimensionless initial concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the air has been obtained.

  11. The Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide at Low Temperature: A Review (United States)

    Zhao, Shunzheng; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Shanxue; Gao, Fengyu; Zhang, Bowen; Zuo, Yanran; Wang, Zhixiang


    Catalytic hydrolysis technology of carbonyl sulfide (COS) at low temperature was reviewed, including the development of catalysts, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanism of COS hydrolysis. It was indicated that the catalysts are mainly involved metal oxide and activated carbon. The active ingredients which can load on COS hydrolysis catalyst include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal oxides, rare earth metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, and nanometal oxides. The catalytic hydrolysis of COS is a first-order reaction with respect to carbonyl sulfide, while the reaction order of water changes as the reaction conditions change. The controlling steps are also different because the reaction conditions such as concentration of carbonyl sulfide, reaction temperature, water-air ratio, and reaction atmosphere are different. The hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide is base-catalyzed reaction, and the force of the base site has an important effect on the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide. PMID:23956697

  12. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in n-methylpyrrolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarym-Agaev, N.L.; Matvienko, V.G.; Povalyaeva, N.V.


    The solubility of hydrogen sulfide in N-methylpyrrolidone was investigated over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The dynamic variant of the gravimetric method was used at hydrogen sulfide pressures equal to or below atmospheric, and the static variant at higher pressures. In the dynamic variant of the gravimetric method hydrogen sulfide is passed through a known amount of solvent until saturation is reached, and the amount of gas dissolved is found from the weight increase. This method is particularly convenient in studies of highly soluble gases when the solvent has a low vapor pressure. If the vapor pressure of the solvent exceeded this value a correction for entrainment of solvent vapor by undissolved gas was applied. The study showed that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in N-methylpyrrolidone rose steeply with increase of pressure and decrease of temperature and that it can be used as an effective absorbent of hydrogen sulfide in highly sulfurous natural gas. Since the solubility of hydrogen sulfide under atmospheric pressure is fairly high even at elevated temperatures, effective regeneration of N-methylpyrrolidone is possible by a combination of heating and blowing with an inert gas or by application of vacuum for removal of the hydrogen sulfide.

  13. Gasotransmitter Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in Neuronal Health and Disease. (United States)

    Paul, Bindu D; Snyder, Solomon H


    Hydrogen sulfide is a gaseous signaling molecule or gasotransmitter which plays important roles in a wide spectrum of physiologic processes in the brain and peripheral tissues. Unlike nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, the other major gasotransmitters, research on hydrogen sulfide is still in its infancy. One of the modes by which hydrogen sulfide signals is via a posttranslational modification termed sulfhydration/persulfidation, which occurs on reactive cysteine residues on target proteins, where the reactive -SH group is converted to an -SSH group. Sulfhydration is a substantially prevalent modification, which modulates the structure or function of proteins being modified. Thus, precise control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production and metabolism is critical for maintenance of optimal cellular function, with excess generation and paucity, both contributing to pathology. Dysregulation of the reverse transsulfuration pathway which generates hydrogen sulfide occurs in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, treatment with donors of hydrogen sulfide or stimulation of the reverse transsulfuration have proved beneficial in several neurodegenerative states. In this review we focus on hydrogen sulfide mediated neuronal signaling processes that contribute to neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Sulfidation behavior and mechanism of zinc silicate roasted with pyrite (United States)

    Ke, Yong; Peng, Ning; Xue, Ke; Min, Xiaobo; Chai, Liyuan; Pan, Qinglin; Liang, Yanjie; Xiao, Ruiyang; Wang, Yunyan; Tang, Chongjian; Liu, Hui


    Sulfidation roasting followed by flotation is widely known as a possible generic technology for enriching valuable metals in low-grade Zn-Pb oxide ores. Zn2SiO4 is the primary Zn phase in willemite. Zn4Si2O7(OH)2(H2O), the main Zn phase in hemimorphite, transforms into Zn2SiO4 at temperatures above 600 °C. To enrich the Zn in willemite and hemimorphite, the Zn species should first be converted to ZnS. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the sulfidation reaction of Zn2SiO4 during roasting with pyrite is of vital important. In this study, the sulfidation behavior and reaction mechanisms of a Zn2SiO4-pyrite roasting system were determined using HSC 5.0 software, TG-FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, XPS and SEM-EDS. The results indicate that the sulfidation process can be divided into three steps: the decomposition of pyrite and formation of a sulfur-rich environment, the sulfur-induced migration of O2- and transformation of sulfur vapor, and the sulfidation reaction via oxygen-sulfur exchange. During the sulfidation roasting process, pyrite was converted to loose and porous Fe3O4, whereas Zn2SiO4 was transformed into ZnS and SiO2 in situ. These findings provide theoretical support for controlling the sulfidation roasting process of willemite and hemimorphite.

  15. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)


    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  16. Equilibrium nickel isotope fractionation in nickel sulfide minerals (United States)

    Liu, Shanqi; Li, Yongbing; Ju, Yiwen; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianming; Shi, Yaolin


    Nickel is an important element on Earth, and a major element in the Earth's core, and plays important roles in many geological and biological systems. As an important sink of Ni, Ni sulfides are closely concerned with Ni migration in magma systems and the genesis and evolution of magmatic sulfide deposits. Ni isotopes of Ni sulfides may be a powerful geochemical tracer in magmatic processes and evolution of magmatic sulfide deposits. However Ni isotope fractionation factors of sulfides remain poorly known, which makes the applications of Ni isotopes to geological problems associated with sulfides difficult. In this study, the first-principles methods are used to compute Ni isotope fractionation parameters of polydymite (Ni3S4), heazlewoodite (Ni3S2), millerite (NiS), godlevskite (Ni9S8) and vaesite (NiS2). The reduced partition function ratios of 60Ni/58Ni (103 lnβ60-58) for these minerals decrease in the order of polydymite > heazlewoodite > millerite > godlevskite > vaesite. Ni isotope fractionations in these Ni sulfides show an approximately linear dependence on the average Nisbnd S bond lengths, and have a significant negative correlation with the average Nisbnd Ni bond lengths. Furthermore, a change in Fe/Ni ratio can also lead to Ni isotope fractionation, and with substitution Fe for Ni, the reduced partition function ratios of 60Ni/58Ni decrease.

  17. Sulfidic vapor phase catalysts, especially tungsten sulfide, in industrial coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.


    The historical development of high-pressure processes of the I. G. Farbenindustrie, from ammonia through methanol and gasoline, and the special case of gasoline production with a fixed-bed catalyst (tungsten sulfide) were discussed. The preparation, properties, and uses of this versatile catalyst were discussed, but it was emphasized that with the sotrmy development of the process, a condition which still existed at the time of this report, and with a great number of practical problems to solve, no extensive study of basic facts had ben possible. This tungsten sulfide catalyst was an especially active vapor-phase catalyst which operated at lower temperatures than the molybdenum catalysts formerly used. It also permitted higher thruputs, even with the oils from bituminous coal that were difficult to split. For certain uses, such as the improvement of the antiknock properties or the saving in tungsten, it was strongly diluted. Studies on using up sulfur in the tungsten sulfide catalyst were in progress at this time and showed there was practically no reduction of it under the conditions of hydrogenation under pressure as long as the raw material contained sulfur.

  18. Signaling of Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfides (United States)


    Abstract It has been almost two decades since the first demonstration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. H2S is physiologically important because it protects various organs from ischemia–reperfusion injury besides regulating inflammation, oxygen sensing, cell growth, and senescence. The production, metabolism, and regulation of H2S have been studied extensively. H2S modulates target proteins through sulfhydration (or sulfuration) or by the reduction of cysteine disulfide bonds. A large number of novel H2S-donating compounds are being developed owing to the therapeutic potential of H2S. Recently, polysulfides, rather than H2S, have been identified as molecules that sulfhydrate (or sulfurate) their target proteins. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 347–349. PMID:25178405

  19. Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as signaling molecules (United States)

    KIMURA, Hideo


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a familiar toxic gas that smells of rotten eggs. After the identification of endogenous H2S in the mammalian brain two decades ago, studies of this molecule uncovered physiological roles in processes such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection against oxidative stress, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and oxygen sensing. Enzymes that produce H2S, such as cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase have been studied intensively and well characterized. Polysulfides, which have a higher number of inner sulfur atoms than that in H2S, were recently identified as potential signaling molecules that can activate ion channels, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors with greater potency than that of H2S. This article focuses on our contribution to the discovery of these molecules and their metabolic pathways and mechanisms of action. PMID:25864468

  20. Modulated structure calculated for superconducting hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arnab; Tse, John S.; Yao, Yansun [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    Compression of hydrogen sulfide using first principles metadynamics and molecular dynamics calculations revealed a modulated structure with high proton mobility which exhibits a diffraction pattern matching well with experiment. The structure consists of a sublattice of rectangular meandering SH{sup -} chains and molecular-like H{sub 3}S{sup +} stacked alternately in tetragonal and cubic slabs forming a long-period modulation. The novel structure offers a new perspective on the possible origin of the superconductivity at very high temperatures in which the conducting electrons in the SH chains are perturbed by the fluxional motions of the H{sub 3}S resulting in strong electron-phonon coupling. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Chemical Foundations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biology (United States)

    Li, Qian; Lancaster, Jack R.


    Following nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (or its newer systematic name sulfane, H2S) became the third small molecule that can be both toxic and beneficial depending on the concentration. In spite of its impressive therapeutic potential, the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects remain unclear. Any novel mechanism has to obey fundamental chemical principles. H2S chemistry was studied long before its biological relevance was discovered, however, with a few exceptions, these past works have received relatively little attention in the path of exploring the mechanistic conundrum of H2S biological functions. This review calls attention to the basic physical and chemical properties of H2S, focuses on the chemistry between H2S and its three potential biological targets: oxidants, metals and thiol derivatives, discusses the applications of these basics into H2S biology and methodology, and introduces the standard terminology to this youthful field. PMID:23850631

  2. New cyclic sulfides, garlicnins I2, M, N, and O, from Allium sativum. (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei


    One atypical thiolane-type sulfide, garlicnin I2 (1), two 3,4-dimethylthiolane-type sulfides, garlicnins M (2) and N (3), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin O (4), were isolated from the acetone extracts of Chinese garlic bulbs, Allium sativum and their structures were characterized. Hypothetical pathways for the production of the respective sulfides were discussed.

  3. Comparison of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress-redistribution-reinjection thallium-201 SPECT and low dose dobutamine echocardiography for prediction of reversible dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Makoto; Motohiro, Masayuki; Usami, Satoru [Shimada Municipal Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)


    The usefulness of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 (GI-Tl) infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting reversible dysfunction has not been evaluated, so the present study recruited 20 patients with regional ischemic dysfunction for investigation. All patients underwent GI-Tl SPECT, post-stress Tl reinjection imaging and low dose dobutamine echocardiography. The diagnostic accuracy of these 3 techniques in predicting functional recovery was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In segments with functional recovery, regional Tl activities of GI-Tl SPECT were significantly higher than those of reinjection imaging (p<0.05), although there were no significant differences in segments without recovery. The area under the ROC curve for GI-Tl SPECT (0.75{+-}0.06) was greater than that for reinjection imaging (0.68{+-}0.07). The optimal cutoff values to identify viable myocardium were considered to be 55% of peak activity for GI-Tl SPECT and 50% for reinjection imaging. At this cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of functional recovery were, respectively, 85% and 61% for GI-Tl SPECT, and 73% and 61% for reinjection imaging. Dobutamine echocardiography had the same sensitivity (85%), but lower specificity (48%) than GI-Tl SPECT. Continuous infusion of GI-Tl solution enhances regional Tl uptake compared with conventional post-stress reinjection imaging. This study suggests that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjection imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in predicting functional recovery after ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  4. Nanomaterials for the Selective Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Llobet


    Full Text Available This paper presents a focused review on the nanomaterials and associated transduction schemes that have been developed for the selective detection of hydrogen sulfide. It presents a quite comprehensive overview of the latest developments, briefly discusses the hydrogen sulfide detection mechanisms, identifying the reasons for the selectivity (or lack of observed experimentally. It critically reviews performance, shortcomings, and identifies missing or overlooked important aspects. It identifies the most mature/promising materials and approaches for achieving inexpensive hydrogen sulfide sensors that could be employed in widespread, miniaturized, and inexpensive detectors and, suggests what research should be undertaken for ensuring that requirements are met.

  5. Iron sulfide corrosion in the 700 atm. liquid phase preheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, E.; Nonnenmacher, H.


    Equilibrium calculations gave lower bounds on partial pressure of hydrogen sulfide within a 500 atm. hydrogen gas stream, below which no corrosion of the steel tube walls would occur. AT 450/sup 0/C the lower bound was 0.5 atm., whereas at 500/sup 0/C the lower bound was 0.8 atm. However, in most plants, the hydrogen sulfide partial pressure exceeded values, so corrosion by formation of iron sulfide did usually occur. It was estimated that the corrosion reaction rate at 500/sup 0/C was about twice what it was at 450/sup 0/C.

  6. Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas (United States)

    Duangmanee, Thanapong

    The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used an innovative, low-maintenance, low-cost biological sulfide removal technology to remove sulfides simultaneously from both gas and liquid phase. ORP (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential) was used as the controlling parameter to precisely regulate air injection to the sulfide oxidizing unit (SOU). The microaeration technique provided just enough oxygen to partially oxidize sulfides to elemental sulfur without inhibiting methanogenesis. The SOU was equipped with a diffuser at the bottom for the dispersion of sulfide-laden biogas and injected air throughout the column. The SOU can be operated as a standalone unit or coupled with an anaerobic digester to simultaneously remove sulfide from the biogas and effluent. The integrated system was capable of reducing hydrogen sulfide in biogas from 2,450 to less than 2 ppmV with minimal sulfate production at the highest available sulfide loading rate of 0.24 kg/m3-day. More than 98% of sulfide removed was recovered as elemental sulfur. However, the standalone SOU was able to operate at high hydrogen sulfide loading of 1.46 kg/m 3-day at inlet sulfide concentration of 3000 ppmV and reduce the off-gas hydrogen sulfide concentrations to less than 10 ppmV. The experiment also revealed that the ORP controlled aeration was sensitive enough to prevent oxygen overdosing (dampening effect) during unexpected surges of aeration. Using generalized linear regression, a model predicting output H2S concentration based on input H2S concentrations, SOU medium heights, and biogas flow rates, was derived. With 95% confidence, output H2S concentration

  7. Detection and dosimetry of gamma ray emitted from thallium-201 and technetium-99m based on chemiluminescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourian, Mostafa [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Hassan, E-mail: [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatollah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-6558, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghourchian, Hedayatollah, E-mail: [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This report describes the detection and dosimetry of gamma ray emitted from Thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) and Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) based on chemiluminescence technique. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced by two gamma emitter radioisotopes of {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc were quantitatively measured by chemiluminescence method. Upon producing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a luminol alkaline solution, in the presence of diperiodatocuprate, as catalyst a chemical reaction was accrued and consequently the emitted light was measured. The determined H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was correlated with the gamma ray detection and dosimetry. The sensitivity of chemiluminescence technique for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc dosimetry was determined to be 0.20 and 0.08 MBq/l (Mega Becquerel per liter) respectively (R.S.D. = %5, N = 3). The plotted calibration curves showed detection limits of 3.24 and 1.76 MBq/l for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc, respectively.

  8. Myocardial infarction diagnosis with body surface potential mapping, electrocardiography, vectorcardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy: a correlative study with left ventriculography. (United States)

    Ackaoui, A; Nadeau, R; Sestier, F; Savard, P; Primeau, R; Lemieux, R; Descary, M C


    In 35 subjects with typical or atypical angina and/or documented myocardial infarction (MI), body surface potential maps (BSPMs), ECG, VCG and rest Thallium-201 (T1-201) have been compared to left ventriculography (LVG). BSPMs were recorded with 26 ECGs, and BSPM abnormalities for MI cases were considered to be areas of normally positive potentials that have become negative. Subjects with MI were classified according to the segmental localization and degree of asynergy on LVG. Moderate anterolateral and apical asynergy were found to correlate with BSPM diagnosis of anterolateral MI and ischemia, severe anterolateral and apical asynergy with BSPM diagnosis of anterolateral MI and ischemia, and moderate diaphragmatic and/or posterobasal asynergy with BSPM diagnosis of posterior MI. Simultaneous anterior and posterior asynergy were found for BSPM diagnosis of anterior with posterior MI. Subjects with no LVG asynergy had normal BSPMs. BSPM diagnosis had the highest correlation coefficient with the LVG diagnosis (r = 0.88). ECG and VCG showed similar results with r = 0.65 and 0.71 respectively, while T1-201 had r = 0.55. The examination of our BSPMs, as well as the ECG, VCG and T1-201, did not permit to detect apical damage in presence of anterior MI, and posterobasal damage in the presence of inferoposterior MI. It is concluded that BSPMs are slightly superior to ECG and VCG for diagnosis of MI.

  9. Thallium release from acid mine drainages: Speciation in river and tap water from Valdicastello mining district (northwest Tuscany). (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Casiot, Corinne; Onor, Massimo; Perotti, Martina; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia


    In this work we present an advantageous method for the simultaneous separation and detection of Tl(I) and Tl(III) species through ion chromatography coupled with on-line inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation between Tl(III) and Tl(I) was achieved in less than two minutes. The method was validated by recovery experiments on real samples, and by comparing the sum of the concentrations of individual Tl species with total thallium values obtained from continuous flow ICP-MS. The experimental procedure offers an accurate, sensitive and interference-free method for Tl speciation at trace levels in environmental samples. This allowed us to investigate the Tl speciation in acid mine drainages (AMD), surface waters and springs in a mining catchment in Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy), where severe Tl contamination ad been evidenced previously. This study shows for the first time that Tl(III), in addition to Tl(I), is present in considerable amounts in water samples affected by acid mining outflow, raising the question of the origin of this thermodynamically unstable species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sulfide oxidizing activity as a survival strategy in mangrove clam Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1786)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Clemente, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Sumati, M.; Goltekar, R.

    to thrive, symbionts must have access to an electron donor, used as an energy source (sulfide), and an electron acceptor (oxygen or nitrate). Chemo (thio) autotrophic associations depend upon the productivity of their symbiotic bacteria, which require... sufficient sulfide availability. For this reason, both the supply of sulfide and sulfide-related physiological processes may limit production by the symbionts or host or both. However, hydrogen sulfide (H S) occurs naturally in a number of marine aquatic...

  11. Adaptation to Hydrogen Sulfide of Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis among Cyanobacteria


    Cohen, Yehuda; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Poplawski, Ricardo


    Four different types of adaptation to sulfide among cyanobacteria are described based on the differential toxicity to sulfide of photosystems I and II and the capacity for the induction of anoxygenic photosynthesis. Most cyanobacteria are highly sensitive to sulfide toxicity, and brief exposures to low concentrations cause complete and irreversible cessation of CO2 photoassimilation. Resistance of photosystem II to sulfide toxicity, allowing for oxygenic photosynthesis under sulfide, is found...

  12. Nanostructured Metal Oxides and Sulfides for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Mai, Liqiang


    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with high energy density and long cycle life are considered to be one of the most promising next-generation energy-storage systems beyond routine lithium-ion batteries. Various approaches have been proposed to break down technical barriers in Li-S battery systems. The use of nanostructured metal oxides and sulfides for high sulfur utilization and long life span of Li-S batteries is reviewed here. The relationships between the intrinsic properties of metal oxide/sulfide hosts and electrochemical performances of Li-S batteries are discussed. Nanostructured metal oxides/sulfides hosts used in solid sulfur cathodes, separators/interlayers, lithium-metal-anode protection, and lithium polysulfides batteries are discussed respectively. Prospects for the future developments of Li-S batteries with nanostructured metal oxides/sulfides are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Delineation and management of sulfidic materials in Virginia highway corridors. (United States)


    Excavation through sulfidic geologic materials during road construction has resulted in acid drainage related problems at numerous discrete locations across Virginia. Barren acidic roadbanks, and acidic runoff and fill seepage clearly cause local env...

  14. Hydrogen Sulfide Micro-Sensor for Biomass Fouling Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)is the leading chemical agent causing human fatalities following inhalation exposures. The overall aim of this project is to develop and...

  15. Volatile sulfides and their toxicity in freshwater sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouwer, H. (Redeemer Coll., Ancaster, Ontario (Canada)); Murphy, T. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada))


    Three forms of volatile sulfides (free hydrogen sulfide, acid-volatile sulfides [AVS] and a new form, heat-volatile sulfides [HVS]), were measured and their relationships discussed. Purging of some contaminated sediments with nitrogen at 22 C failed to remove all of the free H[sub 2]S, even after 6 h. With freshly H[sub 2]S-spiked uncontaminated sediment, purging of H[sub 2]S was complete after 2 h; however, if the spiked sediment was allowed to stand for 53 d, H[sub 2]S continued to be purged, even after 43 h. The H[sub 2]S likely originates from equilibrium reactions involving reduced sulfur species in the sediment. Uncontaminated sediment spiked with H[sub 2]S was found to be highly toxic using a sediment-contact bioassay employing Photobacterium phosphoreum. Addition of Fe[sup 3+], which sequesters the S[sup 2[minus

  16. Chemical modification of InN surface with sulfide solution (United States)

    Dementev, Peter A.; Lvova, Tatiana V.; Davydov, Valery Yu.; Smirnov, Alexander N.; Shnitov, Vladimir V.; Lebedev, Mikhail V.; Gwo, Shangjr


    Surface electronic properties of the native-oxide-covered and sulfide-passivated InN grown on the Si(111) substrate were studied by photoemission spectroscopy induced by synchrotron radiation, as well as by photoluminescence and atomic-force microscopy. It was found that the treatment of the native-oxide-covered InN surface with the solution of ammonium sulfide in 2-propanol results in the increase of the surface band bending by 0.7-0.8 eV. Sulfide passivation causes increase in the photoluminescence intensity of InN, as well as the appearance of the photovoltage induced by illumination with red light, which is the evidence of the reduction of the surface recombination velocity due to sulfide passivation. These improved electronic properties remain stable for at least 20 months of the exposure in air.

  17. Influence of iron on sulfide inhibition in dark biohydrogen fermentation. (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Nakhla, George


    Sulfide impact on biohydrogen production using dark fermentation of glucose at 37 °C was investigated. Dissolved sulfide (S(2-)) at a low concentration (25mg/L) increased biohydrogen production by 54% relative to the control (without iron addition). Whereas on initial dissolved S(2-) concentration of 500 mg/L significantly inhibited the biohydrogen production with total cumulative biohydrogen decreasing by 90% compared to the control (without iron addition). At sulfide concentrations of 500 mg S(2-)/L, addition of Fe(2+) at 3-4 times the theoretical requirement to precipitate 100% of the dissolved S(2-) entirely eliminated the inhibitory effect of sulfide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technetium sulfide - formation kinetics, structure and particle speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Konstantin E.; Safonov, Alexey V.; Ilin, Viktor A.; Tregubova, Varvara E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Moscow Medical Institute REAVIZ, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shiryaev, Andrey A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Obruchnikova, Yana A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Mendeleev Russian Chemical Technology Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Medical Institute REAVIZ, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Technetium sulfide formation kinetics was studied in the pH range 8 - 12 in presence of Na{sub 2}S and phosphate buffer solution. The conditions for separation of Tc sulfide micro and nanoparticles were found with ultra-microcentrifugation and the values of Tc sulfide solubility were demonstrated to be dependent on the Na{sub 2}S concentration as C(Tc{sub 3}S{sub 10+x}) = -9 x 10{sup -5} ln [Na{sub 2}S] - 2 x 10{sup -5} M. The composition of Tc sulfide precipitate was elucidated with EXAFS, RBS and chemical analyses as Tc{sub 3}S{sub 10+x} or [Tc{sub 3}(μ{sup 3} - S)(S{sub 2}){sub 3}(S{sub 2}){sub 3/3}]{sub n} in agreement with recent Lukens data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho


    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  20. Electrochemical Behavior Of Copper Electrode In Potassium Sulfide Solutions


    Zaafarany, I.; Boller, H.


    The electro chemical behavior of copper electrode in 2M potassium sulfide solution was studied using cyclic voltammograms and potentiostatic polarization techniques. The morphology studies were applied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and X-ray powder diffraction. Three anodic peaks were observed in the anodic scan of cyclic voltammograms. SEM and EDAX analysis show the formation of an anodic copper sulfide layer on the surface of copper...

  1. Laser cleaning of sulfide scale on compressor impeller blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Q.H., E-mail: [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Heifei 230009 (China); Institute of Green Design and Manufacturing Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Heifei 230009 (China); Zhou, D. [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Heifei 230009 (China); Institute of Green Design and Manufacturing Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Heifei 230009 (China); Wang, Y.L.; Liu, G.F. [Institute of Green Design and Manufacturing Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Heifei 230009 (China)


    Highlights: • The effects of sulfide layers and fluence values on the mechanism of laser cleaning were experimentally established. • The specimen surface with sulfide scale becomes slightly smoother than that before laser cleaning. • The mechanism of laser cleaning the sulfide scale of stainless steel is spallation without oxidization. • It would avoid chemical waste and dust pollution using a fiber laser instead of using nitric acids or sandblasting. - Abstract: Sulfide scale on the surface of a compressor impeller blade can considerably reduce the impeller performance and its service life. To prepare for subsequent remanufacturing, such as plasma spraying, it needs to be removed completely. In the corrosion process on an FV(520)B stainless steel, sulfide scale is divided into two layers because of different outward diffusion rates of Cr, Ni and Fe. In this paper, the cleaning threshold values of the upper and inner layers and the damage threshold value of the substrate were investigated using a pulsed fiber laser. To obtain experimental evidence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and 3D surface profilometry were employed to investigate the two kinds of sulfide layers on specimens before, during, and after laser cleaning.

  2. Sulfide oxidation in fluidized bed bioreactor using nylon support material. (United States)

    Midha, Varsha; Jha, M K; Dey, Apurba


    A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) with nylon support particles was used to treat synthetic sulfide wastewater at different hydraulic retention time of 25, 50 and 75 min and upflow velocity of 14, 17 and 20 m/hr. The effects of upflow velocity, hydraulic retention time and reactor operation time on sulfide oxidation rate were studied using statistical model. Mixed culture obtained from the activated sludge, taken from tannery effluent treatment plant, was used as a source for microorganisms. The diameter and density of the nylon particles were 2-3 mm and 1140 kg/m3, respectively. Experiments were carried out in the reactor at a temperature of (30 +/- 2) degrees C, at a fixed bed height of 16 cm after the formation of biofilm on the surface of support particles. Biofilm thickness reached (42 +/- 3) microm after 15 days from reactor start-up. The sulfide oxidation, sulfate and sulfur formation is examined at all hydraulic retention times and upflow velocities. The results indicated that almost 90%-92% sulfide oxidation was achieved at all hydraulic retention times. Statistical model could explain 94% of the variability and analysis of variance showed that upflow velocity and hydraulic retention time slightly affected the sulfide oxidation rate. The highest sulfide oxidation of 92% with 70% sulfur was obtained at hydraulic retention time of 75 min and upflow velocity of 14 m/hr.

  3. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (United States)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III


    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  4. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Thornton, Donald C.; Johnson, James E.; Bandy, Alan R.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Barrick, John D.


    This paper reports results of NASA's Chemical Instrumentation and Test Evaluation (CITE 3) during which airborne measurements for carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were intercompared. Instrumentation included a gas chromatograph using flame photometric detection (COS, H2S, and CS2), a gas chromatograph using mass spectrometric detection (COS) and CS2), a gas chromatograph using fluorination and subsequent SF6 detection via electron capture (COS and CS2), and the Natusch technique (H2S). The measurements were made over the Atlantic Ocean east of North and South America during flights from NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, in August/September 1989. Most of the intercomparisons for H2S and CS2 were at mixing ratios less than 25 pptv and less than 10 pptv, respectively, with a maximum mixing ratio of about 100 pptv and 50 pptv, respectively. Carbonyl sulfide intercomparisons were at mixing ratios between 400 and 600 pptv. Measurements were intercompared from data bases constructed from time periods of simultaneous or overlapping measurements. Agreement among the COS techniques averaged about 5%, and individual measurements were generally within 10%. For H2S and at mixing ratio greater than 25 pptv, the instruments agreed on average to about 15%. At mixing ratios less than 25 pptv the agreement was about 5 pptv. For CS2 (mixing ratios less than 50 pptv), two techniques agreed on average to about 4 pptv, and the third exhibited a bias (relative to the other two) that varied in the range of 3-7 pptv. CS2 mixing ratios over the ocean east of Natal as measured by the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique were only a few pptv and were below the detection limits of the other two techniques. The CITE 3 data are used to estimate the current uncertainty associated with aircraft measurements of COS, H2S, and CS2 in the remote troposphere.

  5. Signaling molecules: hydrogen sulfide and polysulfide. (United States)

    Kimura, Hideo


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a signaling molecule as well as a cytoprotectant. It modulates neurotransmission, regulates vascular tone, and protects various tissues and organs, including neurons, the heart, and kidneys, from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury. H2S is produced from l-cysteine by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase. In addition to these enzymes, we recently identified a novel pathway to produce H2S from d-cysteine, which involves d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) along with 3MST. These enzymes are localized in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. However, some enzymes translocate to organelles under specific conditions. Moreover, H2S-derived potential signaling molecules such as polysulfides and HSNO have been identified. The physiological stimulations, which trigger the production of H2S and its derivatives and maintain their local levels, remain unclear. Understanding the regulation of the H2S production and H2S-derived signaling molecules and the specific stimuli that induce their release will provide new insights into the biology of H2S and therapeutic development in diseases involving these substances.

  6. Anisotropic Optical Properties of Layered Germanium Sulfide

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Dezhi; Wang, Feijiu; Mohamed, Nur Baizura; Mouri, Shinichiro; Sandhaya, Koirala; Zhang, Wenjing; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Ohfuchi, Mari; Matsuda, Kazunari


    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, have attracted much interest from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and device applications. The establishment of new functionalities in anisotropic layered 2D materials is a challenging but rewarding frontier, owing to their remarkable optical properties and prospects for new devices. Here, we report the anisotropic optical properties of layered 2D monochalcogenide of germanium sulfide (GeS). Three Raman scattering peaks corresponding to the B3g, A1g, and A2g modes with strong polarization dependence are demonstrated in the GeS flakes, which validates polarized Raman spectroscopy as an effective method for identifying the crystal orientation of anisotropic layered GeS. Photoluminescence (PL) is observed with a peak at around 1.66 eV that originates from the direct optical transition in GeS at room temperature. Moreover, determination of the polarization dependent characteristics of the PL and absorption reveals...

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide and Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Bełtowski


    Full Text Available In addition to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, synthesized enzymatically from l-cysteine or l-homocysteine, is the third gasotransmitter in mammals. Endogenous H2S is involved in the regulation of many physiological processes, including vascular tone. Although initially it was suggested that in the vascular wall H2S is synthesized only by smooth muscle cells and relaxes them by activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels, more recent studies indicate that H2S is synthesized in endothelial cells as well. Endothelial H2S production is stimulated by many factors, including acetylcholine, shear stress, adipose tissue hormone leptin, estrogens and plant flavonoids. In some vascular preparations H2S plays a role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by activating small and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Endothelial H2S signaling is up-regulated in some pathologies, such as obesity and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, H2S activates endothelial NO synthase and inhibits cGMP degradation by phosphodiesterase 5 thus potentiating the effect of NO-cGMP pathway. Moreover, H2S-derived polysulfides directly activate protein kinase G. Finally, H2S interacts with NO to form nitroxyl (HNO—a potent vasorelaxant. H2S appears to play an important and multidimensional role in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

  8. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland


    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50 % of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The iss...

  9. Adsorption of sulfide ions on cerussite surfaces and implications for flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Qicheng [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wen, Shuming, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhao, Wenjuan [Kunming Metallurgical Research Institute, Kunming 650031 (China); Deng, Jiushuai; Xian, Yongjun [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)


    Highlights: • A new discussion on the lead sulfide species is introduced. • The Na{sub 2}S concentration determines cerussite sulfidization. • The activity of lead sulfide species also determines cerussite sulfidization. • Disulfide and polysulfide in lead sulfide species affect its activity. - Abstract: The adsorption of sulfide ions on cerussite surfaces and implications for flotation were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, micro-flotation tests, and surface adsorption experiments. The XPS analysis results indicated that lead sulfide species formed on the mineral surface after treatment by Na{sub 2}S, and the increase in the Na{sub 2}S concentration was beneficial for sulfidization. In addition to the content of lead sulfide species, its activity, which was determined by the proportion of sulfide, disulfide and polysulfide, also played an important role in cerussite sulfidization. Micro-flotation tests results demonstrated that insufficient or excessive addition of Na{sub 2}S in pulp solutions has detrimental effects on flotation performance, which was attributed to the dosage of Na{sub 2}S and the activity of lead sulfide species formed on the mineral surface. Surface adsorption experiments of sulfide ions determined the residual S concentrations in pulp solutions and provided a quantitative illustration for the inhibition of cerussite flotation by excessive sulfide ions. Moreover, it also revealed that sulfide ions in the pulp solution were transformed onto the mineral surface and formed lead sulfide species. These results showed that both of lead sulfide species and its activity acted as an important role in sulfidization flotation process of cerussite.

  10. Carbonyl sulfide removal with compost and wood chip biofilters, and in the presence of hydrogen sulfide. (United States)

    Sattler, Melanie L; Garrepalli, Divya R; Nawal, Chandraprakash S


    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an odor-causing compound and hazardous air pollutant emitted frequently from wastewater treatment facilities and chemical and primary metals industries. This study examined the effectiveness of biofiltration in removing COS. Specific objectives were to compare COS removal efficiency for various biofilter media; to determine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is frequently produced along with COS under anaerobic conditions, adversely impacts COS removal; and to determine the maximum elimination capacity of COS for use in biofilter design. Three laboratory-scale polyvinyl chloride biofilter columns were filled with up to 28 in. of biofilter media (aged compost, fresh compost, wood chips, or a compost/wood chip mixture). Inlet COS ranged from 5 to 46 parts per million (ppm) (0.10-9.0 g/m3 hr). Compost and the compost/wood chip mixture produced higher COS removal efficiencies than wood chips alone. The compost and compost/wood chip mixture had a shorter stabilization times compared with wood chips alone. Fresh versus aged compost did not impact COS removal efficiency. The presence of H2S did not adversely impact COS removal for the concentration ratios tested. The maximum elimination capacity is at least 9 g/m3 hr for COS with compost media.

  11. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.


