Sample records for thallium isotopes

  1. Tracing thallium contamination in soils using isotopes (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Trubač, Jakub; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Rohovec, Jan; Penížek, Vít; Zádorová, Tereza; Pavlů, Lenka; Holubík, Ondřej; Drábek, Ondřej; Němeček, Karel; Houška, Jakub; Ash, Christopher


    We report the thallium (Tl) isotope record in moderately contaminated soils, which have been historically affected by emissions from coal-fired power plants. Our findings clearly demonstrate that Tl of anthropogenic (high-temperature) origin with light isotope composition was deposited onto the studied soils, where heavier Tl (ɛ205Tl -1) naturally occurs. The results show a positive linear relationship (R2 = 0.71) between 1/Tl and the isotope record, as determined for all the soils and bedrocks, also indicative of binary Tl mixing between two dominant reservoirs. We also identified significant Tl isotope variations within the products from coal combustion and thermo-desorption experiments with local Tl-rich coal pyrite. Bottom ash exhibited the heaviest Tl isotope composition (ɛ205Tl 0), followed by fly ash (ɛ205Tl between -2.5 and -2.8) and volatile Tl fractions (ɛ205Tl between -6.2 and -10.3), suggesting partial Tl isotope fractionations. Despite the evident role of soil processes in the isotope redistribution, we demonstrate that Tl contamination can be traced in soils, and propose that the isotope data represent a possible tool to aid our understanding of post-depositional Tl dynamics in surface environments for the future. This research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (grant no. 14-01866S and 17-03211S).

  2. Laser-assisted decay and optical spectroscopy studies of neutron-deficient thallium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beveren, Céline; Huyse, Mark

    The neutron-deficient thallium isotopes with one proton less than the Z = 82 shell closure, are situated in an interesting region of the nuclear chart, notorious for intruder states and shape coexistence. Shape coexistence is the remarkable phenomenon in which two or more distinct types of deformation occur at low energy in the same atomic nucleus. Shape coexistence has been studied intensively, experimentally as well as theoretically in different nuclei in the light-lead region and the isomerism in the thallium isotopes was among the first indications of this phenomenon. Different shapes, whose structure has been linked to specific proton orbitals above and below the Z = 82 shell closure, are present at low energy in the neutron-deficient odd-mass thallium nuclei. In the odd-odd nuclei, the coupling of an unpaired proton and unpaired neutron gives rise to multiplets of low-lying states from which some can be isomeric. Since thallium has one proton missing in the major proton shell, and when approaching neutr...

  3. Development and Applications of Thallium isotopes: a new proxy tracking the extent of manganese oxide burial (United States)

    Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; Ostrander, C.; Peterson, L. C.; Anbar, A. D.


    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potential powerful paleoredox proxy with the possibility to track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ~20 thousand years, which is long enough to render modern oxic seawater conservative with respect to concentration and isotopes. The isotopic signature of Tl in the global ocean is driven mainly by two outputs (1) adsorption onto manganese oxides and (2) low temperature oceanic crust alteration. Importantly, the isotopic inputs of Tl are all nearly the same value; thus, the isotopic composition and flux of the outputs almost exclusively set the seawater signature. For relatively short term redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant isotope fractionation process is associated with manganese oxide precipitation because low temperature alteration is controlled by long-term average ocean crust production rates. We present a broad range of modern samples that span several open ocean profiles combined with water column and sediment profiles from the permanently anoxic basins of the Black Sea and Cariaco Basins. The open ocean shows no variation in depth profiles that encompass most of the major water masses in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The anoxic basins, however, reveal Tl isotope signatures closer to their inputs, which is likely due to basinal restriction. The authigenic fraction of organic-rich sediments from the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin capture the Tl isotope value of the overlying water column, which shows that Tl isotopes could be applied as a faithful deep time redox proxy. For the first time, we will present new data showing that Tl isotopes is tracking bottom water ocean oxygenation. We are applying this isotope system to ancient samples, testing the spatial and temporal variability of ocean oxygenation coinciding with major biogeochemical events.

  4. Thallium isotope variations in anthropogenically-affected soils (United States)

    Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Penizek, Vit; Mihaljevic, Martin; Komarek, Michael; Cabala, Jerzy


    Our preliminary data from soils impacted by long-term Tl deposition in the vicinity of a primary/secondary Zn smelter at Olkusz (Poland) indicate apparent variability of ɛ205Tl within soil profiles. The identified ɛ205Tl values presented for the forest soil profile reached -1.7 in the surface/organic horizon, +1.9 in the organo-mineral horizon (Ap), and +1.0 in the mineral horizon (C). This finding suggests both the enrichment of 203Tl isotope in the topsoil, as well as its preferential release during smelting operations, as "lighter" Tl tends to enter the emissions during a high-temperature process. The maximum ɛ205Tl value in the subsurface horizon Ap is in accordance with the concentration peak of oxalate-extractable Mn, indicating the presence of amorphous/poorly-crystalline Mn oxides with a potential to isotopically fractionate Tl toward the "heavier" fraction. The Tl isotope signature in the bottom horizon probably reflects the composition of a local geochemical anomaly of Tl. However, a portion of mobile (anthropogenic) Tl with negative ɛ205Tl moving downwards in the soil profile cannot be neglected. In general, there is no detailed information about the biogeochemical cycling and variations of Tl isotopes in areas affected by significant anthropogenic inputs of the metal (e.g., coal burning and primary metallurgy); the questions of the degree to which the factors such as soil (and sediment) chemistry, mineralogy, local biota, and pollution source control Tl isotope fractionation remain unresolved. Therefore, further research on the topic is needed before any principal conclusions will be made.

  5. Thallium-isotopic compositions of euxinic sediments as a proxy for global manganese-oxide burial (United States)

    Owens, Jeremy D.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Horner, Tristan J.; Ostrander, Chadlin M.; Peterson, Larry C.


    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potentially powerful paleoredox proxy that may track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the global burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ∼20 thousand years, which is longer than the ocean mixing time, and it has been inferred that modern oxic seawater is conservative with respect to both concentration and isotopes. Marine sources of Tl have nearly identical isotopic values. Therefore, the Tl sinks, adsorption onto manganese oxides and low temperature oceanic crust alteration (the dominant seawater output), are the primary controls of the seawater isotopic composition. For relatively short-term, ∼million years, redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant mechanism that alters the Tl isotopic composition of seawater is associated with manganese oxide burial because large variability in low temperature ocean crust alteration is controlled by long-term, multi-million years, average ocean crust production rates. This study presents new Tl isotope data for an open ocean transect in the South Atlantic, and depth transects for two euxinic basins (anoxic and free sulfide in the water column), the Cariaco Basin and Black Sea. The Tl isotopic signature of open ocean seawater in the South Atlantic was found to be homogeneous with ε205Tl = -6.0 ± 0.3 (±2 SD, n = 41) while oxic waters from Cariaco and the Black Sea are -5.6 and -2.2, respectively. Combined with existing data from the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, our Atlantic data establish the conservatism of Tl isotopes in the global ocean. In contrast, partially- and predominantly-restricted basins reveal Tl isotope differences that vary between open-ocean (-6) and continental material (-2) ε205Tl, scaling with the degree of restriction. Regardless of the differences between basins, Tl is quantitatively removed from their euxinic waters below the chemocline. The burial of Tl in euxinic sediments is estimated to be an order of magnitude

  6. Thallium isotopes as a potential tracer for the origin of cratonic eclogites (United States)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Williams, Helen M.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman; Viljoen, Fanus


    Cratonic eclogites are inferred to originate either from subducted ocean crust or mantle melts accreted onto the roots of continents. These models have different implications for the growth of continents, but it is currently difficult to determine the origin of individual eclogite suites. Upper ocean crust altered at low temperatures and marine sediments both display high thallium (Tl) concentrations and strongly fractionated Tl isotope signatures relative to the ambient upper mantle. In this study we carry out the first examination of the suitability of Tl isotopes as a tracer for an ocean-crust origin of cratonic eclogites. We have analysed the Tl isotope composition of clinopyroxene and garnet in six eclogites from the Kaalvallei and Bellsbank kimberlite pipes in South Africa. Minerals were pre-cleaned with an HCl leaching technique and the leachates display variably light Tl isotope ratios. These most likely reflect low-temperature hydrothermal alteration occurring after eruption of the kimberlite that carried the eclogites to the surface. The leached mineral pairs all display identical Tl isotope ratios, strongly suggesting that the source of the analysed Tl is identical for each mineral pair. It is, however, not possible to exclude the possibility that the analysed Tl originates from kimberlitic material that was not removed by the cleaning procedure. Only one of the six samples exhibits a Tl isotope composition different from ambient mantle. Assuming that the Tl isotope signatures indeed represent the eclogite minerals and not any form of contamination, the Tl isotope composition in this sample is consistent with containing a minor component (low temperatures. Thallium isotopes may become one of the most sensitive indicators for the presence of low-T altered ocean crust because of the stark contrast in Tl concentration and isotopic composition between the mantle and altered ocean crust. In fact, no other chemical or isotopic tracer could have provided an

  7. Thallium isotopes in metallurgical wastes/contaminated soils: A novel tool to trace metal source and behavior. (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Trubač, Jakub; Chrastný, Vladislav; Penížek, Vít; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Voegelin, Andreas; Zádorová, Tereza; Oborná, Vendula; Drábek, Ondřej; Holubík, Ondřej; Houška, Jakub; Pavlů, Lenka; Ash, Christopher


    Thallium (Tl) concentration and isotope data have been recorded for contaminated soils and a set of industrial wastes that were produced within different stages of Zn ore mining and metallurgical processing of Zn-rich materials. Despite large differences in Tl levels of the waste materials (1-500mgkg-1), generally small changes in ε205Tl values have been observed. However, isotopically lighter Tl was recorded in fly ash (ε205Tl∼-4.1) than in slag (ε205Tl∼-3.3), implying partial isotope fractionation during material processing. Thallium isotope compositions in the studied soils reflected the Tl contamination (ε205Tl∼-3.8), despite the fact that the major pollution period ended more than 30 years ago. Therefore, we assume that former industrial Tl inputs into soils, if significant, can potentially be traced using the isotope tracing method. We also suggest that the isotope redistributions occurred in some soil (subsurface) horizons, with Tl being isotopically heavier than the pollution source, due to specific sorption and/or precipitation processes, which complicates the discrimination of primary Tl. Thallium isotope analysis proved to be a promising tool to aid our understanding of Tl behavior within the smelting process, as well as its post-depositional dynamics in the environmental systems (soils). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tracking along-arc sediment inputs to the Aleutian arc using thallium isotopes (United States)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Yogodzinski, Gene; Prytulak, Julie; Plank, Terry; Kay, Suzanne M.; Kay, Robert W.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Owens, Jeremy D.; Auro, Maureen; Kading, Tristan


    Sediment transport from the subducted slab to the mantle wedge is an important process in understanding the chemical and physical conditions of arc magma generation. The Aleutian arc offers an excellent opportunity to study sediment transport processes because the subducted sediment flux varies systematically along strike (Kelemen et al., 2003) and many lavas exhibit unambiguous signatures of sediment addition to the sub-arc mantle (Morris et al., 1990). However, the exact sediment contribution to Aleutian lavas and how these sediments are transported from the slab to the surface are still debated. Thallium (Tl) isotope ratios have great potential to distinguish sediment fluxes in subduction zones because pelagic sediments and low-temperature altered oceanic crust are highly enriched in Tl and display heavy and light Tl isotope compositions, respectively, compared with the upper mantle and continental crust. Here, we investigate the Tl isotope composition of lavas covering almost the entire Aleutian arc a well as sediments outboard of both the eastern (DSDP Sites 178 and 183) and central (ODP Hole 886C) portions of the arc. Sediment Tl isotope compositions change systematically from lighter in the Eastern to heavier in the Central Aleutians reflecting a larger proportion of pelagic sediments when distal from the North American continent. Lavas in the Eastern and Central Aleutians mirror this systematic change to heavier Tl isotope compositions to the west, which shows that the subducted sediment composition is directly translated to the arc east of Kanaga Island. Moreover, quantitative mixing models of Tl and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes reveal that bulk sediment transfer of ∼0.6-1.0% by weight in the Eastern Aleutians and ∼0.2-0.6% by weight in the Central Aleutians can account for all four isotope systems. Bulk mixing models, however, require that fractionation of trace element ratios like Ce/Pb, Cs/Tl, and Sr/Nd in the Central and Eastern Aleutians occurs after

  9. Thallium Isotopes Tracking Mn-Oxide Burial - A Proxy for Deoxygenation During Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (United States)

    Ostrander, C.; Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.