    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide can inhibit and enhance oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. (United States)

    Klatt, Judith M; Haas, Sebastian; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos


    We used microsensors to investigate the combinatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and light on oxygenic photosynthesis in biofilms formed by a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. We found that photosynthesis was both positively and negatively affected by H2 S: (i) H2 S accelerated the recovery of photosynthesis after prolonged exposure to darkness and anoxia. We suggest that this is possibly due to regulatory effects of H2 S on photosystem I components and/or on the Calvin cycle. (ii) H2 S concentrations of up to 210 μM temporarily enhanced the photosynthetic rates at low irradiance. Modelling showed that this enhancement is plausibly based on changes in the light-harvesting efficiency. (iii) Above a certain light-dependent concentration threshold H2 S also acted as an inhibitor. Intriguingly, this inhibition was not instant but occurred only after a specific time interval that decreased with increasing light intensity. That photosynthesis is most sensitive to inhibition at high light intensities suggests that H2 S inactivates an intermediate of the oxygen evolving complex that accumulates with increasing light intensity. We discuss the implications of these three effects of H2 S in the context of cyanobacterial photosynthesis under conditions with diurnally fluctuating light and H2 S concentrations, such as those occurring in microbial mats and biofilms. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of potassium channel opener on the kinetics of thallium-201 in in-vitro and in-vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Kim, E. J.; Ahn, B. C.; Chae, S. C.; Lee, K. B. [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. K. [Mt. Sinai Medical School, New York (United States)


    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens membrane ATP-sensitive K{sup +}-channel and induces and increase in potassium efflux from cells. K-openers are powerful smooth muscle relaxants and currently used as antihypertensive, antianginal drugs or bronchodilators in clinic. Pharmacologic potency of newly synthesized K-opener is being evaluated with efflux capacity of preincubated Rb-83 from the isolated aortic vascular tissue preparation. Thallium has similar characteristics to those of rubidium and potassium in vivo. To evaluate the effect of pinacidil (a potent K-opener) on Tl-201 biokinetics, we have performed uptake/washout studies in cultured myocytes, and mice biodistribution study. Primary culture of spontaneous contracting myocytes was undertake from hearts of newborn Sprague-Dawley rat. Different concentration of pinacidil (100nM or 10uM) was co-incubated with Tl-201 in HBSS buffer to evaluate its effect on cellular uptake, or challenged to myocyte preparations pre-incubated with Tl-201 for washout study. Pinacidil was injected into mice simultaneous or 10-min after Tl-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention ratio was measured using gamma counter or dose calibrator. Co-incubation of pinacidil with Tl-201 resulted in a decrease in Tl uptake into myocytes by 1.6 - 2.5 times, and an increase in washout by 1.6 - 3.1 times. Pinacidil injection resulted in mild decrease in blood, heart and liver uptake in mice, bur renal uptake was markedly decreased in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the pinacidil Tl-201 kinetics and may potentially affect the interpretation of Tl-201 myocardial imaging.

  14. Functional Significance of Angiographic Collaterals in Patients with Totally Occluded Right Coronary Artery: Intracoronary Thallium-201 Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Jong Doo; Cho, Seung Yun; Shim, Won Heum; Ha, Jong Won; Kim, Han Soo; Kwon, Hyuk Moon; Jang, Yang Soo; Chung, Nam Sik; Kim, Sung Soon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Yun; Kim, Young Soo [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the myocardial viability in patients suffering from total occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA) with the angiographic collaterals, intracoronary injection of Thallium-201 (T1-201) was done to 14 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (pts) with total occlusion of RCA and into four normal subjects for control. All 14 CAD pts had Grade 2 or 3 collateral circulations. There were 14 male and 4 females, and their ages ranged from 31 to 70 years. In nine pts, T1-201 was injected into left main coronary artery (LCA) (300 approx 350 mu Ci) to evaluate the myocardial viability of RCA territory through collateral circulations. The remaining five pts received T1-201 into RCA (200-250 mu Ci) because two had intraarterial bridging collaterals and three had previous successful PTCA. Planar and SPECT myocardial perfusion images were obtained 30 minutes, and four to five hours after T1-201 reinjection. Intravenous T1-201 reinjection (six pts) or {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (two pts) were also performed in eight CAD pts. Intracoronary myocardial perfusion images were compared with intravenous T1-201(IV T1-201) images, EGG, and ventriculography. Intracoronary TI-201 images proved to be superior to that of IV T1-201 due to better myocardial to background uptake ratio and more effective in the detection of viable tissue. We also found that perfusion defects were smaller on intracoronary T1-201 images than those on the IV T1-201. All of the 14 CAD pts had either mostly viable myocardium (seven pts) or large area of T1-201 perfusion (seven pts) in RCA territory, however ventriculographic wall motion and ECG did not correlate well with intracoronary myocardial perfusion images. In conclusion, total RCA occlusion patients with well developed collateral circulation had large area of viable myocardial in the corresponding territory.

  15. Disease stage classification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by dual analysis of iodine-123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiasa, Go [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine


    Many patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) gradually changes from typical myocardial hypertrophy to dilated cardiomyopathy-like features. However, it is difficult to estimate the disease stage in HCM. To determine the disease stage, dual analysis of iodine-123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) and thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) myocardial scintigraphies were performed in 108 HCM patients. According to the scintigraphic distribution patterns, patients were divided into three groups. Group A (n=15): normal distributions of both {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 201}Tl, group B (n=71): normal {sup 201}Tl and low {sup 123}I-MIBG patterns, group C (n=22): low distributions of both scintigraphies. The decrease in {sup 201}Tl uptake was observed in only group C. Concerning {sup 123}I-MIBG, heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and washout rate (WOR) had good correlations with left ventricular systolic functions. H/M was decreased and WOR was increased in order of C, B and A groups. Left ventricular diastolic function reflected by isovolumic relaxation time was longer in group B than in group A. Attenuated left ventricular hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular volumes, impaired left ventricular functions and serious clinical symptoms were observed in only group C. Myocardial sympathetic abnormalities in group B may be mainly due to myocardial hypertrophy, and those in group C may be due to myocardial injury. Dual analysis of {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphies may be useful to classify disease stages of HCM. (author)

  16. New quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6: Crystal and electronic structure (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Tsisar, O. V.; Piskach, L. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Levytskyy, V. O.; Babizhetskyy, V. S.


    Crystal structure of a novel quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6 was investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction method. It was determined that the compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 with the unit cell parameters a = 10.1798(2) Å, c = 9.2872(3) Å. The relationship with similar structures was discussed. The as-synthesized TlInGe2Se6 ingot was tested with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, the XPS valence-band and core-level spectra were recorded for initial and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces of the sample under consideration. The XPS data allow for statement that the TlInGe2Se6 surface is rigid with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. Particularly, Ar+ ion-bombardment (3.0 keV, 5 min duration, ion current density fixed at 14 μA/cm2) did not cause substantial modifications of stoichiometry in topmost surface layers. Furthermore, comparison on a common energy scale of the XES Se Kβ2 and Ge Kβ2 bands and the XPS valence-band spectrum reveals that the principal contributions of the Se 4p and Ge 4p states occur in the upper and central portions of the valence band of TlInGe2Se6, respectively, with also their substantial contributions in other portions of the band. The bandgap energy of TlInGe2Se6 at the level of αg=103 cm-1 is equal to 2.38 eV at room temperature.

  17. Aerobic sulfide production and cadmium precipitation by Escherichia coli expressing the Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase gene. (United States)

    Wang, C L; Lum, A M; Ozuna, S C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D


    The cysteine desulfhydrase gene of Treponema denticola was over-expressed in Escherichia coli to produce sulfide under aerobic conditions and to precipitate metal sulfide complexes on the cell wall. When grown in a defined salts medium supplemented with cadmium and cysteine, E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase secreted sulfide and removed nearly all of the cadmium from solution after 48 h. A control strain produced significantly less sulfide and removed significantly less cadmium. Measurement of acid-labile sulfide and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that cadmium was precipitated as cadmium sulfide. Without supplemental cysteine, both the E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase and the control E. coli demonstrated minimal cadmium removal.

  18. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.


    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally considered the dominant sources of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios lasting up to 8 h (up to 160 parts per trillion (ppt)) often occurred within the canopy and near the surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light- and temperature-dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks.

  19. Vertebrate phylogeny of hydrogen sulfide vasoactivity. (United States)

    Dombkowski, Ryan A; Russell, Michael J; Schulman, Alexis A; Doellman, Meredith M; Olson, Kenneth R


    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a recently identified endogenous vasodilator in mammals. In steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Osteichthyes), H(2)S produces both dose-dependent dilation and a unique dose-dependent constriction. In this study, we examined H(2)S vasoactivity in all vertebrate classes to determine whether H(2)S is universally vasoactive and to identify phylogenetic and/or environmental trends. H(2)S was generated from NaHS and examined in unstimulated and precontracted systemic and, when applicable, pulmonary arteries (PA) from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti, Agnatha), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, Agnatha), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus milberti, Chondrichthyes), marine toad (Bufo marinus, Amphibia), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, Reptilia), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Aves), and white rat (Rattus rattus, Mammalia). In otherwise unstimulated vessels, NaHS produced 1) a dose-dependent relaxation in Pacific hagfish dorsal aorta; 2) a dose-dependent contraction in sea lamprey dorsal aorta, marine toad aorta, alligator aorta and PA, duck aorta, and rat thoracic aorta; 3) a threshold relaxation in shark ventral aorta, dorsal aorta, and afferent branchial artery; and 4) a multiphasic contraction-relaxation-contraction in the marine toad PA, duck PA, and rat PA. Precontraction of these vessels with another agonist did not affect the general pattern of NaHS vasoactivity with the exception of the rat aorta, where relaxation was now dominant. These results show that H(2)S is a phylogenetically ancient and versatile vasoregulatory molecule that appears to have been opportunistically engaged to suit both organ-specific and species-specific homeostatic requirements.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide and Its Neodymium(III and Thallium(III Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Nnamdi Obasi


    Full Text Available N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide (NBTCS was synthesized by condensation reaction of 4-chlorobenzenesulphonyl chloride and 2-aminobenzothiazole in acetone under reflux. Neodymium(III and thallium(III complexes of the ligand were also synthesized. Both ligand and metal complexes were characterized using UV-Vis, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopies, elemental analysis and molar conductance measurement. IR studies revealed that the ligand is tridentate and coordinates to the metal ions through nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the sulphonamide group and nitrogen atom attached to benzothiazole ring. The neodymium(III complex displays a coordination number of eight while thallium(III complex displays a coordination number of six. The ligand and its complexes were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli strains (E. coli 6 and E. coli 13, Proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar well diffusion technique. The synthesized compounds were found to be more active against the microorganisms screened relative to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole.

  1. Comparative study of body surface isopotential map, left ventriculogram and thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki


    In 16 patients with old lateral myocardial infarction, body surface isopotential maps and 12 lead electrocardiograms were compared with left ventriculographic findings. In addition 8 of these subjects were performed thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in order to determine the location and extent of myocardial necrosis. Common 12 lead electrocardiographic findings of the subjects were initial Q waves more than 30 msec and inverted T waves in only aVL lead. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to the location and extent of ventricular wall motion abnormalities group I (6 cases) showed hypokinesis in the anterior segment, group II (5 cases): akinesis in the anterior segment and hypokinesis in the seg. 6, group III (4 cases): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 7, group IV (1 case): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 4, 7. And each of the 4 groups demonstrated characteristic findings of surface isopotential maps. Group II with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 6 showed surface isopotential maps additional pattern of anterior myocardial infarction, and group III with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 7 showed additional patterns of posterior myocardial infarction. The classification according to the abnormality of ventricular wall motion was also conformed with the thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphic findings except one case. These results suggest that body surface isopotential map is more useful than the 12 lead electrocardiogram in detecting the location and extent of left ventricular wall motion abnormality in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction. (author) 53 refs.

  2. Serial thallium-201 imaging at rest in patients with unstable and stable angina pectoris: relationship of myocardial perfusion at rest to presenting clinical syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Phillips, H.R.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.


    In order to determine whether there are differences in myocardial perfusion at rest among patients with various unstable and stable angina syndromes, serial thallium-201 imaging was performed at rest in 19 patients presenting with rapidly worsening exertional angina (unstable angina, group A), 12 patients with rest angina alone without exertional symptoms (unstable angina, group B), and 34 patients with chronic stable angina. No patient had an episode of angina within 4 hours of study. Nineteen of 19 (100%) patients in group A demonstrated transient defects compared to only 3 of 12 (25%) patients in group B (p less than 0.0001) and 4 of 34 (12%) stable angina patients (p less than 0.0001). The majority of zones demonstrating transient defects in group A were associated with hypokinesis of the corresponding left ventriculogram segment without associated ECG evidence of previous infarction. There were no significant differences in the frequency of persistent thallium defects, severity of angiographic coronary artery disease, or frequency of regional wall motion abnormalities of myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries among the three groups of patients. Transient defects have been shown to reflect reduction in regional coronary blood flow to viable myocardium. Therefore, we conclude that regional resting hypoperfusion of viable myocardium is far more common in patients with exertional unstable angina symptoms than in patients with rest angina alone or chronic stable angina.

  3. Sulfide Oxidation in the Anoxic Black-Sea Chemocline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    The depth distributions of O2 and H2S and of the activity of chemical or bacterial sulfide oxidation were studied in the chemocline of the central Black Sea. Relative to measurements from earlier studies, the sulfide zone had moved upwards by 20-50 m and was now (May 1988) situated at a depth of 81...... that the measured H2S oxidation rates were 4-fold higher than could be explained by the downward flux of organic carbon and too high to balance the availability of electron acceptors such as oxidized iron or manganese. A nitrate maximum at the lower boundary of the O2 zone did not extend down to the sulfide zone....

  4. Froth flotation of oil-bearing metal sulfide wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Atwood, R.L.; Ye, Yi [Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    An industrial wastewater, including plating wastes, is treated with sodium sulfide and ferrous sulfate to form a sulfide-oxide precipitate containing chromium and other toxic metals. Hydrocarbons, in the water, coat the sulfide-oxide particles, impeding metal recovery. Froth flotation, without reagent addition, was found to recover 93.9% of the solids from the sludge with simultaneous rejection of 89% of the water. Methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) improved recovery and potassium amyl xanthate improved both recovery and grade. The process design has wastewater feed (without MIBC) to the rougher circuit. The rougher concentrate is conditioned with MIBC and fed to a cleaner circuit to achieve a high grade concentrate. About 95% of the water is recirculated to the waste treatment plant. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Froth flotation of oil-bearing metal sulfide wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Atwood, R.L.; Ye, Yi (Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))


    An industrial wastewater, including plating wastes, is treated with sodium sulfide and ferrous sulfate to form a sulfide-oxide precipitate containing chromium and other toxic metals. Hydrocarbons, in the water, coat the sulfide-oxide particles, impeding metal recovery. Froth flotation, without reagent addition, was found to recover 93.9% of the solids from the sludge with simultaneous rejection of 89% of the water. Methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) improved recovery and potassium amyl xanthate improved both recovery and grade. The process design has wastewater feed (without MIBC) to the rougher circuit. The rougher concentrate is conditioned with MIBC and fed to a cleaner circuit to achieve a high grade concentrate. About 95% of the water is recirculated to the waste treatment plant. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Metal sulfide electrodes and energy storage devices thereof (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Woodford, William Henry; Li, Zheng; Carter, W. Craig


    The present invention generally relates to energy storage devices, and to metal sulfide energy storage devices in particular. Some aspects of the invention relate to energy storage devices comprising at least one flowable electrode, wherein the flowable electrode comprises an electroactive metal sulfide material suspended and/or dissolved in a carrier fluid. In some embodiments, the flowable electrode further comprises a plurality of electronically conductive particles suspended and/or dissolved in the carrier fluid, wherein the electronically conductive particles form a percolating conductive network. An energy storage device comprising a flowable electrode comprising a metal sulfide electroactive material and a percolating conductive network may advantageously exhibit, upon reversible cycling, higher energy densities and specific capacities than conventional energy storage devices.

  7. Extraction of Nanosized Cobalt Sulfide from Spent Hydrocracking Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A. Kosa


    Full Text Available The processes used for the extraction of metals (Co, Mo, and Al from spent hydrotreating catalysts were investigated in this study. A detailed mechanism of the metal extraction process is described. Additionally, a simulation study was performed to understand the sulfidizing mechanism. The suggested separation procedure was effective and achieved an extraction of approximately 80–90%. In addition, the sulfidization mechanism was identified. This sulfidizing process for Co was found to involve an intermediate, the structure of which was proposed. This proposed intermediate was confirmed through simulations. Moreover, the activities of the spent and the regenerated catalyst were examined in the cracking of toluene. The modification of the spent catalyst through the use of different iron oxide loadings improved the catalytic activity.

  8. Thermodynamics of Complex Sulfide Inclusion Formation in Ca-Treated Al-Killed Structural Steel (United States)

    Guo, Yin-tao; He, Sheng-ping; Chen, Gu-jun; Wang, Qian


    Controlling the morphology of the sulfide inclusion is of vital importance in enhancing the properties of structural steel. Long strip-shaped sulfides in hot-rolled steel can spherize when, instead of the inclusion of pure single-phase MnS, the guest is a complex sulfide, such as an oxide-sulfide duplex and a solid-solution sulfide particle. In this study, the inclusions in a commercial rolled structural steel were investigated. Spherical and elongated oxide-sulfide duplex as well as single-phase (Mn,Ca)S solid solution inclusions were observed in the steel. A thermodynamic equilibrium between the oxide and sulfide inclusions was proposed to understand the oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion formation. Based on the equilibrium solidification principle, thermodynamic discussions on inclusion precipitation during the solidification process were performed for both general and resulfurized structural steel. The predicted results of the present study agreed well with the experimental ones.

  9. Biological and chemical sulfide oxidation in a Beggiatoa inhabited marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, André; de Beer, Dirk; Lichtschlag, Anna


    The ecological niche of nitrate-storing Beggiatoa, and their contribution to the removal of sulfide were investigated in coastal sediment. With microsensors a clear suboxic zone of 2-10 cm thick was identified, where neither oxygen nor free sulfide was detectable. In this zone most of the Beggiatoa...... were found, where they oxidize sulfide with internally stored nitrate. The sulfide input into the suboxic zone was dominated by an upward sulfide flux from deeper sediment, whereas the local production in the suboxic zone was much smaller. Despite their abundance, the calculated sulfide......-oxidizing capacity of the Beggiatoa could account for only a small fraction of the total sulfide removal in the sediment. Consequently, most of the sulfide flux into the suboxic layer must have been removed by chemical processes, mainly by precipitation with Fe2+ and oxidation by Fe(III), which was coupled with a p...

  10. Morphology and thermal studies of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A., E-mail:


    Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato–κS,S’–bis (N,N-dimethylthiourea–κS) have been synthesized and characterized with analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were thermolysed in hexadecylamine at 200 °C to prepare ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). TEM images showed spherically shaped nanoparticles, whose sizes are in the range 4.33–7.21 nm for ZnS and 4.95–7.7 nm CdS respectively and XRD confirmed cubic crystalline phases for the nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy evaluated from the absorption spectra are 2.88 eV (430 nm) and 2.81 eV (440 nm) for the ZnS and CdS nanoparticles respectively. The as-prepared metal sulfide nanoparticles were further incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to give ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA composites. The polymer nanocomposites were studied to investigate their morphology and thermal properties relative to the pure PVA. XRD diffractions indicated that the crystalline phases of the nanoparticles and the sizes in PVA matrices remained unaltered. Infra-red spectra studies revealed interactions between the PVA and the metal sulfide nanoparticles and TGA studies show that the ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA nanocomposites exhibit better thermal stability than the pure PVA.

  11. High conducting oxide--sulfide composite lithium superionic conductor (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Dudney, Nancy J.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Rondinone, Adam Justin


    A solid electrolyte for a lithium-sulfur battery includes particles of a lithium ion conducting oxide composition embedded within a lithium ion conducting sulfide composition. The lithium ion conducting oxide composition can be Li.sub.7La.sub.3Zr.sub.2O.sub.12 (LLZO). The lithium ion conducting sulfide composition can be .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 (LPS). A lithium ion battery and a method of making a solid electrolyte for a lithium ion battery are also disclosed.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide enhances the cytotoxicity of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide


    Stone, William L; Qui, Min; Smith, Milton


    Abstract Background The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a well-characterized inflammatory factor found in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. In this investigation, we studied the cytotoxic interaction between 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES or ClCH2CH2SCH2CH3) and LPS using murine RAW264.7 macrophages. CEES is a sulfur vesicating agent and is an analog of 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard). LPS is a ubiquitous natural agent found in the environment. The ab...

  13. Experimentally Determined Phase Diagram for the Barium Sulfide-Copper(I) Sulfide System Above 873 K (600 °C) (United States)

    Stinn, Caspar; Nose, Katsuhiro; Okabe, Toru; Allanore, Antoine


    The phase diagram of the barium sulfide-copper(I) sulfide system was investigated above 873 K (600 °C) using a custom-built differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The melting point of barium sulfide was determined utilizing a floating zone furnace. Four new compounds, Ba2Cu14S9, Ba2Cu2S3, Ba5Cu4S7, and Ba9Cu2S10, were identified through quench experiments analyzed with wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). A miscibility gap was observed between 72 and 92 mol pct BaS using both DTA experiments and in situ melts observation in a floating zone furnace. A monotectic was observed at 94.5 mol pct BaS and 1288 K (1015 °C).

  14. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water (United States)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.


    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The colorless sulfur bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus T5, isolated from a marine microbial mat, was grown in continuous culture under conditions ranging from sulfide limitation to oxygen limitation. Under sulfide-limiting conditions, sulfide was virtually completely oxidized to sulfate. Under

  16. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen... hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4). Hydrogen sulfide was added to the...

  17. 75 FR 8889 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release... toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4). Hydrogen sulfide was added to the EPCRA section 313 list of toxic chemicals in a...

  18. ATP production from the oxidation of sulfide in gill mitochondria of the ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa. (United States)

    Parrino, V; Kraus, D W; Doeller, J E


    The ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa inhabits intertidal Spartina grass marshes characterized by sulfide-rich sediments. Sulfide poisons aerobic respiration, and G. demissa may cope in this seemingly inhospitable environment by oxidizing sulfide in gill mitochondria. Well-coupled mitochondria isolated from G. demissa gills were used to investigate sulfide oxidation and ATP synthesis. State 3 respiration, maximally stimulated by 5 micromol l(-)(1) sulfide with a P/O ratio of 0.89 and a respiratory control ratio (RCR) of 1.40, remained refractory to sulfide at higher concentrations except in the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of alternative oxidases. Sulfide-stimulated ATP production was 3-5 times greater than that stimulated by malate and succinate, respectively, giving an ATP/sulfide ratio of 0.63. The inhibition of sulfide-stimulated respiration and ATP production by the complex III inhibitors myxothiazol and antimycin A, respectively, suggests that electrons enter the electron transport chain before complex III. Combined with in vivo evidence for electron entry at cytochrome c, these data suggest that more than one type of sulfide-oxidizing enzyme may function in G. demissa gills. The SHAM-sensitive pathway of electron flux may be a critical component of a physiological strategy to tolerate sulfide. We conclude that G. demissa exploits the energy available from its reduced environment by using sulfide as a respiratory substrate for cellular ATP production.

  19. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.


    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1,

  20. Identifying the Prospective Area of Sulfide Groundwater within the Area of Palvantash Oil and Gas Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zhurayev


    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology of prospecting for sulfide groundwater in the area of Palvantash oil fields. In result of study allowed determining the favorable conditions for the sulfide waters formation, and mapping the areas of different sulfide water concentration. The relatively permeable areas were established and the water borehole positions were recommended.

  1. Is succession in wet calcareous dune slacks affected by free sulfide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, EB; van Gemerden, H; Grootjans, AP; Adema, Erwin B.; Grootjans, Ab P.; Rapson, G.

    Consequences of sulfide toxicity on succession in wet calcareous dune slacks were investigated. Sulfide may exert an inhibitory effect on dune slack plants, but several pioneer species exhibit ROL (Radial Oxygen Loss) and thereby protect themselves against free sulfide. Under oxic conditions free

  2. Trace hydrogen sulfide gas sensor based on tungsten sulfide membrane-coated thin-core fiber modal interferometer (United States)

    Deng, Dashen; Feng, Wenlin; Wei, Jianwei; Qin, Xiang; Chen, Rong


    A novel fiber-optic hydrogen sulfide sensor based on a thin-core Mach-Zehnder fiber modal interferometer (TMZFI) is demonstrated and fabricated. This in-line interferometer is composed of a short section of thin-core fiber sandwiched between two standard single mode fibers, and the fast response to hydrogen sulfide is achieved via the construction of tungsten sulfide film on the outside surface of the TMZFI using the dip-coating and calcination technique. The fabricated sensing nanofilm is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and spectroscopic analysis technology, etc. Experimental results showed that the WS2 sensing film has a hexagonal structure with a compact and porous morphology. The XPS and FTIR indicate that the existence of two elements (W and S) is demonstrated. With the increasing concentration of hydrogen sulfide, the interference spectra appear blue shift. In addition, a high sensitivity of 18.37 pm/ppm and a good linear relationship are obtained within a measurement range from 0 to 80 ppm. In addition, there is an excellent selectivity for H2S, which has also been proved by the surface adsorption energy results of tungsten sulfide with four gases (H2S, N2, O2 and CO2) by using the density functional theory calculations. This interferometer has the advantages of simple structure, high sensitivity and easy manufacture, and could be used in the safety monitoring field of hydrogen sulfide gas.

  3. Colonic hydrogen sulfide produces portal hypertension and systemic hypotension in rats. (United States)

    Huc, Tomasz; Jurkowska, Halina; Wróbel, Maria; Jaworska, Kinga; Onyszkiewicz, Maksymilian; Ufnal, Marcin


    Hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas, at low concentrations is also a biological mediator in animals. In the colon, hydrogen sulfide is produced by intestinal tissues and gut sulfur bacteria. Gut-derived molecules undergo liver metabolism. Portal hypertension is one of the most common complications contributing to the high mortality in liver cirrhosis. We hypothesized that the colon-derived hydrogen sulfide may affect portal blood pressure. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained either on tap water (controls) or on water solution of thioacetamide to produce liver cirrhosis (CRH-R). Hemodynamics were measured after administration of either saline or Na2S, a hydrogen sulfide donor, into (1) the colon, (2) the portal vein, or (3) the femoral vein. Expression of enzymes involved in hydrogen sulfide metabolism was measured by RT-PCR. CRH-R showed a significantly higher portal blood pressure but a lower arterial blood pressure than controls. Saline did not affect hemodynamic parameters. In controls, intracolonic hydrogen sulfide decreased arterial blood pressure and portal blood flow but increased portal blood pressure. Similarly, hydrogen sulfide administered into the portal vein decreased arterial blood pressure but increased portal blood pressure. In contrast, hydrogen sulfide administered into the systemic vein decreased both arterial and portal blood pressures. CRH-R showed significantly greater responses to hydrogen sulfide than controls. CRH-R had a significantly higher liver concentration of hydrogen sulfide but lower expression of rhodanese, an enzyme converting hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. In conclusion, colon-administered hydrogen sulfide increases portal blood pressure while decreasing the systemic arterial blood pressure. The response to hydrogen sulfide is more pronounced in cirrhotic rats which show reduced hydrogen sulfide liver metabolism. Therefore, colon-derived hydrogen sulfide may be involved in the regulation of portal blood pressure, and may contribute to

  4. Electrochemical Behavior of Sulfide at the Silver Rotating Disc Electrode. I. Polarization Behavior of Silver Sulfide Films. (United States)


    current can be represented by the Levich equation as Id = 6.2 x 10- 4 n FAD -2/3 c0 -1/ 6 1/2 (5) where 0 is the mean diffusion coefficient for S2- and HS...AO-A099 214 STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO DEPT OF CHEMISTRY F/6 7/4 ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF SULFIDE AT THE SILVER ROTATING DISC-ETC(Lfl MAY...COVERED I~~ . .......- - SC RIY Electrchemical Behavior of Sulfide at the ,, Silver Rotating Disc Electrode. I. Polariza- . tion Behavior of Silver

  5. Luminescence in Sulfides: A Rich History and a Bright Future (United States)

    Smet, Philippe F.; Moreels, Iwan; Hens, Zeger; Poelman, Dirk


    Sulfide-based luminescent materials have attracted a lot of attention for a wide range of photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with Ce3+ and Eu2+, the luminescence can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the sulfide host. Main application areas are flat panel displays based on thin film electroluminescence, field emission displays and ZnS-based powder electroluminescence for backlights. For these applications, special attention is given to BaAl2S4:Eu, ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu. Recently, sulfide materials have regained interest due to their ability (in contrast to oxide materials) to provide a broad band, Eu2+-based red emission for use as a color conversion material in white-light emitting diodes (LEDs). The potential application of rare-earth doped binary alkaline-earth sulfides, like CaS and SrS, thiogallates, thioaluminates and thiosilicates as conversion phosphors is discussed. Finally, this review concludes with the size-dependent luminescence in intrinsic colloidal quantum dots like PbS and CdS, and with the luminescence in doped nanoparticles.

  6. Sulfide assimilation by ectosymbionts of the sessile ciliate, Zoothamnium niveum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røy, Hans; Vopel, Kay; Huettel, Marcus


    was the free-flowing water although the size of the colonies suggests that they live partly submerged in the diffusive boundary layer. We showed that the filtered volume allows Z. niveum to assimilate sufficient sulfide to sustain the symbiosis at a few micromoles per liter in ambient concentration. Numerical...

  7. Carbonyl Sulfide Isotopologues: Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections and Stratospheric Photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielache, Sebastian Oscar; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Eskebjerg, Carsten


    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted carbonyl sulfide isotopologues were calculated using wavepacket dynamics. The calculated absorption cross section of 16O12C32S is in very good agreement with the accepted experimental spectrum between 190 and 250 nm. Relative to 16O...

  8. Switching between Plasmonic and Fluorescent Copper Sulfide Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stam, W.; Gudjónsdóttir, S.; Evers, W.H.; Houtepen, A.J.


    Control over the doping density in copper sulfide nanocrystals is of great importance and determines its use in optoelectronic applications such as NIR optical switches and photovoltaic devices. Here, we demonstrate that we can reversibly control the hole carrier density (varying from

  9. Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell-associated biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles has been reported to be rather slow and costly. In this study, we report on a rapid and low cost biosynthesis of CdS using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T.

  10. Geology of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit near Meli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Results of a preliminary study conducted on the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit near Meli/Rahwa, northern Ethiopia are presented in the paper. The study area forms part of. Neoproterozoic basement of northern Ethiopia and southern part of the Arabian Nubian Shield. (ANS). Selected surface rock ...

  11. Nitrite production from urine for sulfide control in sewers. (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Zuo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yizhen; Cui, Yujia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Yanchen; Huang, Xia; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Most commonly used methods for sewer sulfide control involves dosing chemical agents to wastewater, which incurs high operational costs. Here, we propose and demonstrate a cost-effective and environmentally attractive approach to sewer sulfide control through urine separation and its subsequent conversion to nitrite prior to intermittent dosage to sewers. Urine collected from a male toilet urinal was fed to laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors. The reactors stably converted roughly 50% of the nitrogen in urine to nitrite, with high abundance (at 17.46%) of known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) of the genus Nitrosomonas, and absence (below detection level) of typical nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira, according to 454 pyrosequencing analysis. The stable nitrite production was achieved at both relatively high (1.0-2.0 mg/L) and low (0.2-0.3 mg/L) dissolved oxygen concentrations. Dosing tests in laboratory-scale sewer systems confirmed the sulfide control effectiveness of free nitrous acid generated from urine. Life cycle assessment indicated that, compared with commodity chemicals, nitrite/free nitrous acid (FNA) production from urine for sulfide control in sewers would lower the operational costs by approximately 2/3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1/3 in 20 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Luminescence in Sulfides: A Rich History and a Bright Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe F. Smet


    Full Text Available Sulfide-based luminescent materials have attracted a lot of attention for a wide range of photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with Ce3+ and Eu2+, the luminescence can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the sulfide host. Main application areas are flat panel displays based on thin film electroluminescence, field emission displays and ZnS-based powder electroluminescence for backlights. For these applications, special attention is given to BaAl2S4:Eu, ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu. Recently, sulfide materials have regained interest due to their ability (in contrast to oxide materials to provide a broad band, Eu2+-based red emission for use as a color conversion material in white-light emitting diodes (LEDs. The potential application of rare-earth doped binary alkaline-earth sulfides, like CaS and SrS, thiogallates, thioaluminates and thiosilicates as conversion phosphors is discussed. Finally, this review concludes with the size-dependent luminescence in intrinsic colloidal quantum dots like PbS and CdS, and with the luminescence in doped nanoparticles.

  13. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Basic


    Full Text Available Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways.

  14. Volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrence model: Chapter C in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Koski, Randolph A.; Mosier, Dan L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Slack, John F.; Ridley, W. Ian; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Thurston, Roland


    Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, also known as volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, volcanic-associated massive sulfide, or seafloor massive sulfide deposits, are important sources of copper, zinc, lead, gold, and silver (Cu, Zn, Pb, Au, and Ag). These deposits form at or near the seafloor where circulating hydrothermal fluids driven by magmatic heat are quenched through mixing with bottom waters or porewaters in near-seafloor lithologies. Massive sulfide lenses vary widely in shape and size and may be podlike or sheetlike. They are generally stratiform and may occur as multiple lenses.

  15. Biogeographic Congruency among Bacterial Communities from Terrestrial Sulfidic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eHeadd


    Full Text Available Terrestrial sulfidic springs support diverse microbial communities by serving as stable conduits for geochemically diverse and nutrient-rich subsurface waters. Microorganisms that colonize terrestrial springs likely originate from groundwater, but may also be sourced from the surface. As such, the biogeographic distribution of microbial communities inhabiting sulfidic springs should be controlled by a combination of spring geochemistry and surface and subsurface transport mechanisms, and not necessarily geographic proximity to other springs. We examined the bacterial diversity of seven springs to test the hypothesis that occurrence of taxonomically similar microbes, important to the sulfur cycle, at each spring is controlled by geochemistry. Complementary Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved five proteobacterial classes, and Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes phyla from all springs, which suggested the potential for a core sulfidic spring microbiome. Among the putative sulfide-oxidizing groups (Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, up to 83% of the sequences from geochemically similar springs clustered together. Abundant populations of Hydrogenimonas-like or Sulfurovum-like spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with abundant Thiothrix and Thiofaba spp. (Gammaproteobacteria, but Arcobacter-like and Sulfurimonas spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with less abundant gammaproteobacterial populations. These distribution patterns confirmed that geochemistry rather than biogeography regulates bacterial dominance at each spring. Potential biogeographic controls were related to paleogeologic sedimentation patterns that could control long-term microbial transport mechanisms that link surface and subsurface environments. Knowing the composition of a core sulfidic spring microbial community could provide a way to monitor diversity changes if a system is threatened by anthropogenic processes or

  16. Electrochemical properties of bare nickel sulfide and nickel sulfide-carbon composites prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries (United States)

    Son, Mun Yeong; Choi, Jeong Hoo; Kang, Yun Chan


    Spherical bare nickel sulfide and nickel sulfide-carbon composite powders are prepared by a one-step spray pyrolysis. Submicron bare nickel sulfide particles with a dense structure have mixed crystal phases of NiS, Ni7S6, and NixS6. The nickel sulfide-carbon composite powders prepared from a spray solution containing 0.1 M sucrose have a main crystal structure of Ni7S6 phase with small impurity peaks of NixS6 phase. A nickel oxide-carbon composite powder is first formed as an intermediate product in the front part of the reactor at 800 °C. Fast decomposition of thiourea at this high temperature results in the evolution of hydrogen sulfide gas, which then forms the nickel sulfide-carbon composite powders by direct sulfidation of nickel oxide under the reducing atmosphere. Nickel sulfide nanocrystals with a size of a few nanometers are uniformly distributed inside the spherical carbon matrix. The nickel sulfide-carbon composite powders prepared with 0.1 M sucrose have an excellent discharge capacity of 472 mA h g-1 at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, even after 500 cycles, with the corresponding capacity retention measured after the first cycle being 86%.