    Thallium (Tl) is proving to be a useful paleoredox proxy given that the Tl isotope composition of seawater is highly dependent on the magnitude of manganese (Mn) oxide burial in the ocean. In turn, Mn oxides require oxygen at the sediment-water interface to precipitate, linking the Tl isotope cycle to ocean oxygenation. Currently, the marine residence time of Tl is ~20kyrs and the Tl isotope composition of seawater is invariant, which suggests Tl isotopes could be a global tracer of marine Mn-oxide burial. Importantly, recent research suggests sediments deposited under a euxinic water column faithfully record the Tl isotope value of the overlying oxic water column (e.g. Black Sea and Cariaco Basin). Therefore, analysis of organic-rich black shales may prove useful in evaluating the seawater Tl isotope composition of past oceans and, hence, large-scale burial of Mn-oxides and the extent of bottom water ocean oxygenation. A logical test for this proxy is during the well-studied Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event termed Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2) at ~94 Ma. It is known that the global extent of anoxia and euxinia increased during this event, however, to what extent global bottom water deoxygenation occured is unconstrained. If deep water deoxygenation occurred, it would be hypothesized that Mn-oxide precipitation would decrease, resulting in a positive Tl isotope excursion during OAE-2. We have analyzed the Tl isotope composition of organic-rich black shales from Site 1258 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) spanning the period before, during, and after OAE-2. Based on Fe redox proxies, the entire section is euxinic and thus no Mn-oxides are present (i.e. no local redox changes). Before the event, Tl isotope compositions are similar or slightly heavier than modern seawater values. Just prior to the onset of OAE-2, a positive shift occurs and is maintained until recovery, slightly before the termination of the event. The shift to heavier values and subsequent

  10. Tracing subducted sediment inputs to the Ryukyu arc-Okinawa Trough system: Evidence from thallium isotopes (United States)

    Shu, Yunchao; Nielsen, Sune G.; Zeng, Zhigang; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuai


    Sediments are actively subducted in virtually every arc worldwide. However, quantifying their contributions to arc lavas and thereby establishing budgets of how sediments participate in slab-mantle interaction is challenging. In this contribution we use thallium (Tl) abundances and isotopic compositions of lavas from the Ryukyu arc (including south Kyushu) and its back-arc basin, Okinawa Trough, to investigate the influence of sediments from arc to back-arc. We also present extensive geochemical data for sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC) outboard of the northern (DSDP Sites 296, 442B, 443 and 444) and central (DSDP Sites 294 and 295) part of the Ryukyu arc. The Tl isotopic compositions of sediments change systematically from lighter outboard of northern Ryukyu arc to heavier outboard of central Ryukyu arc. The feature reflects the dominance of terrigenous material and pelagic sedimentation outboard of the northern and central Ryukyu arc, respectively. Central and northern sections of Ryukyu arc and Okinawa Trough display larger range of Tl isotopic variation than southern section, which is consistent with more pelagic provenance for sediments outboard of central and northern Ryukyu arcs than that of expected sediments outboard of southern Ryukyu arc. Identical Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope variations are found when comparing arc and back arc lavas, which indicates that sediments fluxes also account for the Tl isotopic variations in the Okinawa Trough lavas. Two-end-member mixing models of Tl with Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes require sediment inputs ofsediment end members predict very similar sediment fluxes when using Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes, which indicates that fractionation of these elements must have happened after mixing between mantle and sediments. This conclusion is corroborated by model calculations of mixing between sediment melts with fractionated Sr/Nd ratios and mantle wedge, which show that no arc lava plot on such mixing lines. Thus bulk sediment

  11. Nuclear volume effects in equilibrium stable isotope fractionations of mercury, thallium and lead (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Liu, Yun


    The nuclear volume effects (NVEs) of Hg, Tl and Pb isotope systems are investigated with careful evaluation on quantum relativistic effects via the Dirac’s formalism of full-electron wave function. Equilibrium 202Hg/198Hg, 205Tl/203Tl, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope fractionations are found can be up to 3.61‰, 2.54‰, 1.48‰ and 3.72‰ at room temperature, respectively, larger than fractionations predicted by classical mass-dependent isotope fractionations theory. Moreover, the NVE can cause mass-independent fractionations (MIF) for odd-mass isotopes and even-mass isotopes. The plot of vs. for Hg-bearing species falls into a straight line with the slope of 1.66, which is close to previous experimental results. For the first time, Pb4+-bearing species are found can enrich heavier Pb isotopes than Pb2+-bearing species to a surprising extent, e.g., the enrichment can be up to 4.34‰ in terms of 208Pb/206Pb at room temperature, due to their NVEs are in opposite directions. In contrast, fractionations among Pb2+-bearing species are trivial. Therefore, the large Pb fractionation changes provide a potential new tracer for redox conditions in young and closed geologic systems. The magnitudes of NVE-driven even-mass MIFs of Pb isotopes (i.e., ) and odd-mass MIFs (i.e., ) are almost the same but with opposite signs. PMID:26224248

  12. Sequential dual-isotope SPECT imaging with thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestamibi. (United States)

    Heo, J; Wolmer, I; Kegel, J; Iskandrian, A S


    This study examined the results of sequential SPECT dual-isotope imaging with 201Tl and 99mTc-sestamibi in 148 patients, 114 of whom also had coronary angiography and 34 had exercise testing or adenosine infusion at a rate of 140 micrograms/kg/min for 6 min. The study was completed within 2 hr. The stress and rest images were normal in 11 of 17 patients (65%) with no CAD by angiography and in 33 of 34 patients with a low pretest probability of CAD (normalcy rate = 97%). The images were abnormal in 75 patients with CAD (77%). The perfusion pattern was compared to wall motion in 485 segments (97 patients) assessed by contrast ventriculography. There were no or reversible perfusion defects in 357 of 386 segments (92%) with no wall motion abnormality. Sequential dual-isotope imaging is feasible and can be completed in a short period of time and may therefore enhance laboratory throughput and patient convenience.

  13. Myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and thallium-201 in patients with coronary artery disease: a comparative dual-isotope study. (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Rauch, B; Kapp, M; Bubeck, B; Neumann, F J; Seitz, F; Stokstad, P; Mall, G; Tillmanns, H; Kübler, W


    To characterise the clinical usefulness of serial myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in comparison with thallium-201, dual-isotope investigations were performed in 41 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Both tracers were administered simultaneously during symptom-limited ergometry. Planar scintigrams were acquired immediately after stress, and delayed imaging was performed after 1 h for IPPA and 4 h for 201Tl. Scintigrams were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using a newly developed algorithm for automated image superposition. Initial myocardial uptake of both tracers was closely correlated (r = 0.75, p or = 75% (IP-PA: 70.0%, 201Tl: 66.3%, P = NS) with identical specificity (69.8%). The number of persistent defects, however, was significantly higher with IPPA (P = 0.021), suggesting that visual analysis of serial IPPA scintigrams may overestimate the presence of myocardial scar tissue. On the other hand, previous Q wave myocardial infarction was associated with a decreased regional IPPA clearance (29% +/- 11% vs 44% +/- 11% in normal myocardium, P IPPA is essentially as sensitive as scintigraphy with 201Tl for the detection of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of myocardial IPPA kinetics, however, is required for the evaluation of tissue viability.

  14. Myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and thallium-201 in patients with coronary artery disease: A comparative dual-isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.; Rauch, B.; Kapp, M.; Neumann, F.J.; Seitz, F.; Kuebler, W. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology); Bubeck, B. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Mall, G. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pathology); Tillmanns, H. (Giessen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology); Stokstad, P.


    To characterise the clinical usefulness of serial myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in comparison with thallium-201, dual-isotope investigations were performed in 41 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Both tracers were adminstered simultaneously during symptom-limited ergometry. Planar scintigrams were acquired immediately after stress, and delayed imaging was performed after 1 h for IPPA and 4 h for {sup 201}Tl. Scintigrams were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using a newly developed algorithm for automated image superposition. Initial myocardial uptake of both tracers was closely correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Both tracers also revealed a similar sensitivity for the identification of individual coronary artery stenoses {>=}75% (IPPA: 70%, {sup 201}Tl: 66.3%, P=NS) with identical specificity (69.8%). The number of persistent defects, however, was significantly higher with IPPA (P=0.021), suggesting that visual analysis of serial IPPA scintigrams may overestimate the presence of myocardial scar tissue. On the other hand, previous Q wave myocardial infarction was associated with a decreased regional IPPA clearance (29%{+-}11% vs 44%{+-}11% in normal myocardium, P<0.05). The data indicate that serial myocardial scintigraphy with IPPA is essentially as sensitive as scintigraphy with {sup 201}Tl for the detection of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of myocardial IPPA kinetics, however, is required for the evaluation of tissue viability. (orig.).

  15. Identification and Decay Studies of New, Neutron-Rich Isotopes of Bismuth, Lead and Thallium by means of a Pulsed Release Element Selective Method

    CERN Multimedia

    Mills, A; Kugler, E; Van duppen, P L E; Lettry, J


    % IS354 \\\\ \\\\ It is proposed to produce, identify and investigate at ISOLDE new, neutron-rich isotopes of bismuth, lead and thallium at the mass numbers A=215 to A=218. A recently tested operation mode of the PS Booster-ISOLDE complex, taking an advantage of the unique pulsed proton beam structure, will be used together with a ThC target in order to increase the selectivity. The decay properties of new nuclides will be studied by means of $\\beta$-, $\\gamma$- and X- ray spectroscopy methods. The expected information on the $\\beta$-half-lives and excited states will be used for testing and developing the nuclear structure models ``south-east'' of $^{208}$Pb, and will provide input data for the description of the r-process path at very heavy nuclei. The proposed study of the yields and the decay properties of those heavy nuclei produced in the spallation of $^{232}$Th by a 1~GeV proton beam contributes also the data necessary for the simulations of a hybrid accelerator-reactor system.

  16. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate/thallium-201 dual-isotope SPECT imaging predicts reperfusion injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction after reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Nishimura, Hideki; Hamazaki, Yuji; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Microcirculatory failure after reperfusion is clinically indicated to cause reperfusion injury whereas excessive intracellular calcium ion overload is experimentally proved as a key mechanism of reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) uptake in injured but viable infarct-related myocardium with preserved myocardial perfusion after reperfusion estimated by thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) uptake would be associated with final functional recovery. Dual-isotope Tc-PYP/{sup 201}Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 2 days after successful reperfusion therapy in patients with first acute myocardial infarction, and 50 patients (63 {+-} 13 years old, female 22%) with preserved {sup 201}Tl uptakes of {>=}50% in reperfused myocardium was followed for 1 month. Tc-PYP uptake was assessed as the heart-to-sternum (H/S) ratio. Two-dimensional echocardiography was also performed 2 days and 1 month after reperfusion to evaluate functional recovery. High Tc-PYP uptake, defined as the H/S ratio {>=}0.81, was predictive of chronic phase no functional recovery (73.7% in 14 of 19 patients with high uptake vs 16.1% in five of 31 patients without those, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, including electrocardiographic persistent ST segment elevation at 1 h after reperfusion, high Tc-PYP uptake remained independently predictive of no functional recovery with odds ratio of 8.7 (95% confidential interval = 2 to 38.7; p = 0.005). High Tc-PYP uptake in reperfused but viable infarct-related myocardium was a powerful predictor of no functional recovery, which may reflect excessive intracellular calcium ion overload caused by reperfusion injury. Tc-PYP/{sup 201}Tl dual-isotope SPECT imaging can provide prognostic information after reperfusion. (orig.)

  17. Imaging of brain tumors in AIDS patients by means of dual-isotope thallium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Pena, R.C.; Ketonen, L.; Villanueva-Meyer, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas, Galveston (United States)


    Our aim was to evaluate the use of dual-isotope thallium-201 (Tl) and technetium-99m sestamibi (sestamibi) simultaneous acquisition in brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the differentiation between brain lymphoma and benign central nervous system (CNS) lesions in AIDS patients. Thirty-six consecutive patients with enhancing mass lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were included in the study. SPET of the brain was performed to obtain simultaneous Tl and sestamibi images. Regions-of-interest were drawn around the lesion and on the contralateral side to calculate uptake ratios. The final diagnosis was reached by pathologic findings in 17 patients and clinical and/or MR follow-up in 19 patients. Of the 36 patients, 11 had brain lymphoma, 1 glioblastoma multiforme, 15 toxoplasmosis and 9 other benign CNS lesions. Correlation between SPET and the final diagnosis revealed in 10 true-positive, 23 true-negative, 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative studies. All patients with toxoplasmosis had negative scans. A patient with a purulent infection had positive scans. Tl and sestamibi scans were concordant in every lesion. The same lesions that took up Tl were also visualized with sestamibi. However, sestamibi scans showed higher lesion-to-normal tissue uptake ratios (3.7{+-}1.8) compared with those of Tl (2.3{+-}0.8, P<0.002). Simultaneous acquisition of Tl and sestamibi can help differentiate CNS lymphoma from benign brain lesions in AIDS patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 34 refs.

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S


    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  19. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun [Kosin University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  20. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch


    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ... (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  2. Repeat thallium-201 SPECT in cerebral lymphoma. (United States)

    Borggreve, F; Dierckx, R A; Crols, R; Mathijs, R; Appel, B; Vandevivere, J; Mariën, P; Martin, J J; De Deyn, P P


    The authors report on the contribution of Thallium-201 brain SPECT in the diagnosis and follow-up of a non-immunosuppressed patient, presenting with primary cerebral lymphoma. The tumoral process was at first not diagnosed on CT-scan, but Thallium-201 SPECT suggested a tumoral invasion. During corticosteroid treatment the tumor volume on CT-scan decreased, while on Thallium-201 SPECT there was an enhancement of the accumulation and an increasing tumor to non-tumor ratio. These scintigraphical findings more closely reflected the clinical course and the postmortem results.

  3. Thallium poisoning from maliciously contaminated food. (United States)

    Meggs, W J; Hoffman, R S; Shih, R D; Weisman, R S; Goldfrank, L R


    Four young adults presented two days after one of them had received marzipan balls packaged in a box from an expensive candy manufacturer. Two ate one candy ball, while two others shared a third. The next day, variable gastrointestinal symptoms developed. On the third day, two patients developed painful paresthesiae of the hands and feet, an early but nonspecific clinical marker of thallium poisoning. A tentative diagnosis of thallium poisoning was made based on symptoms, and treatment was initiated. The remaining candies were radiographed. Metallic densities in the candies supported the diagnosis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantitate thallium content. Each candy contained a potentially fatal dose. Five to seven days later, hypertension and tachycardia developed in the two patients who had ingested an entire candy. All patients developed alopecia but recovered without overt neurologic or other sequelae. While the diagnosis of thallium poisoning is often delayed until alopecia develops, an early diagnosis favors an effective treatment strategy.

  4. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.


    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  5. Examining of Thallium in Cigarette Smokers. (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; NasehGhafoori, Payam; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrzad, Fateme; Nekuei, Mina; Aaseth, Jan; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Mehrpour, Omid


    Smoking is one of the sources of thallium which is considered as a toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to determine urinary thallium levels and related variables in smokers, compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 56 participants who had smoked continuously during the year before they were referred to Kashan Smoking Cessation Clinic. Fifty-three nonsmokers who were family members or friends of the smokers were selected as the control group. Urinary thallium was measured in both groups (n = 109) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value (with SD) for urinary thallium in the smokers (10.16 ± 1.82 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.39 ± 0.63 μg/L). There was a significant relationship between smoking duration and urinary thallium levels (P = 0.003). In a subgroup of smokers who was addicted to opium and opium residues (n = 9), the mean level of thallium (37.5 ± 13.09 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the other smokers (4.93 ± 4.45; P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed opioid abuse, insomnia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), together were strong predictors of urinary thallium levels in smokers. There was no significant difference in thallium level in hookah smokers (P = 0.299) or in those with COPD compared to other smokers (P = 0.375). Urinary thallium levels of smokers with clinical signs of depression, sleep disorders, memory loss, and sweating were higher than those of smokers without these signs. Since thallium, as other toxic metals is accumulated in the body, and cigarette smoking also involves carcinogenic exposures and health hazards for passively exposed people, the need for cigarette control policies is emphasized.

  6. Thallium-201 scintigraphy in unstable angina pectoris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackers, F.J.T.; Lie, K.I.; Liem, K.L.; Sokole, E.B.; Samson, G.; Van Der Schoot, J.B.; Durrer, D.


    Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed during the pain free period in 98 patients with unstable angina. Scintiscans were positive in 39 patients, questionable in 27 patients and normal in 32 patients. Eighty-one patients responded favorably to treatment (group I). Seventeen patients had complicated courses (group II) and despite maximal treatment with propranolol either developed infarction (six patients) or continued to have angina necessitating coronary surgery (11 patients). In group I during the pain free period 26 of 81 patients had positive thallium-201 scans, whereas 20 patients had an abnormal ECG at that time; during angina 18 patients had transient ECG changes. In group II during the pain free period 13 of 17 patients had positive scans, whereas two patients had abnormal ECG at that time; during angina 12 patients showed transient ECG changes. The sensitivity to recognize group II was 76% for thallium-201 scintigraphy, 11% for ECG during the pain free period; 70% for ECG during angina; 94% for the combination of either positive scans or abnormal ECG. Thus, positive thallium-201 scans occur in patients with unstable angina, positive scans can be obtained during the pain free period, thallium-201 scans are more frequently positive in patients with complicated course.

  7. Experimental excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natural thallium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Rebeles, R., E-mail: [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Van den Winkel, P.; Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen H-4026 (Hungary)


    Excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natural thallium leading to the formation of {sup 204m,203m2+m1+g,202m,201m+g,200}Pb and {sup 202,201m+g,200m+g}Tl isotopes were determined up to 50 MeV. The cross sections were measured by an activation technique using stacked foil irradiation. The excitation functions of the investigated reactions are compared with data reported in literature and also with the theoretical results of TALYS nuclear reaction code. From the measured cross section data, the thick target yield for the medical interesting {sup 203}Pb isotope is calculated.

  8. Thallium-201 uptake in a benign thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campeau, R.J.; Ey, E.H.; Varma, D.G.


    A 68-year-old woman was admitted with atypical angina. A chest radiograph showed an anterior mediastinal mass that was confirmed on CT. The mass was relatively avascular and separate from the heart and great vessels. She underwent stress thallium testing that demonstrated no exercise-induced ischemia; however, an abnormal focus of thallium activity was present in the anterior mediastinum on stress and redistribution images. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a normal left ventriculogram, coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign thymoma arising in the right lobe of the thymus gland.

  9. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Sergio; Rios, Camilo [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, ' ' Manuel Velasco Suarez' ' , Departamento de Neuroquimica, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Soriano, Luz; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD{sub 50}. Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P < 0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain. (orig.)

  10. Thallium in fractions of soil formed on floodplain terraces. (United States)

    Jakubowska, Monika; Pasieczna, Anna; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz; Swit, Zbigniew; Lukaszewski, Zenon


    Two soils formed on the floodplain terrace of a rivulet flowing through the zinc-lead ore exploration area polluted with thallium and one soil from a floodplain terrace of the reference area were investigated in terms of thallium distribution between soil fractions. Such type of soil is formed on river floodplain terraces next to the main river channel and its composition records the history of river pollution. A sequential extraction of soil according to the BCR protocol was performed with an additional initial stage of extraction with water. Apart from labile thallium, thallium entrapped in the residual parent matter was also determined. Thallium was determined by flow-injection differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. In all three cases, the major fraction is thallium entrapped in parent matter. Top soil from the polluted area contains 49.3% thallium entrapped in the residual parent matter, the bottom soil contains 41% while the reference soil contains 80% in this fraction. The major part of labile thallium is located in the reducible fraction (27.7% of total thallium in the top soil, 27% in the bottom soil and 12.4% of the reference soil). Second in terms of significance is the fraction of oxidizable thallium. The top soil contains 12% of total thallium concentration, the bottom soil contains 19% of total concentration, while the reference soil contains 4.1% of total concentration. The acid soluble/exchangeable fraction of thallium has almost the same significance as the oxidizable fraction. The top soil contains 10.4% of the total concentration, while the bottom soil contains 12% of the total concentration. Water soluble thallium concentration is very small. Comparison of the top and the bottom soil show that thallium has not been transported from the river channel onto the floodplain terrace over a long period.

  11. Thallium Analysis in Environmental Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; Analisis de Talio en Muestras Ambientales por Espectrometria de Masas con Fuente de Plasma de Acoplamiento Inductivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higueras, I.; Fernandez, M.; Conde, E.; Gajate, A.


    Due to its high toxicity, thallium has been considered by the US Environmental Protection Agency as one of the priority pollutants to be controlled. While being a highly toxic element, thallium has been studied to a much lesser degree than other toxic elements, mainly because thallium is often undetected by classical analytical methods. Thallium is a rare and dispersed element that occurs mainly in sulfur-containing ores. Thus, it is a potential pollutant to surrounding environment, if Tl-rich mineral and/or their industrial wastes are not properly disposed. In this work an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analytical procedure has been developed in order to determine thallium in environmental solid samples and its application to the study of this element as a potential pollutant associated with natural and anthropogenic activities. The analytical procedure has been validated by the use of appropriate reference materials, and through the isotope dilution technique as a primary method of measurement. Finally, the developed procedure has been applied to several samples from a mining area, as one of the scenarios where thallium it is likely to occur. (Author) 87 refs.

  12. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2007 physics pp. 467–479. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single crystals. I M ASHRAF, H A ELSHAIKH and A M BADR. Physics Department ... pendencies of carrier lifetime on light intensity, applied voltage and temperature are also ..... 14, 797 (1935) (in Japanese). [10] A T ...

  13. Extraction separation of thallium (III) from thallium (I) with n-octylaniline. (United States)

    Shilimkar, Tulshidas N; Anuse, Mansing A; Patil, Kesharsingh J


    A novel method is developed for the extraction separation of thallium(III) from salicylate medium with n-octylaniline dissolved in toluene as an extractant. The optimum conditions have been determined by making a critical study of weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and effect of solvent on the equilibria. The thallium (III) from the pregnant organic phase is stripped with acetate buffer solution (pH 4.7) and determined complexometrically with EDTA. The method affords the sequential separation of thallium(III) from thallium(I) and also commonly associated metal ions such as Al(III), Ga(III), In(III), Fe(III), Bi(III), Sb(III) and Pb(II). It is used for analysis of synthetic mixtures of associated metal ions and alloys. The method is highly selective, simple and reproducible. The reaction takes place at room temperature and requires 15-20 min for extraction and determination of thallium(III).

  14. Thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic anisotropy examination. (United States)

    Mantsevich, S N


    Thallium bromide iodide crystal also known as KRS-5 is the well known material used in far infrared radiation applications for optical windows and lenses fabrication. The main advantage of this material is the transparency in wide band of wavelengths from 0.53 to 50μm. Despite such advantages as transparency and large acousto-optic figure of merit values, KRS-5 is rarely used in acousto-optics. Nevertheless this material seems to be promising for far infrared acousto-optic applications. The acoustic and acousto-optic properties of KRS-5 needed for the full use in optoelectronics are not well understood to date. In this paper the detailed examination of thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic properties is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thallium and its contents in Remata carbonate rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondelová Marcela


    Full Text Available The article presents at first the list of thallium own minerals and its isomorphic content in other minerals, especially in Slovakian ore deposits. This trace element was found in numerous dolomite-rock samples from Remata massif near Handlová. An interesting level of Tl content was analyzed in nonsilicified rocks; the highest content of Tl (and Ag are along the E – W line of disturbance. The presence of thallium in some limonitic aggregates in close Kremnica-gold deposit indicate any continuous relation. Some similarities to type gold deposits Carlin ( USA are discussed, even if no gold and discrete thallium phases were in Remata determined yet.

  16. Catalytic properties of Thallium-containing mesoporous silicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baradji


    Full Text Available The benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride over a series of Thallium-containing mesoporous silicas with different Tl contents has been investigated. These materials (Tl-HMS-n have been characterized by chemical analysis, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The mesoporous Thallium-containing materials showed both high activity and high selectivity for the benzylation of benzene. More interesting is the observation that these catalysts are always active and selective for large molecules like naphthenic compounds such as methoxynaphthalene.

  17. A comparison of the clinical relevance of thallium201 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thallium-201 is at present the radiotracer of choice for the clinical evaluation of myocardial blood flow. Although different technetium-99m-isonitrile agents have been synthesised recently, only 99mTc-melhoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc_MIBI) has proved to hold promise for clinical implementation. The myocardial distribution ...

  18. Een bepalingsmethode voor thallium in regenwater met behulp van voltammetrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs; J.; Wolfs; P.M.; Esseveld; F.G.van


    In dit rapport wordt een bepalingmethode beschreven voor thallium in het nanogram/liter-gebied, waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van differentiele pulse-anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) aan de dunne kwikfilm. Met deze techniek blijkt het mogelijk om de concentratie van dit element rechtstreeks

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (External Review Draft) (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certai...

  20. Band-Structure of Thallium by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtham, P. M.; Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    The relativistic band structure of thallium has been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method. The positions and extents of the bands were found to follow the Wigner-Seitz rule approximately, and the origin of the dispersion of the bands was established from the canonical s...

  1. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using ...

  2. Selective Thallium (I Ion Sensor Based on Functionalised ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Ibupoto


    Full Text Available Well controlled in length and highly aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the gold-coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. ZnO nanorods were functionalised with selective thallium (I ion ionophore dibenzyldiaza-18-crown-6 (DBzDA18C6. The thallium ion sensor showed wide linear potentiometric response to thallium (I ion concentrations ( M to  M with high sensitivity of 36.87 ± 1.49 mV/decade. Moreover, thallium (I ion demonstrated fast response time of less than 5 s, high selectivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and negligible response to common interferents. The proposed thallium (I ion-sensor electrode was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration, and it has shown good stoichiometric response for the determination of thallium (I ion.

  3. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 8, 2005 ... surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using xylenol orange as indicator. ... Reproducible and accurate results are obtained in the concentration range 4–80 mg of thallium with a relative error ≤ ±0.6% .... soluble and stable 1:1 complex with Tl(I) so formed.22 This was.

  4. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  5. Sodium dithionite as a selective demasking agent for the complexometric determination of thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sodium dithionite is proposed as a new demasking agent for the rapid and selective complexometric determination of thallium(III. In the presence of diverse metal ions, thallium (III was first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTAwas then titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer using Xylenol Orange as the indicator. The EDTAequivalent to thallium was then released selectively with sodium dithionite and back titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results were obtained in the range 4–100 mg of thallium with a relative error of ±27 % and a coefficient of variation (n = 6 of not more than 0.30 %. The effects of various diverse ions were studied. The method was applied to the determination of thallium in its complexes and in alloys.