  17. Nanomaterials made of non-toxic metallic sulfides: A systematic review of their potential biomedical applications. (United States)

    Argueta-Figueroa, Liliana; Martínez-Alvarez, O; Santos-Cruz, J; Garcia-Contreras, R; Acosta-Torres, L S; de la Fuente-Hernández, J; Arenas-Arrocena, M C


    Metallic sulfides involve the chemical bonding of one or more sulfur atoms to a metal. Metallic sulfides are cheap, abundant semiconductor materials that can be used for several applications. However, an important and emerging use for non-toxic metallic sulfides in biomedical applications has arisen quickly in the medical field. In this systematic review, the available data from electronic databases were collected according to PRISMA alignments for systematic reviews. This review shows that these metallic sulfides could be promising for biomedical uses and applications. This systematic review is focused primarily on the following compounds: silver sulfide, copper sulfide, and iron sulfide. The aim of this review was to provide a quick reference on synthesis methods, biocompatibility, recent advances and perspectives, with remarks on future improvements. The toxicity of metallic sulfides depends directly on the cytotoxicity of their interactions with cells and tissues. Metallic sulfides have potential biomedical applications due to their antibacterial properties, uses in imaging and diagnostics, therapies such as photothermal therapy and chemotherapy in tumors and cancer cells, drug delivery and the fabrication of biosensors for the sensitive and selective detection of moieties, among others. Although current evidence about metallic sulfide NPs is promising, there are still several issues to be addressed before these NPs can be used in biomedicine. The current review is a brief but significant guide to metallic sulfides and their potential uses in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptation of cyanobacteria to the sulfide-rich microenvironment of black band disease of coral. (United States)

    Myers, Jamie L; Richardson, Laurie L


    Black band disease (BBD) is a cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mat that migrates across living coral colonies lysing coral tissue and leaving behind exposed coral skeleton. The mat is sulfide-rich due to the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria, integral members of the BBD microbial community, and the sulfide they produce is lethal to corals. The effect of sulfide, normally toxic to cyanobacteria, on the photosynthetic capabilities of five BBD cyanobacterial isolates of the genera Geitlerinema (3), Leptolyngbya (1), and Oscillatoria (1) and six non-BBD cyanobacteria of the genera Leptolyngbya (3), Pseudanabaena (2), and Phormidium (1) was examined. Photosynthetic experiments were performed by measuring the photoincorporation of [(14)C] NaHCO(3) under the following conditions: (1) aerobic (no sulfide), (2) anaerobic with 0.5 mM sulfide, and (3) anaerobic with 0.5 mM sulfide and 10 microM 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). All five BBD cyanobacterial isolates tolerated sulfide by conducting sulfide-resistant oxygenic photosynthesis. Five of the non-BBD cyanobacterial isolates did not tolerate sulfide, although one Pseudanabaena isolate continued to photosynthesize in the presence of sulfide at a considerably reduced rate. None of the isolates conducted anoxygenic photosynthesis with sulfide as an electron donor. This is the first report on the physiology of a culture of Oscillatoria sp. found globally in BBD.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide production from cysteine and homocysteine by periodontal and oral bacteria. (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Mamiko; Ohara, Naoya; Yoshimura, Shigeru; Nagashima, Shiori; Takehara, Tadamichi; Nakayama, Koji


    Hydrogen sulfide is one of the predominant volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by oral bacteria. This study developed and evaluated a system for detecting hydrogen sulfide production by oral bacteria. L-methionine-alpha-deamino-gamma-mercaptomethane-lyase (METase) and beta carbon-sulfur (beta C-S) lyase were used to degrade homocysteine and cysteine, respectively, to produce hydrogen sulfide. Enzymatic reactions resulting in hydrogen sulfide production were assayed by reaction with bismuth trichloride, which forms a black precipitate when mixed with hydrogen sulfide. The enzymatic activities of various oral bacteria that result in hydrogen sulfide production and the capacity of bacteria from periodontal sites to form hydrogen sulfide in reaction mixtures containing L-cysteine or DL-homocysteine were assayed. With L-cysteine as the substrate, Streptococcus anginosus FW73 produced the most hydrogen sulfide, whereas Porphyromonas gingivalis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 33277 and W83 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 produced approximately 35% of the amount produced by the P. gingivalis strains. Finally, the hydrogen sulfide found in subgingival plaque was analyzed. Using bismuth trichloride, the hydrogen sulfide produced by oral bacteria was visually detectable as a black precipitate. Hydrogen sulfide production by oral bacteria was easily analyzed using bismuth trichloride. However, further innovation is required for practical use.

  20. Syndrome of diminished vasodilator reserve of the coronary microcirculation (microvascular angina or syndrome X): Diagnosis by combined atrial pacing and thallium 201 imaging--a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magarian, G.J.; Palac, R.; Reinhart, S. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Portland, OR (USA))


    Patients with angina-like chest pain without evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease or coronary arterial vasospasm are becoming increasingly recognized. These are often related to noncardiac causes including esophageal, musculoskeletal, and hyperventilatory or panic states. However, recently a subgroup of such patients are being recognized as having true myocardial ischemia and chest pain on the basis of diminished coronary microvascular vasodilatory reserve (microvascular ischemia or Syndrome X). The authors describe such a patient who was found to have replication of anginal pain associated with a reversible ischemic defect on thallium 201 imaging during atrial pacing, suggesting ischemia in this myocardial segment. Resolution of angina and ST segment electrocardiographic changes of ischemia occurred with cessation of pacing. We believe this is the first report of a patient with this form of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by this method and should be considered in patients with anginal chest pain after significant coronary artery disease and coronary vasospasm have been excluded.

  1. Determination of perfusion defect area in experimental myocardial infarction. A comparison between 201-thallium and sup 99m Tc methoxy-isobutyl-isonitril (MIBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.D.; Rohmann, S.; Bahavar, H.; Grebe, S.F.; Schaper, W.; Schlepper, M. (Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim (Germany))


    To assess the accuracy of two myocardial perfusion markers in quantifying defect size, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded in 13 porcine hearts. Fourty minutes later 55 MBq {sup 201}TI and 370 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI were simultaneously injected i.v. in 10 animals. After injection and in vivo double nuclide SPECT acquisition, the risk area was demarcated with fluorescein (FI) dye in 5 animals. The in vitro defect area determined by {sup 201}TI was significant larger (15.8 {+-} 27%) than those of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, while FI compared to Tc showed no statistical difference. Thus, in a pig model Tc-MIBI was more accurate with ex vivo imaging. With SPECT thallium imaging defect size was overestimated. In vivo there was a distinct trend with Tc-MIBI studies to underestimate the defect size up to 16%. (orig.).

  2. Functional significance of myocardial perfusion defects induced by dipyridamole using thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and two-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, A.; Suarez, J.; Mahmarian, J.J.; Zoghbi, W.A.; Quinones, M.A.; Verani, M.S. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))


    The mechanisms responsible for inhomogeneous myocardial blood flow after oral administration of a large dose (300 mg) of dipyridamole were assessed in 27 patients with serial thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and simultaneous 2-dimensional echocardiograms. Myocardial tomographic images were obtained 50 minutes and 3 to 4 hours after administration of dipyridamole. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were recorded at baseline and then every 15 minutes for 60 minutes. Dipyridamole caused only a mild reduction in blood pressure (from 129 +/- 18 to 126 +/- 16 mm Hg) and a mild increase in heart rate (from 69 +/- 15 to 73 +/- 4 beats/min). Sixteen patients had perfusion defects after dipyridamole by SPECT, which underwent partial or total filling-in. Fourteen of these patients (87.5%) had either a new abnormality or further deterioration of a preexisting wall motion abnormality by 2-dimensional echocardiography, and thus were considered to have developed transient ischemia during dipyridamole administration. Ten of 11 patients (91%) with normal perfusion or fixed defects by SPECT had no further deterioration in wall motion after oral dipyridamole, and were thus considered to have no evidence of myocardial ischemia. In conclusion, most patients with transient thallium-201 defects after dipyridamole develop transient worsening of resting wall motion by 2-dimensional echocardiography, suggestive of true myocardial ischemia. Because myocardial oxygen demand, as indicated by the heart rate-blood pressure product, did not change significantly, the mechanism of myocardial ischemia in these patients is likely to be diminished regional blood flow related to a subendocardial steal induced by dipyridamole.

  3. High infrared photoconductivity in films of arsenic-sulfide-encapsulated lead-sulfide nanocrystals. (United States)

    Yakunin, Sergii; Dirin, Dmitry N; Protesescu, Loredana; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Tollabimazraehno, Sajjad; Humer, Markus; Hackl, Florian; Fromherz, Thomas; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Heiss, Wolfgang


    Highly photoconductive thin films of inorganic-capped PbS nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) are reported. Stable colloidal dispersions of (NH4)3AsS3-capped PbS QDs were processed by a conventional dip-coating technique into a thin homogeneous film of electronically coupled PbS QDs. Upon drying at 130 °C, (NH4)3AsS3 capping ligands were converted into a thin layer of As2S3, acting as an infrared-transparent semiconducting glue. Photodetectors obtained by depositing such films onto glass substrates with interdigitate electrode structures feature extremely high light responsivity and detectivity with values of more than 200 A/W and 1.2×10(13) Jones, respectively, at infrared wavelengths up to 1400 nm. Importantly, these devices were fabricated and tested under ambient atmosphere. Using a set of time-resolved optoelectronic experiments, the important role played by the carrier trap states, presumably localized on the arsenic-sulfide surface coating, has been elucidated. Foremost, these traps enable a very high photoconductive gain of at least 200. The trap state density as a function of energy has been plotted from the frequency dependence of the photoinduced absorption (PIA), whereas the distribution of lifetimes of these traps was recovered from PIA and photoconductivity (PC) phase spectra. These trap states also have an important impact on carrier dynamics, which led us to propose a kinetic model for trap state filling that consistently describes the experimental photoconductivity transients at various intensities of excitation light. This model also provides realistic values for the photoconductive gain and thus may serve as a useful tool to describe photoconductivity in nanocrystal-based solids.

  4. Sulfide intrusion in the tropical seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme (United States)

    Holmer, Marianne; Pedersen, Ole; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit; Hedegård Petersen, Malene; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Koch, Marguerite; Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jensen, Henning S.


    Sulfur and oxygen dynamics in the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme and their sediments were studied in the US Virgin Islands (USVI) in order to explore sulfide intrusion into tropical seagrasses. Four study sites were selected based on the iron concentration in sediments and on proximity to anthropogenic nutrient sources. Meadow characteristics (shoot density, above- and below-ground biomass, nutrient content) were sampled along with sediment biogeochemistry. Sulfide intrusion was high in T. testudinum, as up to 96% of total sulfur in the plant was derived from sediment-derived sulfides. The sulfide intrusion was negatively correlated to the turnover of sulfides in the sediments regulated by both plant parameters and sediment sulfur pools. Sediment iron content played an indirect role by affecting sulfide turnover rates. Leaf production was negatively correlated with sulfide intrusion suggesting that active growth reduced sulfide intrusion. Sulfide intrusion was lower in S. filiforme (up to 44%) compared to T. testudinum consistent with a higher internal nighttime oxygen concentrations found for S. filiforme. When S. filiforme can take advantage of its ability to maintain high internal oxygen concentrations, as was the case on the USVI, it could increase its success in colonizing unvegetated disturbed sediments with potentially high sulfide concentrations.

  5. Poly(arylene sulfide sulfone) polymer containing ether groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J.T. Jr.; Geibel, J.; Bobsein, R.L.; Straw, J.J.


    This patent describes a process comprising: (a) reacting in an organic solvent a dihalo aromatic sulfone with an aromatic diphenol at a mole ratio of about 8/1 to about 20/1 in the presence of an alkali metal base to form a mixture comprising dihalo-terminated oligomers, and subsequently (b) adding a sulfur source selected from the group consisting of hydrogen sulfide, alkali metal hydrosulfides, alkali metal sulfides, acyclic and cyclic thioamides and mixtures, thereof, to the mixture resulting from (a) and continuing the reaction at a temperature and for a sufficient time to form a recoverable polymeric solid, characterized as having a polymer melt temperature in excess of 250/sup 0/C.

  6. Health assessment document for hydrogen sulfide: review draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, H.M.; Bradow, F.; Fennell, D.; Griffin, R.; Kearney, B.


    Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas which is immediately lethal in concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. The toxic end-point is due to anoxia to brain and heart tissues which results from its interaction with the celluar enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of the enzyme halts oxidative metabolism which is the primary energy source for cells. A second toxic end-point is the irritative effect of hydrogen sulfide on mucous membranes, particularly edema at sublethal doses (250 to 500 ppm) in which sufficient exposure occurs before conciousness is lost. Recovered victims of exposure report neurologic symptoms such as headache, fatigue, irritability, vertigo, and loss of libido. Long-term effects are similar to those caused by anoxia due to other toxic agents like CO, and probably are not due to specific H/sub 2/S effects. H/sub 2/S is not a cumulative poison. No mutagenic, carcinogenic, reproductive, or teratogenic effects have been reported in the literature.

  7. On the photoconductivity of copper sulfide polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, L.; Leon, M.; Arjona, F.; Garcia Camarero, E.

    The spectral response of the photoconductivity of copper sulfide polycrystalline films obtained by thermal evaporation has been studied. The phase content of the samples was determined by electron diffraction and the stoichiometry by potentiostatic methods. The electrical properties, resistivity and Hall effect, were determined by the Van der Pauw method. The photoconductivity quantum efficiency spectra show structures clearly characteristic of the phase chalcocite and djurleite. Chalcocite shows peaks at 900, 720 and 500 nm and djurleite at 620 and 500 nm. Samples with less copper always show the 500 nm peak. This work shows that a peak at 500 nm appears in the photoconductivity spectral response of all copper sulfides studied. (A.V.)

  8. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.


    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  9. Photovoltaic effect in individual asymmetrically contacted lead sulfide nanosheets. (United States)

    Dogan, Sedat; Bielewicz, Thomas; Lebedeva, Vera; Klinke, Christian


    Solution-processable, two-dimensional semiconductors are promising optoelectronic materials which could find application in low-cost solar cells. Lead sulfide nanocrystals raised attention since the effective band gap can be adapted over a wide range by electronic confinement and observed multi-exciton generation promises higher efficiencies. We report on the influence of the contact metal work function on the properties of transistors based on individual two-dimensional lead sulfide nanosheets. Using palladium we observed mobilities of up to 31 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that asymmetrically contacted nanosheets show photovoltaic effect and that the nanosheets' height has a decisive impact on the device performance. Nanosheets with a thickness of 5.4 nm contacted with platinum and titanium show a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.94% (EQE 75.70%). The results underline the high hopes put on such materials.

  10. 'Low-acid' sulfide oxidation using nitrate-enriched groundwater (United States)

    Donn, Michael; Boxall, Naomi; Reid, Nathan; Meakin, Rebecca; Gray, David; Kaksonen, Anna; Robson, Thomas; Shiers, Denis


    Acid drainage (AMD/ARD) is undoubtedly one of the largest environmental, legislative and economic challenges facing the mining industry. In Australia alone, at least 60m is spent on AMD related issues annually, and the global cost is estimated to be in the order of tens of billions US. Furthermore, the challenge of safely and economically storing or treating sulfidic wastes will likely intensify because of the trend towards larger mines that process increasingly higher volumes of lower grade ores and the associated sulfidic wastes and lower profit margins. While the challenge of managing potentially acid forming (PAF) wastes will likely intensify, the industrial approaches to preventing acid production or ameliorating the effects has stagnated for decades. Conventionally, PAF waste is segregated and encapsulated in non-PAF tips to limit access to atmospheric oxygen. Two key limitations of the 'cap and cover' approach are: 1) the hazard (PAF) is not actually removed; only the pollutant linkage is severed; and, 2) these engineered structures are susceptible to physical failure in short-to-medium term, potentially re-establishing that pollutant linkage. In an effort to address these concerns, CSIRO is investigating a passive, 'low-acid' oxidation mechanism for sulfide treatment, which can potentially produce one quarter as much acidity compared with pyrite oxidation under atmospheric oxygen. This 'low-acid' mechanism relies on nitrate, rather than oxygen, as the primary electron accepter and the activity of specifically cultured chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and archaea communities. This research was prompted by the observation that, in deeply weathered terrains of Australia, shallow (oxic to sub-oxic) groundwater contacting weathering sulfides are commonly inconsistent with the geochemical conditions produced by ARD. One key characteristic of these aquifers is the natural abundance of nitrate on a regional scale, which becomes depleted around the sulfide bodies, and

  11. Oxidation and Precipitation of Sulfide in Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. H.

    Whenever wastewater is transported in sewer networks, it is likely that anaerobic conditions in the wastewater arise as a result of physical, microbial and chemical reactions. Anaerobic conditions in wastewater of sewer networks are often associated with a number of problems like malodors, health...... risks and corrosion of concrete and metals. Most of the problems relate to the buildup of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere of sewer networks. In this respect, the processes of the sulfur cycle are of fundamental importance in ultimately determining the extent of such problems. This study focused...... wastewater and biofilms of sewer networks was studied in detail with emphasis on determination of process kinetics and stoichiometry. In the water phase, sulfide oxidation may be both chemical and biological and the investigations showed that both processes were of significant importance in the sulfur cycle...

  12. Crustal contamination and sulfide immiscibility history of the Permian Huangshannan magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, East Tianshan, NW China (United States)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Hong-Ye; Xue, Sheng-Chao


    The Huangshannan mafic-ultramafic intrusion is a Permian Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing intrusion in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The intrusion consists of an ultramafic unit, which is composed of lherzolite and olivine websterite, and a mafic unit, which is composed of olivine gabbronorite, gabbronorite and leuco-gabbronorite. This intrusion was formed by two separate pulses of magma: a more primitive magma for the early ultramafic unit and a more evolved magma for the late mafic unit. U-Pb isotope geochronology of zircon from the mafic unit yields an age of 278 ± 2 Ma. According to its olivine and Cr-rich spinel compositions, the estimated parental magma of lherzolite for the Huangshannan intrusion has 12.4 wt.% MgO, indicating picritic affinity. Fractional crystallization modeling results and the presence of rounded sulfide inclusions in an olivine crystal (Fo 86.7) indicate that sulfide immiscibility was achieved at the beginning of olivine fractionation. Co-magmatic zircon crystals from gabbronorite have a δ18O value close to 6.5‰, which is 1.2‰ higher than the typical mantle value and suggests significant crustal contamination (∼20%). The positive εHf(t) values of co-magmatic zircon (which vary from +9.2 to +15.3) and positive whole rock εNd(t) values (which vary from +4.7 to +7.8) also indicate that the parental magma was derived from a depleted mantle source and contaminated by 5-20% juvenile arc crust and then by ∼5% upper crustal materials. However, modeling results of sulfur content at sulfide saturation reveal that such a large amount of crustal contamination is not sufficient to trigger sulfide saturation in the parental magma, which strongly suggests that external sulfur addition, probably during contamination, has played a critical role in causing sulfide immiscibility. Furthermore, the arc magmatism geochemical signatures of the Huangshannan intrusion, such as significant Nb and Ta depletion relative to La and low Ca

  13. Arsenic repartitioning during biogenic sulfidization and transformation of ferrihydrite (United States)

    Kocar, Benjamin D.; Borch, Thomas; Fendorf, Scott


    Iron (hydr)oxides are strong sorbents of arsenic (As) that undergo reductive dissolution and transformation upon reaction with dissolved sulfide. Here we examine the transformation and dissolution of As-bearing ferrihydrite and subsequent As repartitioning amongst secondary phases during biotic sulfate reduction. Columns initially containing As(V)-ferrihydrite coated sand, inoculated with the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough), were eluted with artificial groundwater containing sulfate and lactate. Rapid and consistent sulfate reduction coupled with lactate oxidation is observed at low As(V) loading (10% of the adsorption maximum). The dominant Fe solid phase transformation products at low As loading include amorphous FeS within the zone of sulfate reduction (near the inlet of the column) and magnetite downstream where Fe(II) (aq) concentrations increase; As is displaced from the zone of sulfidogenesis and Fe(III) (s) depletion. At high As(V) loading (50% of the adsorption maximum), sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation are initially slow but gradually increase over time, and all As(V) is reduced to As(III) by the end of experimentation. With the higher As loading, green rust(s), as opposed to magnetite, is a dominant Fe solid phase product. Independent of loading, As is strongly associated with magnetite and residual ferrihydrite, while being excluded from green rust and iron sulfide. Our observations illustrate that sulfidogenesis occurring in proximity with Fe (hydr)oxides induce Fe solid phase transformation and changes in As partitioning; formation of As sulfide minerals, in particular, is inhibited by reactive Fe(III) or Fe(II) either through sulfide oxidation or complexation.

  14. Spurious hydrogen sulfide production by Providencia and Escherichia coli species.


    Treleaven, B E; Diallo, A A; Renshaw, E C


    Hydrogen sulfide production was noted in two Escherichia coli strands and one Provaidenica alcalifaciens (Proteus inconstans A) strain isolated from clinical stool specimens durin the summer of 1979. An investigation into this phenomenon revealed the predence of Eubacterium lentum, an anaerobe, growing in synergism with the Enterobacteriaceae and producing H2s. The implications of this association are discssed with reference to clinical microbiology laboratory practice.

  15. Cyanobacterial sulfide-quinone reductase: cloning and heterologous expression. (United States)

    Bronstein, M; Schütz, M; Hauska, G; Padan, E; Shahak, Y


    The gene encoding sulfide-quinone reductase (SQR; E.C.1.8.5.'), the enzyme catalyzing the first step of anoxygenic photosynthesis in the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica, was cloned by use of amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides as well as sequences conserved in the Rhodobacter capsulatus SQR and in an open reading frame found in the genome of Aquifex aeolicus. SQR activity was also detected in the unicellular cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica following sulfide induction, with a V(max) of 180 micromol of plastoquinone-1 (PQ-1) reduced/mg of chlorophyll/h and apparent K(m) values of 20 and 40 microM for sulfide and quinone, respectively. Based on the conserved sequences, the gene encoding A. halophytica SQR was also cloned. The SQR polypeptides deduced from the two cyanobacterial genes consist of 436 amino acids for O. limnetica SQR and 437 amino acids for A. halophytica SQR and show 58% identity and 74% similarity. The calculated molecular mass is about 48 kDa for both proteins; the theoretical isoelectric points are 7.7 and 5.6 and the net charges at a neutral pH are 0 and -14 for O. limnetica SQR and A. halophytica SQR, respectively. A search of databases showed SQR homologs in the genomes of the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120 as well as the chemolithotrophic bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. All SQR enzymes contain characteristic flavin adenine dinucleotide binding fingerprints. The cyanobacterial proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the T7 promoter. Membranes isolated from E. coli cells expressing A. halophytica SQR performed sulfide-dependent PQ-1 reduction that was sensitive to the quinone analog inhibitor 2n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. The wide distribution of SQR genes emphasizes the important role of SQR in the sulfur cycle in nature.

  16. Depolarizing Actions of Hydrogen Sulfide on Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Neurons


    C Sahara Khademullah; Ferguson, Alastair V.


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel neurotransmitter that has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions as well and corticotrophin hormone (CRH) secretion. Since the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is a central relay center for autonomic and endocrine functions, we sought to investigate the effects of H2S on the neuronal population of the PVN. Whole cell current clamp recordings were acquired from the PVN neurons and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) was bath applied a...

  17. Hydrogen sulfide metabolism regulates endothelial solute barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yuan


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an important gaseous signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. In addition to free H2S, H2S can be oxidized to polysulfide which can be biologically active. Since the impact of H2S on endothelial solute barrier function is not known, we sought to determine whether H2S and its various metabolites affect endothelial permeability. In vitro permeability was evaluated using albumin flux and transendothelial electrical resistance. Different H2S donors were used to examine the effects of exogenous H2S. To evaluate the role of endogenous H2S, mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs were isolated from wild type mice and mice lacking cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, a predominant source of H2S in endothelial cells. In vivo permeability was evaluated using the Miles assay. We observed that polysulfide donors induced rapid albumin flux across endothelium. Comparatively, free sulfide donors increased permeability only with higher concentrations and at later time points. Increased solute permeability was associated with disruption of endothelial junction proteins claudin 5 and VE-cadherin, along with enhanced actin stress fiber formation. Importantly, sulfide donors that increase permeability elicited a preferential increase in polysulfide levels within endothelium. Similarly, CSE deficient MAECs showed enhanced solute barrier function along with reduced endogenous bound sulfane sulfur. CSE siRNA knockdown also enhanced endothelial junction structures with increased claudin 5 protein expression. In vivo, CSE genetic deficiency significantly blunted VEGF induced hyperpermeability revealing an important role of the enzyme for barrier function. In summary, endothelial solute permeability is critically regulated via exogenous and endogenous sulfide bioavailability with a prominent role of polysulfides.

  18. Chemical Precipitation Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of Copper Sulfide (United States)

    Wu, Sixin; Jiang, Jing; Liang, Yinglin; Yang, Ping; Niu, Yi; Chen, Yide; Xia, Junfeng; Wang, Chao


    Earth-abundant copper sulfide compounds have been intensively studied as potential thermoelectric materials due to their high dimensionless figure of merit ZT values. They have a unique phonon-liquid electron-crystal model that helps to achieve high thermoelectric performance. Many methods, such as melting and ball-milling, have been adopted to synthesize this copper sulfide compound, but they both use expensive starting materials with high purity. Here, we develop a simple chemical precipitation approach to synthesize copper sulfide materials through low-cost analytically pure compounds as the starting materials. A high ZT value of 0.93 at 800 K was obtained from the samples annealed at 1273 K. Its power factor is around 8.0 μW cm-1 K-2 that is comparable to the highest record reported by traditional methods. But, the synthesis here has been greatly simplified with reduced cost, which will be of great benefit to the potential mass production of thermoelectric devices. Furthermore, this method can be applied to the synthesis of other sulfur compound thermoelectric materials.

  19. Control of malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds using microbial fuel cell. (United States)

    Eaktasang, Numfon; Min, Hyeong-Sik; Kang, Christina; Kim, Han S


    In this study, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used to control malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from domestic wastewaters. The electricity production demonstrated a distinct pattern of a two-step increase during 170 h of system run: the first maximum current density was 118.6 ± 7.2 mA m⁻² followed by a rebound of current density increase, reaching the second maximum of 176.8 ± 9.4 mA m⁻². The behaviors of the redox potential and the sulfate level in the anode compartment indicated that the microbial production of hydrogen sulfide compounds was suppressed in the first stage, and the hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from the system were removed effectively as a result of their electrochemical oxidation, which contributed to the additional electricity production in the second stage. This was also directly supported by sulfur deposits formed on the anode surface, which was confirmed by analyses on those solids using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as an elemental analyzer. To this end, the overall reduction efficiencies for HS⁻ and H₂S(g) were as high as 67.5 and 96.4 %, respectively. The correlations among current density, redox potential, and sulfate level supported the idea that the electricity signal generated in the MFC can be utilized as a potential indicator of malodor control for the domestic wastewater system.

  20. Glacial weathering, sulfide oxidation, and global carbon cycle feedbacks. (United States)

    Torres, Mark A; Moosdorf, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Adkins, Jess F; West, A Joshua


    Connections between glaciation, chemical weathering, and the global carbon cycle could steer the evolution of global climate over geologic time, but even the directionality of feedbacks in this system remain to be resolved. Here, we assemble a compilation of hydrochemical data from glacierized catchments, use this data to evaluate the dominant chemical reactions associated with glacial weathering, and explore the implications for long-term geochemical cycles. Weathering yields from catchments in our compilation are higher than the global average, which results, in part, from higher runoff in glaciated catchments. Our analysis supports the theory that glacial weathering is characterized predominantly by weathering of trace sulfide and carbonate minerals. To evaluate the effects of glacial weathering on atmospheric pCO2, we use a solute mixing model to predict the ratio of alkalinity to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) generated by weathering reactions. Compared with nonglacial weathering, glacial weathering is more likely to yield alkalinity/DIC ratios less than 1, suggesting that enhanced sulfide oxidation as a result of glaciation may act as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Back-of-the-envelope calculations indicate that oxidative fluxes could change ocean-atmosphere CO2 equilibrium by 25 ppm or more over 10 ky. Over longer timescales, CO2 release could act as a negative feedback, limiting progress of glaciation, dependent on lithology and the concentration of atmospheric O2 Future work on glaciation-weathering-carbon cycle feedbacks should consider weathering of trace sulfide minerals in addition to silicate minerals.

  1. Magnetite-sulfide-metal complexes in the Allende meteorite (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.; Mcmahon, B. M.


    A model of liquid immiscibility is presented that seemingly accounts for the sulfide-oxide-metal complexes that are present in olivine-rich chondrules in the Allende meteorite. The four major assemblages that are identified are: (1) magnetite + Ni-Fe metal; (2) magnetite + troilite + Ni-Fe metal; (3) magnetite + troilite + pentlandite + Ni-Fe metal; and (4) troilite + or - pentlandite. Specific attention is focused on oxide-metal associations and experimental data confirm earlier suggestions that magnetite results from the oxidation of an initially high-Fe-content metal alloy. Oxidation decreases the modal abundance of the Fe metal and this is accompanied by substantial increases in Ni contents which reach a maximum of approximately 70 wt % Ni. The proposed oxidation mechanism is entirely consistent with condensation of Fe-metal + olivine (Fa5) that subsequently reequilibrated at lower temperatures. Although the sulfide constituents could also have formed by the reaction of Fe-Ni metal + gaseous H2S, sulfide immiscibility under increased conditions of partial O2 pressure is the preferred process.

  2. Glacial weathering, sulfide oxidation, and global carbon cycle feedbacks (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; Moosdorf, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Adkins, Jess F.; West, A. Joshua


    Connections between glaciation, chemical weathering, and the global carbon cycle could steer the evolution of global climate over geologic time, but even the directionality of feedbacks in this system remain to be resolved. Here, we assemble a compilation of hydrochemical data from glacierized catchments, use this data to evaluate the dominant chemical reactions associated with glacial weathering, and explore the implications for long-term geochemical cycles. Weathering yields from catchments in our compilation are higher than the global average, which results, in part, from higher runoff in glaciated catchments. Our analysis supports the theory that glacial weathering is characterized predominantly by weathering of trace sulfide and carbonate minerals. To evaluate the effects of glacial weathering on atmospheric pCO2, we use a solute mixing model to predict the ratio of alkalinity to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) generated by weathering reactions. Compared with nonglacial weathering, glacial weathering is more likely to yield alkalinity/DIC ratios less than 1, suggesting that enhanced sulfide oxidation as a result of glaciation may act as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Back-of-the-envelope calculations indicate that oxidative fluxes could change ocean-atmosphere CO2 equilibrium by 25 ppm or more over 10 ky. Over longer timescales, CO2 release could act as a negative feedback, limiting progress of glaciation, dependent on lithology and the concentration of atmospheric O2. Future work on glaciation-weathering-carbon cycle feedbacks should consider weathering of trace sulfide minerals in addition to silicate minerals.

  3. Environmental, health, safety, and regulatory review of selected photovoltaic options: Copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide and polycrystalline silicon (United States)

    Lawrence, K.; Morgan, S.; Schaller, D.; Wilczak, T.


    Emissions, effluents and solid wastes from the fabrication of both polycrystalline silicon and front-wall copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide photovoltaic cells are summarized. Environmental, health, and safety characteristics of cell fabrication material inputs and by products are listed. Candidate waste stream treatment methods and resultant effluents are reviewed. Environmental, health, and safety effects of photovoltaic cell/module/array installation, operation, maintenance, and decommission are summarized. Federal legislation is addressed and future regulatory trends under these laws as they may affect each cell process are discussed. Water quality, solid waste disposal, and occupational health and safety regulations will likely be those most applicable to commercial scale PV production. Currently available control technology appears sufficient to treat cell fabrication wastes.

  4. When can Electrochemical Techniques give Reliable Corrosion Rates on Carbon Steel in Sulfide Media?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hemmingsen, Tor; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo


    Effects of film formation on carbon steel in hydrogen sulfide media may corrupt corrosion rate monitoring by electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical data from hydrogen sulfide solutions, biological sulfide media and natural sulfide containing geothermal water have been collected and the process...... of film formation in sulfide solutions was followed by video. It can be shown that capacitative and diffusional effects due to porous reactive deposits tend to dominate the data resulting in unreliable corrosion rates measured by electrochemical techniques. The effect is strongly increased if biofilm...... in combination with ferrous sulfide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 with electrochemical techniques - both by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oxygen entering the system accelerates...

  5. Induced Polarization Responses of the Specimen with Sulfide Ore Minerals (United States)

    Park, S.; Sung, N. H.


    Basic data of the physical properties of the rocks is required to effectively interpret geologic structures and mineralized zones in study areas from the geophysical data in the field of subsurface investigations and mineral resources explorations. In this study, the spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement system in the laboratory was constructed to obtain the IP characteristics of the specimen with sulfide ore minerals. The SIP measurement system consists of lab transmitter for electrical current transmission, and GDP-32 for current receiver. The SIP system employs 14 steps of frequencies from 0.123 to 1,024 Hz, and uses copper sulfate solution as an electrolyte. The SIP data for system verification was acquired using a measurement system of parallel circuit with fixed resistance and condenser. This measured data was in good agreement with Cole-Cole model data. First of all, the experiment on the SIP response was conducted in the laboratory with the mixture of glass beads and pyrite powders for ore grade assessment using characteristics of IP response of the rocks. The results show that the phase difference of IP response to the frequency is nearly proportional to the weight content of pyrite, and that the dominant frequency of the IP response varies with the size of the pyrite powder. Subsequently, the specimens used for SIP measurement are slate and limestone which were taken from drilling cores and outcrops of skarn ore deposits. All specimens are cylindrical in shape, with a diameter of 5 cm and a length of 10 cm. When measuring SIP of water-saturated specimens, the specimen surface is kept dry, tap water is put into the bottom of sample holder and a lid is closed. It is drawn that the SIP characteristics of the rocks show the phase difference depends on the amount of the sulfide minerals. The phase difference did not occur with frequencies applied in the absence of sulfide minerals in the rock specimens. On the contrary, the rock specimens containing

  6. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.


    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of sulfided hexanuclear molybdenum cluster compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, D.


    Hexanuclear molybdenum clusters with mixed chloride and sulfide bridging ligands were prepared by reacting {alpha}-MoCl{sub 2} with sodium hydrosulfide in the presence of sodium butoxide. The resulting species, Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub (8-x)}S{sub x}{center dot}npy(x {congruent} 3.6, n {congruent} 4, py = pyridine), was pyrophoric and insoluble. The mixed sulfide chloride cluster species Mo{sub 6}S{sub 4}Cl{sub 4}{center dot}6OPEt{sub 3} and Mo{sub 6}S{sub {approximately}5}Cl{sub {approximately}3}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3} and Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3} were isolated and characterized. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and UV/visible spectra were obtained for each fraction. The completely sulfided cluster, Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3}, was prepared similarly and used in various experiments as a possible precursor to Chevrel phase materials of the type Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}or M{sub n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}. With the goal of removing all of the triethylphosphine ligands, Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3} was reacted with the transition metal carbonyls molybdenum hexacarbonyl and dicobalt octacarbonyl. Reaction on the molecular sulfide cluster with copper(I) chloride in toluene gave a completely insoluble product. The reaction of Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6PEt{sub 3} with propylene sulfide gave a product whose infrared spectra showed only very weak peaks associated with coordinated triethylphosphine. The elemental analysis of this product fit the formula Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}5SPEt{sub 3}. Reactivity of the outer ligands of the Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}npy and Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}(6{minus}x)PrNH{sub x} clusters were investigated. Crystalline Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8}{center dot}6THT was recovered from the reaction of the n-propylamine derivative with THT. A crystal structure determination was done. 87 refs., 12 fig., 15 tabs.