  6. [Efficiency of hemoperfusion on clearing thallium based on atomic absorption spectrometry]. (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Wang, Yongan; Nie, Zhiyong; Wang, Jiao; Peng, Xiaobo; Yuan, Ye; Li, Wanhua; Qiu, Zewu; Xue, Yanping; Xiong, Yiru


    To determine thallium in whole blood by atomic absorption detection method, and to investigate the eliminating effect of hemoperfusion (HP) for thallium in blood. The blood of Beagle dogs which had not exposed to thallium before were obtained for preparation of thallium nitrate ( TlNO3 )-containing solution in three concentrations according to the conversion formula based on animal weight and volume of blood. HP was performed in the simulated in vivo environment. The content of TlNO3 in blood of the next group was determined on the amount of TlNO3 for the last HP of the former dose group. Thallium quantity in different samples was measured with atomic absorption spectrometer blood samples before and after HP. Finally, the thallium concentration in blood was analyzed statistically. Thallium concentrations showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0-200 μg/L (r = 0.998 4). The intra-day precision (RSD) was lower than 4.913%, the intra-day recovery rate was 96.2%-111.9%; the inter-day precision (RSD) was lower than 7.502%, the inter-day recovery rate was 89.6%-105.2%. The concentration of thallium in blood was significantly reduced after HP per time in high, middle, and low dose groups [(453.43 ± 27.80) mg/L to (56.09 ± 14.44) mg/L in high dose group, F = 8.820, P = 0.003; (64.51 ± 13.60) mg/L to (3.19 ± 0.23) mg/L in middle dose group, F = 36.312, P = 0.000; (5.40 ± 0.98) mg/L to (0.38 ± 0.25) mg/L in low dose group, F = 46.240, P = 0.000 ]. The adsorption rate of four times of HP in high, middle and low dose group were (87.63 ± 2.48 )%, (95.06 ± 1.54 )% and (92.76 ± 4.87)%, respectively, without significant difference (F = 4.231, P = 0.070). The method for measuring thallium was established, and it shows a very stable, simple, sensitive for determination of thallium. HP can effectively remove thallium from blood. Thallium concentration can be reduced by 90% after four times of HP. HP is also effective even when thallium concentration is not high.

  7. Left ventricular dilatation and pulmonary thallium uptake after single-photon emission computer tomography using thallium-201 during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Nguyen, T.; Lyons, E.; Paugh, E. (Philadelphia Heart Institute, PA (USA))


    This study examined the implications of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and increased pulmonary thallium uptake during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia. The lung-to-heart thallium ratio in the initial images was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) than normal subjects; 0.48 +/- 0.16 in 3-vessel disease (n = 16), 0.43 +/- 0.10 in 2-vessel disease (n = 20), 0.43 +/- 0.08 in 1-vessel disease (n = 16) and 0.36 +/- 0.05 in normal subjects (n = 7) (p less than 0.001, 0.09 and 0.06, respectively). There was a significant correlation between the severity and the extent of the perfusion abnormality (determined from the polar maps) and the lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.51 and 0.52, respectively, p less than 0.0002). There was also a significant correlation between lung thallium washout and lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.42, p = 0.0009) and peak heart rate (r = -0.49, p less than 0.0001). The LV dilatation was mostly due to an increase in cavity dimension (30% increase) and to a lesser extent (6% increase) due to increase in LV size. (The cavity dimensions were measured from the short-axis slices at the midventricular level in the initial and delayed images). The dilation was seen in patients with CAD but not in the normal subjects. These changes correlated with the extent and severity of the thallium perfusion abnormality. Thus, adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia may cause LV dilation and increased lung thallium uptake on the basis of subendocardial ischemia.

  8. Controls on thallium uptake during hydrothermal alteration of the upper ocean crust (United States)

    Coggon, Rosalind M.; Rehkämper, Mark; Atteck, Charlotte; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Cooper, Matthew J.


    Hydrothermal circulation is a fundamental component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, the magnitude of the high temperature axial hydrothermal fluid flux remains disputed, and the lower temperature ridge flank fluid flux is difficult to quantify. Thallium (Tl) isotopes behave differently in axial compared to ridge flank systems, with Tl near-quantitatively stripped from the intrusive crust by high temperature hydrothermal reactions, but added to the lavas during low temperature reaction with seawater. This contrasting behavior provides a unique approach to determine the fluid fluxes associated with axial and ridge flank environments. Unfortunately, our understanding of the Tl isotopic mass balance is hindered by poor knowledge of the mineralogical, physical and chemical controls on Tl-uptake by the ocean crust. Here we use analyses of basaltic volcanic upper crust from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1301B on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, combined with published analyses of dredged seafloor basalts and upper crustal basalts from Holes 504B and 896A, to investigate the controls on Tl-uptake by mid-ocean ridge basalts and evaluate when in the evolution of the ridge flank hydrothermal system Tl-uptake occurs. Seafloor basalts indicate an association between basaltic uptake of Tl from cold seawater and uptake of Cs and Rb, which are known to partition into K-rich phases. Although there is no clear relationship between Tl and K contents of seafloor basalts, the data do not rule out the incorporation of at least some Tl into the same minerals as the alkali elements. In contrast, we find no relationship between the Tl content and either the abundance of secondary phyllosilicate minerals, or the K, Cs or Rb contents in upper crustal basalts. We conclude that the uptake of Tl and alkali elements during hydrothermal alteration of the upper crust involves different processes and/or mineral phases compared to those that govern seafloor weathering. Furthermore

  9. Early detection of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by exercise-redistribution Thallium scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Wijns (William); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)


    textabstractThe value of exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in predicting recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis after a primary successful transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was prospectively evaluated. In 89 patients, a symptom-limited exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and

  10. Oral zinc sulphate in treatment of patients with thallium poisoning: A clinical therapeutic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Thallium poisoning is usually associated with typical dermatological features simulating that of zinc deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of patients with thallium poisoning.Materials and methods: This clinical therapeutic trial study was conducted in Departments of Dermatology of Baghdad and Basrah Teaching Hospitals from February 2008 - February 2010, where a total of 37 patients with thallium poisoning were enrolled.A detailed history was taken from all patients and complete clinical examination was performed. All patients received zinc sulphate in a dose of 5 mg/kg three times a day few days before confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. Thallium in urine had been measured using the colorimetric method and was positive in all patients. After confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning, thallium antidotes Prussian blue was given to 32 patients.Results: Age range of 37 patients was 5-33 (24±5.3 years. The dermatological findings were mainly: anagen hair loss affected the scalp and limbs. Also, dusky ecchymotic red dermatitis like rash was observed on the face and dorsum of hands and legs, while neurological manifestations were mainly of peripheral neuropathy, were reported in 21 (55% patients. All patients but two responded promptly to a trial of zinc sulphate within few days.Conclusion: Oral Zinc sulphate appears to be an effective and safe treatment for thallium poisoning particularly for skin and hair features and in reducing its lethal progression and complications. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:133-7

  11. Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices (United States)


    THALLIUM(I) IN REVERSE OSMOSIS AND CHLORINATED WATER MATRICES ECBC-TR-1127 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Apr 2010 - Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices... osmosis (RO) and RO water with added chlorine (RO-Cl) was measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for a period of

  12. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England. (United States)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew


    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L(-1)) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L(-1) were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Qualitative evaluation of coronary flow during anesthetic induction using thallium-201 perfusion scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, B.; Henkin, R.E.; Glisson, S.N.; el-Etr, A.A.; Bakhos, M.; Sullivan, H.J.; Montoya, A.; Pifarre, R.


    Qualitative distribution of coronary flow using thallium-201 perfusion scans immediately postintubation was studied in 22 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Ten patients received a thiopental (4 mg/kg) and halothane induction. Twelve patients received a fentanyl (100 micrograms/kg) induction. Baseline thallium-201 perfusion scans were performed 24 h prior to surgery. These scans were compared with the scans performed postintubation. A thallium-positive scan was accepted as evidence of relative hypoperfusion. Baseline hemodynamic and ECG data were obtained prior to induction of anesthesia. These data were compared with the data obtained postintubation. Ten patients developed postintubation thallium-perfusion scan defects (thallium-positive scan), even though there was no statistical difference between their baseline hemodynamics and hemodynamics at the time of intubation. There was no difference in the incidence of thallium-positive scans between those patients anesthetized by fentanyl and those patients anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. The authors conclude that relative hypoperfusion, and possibly ischemia, occurred in 45% of patients studied, despite stable hemodynamics, and that the incidence of these events was the same with two different anesthetic techniques.

  14. Thallium-201 for cardiac stress tests: residual radioactivity worries patients and security. (United States)

    Geraci, Matthew J; Brown, Norman; Murray, David


    A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in duress and stated he was "highly radioactive." There were no reports of nuclear disasters, spills, or mishaps in the local area. This report discusses the potential for thallium-201 (Tl-201) patients to activate passive radiation alarms days to weeks after nuclear stress tests, even while shielded inside industrial vehicles away from sensors. Characteristics of Tl-201, as used for medical imaging, are described. This patient was twice detained by Homeland Security Agents and searched after he activated radiation detectors at a seaport security checkpoint. Security agents deemed him not to be a threat, but they expressed concern regarding his health and level of personal radioactivity. The patient was subsequently barred from his job and sent to the hospital. Tl-201 is a widely used radioisotope for medical imaging. The radioactive half-life of Tl-201 is 73.1h, however, reported periods of extended personal radiation have been seen as far out as 61 days post-administration. This case describes an anxious, but otherwise asymptomatic patient presenting to the ED with detection of low-level personal radiation. Documentation should be provided to and carried by individuals receiving radionuclides for a minimum of five to six half-lives of the longest-lasting isotope provided. Patients receiving Tl-201 should understand the potential for security issues; reducing probable tense moments, confusion, and anxiety to themselves, their employers, security officials, and ED staff. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of thallium deposition with segmental perfusion in pigs with chronic hibernating myocardium. (United States)

    Baldwa, Sunil; Rana, Muzamil; Canty, John M; Fallavollita, James A


    Viable, chronically dysfunctional myocardium with reduced resting flow (or hibernating myocardium) is an important prognostic factor in ischemic heart disease. Although thallium-201 imaging is frequently used to assess myocardial viability in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, there are limited data regarding its deposition in hibernating myocardium, and this data suggest that thallium retention may be supernormal compared with control myocardium. Accordingly, pigs (n=7) were chronically instrumented with a 1.5 mm Delrin stenosis on the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to produce hibernating myocardium. Four months later, severe anteroapical hypokinesis was documented with contrast ventriculography (wall motion score, 0.7+/-0.8; normal=3), and microsphere measurements confirmed reduced resting flow (LAD subendocardium, 0.78+/-0.34 vs. 0.96+/-0.24 ml.min(-1).g(-1) in remote; P<0.001). Absolute deposition of thallium-201 and insulin-stimulated [18F]-2 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) were assessed over 1 h and compared with resting flow (n=704 samples). Thallium-201 deposition was only weakly correlated with perfusion (r2=0.20; P<0.001) and was more homogeneously distributed (relative dispersion, 0.12+/-0.03 vs. 0.29+/-0.10 for microsphere flow; P<0.01). Thus after 1 h relative thallium-201 (subendocardium LAD/remote, 0.96+/-0.16) overestimated relative perfusion (0.78+/-0.32; P<0.0001) and underestimated the relative reduction in flow. Viability was confirmed by both histology and preserved FDG uptake. We conclude that under resting conditions, thallium-201 redistribution in hibernating myocardium is nearly complete within 1 h, with similar deposition to remote myocardium despite regional differences in flow. These data suggest that in this time frame thallium-201 deposition may not discriminate hibernating myocardium from dysfunction myocardium with normal resting flow. Since hibernating myocardium has been associated with a worse prognosis

  16. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of {sup 201}TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse (Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per {sup 201}TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl<2.5 have been conservatively managed because of slow tumour growth. The other two pts have Tl>3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid {sup 201}TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid {sup 201}TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, {sup 201}TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited

  17. Evaluation of muscular lesions in connective tissue diseases: thallium 201 muscular scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, G.; Guillet, J.; Sanciaume, C.; Maleville, J.; Geniaux, M.; Morin, P.


    We performed thallium 201 muscle scans to assess muscular involvement in 40 patients with different connective tissue diseases (7 with dermatomyositis, 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12 with progressive systemic scleroderma, 2 with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, 3 with monomelic scleroderma, 6 with morphea, and 3 with Raynaud's disease). Only 12 of these patients complained of fatigability and/or myalgia. Electromyography was performed and serum levels of muscle enzymes were measured in all patients. Comparison of thallium 201 exercise recording with the other tests revealed that scan sensitivity is greater than electromyographic and serum muscle enzymes levels. Thallium 201 scans showed abnormal findings in 32 patients and revealed subclinical lesions in 18 patients, while electromyography findings were abnormal in 25 of these 32 patients. Serum enzyme levels were raised in only 8 patients. Thallium 201 scanning proved to be a useful guide for modifying therapy when laboratory data were conflicting. It was useful to evaluate treatment efficacy. Because our data indicate a 100% positive predictive value, we believe that thallium 201 scanning should be advised for severe systemic connective tissue diseases with discordant test results.

  18. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro (Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine)


    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV{sub F} on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author).

  19. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzakh, A. E., E-mail:; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)


    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for {sup 189–198,} {sup 211}Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  20. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  1. Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)


    Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. [Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of thallium in blood]. (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Gao, G


    Colloidal palladium was used as chemical modifier in the determination of blood thallium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood samples were precipitated with 5% (V/V)nitric acid, and then determined by GFAAS with colloidal palladium used as a chemical modifier. 0.2% (W/V)sodium chloride was added in the standard series to improve the matrix matching between standard solution and sample. The detection limit was 0.2 μg/L. The correlation coefficient was 0.9991. The recoveries were between 93.9% to 101.5%.The relative standard deviations were between 1.8% to 2.7%.The certified reference material of whole blood thallium was determined and the result was within the reference range Conclusion: The method is accurate, simple and sensitive, and it can meet the needs of detection thallium in blood entirely.