  8. The quinone-binding site of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase controls both sulfide oxidation and quinone reduction. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Qadri, Ali; Weiner, Joel H


    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a peripheral membrane enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of sulfide and the reduction of ubiquinone. Ubiquinone binds to a conserved hydrophobic domain and shuttles electrons from a noncovalent flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor to the membrane-bound quinone pool. Utilizing the structure of decylubiquinone bound to Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans SQR, we combined site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic approaches to analyze quinone binding. SQR can reduce both benzoquinones and naphthoquinones. The alkyl side-chain of ubiquinone derivatives enhances binding to SQR but limits the enzyme turnover. Pentachlorophenol and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide are potent inhibitors of SQR with apparent inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.46 μmol·L(-1) and 0.58 μmol·L(-1), respectively. The highly conserved amino acids surrounding the quinone binding site play an important role in quinone reduction. The phenyl side-chains of Phe357 and Phe391 sandwich the benzoquinone head group and are critical for quinone binding. Importantly, conserved amino acids that define the ubiquinone-binding site also play an important role in sulfide oxidation/flavin reduction.

  9. Anodic Oxidation of Sulfide to Sulfate: Effect of the Current Density on the Process Kinetics


    Caliari, Paulo C.; MARIA J PACHECO; Ciríaco, Lurdes F.; Lopes, Ana M. C.


    The kinetics of the conversion of sulfide to sulfate by electro-oxidation, using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was studied. Different applied current densities were tested, from 10 to 60 mA cm-2. The results showed that the electrochemical conversion of sulfide to sulfate occurs in steps, via intermediate production of other sulfur species. The oxidation rate of the sulfide ion is dependent on its concentration and current density. The reaction order varies with the current intensity,...

  10. Potential Biological Chemistry of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) with the Nitrogen Oxides


    King, S. Bruce


    Hydrogen sulfide, an important gaseous signaling agent generated in numerous biological tissues, influences many physiological processes. This biological profile appears reminiscent of nitric oxide, another important endogenously synthesized gaseous signaling molecule. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with nitric oxide or oxidized forms of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors in vitro to form species that display distinct biology compared to both hydrogen sulfide and NO. The products of these interest...

  11. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O' Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.


    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  12. Reliability of Electrochemical Techniques for Determining Corrosion Rates on Carbon Steel in Sulfide Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hemmingsen, T.; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo


    if the biofilm in combination with ferrous sulfide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 with electrochemical techniques - both by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemicel impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oxygen entering the system......Effects of film formation on carbon steel in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) media may corrupt corrosion rate monitoring by electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical data from H2S solutions, biological sulfide media, and natural sulfide containing geothermal water have been collected, and the process...

  13. Microbial oxidation of soluble sulfide in produced water from the Bakkeen Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevertz, D.; Zimmerman, S. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others


    The presence of soluble sulfide in produced water results in problems for the petroleum industry due to its toxicity, odor, corrosive nature, and potential for wellbore plugging. Sulfide oxidation by indigenous nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) present in brine collected from wells at the Coleville Unit (CVU) in Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated. Sulfide oxidation took place readily when nitrate and phosphate were added to brine enrichment cultures, resulting in a decrease in sulfide levels of 99-165 ppm to nondetectable levels (< 3.3 ppm). Produced water collected from a number of producing wells was screened to determine the time required for complete sulfide oxidation, in order to select candidate wells for treatment. Three wells were chosen, based on sulfide removal in 48 hours or less. These wells were treated down the backside of the annulus with a solution containing 10 mM KNO{sub 3} and 100 {mu}M NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Following a 24- to 72-hour shut-in, reductions in pretreatment sulfide levels of greater than 90% were observed for two of the wells, as well as sustained sulfide reductions of 50% for at least two days following startup. NRB populations in the produced brine were observed to increase significantly following treatment, but no significant increases in sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. These results demonstrate the technical feasibility of stimulating indigenous populations of NRB to remediate and control sulfide in produced brine.

  14. Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses assessed by stable sulfur isotopes – A synthesis of current results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eHolmer


    Full Text Available Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses, as assessed by stable sulfur isotope signals, is widespread in all climate zones, where seagrasses are growing. Seagrasses can incorporate substantial amounts of 34S-depleted sulfide into their tissues with up to 87% of the total sulfur in leaves derived from sedimentary sulfide. Correlations between δ34S in leaves, rhizomes and roots show that sedimentary sulfide is entering through the roots, either in the form of sulfide or sulfate, and translocated to the rhizomes and the leaves. The total sulfur content of the seagrasses increases as the proportion of sedimentary sulfide in the plant increases, and accumulation of elemental sulfur (S0 inside the plant with δ34S values similar to the sedimentary sulfide suggests that S0 is an important reoxidation product of the sedimentary sulfide. The accumulation of S0 can, however, not account for the increase in sulfur in the tissue, and other sulfur containing compounds such as thiols, organic sulfur and sulfate contribute to the accumulated sulfur pool. Experimental studies with seagrasses exposed to environmental and biological stressors show decreasing δ34S in the tissues along with reduction in growth parameters, suggesting that sulfide intrusion can affect seagrass performance.

  15. Effects of Potassium-Channel Opener on Thallium-201 Kinetics: In-vitro Study in Rat Myocyte Preparations and In-vivo Mice Biodistribution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Kim, Eun Ji; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Son, Kang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jeoung Hee [Youngnam University Medical School, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun Ki [Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York (United States)


    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens ATP-sensitive K{sup +}-channel located at membrane and induces potassium efflux from cytosol, resulting in intracellular hyperpolarization. Newly synthesized K-opener is currently examined for pharmacologic potency by means of rubidium release test from smooth muscle strip preincubated with Rb-86. Since in-vive behavior of thallium is similar to that of rubidium, we hypothesized that K-opener can alter T1-201 kinetics in vivo. This study was prepared to investigate the effects of pinacidil (one of potent K-openers) on the T1-201 uptake and clearance in cultured myocyte, and in-vivo biodistribution in mice. Spontaneous contracting myocytes were prepared to imitate in-vivo condition from 20 hearts of 3-5 days old Sprague-Dawley rat and cultured for 3-5 days before use (5 X 105 cells/ml). Pinacidil was dissolved in 10% DMSO solution at a final concentration of 100nM or 10uM and was co-incubated with T1-201 in HBSS buffer for 20-min to evaluate its effect on cellular T1-uptake, or challenged to cell preparation pre-incubated with T1-201 for washout study. Two, 40 or 100 mg of pinacidil was injected intravenously into ICR mice at 10 min after 5 muCi T1-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention rate were measured at different time points. Co-incubation of pinacidil with T1-201 resulted in a decrease in T1-201 uptake into cultured myocyte by 1.6 to 2.5 times, depending on pinacidil concentration and activity of T1-201 used. Pinacidil enhanced T1-201 washout by 1.6-3.1 times from myocyte preparations pre-incubated with T1-201. Pinacidil treatment appears to be resulted in mild decreases in blood and liver activity in normal mice, in contrast, renal and cardiac uptake were mildly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Whole body retention ratios of T1-201 were lower at 24 hour after injection with 100 mg of pinacidil than control. These results suggest that treatment with K-opener may affect the interpretation of T1

  16. Determination of particle mass deposition according to Bergerhoff; Performance characteristics of the measurement of particle mass deposition and its portions of lead, cadmium, zinc and thallium. Bestimmung des Staubniederschlags nach Bergerhoff; Verfahrenskenngroessen fuer die Messung des Staubniederschlags und seiner Anteile an Blei, Cadmium, Zink und Thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrig, R. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe); Faesi, C. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe); Hofer, P. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe)


    The requirements concerning quality assurance have increased considerably in the field of immission control. Well founded values for detection limits and confidence limits have to be given. Based on the statistical analysis of long term data series of deposition measurements of particle mass (Berghoff method), lead, cadmium, zinc and thallium performance characteristics were established for very differently polluted sites. The resulting detection limits as well as confidence limits are low enough for a reliable control of the respective immission limit values. It is further shown that the use of plastic buckets instead of the glass buckets required by the VDI guideline or the addition of a protecting agent to avoid freezing does not affect the measurements significantly. (orig.)

  17. Catalytic oxidation of sulfide ions over nickel hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A.; Khristov, P. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Losev, A. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The catalytic sulfide ion oxidation by oxygen to elemental sulfur over {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} and LiNiO{sub 2} has been studied. As a result of experimental investigation performed, a reaction mechanism is suggested which involves heterogeneous and homogeneous processes. Dioxygen activation in the heterogeneous process proceeds via a redox Ni{sup 2+} <-> Ni{sup 3+} transition and participation of OH{sup -} groups. The active HO{sup -}{sub 2} species thus formed carries on the reaction in homogeneous phase. Nickel hydroxides are promising catalysts for practical application

  18. Thermal neutron scintillators using unenriched boron nitride and zinc sulfide (United States)

    McMillan, J. E.; Cole, A. J.; Kirby, A.; Marsden, E.


    Thermal neutron detectors based on powdered zinc sulfide intimately mixed with a neutron capture compound have a history as long as scintillation technique itself. We show that using unenriched boron nitride powder, rather than the more commonly used enriched lithium fluoride, results in detection screens which produce less light but which are very considerably cheaper. Methods of fabricating large areas of this material are presented. The screens are intended for the production of large area low cost neutron detectors as a replacement for helium-3 proportional tubes.

  19. Crystal growth of sulfide materials from alkali polysulfide liquids (United States)

    White, W. B.


    The fluids experiment system was designed for low temperature solution growth, nominally aqueous solution growth. The alkali polysulfides, compositions in the systems Na2S-S and K2S-S form liquids in the temperature range of 190 C to 400 C. These can be used as solvents for other important classes of materials such as transition metal and other sulfides which are not soluble in aqueous media. Among these materials are luminescent and electroluminescent crystals whose physical properties are sensitive functions of crystal perfection and which could, therefore, serve as test materials for perfection improvement under microgravity conditions.

  20. Facile aqueous-phase synthesis of copper sulfide nanofibers (United States)

    Tang, Zengmin; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Woo-Sik; Yu, Taekyung


    We report a facile aqueous-phase synthetic route to vine-like copper sulfide (CuS) nanofibers prepared by reacting elemental sulfur with Cu+-branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) complex obtained by the reaction of Cu2+ with ascorbic acid in the presence of BPEI. By controlling the concentration of BPEI, we could easily control the morphology of CuS from nanofibers to hollow nanoparticles. We also found that concentration of BPEI and the presence of halide anion would play important roles in the formation of vine-like CuS nanofibers.

  1. Conspicuous veils formed by vibrioid bacteria on sulfidic marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thar, Roland Matthias; Kühl, Michael


    -ß-hydroxybutyric acid. The cells have bipolar polytrichous flagella and exhibit a unique swimming pattern, rotating and translating along their short axis. Free-swimming cells showed aerotaxis and aggregated at ca. 2 µM oxygen within opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients, where they were able to attach via a mucous stalk......, forming a cohesive whitish veil at the oxic-anoxic interface. Bacteria attached to the veil kept rotating and adapted their stalk lengths dynamically to changing oxygen concentrations. The joint action of rotating bacteria on the veil induced a homogeneous water flow from the oxic water region toward...

  2. Bioavailability and Methylation Potential of Mercury Sulfides in Sediments (United States)


    D.; Wedborg, M., The sulfure-mercury(II) system in natural waters . Water Air and Soil Pollution 1991, 56, 507-519. 275. Haitzer, M.; Aiken, G. R...phosphate-free soap , overnight soak in 1 M HCl, and rinsed three times with ultrapure water . HgS nanoparticles were synthesized as in our previous...neutral mercury-sulfides bioavailability model ………………………………...13 Figure 1.3. Equilibrium speciation of dissolved Hg(II) in filtered anaerobic water

  3. Effects of Wood Pollution on Pore-Water Sulfide Levels and Eelgrass Germination (United States)

    Ekelem, C.


    Historically, sawmills released wood waste onto coastal shorelines throughout the Pacific Northwest of the USA, enriching marine sediments with organic material. The increase in organic carbon boosts the bacterial reduction of sulfate and results in the production of a toxic metabolite, hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a phytotoxin and can decrease the growth and survival of eelgrass. This is a critical issue since eelgrass, Zostera marina, forms habitat for many species, stabilizes sediment, and plays a role in nutrient cycling and sediment chemistry. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of wood debris on sediment pore-water hydrogen sulfide concentrations and eelgrass germination. To test the impact of wood inputs on sulfide production and seed germination, we conducted a laboratory mesocosm experiment, adding sawdust to marine sediments and measuring the sulfide levels weekly. We subsequently planted seeds in the mesocosms and measured germination rates. Higher concentrations of sawdust led to higher levels of pore-water hydrogen sulfide and drastically slower eelgrass germination rates. Treatments with greater than 10% wood enrichment developed free sulfide concentrations of 0.815 (± 0.427) mM after 118 days, suggesting sediments with greater than 10% wood pollution may have threateningly high pore-water hydrogen sulfide levels. These results can be used to set thresholds for remediation efforts and guide seed distribution in wood polluted areas.

  4. The Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Stack Gases, Iodometric Titration After Sulfite Removal. (United States)

    Robles, E. G.

    The determination of hydrogen sulfide in effluents from coal-fired furnaces and incinerators is complicated by the presence of sulfur oxides (which form acids). Organic compounds also may interfere with or prevent the formation of the cadmium sulfide precipitate or give false positive results because of reaction with iodine. The report presents a…

  5. Inhibition of a biological sulfide oxidation under haloalkaline conditions by thiols and diorgano polysulfanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Pawel; Lipińska, Joanna; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Keesman, Karel J.; Janssen, Albert J.H.


    A novel approach has been developed for the simultaneous description of reaction kinetics to describe the formation of polysulfide and sulfate anions from the biological oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using a quick, sulfide-dependent respiration test. Next to H2S,

  6. Release of hydrogen sulfide under intermittent flow conditions – the potential of simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matias, Natércia; Matos, Rita Ventura; Ferreira, Filipa


    that are capable of assessing variations of dissolved oxygen, dissolved sulfide and hydrogen sulfide gas concentrations for a wide range of environmental scenarios. Two such models were assessed: AEROSEPT, an empirical formulation, and WATS, a conceptual and more complex approach. The models were applied...


    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  8. Modeling Spatio-vertical Distribution of Sulfate and Total Sulfide along the Mangrove Intertidal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasicha Chaikaew,


    Full Text Available Given the complexity and heterogeneity of mangrove conservation landscape, research gaps still exists to quantify sulfate and total sulfide and their relationships with sediment properties and environmental covariates. Thirty-two sediment samples in the top layers (0-10 cm were analyzed to assess biochemical properties, sulfate and total sulfide contents. With an average±SD value of 0.62±0.36 mg/g, the total sulfide content from the study site was high compared to the southern part of Thailand. The distribution of sulfate content exhibited high values in nearby land area which gradually reduced in seaward discharges/runoff, whereas high concentrations of total sulfide were highlighted around the center of the study site and vertically accumulated in the top few centimeters of soil and decreased with depth. The most pronounced factor affecting the amount of sulfate and total sulfide content was organic matter, while pH, organic carbon, potassium, salinity, and sediment-mangrove conditions correlated with sulfate and sulfide at different levels. Total sulfides concentration can be considered as indicator of over nutrient-rich sediments for assessing environmental quality perhaps the die-back of mangroves. Concerns about high total sulfide concentrations across mangrove conservation areas should receive more attention, in particular the reduction of OM from the anthropogenic source.

  9. Electrochemical sulfide removal from synthetic and real domestic wastewater at high current densities. (United States)

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg; Rabaey, Korneel


    Hydrogen sulfide generation is the key cause of sewer pipe corrosion, one of the major issues in water infrastructure. Current abatement strategies typically involve addition of various types of chemicals to the wastewater, which incurs large operational costs. The transport, storage and application of these chemicals also constitute occupational and safety hazards. In this study, we investigated high rate electrochemical oxidation of sulfide at Ir/Ta mixed metal oxide (MMO) coated titanium electrodes as a means to remove sulfide from wastewater. Both synthetic and real wastewaters were used in the experiments. Electrochemical sulfide oxidation by means of indirect oxidation with in-situ produced oxygen appeared to be the main reaction mechanism at Ir/Ta MMO coated titanium electrodes. The maximum obtained sulfide removal rate was 11.8 ± 1.7 g S m(-2) projected anode surface h(-1) using domestic wastewater at sulfide concentrations of ≥ 30 mg L(-1) or higher. The final products of the oxidation were sulfate, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. Chloride and acetate concentrations did not entail differences in sulfide removal, nor were the latter two components affected by the electrochemical oxidation. Hence, the use of electrodes to generate oxygen in sewer systems may constitute a promising method for reagent-free removal of sulfide from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorson, Megan K. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Ung, Phuc [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Leaver, Franklin M. [Water & Energy Systems Technology, Inc., Kaysville, UT 84037 (United States); Corbin, Teresa S. [Quality Services Laboratory, Tesoro Refining and Marketing, Salt Lake City, UT 84103 (United States); Tuck, Kellie L., E-mail: [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Graham, Bim, E-mail: [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Barrios, Amy M., E-mail: [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)


    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil. - Highlights: • Lanthanide–azide based sulfide sensors were synthesized and characterized. • The probes have excitation and emission profiles compatible with sulfide-contaminated samples from the petrochemical industry. • A terbium-based probe was used to measure the sulfide concentration in oil refinery wastewater. • A europium-based probe had compatibility with partially refined crude oil samples.

  11. Inhibition of microbiological sulfide oxidation at natronophilic conditions by methanethiol and methylated polysulfides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den P.L.F.; Graaff, de C.M.; Fortuny-Picornell, M.; Leerdam, van R.C.; Janssen, A.J.H.


    To avoid problems related to the discharge of sulfidic spent caustics, a biotechnological process is developed for the treatment of gases containing both hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol. The process operates at natron-alkaline conditions (>1 mol L-1 of sodium- and potassium carbonates and a pH

  12. Equilibrium of the reaction between dissolved sodium sulfide and biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.


    The equilibrium of the heterogeneous reaction between dissolved sodium sulfide and biologically produced sulfur particles has been studied. Biologically produced sulfur was obtained from a bioreactor of a hydrogen sulfide removal process in which the dominating organism is Thiobacillus sp. W5.

  13. Adaptation to Hydrogen Sulfide of Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis among Cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Cohen, Y; Jørgensen, B B; Revsbech, N P; Poplawski, R


    Four different types of adaptation to sulfide among cyanobacteria are described based on the differential toxicity to sulfide of photosystems I and II and the capacity for the induction of anoxygenic photosynthesis. Most cyanobacteria are highly sensitive to sulfide toxicity, and brief exposures to low concentrations cause complete and irreversible cessation of CO(2) photoassimilation. Resistance of photosystem II to sulfide toxicity, allowing for oxygenic photosynthesis under sulfide, is found in cyanobacteria exposed to low H(2)S concentrations in various hot springs. When H(2)S levels exceed 200 muM another type of adaptation involving partial induction of anoxygenic photosynthesis, operating in concert with partially inhibited oxygenic photosynthesis, is found in cyanobacterial strains isolated from both hot springs and hypersaline cyanobacterial mats. The fourth type of adaptation to sulfide is found at H(2)S concentrations higher than 1 mM and involves a complete replacement of oxygenic photosynthesis by an effective sulfide-dependent, photosystem II-independent anoxygenic photosynthesis. The ecophysiology of the various sulfide-adapted cyanobacteria may point to their uniqueness within the division of cyanobacteria.

  14. The impact of electrogenic sulfide oxidation on elemental cycling and solute fluxes in coastal sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, A.M.F.; Malkin, S.Y.; Hidalgo-Martinez, S.; Meysman, Filip


    Filamentous sulfide oxidizing cable bacteria are capable of linking the oxidation of free sulfide in deep anoxic layers of marine sediments to the reduction of oxygen or nitrate in surface sediments by conducting electrons over centimeter-scale distances. Previous studies have shown that this newly

  15. New cyclic sulfides extracted from Allium sativum: garlicnins P, J2, and Q. (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru; Nishioka, Naho; Masuda, Fuka; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei


    Two atypical cyclic-type sulfides, garlicnin P (1) and garlicnin J2 (2), and one thiabicyclic-type sulfide, garlicnin Q (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic, Allium sativum, bulbs cultivated in the Kumamoto city area, and their structures characterized. Their production pathways are also discussed.

  16. Band offset in zinc oxy-sulfide/cubic-tin sulfide interface from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (United States)

    K. C., Sanal; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.


    Zinc oxy-sulfide, ZnOxS1-x, has been found to provide better band alignment in thin film solar cells of tin sulfide of orthorhombic crystalline structure. Here we examine ZnOxS1-x/SnS-CUB interface, in which the ZnOxS1-x thin film was deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering on SnS thin film of cubic (CUB) crystalline structure with a band gap (Eg) of 1.72 eV, obtained via chemical deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides the valence band maxima of the materials and hence places the conduction band offset of 0.41 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO0.27S0.73 and -0.28 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO0.88S0.12 interfaces. Thin films of ZnOxS1-x with 175-240 nm in thickness were deposited from targets prepared with different ZnO to ZnS molar ratios. With the target of molar ratio of 1:13.4, the thin films are of composition ZnO0.27S0.73 with hexagonal crystalline structure and with that of 1:1.7 ratio, it is ZnO0.88S0.12. The optical band gap of the ZnOxS1-x thin films varies from 2.90 eV to 3.21 eV as the sulfur to zinc ratio in the film increases from 0.12:1 to 0.73:1 as determined from X-ray diffraction patterns. Thus, band offsets sought for absorber materials and zinc oxy-sulfide in solar cells may be achieved through a choice of ZnO:ZnS ratio in the sputtering target.

  17. Human sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase catalyzes the first step in hydrogen sulfide metabolism and produces a sulfane sulfur metabolite. (United States)

    Jackson, Michael R; Melideo, Scott L; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman


    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR) is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the mitochondrial metabolism of H(2)S. Human SQOR is successfully expressed at low temperature in Escherichia coli by using an optimized synthetic gene and cold-adapted chaperonins. Recombinant SQOR contains noncovalently bound FAD and catalyzes the two-electron oxidation of H(2)S to S(0) (sulfane sulfur) using CoQ(1) as an electron acceptor. The prosthetic group is reduced upon anaerobic addition of H(2)S in a reaction that proceeds via a long-wavelength-absorbing intermediate (λ(max) = 673 nm). Cyanide, sulfite, or sulfide can act as the sulfane sulfur acceptor in reactions that (i) exhibit pH optima at 8.5, 7.5, or 7.0, respectively, and (ii) produce thiocyanate, thiosulfate, or a putative sulfur analogue of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)S(2)), respectively. Importantly, thiosulfate is a known intermediate in the oxidation of H(2)S by intact animals and the major product formed in glutathione-depleted cells or mitochondria. Oxidation of H(2)S by SQOR with sulfite as the sulfane sulfur acceptor is rapid and highly efficient at physiological pH (k(cat)/K(m,H(2)S) = 2.9 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). A similar efficiency is observed with cyanide, a clearly artificial acceptor, at pH 8.5, whereas a 100-fold lower value is seen with sulfide as the acceptor at pH 7.0. The latter reaction is unlikely to occur in healthy individuals but may become significant under certain pathological conditions. We propose that sulfite is the physiological acceptor of the sulfane sulfur and that the SQOR reaction is the predominant source of the thiosulfate produced during H(2)S oxidation by mammalian tissues.

  18. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal


    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.

  19. Replacement of a photomultiplier tube in a 2-inch thallium-doped sodium iodide gamma spectrometer with silicon photomultipliers and a light guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankyu Kim


    Full Text Available The thallium-doped sodium iodide [NaI(Tl] scintillation detector is preferred as a gamma spectrometer in many fields because of its general advantages. A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM has recently been developed and its application area has been expanded as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs. It has merits such as a low operating voltage, compact size, cheap production cost, and magnetic resonance compatibility. In this study, an array of SiPMs is used to develop an NaI(Tl gamma spectrometer. To maintain detection efficiency, a commercial NaI(Tl 2′ × 2′ scintillator is used, and a light guide is used for the transport and collection of generated photons from the scintillator to the SiPMs without loss. The test light guides were fabricated with polymethyl methacrylate and reflective materials. The gamma spectrometer systems were set up and included light guides. Through a series of measurements, the characteristics of the light guides and the proposed gamma spectrometer were evaluated. Simulation of the light collection was accomplished using the DETECT 97 code (A. Levin, E. Hoskinson, and C. Moison, University of Michigan, USA to analyze the measurement results. The system, which included SiPMs and the light guide, achieved 14.11% full width at half maximum energy resolution at 662 keV.

  20. Myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and thallium-201 in patients with coronary artery disease: a comparative dual-isotope study. (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Rauch, B; Kapp, M; Bubeck, B; Neumann, F J; Seitz, F; Stokstad, P; Mall, G; Tillmanns, H; Kübler, W


    To characterise the clinical usefulness of serial myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in comparison with thallium-201, dual-isotope investigations were performed in 41 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Both tracers were administered simultaneously during symptom-limited ergometry. Planar scintigrams were acquired immediately after stress, and delayed imaging was performed after 1 h for IPPA and 4 h for 201Tl. Scintigrams were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using a newly developed algorithm for automated image superposition. Initial myocardial uptake of both tracers was closely correlated (r = 0.75, p or = 75% (IP-PA: 70.0%, 201Tl: 66.3%, P = NS) with identical specificity (69.8%). The number of persistent defects, however, was significantly higher with IPPA (P = 0.021), suggesting that visual analysis of serial IPPA scintigrams may overestimate the presence of myocardial scar tissue. On the other hand, previous Q wave myocardial infarction was associated with a decreased regional IPPA clearance (29% +/- 11% vs 44% +/- 11% in normal myocardium, P IPPA is essentially as sensitive as scintigraphy with 201Tl for the detection of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of myocardial IPPA kinetics, however, is required for the evaluation of tissue viability.

  1. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic cardiac imaging; Comparison to myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium in ischemic cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, G.L.; Magill, H.L. [Baptist Memorial Hospital (United States); Schad, N.C.


    Recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium is essential in this era of cardiac revascularization. Positron emission tomography (PET) accurately identifies viability but is costly and unavailable to most patients. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic cardiac imaging is a potentially cost-effective alternative to PET. Using transmural myocardial biopsies obtained during coronary bypass surgery as the viability gold standard, resting IPPA imaging agreed with 39/43 (91%) biopsies, with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36(92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%) in patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eighty percent of IPPA viable, infarcted segments improved wall motion postoperatively. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-Tl) scans after myocardial infarction, there was IPPA-Tl concordance in 27/35 (77%)(Kappa=0.536, p=0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-Tl, 26/35 (74%) vs. 18/35 (51%)(p=0.047). Finally, when compared to transvenous endomyocardial biopsy for detecting rejection following cardiac transplantation, IPPA sensitivity for {>=}Grade II rejection was 100%, and IPPA screening assessment for the necessity of biopsy could result in a 31% cost-savings. Therefore, IPPA metabolic cardiac imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique with a promising future. (author).

  2. Myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and thallium-201 in patients with coronary artery disease: A comparative dual-isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.; Rauch, B.; Kapp, M.; Neumann, F.J.; Seitz, F.; Kuebler, W. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology); Bubeck, B. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Mall, G. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pathology); Tillmanns, H. (Giessen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology); Stokstad, P.


    To characterise the clinical usefulness of serial myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in comparison with thallium-201, dual-isotope investigations were performed in 41 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Both tracers were adminstered simultaneously during symptom-limited ergometry. Planar scintigrams were acquired immediately after stress, and delayed imaging was performed after 1 h for IPPA and 4 h for {sup 201}Tl. Scintigrams were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using a newly developed algorithm for automated image superposition. Initial myocardial uptake of both tracers was closely correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Both tracers also revealed a similar sensitivity for the identification of individual coronary artery stenoses {>=}75% (IPPA: 70%, {sup 201}Tl: 66.3%, P=NS) with identical specificity (69.8%). The number of persistent defects, however, was significantly higher with IPPA (P=0.021), suggesting that visual analysis of serial IPPA scintigrams may overestimate the presence of myocardial scar tissue. On the other hand, previous Q wave myocardial infarction was associated with a decreased regional IPPA clearance (29%{+-}11% vs 44%{+-}11% in normal myocardium, P<0.05). The data indicate that serial myocardial scintigraphy with IPPA is essentially as sensitive as scintigraphy with {sup 201}Tl for the detection of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of myocardial IPPA kinetics, however, is required for the evaluation of tissue viability. (orig.).

  3. Myocardial viability assessment with dynamic low-dose iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic imaging: comparison with myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium after myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Murray, G L; Schad, N C; Magill, H L; Vander Zwaag, R


    Aggressive cardiac revascularization requires recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium, and cost considerations may well govern the technique used. Dynamic low-dose (1 mCi) [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic imaging is a potential alternative to PET using either 18FDG or 15O-water. Resting IPPA images were obtained from patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy, and transmural myocardial biopsies were obtained during coronary bypass surgery to confirm viability. Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) biopsies confirmed the results of the IPPA images with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36 (92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Postoperatively, wall motion improved in 80% of IPPA-viable, dysfunctional segments. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-TI) scans after myocardial infarction, IPPA-SPECT-TI concordance occurred in 27/35 (77%) (K = 0.536, p = 0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-TI, 26/35 (74%) versus 18/35 (51%) (p = 0.047). Metabolic IPPA cardiac viability imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique that may be a useful alternative to PET.

  4. Identification and Decay Studies of New, Neutron-Rich Isotopes of Bismuth, Lead and Thallium by means of a Pulsed Release Element Selective Method

    CERN Multimedia

    Mills, A; Kugler, E; Van duppen, P L E; Lettry, J


    % IS354 \\\\ \\\\ It is proposed to produce, identify and investigate at ISOLDE new, neutron-rich isotopes of bismuth, lead and thallium at the mass numbers A=215 to A=218. A recently tested operation mode of the PS Booster-ISOLDE complex, taking an advantage of the unique pulsed proton beam structure, will be used together with a ThC target in order to increase the selectivity. The decay properties of new nuclides will be studied by means of $\\beta$-, $\\gamma$- and X- ray spectroscopy methods. The expected information on the $\\beta$-half-lives and excited states will be used for testing and developing the nuclear structure models ``south-east'' of $^{208}$Pb, and will provide input data for the description of the r-process path at very heavy nuclei. The proposed study of the yields and the decay properties of those heavy nuclei produced in the spallation of $^{232}$Th by a 1~GeV proton beam contributes also the data necessary for the simulations of a hybrid accelerator-reactor system.

  5. Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China. (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Xuwen; Wang, Jin; Xiao, Tangfu; Chen, Diyun; Sheng, Guodong; Yin, Meiling; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thallium-201 is comparable to technetium-99m-sestamibi for estimating cardiac function in patients with abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Wu


    Full Text Available We analyzed the left-ventricular functional data obtained by cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with thallium-201 (Tl-201 and technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI protocols in different groups of patients, and compared the data between Tl-201 and MIBI. Two hundred and seventy-two patients undergoing dipyridamole stress/redistribution Tl-201 MPI and 563 patients undergoing 1-day rest/dipyridamole stress MIBI MPI were included. Higher mean stress ejection fraction (EF, rest EF, and change in EF (ΔEF were noticed in the normal MPI groups by both Tl-201 and MIBI protocols. Higher mean EF was observed in the females with normal MPI results despite their higher mean age. Comparisons between the Tl-201 and MIBI groups suggested a significant difference in all functional parameters, except for the rest end diastolic volume/end systolic volume and ΔEF between groups with negative MPI results. For the positive MPI groups, there was no significant difference in all parameters, except for the change in end diastolic volume and change in end systolic volume after stress between both protocols. The Tl-201 provides comparable left-ventricular functional data to MIBI cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with positive MPI results, and may therefore be undertaken routinely for incremental functional information that is especially valuable to this patient group.

  7. Usefulness of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy during hyperventilation and accelerated exercise test in patients with vasospastic angina and nearly normal coronary artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueda, Shozo; Mineoi, Kazuaki; Kondou, Tadashi [Takanoko Hospital, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan)] [and others


    The usefulness of thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) myocardial scintigraphy was studied in 109 patients with vasospastic angina who had nearly normal coronary arteries (degree of stenosis <50%). Coronary spasm was confirmed by pharmacologic agents in all 109 patients from January 1991 to June 1996. The appearance rate of visual redistribution on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigraphy was compared between four groups, 34 patients performing graded bicycle ergometer exercise starting at a work load of 50 W with increments of 25 W every 3 min (Ergo(3) group), 14 patients performing hyperventilation for 5 min (HV(5) group), 31 patients performing bicycle ergometer exercise with increments of 25 W every 1 min after 5 min hyperventilation (HV(5)+Ergo(1) group), and 30 patients at rest (Rest group). The value of the visual redistribution rate on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigrams in the HV(5)+Ergo(l) group (65%) was higher than that in the patients of other groups (Ergo(3) 41%, HV(5) 43%, Rest 33%). However, there were no significant differences between the four groups. Stress {sup 201}Tl imaging after hyperventilation and accelerated exercise is useful to disclose ischemic evidence in about two thirds of patients with vasospastic angina and nearly normal coronary arteries, whereas about 40% of patients had visual redistribution on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigrams by performing standard procedures. (author)

  8. On-line preconcentration of ultra-trace thallium(I in water samples with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Asadpour


    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for the determination of Tl(I based on simultaneous sorption and preconcentration with a microcolumn packed with TiO2 nanoparticle with a high specific surface area prepared by Sonochemical synthesis prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. The optimum experimental parameters for preconcentration of thallium, such as elution condition, pH, and sample volume and flow rate have been investigated. Tl(I can be quantitatively retained by TiO2 nanoparticles at pH 9.0, then eluted completely with 1.0 mol L−1 HCl. The adsorption capacity of TiO2 nanoparticles for Tl(I was found to be 25 mg g−1. Also detection limit, precision (RSD, n = 8 and enrichment factor for Tl(I were 87 ng L−1, 6.4% and 100, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of trace amounts of Tl(I in some environmental water samples with satisfactory results.