  3. Myocardial perfusion defect on thallium-201 imaging in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, P.P.; Weaver, Y.J.; Higginbotham, E.A.


    Six patients with angina pectoris had reversible perfusion defects on stress and redistribution thallium imaging. Three patients had a positive electrocardiographic response to exercise. No significant coronary artery lesions were seen on coronary arteriography in any of the six patients. All had mild to moderate hypoxemia at rest and physiologic evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by the decrease in the ratio of forced expiratory volume at 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC X 100) or decrease in the forced midexpiratory flow rate (FEF25-75), or both. None had clinical findings suggestive of any of the reported causes of positive thallium scans in patients with normal coronary arteriograms. Cellular dysfunction produced by hypoxemia affecting the uptake of thallium seems to be the most likely mechanism of this abnormality.

  4. Neutron capture measurements on Tl-isotopes at Dance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, A.; Reifarth, R.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Haight, R.C.; Jandel, M.; Mertz, A.F.; O' Donnell, J.M.; Rundberg, R.S.; Ullmann, J.L.; Viera, D.J.; Wouters, J.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Baker, J.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The thallium isotopes play an important role in the s-process nucleosynthesis at the s-process endpoint. Furthermore, {sup 204}Tl is one of few branch point isotopes in the endpoint region. The understanding of branch point isotopes provides modeling constraints on the temperatures and neutron densities during which the process takes place. The production of s-only {sup 204}Pb is controlled almost entirely by {sup 204}Tl. Measurements of the capture cross-sections of the stable Tl isotopes have recently been made using the DANCE 4{pi} array at LANSCE. This provides needed resonance information in the region as well as preparing the way for measurements of as yet unmeasured capture cross-section of the unstable {sup 204}Tl. (authors)

  5. Early and delayed thallium-201 scintigraphy in thyroid nodules: the relationship between early thallium-201 uptake and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derebek, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Biberoglu, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Kut, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yesil, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Saydam, S. [Dept. of Surgery, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yenici, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Igci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Gokce, O. [Dept. of Surgery, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Canda, S. [Dept. of Pathology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bueyuekgebiz, A. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Dogan, A.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Durak, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)


    Seventy-six patients with tyroid nodules were studied. Initially, 75 MBq of thallium-201 was injected. The thyroid gland was imaged 15 min (early) and 3 h (delayed) after the injection. Thereafter, 185 MBq technetium-99m pertechnetate was injected. Immediately after the injection, a 1-min perfusion image was acquired, followed by an image at 20 min. Increased early and delayed {sup 201}Tl uptake compared with the contralateral thyroid tissue was adopted as the criterion for malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive values were found to be 85%, 64% and 78%, respectively, in operated patients, but these values were 86%, 87% and 95%, respectively, in the whole group, including patients followed with fine-needle aspiration biopsy. With the purpose of investigating the relationship between perfusion and early {sup 201}Tl uptake, bot perfusion and early images were graded comparing nodular activity with contralateral thyroid activity. There was a poor correlation between perfusion and {sup 201}Tl uptake. The correlation was even worse in hyperactive nodules. It is concluded that early and delayed {sup 201}Tl imaging should not be used in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules and that early {sup 201}Tl uptake seems to be more closely related to factors other than perfusion. (orig.)

  6. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity. (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  7. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  8. Thallium pollution in China: A geo-environmental perspective. (United States)

    Xiao, Tangfu; Yang, Fei; Li, Shehong; Zheng, Baoshan; Ning, Zengping


    It is well known that thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic metal to human health, but less is known about the geo-environmentally-induced Tl pollution and its associated health impacts. High concentrations of Tl that are primarily associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals have the potential of producing Tl pollution in the environment, which has been recognized as an emerging pollutant in China. This paper aims to review the research progress in China on Tl pollution in terms of the source, mobility, transportation pathway, and health exposure of Tl and to address the environmental concerns on Tl pollution in a geo-environmental perspective. Tl associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals has been documented to disperse readily and accumulate through the geo-environmental processes of soil enrichment, water transportation and food crop growth beyond a mineralized zone. The enrichments of Tl in local soil, water, and crops may result in Tl pollution and consequent adverse health effects, e.g. chronic Tl poisoning. Investigation of the baseline Tl in the geo-environment, proper land use and health-related environmental planning and regulation are critical to prevent the Tl pollution. Examination of the human urinary Tl concentration is a quick approach to identify exposure of Tl pollution to humans. The experiences of Tl pollution in China can provide important lessons for many other regions in the world with similar geo-environmental contexts because of the high mobility and toxicity of Tl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta


    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  10. Medical geology of arsenic, selenium and thallium in China. (United States)

    Li, Shehong; Xiao, Tangfu; Zheng, Baoshan


    Arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and thallium (Tl) are three trace metals (metalloids) of high concern in China because deficiency or excess expose can cause a range of endemic diseases, such as endemic arsenism, selenosis, Keshan disease (KD), Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and thallotoxicosis. These specific endemic diseases were attributable for overabundance or deficiency (mainly referring to selenium) of these three elements in the local environment as a result of natural geochemical processes and/or anthropologic activities. The geochemistry and human health impacts of these three trace elements have been intensively studied since the 1970s in China, in terms of geochemical sources, distribution, transportation, health impact pathways, and prevention/remediation measures. Endemic arsenism in China are induced from the exposures of high As in either drinking water or domestic combustion of As-rich coals. Both endemic selenium deficiency and selenosis occurred in China. The KD and KBD were related to the deficiency of Se in the low-Se geological belt with Se contents in soil less than 0.125mg/kg stretching from northeast to southwest of China. Endemic selenosis occurred in areas with high Se concentrations in soils derived from the Se-enriched black carbonaceous siliceous rocks, carbonaceous shale and slate. Endemic Tl poisoning occurred in southwestern China due to Tl contamination in local drinking water and vegetables surrounding the Tl-rich sulfide mineralized areas. Some measures have been taken to control and remedy the endemic diseases with significant effects in reducing health risk and damage of As, Se and Tl. However, the states of the endemic diseases of As, Se and Tl in China are still serious in some areas, and substantial research efforts regarding the health impacts of these elements are further required. This paper reviews the progress of medical geology of As, Se and Tl in China, and provides with some outlooks for future research directions. Copyright

  11. Geochemical translocation of thallium in the sediments from the North River, China (United States)

    Liu, J.


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare heavy metal. As a sulphophile element, it usually occurs in numerous sulphide minerals (such as pyrite, galena, sphlerite). Guangdong north region, known as the hometown of nonferrous metals, has abundant containing Tl mineral resources. Numerous industrial activities, such as mining, smelting, and electroplating are also flourishing. In 2010, a serious Tl pollution in the North River (a major river in the Northern Guangdong Province) shocked the society. The Tl pollution in water appeared to be under control after that incident. But in fact, even if the wastewater discharge of pollution sources has been controlled, the potential risk of heavy metal pollution in the sediments of the North River still exists, for the metals are easy to precipitate and accumulate into sediment from water. So far, Tl pollution in sediments has been studied to a very limited extent. In this paper, we investigated the content and vertical distribution characteristics of Tl and some other related heavy metals in a typical sediment profile from the North River by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Then the Pb isotopic compositions in the sediments were measured by using multi-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Several sediments from typical layers were also subjected to sequential extraction procedure for investigating the geochemical fractions of Tl. The risk of Tl and other metal pollution was finally assessed by calculating geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and potential ecological risk. The results showed that: (1) Tl concentrations range 1.03 mg/kg to 3.13 mg/kg with a mean of 1.89 mg/kg, three times higher than that in local background soil; (2) Tl content generally increased with depth with some fluctuations and significant correlations were found between Tl and Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni; (3) About 46 % to 70 % in sediment cores were resided in the residual fraction; (4) Igeo showed that the studied

  12. New CZT cardiac cameras and myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium 201; Nouvelles cameras cardiaques a semi-conducteur cadmium -zinc- telluride (CZT) et scintigraphies myocardiques au thallium 201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songy, B. [Service de medecine et imagerie nucleaire, centre cardiologique du Nord (CCN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)


    Myocardial perfusion imaging is widely used for management of coronary artery disease. However, it suffers from technical limitations. New cardiac cameras using CZT detectors are now available and increase spatial (x2) and energy (x2) resolutions and photons sensitivity (x5). We describe here the General Electric Discovery NM 530c new camera and summarize the validation studies with technetium agents and with thallium 201, protocols to reduce doses, ultrafast protocols and perspectives offered with this new technology. (author)

  13. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the diagnostic use of thallium-201 in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, K.T. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)); Donohoe, K.J. (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Baxter, Barbara; Memisoglu, Asli; Little, J.B.; Caggana, Michele; Liber, H.L. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))


    In order to investigate possible mutagenetic effects of in vivo exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation used in nuclear medicine, the authors examined hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutant fraction (MF) and chromosome aberration (CA) frequency in 24 nuclear medicine patients before and after injection of thallium-201. The mean MF of the thallium-201-exposed cohort was 5.2{+-}4.4 x 10{sup -6} before injection exposure. No significant difference in MF was observed 24 h later. In 11 patients who were studied on a 3rd occasion, 30 days after thallium-201 exposure, there was again no significant difference in post-exposure as compared with the pre-exposure MF. The frequency of CA in peripheral blood lymphocytes was not significantly different, comparing pre- and 24h to 1 month post-radionuclide exposure . Thus, thallium-201 exposure was not associated with significant elevations in MF or CA frequency in lymphocytes of exposed individuals. (author). 40 refs.; 3 tabs.

  14. Systematics of c-axis Phonons in the Thallium- and Bismuth-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A. A; Dulic, D.; Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Kaljushnaia, G. A.; Gorina, J. I.; Senturina, N. N.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Ren, Z. F.; Wang, J. H.; Menovsky, A. A.; Palstra, T. T. M.


    Published in: Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 13196 Citing articles (CrossRef) citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present grazing incidence reflectivity measurements in the far infrared region at temperatures above and below Tc for a series of thallium (Tl2Ba2CuO6, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8) and

  15. Dipyridamole-thallium-201 tomography documenting improved myocardial perfusion with therapy in Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Spielmann, R.P.; Hausdorf, G.


    Thallium-201 tomographic perfusion studies after pharmacologic vasodilation were performed in seven children (aged 2 years 8 months to 8 years 7 months), 3 to 20 months after the acute stage of the disease. In all patients coronary aneurysms were seen on cross-sectional echocardiograms. The scintigrams of six children showed no significant regional reduction of myocardial thallium-201 uptake. These children had remained asymptomatic in the follow-up period after the acute inflammatory stage of Kawasaki disease. Persistent and transient thallium defects were present in one child with acute posterolateral myocardial infarction; obstruction of two coronary vessels supplying the defect zones was confirmed by contrast angiography. After 8 months of treatment a follow-up nuclear scan showed marked reduction in the size of the defect and almost complete abolishment of the ischemic reaction. Thus tomographic thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy in conjunction with vasodilation stress is useful to assess myocardial perfusion in children with Kawasaki disease and demonstrates marked improvement in regional perfusion after adequate medical therapy.

  16. Complexometric determination of thallium(III using ethanethiol as a selective masking agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan J.


    Full Text Available A simple and selective complexometric method for the determination of thallium in presence of other metal ions is proposed based on the selective masking ability of ethanethiol towards thallium(III. Thallium present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5-6(hexamine using xylenol orange as the indicator. A 0.3% aqueous solution of ethanethiol is then added to displace EDTA from the Tl(III-EDTA complex. The released EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 3.70 mg to 74.07 mg of Tl (III with relative error less than ? 0.44% and coefficient of variation not more than 0.27%. The interference of various ions was studied and the method was used for the analysis of thallium in its synthetic alloy mixtures and also in complexes.

  17. Thallium-201: Autoradiography in pigmented mice and melanin-binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjaelve, H.; Nilsson, M.; Larsson, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))


    Autoradiography with /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in C57Bl mice showed a strong labelling of the eye melanin and of pigmented hair follicles. An analysis of the affinity of thallium for pigment from cow eyes indicated a binding to three groups of sites and showed a marked sensitivity to the addition of H/sup +/-ions. The results are consistent with the conception that a binding of thallium occurs to the free carboxyl groups of the melanin and that the structure of the polymer has a marked influence on the affinity. Similar results have previously been obtained with other cations. There was no indication that the strong in vivo affinity of thallium to melanin is due to a more firm binding than for other cations which do not localize on melanin in vivo. Instead, the ability of cations to pass the melanocyte membranes and reach the melanin granules is probably decisive for whether a melanin-binding will take place in vivo. Toxic effects on the eye and epilation are symptoms of thallium intoxication which may be related to its melanin-binding. The fate of /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in some other tissues is also described and discussed.

  18. Clinical features and applications of thallium-201. With reference to scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige


    Thallium-201 is not only used widely in myocardial imaging but also has a great potential in other various nuclear medicine imaging studies. This paper presents clinical features and applications of thallium-201, focusing on clinical trials with thallium-201 at the Shinshu University School of Medicine. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy offers information on (1) ventricular position and morphology, (2) hypertrophy or dilatation of the left ventricle, (3) hypertrophy or dilatation of the right ventricle, (4) site and extent of myocardial ischemia and infarct, (5) myocardial blood flow, (6) pulmonary congestion or interstitial pulmonary edema, and (7) pericardial effusion. It can be used in the following evaluation or diagnosis: (1) acute or old myocardial infarction, (2) angina pectoris, (3) treatment strategy or prognosis of ischemic heart disease, (4) treatment strategy or observation of bypass graft or drug therapy, (5) hypertrophic or dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy, (6) myocardial lesions induced by sarcoidosis, collagen disease, and neuro-muscular disease, (7) ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary edema, and (9) pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and systolic pericarditis associated with underlying disease. The significance of tumor, liver, bone marrow scintigraphies is also referred to. (Namekawa, K) 69 refs.

  19. Optimised thallium precipitation in a waste water treatment system of the flue gas desulphurisation; Optimierte Thalliumabscheidung einer RAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzerfeld, Guenter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany); Birngruber, Ingolf [RWE Power AG, Hamm (Germany); Muelder, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Ibbenbueren (Germany)


    When co-combusting substitute fuels in power plants, the element Thallium should be checked in the drain of the waste water treatment system of flue gas desulphurisation. In 2005 Thallium-concentrations exceeding the limit value were determined for the first time as a consequence of the modified analysis of the supervisory authority. The previous lower Thallium concentrations with graphite tube-atomic absorption spectrometry were caused by the high chloride concentration in RAA waste water. The RAA operating mode was checked and changed. Equipment-related weak spots were detected and corrected. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of Polythionates as Precursors for the Formation of Thallium Sulfide Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalijus JANICKIS


    Full Text Available The processes of obtaining layers of thallium, sulfides, TlxSy, by the sorption-diffusion method on polyamide 6 using solutions of lower polythionates - sodium trithionate and tetrathionate, Na2S3O6, Na2S4O6, potassium pentathionate, K2S5O6, and of dodecathionic acid, H2S12O6, as precursors of sulfur are compared. The concentration of sorbed sulfur increases with increasing the duration of treatment, the concentration and temperature of precursor solution. It rather significantly also depends on the nature - sulfurity of polythionate, i. e. on the number of sulfur atoms in the polythionate anion: effectiveness of sulfurization using solutions of dodecathionic acid is significantly higher than that of lower polythionates. Thallium sulfide layers are formed on the surface of polyamide after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Tl(I salt solution. The concentration of thallium in the layer increases with the increase of initial sulfurization duration and in case of H2S12O6 solution used - on the temperature of this process. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of thallium sulfide layers in the surface of polyamide 6. The phase composition of layer changes depending on the conditions of initial treatment in a H2S12O6 solution. Five thallium sulfide phases, two forms of TlS, Tl2S2, Tl4S3 and Tl2S5 were identified in the composition of the layers treated for different time with a solution of dodecathionic acid at the temperature of 20 °C and 30 °C and then with Tl(I salt solution by X-ray diffraction but the maxima of TlS and Tl2S5 phases predominate in the diffractograms.

  1. Thermodynamic Study of Tl6SBr4 Compound and Some Regularities in Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chalcohalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Mahammad Babanly


    Full Text Available The solid-phase diagram of the Tl-TlBr-S system was clarified and the fundamental thermodynamic properties of Tl6SBr4 compound were studied on the basis of electromotive force (EMF measurements of concentration cells relative to a thallium electrode. The EMF results were used to calculate the relative partial thermodynamic functions of thallium in alloys and the standard integral thermodynamic functions (-ΔfG0, -ΔfH0, and S0298 of Tl6SBr4 compound. All data regarding thermodynamic properties of thallium chalcogen-halides are generalized and comparatively analyzed. Consequently, certain regularities between thermodynamic functions of thallium chalcogen-halides and their binary constituents as well as degree of ionization (DI of chemical bonding were revealed.

  2. A calixarene-based ion-selective electrode for thallium(I) detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Ryan [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Sohail, Manzar [Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4556 (Australia); Ogden, Mark I.; Mocerino, Mauro [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Pretsch, Ernö [ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zürich (Switzerland); De Marco, Roland, E-mail: [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4556 (Australia)


    Highlights: • Tuning of metal binding cavities in thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Novel calixarene-based ionophores with improved selectivity for thallium(I). • Sandwich membrane characterization of thallium(I) binding in novel calixarenes. • Improved selectivity and sensitivity with novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Solid contact ion-selective electrodes for novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. - Abstract: Three new calixarene Tl{sup +} ionophores have been utilized in Tl{sup +} ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) yielding Nernstian response in the concentration range of 10{sup −2}–10{sup −6} M TlNO{sub 3} with a non-optimized filling solution in a conventional liquid contact ISE configuration. The complex formation constants (log β{sub IL}) for two of the calixarene derivatives with thallium(I) (i.e. 6.44 and 5.85) were measured using the sandwich membrane technique, with the other ionophore immeasurable due to eventual precipitation of the ionophore during these long-term experiments. Furthermore, the unbiased selectivity coefficients for these ionophores displayed excellent selectivity against Zn{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} with moderate selectivity against Pb{sup 2+}, Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, H{sup +}, K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cs{sup +}, noting that silver was the only significant interferent with these calixarene-based ionophores. When optimizing the filling solution in a liquid contact ISE, it was possible to achieve a lower limit of detection of approximately 8 nM according to the IUPAC definition. Last, the new ionophores were also evaluated in four solid-contact (SC) designs leading to Nernstian response, with the best response noted with a SC electrode utilizing a gold substrate, a poly(3-octylthiophene) (POT) ion-to-electron transducer and a poly(methyl methacrylate)–poly(decyl methacrylate) (PMMA–PDMA) co-polymer membrane. This electrode exhibited a slope of 58.4 mV decade

  3. Thallium Flux Assay for Measuring the Activity of Monovalent Cation Channels and Transporters. (United States)

    Weaver, C David


    Monovalent cation channels are critically important for physiological processes ranging from the control of neuronal excitability to the maintenance of solute balance. Mutations in these channels are associated with a multiplicity of diseases and monovalent cation channel-modulating drugs are used as therapeutics. Techniques that allow the measurement of the activity of these ion channels are useful for exploring their many biological roles as well as enabling the discovery and characterization of ion channel modulators for the purposes of drug discovery. Although there are numerous techniques for measuring the activity of monovalent cation channels, the thallium flux assay technique is a widely used fluorescence-based approach. Described herein is a method for using the thallium-flux technique for detecting and quantifying the activity of small-molecule potassium channel modulators in 384-well plates.

  4. Comparative studies on right ventricular pressure and volume overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, K.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kijima, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ono, K. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))


    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 44 patients with various heart diseases including mitral stenosis, atrial septal defect, primary pulmonary hypertension, and left atrial myxoma. The morphological findings of right ventricular (RV) free wall on the scintigram and RV/IVS (interventricular septum) uptake ratio of the images obtained from the left anterior oblique projection were studied in the patients with RV pressure or volume overloading.

  5. Tunable frequency-stabilization of UV laser using a Hallow-Cathode Lamp of atomic thallium

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Shy, Jow-Tsong; Liu, Yi-Wei


    A frequency-stabilized ultraviolet laser system, locked to the thallium resonant transition of 377.5 nm, was demonstrated using a novel bichromatic spectroscopy technique for tuning the zero-crossing laser-lock point. The atomic thallium system is a promising candidate in atomic parity violation and permanent electric dipole moment experiments, and its 377.5 nm 6P1/2->7S1/2 transition is important for thallium laser cooling and trapping experiment. The pressure shift, owing to the high pressure bu?er gas of the hollow-cathode lamp, was observed using an atomic beam resonance as reference. Such a shift was corrected by adjusting the peak ratio of the two Doppler-free saturation pro?les resulted from two pumping beams with a 130 MHz frequency di?erence. The resulted frequency stability of the ultraviolet laser is ?0.5 MHz at 0.1 sec integration time. This scheme is compact and versatile for stabilizing UV laser systems, which acquire a sub-MHz stability and frequency tunability.

  6. Detection of human collateral circulation by vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Salge, D.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Bleifeld, W. (University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.))


    Coronary arteriolar vasodilation may provoke redistribution of flow to collateral-dependent jeopardized myocardium. To assess the physiologic significance of collaterals, 80 consecutive post-infarction patients (age 58 +/- 8 years) underwent vasodilation-redistribution thallium-201 tomographic imaging after administration of 0.56 mg of intravenous dipyridamole/kg body weight. Circumferential profile analysis of thallium-201 uptake and redistribution in representative left ventricular tomograms provided quantitative assessment of transient and fixed defects and separation between periinfarctional and distant inducible hypoperfusion. Tomographic perfusion data were correlated to wall motion and collateral circulation between distinct anatomic perfusion territories. Patients were grouped according to presence (59%) or absence (41%) of angiographically visible collateral channels to jeopardized myocardium. In the presence of collaterals, distant reversible defects were larger than in absence of collaterals (p less than 0.05); the extent of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution was also larger in collateralized patients (p less than 0.025), whereas the size of the persistent perfusion defect was similar in both groups. By prospective analysis the tomographic perfusion pattern of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution revealed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 78% for the detection of significant collateral circulation in this group of patients. Thus, using the exhausted flow reserve as a diagnostic tool, vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography has the potential to identify and quantitate collateralized myocardium in post-infarction patients and may guide diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making.

  7. [Characterization of kale (Brassica oberacea var acephala) under thallium stress by in situ attenuated total reflection FTIR]. (United States)

    Yao, Yan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-Chun; Chen, Yong-Heng


    The experiment was designed based on consumption of carbon dioxide through the photosynthesis of Brassica oberacea var acephala leaf, and the photosynthesis of kale leaf under thallium stress was investigated by in situ attenuated total reflection FTIR (in situ ATR-FTIR). The ATR-FTIR showed that the absorption peaks of leaves had no obvious difference between plants growing in thallium stress soil and plants growing in non-thallium pollution soil, and the strong peaks at 3,380 cm(-1) could be assigned to the absorption of water, carbohydrate, protein or amide; the strong peaks at 2,916 and 2,850 cm(-1) assigned to the absorption of carbohydrate or aliphatic compound; the peaks at 1,640 cm(-1) assigned to the absorption of water. However, as detected by the in situ ATR-FTIR, the double peaks (negative peaks) at 2,360 and 2,340 cm(-1) that are assigned to the absorption of CO2 appeared and became high gradually. It was showed that kale was carrying photosynthesis. At the same time, the carbon dioxide consumption speed of leaf under thallium stress was obviously larger than that of the blank It was expressed that photosynthesis under thallium stress was stronger than the blank All these represented that kale had certain tolerance to the heavy metal thallium. Meanwhile, the carbon dioxide consumption of grown-up leaf was more than that of young leaf whether or not under thallium stress. It was also indicated that the intensity of photosynthesis in grown-up leaf is higher than that in young leaf.

  8. Thallium and manganese complexes involved in the luminescence emission of potassium-bearing aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel A., E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, Javier, E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Garrido, Fernando, E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Townsend, Peter D., E-mail: [School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Marco, Jose-Francisco, E-mail: [Instituto de Química-Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Calle Serrano 119, Madrid E-28006 (Spain)


    The luminescence emission at 285 nm in natural K-feldspar has been studied by Russian groups and associated with thallium ions in structural positions of K{sup +} sites as artificially thallium-doped feldspars display the same emission band. Here attention is focussed on spectra of CL emission bands centered near 285 and 560 nm from paragenetic adularia, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions. With accesorial thallium they show clear resemblances to each other. Associated sedimentary and hydrothermal aluminosilicate samples collected from Guadalix (Madrid, Spain) were analyzed with a wide range of experimental techniques including Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) with an attached X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and a cathodoluminescence probe (CL) and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Differential and Thermogravimetric Analyses (DTA-TG), radioluminescence (RL), Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). The luminescence emission bands at 285 and 560 nm seem to be associated with hydrous thallium–manganese complexes bonded to potassium-bearing aluminosilicates since various minerals such as K-feldspar, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions display similar CL spectra, accesorial thallium and hydroxyl groups. The presence of iron introduces a brown color which is attributed to submicroscopic iron oxides detectable in the optical and chemical microanalysis, but this does not contribute to the luminescence emission. The XPS Mn 2p spectrum of the adularia sample at room temperature is composed of a spin–orbit doublet plus clear shake-up satellite structure ∼4 eV above the main photoemision lines and is consistent with Mn{sup 2+} in good agreement with the observed luminescence emission at 560 nm for aluminosilicates produced by a {sup 4}T1({sup 4}G)→{sup 6}A1({sup 6}S) transition in tetrahedrally

  9. Diagnostic value of 123I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic and thallium 201 perfusion imaging in stable coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Walamies, M; Turjanmaa, V; Koskinen, M; Uusitalo, A


    The diagnostic value of 123I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic cardiac imaging was studied in a group (n = 29) of patients with angiographically confirmed CAD using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A symptom-limited exercise test was first done with IPPA, and 2 days later with thallium. Medications were not withheld during testing. Fourteen healthy control subjects participated in parallel IPPA and 15 in thallium tests. Data acquisition and output were comparable in the two imaging modalities. By testing various relatively simple criteria for abnormality we found that the semiquantitative interpretation was more accurate than the visual readings. The best compromise of accuracy with the scored criteria consisted of a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 86%, obtained with IPPA polar tomograms (mild exercise defect) and a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 80% obtained with thallium (regionally decreased washout). With visual interpretation alone, a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 71% was detected with IPPA (mild exercise defect) and 72% and 73%, respectively, with thallium (partial reversibility). The sensitivity of the exercise ECG alone was 62%. The results of this study imply that IPPA imaging could be a rational, uncomplicated clinical method for non-invasive diagnosis of CAD. The diagnostic ability of IPPA is at least as good as that of thallium, and it is possible to use them in succession.