  9. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy. A histopathologic correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Toru; Yanagisawa, Atsuo; Sakata, Konomi; Shimoyama, Katsuya; Yoshino, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Kyozo [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Sakata, Hitomi; Ishihara, Tadayuki


    The pathomorphologic mechanism responsible for abnormal perfusion imaging during thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 201}Tl-SPECT) in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) was investigated. Hearts from 7 patients with DMD were evaluated histopathologically at autopsy and the results correlated with findings on initial and delayed resting {sup 201}Tl-SPECT images. The location of segments with perfusion defects correlated with the histopathologically abnormal segments in the hearts. Both the extent and degree of myocardial fibrosis were severe, especially in the posterolateral segment of the left ventricle. Severe transmural fibrosis and severe fatty infiltration were common in segments with perfusion defects. In areas of redistribution, the degree of fibrosis appeared to be greater than in areas of normal perfusion; and intermuscular edema was prominent. Thus, the degree and extent of perfusion defects detected by {sup 201}Tl-SPECT were compatible with the histopathology. The presence of the redistribution phenomenon may indicate ongoing fibrosis. Initial and delayed resting {sup 201}Tl-SPECT images can predict the site and progress of myocardial degeneration in patients with DMD. (author)

  10. Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle Effects of Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) (United States)

    McBee, Joshua


    Carbonyl Sulfide(OCS) is considered to be one of the major sources of sulfur appearing in the stratosphere due to its relative inertness, about I to 10 yearsl. However, the roles of OCS as well as other reduced sulfur compounds such as carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and dimethyl disulfide(CH3)2S2, are not completely understood in the atmosphenc sulfur cycle. Consequently vely little information is available about the effect of sulfur compounds in the stratosphere. The ability of OCS to penetrate into the stratosphere makes it an excellent tracer for study of the role of the sulfi r cycle in stratospheric chemistry. Previously techniques such as gas chromatography and whole air sampling have been used to measure OCS analytically. Each technique had its drawbacks however, with both being quite slow, and whole air sampling being somewhat unreliable. With molecular spectroscopy, however, it has been found in recent years that the tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDL) provides a very rapid and accurate method of measuring OCS and other trace gases

  11. Synthesis and structural studies of copper sulfide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ajibade


    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and structural studies of copper sulfide nanocrystals from copper(II dithiocarbamate single molecule precursors. The optical studies of the as-prepared copper sulfide nanoparticles were carried out using UV–Visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show absorption band edges at 287 nm and exhibit considerable blue shift that could be ascribed to the quantum confinement effects as a result of the small crystallite sizes of the nanoparticles and the photoluminescence spectra show emission curves that are red shifted with respect to the absorption band edges. The structural studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The XRD patterns revealed the formation of hexagonal structure of covellite CuS with estimated crystallite sizes of 17.3–18.6 nm. The TEM images showed particles with almost spherical or rod shapes with average crystallite sizes of 3–9.8 nm. SEM images showed morphology with ball-like microsphere on the surfaces and EDS spectra confirmed the presence of CuS nanoparticles.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide toxicity in a thermal spring: a fatal outcome. (United States)

    Daldal, Hale; Beder, Bayram; Serin, Simay; Sungurtekin, Hulya


    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a toxic gas with the smells of "rotten egg"; its toxic effects are due to the blocking of cellular respiratory enzymes leading to cell anoxia and cell damage. We report two cases with acute H(2)S intoxication caused by inhalation of H(2)S evaporated from the water of a thermal spring. Two victims were found in a hotel room were they could take a thermal bath. A 26-year-old male was found unconscious; he was resuscitated, received supportive treatment and survived. A 25-year-old female was found dead. Autopsy showed diffuse edema and pulmonary congestion. Toxicological blood analysis of the female revealed the following concentrations: 0.68 mg/L sulfide and 0.21 mmol/L thiosulfate. The urine thiosulfate concentration was normal. Forensic investigation established that the thermal water was coming from the hotel's own illegal well. The hotel was closed. This report highlights the danger of H(2)S toxicity not only for reservoir and sewer cleaners, but also for individuals bathing in thermal springs.

  13. Chemical precursors to zinc sulfide: ZnS whisker synthesis (United States)

    Guiton, T. A.; Czekaj, C. L.; Rau, M. S.; Geoffroy, G. L.; Pantano, C. G.


    Currently, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) derived zinc sulfide is one of the most widely used infrared optical window materials. Unfortunately, for numerous applications it does not possess optimum mechanical properties. To fabricate infrared transmitting ZnS/ZnS composites requires the development of high aspect ratio, micron sized ZnS whiskers. Although larger ZnS single crystals and whiskers have been made by a variety of high temperature routes, alternative routes have been sought for greater ZnS whisker morphology control. Low temperature organometallic routes are attractive for this purpose. The precursor compound used in this study is the known pentameric species (EtZn(SBut))5. One of the most successful routes involves the reaction of (EtZn(SBU sup t))5 with hydrogen sulfide at ambient or sub-ambient temperature to yield a precipitate which is subsequently heated under flowing H2S at 500 C to yield a mixture of sub-micron particles and single-crystal ZnS whiskers. Transmission electron micrographs of the (EtZn(SBU sup t))5 products indicate that the ZnS morphology is critically dependent on the rate of H2S reaction. Corresponding X-ray/electron diffraction, electron microscopy, elemental analysis, NMR and infrared spectroscopies have been conducted. A summary of the chemical methods, product characterization results, and proposed synthesis mechanisms are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ushakova


    Full Text Available The method of X-ray structural analysis (X-ray scattering at small angles is used to show that the structures obtained by self-organization on a substrate of lead sulfide (PbS quantum dots are ordered arrays. Self-organization of quantum dots occurs at slow evaporation of solvent from a cuvette. The cuvette is a thin layer of mica with teflon ring on it. The positions of peaks in SAXS pattern are used to calculate crystal lattice of obtained ordered structures. Such structures have a primitive orthorhombic crystal lattice. Calculated lattice parameters are: a = 21,1 (nm; b = 36,2 (nm; c = 62,5 (nm. Dimensions of structures are tens of micrometers. The spectral properties of PbS QDs superstructures and kinetic parameters of their luminescence are investigated. Absorption band of superstructures is broadened as compared to the absorption band of the quantum dots in solution; the luminescence band is slightly shifted to the red region of the spectrum, while its bandwidth is not changed much. Luminescence lifetime of obtained structures has been significantly decreased in comparison with the isolated quantum dots in solution, but remained the same for the lead sulfide quantum dots close-packed ensembles. Such superstructures can be used to produce solar cells with improved characteristics.

  15. Hydrogen attack - Influence of hydrogen sulfide. [on carbon steel (United States)

    Eliezer, D.; Nelson, H. G.


    An experimental study is conducted on 12.5-mm-thick SAE 1020 steel (plain carbon steel) plate to assess hydrogen attack at room temperature after specimen exposure at 525 C to hydrogen and a blend of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen at a pressure of 3.5 MN/sq m for exposure times up to 240 hr. The results are discussed in terms of tensile properties, fissure formation, and surface scales. It is shown that hydrogen attack from a high-purity hydrogen environment is severe, with the formation of numerous methane fissures and bubbles along with a significant reduction in the room-temperature tensile yield and ultimate strengths. However, no hydrogen attack is observed in the hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide blend environment, i.e. no fissure or bubble formation occurred and the room-temperature tensile properties remained unchanged. It is suggested that the observed porous discontinuous scale of FeS acts as a barrier to hydrogen entry, thus reducing its effective equilibrium solubility in the iron lattice. Therefore, hydrogen attack should not occur in pressure-vessel steels used in many coal gasification processes.

  16. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.


    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  17. Anoxic Transformations of Radiolabeled Hydrogen-Sulfide in Marine and Fresh-Water Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    oxidation to sulfate. Thiosulfate was partly turned over by oxidation or disproportionation and was found to be an intermediate in the (SO4=)-S-35 formation. The results demonstrate that oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling may occur simultaneously in marine and freshwater sediments. When added......Radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide (HS-)-S-35 was used to trace the anoxic sulfur transformations in marine and freshwater sediment slurries. Time course studies consistently showed a rapid (S2O3=)-S-35 formation and a progressive accumulation of (SO4=)-S-35 and thus indicated an anoxic sulfide...... as exogenous oxidant, nitrate (NO3-) stimulated the anoxic sulfide oxidation to sulfate. Ferric iron, added in the form of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH), caused the precipitation of iron sulfides and only partial sulfide oxidation to pyrite and elemental sulfur....

  18. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples. (United States)

    Thorson, Megan K; Ung, Phuc; Leaver, Franklin M; Corbin, Teresa S; Tuck, Kellie L; Graham, Bim; Barrios, Amy M


    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of sulfides on the tribological properties of composites produced by pulse electric current sintering (United States)

    Kim, Seung Ho


    Self-lubricating Al2O3-15wt% ZrO2 composites with sulfides, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) serving as solid lubricants, were fabricated by using the pulse electric current sintering (PECS) technique. The coefficient of friction (COF) of the Al2O3-15wt% ZrO2 composite without/with sulfides was in the range of 0.37-0.48 and 0.27-0.49, respectively. As the amount of sulfides increased, the COF and the wear rate decreased. The reduction in COF and wear rate of the sulfide-containing composite is caused by a reduction in shear stresses between the specimen and the tribological medium due to the formation of a lubricating film resulting from the lamellar structure of sulfides located on the worn surface.

  20. Repulsive Interaction of Sulfide Layers on Compressor Impeller Blades Remanufactured Through Plasma Spray Welding (United States)

    Chang, Y.; Zhou, D.; Wang, Y. L.; Huang, H. H.


    This study investigated the repulsive interaction of sulfide layers on compressor impeller blades remanufactured through plasma spray welding (PSW). Sulfide layers on the blades made of FV(520)B steel were prepared through multifarious corrosion experiments, and PSW was utilized to remanufacture blade specimens. The specimens were evaluated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, 3D surface topography, x-ray diffraction, ImageJ software analysis, Vicker's micro-hardness test and tensile tests. Results showed a large number of sulfide inclusions in the fusion zone generated by sulfide layers embodied into the molten pool during PSW. These sulfide inclusions seriously degraded the mechanical performance of the blades remanufactured through PSW.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-juan Li


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X 7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X 7 receptors.

  2. Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses assessed by stable sulfur isotopes—a synthesis of current results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald


    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses, as assessed by stable sulfur isotope signals, is widespread in all climate zones, where seagrasses are growing. Seagrasses can incorporate substantial amounts of 34S-depleted sulfide into their tissues with up to 87% of the total sulfur in leaves derived from...... sedimentary sulfide. Correlations between δ34S in leaves, rhizomes, and roots show that sedimentary sulfide is entering through the roots, either in the form of sulfide or sulfate, and translocated to the rhizomes and the leaves. The total sulfur content of the seagrasses increases as the proportion...... in sulfur in the tissue, and other sulfur containing compounds such as thiols, organic sulfur, and sulfate contribute to the accumulated sulfur pool. Experimental studies with seagrasses exposed to environmental and biological stressors show decreasing δ34S in the tissues along with reduction in growth...

  3. Finding Massive Sulfides at Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Barckhausen, Udo; Dressel, Ingo; Ehrhardt, Axel; Heyde, Ingo; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schwalenberg, Katrin


    The formation of Polymetallic Massive Sulfides is connected to hydrothermal activity concentrated in small areas close to mid-ocean ridges. Other geological settings of hydrothermal activity exist of course (like backarcs), but these are typically not located in The Area and therefore not under the regime of the International Seabed Authority (ISA). The ISA grants license areas for mineral exploration of up to 100 blocks of 10 km x 10 km size. The areas in which Polymetallic Massive Sulfides are exposed on the seafloor are tiny compared to the size of the license areas (typically in the order of 100-200m in diameter), and until recently were in most cases detected only be chance. For localizing and investigating Polymetallic Massive Sulfide deposits, geophysical methods are used at a wide range of scales. Ship-mounted overview surveys include multibeam bathymetry, magnetic and gravity measurements and are supplemented with high density sea surface investigations, and deep tow surveys close to the seafloor. Once a Massive Sulfide deposit has been surmised, ROV based video observations and measurements directly at the seafloor are used to confirm the deposit. It turns out that hydrothermal vent sites ("Black Smokers") near mid-ocean ridges are far more common than previously thought, however, due to their small size and location in rugged terrain in the deep sea they are not easy to find. Even though we have no full understanding yet of the geologic and tectonic settings in which long lasting hydrothermal systems can develop, the hydrothermal vent fields known so far seem to have some characteristics in common which can be used to define promising areas on the basis of the bathymetric overview maps. At a dense line spacing of 2.5 km, distinct magnetic anomalies can be observed in surface towed data which are connected to known hydrothermal vent fields. This means that similar magnetic anomalies observed in other places are potential sites of recent or former

  4. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release...) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service... otherwise use hydrogen sulfide. Potentially affected categories and entities may include, but are not...

  5. Magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide mineralization of the Huangshannan mafic-untramafic intrusion, Eastern Tianshan, China (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, YongQiang; Ke, Junjun


    The Huangshannan Ni-Cu (-PGE) sulfide deposit, a new discovery from geological prospecting in Eastern Tianshan, is in a belt of magmatic Ni-Cu (-PGE) sulfide deposits along the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The host intrusion of the Huangshannan deposit is composed of a layered ultramafic sequence and a massive gabbro-diorite unit. The major sulfide orebodies occur mainly within websterite and lherzolite in the layered ultramafic sequence. In-situ zircon U-Pb dating analyses yielded a crystallization age of 282.5 ± 1.4 Ma, similar to the ages of the Permian Tarim mantle plume. Samples from the Huangshannan intrusion are characterized by nearly flat rare earth elements patterns, negative Zr, Ti and Nb anomalies, arc-like Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios, and significantly lower rare earth element and immobile trace element contents than the Tarim basalts. These characteristics suggest that the Huangshannan intrusion was not generated from the Tarim mantle plume. The primary magma for the Huangshannan intrusion and its associated sulfide mineralization were formed from different pulses of picritic magma with different degrees of crustal contamination. The first pulse underwent an initial removal of 0.016% sulfide in the deep magma chamber. The evolved magma reached sulfide saturation again in the shallow magma chamber and formed sulfide ores in lherzolite. The second pulse of magma reached a level of 0.022% sulfide segregation at staging chamber before ascending up to the shallow magma chamber. In the shallow conduit system, this sulfide-unsaturated magma mixed with the first pulse of magma and with contamination from the country rocks, leading to the formation of sulfide ores in websterite. The third magma pulse from the deep chamber formed the unmineralized massive gabbro-diorite unit of the Huangshannan intrusion.

  6. Energy metabolism and metabolomics response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to sulfide toxicity. (United States)

    Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Suo, Yantong; Xu, Zhixin; Jia, Yongyi; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Gu, Zhimin


    The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC50 at 96h was used to test the metabolic responses of L. vannamei for 21days. The chronic exposure of shrimp to a higher sulfide concentration of 851μg/L decreased shrimp survival but did not affect weight gain or the hepatopancreas index. The glycogen content in the hepatopancreas and muscle and the activity of hepatopancreas cytochrome C oxidase of the shrimp exposed to all sulfide concentrations were significantly lower, and the serum glucose and lactic acid levels and lactic acid dehydrogenase activity were significantly lower than those in the control. Metabolomics assays showed that shrimp exposed to sulfide had lower amounts of serum pyruvic acid, succinic acid, glycine, alanine, and proline in the 425.5μg/L group and phosphate, succinic acid, beta-alanine, serine, and l-histidine in the 851μg/L group than in the control. Chronic sulfide exposure could disturb protein synthesis in shrimp but enhance gluconeogenesis and substrate absorption for ATP synthesis and tricarboxylic acid cycles to provide extra energy to cope with sulfide stress. Chronic sulfide exposure could adversely affect the health status of L. vannamei, as indicated by the high amounts of serum n-ethylmaleamic acid, pyroglutamic acid, aspartic acid and phenylalanine relative to the control. This study indicates that chronic exposure of shrimp to sulfide can decrease health and lower survival through functional changes in gluconeogenesis, protein synthesis and energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transition of Blast Furnace Slag from Silicate Based to Aluminate Based: Sulfide Capacity (United States)

    Yan, Zhiming; Lv, Xuewei; Pang, Zhengde; He, Wenchao; Liang, Dong; Bai, Chenguang


    The effect of Al2O3 and Al2O3/SiO2 ratio on the sulfide capacity of the molten aluminosilicate CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-TiO2 slag system with high Al2O3 content was measured at 1773 K (1500 °C) using a metal-slag equilibration method. The sulfide capacity between silicate-based and aluminate-based slag was also compared based on the thermodynamic analysis and structural characteristics of melts. At a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1.20, the sulfide capacity decreases with increasing Al2O3 content primarily due to the decrease of free oxygen (FO) and the activity of O2-. Increasing the Al2O3/SiO2 ratio from 0.47 to 0.79 causes a significant increase in the sulfide capacity of the slags, and a slight increase is found when the Al2O3/SiO2 ratio is more than 0.79. The effect of the substitution of silica by alumina on the sulfide capacity of the slags was not only due to an increase in the activity of basic oxides ( a_{{{O}^{2 - } }} ) but also to a decrease in the stability of sulfide ( γ_{{{S}^{2 - } }} ). Moreover, a_{{{O}^{2 - } }} and γ_{{{S}^{2 - } }} increase in a similar degree, and the weaker binding electronegativity of Al3+ with oxygen atoms results in a slight increase in the final sulfide capacity in the aluminate-based slag system with Al2O3 ↔ SiO2 substitution. Five different sulfide capacity models were employed to predict the sulfide capacity, and the iso-sulfide capacity distribution diagram based on the Young's model was obtained in the high Al2O3 corner of the diagram.

  8. Nitrosopersulfide (SSNO− accounts for sustained NO bioactivity of S-nitrosothiols following reaction with sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott


    Full Text Available Sulfide salts are known to promote the release of nitric oxide (NO from S-nitrosothiols and potentiate their vasorelaxant activity, but much of the cross-talk between hydrogen sulfide and NO is believed to occur via functional interactions of cell regulatory elements such as phosphodiesterases. Using RFL-6 cells as an NO reporter system we sought to investigate whether sulfide can also modulate nitrosothiol-mediated soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC activation following direct chemical interaction. We find a U-shaped dose response relationship where low sulfide concentrations attenuate sGC stimulation by S-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP and cyclic GMP levels are restored at equimolar ratios. Similar results are observed when intracellular sulfide levels are raised by pre-incubation with the sulfide donor, GYY4137. The outcome of direct sulfide/nitrosothiol interactions also critically depends on molar reactant ratios and is accompanied by oxygen consumption. With sulfide in excess, a ‘yellow compound’ accumulates that is indistinguishable from the product of solid-phase transnitrosation of either hydrosulfide or hydrodisulfide and assigned to be nitrosopersulfide (perthionitrite, SSNO−; λmax 412 nm in aqueous buffers, pH 7.4; 448 nm in DMF. Time-resolved chemiluminescence and UV–visible spectroscopy analyses suggest that its generation is preceded by formation of the short-lived NO-donor, thionitrite (SNO−. In contrast to the latter, SSNO− is rather stable at physiological pH and generates both NO and polysulfides on decomposition, resulting in sustained potentiation of SNAP-induced sGC stimulation. Thus, sulfide reacts with nitrosothiols to form multiple bioactive products; SSNO− rather than SNO− may account for some of the longer-lived effects of nitrosothiols and contribute to sulfide and NO signaling.

  9. Formation of arsenic sulfide on GaAs surface under illumination in acidified thiourea electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khader, Mahmoud M., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. 2713, Doha (Qatar); AlJaber, Amina S. [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. 2713, Doha (Qatar)


    The present article reports the formation of arsenic sulfide films on GaAs by the potentiodynamic polarization in acidified thiourea (TU) electrolytes under photo-illumination. Oxidation of TU competes with the oxidation of GaAs itself and leads to the formation of surface arsenic-sulfide films. Surface chemical composition is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), demonstrating the formation of As-sulfide as the XPS peaks at binding energies of 42.6 and 162.5 eV for As 3d and S 2p, respectively, are observed. XPS results also show diminishing of Ga species from the surface while As-sulfide is forming. Though, As-sulfide is predominantly formed on the surface, but the inductive coupling plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis still shows a preferential dissolution of As ions into electrolytes. These results indicate that Ga ions diffuse into the bulk of the electrode material. The formation of As-sulfide, initially, enhances the photocurrent generation; presumably, due to suppressing electron-hole recombination processes. Further deposition of As-sulfide deteriorates GaAs photoactivity due to retarding light absorptivity because of depositing a thick As-sulfide film. The morphology of the As-sulfide film is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that shows the formation of smooth and nonporous films in TU electrolytes acidified by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of concentration {>=}0.2 M. Electrochemical impedance measurements show that GaAs corrosion is limited by the growth and oxidation of the sulfide layer.

  10. Reactive Precipitation of Anhydrous Alkali Sulfide Nanocrystals with Concomitant Abatement of Hydrogen Sulfide and Cogeneration of Hydrogen. (United States)

    Li, Xuemin; Zhao, Yangzhi; Brennan, Alice; McCeig, Miranda; Wolden, Colin A; Yang, Yongan


    Anhydrous alkali sulfide (M 2 S, M=Li or Na) nanocrystals (NCs) are important materials central to the development of next generation cathodes and solid-state electrolytes for advanced batteries, but not commercially available at present. This work reports an innovative method to directly synthesize M 2 S NCs through alcohol-mediated reactions between alkali metals and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). In the first step, the alkali metal is complexed with alcohol in solution, forming metal alkoxide (ROM) and releasing hydrogen (H 2 ). Next, H 2 S is bubbled through the ROM solution, where both chemicals are completely consumed to produce phase-pure M 2 S NC precipitates and regenerate alcohol that can be recycled. The M 2 S NCs morphology may be tuned through the choice of the alcohol and solvent. Both synthetic steps are thermodynamically favorable (ΔG m o <-100 kJ mol -1 ), proceeding rapidly to completion at ambient temperature with almost 100 % atom efficiency. The net result, H 2 S+2 m→M 2 S+H 2 , makes good use of a hazardous chemical (H 2 S) and delivers two value-added products that naturally phase separate for easy recovery. This scalable approach provides an energy-efficient and environmentally benign solution to the production of nanostructured materials required in emerging battery technologies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Response of gut health and microbiota to sulfide exposure in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. (United States)

    Suo, Yantong; Li, Erchao; Li, Tongyu; Jia, Yongyi; Qin, Jian G; Gu, Zhimin; Chen, Liqiao


    Sulfide is a natural and widely distributed toxicant. It can be commonly found on the interface between water and sediment in the aquatic environment. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei starts life in the benthic zone soon after the mysis stage, an early stage of post larvae. Therefore, L. vannamei is inevitably affected by exposure to sulfide released from pond sediment. This study explored the toxicant effect of different concentrations of sulfide on the intestinal health and microbiota of Pacific white shrimp by monitoring the change of expression of inflammatory, immune related cytokines, and the structure of the intestinal microbiota. The gut histology, expressions of inflammatory and immune related cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-type lectin 3, myostatin and heat shock transcription factor 1), and the microbiota were determined in L. vannamei after exposure to 0 (control), 425.5 (1/10 LC 50-96 h), and 851 μg/L (1/5 LC 50-96 h) of sulfide for 21 days. With the increase of sulfide concentration, intestinal injury was aggravated and the inflammatory and immune related cytokines generated a range of reactions. The expression of myostatin (MSTN) was significantly down-regulated by the concentration of sulfide exposure. No difference in the expression of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) was found between the control and shrimp exposed to 425.5 μg/L, but significantly higher HSF1 expression was found in shrimp exposed to 851 μg/L of sulfide. Significantly higher values of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and C-type lectin 3 (CTL3) were found in the shrimp exposed to 425.5 μg/L of sulfide compared to the control, but a lower value was found in the shrimp exposed to 851 μg/L (P Sulfide also changed the intestinal microbial communities. The abundance of pathogenic bacteria, such as Cyanobacteria, Vibrio and Photobacterium, increased significantly with exposure to the increasing concentration of sulfide. The abundance of

  12. Remediation of Cd-contaminated soil around metal sulfide mines (United States)

    Lu, Xinzhe; Hu, Xuefeng; Kang, Zhanjun; Luo, Fan


    The mines of metal sulfides are widely distributed in the southwestern part of Zhejiang Province, Southeast China. The activities of mining, however, often lead to the severe pollution of heavy metals in soils, especially Cd contamination. According to our field investigations, the spatial distribution of Cd-contaminated soils is highly consistent with the presence of metal sulfide mines in the areas, further proving that the mining activities are responsible for Cd accumulation in the soils. To study the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils, a paddy field nearby large sulfide mines, with soil pH 6 and Cd more than 1.56 mg kg-1, five times higher than the national recommended threshold, was selected. Plastic boards were deeply inserted into soil to separate the field and make experimental plots, with each plot being 4 m×4 m. Six treatments, TK01˜TK06, were designed to study the effects of different experimental materials on remediating Cd-contaminated soils. The treatment of TK01 was the addition of 100 kg zeolites to the plot; TK02, 100 kg apatites; TK03, 100 kg humid manure; TK04, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg apatites; TK05, 50 kg zeolites + 50 kg humid manure; TK06 was blank control (CK). One month after the treatments, soil samples at the plots were collected to study the possible change of chemical forms of Cd in the soils. The results indicated that these treatments reduced the content of available Cd in the soils effectively, by a decreasing sequence of TK04 (33%) > TK02 (25%) > TK01 (23%) > TK05 (22%) > TK03 (15%), on the basis of CK. Correspondingly, the treatments also reduced the content of Cd in rice grains significantly, by a similar decreasing sequence of TK04 (83%) > TK02 (77%) > TK05 (63%) > TK01 (47%) > TK03 (27%). The content of Cd in the rice grains was 0.071 mg kg-1, 0.094 mg kg-1, 0.159 mg kg-1, 0.22 mg kg-1 and 0.306 mg kg-1, respectively, compared with CK, 0.418 mg kg-1. This experiment suggested that the reduction of available Cd in the soils is

  13. Nitrogen release from forest soils containing sulfide-bearing sediments (United States)

    Maileena Nieminen, Tiina; Merilä, Päivi; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa


    Soils containing sediments dominated by metal sulfides cause high acidity and release of heavy metals, when excavated or drained, as the aeration of these sediments causes formation of sulfuric acid. Consequent leaching of acidity and heavy metals can kill tree seedlings and animals such as fish, contaminate water, and corrode concrete and steel. These types of soils are called acid sulfate soils. Their metamorphic equivalents, such as sulfide rich black shales, pose a very similar risk of acidity and metal release to the environment. Until today the main focus in treatment of the acid sulfate soils has been to prevent acidification and metal toxicity to agricultural crop plants, and only limited attention has been paid to the environmental threat caused by the release of acidity and heavy metals to the surrounding water courses. Even less attention is paid on release of major nutrients, such as nitrogen, although these sediments are extremely rich in carbon and nitrogen and present a potentially high microbiological activity. In Europe, the largest cover of acid sulfate soils is found in coastal lowlands of Finland. Estimates of acid sulfate soils in agricultural use range from 1 300 to 3 000 km2, but the area in other land use classes, such as managed peatland forests, is presumably larger. In Finland, 49 500 km2 of peatlands have been drained for forestry, and most of these peatland forests will be at the regeneration stage within 10 to 30 years. As ditch network maintenance is often a prerequisite for a successful establishment of the following tree generation, the effects of maintenance operations on the quality of drainage water should be under special control in peatlands underlain by sulfide-bearing sediments. Therefore, identification of risk areas and effective prevention of acidity and metal release during drain maintenance related soil excavating are great challenges for forestry on coastal lowlands of Finland. The organic and inorganic nitrogen

  14. Apparatus and method for purging hydrogen sulfide gases from well water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwall, J.A.


    An apparatus and method of ridding objectionable hydrogen sulfide gases from well water before pumping the water from the well is provided, wherein the water at the water table level in the well is aerated, causing turbulence in the well water, and facilitating the escape of hydrogen sulfide gases to the atmosphere. The apparatus (10) for ridding hydrogen sulfide gases from well water comprises means (16) for pumping well water (19) under pressure to a water delivery system of an edifice (30, 33), additional means (38) associated with the pumping means (16) for delivering a relatively small portion of the well water under pressure to the well water (19) in the well (12) to cause turbulence in the water to facilitate the escape of hydrogen sulfide gases from the well water, and further means (13) to vent the freed hydrogen sulfide gases to the atmosphere. The process for carrying out the invention comprises the steps of: pumping water under pressure from a well to a water delivery system, delivering a relatively small portion of water under pressure to the surface of the water in the well, causing turbulence in the well water to facilitate release of hydrogen sulfide gases from the well water, and venting the released hydrogen sulfide gases to the atmosphere.

  15. Effects of Sulfide Concentration and Dissolved Organic Matter Characteristics on the Structure of Nanocolloidal Metacinnabar. (United States)

    Poulin, Brett A; Gerbig, Chase A; Kim, Christopher; Stegemeier, John P; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R


    Understanding the speciation of divalent mercury (Hg(II)) in aquatic systems containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sulfide is necessary to predict the conversion of Hg(II) to bioavailable methylmercury. We used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize the structural order of mercury in Hg(II)-DOM-sulfide systems for a range of sulfide concentration (1-100 µM), DOM aromaticity (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254)), and Hg(II)-DOM and Hg(II)-DOM-sulfide equilibration times (4-142 h). In all systems, Hg(II) was present as structurally-disordered nanocolloidal metacinnabar (β-HgS). β-HgS nanocolloids were significantly smaller or less ordered at lower sulfide concentration, as indicated by under-coordination of Hg(II) in β-HgS. The size or structural order of β-HgS nanocolloids increased with increasing sulfide abundance and decreased with increasing SUVA254 of the DOM. The Hg(II)-DOM or Hg(II)-DOM-sulfide equilibration times did not significantly influence the extent of structural order in nanocolloidal β-HgS. Geochemical factors that control the structural order of nanocolloidal β-HgS, which are expected to influence nanocolloid surface reactivity and solubility, should be considered in the context of mercury bioavailability.

  16. A novel biological approach on extracellular synthesis and characterization of semiconductor zinc sulfide nanoparticles (United States)

    Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Annadurai, Gurusamy


    The expansion of reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticle is an important step in the emerging field of biomedical nanotechnology. In this communication, the zinc sulfide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized by using Serratia nematodiphila which was isolated from chemical company effluent. The surface plasmon resonance centered at 390 nm on the UV spectrum indicates the presence of zinc sulfide nanoparticles in the reaction mixture ( S. nematodiphila and zinc sulfate); EDAX analysis also confirmed the presence of zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope image showed that the synthesized zinc sulfide nanoparticles were spherical in nature and nanoparticles of about 80 nm in size were obtained from transmission electron microscope images. The peaks in the XRD spectrum corresponding to (111), (220) and (311) show that the zinc sulfide nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy shows the functional groups of the nanoparticle in the range of 4,000-400 cm-1. Further, the antibacterial activity of zinc sulfide nanoparticles was examined against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella planticola. The maximum zone of inhibition occurred at 200 μl of silver nanoparticles. Due to potent antimicrobial and intrinsic properties of zinc sulfide, it is actively used for biomedical and food packaging applications.

  17. Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in a microbial mat from an anoxic and sulfidic spring. (United States)

    de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Chennu, Arjun; Hamilton, Trinity; Lott, Christian; Macalady, Jennifer; M Klatt, Judith


    Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were studied with microsensors in microbial mats found at 9-10 m depth in anoxic and sulfidic water in Little Salt Spring (Florida, USA). The lake sediments were covered with a 1-2 mm thick red mat dominated by filamentous Cyanobacteria, below which Green Sulfur Bacteria (GSB, Chlorobiaceae) were highly abundant. Within 4 mm inside the mats, the incident radiation was attenuated to undetectable levels. In situ microsensor data showed both oxygenic photosynthesis in the red surface layer and light-induced sulfide dynamics up to 1 cm depth. Anoxygenic photosynthesis occurred during all daylight hours, with complete sulfide depletion around midday. Oxygenic photosynthesis was limited to 4 h per day, due to sulfide inhibition in the early morning and late afternoon. Laboratory measurements on retrieved samples showed that oxygenic photosynthesis was fully but reversibly inhibited by sulfide. In patches Fe(III) alleviated the inhibition of oxygenic photosynthesis by sulfide. GSB were resistant to oxygen and showed a low affinity to sulfide. Their light response showed saturation at very low intensities. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fulvic acid-sulfide ion competition for mercury ion binding in the Florida everglades (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Aiken, G.R.


    Negatively charged functional groups of fulvic acid compete with inorganic sulfide ion for mercury ion binding. This competition is evaluated here by using a discrete site-electrostatic model to calculate mercury solution speciation in the presence of fulvic acid. Model calculated species distributions are used to estimate a mercury-fulvic acid apparent binding constant to quantify fulvic acid and sulfide ion competition for dissolved inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) ion binding. Speciation calculations done with PHREEQC, modified to use the estimated mercury-fulvic acid apparent binding constant, suggest that mercury-fulvic acid and mercury-sulfide complex concentrations are equivalent for very low sulfide ion concentrations (about 10-11 M) in Everglades' surface water. Where measurable total sulfide concentration (about 10-7 M or greater) is present in Everglades' surface water, mercury-sulfide complexes should dominate dissolved inorganic mercury solution speciation. In the absence of sulfide ion (for example, in oxygenated Everglades' surface water), fulvic acid binding should dominate Everglades' dissolved inorganic mercury speciation.

  19. In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Soflaei


    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5 were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25 μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations.

  20. Reduction of bromate by biogenic sulfide produced during microbial sulfur disproportionation. (United States)

    Chairez, Monserrat; Luna-Velasco, Antonia; Field, Jim A; Ju, Xiumin; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes


    Bromate (BrO(3) (-)) is a carcinogenic contaminant formed during ozonation of waters that contain trace amounts of bromide. Previous research shows that bromate can be microbially reduced to bromide using organic (i.e. acetate, glucose, ethanol) and inorganic (H(2)) electron-donating substrates. In this study, the reduction of bromate by a mixed microbial culture was investigated using elemental sulfur (S(0)) as an electron donor. In batch bioassays performed at 30 degrees C, bromate (0.30 mM) was completely converted to bromide after 10 days and no accumulation of intermediates occurred. Bromate was also reduced in cultures supplemented with thiosulfate and hydrogen sulfide as electron donor. Our results demonstrated that S(0)-disproportionating microorganisms were responsible for the reduction of bromate in cultures spiked with S(0) through an indirect mechanism involving microbial formation of sulfide and subsequent abiotic reduction of bromate by the biogenic sulfide. Confirmation of this mechanism is the fact that bromate was shown to undergo rapid chemical reduction by sulfide (but not S(0) or thiosulfate) in abiotic experiments. Bromate concentrations above 0.30 mM inhibited sulfide formation by S(0)-disproportionating bacteria, leading to a decrease in the rate of bromate reduction. The results suggest that biological formation of sulfide from by S(0) disproportionation could support the chemical removal of bromate without having to directly use sulfide as a reagent.

  1. Iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and single photon emission computed tomography in identifying left ventricular regional metabolic abnormalities in patients with coronary heart disease: comparison with thallium-201 myocardial tomography. (United States)

    Hansen, C L; Corbett, J R; Pippin, J J; Jansen, D E; Kulkarni, P V; Ugolini, V; Henderson, E; Akers, M; Buja, L M; Parkey, R W


    Iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is a synthetic long chain fatty acid with myocardial kinetics similar to palmitate. Two hypotheses were tested in this study. The first hypothesis was that IPPA imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful in the identification of patients with coronary artery disease. Fourteen normal volunteers (aged 27 +/- 2 years) and 33 patients (aged 54 +/- 11 years) with stable symptomatic coronary artery disease and at least one major coronary artery with luminal diameter narrowing greater than or equal to 70% were studied with symptom-limited maximal exercise testing. The IPPA (6 to 8 mCi) was injected 1 min before the termination of exercise, and tomographic imaging was performed beginning at 9 min and repeated at 40 min after the injection of IPPA. Nine of the normal volunteers and 13 of the patients had a second examination performed at rest on another day. Using the limits of normal as 2 SD from the normal mean values, 27 of the 33 patients with coronary artery disease demonstrated abnormalities in either the initial distribution or the clearance of IPPA, or both. Nineteen of the 33 patients had a maximal variation of activity distribution of greater than or equal to 25% on the 9 min IPPA images. Twenty-two of the 33 patients had a maximal variation in IPPA washout greater than 17% and 17 had a washout rate less than or equal to 2%. There was good agreement between the location of significant coronary artery stenoses and abnormalities in the initial distribution and clearance of IPPA. The second hypothesis tested was that IPPA imaging is as or more sensitive and, therefore, complementary to thallium-201 imaging in the identification of exercise-induced ischemia in patients. Twenty-five of the 33 patients underwent both thallium-201 and IPPA tomographic imaging after symptom-limited maximal exercise testing. The amount of exercise performed by each patient during both studies was similar. Twenty

  2. Kinetics of the conversion of copper sulfide to blister copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, F.


    Full Text Available The desulfurization of copper sulfide by air and oxygen has been studied in two laboratory reactors where the gas is blown onto the melt surface. Rates of oxidation in a vertical resistance furnace may be explained by the mass transfer control in the gas phase. However, results for a horizontal tube suggest that the chemical resistance is controlling.

    La desulfuración del sulfuro cuproso con aire y oxígeno se ha estudiado en dos reactores de laboratorio, en los cuales el gas se sopla sobre la superficie del fundido. La velocidad de reacción en un horno de resistencias verticales se puede explicar considerando como controlante la resistencia a la transferencia de materia de la fase gas. Sin embargo, los resultados del horno horizontal indican que la resistencia química es la controlante.

  3. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from gaseous emissions of viscose factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, S.F.; Novinyuk, L.V.; Vol' f, L.A.; Emets, L.V.


    This study was devoted to absorption of H/sub 2/S present in concentrations from 0.1 to 1.2 g/m/sup 3/ in the gas phase. It was shown in this investigation of mass transfer that in a coflow absorber with packing of needle-perforated fibrous material, a 100% removal of hydrogen sulfide from the gas is achieved by such treatment. The optimal operating parameters are: alkali concentration approx. 1, liquid rate 0.2 m/sup 3//(m/sup 2/.h), gas velocity 0.15-0.20 m/sec. Further increase of these parameters is accompanied by increased spray entrainment and unproductive consumption of absorbent.

  4. Characterizing the distribution of gold in pyritic sulfide ore (United States)

    Pratt, Allen; Duke, Norm


    Auriferous pyrite is an important ore in the Green’s Creek polymetallic-sulfide deposit. Pyritic ores have textural and crystal forms that range from primitive framboidal spherules to euhedral crystals. The gold associated with the pyrite at Green’s Creek is found in concentrations at the ppmw level and necessitates the use of secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results presented in this article show gold is distributed in two ways: finely dispersed throughout a pyrite matrix and concentrated as native gold or as electrum at grain edges or along fractures. Finely dispersed gold is found in pyrite spherules and porous masses, whereas the gold “nuggets” are found in association with the crystalline pyrite. An association between gold and arsenic is observed, but the association is complex and is not necessarily congruent. The results suggest that during the maturation of pyrite containing finely dispersed gold, gold is mobilized and ultimately concentrated at grain edges as nuggets.

  5. Spectrophotometric flow injection monitoring of sulfide during sugar fermentation. (United States)

    Silva, Claudineia R; Barros, Valdemir A F; Basso, Luiz C; Zagatto, Elias A G


    A spectrophotometric flow injection procedure involving N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) is applied to the sulfide monitoring of a sugar fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under laboratory conditions. The gaseous chemical species evolving from the fermentative process, mainly CO(2), are trapped allowing a cleaned sample aliquot to be collected and introduced into the flow injection analyzer. Measurement rate, signal repeatability, detection limit and reagent consumption per measurement were estimated as 150 h(-1), 0.36% (n=20), 0.014 mg L(-1) S and 120 μg DMPD, respectively. The main characteristics of the monitoring record are discussed. The strategy is worthwhile for selecting yeast strain, increasing the industrial ethanol production and improving the quality of wines. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O


    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  7. Chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide microcrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and properties (United States)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Gao, Guanhua; Yu, Runnan; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe


    Uniform chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide (Bi 2S 3) microcrystals assembled from nanosheet building blocks were successfully synthesized via a convenient hydrothermal synthetic route under mild conditions in which hydrated bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were employed to supply Bi and S source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na 2) was employed as chelating agent. The influences of reaction temperatures and time on the morphologies of final products were investigated. The phase structures, morphologies, and properties of as-prepared products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, and photoluminescence spectra. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of chrysanthemum-like Bi 2S 3 microcrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  8. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Wang [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Chaoshu, Tang [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Health Sciences Center, Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Ministry of Education (China); Hongfang, Jin, E-mail: [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Junbao, Du, E-mail: [Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)


    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, complex, and progressive pathological process in large and medium sized arteries. The exact mechanism of this process remains unclear. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a novel gasotransmitter, was confirmed as playing a major role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. It plays a role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and apoptosis, participates in the progress of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY), inhibits atherogenic modification of LDL, interferes with vascular calcification, intervenes with platelet function, and there are interactions between H{sub 2}S and inflammatory processes. The role of H{sub 2}S in atherosclerotic pathogenesis highlights the mysteries of atherosclerosis and inspires the search for innovative therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the studies to date that have considered the role of H{sub 2}S in atherosclerosis.

  9. Microbial Oxidation of Iron Sulfides in Anaerobic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaclavkova, Sarka

    Abstract (shortened): Iron sulfides (FeSx), representing 0.04-10 % of Danish dry soil weight, oxidize in a presence of oxygen, releasing sulfuric acid and free iron. Environmental impact of FeSx oxidation is commonly seen on agricultural sites cultivated by drainage as acid sulfate soil formation....... MISON was found to count for about 1/3 of the net NO3- reduction in MISON active environments, despite the presence of alternative electron donor, organic carbon. The rate of MISON was found to be dependent on the available reactive surface area of FeSx and on the microorganism involved. The findings...... environments including sandy aquifer, freshwater peatland and moderately brackish muddy marine sediment. An apparent salinity limitation of MISON was shown in heavily brackish sediment, where FeSx oxidation was inhibited while other NO3-reduction processes did not appear to be affected by the salinity levels...

  10. [Determination of Henry's law constants for dimethyl sulfide in seawater]. (United States)

    Wang, Y H; Wong, P K


    The article presents the method of determination of Henry's Law Constant(K) for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in seawater using multiple phase equilibration/headspace gas chromatography. The method is based on the demonstration that analysis of only one phase after multiple phase equilibration give all necessary data. The values of K of DMS in seawater determined by this method was 0.089 with relative standard deviation(RSD) of 5.50% at 22 degrees C. The linear relationship between log K and w (NaCl) was log K = 0.0688.w (NaCl) - 1.3568 with correlation coefficient(r) of 0.997. The regression equation of log K against reciprocal of absolute temperature(T) was log K = -1,544.8/T + 4.2112 with r of 0.996.

  11. Cadmium sulfide nanotubes thin films: Characterization and photoelectrochemical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chenhuan, E-mail: [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yang Suolong, E-mail: [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zheng Baozhan, E-mail: [Key laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhou Ting, E-mail: [Key laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry , Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yuan Hongyan, E-mail: [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Xiao Dan, E-mail: [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry , Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)


    Monodisperse cadmium sulfide nanotubes (CdS NTs) with a diameter of 100 nm were synthesized on indium-doped tin oxide glass substrates using chemical bath deposition and self-sacrificial template technique. This CdS thin film was characterized by transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometer. This film gave a short circuit photocurrent of 4.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open circuit photovoltage of 0.75 V, a fill factor of 0.49, and an overall conversion efficiency of 1.29% under a simulated solar illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. All these photoelectrochemical properties of the films were dependent on the microstructure of the nanotubes and the thickness of the film. A facile and efficient way to prepare CdS-based photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical cells was provided in this report.

  12. Abiotic sulfide oxidation via manganese reduction fuels the deep biosphere (United States)

    Bottrell, S.; Böttcher, M. E.; Schippers, A.; Parkes, R.; Raiswell, R.


    The deep biosphere in marine sediments consists of large populations of metabolically active Bacteria and Archaea [1, 2]. Buried organic carbon is the main energy source for the deep biosphere and is anaerobically oxidized via nitrate-, Mn(IV)-, Fe(III)-, sulfate or carbonate-reduction. Sulfate reduction has been identified as the most important of these processes [3, 4] yet sulfate is typically quantitatively removed from pore waters in the upper few meters of marine sediments. A key question remains: “How is continued metabolic activity maintained in the deep biosphere?”. Buried organic carbon remains as an electron donor but the source of electron acceptors is less clear. Stable isotope compositions of sulfur and oxygen in sulfate are particularly useful in the study of biogeochemical processes and sediment-pore fluid interactions e.g. [5, 6]. Here we use stable sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions to show that the oxidant sulfate is generated by anoxic sulfide oxidation in deeply buried sediments of the Cascadia margin and Blake Ridge and controlled anoxic experiments to constrain the mechanisms involved on this reaction. Pore fluid sulfate in deep Cascadia margin and Blake Ridge sediments contained sulfur with similar isotopic composition to diagenetic sulfide in the sediment and oxygen that was depleted in 18O (in some cases depleted in 18O relative to pore water). Experiments with Mn(IV)-containing oxides confirmed that these can abiotically oxidize iron sulfides and also produce sulfate depleted in 18O relative to water. In another set of anoxic experiments, pyrite was mixed with different Fe(III) minerals. Crucially, experiments with synthesized pure Fe(III) minerals produced no sulfate but identical experiments with natural Fe(III) minerals containing trace Mn did. Sulfate concentrations in solution were stoichiometrically balanced by Mn concentrations, showing trace Mn(IV) in the natural minerals to be the oxidizing agent generating sulfate

  13. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J


    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  14. Can Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Be a Biosignature in a Habitable Exoplanet? (United States)

    Hu, Renyu; Seager, S.; Bains, W.


    A group of microorganisms can disproportionate sulfite and elemental sulfur into sulfide and sulfate to obtain energy for a living. We explore if the sulfide produced by microorganisms can alter the atmospheric composition to manifest in the spectrum of a habitable exoplanet. We consider a dry (i.e., limited ocean cover) habitable planet of Earth size and mass, orbiting a Sun-like star. As on Earth, volcanoes release sulfur as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, but the volcanic production of hydrogen sulfide is limited by the scarcity of water. In the meantime, in our scenario, microbes can flourish in the ocean and effectively make use of the energy gained from the sulfur disproportion and release sulfide as the metabolic byproduct. The metabolic sulfur disproportion can enhance the overall outgassing rate of hydrogen sulfide by nearly one order of magnitude over the non-biological emission. To study the atmospheric response to this enhancement, we build a one-dimensional chemical transport model that treats all O, H and S bearing species and the relevant photochemical and chemical reactions. The vertical transport is approximated with the eddy diffusion. We also consider the formation and the sedimentation of elemental sulfur aerosols and sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere and explore the effect of aerosol particle size on the chemistry and the radiative transfer. To establish hydrogen sulfide as a biosignature, we need to understand the atmospheric response to the sulfide outgassing, the spectral features of hydrogen sulfide and its photochemical products, and the volcanic release of H2S. The current work will address the first two problems, and the main uncertainty will remain at the possible false positives due to the volcanism.

  15. Speciation and Distribution of Trace Metals Associated with Iron Sulfides in the Marcellus Shale (United States)

    Singer, D. M.; Cahill, M.


    Black shales underlying the areas from Eastern Ohio, through Pennsylvania, and into Central New York State have become of economic interest lately due to the recent economic viability of shale gas extraction. Sulfide minerals such as pyrite and marcasite occurring in these shales are often the primary phases that trace metals are associated with. Trace metals can be incorporated into these sulfides via various pathways during initial shale deposition and secondary diagenesis including substitution for Fe (Co and Ni), substitution for S (As and Se), and excluded to form other sulfide phases (Cu and Zn). The manner in which these trace metals are incorporated directly influences how they are released into the environment during sulfide oxidation following shale weathering or hydraulic fracturing. The aim of this research is to examine the distribution of trace metals in iron sulfides from black shales using Synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques including micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction of shale thin sections. Marcellus Shale samples were collected from: (1) outcrops from the Oatka member in Leroy, NY and Jersey Shore, PA and the Union Springs member in Lewiston, PA, and (2) drilling core sample from Beaver Meadow, NY and Hancock Co, TN (Chattanooga shale). Analyses have shown that the sulfide grains are a combination of pyrite and marcasite. As and Se are spatially correlated with each other and within the pyrite grains. Ni is spatially correlated with larger euhedral pyrite, as well as smaller non-iron sulfide grains. Cu and Zn are not spatially correlated with the pyrite and form separate Cu- and Zn- sulfides. During iron sulfide oxidative dissolution, these differences in distribution of trace metals will affect the order and rate in which they are released into the environment.

  16. Low-level hydrogen sulfide and central nervous system dysfunction. (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H; Thrasher, Jack D; Gray, Michael R


    Forty-nine adults living in Lovington, Tatum, and Artesia, the sour gas/oil sector of Southeastern New Mexico, were tested for neurobehavioral impairment. Contributing hydrogen sulfide were (1) an anaerobic sewage plant; (2) two oil refineries; (3) natural gas/oil wells and (4) a cheese-manufacturing plant and its waste lagoons. Comparisons were to unexposed Wickenburg, Arizona, adults. Neurobehavioral functions were measured in 26 Lovington adults including 23 people from Tatum and Artesia, New Mexico, and 42 unexposed Arizona people. Participants completed questionnaires including chemical exposures, symptom frequencies and the Profile of Mood States. Measurements included balance, reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip strength, hearing, vibration, problem solving, verbal recall, long-term memory, peg placement, trail making and fingertip number writing errors (FTNWE). Average numbers of abnormalities and test scores were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, height and weight, expressed as percent predicted (% pred) and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ages and educational attainment of the three groups were not statistically significantly different (ssd). Mean values of Lovington residents were ssd from the unexposed Arizona people for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and closed, visual field score, hearing and grip strength. Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, verbal recall, peg placement, trail making A and B, FTNWE, information, picture completion and similarities were also ssd. The Lovington adults who averaged 11.8 abnormalities were ssd from, Tatum-Artesia adults who had 3.6 and from unexposed subjects with 2.0. Multiple source community hydrogen sulfide exposures impaired neurobehavioral functions.

  17. Productivity-Diversity Relationships from Chemolithoautotrophically Based Sulfidic Karst Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Megan L.


    Full Text Available Although ecosystems thriving in the absence of photosynthetic processes are no longer considered unique phenomena, we haveyet to understand how these ecosystems are energetically sustained via chemosynthesis. Ecosystem energetics were measuredin microbial mats from active sulfidic caves (Movile Cave, Romania; Frasassi Caves, Italy; Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming, USA; andCesspool Cave, Virginia, USA using radiotracer techniques. We also estimated bacterial diversity using 16S rRNA sequences torelate the productivity measurements to the composition of the microbial communities. All of the microbial communities investigatedwere dominated by chemolithoautotrophic productivity, with the highest rates from Movile Cave at 281 g C/m2/yr. Heterotrophicproductivities were at least one order of magnitude less than autotrophy from all of the caves. We generated 414 new 16S rRNAgene sequences that represented 173 operational taxonomic units (OTUs with 99% sequence similarity. Although 13% of theseOTUs were found in more than one cave, the compositions of each community were significantly different from each other (P≤0.001.Autotrophic productivity was positively correlated with overall species richness and with the number of bacterial OTUs affiliated withthe Epsilonproteobacteria, a group known for sulfur cycling and chemolithoautotrophy. Higher rates of autotrophy were also stronglypositively correlated to available metabolic energy sources, and specifically to dissolved sulfide concentrations. The relationship ofautotrophic productivity and heterotrophic cycling rates to bacterial species richness can significantly impact the diversity of highertrophic levels in chemolithoautotrophically-based cave ecosystems, with the systems possessing the highest productivity supportingabundant and diverse macro-invertebrate communities.

  18. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia, E-mail: [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico); Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico); Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MéxicoD.F., 04510 (Mexico); Mayén-Hernández, S.A. [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico)


    Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide enhances the cytotoxicity of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qui Min


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, is a well-characterized inflammatory factor found in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. In this investigation, we studied the cytotoxic interaction between 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES or ClCH2CH2SCH2CH3 and LPS using murine RAW264.7 macrophages. CEES is a sulfur vesicating agent and is an analog of 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard. LPS is a ubiquitous natural agent found in the environment. The ability of LPS and other inflammatory agents (such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta to modulate the toxicity of CEES is likely to be an important factor in the design of effective treatments. Results RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS were found to be more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of CEES than unstimulated macrophages. Very low levels of LPS (20 ng/ml dramatically enhanced the toxicity of CEES at concentrations greater than 400 μM. The cytotoxic interaction between LPS and CEES reached a maximum 12 hours after exposure. In addition, we found that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-beta as well as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA also enhanced the cytotoxic effects of CEES but to a lesser extent than LPS. Conclusion Our in vitro results suggest the possibility that LPS and inflammatory cytokines could enhance the toxicity of sulfur mustard. Since LPS is a ubiquitous agent in the natural environment, its presence is likely to be an important variable influencing the cytotoxicity of sulfur mustard toxicity. We have initiated further experiments to determine the molecular mechanism whereby the inflammatory process influences sulfur mustard cytotoxicity.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide enhances the cytotoxicity of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. (United States)

    Stone, William L; Qui, Min; Smith, Milton


    The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is a well-characterized inflammatory factor found in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. In this investigation, we studied the cytotoxic interaction between 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES or ClCH2CH2SCH2CH3) and LPS using murine RAW264.7 macrophages. CEES is a sulfur vesicating agent and is an analog of 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard). LPS is a ubiquitous natural agent found in the environment. The ability of LPS and other inflammatory agents (such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) to modulate the toxicity of CEES is likely to be an important factor in the design of effective treatments. RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS were found to be more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of CEES than unstimulated macrophages. Very low levels of LPS (20 ng/ml) dramatically enhanced the toxicity of CEES at concentrations greater than 400 microM. The cytotoxic interaction between LPS and CEES reached a maximum 12 hours after exposure. In addition, we found that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-beta) as well as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) also enhanced the cytotoxic effects of CEES but to a lesser extent than LPS. Our in vitro results suggest the possibility that LPS and inflammatory cytokines could enhance the toxicity of sulfur mustard. Since LPS is a ubiquitous agent in the natural environment, its presence is likely to be an important variable influencing the cytotoxicity of sulfur mustard toxicity. We have initiated further experiments to determine the molecular mechanism whereby the inflammatory process influences sulfur mustard cytotoxicity.

  1. Microbial lipids reveal carbon assimilation patterns on hydrothermal sulfide chimneys. (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y; Pjevac, Petra; Goldenstein, Nadine I; Peplies, Jörg; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Bach, Wolfgang; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe


    Sulfide 'chimneys' characteristic of seafloor hydrothermal venting are diverse microbial habitats. ¹³C/¹²C ratios of microbial lipids have rarely been used to assess carbon assimilation pathways on these structures, despite complementing gene- and culture-based approaches. Here, we integrate analyses of the diversity of intact polar lipids (IPL) and their side-chain δ¹³C values (δ¹³ C(lipid)) with 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny to examine microbial carbon flow on active and inactive sulfide structures from the Manus Basin. Surficial crusts of active structures, dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria, yield bacterial δ¹³C(lipid) values higher than biomass δ¹³C (total organic carbon), implicating autotrophy via the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our data also suggest δ¹³C(lipid) values vary on individual active structures without accompanying microbial diversity changes. Temperature and/or dissolved substrate effects - likely relating to variable advective-diffusive fluxes to chimney exteriors - may be responsible for differing ¹³C fractionation during assimilation. In an inactive structure, δ¹³C(lipid) values lower than biomass δ¹³C and a distinctive IPL and 16S rRNA gene diversity suggest a shift to a more diverse community and an alternate carbon assimilation pathway after venting ceases. We discuss here the potential of IPL and δ¹³C(lipid) analyses to elucidate carbon flow in hydrothermal structures when combined with other molecular tools. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Luminescent one- and two-dimensional extended structures and a loosely associated dimer based on platinum(II)-thallium(I) backbones. (United States)

    Forniés, Juan; García, Ana; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa


    Neutralization reactions between (NBu4)2[ trans-Pt(C 6F5)2(CN)2] 1 and (NBu4)2[cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2] 2 with TlPF 6 have been carried out, and the resulting structures of [trans,trans,trans-Tl2{Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2}.(CH3COCH3) ] n [4.(CH3COCH3)2] n and {Tl[Tl{cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2}].(H2O)} n [5.(H2O)] n have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Remarkably, the change from trans to cis geometry on the platinum substrate causes a significant decrease in the Pt(II)...Tl(I) metallophilic interaction. Thus, the platinum center in the trans fragment easily connects with two Tl(I) ions forming a distorted pseudo-octahedron PtTl2, which generates a final two-dimensional layered structure by secondary additional intermolecular Tl(I)...N(CN) interactions. However, the [cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2] (2-) fragment interacts strongly with just one Tl center leading to an extended helical [-Pt-Tl-Pt-Tl-] n(n-) chain. In this case, the second thallium center neutralizes the anionic chain mainly through Tl...N(CN) ( intra) and Tl...F(C 6F 5) (intra and inter)actions. The reaction of TlPF 6 with the monoanionic fragment (NBu4)[cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)(PPh2C[triple bond]CPh)] 3 yields the discrete associated dimer [Tl{cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)(PPh2C[triple bond]CPh)}] 2 [ 6] 2. Dimer [ 6] 2 could be described as two square pyramids with the thallium atoms in the apical positions, connected through Tl...N(cyano) interactions. The final heteropolynuclear Pt-Tl complexes, except 4 at room temperature, show bright emission in the solid state when irradiated with UV-vis radiation, in contrast to the precursors 1 and 3, which are not luminescent. This difference indicates that the emissions in 4- 6 are presumably related to the interaction between the metal centers. The Pt-Tl bonding interactions and, consequently, the emissive properties are lost in solution at room temperature, as shown by the conductivity and NMR measurements. However, variable-concentration luminescence measurements in glassy acetonitrile solutions

  3. Arsenic mobilization from sulfidic materials from gold mines in Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pereira de Andrade


    Full Text Available Acid drainage results from exposition of sulfides to the atmosphere. Arsenopyrite is a sulfide that releases arsenic (As to the environment when oxidized. This work evaluated the As mobility in six sulfidic geomaterials from gold mining areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Grained samples (<2 mm were periodically leached with distilled water, during 70 days. Results suggested As sorption onto (hydroxides formed by oxidation of arsenopyrite. Low pH accelerated the acid generation, dissolving Fe oxihydroxides and releasing As. Presence of carbonates decreased oxidation rates and As release. On the other hand, lime added to a partially oxidized sample increased As mobilization.

  4. Kinetics of Indigenous Nitrate Reducing Sulfide Oxidizing Activity in Microaerophilic Wastewater Biofilms (United States)

    Villahermosa, Desirée; Corzo, Alfonso; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; González, Juan M.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis


    Nitrate decreases sulfide release in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), but little is known on how it affects the microzonation and kinetics of related microbial processes within the biofilm. The effect of nitrate addition on these properties for sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and oxygen respiration were studied with the use of microelectrodes in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms. Mass balance calaculations and community composition analysis were also performed. At basal WWTP conditions, the biofilm presented a double-layer system. The upper microaerophilic layer (~300 μm) showed low sulfide production (0.31 μmol cm-3 h-1) and oxygen consumption rates (0.01 μmol cm-3 h-1). The anoxic lower layer showed high sulfide production (2.7 μmol cm-3 h-1). Nitrate addition decreased net sulfide production rates, caused by an increase in sulfide oxidation rates (SOR) in the upper layer, rather than an inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). This suggests that the indigenous nitrate reducing-sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) were immediately activated by nitrate. The functional vertical structure of the biofilm changed to a triple-layer system, where the previously upper sulfide-producing layer in the absence of nitrate split into two new layers: 1) an upper sulfide-consuming layer, whose thickness is probably determined by the nitrate penetration depth within the biofilm, and 2) a middle layer producing sulfide at an even higher rate than in the absence of nitrate in some cases. Below these layers, the lower net sulfide-producing layer remained unaffected. Net SOR varied from 0.05 to 0.72 μmol cm-3 h-1 depending on nitrate and sulfate availability. Addition of low nitrate concentrations likely increased sulfate availability within the biofilm and resulted in an increase of both net sulfate reduction and net sulfide oxidation by overcoming sulfate diffusional limitation from the water phase and the strong coupling between SRB and NR-SOB syntrophic

  5. Metal-organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Phoebe K; Wheatley, Paul S; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A; Megson, Ian L; Chapman, Karena W; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E [St Andrews


    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  6. Simultaneous dual myocardial imaging with iodine-123-[beta]-methyl iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201 in patients with coronary heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawarahara, Kei; Kurata, Chinori; Taguchi, Takahisa; Aoshima, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Noboru; Kaneko, Masao (Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan))


    To assess the clinical value of simultaneous dual myocardial imaging with iodine-123-[beta]-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid ([sup 123]I-BMIPP) and thallium-201 ([sup 201]TL), myocardial imaging was performed at rest and during execise in seven patients with coronary heart disease. When [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl images were compared, the initial exercise and resting images agreed 87% and 64%, respectively. In the initial resting images, the regional uptake of [sup 123]I-BMIPP was frequently less than that of [sup 201]Tl. The incidence of exercise-induced reversible defects by [sup 201]Tl in the Tl>BMIPP regions was significantly higher than that in the Tl=BMIPP regions (57% vs 4%, p<0.01) and the incidence of coronary narrowing of more than 90% in the Tl>BMIPP regions was also significantly higher than that in the Tl=BMIPP regions (91% vs 38%, p<0.01). In addition, this disparity (Tl>BMIPP) was found more frequently in regions with abnormal wall motion than in regions with normal wall motion (hypokinetic regions; 68%, severe hypokinetic or akinetic regions; 50%, vs normokinetic regions; 4%, p<0.01). In contrast, the uptake of [sup 123]I-BMIPP correlated closely with that of [sup 201]Tl in normal myocardium and the uptake of both [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl was severely reduced in myocardium with severe ischemia during exercise and prior infarction. These results indicate that dual myocardial imaging with [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl may provide a unique means of identifying patients with metabolically disturbed myocardium, such as hibernating and stunned myocardium. (author).

  7. Imaging of brain tumors in AIDS patients by means of dual-isotope thallium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Pena, R.C.; Ketonen, L.; Villanueva-Meyer, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas, Galveston (United States)


    Our aim was to evaluate the use of dual-isotope thallium-201 (Tl) and technetium-99m sestamibi (sestamibi) simultaneous acquisition in brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the differentiation between brain lymphoma and benign central nervous system (CNS) lesions in AIDS patients. Thirty-six consecutive patients with enhancing mass lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were included in the study. SPET of the brain was performed to obtain simultaneous Tl and sestamibi images. Regions-of-interest were drawn around the lesion and on the contralateral side to calculate uptake ratios. The final diagnosis was reached by pathologic findings in 17 patients and clinical and/or MR follow-up in 19 patients. Of the 36 patients, 11 had brain lymphoma, 1 glioblastoma multiforme, 15 toxoplasmosis and 9 other benign CNS lesions. Correlation between SPET and the final diagnosis revealed in 10 true-positive, 23 true-negative, 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative studies. All patients with toxoplasmosis had negative scans. A patient with a purulent infection had positive scans. Tl and sestamibi scans were concordant in every lesion. The same lesions that took up Tl were also visualized with sestamibi. However, sestamibi scans showed higher lesion-to-normal tissue uptake ratios (3.7{+-}1.8) compared with those of Tl (2.3{+-}0.8, P<0.002). Simultaneous acquisition of Tl and sestamibi can help differentiate CNS lymphoma from benign brain lesions in AIDS patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 34 refs.

  8. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate/thallium-201 dual-isotope SPECT imaging predicts reperfusion injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction after reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Nishimura, Hideki; Hamazaki, Yuji; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Microcirculatory failure after reperfusion is clinically indicated to cause reperfusion injury whereas excessive intracellular calcium ion overload is experimentally proved as a key mechanism of reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) uptake in injured but viable infarct-related myocardium with preserved myocardial perfusion after reperfusion estimated by thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) uptake would be associated with final functional recovery. Dual-isotope Tc-PYP/{sup 201}Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 2 days after successful reperfusion therapy in patients with first acute myocardial infarction, and 50 patients (63 {+-} 13 years old, female 22%) with preserved {sup 201}Tl uptakes of {>=}50% in reperfused myocardium was followed for 1 month. Tc-PYP uptake was assessed as the heart-to-sternum (H/S) ratio. Two-dimensional echocardiography was also performed 2 days and 1 month after reperfusion to evaluate functional recovery. High Tc-PYP uptake, defined as the H/S ratio {>=}0.81, was predictive of chronic phase no functional recovery (73.7% in 14 of 19 patients with high uptake vs 16.1% in five of 31 patients without those, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, including electrocardiographic persistent ST segment elevation at 1 h after reperfusion, high Tc-PYP uptake remained independently predictive of no functional recovery with odds ratio of 8.7 (95% confidential interval = 2 to 38.7; p = 0.005). High Tc-PYP uptake in reperfused but viable infarct-related myocardium was a powerful predictor of no functional recovery, which may reflect excessive intracellular calcium ion overload caused by reperfusion injury. Tc-PYP/{sup 201}Tl dual-isotope SPECT imaging can provide prognostic information after reperfusion. (orig.)

  9. BaHg2Tl2. An unusual polar intermetallic phase with strong differentiation between the neighboring elements mercury and thallium. (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Cao; Gupta, Shalabh; Gourdon, Olivier; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Corbett, John D


    High yields of the novel BaHg(2)Tl(2) are achieved from reactions of the appropriate cast alloys at approximately 400 degrees C. (Isotypic SrHg(2)Tl(2) also exists.) The tetragonal barium structure (P4(2)/mnm, a = 10.606 A, c = 5.159 A) was refined from both single-crystal X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data in order to ensure the atom site assignments although distances and calculated atom site population also support the results. The Hg and Tl network atoms are distinctive in their functions and bonding. Parallel chains of Hg hexagons and of Tl tetrahedra along c are constructed from polyhedra that share opposed like edges, and these are in turn interconnected by Hg-Tl bonds. Overall, the number of Tl-Tl bonds per cell exceeds the Hg-Hg type by 20:12, but these are approximately 1:2 each in bonding according to their average -ICOHP values (related to overlap populations). Barium is bound within a close 15-atom polyhedron, 12 atoms of which are the more electronegative Hg. LMTO-ASA calculations show that scalar relativistic effects are particularly important for Hg 5d-6s mixing in Hg-Hg and Hg-Tl bonding, whereas relatively separate Tl 6s and 6p states are more important in Tl-Tl interactions. The 6p states of Hg and Tl and 5d of Ba define a dominant conduction band around E(F), and the phase is metallic and Pauli-like paramagnetic. The thallium characteristics here are close to those in numerous alkali-metal-Tl cluster systems. Other active metal-mercury phases that have been studied theoretically are all distinctly electron-richer and more reduced, and without appreciable net 5d, 6s contributions to Hg-Hg bonding.

  10. Effect of inoculum and sulfide type on simultaneous hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas and nitrogen removal from swine slurry and microbial mechanism. (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Wei, Benping; Chen, Ziai; Deng, Liangwei; Song, Li; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Yi; Pu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yunhong


    Four reactors were initiated to study the effect of inoculum and sulfide type on the simultaneous hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas and nitrogen removal from swine slurry (Ssu-Nir) process. Anaerobic sludge, aerobic sludge, and water were used as inocula, and Na2S and biogas were used as a sulfide substrate, respectively. Additionally, 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to explore the bacterial diversity. The results showed that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus, 42.2-84.4 %) were dominant in Ssu-Nir process and led to the excellent performance. Aerobic sludge was more suitable for inoculation of the Ssu-Nir process because it is better for rapidly enriching dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus, 54.4 %), denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (40.0 %) and denitrifiers (23.9 %). Lower S(2-) removal efficiency (72.6 %) and NO3 (-) removal efficiency (biogas as a sulfide substrate than when Na2S was used. For the Ssu-Nir process with biogas as the sulfide substrate, limiting H2S absorption caused a high relative abundance of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, Thiobacillus (84.8 %) and Thiobacillus sayanicus (39.6 %), which in turn led to low relative abundance of denitrifiers (1.6 %) and denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (24.4 %), low NO3 (-) removal efficiency, and eventually poor performance.

  11. Band offset in zinc oxy-sulfide/cubic-tin sulfide interface from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, K.C.; Nair, P.K.; Nair, M.T.S., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Zinc oxy-sulfide thin films, 175–240 nm, deposited by rf-sputtering from targets of ZnO + ZnS. • Oxygen content in thin films is enhanced 3–4 times compared with that in ZnO:ZnS targets. • Thin film ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} with x = 0.88–0.27 and optical band gap 2.8–3.2 eV is suitable for solar cells. • The conduction band offset with SnS of cubic structure studied by XPS are +0.41 to −0.28 eV. - Abstract: Zinc oxy-sulfide, ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x}, has been found to provide better band alignment in thin film solar cells of tin sulfide of orthorhombic crystalline structure. Here we examine ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x}/SnS-CUB interface, in which the ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} thin film was deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering on SnS thin film of cubic (CUB) crystalline structure with a band gap (E{sub g}) of 1.72 eV, obtained via chemical deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides the valence band maxima of the materials and hence places the conduction band offset of 0.41 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO{sub 0.27}S{sub 0.73} and −0.28 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO{sub 0.88}S{sub 0.12} interfaces. Thin films of ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} with 175–240 nm in thickness were deposited from targets prepared with different ZnO to ZnS molar ratios. With the target of molar ratio of 1:13.4, the thin films are of composition ZnO{sub 0.27}S{sub 0.73} with hexagonal crystalline structure and with that of 1:1.7 ratio, it is ZnO{sub 0.88}S{sub 0.12}. The optical band gap of the ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} thin films varies from 2.90 eV to 3.21 eV as the sulfur to zinc ratio in the film increases from 0.12:1 to 0.73:1 as determined from X-ray diffraction patterns. Thus, band offsets sought for absorber materials and zinc oxy-sulfide in solar cells may be achieved through a choice of ZnO:ZnS ratio in the sputtering target.

  12. Sulfide mineralization in ultramafic rocks of the Faryab ophiolite complex, southern Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction Worldwide, Ni-Cu and PGE magmatic sulfide deposits are confined to the lower parts of stratiform mafic and ultramafic complexes. However, ophiolite mafic and ultramafic complexes have been rarely explored for sulfide deposits despite the fact that they have been extensively explored and exploited for chromite. Sulfide saturation during magmatic evolution is necessary for sulfide mineralization, in which sulfide melts scavenge chalcophile metals from the parent magma and concentrate them in specific lithological zones. The lack of exploration for sulfides in this environment suggests that sulfide saturation is rarely attained in ophiolite-related magmas. Some ophiolites, however, contain sulfide deposits, such as at Acoje in Philippines, and Cliffs in Shetland, U.K. (Evans, 2000; Naldrett, 2004. The Faryab ophiolite complex in southern Kerman Province, the most important mining area for chromite deposits in Iran, is located in the southwest part of the Makran Zone. Evidence of sulfide mineralization has been reported there by some authors (e.g. Rajabzadeh and Moosavinasab, 2013. This paper discusses the genesis of sulfides in the Faryab ophiolite using mineral chemistry of the major mineral phases in different rocks of the ophiolite column in order to determine the possible lithological location of sulfide deposits. Materials and methods Seventy three rock samples from cumulate units were collected from surficial occurrences and drill core. The samples were studied using conventional microscopic methods and the mineralogy confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Electron microprobe analysis was carried out on different mineral phases in order to determine the chemistry of the minerals used in the interpretation of magma evolution in the Faryab ophiolite. Lithologically, the Faryab ophiolite complex is divided into two major parts: the northern part includes magmatic rocks and the southern part is comprised of rocks residual after partial

  13. Synthesis, Internal Structure, and Formation Mechanism of Monodisperse Tin Sulfide Nanoplatelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kergommeaux, Antoine; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Pouget, Stéphanie; Zuo, Jian-Min; Lebrun, Colette; Chandezon, Frédéric; Aldakov, Dmitry; Reiss, Peter


    Tin sulfide nanoparticles have a great potential for use in a broad range of applications related to solar energy conversion (photovoltaics, photocatalysis), electrochemical energy storage, and thermoelectrics. The development of chemical synthesis methods allowing for the precise control of size,

  14. Biological Synthesis of Size-Controlled Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Using ImmobilizedRhodobacter sphaeroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhaoming


    Full Text Available Abstract Size-controlled cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by immobilizedRhodobacter sphaeroidesin the study. The dynamic process that Cd2+was transported from solution into cell by livingR. sphaeroideswas characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Culture time, as an important physiological parameter forR. sphaeroidesgrowth, could significantly control the size of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles. TEM demonstrated that the average sizes of spherical cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were 2.3 ± 0.15, 6.8 ± 0.22, and 36.8 ± 0.25 nm at culture times of 36, 42, and 48 h, respectively. Also, the UV–vis and photoluminescence spectral analysis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were performed.