  10. Dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging: A new marker of triple-vessel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Ikeda, K.; Komatani, A.; Tsuiki, K.; Yasui, S. (Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))


    To investigate the significance and mechanism of dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging, we performed both dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging and dipyridamole radionuclide angiography on 83 patients with known angiograms. The dipyridamole/delayed ratio of the left ventricular dimension from the thallium-201 image was defined as the left ventricular dilatation ratio (LVDR). An LVDR greater than the mean + two standard deviations in patients without coronary artery disease was defined as abnormal. Twenty-two of 83 patients showed an abnormal LVDR, and 18 of the 22 patients (82%) had triple-vessel disease. By defect and washout analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying the patients as having triple-vessel disease was 72% and 76%, respectively, whereas LVDR had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 93%. When LVDR was used in combination with the defect and washout criteria, sensitivity increased to 84% without a loss of specificity. In those 22 patients with abnormal LVDRs, end-diastolic volume measured by radionuclide angiography did not change after dipyridamole infusion. Dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging reflected relative subendocardial hypoperfusion induced by dipyridamole rather than actual chamber enlargement. The LVDR was moderately sensitive and highly specific for triple-vessel disease and provided complementary information to dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging.

  11. Isotope-abundance variations and atomic weights of selected elements: 2016 (IUPAC Technical Report) (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Shrestha, Yesha


    There are 63 chemical elements that have two or more isotopes that are used to determine their standard atomic weights. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights of these elements can vary in normal materials due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay). These variations are well known for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and thallium), and the standard atomic weight of each of these elements is given by IUPAC as an interval with lower and upper bounds. Graphical plots of selected materials and compounds of each of these elements have been published previously. Herein and at the URL, we provide isotopic abundances, isotope-delta values, and atomic weights for each of the upper and lower bounds of these materials and compounds.

  12. A preliminary investigation and evaluation of the thallium environmental impacts of the unmined Xiangquan thallium-only deposit in Hexian, China (United States)

    Zhou, Taofa; Fan, Yu; Yuan, Feng; Cooke, David; Zhang, Xin; Li, Liangjun


    The Xiangquan Thallium-only deposit in Hexian, east China is a newly found near-surface and unmined shallow-seated thallium deposit. The 250t Tl deposit is hosted in Lower Ordovician Lunshan Group as lenticular and confined by northeast F1, F2 faults. The metallic minerals are dominated by pyrite, more than 95% Tl occurs in pyrite as tiny individual grains or as ‘‘invisible thallium”. Tl and other trace elements pollution in ecosystems such as soils, surface and ground waters and water sediments, plants and crops, and animal and human beings in Xiangquan near the Tl ore deposit have been investigated and evaluated. Results show that Tl as well as As and Sb in ecosystems in Xiangquan around the deposit have enriched, they came from Tl-pyrite in the ore bodies and in the parent rocks of weathered soils on top of the ore bodies and went into the nearby ecosystems through weathering, leaching and dissolving. In 2 km2 around the Xiaolongwang Mountain where the Tl ore deposit seated, soils, vegetables, crops have been polluted or heavily polluted by Tl, As and Sb. Farmlands near the ore body are not fit to grow vegetables and crops. Thermal Spring water in Xiangquan town and pond water close to the Tl deposit are not potable. Tl also enriches in human hair and urinate of villagers who live close to the Tl deposit. Even through the Tl-only deposit has put clear environmental impacts on the local environment and ecosystems around it, no serious consequences of Tl pollution have so far taken place due to unmining of the Tl deposit as well as the screen effect of the silicficious breccia cap on top of it. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behavior in unmined Tl deposit, and also benefit to the local environmental protection and the future mineral resources exploration.

  13. Isotope separation (United States)

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.


    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  14. {sup 201}Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellen, K


    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of {sup 201}Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imagingfor astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the

  15. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd


    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  16. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings induced by thallium. (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra; Glavas, Katarina; Roje, Vibor; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana


    Thallium (Tl) is a metal of great toxicological concern because it is highly toxic to all living organisms through mechanisms that are yet poorly understood. Since Tl is accumulated by important crops, the present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of Tl in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as well as the plant's antioxidative defense mechanisms usually activated by heavy metals. Thallium toxicity was related to production of reactive oxygen species in leaves and roots of broad bean seedlings following short-term (72 h) exposure to thallium (I) acetate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/L) by evaluating DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters as well as antioxidative response. The possible antagonistic effect of potassium (K) was tested by combined treatment with 5 mg/L of Tl (Tl+) and 10 mg/L of potassium (K+) acetate. Accumulation of Tl+ in roots was 50 to 250 times higher than in broad bean shoots and was accompanied by increase in dry weight and proline. Despite responsive antioxidative defense (increased activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and pyrogallol peroxidase), Tl+ caused oxidative damage to lipids and proteins as evaluated by malondialdehyde and carbonyl group levels, and induced DNA strand breaks. Combined treatment caused no oxidative alternations to lipids and proteins though it induced DNA damage. The difference in Tl-induced genotoxicity following both acellular and cellular exposure implies indirect DNA damage. Results obtained indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of Tl toxicity and that the tolerance of broad bean to Tl is achieved, at least in part, through the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Thallium Intoxication Treated with Long-Term Hemodialysis, Forced Diuresis and Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Solgaard, Per Bent; Freund, L. Gade


    A 56 yr old woman, who ingested 2 g of thallium sulfate, was successfully treated with long-term hemodialysis for 200 h during 10 days, combined with forced diuresis and Prussian blue. The effect of the artificial kidney dialysis was determined by repeated analysis of the Tl concentration...... in the dialysis bath and in blood samples. During the 1st 120 h of hemodialysis, 143 mg of Tl was eliminated via the artificial kidney and 110 mg via the urinary tract. The present case of acute Tl intoxication is the 1st in which long-term hemodialysis has been used in the acute phase...

  18. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Szopa, Sebastian; Jabłońska, Magdalena; Łyko, Aleksandra


    Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices. PMID:22654649

  19. Evaluation of myocardial abnormalities in collagen diseases by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Kagoshima, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kiyotaka (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)) (and others)


    This study was performed to evaluate myocardial abnormalities in patients with collagen diseases by exercise and rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams. A total of 65 patients without ischemic ECG changes, consisting of 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 18 with polymyositis (PM), 8 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and 21 with Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS), was enrolled in this study. Reversible exercise-induced defects scintigraphically suggesting myocardial ischemia were noted in 8 cases of SLE, 4 cases of PM, 4 cases of PSS, and 3 cases of SjS. Nineteen patients had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization, 8 of whom had normal coronary angiograms. Fixed hypoperfusion areas were observed in one case of SLE, 6 cases of PM and 3 cases of SjS. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigram disclosed hypoperfusion areas which were not induced by exercise in 2 cases of SLE, 3 cases of PM, one case of PSS and 5 cases of SjS. Echocardiogram showed no significant differences in ejection fraction and % fractional shortening between the disease groups and healthy control group. These findings suggest that patients with collagen diseases have abnormalities of coronary circulation at the level of the intramural vasculature before cardiac function impairment, myocardial fibrosis and functional abnormalities at the cell membrane. (author).

  20. Follow-up Thallium-201 scintigraphy after mantle field radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierga, J.Y.; Girinski, T.; Henry-Amar, M. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)); Maunoury, C.; Valette, H.; Tchernia, G.; Desgrez, A. (Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)); Socie, G. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France) Hopital St Louis, Paris (France)); Cosset, J.M. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France) Institut Curie, Paris (France))


    Assessment of the long-term cardiac effects of mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease, by Thallium scintigraphy. 32 patients (14 males and 18 females) who underwent mantle field radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease were included in this study. Twenty patients received 4 fractions of 2.5 Gy per week and 12, five fraction of 2 Gy per week, delivered on alternate days. All the patients, except three, performed exercise testing electrocardiogram and Thallium-201 tomoscintigraphy. The average time interval from completion of treatment to the study was 7 years (range 3--13 years). No patients had clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Mean age at the time of the study was 35 years (range 23--48 years). Two electrocardiograms revealed left bundle branch block and the patients were excluded from the study. Only one out of 27 exercise electrocardiograms was abnormal in a patient with mitral valve prolapse, who was also excluded from the study. Twenty-six scintigraphies were evaluable. Twenty-two (85%) were clearly abnormal with partial or complete redistribution on delayed images. The anterior region was affected in 19 of these cases (86%). Four explorations were undoubtedly normal. Coronary angiography was not performed for ethical reasons in these asymptomatic patients. Despite possible false positive tests, the high rate of abnormality (85%) in this small series is striking. These preliminary data justify larger studies and a close long-term follow-up of these patients. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  2. [Detecting Thallium in Water Samples using Dispersive Liquid Phase Microextraction-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Li, Yan; Zheng, Bo; Tang, Wei; Chen, Xiao; Zou, Xiao-li


    To develope a method of solvent demulsification dispersive liquid phase microextraction (SD-DLPME) based on ion association reaction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) for detecting thallium in water samples. Methods Thallium ion in water samples was oxidized to Tl(III) with bromine water, which reacted with Cl- to form TlCl4-. The ionic associated compound with trioctylamine was obtained and extracted. DLPME was completed with ethanol as dispersive solvent. The separation of aqueous and organic phase was achieved by injecting into demulsification solvent without centrifugation. The extractant was collected and injected into GFAAS for analysis. With palladium colloid as matrix modifier, a two step drying and ashing temperature programming process was applied for high precision and sensitivity. The linear range was 0.05-2.0 microg/L, with a detection limit of 0.011 microg/L. The relative standard derivation (RSD) for detecting Tl in spiked water sample was 9.9%. The spiked recoveries of water samples ranged from 94.0% to 103.0%. The method is simple, sensitive and suitable for batch analysis of Tl in water samples.

  3. The learning machine in quantitative chemical analysis : Part I. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Cadmium, Lead and Thallium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Jasink, G.


    The linear learning machine method was applied to the determination of cadmium, lead and thallium down to 10-8 M by anodic stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode. With a total of three trained multicategory classifiers, concentrations of Cd, Pb and Tl could be predicted with an

  4. Thallium chloride 201Tl combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charabi, Samih Ahmed; Lassen, N A; Thomsen, J


    Thallium chloride 201Tl combined with SPECT was performed in a series of 29 patients with neuroradiological evidence of vestibular schwannoma (VS). The relative tumor uptake (U) and relative tumor concentration (C) of the radiotracer 201Tl was determined, and the cerebellum served as a reference...

  5. Isotope-abundance variations of selected elements (IUPAC technical report) (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; De Bievre, P.; Ding, T.; Holden, N.E.; Hopple, J.A.; Krouse, H.R.; Lamberty, A.; Peiser, H.S.; Revesz, K.; Rieder, S.E.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Roth, E.; Taylor, P.D.P.; Vocke, R.D.; Xiao, Y.K.


    Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic-weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic-weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope-abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic-weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic-weight uncertainties. This compilation indicates the extent to which the atomic weight of an element in a given material may differ from the standard atomic weight of the element. For most elements given above, data are graphically illustrated by a diagram in which the materials are specified in the ordinate and the compositional ranges are plotted along the abscissa in scales of (1) atomic weight, (2) mole fraction of a selected isotope, and (3) delta value of a selected isotope ratio.

  6. Leatherback Isotopes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  7. Isotope Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  8. Bis(2-mercapto-1-R-imidazolyl)hydroborato complexes of aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium: compounds possessing gallium-gallium bonds and a trivalent thallium alkyl. (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Coleman, Fergal; Parkin, Gerard


    The reactions of bis(mercaptoimidazolyl)hydroborato derivatives [Bm(R)]M' (R = Me, Bu(t); M' = Li, Na, Tl) with MX(3) trihalides of aluminium, gallium and indium yield both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of the types [Bm(R)]MX(2) and [Bm(R)](2)MX, respectively. Structurally characterized examples of the [Bm(R)]MX(2) series include [Bm(Me)]AlCl(2), [Bm(Me)]GaI(2), [Bm(Me)]InI(2), [Bm(Bu(t))]AlCl(2) and [Bm(Bu(t))]GaX(2) (X = Cl, Br, I), while structurally characterized examples of the [Bm(R)](2)MX series include [Bm(Bu(t))](2)InX (X = Cl, Br, I). In addition to the halide complexes, the trivalent dimethyl thallium complex [Bm(Bu(t))]TlMe(2) has been synthesized via the reaction of [Bm(Bu(t))]Tl with Me(2)TlCl. The reactions of [Bm(R)]M' with the monovalent halides, "GaI", InCl and InI, result in disproportionation. In the case of indium, the mononuclear complexes [Bm(Bu(t))](2)InI and [Bm(Bu(t))]InCl(kappa(2)-mim(Bu(t))) are obtained, whereas for gallium, dinuclear compounds that feature Ga-Ga bonds, namely [Bm(R)](GaI)(GaI)[Bm(R)] (R = Me, Bu(t)) have been isolated.