  15. [An investigation of an accident of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning]. (United States)

    Zhang, Z C; Liu, J L; Jian, X D; Wang, K


    Objective: To investigate an accident of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and to analyze related clinical data. Methods: An investigation was performed for an accident of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a place in Shandong, China, in July 2016, and related clinical data were summarized. Results: This was a typical accident of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and a lack of occupational protection and illegal operation were the major causes of this accident. Of all five patients, four experienced coma, toxic encephalopathy, and respiratory failure and were cured at last, and one had cortical syndrome after long-term treatment and died of pulmonary infection seven months later. Conclusions: In case of occupational acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning, rescuers should help the persons who are poisoned reasonably and meanwhile ensure their own safety.

  16. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinara Kenessary; Almas Kenessary; Ussen Ismailovich Kenessariyev; Konrad Juszkiewicz; Meiram Kazievich Amrin; Aya Eralovna Erzhanova


    ...) in Central Asia, is surrounded by 10 settlements with a total population of 9,000 people. Approximately73% of this population constantly mention a specific odour of rotten eggs in the air, typical for hydrogen sulfide...

  17. Development of novel and sensitive methods for the determination of sulfide in aqueous samples by hydrogen sulfide generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, J.L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Hidalgo, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Iglesias, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain)], E-mail:


    Two new, simple and accurate methods for the determination of sulfide (S{sup 2-}) at low levels ({mu}g L{sup -1}) in aqueous samples were developed. The generation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) took place in a coil where sulfide reacted with hydrochloric acid. The resulting H{sub 2}S was then introduced as a vapor into an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and sulfur emission intensity was measured at 180.669 nm. In comparison to when aqueous sulfide was introduced, the introduction of sulfur as H{sub 2}S enhanced the sulfur signal emission. By setting a gas separator at the end of the reaction coil, reduced sulfur species in the form of H{sub 2}S were removed from the water matrix, thus, interferences could be avoided. Alternatively, the gas separator was replaced by a nebulizer/spray chamber combination to introduce the sample matrix and reagents into the plasma. This methodology allowed the determination of both sulfide and sulfate in aqueous samples. For both methods the linear response was found to range from 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} to 25 mg L{sup -1} of sulfide. Detection limits of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 6 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained with and without the gas separator, respectively. These new methods were evaluated by comparison to the standard potentiometric method and were successfully applied to the analysis of reduced sulfur species in environmental waters.

  18. Polysulfides as Intermediates in the Oxidation of Sulfide to Sulfate by Beggiatoa spp. (United States)

    Schwedt, Anne; Kreutzmann, Anne-Christin; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Milucka, Jana


    Zero-valent sulfur is a key intermediate in the microbial oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. Many sulfide-oxidizing bacteria produce and store large amounts of sulfur intra- or extracellularly. It is still not understood how the stored sulfur is metabolized, as the most stable form of S0 under standard biological conditions, orthorhombic α-sulfur, is most likely inaccessible to bacterial enzymes. Here we analyzed the speciation of sulfur in single cells of living sulfide-oxidizing bacteria via Raman spectroscopy. Our results showed that under various ecological and physiological conditions, all three investigated Beggiatoa strains stored sulfur as a combination of cyclooctasulfur (S8) and inorganic polysulfides (Sn2−). Linear sulfur chains were detected during both the oxidation and reduction of stored sulfur, suggesting that Sn2− species represent a universal pool of bioavailable sulfur. Formation of polysulfides due to the cleavage of sulfur rings could occur biologically by thiol-containing enzymes or chemically by the strong nucleophile HS− as Beggiatoa migrates vertically between oxic and sulfidic zones in the environment. Most Beggiatoa spp. thus far studied can oxidize sulfur further to sulfate. Our results suggest that the ratio of produced sulfur and sulfate varies depending on the sulfide flux. Almost all of the sulfide was oxidized directly to sulfate under low-sulfide-flux conditions, whereas only 50% was oxidized to sulfate under high-sulfide-flux conditions leading to S0 deposition. With Raman spectroscopy we could show that sulfate accumulated in Beggiatoa filaments, reaching intracellular concentrations of 0.72 to 1.73 M. PMID:24212585

  19. Electrochemical oxidation of iron and alkalinity generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers. (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Kustermans, Caroline; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje


    The addition of iron salts is one of the most commonly used dosing strategies for sulfide control in sewers. However, iron salts decrease the sewage pH which not only reduces the effectiveness of sulfide precipitation but also enhances the release of residual sulfide to the sewer atmosphere. Equally important, concentrated iron salt solutions are corrosive and their frequent transport, handling, and on-site storage often come with Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) concerns. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a novel sulfide control approach using electrochemical systems with parallel placed iron electrodes. This enabled combining anodic dissolved iron species release with cathodic hydroxyl anion production, which alleviates all the aforementioned concerns. A long-term experiment was successfully carried out achieving an average sulfide removal efficiency of 95.4 ± 4.4% at low voltage input of 2.90 ± 0.54 V over the course of 8 weeks. This electrochemical method was demonstrated to successfully achieve efficient sulfide control. In addition, it increases the sewage pH, thereby overcoming the drawbacks associated with the pH decrease in the case of conventional iron salt dosing. Ferrous ions were produced at an overall coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98.2 ± 1.2%, whereas oxygen evolution and direct sulfide oxidation were not observed. Short-term experiments showed that increasing either inter-electrode gap or current density increased the cell voltage associated with the increase in the ohmic drop of the system. Overall, this study highlights the practical potential of in-situ generation of dissolved iron species and simultaneous hydroxyl anion generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surfactant-directed synthesis of branched bismuth telluride/sulfide core/shell nanorods. (United States)

    Purkayastha, Arup; Yan, Qingyu; Raghuveer, Makala S; Gandhi, Darshan D; Li, Huafang; Liu, Zhong W; Ramanujan, Raju V; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Ramanath, Ganapathiraman


    Branched core/shell bismuth telluride/bismuth sulfide nanorod heterostructures are prepared by using a biomimetic surfactant, L-glutathionic acid. Trigonal nanocrystals of bismuth telluride are encapsulated by nanoscopic shells of orthorhombic bismuth sulfide. Crystallographic twinning causes shell branching. Such heteronanostructures are attractive for thermoelectric power generation and cooling applications. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Corrosion Protection of Steel and Bond Durability at Polyphenylene Sulfide-to-Anhydrous Zinc Phosphate Interfaces (United States)


    Corrosion Protection of Steel and Bond Durability at Polyphenylene Sulfide-to-Anhydrous Zinc Phosphate Interfaces 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) T. Sugana. and...anhydrous zinc phosphate I Zn -Ph )conversion coatings containing poly (acid) inhvdride as an inter- facial tailoring material. The factors contributing to...Sulfide-to-Anhydrous Zinc Phosphate Interfaces T. SUGAMA* and N. R. CARCIELLO Energy Efficiency and Conservation Division, Department of Applied Science

  2. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen


    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure. The metal is a transitional metal or a Group IV metal. In the method, a porous membrane is placed between a metal precursor solution and a sulfur precursor solution. The metal cations of the metal precursor solution and sulfur ions of the sulfur precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure.

  3. Temporal variability of Oscillatoria sp. in extreme environment: a sulfide-rich spring outflow


    Reul, Andreas; Martín-Clemente, Elena; Melero Jiménez, Ignacio José; Hernández-López, Miguel; Toro, Francisco Javier; Bañares-España, Elena; Flores-Moya, Antonio; García-Sánchez, María Jesús


    Backgrounds The Hedionda Spa (Andalucía, southern Spain) is a sulfide-rich spring outflow, but despite the inhibitory effect of sulfide on photosynthesis, a phytoplankton community inhabits this extreme environment. Objectives To analize the phytoplanktonic groups present in La Hedionda Spa along an annual cycle, and to study the possible correlation between sulphide concentration and the presence of different groups. Methods A monthly and weekly sampling was started on Marc...

  4. Sulfide induction of synthesis of a periplasmic protein in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.


    Arieli, B; Binder, B; Shahak, Y; Padan, E


    Two proteins which may play a role in the induction of anoxygenic photosynthesis in Oscillatoria limnetica have been demonstrated by comparing the pattern of labeling during pulses of [35S]methionine of cells incubated under inducing conditions [anaerobic conditions plus 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, light, and sulfide) with that of cells incubated under noninducing conditions (without sulfide). The major inducible protein has an apparent molecular mass of 11.5 kilodaltons and is a...

  5. Total plasma sulfide as a marker of shock severity in nonsurgical adult patients. (United States)

    Goslar, Tomaž; Marš, Tomaž; Podbregar, Matej


    Previous animal and human studies have suggested that total plasma sulfide plays a role in the pathophysiology of shock. This study's aim was to determine the value of total plasma sulfide as a marker of shock severity in nonsurgical adult patients admitted to the ICU. Forty-one patients, with various types of shock (septic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and hypovolemic), were included in the study, with an average total plasma sulfide concentration of 23.2 ± 26.3 µM. Survivors (of shock) had lower total plasma sulfide concentrations than nonsurvivors (13.0 ± 26.3 vs. 31.9 ± 31.5 µM; P = 0.02). Total plasma sulfide correlated with dose of administered norepinephrine (R linear = 0.829; P = 0.001) and with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (R cubic = 0.767; P = 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic for total plasma sulfide as a predictor of ICU mortality was 0.739 (confidence interval, 0.587-0.892; P = 0.009). Even after correcting for APACHE II score and lactate values, total plasma sulfide correlated with mortality (odds ratio, 1.058; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.118; P = 0.045). The study provides evidence that, in nonsurgical adult ICU patients admitted because of any type of shock, total plasma sulfide correlates with administered norepinephrine dose at admission, severity of disease (APACHE II score ≥30 points), and survival outcome.

  6. Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron for Sulfide Removal from Digested Piggery Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsun Chaung


    Full Text Available The removal of dissolved sulfides in water and wastewater by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI was examined in the study. Both laboratory batch studies and a pilot test in a 50,000-pig farm were conducted. Laboratory studies indicated that the sulfide removal with nZVI was a function of pH where an increase in pH decreased removal rates. The pH effect on the sulfide removal with nZVI is attributed to the formation of FeS through the precipitation of Fe(II and sulfide. The saturated adsorption capacities determined by the Langmuir model were 821.2, 486.3, and 359.7 mg/g at pH values 4, 7, and 12, respectively, for nZVI, largely higher than conventional adsorbents such as activated carbon and impregnated activated carbon. The surface characterization of sulfide-laden nZVI using XPS and TGA indicated the formation of iron sulfide, disulfide, and polysulfide that may account for the high adsorption capacity of nZVI towards sulfide. The pilot study showed the effectiveness of nZVI for sulfide removal; however, the adsorption capacity is almost 50 times less than that determined in the laboratory studies during the testing period of 30 d. The complexity of digested wastewater constituents may limit the effectiveness of nZVI. Microbial analysis suggested that the impact of nZVI on the change of microbial species distribution was relatively noticeable after the addition of nZVI.

  7. Biosynthesis and urinary excretion of methyl sulfonium derivatives of the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, and other thioethers. (United States)

    Mozier, N M; Hoffman, J L


    Thioether methyltransferase was previously shown to catalyze the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of dimethyl selenide, dimethyl telluride, and various thioethers to produce the corresponding methyl onium ions. In this paper we show that the following thioethers are also substrates for this enzyme in vitro: 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, thiodiglycol, t-butyl sulfide, and isopropyl sulfide. To demonstrate thioether methylation in vivo, mice were injected with [methyl-3H]methionine plus different thioethers, and extracts of lungs, livers, kidneys, and urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the presence of [3H]methyl sulfonium ions. The following thioethers were tested, and all were found to be methylated in vivo: dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, methyl n-propyl sulfide, tetrahydrothiophene, 2-(methylthio)ethylamine, 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. This supports our hypothesis that the physiological role of thioether methyltransferase is to methylate seleno-, telluro-, and thioethers to more water-soluble onium ions suitable for urinary excretion. Conversion of the mustard gas analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, to the methyl sulfonium derivative represents a newly discovered mechanism for biochemical detoxification of sulfur mustards, as this conversion blocks formation of the reactive episulfonium ion that is the ultimate alkylating agent for this class of compounds.

  8. Why does the Conductivity of a Nickel Catalyst Increase during Sulfidation? An Exemplary Study Using an In Operando Sensor Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fremerey


    Full Text Available In order to study the sulfidation of a catalyst fixed bed, an in operando single pellet sensor was designed. A catalyst pellet from the fixed bed was electrically contacted and its electrical response was correlated with the catalyst behavior. For the sulfidation tests, a nickel catalyst was used and was sulfidized with H2S. This catalyst had a very low conductivity in the reduced state. During sulfidation, the conductivity of the catalyst increased by decades. A reaction from nickel to nickel sulfide occurred. This conductivity increase by decades during sulfidation had not been expected since both nickel and nickel sulfides behave metallic. Only by assuming a percolation phenomenon that originates from a volume increase of the nickel contacts when reacting to nickel sulfides, this effect can be explained. This assumption was supported by sulfidation tests with differently nickel loaded catalysts and it was quantitatively estimated by a general effective media theory. The single pellet sensor device for in operando investigation of sulfidation can be considered as a valuable tool to get further insights into catalysts under reaction conditions.

  9. Why does the Conductivity of a Nickel Catalyst Increase during Sulfidation? An Exemplary Study Using an In Operando Sensor Device. (United States)

    Fremerey, Peter; Jess, Andreas; Moos, Ralf


    In order to study the sulfidation of a catalyst fixed bed, an in operando single pellet sensor was designed. A catalyst pellet from the fixed bed was electrically contacted and its electrical response was correlated with the catalyst behavior. For the sulfidation tests, a nickel catalyst was used and was sulfidized with H₂S. This catalyst had a very low conductivity in the reduced state. During sulfidation, the conductivity of the catalyst increased by decades. A reaction from nickel to nickel sulfide occurred. This conductivity increase by decades during sulfidation had not been expected since both nickel and nickel sulfides behave metallic. Only by assuming a percolation phenomenon that originates from a volume increase of the nickel contacts when reacting to nickel sulfides, this effect can be explained. This assumption was supported by sulfidation tests with differently nickel loaded catalysts and it was quantitatively estimated by a general effective media theory. The single pellet sensor device for in operando investigation of sulfidation can be considered as a valuable tool to get further insights into catalysts under reaction conditions.

  10. Microbial communities involved in electricity generation from sulfide oxidation in a microbial fuel cell. (United States)

    Sun, Min; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Chen, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Mu, Zhe-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Lin; Zeng, Raymond J; Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Wei, Li; Ma, Fang


    Simultaneous electricity generation and sulfide removal can be achieved in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). In electricity harvesting from sulfide oxidation in such an MFC, various microbial communities are involved. It is essential to elucidate the microbial communities and their roles in the sulfide conversion and electricity generation. In this work, an MFC was constructed to enrich a microbial consortium, which could harvest electricity from sulfide oxidation. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated that microbial catalysis was involved in electricity output in the sulfide-fed MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities could perform catalysis independently, and synergistic interactions occurred when the two communities worked together. A 16S rRNA clone library analysis was employed to characterize the microbial communities in the MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities shared similar richness and diversity, while the LIBSHUFF analysis revealed that the two community structures were significantly different. The exoelectrogenic, sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in the MFC anodic chamber. The discovery of these bacteria was consistent with the community characteristics for electricity generation from sulfide oxidation. The exoelectrogenic bacteria were found both on the anode and in the solution. The sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were present in greater abundance on the anode than in the solution, while the sulfate-reducing bacteria preferably lived in the solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring bacterial community shifts in bioleaching of Ni-Cu sulfide. (United States)

    He, Zhiguo; Zhao, Jiancun; Gao, Fengling; Hu, Yuehua; Qiu, Guanzhou


    The microbial ecology of the bioleaching of Ni-Cu sulfide is poorly understood and little effort has been made to handle the microbiological components of these processes. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes fragments from bacteria was used to evaluate the changes of the bacterial community in the process of Ni-Cu sulfide bioleaching in a shaken flask system. The results revealed that the bacterial community was disturbed after the addition of Ni-Cu sulfide. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA fragments revealed that the retrieved sequences clustered together with the genera Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and cluster analysis of DGGE-banding patterns revealed that the process of Ni-Cu sulfide bioleaching in 46days was divided into three stages. During the bioleaching process of Ni-Cu sulfide, Leptospirillum was always dominant. The genera Acidithiobacillus was only detected at early and later stages of the bioleaching process. These results extend our knowledge on microbial dynamics in Ni-Cu sulfide bioleaching, a key issue required to improve commercial applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectrophotometric method for determination of sulfide with iron(III) and nitrilotriacetic acid by flow injection. (United States)

    Kester, M D; Shiundu, P M; Wade, A P


    A manual colorimetric method for determination of sulfide has been adapted to flow injection, systematically optimized, and more fully characterized. Its intended application is for measurement of sodium sulfide reagent strength in pulp process streams, and sulfide contamination in effluent from Kraft pulp mills. In the flow-injection method developed, a sample solution containing sulfide is reacted with a mixture of iron(III) and nitrilotriacetic acid under ammoniacal conditions. The absorbance of the intensely-colored green product of this reaction is measured at 636 nm. Excess sulfite is present as a color stabilizer. A linear dynamic range of 20-100 ppm sulfide is readily achieved; the relative standard deviation is less than 1.2% (n = 10) throughout this range, and 0.37% (n = 10) midrange at 60 ppm. The usable dynamic range is 8-250 ppm sulfide. Long-term stability of the method is ensured by periodically performing an automatic cleaning cycle using a hydrochloric acid wash solution. This prevents tube discoloration and removes any precipitates which are formed under strongly alkaline conditions. The sample throuhput rate is at least 30/hr, given alternate acid wash cycles.

  13. Potential biological chemistry of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with the nitrogen oxides. (United States)

    Bruce King, S


    Hydrogen sulfide, an important gaseous signaling agent generated in numerous biological tissues, influences many physiological processes. This biological profile seems reminiscent of nitric oxide, another important endogenously synthesized gaseous signaling molecule. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with nitric oxide or oxidized forms of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors in vitro to form species that display distinct biology compared to both hydrogen sulfide and NO. The products of these interesting reactions may include small-molecule S-nitrosothiols or nitroxyl, the one-electron-reduced form of nitric oxide. In addition, thionitrous acid or thionitrite, compounds structurally analogous to nitrous acid and nitrite, may constitute a portion of the reaction products. Both the chemistry and the biology of thionitrous acid and thionitrite, compared to nitric oxide or hydrogen sulfide, remain poorly defined. General mechanisms for the formation of S-nitrosothiols, nitroxyl, and thionitrous acid based upon the ability of hydrogen sulfide to act as a nucleophile and a reducing agent with reactive nitric oxide-based intermediates are proposed. Hydrogen sulfide reactivity seems extensive and could have an impact on numerous areas of redox-controlled biology and chemistry, warranting more work in this exciting and developing area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reaction mechanism and kinetics of sulfide copper concentrate oxidation at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Mitovski


    Full Text Available Sulfide copper concentrate from domestic ore deposit (Bor, Serbia was subjected to oxidation in the air atmosphere due to a better understanding of reaction mechanism and oxidation of various sulfides present in the copper concentrate at elevated temperatures. Results of the initial sample characterization showed that concentrate is chalcopyrite–enargite-tennantite type, with an increased arsenic content. Characterization of the oxidation products showed the presence of sulfates, oxysulfates, and oxides. Based on predominance area diagrams for Me-S-O systems (Me = Cu, Fe, As combined with thermal analysis results, the reaction mechanism of the oxidation process was proposed. The reactions which occur in the temperature range 25 – 1000 °C indicate that sulfides are unstable in the oxidative conditions. Sulfides from the initial sample decomposed into binary copper and iron sulfides and volatile arsenic oxides at lower temperatures. Further heating led to oxidation of sulfides into iron oxides and copper sulfates and oxysulfates. At higher temperatures sulfates and oxysulfates decomposed into oxides. Kinetic analysis of the oxidation process was done using Ozawa’s method in the non-isothermal conditions. The values for activation energies showed that the reactions are chemically controlled and the temperature is the most influential parameter on the reaction rates.

  15. Potential for biogeochemical cycling of sulfur, iron and carbon within massive sulfide deposits below the seafloor. (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Ikehata, Kei; Shibuya, Takazo; Urabe, Tetsuro; Ohkuma, Moriya; Yamagishi, Akihiko


    Seafloor massive sulfides are a potential energy source for the support of chemosynthetic ecosystems in dark, deep-sea environments; however, little is known about microbial communities in these ecosystems, especially below the seafloor. In the present study, we performed culture-independent molecular analyses of sub-seafloor sulfide samples collected in the Southern Mariana Trough by drilling. The depth for the samples ranged from 0.52 m to 2.67 m below the seafloor. A combination of 16S rRNA and functional gene analyses suggested the presence of chemoautotrophs, sulfur-oxidizers, sulfate-reducers, iron-oxidizers and iron-reducers. In addition, mineralogical and thermodynamic analyses are consistent with chemosynthetic microbial communities sustained by sulfide minerals below the seafloor. Although distinct bacterial community compositions were found among the sub-seafloor sulfide samples and hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimneys on the seafloor collected from various areas, we also found common bacterial members at species level including the sulfur-oxidizers and sulfate-reducers, suggesting that the common members are widely distributed within massive sulfide deposits on and below the seafloor and play a key role in the ecosystem function. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Electric coupling between distant nitrate reduction and sulfide oxidation in marine sediment. (United States)

    Marzocchi, Ugo; Trojan, Daniela; Larsen, Steffen; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils


    Filamentous bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family can conduct electrons over centimeter-long distances thereby coupling oxygen reduction at the surface of marine sediment to sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers. The ability of these cable bacteria to use alternative electron acceptors is currently unknown. Here we show that these organisms can use also nitrate or nitrite as an electron acceptor thereby coupling the reduction of nitrate to distant oxidation of sulfide. Sulfidic marine sediment was incubated with overlying nitrate-amended anoxic seawater. Within 2 months, electric coupling of spatially segregated nitrate reduction and sulfide oxidation was evident from: (1) the formation of a 4-6-mm-deep zone separating sulfide oxidation from the associated nitrate reduction, and (2) the presence of pH signatures consistent with proton consumption by cathodic nitrate reduction, and proton production by anodic sulfide oxidation. Filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with the longitudinal structures characteristic of cable bacteria were detected in anoxic, nitrate-amended incubations but not in anoxic, nitrate-free controls. Nitrate reduction by cable bacteria using long-distance electron transport to get privileged access to distant electron donors is a hitherto unknown mechanism in nitrogen and sulfur transformations, and the quantitative importance for elements cycling remains to be addressed.

  17. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith (United States)

    Hilsenbeck, S.J.; McCarley, R.E.; Schrader, G.L.; Xie, X.B.


    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(L{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M{sub 6}S{sub 8}){sup 0} cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na{sub 2x}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} by disproportionation at 800 C and well-crystallized NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} at {>=} 900 C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M{sup 2+} and M{sup 3+} salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8+x}(MeOH){sub y}[MMOS] (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as ``Chevrel phase-like`` in that both contain Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst is shown to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts. 9 figs.

  18. Fractional crystallization-induced variations in sulfides from the Noril’sk-Talnakh mining district (polar Siberia, Russia) (United States)

    Duran, C.J.; Barnes, S-J.; Pleše, P.; Prašek, M. Kudrna; Zientek, Michael L.; Pagé, P.


    The distribution of platinum-group elements (PGE) within zoned magmatic ore bodies has been extensively studied and appears to be controlled by the partitioning behavior of the PGE during fractional crystallization of magmatic sulfide liquids. However, other chalcophile elements, especially TABS (Te, As, Bi, Sb, and Sn) have been neglected despite their critical role in forming platinum-group minerals (PGM). TABS are volatile trace elements that are considered to be mobile so investigating their primary distribution may be challenging in magmatic ore bodies that have been somewhat altered. Magmatic sulfide ore bodies from the Noril’sk-Talnakh mining district (polar Siberia, Russia) offer an exceptional opportunity to investigate the behavior of TABS during fractional crystallization of sulfide liquids and PGM formation as the primary features of the ore bodies have been relatively well preserved. In this study, new petrographic (2D and 3D) and whole-rock geochemical data from Cu-poor to Cu-rich sulfide ores of the Noril’sk-Talnakh mining district are integrated with published data to consider the role of fractional crystallization in generating mineralogical and geochemical variations across the different ore types (disseminated to massive). Despite textural variations in Cu-rich massive sulfides (lenses, veins, and breccias), these sulfides have similar chemical compositions, which suggests that Cu-rich veins and breccias formed from fractionated sulfide liquids that were injected into the surrounding rocks. Numerical modeling using the median disseminated sulfide composition as the initial sulfide liquid composition and recent DMSS/liq and DISS/liq predicts the compositional variations observed in the massive sulfides, especially in terms of Pt, Pd, and TABS. Therefore, distribution of these elements in the massive sulfides was likely controlled by their partitioning behavior during sulfide liquid fractional crystallization, prior to PGM formation. Our

  19. Copper isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation in the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, NW China (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Symons, David T. A.; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun


    Although it has been recently demonstrated that Cu isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basaltic magma differentiation is limited, the behavior of Cu isotopes during magmatic differentiation involving significant sulfide segregation remains unclear. Magmatic Ni-Cu deposits, which formed via sulfide segregation from basaltic or picritic magmas, are appropriate targets to address this issue. Here we report Cu isotope data for sulfides (chalcopyrite) from the Tulaergen Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in Xinjiang, NW China. Sulfides, including sparsely disseminated (hosted by hornblende gabbro), moderately disseminated (hosted by hornblende olivine websterite), densely disseminated (hosted by hornblende lherzolite) and massive sulfides (sandwiched between country rocks and mafic-ultramafic rocks), were collected from adits at 1050 m, 1100 m and 1150 m levels. The sparsely and moderately disseminated sulfides on 1150 m and 1050 m levels have a restricted range of δ65Cu values from - 0.38‰ to 0.15‰, whereas disseminated and massive sulfides on 1100 m level have δ65Cu values ranging widely from - 1.98‰ to - 0.04‰ and from - 1.08‰ to - 0.52‰, respectively. The δ65Cu values of disseminated sulfides are negatively correlated with whole-rock S and Cu concentrations, and sulfides formed at later stages have heavier δ65Cu values. These observations suggest significant Cu isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation above 600 °C. During the formation of the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, sulfide segregation and crystallization of olivine and pyroxene caused the increase of Fe3 + contents in the residual magmas, which would move the redox reaction Cu+ + Fe3 + = Fe2 + + Cu2 + toward larger amounts of Cu2 + in the melt. The presence of Cu2 + in melt allowed redox transformation to happen during sulfide segregation. The residual magmas are enriched in heavy Cu isotopes due to the removal of 65Cu-depleted sulfides, and sulfides formed at later

  20. Epithelial Electrolyte Transport Physiology and the Gasotransmitter Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervice Pouokam


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a well-known environmental chemical threat with an unpleasant smell of rotten eggs. Aside from the established toxic effects of high-dose H2S, research over the past decade revealed that cells endogenously produce small amounts of H2S with physiological functions. H2S has therefore been classified as a “gasotransmitter.” A major challenge for cells and tissues is the maintenance of low physiological concentrations of H2S in order to prevent potential toxicity. Epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are especially faced with this problem, since these barriers are predominantly exposed to exogenous H2S from environmental sources or sulfur-metabolising microbiota. In this paper, we review the cellular mechanisms by which epithelial cells maintain physiological, endogenous H2S concentrations. Furthermore, we suggest a concept by which epithelia use their electrolyte and liquid transport machinery as defence mechanisms in order to eliminate exogenous sources for potentially harmful H2S concentrations.

  1. Alleviation of chromium toxicity by hydrogen sulfide in barley. (United States)

    Ali, Shafaqat; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Abbasi, G H; Zhang, Guoping


    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to examine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in alleviating chromium (Cr) stress in barley. A 2-factorial design with 6 replications was selected, including 3 levels of NaHS (0 μM, 100 μM, and 200 μM) and 2 levels of Cr (0 μM and 100 μM) as treatments. The results showed that NaHS addition enhances plant growth and photosynthesis slightly compared with the control. Moreover, NaHS alleviated the inhibition in plant growth and photosynthesis by Cr stress. Higher levels of NaHS exhibited more pronounced effects in reducing Cr concentrations in roots, shoots, and leaves. Ultrastructural examination of plant cells supported the facts by indication of visible alleviation of cell disorders in both root and leaf with exogenous application of NaHS. An increased number of plastoglobuli, disintegration, and disappearance of thylakoid membranes and starch granules were visualized inside the chloroplast of Cr-stressed plants. Starch accumulation in the chloroplasts was also noticed in the Cr-treated cells, with the effect being much less in Cr + NaHS-treated plants. Hence, it is concluded that H2 S produced from NaHS can improve plant tolerance under Cr stress. © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Dimethyl sulfide as a source of cloud condensation nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are predominantly sulfate particles, and over the oceans the major source of sulfur for these particles appears to be dimethyl sulfide, a gas produced by marine biota. The reflection of sunlight by marine stratiform clouds is a major feature of the Earth`s radiation budget, and these clouds will reflect more sunlight if their liquid water is distributed among more CCN, thus forming more (and smaller) droplets. These facts form the basis of a proposal that marine biogenic sulfur may be an important factor in determining the Earth`s climate. Key implications of this proposal are (1) the possibility of a biota-climate feedback loop if the production of biogenic sulfur is sensitive to changes in climate, (2) the possibility that anthropogenic sulfur emissions may be altering the global climate through this cloud-mediated mechanism, and (3) the possibility that anthropogenic pollution could alter climate by perturbing the sulfur-producing marine organisms. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide in Physiology and Diseases of the Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha B. Singh


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a Janus-faced molecule. On one hand, several toxic functions have been attributed to H2S and exposure to high levels of this gas is extremely hazardous to health. On the other hand, H2S delivery based clinical therapies are being developed to combat inflammation, visceral pain, oxidative stress related tissue injury, thrombosis and cancer. Since its discovery, H2S has been found to have pleiotropic effects on physiology and health. H2S is a gasotransmitter that exerts its effect on different systems, such as gastrointestinal, neuronal, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems. In the gastrointestinal tract, in addition to H2S production by mammalian cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE, H2S is also generated by the metabolic activity of resident gut microbes, mainly by colonic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB via a dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR pathway. In the gut, H2S regulates functions such as inflammation, ischemia/ reperfusion injury and motility. H2S derived from gut microbes has been found to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. This underscores the importance of gut microbes and their production of H2S on host physiology and pathophysiology.

  4. A Drude polarizable model for liquid hydrogen sulfide. (United States)

    Riahi, Saleh; Rowley, Christopher N


    A polarizable force field for liquid hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been developed based on the Drude oscillator model. This force field has been designed to be analogous to the SWM4-NDP water model; the model is rigid with point charges assigned to the H and S atoms and a lone pair on the bisector of ∠HSH in the molecular plane. Positions of the lone pair and the charges have been defined such that the model has a static dipole moment of 0.98 D, equal to the experimental value. Polarizability is incorporated by a charged (Drude) particle attached to the S atom through a harmonic potential. Intermolecular nonbonded forces are included by use of a Lennard-Jones potential between S atoms. The model was parametrized to reproduce the density, enthalpy of vaporization, and dielectric constant of pure H2S at 212 K and 1 atm. The calculated density, enthalpy of vaporization, shear viscosity coefficient, and self-diffusion coefficient are in good agreement with experiment over the temperature range 212-298 K along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve of liquid H2S. The radial distribution function calculated from this model is in good agreement with experimental diffraction data and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Physiology of Penile Erection (United States)

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Villalta, Jackie; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is a well known toxic gas, has recently been recognized as a biological messenger, which plays an important role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Relatively high levels of H2S have been discovered in mammalian tissues. It is mainly synthesized by two enzymes including cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lysase, which utilize L-cysteine as substrate to produce H2S. H2S has been demonstrated to exhibit potent vasodilator activity both in vitro and in vivo by relaxing vascular smooth muscle. Recently, H2S has been discovered in penile tissue with smooth muscle relaxant effects. Furthermore, other effects of H2S may play a role in the physiology of erection. Understanding of H2S in the physiology of erection might provide alternative erectile dysfunction (ED) strategies for those patients with poor or no response to type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE5i). This review intends to present the H2S pathway in penile tissue and the potential role of H2S in the physiology of erections. PMID:22016355

  6. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, P.S.


    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  7. An Update on AMPK in Hydrogen Sulfide Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjun Wang


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, the third bio-active gasotransmitter, is produced endogenously and tightly involved in the pathogenesis and treatment for various diseases. Adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a paramount role in maintaining cellular energetic balance. Increasing evidences have also suggested AMPK as a novel modulator in multiple pathological conditions. In this paper, we will review the biological principles of H2S and AMPK, and most importantly, the recent discoveries regarding AMPK-mediated pharmacological actions of H2S. Emphasis will be laid on AMPK/H2S interactions in the cardiovascular system, autophagy, diabetic complications, and inflammation. In most cases described in this article, by promoting AMPK activation, H2S exerts cytoprotective effects or therapeutic potentials, though there remain some controversies before we can fully understand the involved mechanisms. Further researches are in need to investigate more closely any relationship between H2S and AMPK, and to put forward the development of H2S donors for clinical application.

  8. Tropical sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide observed from space (United States)

    Glatthor, Norbert; Höpfner, Michael; Baker, Ian T.; Berry, Joe; Campbell, Elliott; Kawa, Stephan R.; Krysztofiak, Gisele; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Stiller, Gabriele; Stinecipher, Jim; von Clarmann, Thomas


    According to current budget estimations the seasonal variation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) is governed by oceanic release and vegetation uptake. Its assimilation by plants is assumed to be similar to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 but, contrary to the latter process, to be irreversible. Therefore COS has been suggested as co-tracer of the carbon cycle. Observations of COS, however, are sparse, especially in tropical regions. We use the comprehensive data set of spaceborne measurements of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) to analyze its global distribution. Two major features are observed in the tropical upper troposphere around 250 hPa: enhanced amounts over the western Pacific and the Maritime Continent, peaking around 550 pptv in boreal summer, and a seasonally varying depletion of COS extending from tropical South America to Africa. The large-scale COS depletion, which in austral summer amounts up to -40 pptv as compared to the rest of the respective latitude band, has not been observed before and reveals the seasonality of COS uptake through tropical vegetation. The observations can only be reproduced by global models, when a large vegetation uptake and a corresponding increase in oceanic emissions as proposed in several recent publications is assumed.

  9. Depolarizing actions of hydrogen sulfide on hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sahara Khademullah

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a novel neurotransmitter that has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions as well and corticotrophin hormone (CRH secretion. Since the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN is a central relay center for autonomic and endocrine functions, we sought to investigate the effects of H2S on the neuronal population of the PVN. Whole cell current clamp recordings were acquired from the PVN neurons and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS was bath applied at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mM. NaHS (1, 10, and 50 mM elicited a concentration-response relationship from the majority of recorded neurons, with almost exclusively depolarizing effects following administration. Cells responded and recovered from NaHS administration quickly and the effects were repeatable. Input differences from baseline and during the NaHS-induced depolarization uncovered a biphasic response, implicating both a potassium and non-selective cation conductance. The results from the neuronal population of the PVN shed light on the possible physiological role that H2S has in autonomic and endocrine function.

  10. Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. Elliott [Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States); Berry, Joseph A. [Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Billesbach, Dave [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Torn, Margaret S [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zahniser, Mark [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Seibt, Ulrike [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maseyk, Kadmiel [Pierre and Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France)


    The April-June 2012 campaign was located at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site Central Facility and had three purposes. One goal was to demonstrate the ability of current instrumentation to correctly measure fluxes of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS). The approach has been describe previously as a critical approach to advancing carbon cycle science1,2, but requires further investigation at the canopy scale to resolve ecosystem processes. Previous canopy-scale efforts were limited to data rates of 1Hz. While 1 Hz measurements may work in a few ecosystems, it is widely accepted that data rates of 10 to 20 Hz are needed to fully capture the exchange of traces gases between the atmosphere and vegetative canopy. A second goal of this campaign was to determine if canopy observations could provide information to help interpret the seasonal double peak in airborne observations at SGP of CO2 and COS mixing ratios. A third goal was to detect potential sources and sinks of COS that must be resolved before using COS as a tracer of gross primary productivity (GPP).

  11. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles. (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed


    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide and cell signaling: team player or referee? (United States)

    Hancock, J T; Whiteman, M


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been postulated to be the third gasotransmitter, and along with other reactive compounds such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) it is thought to be a key signalling molecule. Enzymes which generate H2S, and remove it, have been characterised in both plants and animals and although it is inherently toxic to cells - inhibiting cytochrome oxidase for example - H2S is now being thought of as part of signal transduction pathways. But is it working as a signal in the sense usually seen for small signalling molecules, that is, produced when needed, perceived and leading to dedicated responses in cells? A look through the literature shows that H2S is involved in many stress responses, and in animals is implicated in the onset of many diseases, in both cases where ROS and NO are often involved. It is suggested here that H2S is not acting as a true signal, but through its interaction with NO and ROS metabolism is modulating such activity, keeping it in check unless strictly needed, and that H2S is acting as a referee to ensure NO and ROS metabolism is working properly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of sulfide mineral leaching through covalent coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.M. Zaman; C. Chusuei; L.Y. Blue; D.A. Atwood [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Chemistry


    The use of benzene-1,3-diamidoethanethiol as a covalent surface coating for the prevention of metal leaching was demonstrated with several sulfide minerals including cinnabar (HgS), pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), covellite (CuS), galena (PbS), realgar (As{sub 4}S{sub 4}) and sphalerite (ZnS). The minerals were coated with sufficient H2BDT to bind the surface metals in a 1:1 ratio. Leaching at pH 1, 3 and 7 was then conducted on both treated and untreated minerals. ICP and CVAFS (for mercury) analyses revealed that the coated minerals showed a dramatic reduction in metal leaching as compared to uncoated control samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the formation of covalent bonds between the sulphur of the ligand and the metals from the minerals. Results indicate that it would be possible to prevent acid mine drainage through the binding of the metals in coal. 51 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Biochemistry and therapeutic potential of hydrogen sulfide - reality or fantasy? (United States)

    Brodek, Paulina; Olas, Beata


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling gasotransmitter, involved in different physiological and pathological processes. H2S regulates apoptosis, the cell cycle and oxidative stress. H2S exerts powerful effects on smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclear transcription factors. H2S is known to be produced from L-cysteine, D-cysteine and L-homocysteine in the body. Four enzymes - cystathionine-b synthase (CBS), mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT) - are involved in H2S synthesis. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of H2S from D-cysteine involves 3-MST and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). The therapeutic potential of H2S is not clear. However, recently results have demonstrated that H2S has protective action for ischemic heart disease or hypertension, and protects against ischemia of the brain. This review summarizes the negative and the positive roles of H2S in various biological systems, for example the cardiovascular system and nervous system. We also discuss the function of classical, therapeutic and natural (for example garlic) donors of H2S in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide interactions in inflammation. (United States)

    Lo Faro, Maria Letizia; Fox, Bridget; Whatmore, Jacqueline L; Winyard, Paul G; Whiteman, Matthew


    Together with carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) form a group of physiologically important gaseous transmitters, sometimes referred to as the "gaseous triumvirate". The three molecules share a wide range of physical and physiological properties: they are small gaseous molecules, able to freely penetrate cellular membranes; they are all produced endogenously in the body and they seem to exert similar biological functions. In the cardiovascular system, for example, they are all vasodilators, promote angiogenesis and protect tissues against damage (e.g. ischemia-reperfusion injury). In addition, they have complex roles in inflammation, with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects reported. Researchers have focused their efforts in understanding and describing the roles of each of these molecules in different physiological systems, and in the past years attention has also been given to the gases interaction or "cross-talk". This review will focus on the role of NO and H2S in inflammation and will give an overview of the evidence collected so far suggesting the importance of their cross-talk in inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide and cardioprotection--Mechanistic insights and clinical translatability. (United States)

    Salloum, Fadi N


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been long recognized as a highly poisonous gas that is rapidly lethal in intoxicating dosage. However, discoveries during the last decade on the endogenous synthesis of H2S in the mammalian system and its protective role in combating cellular necrosis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation as well as promoting angiogenesis and modulation of mitochondrial respiration in the setting of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury have prompted vast interest in the possibility of developing new therapies based around mimicry or facilitation of endogenous H2S for cardioprotection. These observations have inspired rapid development of H2S-releasing drugs in hopes of swift clinical translation in patients with cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss our current understanding of the protective signaling pathways elicited by H2S in the heart with an emphasis on the versatile benefits of this gasotransmitter and its potential for clinical translation in patients with cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Donor GYY4137 Protects against Myocardial Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Meng


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gasotransmitter which regulates multiple cardiovascular functions. However, the precise roles of H2S in modulating myocardial fibrosis in vivo and cardiac fibroblast proliferation in vitro remain unclear. We investigated the effect of GYY4137, a slow-releasing H2S donor, on myocardial fibrosis. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were administrated with GYY4137 by intraperitoneal injection daily for 4 weeks. GYY4137 decreased systolic blood pressure and inhibited myocardial fibrosis in SHR as evidenced by improved cardiac collagen volume fraction (CVF in the left ventricle (LV, ratio of perivascular collagen area (PVCA to lumen area (LA in perivascular regions, reduced hydroxyproline concentration, collagen I and III mRNA expression, and cross-linked collagen. GYY4137 also inhibited angiotensin II- (Ang II- induced neonatal rat cardiac fibroblast proliferation, reduced the number of fibroblasts in S phase, decreased collagen I and III mRNA expression and protein synthesis, attenuated oxidative stress, and suppressed α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 expression as well as Smad2 phosphorylation. These results indicate that GYY4137 improves myocardial fibrosis perhaps by a mechanism involving inhibition of oxidative stress, blockade of the TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway, and decrease in α-SMA expression in cardiac fibroblasts.

  18. Toxicity of sulfide to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris). (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Todhunter, Kevin; Fort, Troy D; Mathis, Michael B; Walker, Rachel; Hansel, Mike; Hall, Scott; Richards, Robin; Anderson, Kurt


    The sensitivity of wild rice (Zizania palustris) to sulfide is not well understood. Because sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota (USA) surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-d daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by iron (Fe). The hydroponic design used hypoxic test media for seed and root exposure and aerobic headspace for the vegetative portion of the plant. Test concentrations were 0.3, 1.6, 3.1, 7.8, and 12.5 mg/L sulfide in test media with 0.8, 2.8, and 10.8 mg/L total Fe used to evaluate the impact of iron on sulfide toxicity. Visual assessments (i.e., no plants harvested) of seed activation, mesocotyl emergence, seedling survival, and phytoxicity were conducted 10 d after dark-phase exposure. Each treatment was also evaluated for time to 30% emergence (ET30), total plant biomass, root and shoot lengths, and signs of phytotoxicity at study conclusion (21 d). The results indicate that exposure of developing wild rice to sulfide at ≥3.1 mg sulfide/L in the presence of 0.8 mg/L Fe reduced mesocotyl emergence. Sulfide toxicity was mitigated by the addition of Fe at 2.8 mg/L and 10.8 mg/L relative to the control value of 0.8 mg Fe/L, demonstrating the importance of iron in mitigating sulfide toxicity to wild rice. Ultimately, determination of site-specific sulfate criteria taking into account factors that alter toxicity, including sediment Fe and organic carbon, are necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2217-2226. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Probing Upper Mantle Heterogeneity: Os and Pb Isotopic Compositions of Individual Sulfide Grains in Abyssal Peridotites (United States)

    Warren, J. M.; Shirey, S. B.


    Abyssal peridotites from mid-ocean ridges are unique samples of the depleted upper mantle that can be used to understand a variety of processes from melting and melt extraction to the compositional evolution of the interior of the earth. Traditional work on abyssal peridotites has focused on either bulk rock compositions or on the compositions of clinopyroxenes, which are the main repository of trace elements in these rocks. However, recent (e.g., Alard et al., 2000; Luguet et al., 2003; Harvey et al., 2006) and previous (Meijer, 1980; Morgan, 1985) works on peridotites have indicated that Fe-Ni-Cu sulfides, present at trace levels in abyssal peridotites, may contain a significant proportion of both the Pb and Os budget of the upper mantle. As the isotopic compositions of Pb and Os provide important information about the long term evolution of the mantle, analysis of single sulfide grains can provide unique information not available from basalt or whole-rock peridotite studies: the spatial scale is small compared to basaltic melt sampling, adjacent silicate mineralogy can be evaluated, and secondary sulfide and alteration minerals can be avoided. Thus, while sulfides represent chalcopyrite. We have adapted single grain sulfide techniques from studies of sulfide inclusions in diamonds, to allow us to extract Os, Pb and transition metals from sulfides down to 5 μg. Os concentrations in pentlandites are ~0.4-5 ppm, 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than bulk rock abyssal peridotite concentrations. In contrast, chalcopyrites, associated with veins in the peridotites, do not contain measurable quantities of Os. Preliminary Pb data indicates that pentlanditic sulfides have Pb concentrations close to ~9 ppm. 187Os/188Os isotopic compositions range from 0.1209 to 0.1278 in sulfides away from hotspots, typical of depleted mantle and in agreement with the depleted Sr and Nd isotopic composition of clinopyroxenes from the same samples. To date, we have not found any anomalously

  20. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (United States)

    Lin, J D; Kao, P F; Weng, H F; Lu, W T; Huang, M J


    Radioactive iodine (131I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. 201Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative 131I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of 201Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of 131I and 201Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative 201Tl and 131I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. 201Tl imaging was performed before the 131I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent 201Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the 201Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic 131I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by 201Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative 201Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on 131I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on 131I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative 201Tl and 131I scans, 15 had elevated serum Tg levels. Among these, local recurrence followed by lung metastases was manifested in

  1. MRI and thallium features of pigmented villonodular synovitis and giant cell tumours of tendon sheaths: a retrospective single centre study of imaging and literature review. (United States)

    Lynskey, Samuel J; Pianta, Marcus J


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the MRI and thallium-201 ((201)TI) scintigraphy attributes of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and giant cell tumours of tendon sheaths (GCTTS). The epidemiology of these uncommon lesions was also assessed and less commonly encountered pathology reported on including multifocality, necrosis and concurrent malignancy. A retrospective single centre review of MRI and (201)TI scintigraphy findings for 83 surgically proven or biopsy-proven consecutive cases of PVNS was undertaken. Radiological findings including lesion size, (201)TI uptake (as a marker of metabolic activity), location, extent and patient demographics were correlated with biopsy and surgical specimen histology. Typical appearances are described, as well as less common imaging manifestations. The study period encompassed all patients presenting or referred to a tertiary bone and soft-tissue tumour referral centre with PVNS or GCTTS between 1 January 2007 and the 1 December 2013. Lesions occur most commonly around the knee joint in the fourth decade of life, with younger patients showing a tendency to occur in the hip. Features of PVNS and GTTS include bone erosion, ligamentous and cartilage replacement, muscle infiltration and multifocality. MR signal characteristics were variable but post-contrast enhancement was near-universal. 14 of 83 cases showed no uptake of (201)TI and revealed a statistically significant smaller average axial dimension of 19.8 mm than lesions displaying active (201)TI uptake of 36.4 mm, p = 0.016. Four lesions demonstrated central necrosis on gross histology, two of each from both the (201)TI-avid and (201)TI-non-avid groups. MR is the imaging modality of choice when considering the diagnosis of these uncommon tumours. (201)TI scintigraphy as a marker of metabolic activity further adds minimal value although small lesions can appear to lack (201)TI avidity. This article depicts typical imaging findings of PVNS/GCTTS and

  2. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)


    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. {sup 201}Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative {sup 131}I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of {sup 201}Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. {sup 201}Tl imaging was performed before the {sup 131}I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent {sup 201}Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the {sup 201}Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic {sup 131}I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by {sup 201}Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on {sup 131}I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on {sup 131}I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I

  3. Effects of adenosine and a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist on hemodynamic and thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jadbabaie, Farid; Dione, Donald P; Meoli, David F; Purushothaman, Kailasnath; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sinusas, Albert J


    The purpose of this study was to compare a selective A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist (regadenoson) with adenosine in clinically relevant canine models with regard to effects on hemodynamics and thallium-201 ((201)Tl) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The clinical application of vasodilator stress for perfusion imaging requires consideration of the effects of these vasodilating agents on systemic hemodynamics, coronary flow, and radiotracer uptake and clearance kinetics. Sequential imaging and arterial blood sampling was performed on control, anesthetized closed-chest canines (n = 7) to evaluate radiotracer biodistribution and kinetics after either a bolus administration of regadenoson (2.5 microg/kg) or 4.5-min infusion of adenosine (280 microg/kg). The effects of regadenoson on coronary flow and myocardial radiotracer uptake were then evaluated in an open-chest canine model of a critical stenosis (n = 7). Results from ex vivo single-photon emission computed tomography were compared with tissue well-counting. The use of regadenoson compared favorably with adenosine in regard to the duration and magnitude of the hemodynamic effects and the effect on (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The arterial blood clearance half-time was significantly faster for (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (regadenoson: 1.4 +/- 0.03 min; adenosine: 1.5 +/- 0.08 min) than for (201)Tl (regadenoson: 2.5 +/- 0.16 min, p adenosine: 2.7 +/- 0.04 min, p regadenoson stress was significantly greater than the relative perfusion defect with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (0.69 +/- 0.03%, p regadenoson produced a hyperemic response comparable to a standard infusion of adenosine. The biodistribution and clearance of both (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI during regadenoson were similar to adenosine vasodilation. Ex vivo perfusion images under the most ideal conditions permitted detection of a critical stenosis, although (201)Tl offered significant advantages over (99m

  4. Comparison of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 gated myocardial perfusion SPECT for determining left ventricular systolic and diastolic parameters. (United States)

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Sumimoto, Yoji; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Watanabe, Noriaki; Ishibashi, Ken; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Yukihiro; Kihara, Yasuki


    The myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography synchronized with the electrocardiogram (gated SPECT) has been widely used for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions using Quantitative gated SPECT. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 (Tl-201) gated SPECT for determining LV systolic and diastolic parameters. The study population included 42 patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent gated SPECT by clinical indication. LV systolic and diastolic parameters were assessed on 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. There were good correlations in end-diastolic volume (r = 0.99, p < 0.001), end-systolic volume (ESV) (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and ejection fraction (EF) (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) between 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. Bland-Altman plot showed a significant negative slope of -0.08 in EDV indicating a larger difference for larger EDV. Eight-frame gated SPECT overestimated ESV by 2.3 ml, and underestimated EF by -4.2% than 16-frame gated SPECT. There were good correlations in peak filling rate (PFR) (r = 0.87, p < 0.001), one third mean filling rate (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and time to PFR (r = 0.61, p < 0.001) between 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. Eight-frame gated SPECT underestimated PFR by -0.22 than 16-frame gated SPECT. Eight-frame gated SPECT estimated as much MFR/3 and TPFR as 16-frame gated SPECT. According to the data, the study suggested that 8-frame Tl-201 gated SPECT could underestimate systolic and/or diastolic parameter when compared with 16-frame gated SPECT.

  5. Regioselective C-H hydroxylation of omeprazole sulfide by Bacillus megaterium CYP102A1 to produce a human metabolite. (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Ryu, Sang-Hoon; Le, Thien-Kim; Doan, Tiep Thi My; Nguyen, Thi Huong Ha; Park, Ki Deok; Yim, Da-Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Choong-Kyung; Ahn, Taeho; Kang, Hyung-Sik; Yun, Chul-Ho


    To find a simple enzymatic strategy for the efficient synthesis of the expensive 5'-hydroxyomeprazole sulfide, a recently identified minor human metabolite, from omeprazole sulfide, which is an inexpensive substrate. The practical synthetic strategy for the 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide was accomplished with a set of highly active CYP102A1 mutants, which were obtained by blue colony screening from CYP102A1 libraries with a high conversion yield. The mutant and even the wild-type enzyme of CYP102A1 catalyzed the high regioselective (98 %) C-H hydroxylation of omeprazole sulfide to 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide with a high conversion yield (85-90 %). A highly efficient synthesis of 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide was developed using CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium as a biocatalyst.

  6. Sulfide as a confounding factor in toxicity tests with the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus: comparisons with chemical analysis data. (United States)

    Losso, Chiara; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra; Picone, Marco; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria; Ghetti, Pier Francesco; Rudello, Danilo; Ugo, Paolo


    Sperm cell and embryo toxicity tests with the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were performed to assess the toxicity of sulfide, which is considered a confounding factor in toxicity tests. For improved information on the sensitivity of these methods to sulfide, experiments were performed in the same aerobic conditions used for testing environmental samples, with sulfide concentrations being monitored at the same time by cathodic stripping voltammetry. New toxicity data for sulfide expressed as median effective concentration (EC50) and no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) are reported. The EC50 value for the embryo toxicity test (total sulfide at 0.43 mg/L) was three times lower than for the sperm cell test (total sulfide at 1.20 mg/L), and the NOEC values were similar (on the order of total sulfide at 10(-1) mg/L) for both tests. The decrease in sulfide concentration during the bioassay as a consequence of possible oxidation of sulfide by dissolved oxygen was determined by voltammetric analysis, indicating a half-life of about 50 min in the presence of gametes. To check the influence of sulfide concentrations on toxicity effects in real samples, toxicity (with the sperm cell toxicity test) and chemical analyses also were performed in pore-water samples collected with an in situ sampler in sediments of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). A highly positive correlation between increased acute toxicity and increased sulfide concentration was found. Examination of data revealed that sulfide is a real confounding factor in toxicity testing in anoxic environmental samples containing concentrations above the sensitivity limit of the method.

  7. Acute Effects of Peripheral Injection of Bis-2-Chloro-ethyl sulfide on the Serum Proteins Content in Rat




    Bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide or sulfur mustard an alkylating agent after absorption through skin may enter the blood circulation and interacts with different molecules in the body. Pulmonary complication, ocular lesions, enzyme disorders and other toxic effects of sulfur mustard in the body has already been reported. Rats were injected with sub-lethal doses of Bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide intraperitoneally and at different intervals serum was collected. The effect of Bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide on th...

  8. Simultaneous sulfide removal, nitrification, and electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell equipped with an oxic cathode. (United States)

    Bao, Renbing; Zhang, Shaohui; Zhao, Li; Zhong, Liuxiang


    With sulfide as an anodic electron donor and ammonium as a cathodic substrate, the feasibility of simultaneous sulfide removal, nitrification, and electricity generation was investigated in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with an oxic cathode. Successful simultaneous sulfide removal, nitrification, and electricity generation in this MFC were achieved in 35 days, with the sulfide and ammonium removal percent of 92.7 ± 1.4 and 96.4 ± 0.3%, respectively. The maximum power density increased, but the internal resistance decreased with the increase of feeding sulfide concentration from 62.9 ± 0.3 to 238.5 ± 0.2 mg S/L. Stable ammonium removal with complete nitrification, preparing for future denitrification, was obtained throughout the current study. Sulfide removal loading significantly increased with the increase of feeding sulfide concentration at each external resistance, but no significant correlation between sulfide removal loading and external resistance was found at each feeding sulfide concentration. The charge recovery and anodic coulombic efficiency (CE) significantly decreased with the increase of external resistance. High feeding sulfide concentration led to low anodic CE. Granular sulfur deposition was found on the anode graphite fiber. The appropriate feeding sulfide concentration for sulfide removal and sulfur deposition was deemed to be 178.0 ± 1.7 mg S/L, achieving a sulfur deposition percent of 69.7 ± 0.6%.

  9. The mechanism of the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide *1: III. An electron spin resonance study of the sulfur catalyzed oxidation of hydrogen sulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijns, M.; Koopman, P.; Nieuwenhuijse, B.; Mars, P.


    ESR experiments on the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide were performed in the temperature range 20–150 °C. Alumina, active carbon and molecular sieve zeolite 13X were investigated as catalysts. For zeolite 13X it was demonstrated that the reaction is autocatalytic and that sulfur radicals are the

  10. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part I. the absorption of hydrogen sulfide in metal sulfate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.


    The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous iron(II)sulfate (Fe(II)SO4), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) solutions as washing liquor is studied theoretically and experimentally. The desulfurization is accomplished by a precipitation reaction that occurs when sulfide ions and

  11. Sulfide Oxidation by a Noncanonical Pathway in Red Blood Cells Generates Thiosulfate and Polysulfides* (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Yadav, Pramod K.; Kurthen, Angelika; Banerjee, Ruma


    A cardioprotectant at low concentrations, H2S is a toxin at high concentrations and inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. A conundrum in H2S homeostasis is its fate in red blood cells (RBCs), which produce H2S but lack the canonical mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway for its clearance. The sheer abundance of RBCs in circulation enhances the metabolic significance of their clearance strategy for H2S, necessary to avoid systemic toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that H2S generation by RBCs is catalyzed by mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Furthermore, we have discovered the locus of sulfide oxidation in RBCs and describe a new role for an old protein, hemoglobin, which in the ferric or methemoglobin state binds H2S and oxidizes it to a mixture of thiosulfate and hydropolysulfides. Our study reveals a previously undescribed route for the biogenesis of hydropolysulfides, which are increasingly considered important for H2S-based signaling, but their origin in mammalian cells is unknown. An NADPH/flavoprotein oxidoreductase system restores polysulfide-carrying hemoglobin derivatives to ferrous hemoglobin, thus completing the methemoglobin-dependent sulfide oxidation cycle. Methemoglobin-dependent sulfide oxidation in mammals is complex and has similarities to chemistry reported for the dissolution of iron oxides in sulfidic waters and during bioleaching of metal sulfides. The catalytic oxidation of H2S by hemoglobin explains how RBCs maintain low steady-state H2S levels in circulation, and suggests that additional hemeproteins might be involved in sulfide homeostasis in other tissues. PMID:25688092

  12. Transformation of iron sulfide to greigite by nitrite produced by oil field bacteria. (United States)

    Lin, Shiping; Krause, Federico; Voordouw, Gerrit


    Nitrate, injected into oil fields, can oxidize sulfide formed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through the action of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). When reservoir rock contains siderite (FeCO(3)), the sulfide formed is immobilized as iron sulfide minerals, e.g. mackinawite (FeS). The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which oil field NR-SOB can oxidize or transform FeS. Because no NR-SOB capable of growth with FeS were isolated, the well-characterized oil field isolate Sulfurimonas sp. strain CVO was used. When strain CVO was presented with a mixture of chemically formed FeS and dissolved sulfide (HS(-)), it only oxidized the HS(-). The FeS remained acid soluble and non-magnetic indicating that it was not transformed. In contrast, when the FeS was formed by adding FeCl(2) to a culture of SRB which gradually produced sulfide, precipitating FeS, and to which strain CVO and nitrate were subsequently added, transformation of the FeS to a magnetic, less acid-soluble form was observed. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry indicated the transformed mineral to be greigite (Fe(3)S(4)). Addition of nitrite to cultures of SRB, containing microbially formed FeS, was similarly effective. Nitrite reacts chemically with HS(-) to form polysulfide and sulfur (S(0)), which then transforms SRB-formed FeS to greigite, possibly via a sulfur addition pathway (3FeS + S(0) --> Fe(3)S(4)). Further chemical transformation to pyrite (FeS(2)) is expected at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C). Hence, nitrate injection into oil fields may lead to NR-SOB-mediated and chemical mineral transformations, increasing the sulfide-binding capacity of reservoir rock. Because of mineral volume decreases, these transformations may also increase reservoir injectivity.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide in plants: from dissipation of excess sulfur to signaling molecule. (United States)

    Calderwood, Alexander; Kopriva, Stanislav


    Sulfur is essential in all organisms for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine and as an active component of numerous co-factors and prosthetic groups. However, only plants, algae, fungi, and some prokaryotes are capable of using the abundant inorganic source of sulfur, sulfate. Plants take sulfate up, reduce it, and assimilate into organic compounds with cysteine being the first product of the pathway and a donor of reduced sulfur for synthesis of other S-containing compounds. Cysteine is formed in a reaction between sulfide, derived from reduction of sulfite and an activated amino acid acceptor, O-acetylserine. Sulfide is thus an important intermediate in sulfur metabolism, but numerous other functions in plants has been revealed. Hydrogen sulfide can serve as an alternative source of sulfur for plants, which may be significant in anaerobic conditions of waterlogged soils. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen sulfide have been detected from many plant species. Since the amount of H2S discharged correlated with sulfate supply to the plants, the emissions were considered a mechanism for dissipation of excess sulfur. Significant hydrogen sulfide emissions were also observed in plants infected with pathogens, particularly with fungi. H2S thus seems to be part of the widely discussed sulfur-induced-resistance/sulfur-enhanced-defense. Recently, however, more evidence has emerged for a role for H2S in regulation and signaling. Sulfide stabilizes the cysteine synthase complex, increasing so the synthesis of its acceptor O-acetylserine. H2S has been implicating in regulation of plant stress response, particularly draught stress. There are more and more examples of processes regulated by H2S in plants being discovered, and hydrogen sulfide is emerging as an important signaling molecule, similar to its role in the animal and human world. How similar the functions, and homeostasis of H2S are in these diverse organisms, however, remains to be elucidated

  14. Reactivity of hydrogen sulfide with peroxynitrite and other oxidants of biological interest. (United States)

    Carballal, Sebastián; Trujillo, Madia; Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Möller, Matías N; Folkes, Lisa K; García-Bereguiaín, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos; Wardman, Peter; Denicola, Ana; Radi, Rafael; Alvarez, Beatriz


    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenously generated gas that can also be administered exogenously. It modulates physiological functions and has reported cytoprotective effects. To evaluate a possible antioxidant role, we investigated the reactivity of hydrogen sulfide with several one- and two-electron oxidants. The rate constant of the direct reaction with peroxynitrite was (4.8±1.4)×10(3)M(-1) s(-1) (pH 7.4, 37°C). At low hydrogen sulfide concentrations, oxidation by peroxynitrite led to oxygen consumption, consistent with a one-electron oxidation that initiated a radical chain reaction. Accordingly, pulse radiolysis studies indicated that hydrogen sulfide reacted with nitrogen dioxide at (3.0±0.3)×10(6)M(-1) s(-1) at pH 6 and (1.2±0.1)×10(7)M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.5 (25°C). The reactions of hydrogen sulfide with hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, and taurine chloramine had rate constants of 0.73±0.03, (8±3)×10(7), and 303±27M(-1) s(-1), respectively (pH 7.4, 37°C). The reactivity of hydrogen sulfide was compared to that of low-molecular-weight thiols such as cysteine and glutathione. Considering the low tissue concentrations of endogenous hydrogen sulfide, direct reactions with oxidants probably cannot completely account for its protective effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal. (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu


    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tellurium-bearing minerals in zoned sulfide chimneys from Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Urals, Russia (United States)

    Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Large, R. R.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Herrington, R. J.; Stanley, C. J.


    Tellurium-bearing minerals are generally rare in chimney material from mafic and bimodal felsic volcanic hosted massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, but are abundant in chimneys of the Urals VMS deposits located within Silurian and Devonian bimodal mafic sequences. High physicochemical gradients during chimney growth result in a wide range of telluride and sulfoarsenide assemblages including a variety of Cu-Ag-Te-S and Ag-Pb-Bi-Te solid solution series and tellurium sulfosalts. A change in chimney types from Fe-Cu to Cu-Zn-Fe to Zn-Cu is accompanied by gradual replacement of abundant Fe-, Co, Bi-, and Pb- tellurides by Hg, Ag, Au-Ag telluride and galena-fahlore with native gold assemblages. Decreasing amounts of pyrite, both colloform and pseudomorphic after pyrrhotite, isocubanite ISS and chalcopyrite in the chimneys is coupled with increasing amounts of sphalerite, quatz, barite or talc contents. This trend represents a transition from low- to high sulphidation conditions, and it is observed across a range of the Urals deposits from bimodal mafic- to bimodal felsic-hosted types: Yaman-Kasy → Molodezhnoye → Uzelga → Valentorskoye → Oktyabrskoye → Alexandrinskoye → Tash-Tau → Jusa.

  17. Characterization of upgraded fast pyrolysis oak oil distillate fractions from sulfided and non-sulfided catalytic hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olarte, Mariefel V.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Ferrell, Jack R.; Christensen, Earl D.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lucke, Richard B.; Burton, Sarah D.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Swita, Marie S.; Fioroni, Gina; Elliott, Douglas C.; Drennan, Corinne


    Catalytic hydroprocessing of pyrolysis oils from biomass produces hydrocarbons that can be considered for liquid fuel production. This process requires removal of oxygen and cracking of the heavier molecular weight bio-oil constituents into smaller fragments at high temperatures and pressures under hydrogen. A comprehensive understanding of product oils is useful to optimize cost versus degree of deoxygenation. Additionally, a better understanding of the chemical composition of the distillate fractions can open up other uses of upgraded oils for potentially higher-value chemical streams. We present in this paper the characterization data for five well-defined distillate fractions of two hydroprocessed oils with different oxygen levels: a low oxygen content (LOC, 1.8% O, wet basis) oil and a medium oxygen content (MOC, 6.4% O, wet basis) oil. Elemental analysis and 13C NMR results suggest that the distillate fractions become more aromatic/unsaturated as they become heavier. Our results also show that the use of sulfided catalysts directly affects the S content of the lightest distillate fraction. Carbonyl and carboxylic groups were found in the MOC light fractions, while phenols were present in the heavier fractions for both MOC and LOC. PIONA analysis of the light LOC fraction shows a predominance of paraffins with a minor amount of olefins. These results can be used to direct future research on refinery integration and production of value-added product from specific upgraded oil streams.

  18. Zinc sulfide and terbium-doped zinc sulfide films grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, S J; Nam, K S


    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) and terbium-doped ZnS (ZnS:Tb) thin films were grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). In the present work, ZnCl sub 2 , H sub 2 S, and tris (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptandionato) terbium (Tb(tmhd) sub 3) were used as the precursors. The dependence of crystallinity and Cl content of ZnS films was investigated on the growth temperature. ZnS and ZnS:Tb films grown at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 .deg. C showed a hexagonal-2H crystalline structure. The crystallinity of ZnS film was greatly enhanced as the temperature increased. At growth temperatures higher than 450.deg.C, the films showed preferred orientation with mainly (002) diffraction peak. The Cl content decreased from approximately 9 to 1 at.% with the increase in growth temperature from 400 to 500 .deg. C. The segregation of Cl near the surface region and the incorporation of O from Tb(tmhd) sub 3 during ALE process were also observed using Auger electron spectroscopy. The ALE-grown ZnS and ZnS:Tb films re...

  19. Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo


    The Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is located at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northern Xinjiang, Northwestern China. The host intrusion of the Hulu deposit is composed of a layered mafic-ultramafic sequence and a dike-like unit. The layered sequence is composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbro, gabbrodiorite and diorite. The dike-like body comprises lherzolite and gabbro. Sulfide orebodies occur mainly within the harzburgite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at the base of the layered sequence and within the lherzolite in the dike-like body. Sulfide mineralization from the Hulu deposit shows significant depletion of PGE relative to Cu and Ni. These elements show good positive correlations with S in the sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit but relatively weak correlations in the sulfide mineralization from the layered sequence. The sulfide mineralization from the layered unit shows excellent positive correlations between Ir and Os, Ru or Rh, and poor relationships between Ir and Pt or Pd. On the contrary, sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit shows good correlations in the diagrams of Os, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd against Ir. Both high Cu/Pd ratios (8855-481,398) and our modeling indicate that PGE depletion resulted from sulfide removal in a deep staging magma chamber. The evolved PGE-depleted magmas then ascended to the shallower magma chamber and became sulfide saturation due to crustal contamination. Both low Se/S ratios (33.5 × 10-6-487.5 × 10-6) and a negative correlation between Se/S and Cu/Pd ratios are consistent with the addition of crustal S. A large number of sulfide liquids segregated with minor crystallization of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) in the shallower magma chamber. When new magma pulses with unfractionated sulfide droplets entered the shallower magma chamber, the sulfide slurry containing crystallized MSS may be disrupted and mixed with the unfractionated sulfide droplets. The

  20. Sulfide and pH effects on variable fluorescence of photosystem II in two strains of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria amphigranulata. (United States)

    Dodds, W K; Castenholz, R W


    Changes in fluorescence of photosystem II (PS II) chlorophyll were used to monitor the in vivo effects of sulfide and pH on photosynthesis by the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria amphigranulata. O. amphigranulata is capable of both oxygenic photosynthesis and sulfide dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis. A genetic variant of O. amphigranulata which photosynthesizes oxygenically at normal rates, but is incapable of anoxygenic photosynthesis and cannot tolerate sulfide, was also used to explore the mode of action of sulfide. In vivo fluorescence responses of PS II chlorophyll in the first few seconds of exposure to light (Kautsky transients) reflected the electrochemical states of PS II and associated electron donors and acceptors. Kautsky transients showed a distinct difference between PS II of the wild type and the variant, but sulfide lowered fluorescence in both. Kautsky transients with sulfide were similar to transients with addition of NH2OH, NH4 (+) or HCN, indicating sulfide interacts with a protein on the donor side of PS II. The fluorescence steady-state (after 2 min) was measured in the presence of sulfide, cyanide and ammonium with pH ranging from 7.2-8.7. Sulfide and cyanide had the most impact at pH 7.2, ammonium at pH 8.7. This suggests that the uncharged forms (HCN, NH3 and H2S) had the strongest effect on PS II, possibly because of increased membrane permeability.