  9. Thallium stress testing does not predict cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley, J.L.; Fenton, R.A.; Arthur, R.S. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))


    This study assessed the usefulness of thallium stress testing as a predictor of perioperative cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Demographic factors influencing the exercise performance in these patients were also examined. The medical records of 189 consecutive patients with diabetic nephropathy who were evaluated for cadaveric renal transplantation were reviewed. Thallium stress testing was the initial examination of cardiovascular status in 141 patients. An adequate examination was one in which at least 70% of maximum heart rate was achieved. A thallium stress test was normal if there were no ST segment depressions on the electrocardiogram and no perfusion abnormalities on the thallium scan. Forty-four patients underwent cardiac catheterization as the initial evaluation (Group C) and four patients underwent transplantation without a formal cardiovascular evaluation (Group D). Sixty-four of the 141 patients undergoing thallium stress testing had an adequate and normal examination (Group A). The incidence of perioperative cardiac events in this group was 2%. Seventy-seven patients (Group B) had an abnormal (n = 41) or an inadequate (n = 36) thallium stress test and most (n = 61) then underwent coronary angiography. The use of beta-blockers was the only predictor of an abnormal or inadequate thallium stress test. Forty-three percent of patients with inadequate or abnormal thallium stress tests had significant coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. The perioperative risk of cardiac events was not different in Group A versus Groups B, C, and D combined. Survival of Group A and B patients was not different but was significantly longer than that of Group C patients.

  10. Evaluation of thallium-201 scanning for detection of latent coronary artery disease (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Deboer, L.; Jhingran, S.


    The use of thallium imaging as a noninvasive method to accurately screen shuttle passengers for latent coronary artery disease was investigated. All radionuclide procedures were performed using an Anger type camera with a high resolution collimator. A minimum of 200,000 counts were collected for each image using a 20% window centered on the 69-83 keV X-rays. For the images obtained following injection with the patient at rest, the testing was begun 10 minutes after injection. Injections of TT during exercise were made at a point near the termination of the treadmill procedure as determined by either the appearance of ST segment changes on the electrocardiogram consistant with subendocardial ischemia, the appearance of angina-like chest pain in the patient or fatigue in the patient which required cessation of the test. The severity of heart disease was based on the medical history, physical exam, exercise electrocardiograms, chest X-rays and the coronary arteriogram.

  11. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China. (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers case-control study to investigate the association between prenatal Tl exposure and LBW. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to high levels of Tl may be associated with an increased risk of LBW. Xia W, Du X, Zheng T, Zhang B, Li Y, Bassig BA, Zhou A, Wang Y, Xiong C, Li Z, Yao Y, Hu J, Zhou Y, Liu J, Xue W, Ma Y, Pan X, Peng Y, Xu S. 2016. A case-control study of prenatal thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169;

  12. Evaluation of myocardial abnormalities in patients with collagen diseases by thallium-201 myocardial scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))


    This study was performed to evaluate myocardial lesions in patients with collagen diseases by rest and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphies. A total of 76 patients without ischemic ECG changes, consisting of 27 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 17 cases of polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM[center dot]DM), 11 cases of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and 21 cases of Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS), were enrolled in this study. Reversible exercise-induced defects suggesting myocardial ischemia were noted in 12 cases of SLE, 5 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 3 cases of PSS, and 3 cases of SjS. Of the 23 patients who had exercise-induced defects, 9 patients showed normal coronary angiograms by cardiac catheterization. Fixed hypoperfusion areas were observed in 5 cases of SLE, 6 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 4 cases of PSS and 3 cases of SjS. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy disclosed hypoperfusion areas, which were not induced by exercise, in 1 case of SLE, 4 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 1 case of PSS and 5 cases of SjS. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed on 20 patients. Myocardial lesions in PM[center dot]DM and PSS were more severe and wide spread than in SLE. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening evaluated by echocardiography had no significant differences between each disease group and the healthy control group. These findings suggest that patients with collagen diseases show the presence of abnormalities of coronary circulation at the level of the intramyocardial vasculature in the stage before impairment of cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis and functional abnormalities of the cell membrane level that were not dependent on myocardial ischemia. (author).

  13. Thallium myocardial tomoscintigraphy: detection of ischemia during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Tomoscintigraphie myocardique au thallium: detection de l'ischemie provoquee par le sevrage de la ventilation assistee chez le bronchiteux chronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, L.; Valette, H.; Obama, S.; Archambaud, F.; Richard, C.; Teboul, J.L.; Hebert, J.L.; Auzepy, P.; Desgrez, A. (Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (FR))


    In order to evidence myocardial ischemia-leading to ventricular dysfunction-during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thallium myocardial tomography and gated blood pool studies were performed in 9 patients during mechanical ventilation and during weaning from mechanical ventilation. During the latter, results of gated blood pool studies showed a diffuse homogeneous left ventricular dysfunction. A fixed lower thallium uptake in the septum than in the lateral wall was found with the quantitative analysis of myocardial tomograms. Partial volume effect is likely the cause of this septal defect. The hypothesis of a diffuse ischemia cannot be excluded; but, without the absolute quantification of tomographic data, it cannot be proven.

  14. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS (United States)

    Bacon, C.G.


    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  15. Studies of photon spectra from a thallium-204 foil source as an aid to dosimetry and shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, T M


    Beta ray foil sources incorporating nuclides such as thallium-204, promethium-147 and strontium-90 plus yttrium-90 ar increasingly used in industrial devices such as thickness gauges. These sources are so constructed that they give rise to complex photon spectra containing low energy Bremsstrahlung and X-rays characteristic of the constructional materials. The energy response of practical monitoring instruments is such that they are likely to underestimate the dose due to such spectra unless they are calibrated using appropriate spectra. This report describes a series of measurements carried out on a commercially available thallium-204 foil source and five commonly used shielding materials. The measurements made with a NaI(T1) spectrometer have been corrected for instrumental distortions to obtain the photon spectra in air. These spectra are presented and have been used to compute dose in air with the help of published data on mass energy-absorption coefficients. Also included in the report are data derived f...

  16. Septal myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 in the diagnosis of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichard, A.D.; Wiener, I.; Martinez, E.; Horowitz, S.; Patterson, R.; Meller, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Gorlin, R.; Herman, M.V.


    The use of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) to identify obstructive coronary disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery proximal to the first septal perforator (prox LAD) was studied in 60 patients. Perfusion of the septum and anteroapical areas with thallium-201 injected during exercise was compared to results of coronary arteriography. Septal MPI defect was found in 92.3% of patients with obstruction of the proximal LAD, 27.7% of patients with obstruction of LAD distal to first septal perforator, 0% in patients with obstructions involving right or circumflex arteries, and in 10.5% of patients without coronary disease. Anteroapical MPI defects were found with similar frequency in the three groups with obstructive coronary disease. Septal MPI defect had a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 85.4% in the diagnosis of proximal LAD disease. Normal septal perfusion with thallium-201 virtually excluded proximal LAD disease.

  17. Usefulness of rest-redistribution thallium scan for the indication of PTCA in an interesting case with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Mitani, Isao; Matsuo, Takeshi; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Haze, Kazuo


    A 72-year-old woman with acute myocardial infarction was received coronary thrombolytic therapy. After percutaneous transluminal coronary recanalization (PTCR), the stenosis of LAD became from 99 % to 90 %. Left ventriculogram showed dyskinesis of anterior wall in acute phase. After PTCR, she complained of postinfarctional angina. Thus, in order to evaluate the viability of anterior wall, serial thallium scintigraphy was performed at rest, which showed perfusion defect and redistribution of anterior wall. After percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), anterior wall motion became almost normal. The perfusion defect of anterior wall was also gradually disappeared. The serial thallium scintigraphy at rest is an useful method not only to evaluate the viability of myocardium in acute myocardial infarction, but also to follow the effect of PTCA.

  18. Stable isotope

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the study suggest that there are two main carbon pathways for plankton and nekton in the Kariega estuary, carbon derived from the eelgrass and its associated epiphytes and carbon which has its origins in the salt marsh riparian vegetation and zooplankton. Keywords: stable isotope analysis; temperate estuary; ...

  19. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.


    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  20. Formic acid electrooxidation on thallium-decorated shape-controlled platinum nanoparticles: an improvement in electrocatalytic activity


    Busó-Rogero, Carlos; Perales-Rondón, Juan V.; Farias, Manuel J.S.; Vidal-Iglesias, Francisco J.; Solla-Gullón, José; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M.


    Thallium modified shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles were prepared and their electrocatalytic activity towards formic acid electrooxidation was evaluated in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The electrochemical and in situ FTIR spectroscopic results show a remarkable improvement in the electrocatalytic activity, especially in the low potential region (around 0.1–0.2 V vs. RHE). Cubic Pt nanoparticles modified with Tl were found to be more active than the octahedral Pt ones in the entire range of Tl coverag...

  1. Usefulness and limitations of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in delineating location and size of prior myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niess, G.S.; Logic, J.R.; Russell, R.O. Jr.; Rackley, C.E.; Rogers, W.J.


    Thirty-two patients were evaluated at a mean of 7 +- 2 months after infarction with a 12-lead ECG, resting /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigram, biplane left ventriculogram, and coronary angiograms. From the left ventriculogram, asynergy was quantified as percent abnormally contracting segment (% ACS), the percent of end-diastolic circumference which was either akinetic or dyskinetic. Using a computerized planimetry system, we expressed /sup 201/Tl perfusion defects as a percentage of total potential thallium uptake. Of 21 patients with ECG evidence of prior transmural infarction, a /sup 201/Tl defect was present in 20, and angiographic asynergy was present in all 21. The site of prior infarction by ECG agreed with the /sup 201/T1 defect location in 24 of 32 patients and with site of angiographic asynergy in 23 of 32 patients. Scintigraphic defects were present in only four of 10 patients with ACS less than or equal to 6%, but scintigraphic defects were found in 20 of 22 patients with ACS > 6%. Thallium defect size correlated marginally with angiographic left ventricular ejection fraction but correlated closely with angiographic % ACS. Thallium defect size was similar among patients with one-, two-, or three-vessel coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% stenosis), but thallium defect size was larger in patients with electrocardiographic evidence of transmural infarction or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > 12 mm Hg. Thus, resting /sup 201/T1 myocardial scintigraphy is useful in localizing and quantifying the extent of prior myocardial infarction, but is insensitive to small infarcts (ACS < 6%).

  2. Determination of thallium at ultra-trace levels in water and biological samples using solid phase spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S; El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Kassem, Mohammed A


    A new simple, very sensitive, selective and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of thallium(III) by solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS) has been developed. The procedure is based on fixation of Tl(III) as quinalizarin ion associate on a styrene-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin. The absorbance of resin sorbed Tl(III) ion associate is measured directly at 636 and 830 nm. Thallium(I) was determined by difference measurements after oxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) with bromine. Calibration is linear over the range 0.5-12.0 μg L(-1) of Tl(III) with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.40% (n=10). The detection and quantification limits are 150 and 495 ng L(-1) using 0.6 g of the exchanger. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity are also calculated and found to be 1.31×10(7) L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.00156 ng cm(-2), respectively. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to determine thallium in water, urine and serum samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The efficient removal of thallium from sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater in ferrous metallurgy using emulsion liquid membrane. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Xiao, Jiangping; Shen, Yi; Liu, Xian; Li, Wensong; Wang, Weiyan; Yang, Yunquan


    The removal of thallium ions in flue gas desulfurization wastewater from ferrous metallurgic industry was studied by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) method using 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507) as carrier, aviation kerosene (AK) as organic solvent, polyisobutylene succinimide (T154) as surfactant, polyisobutylene (PIB) as additive, and sulfuric acid as internal reagent. Some important influence parameters such as concentrations of carrier, surfactant and stripping agent, agitation speed, extraction time, volume ratios of feed solution to emulsion phase and internal phase to membrane phase, and their effects on the removal efficiency of Tl in the ELM process were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum operating conditions of 2% of carrier, 5% of surfactant, 0.5 M of stripping agent, 350 rpm of agitation speed, 12.5:1 of volume ratio of feed solution to emulsion phase, and 3:1 volume ratio of membrane to internal phase, the maximum extraction efficiency of thallium reached 99.76% within 15-min reaction time. The ICP-MS analysis indicated that the thallium concentration in treated wastewater was below 5 μg/L and could meet the emission standard demand for industrial wastewater enacted by the local government of Hunan province of China. Meanwhile, the extraction of impurity ions calcium and magnesium in the ELM system was investigated. The result showed that an acidic environment would be in favor of the removal of Tl from calcium and magnesium contained in wastewater. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  4. Investigation of thallium fluxes from subaerial volcanism-Implications for the present and past mass balance of thallium in the oceans (United States)

    Baker, R.G.A.; Rehkamper, M.; Hinkley, T.K.; Nielsen, S.G.; Toutain, J.P.


    A suite of 34 volcanic gas condensates and particulates from Kilauea (Hawaii), Mt. Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Mt. Merapi (Indonesia), White Island and Mt. Nguaruhoe (New Zealand) were analysed for both Tl isotope compositions and Tl/Pb ratios. When considered together with published Tl-Pb abundance data, the measurements provide globally representative best estimates of Tl/Pb = 0.46 ?? 0.25 and ??205Tl = -1.7 ?? 2.0 for the emissions of subaerial volcanism to the atmosphere and oceans (??205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio from NIST SRM 997 isotope standard in parts per 10,000). Compared to igneous rocks of the crust and mantle, volcanic gases were found to have (i) Tl/Pb ratios that are typically about an order of magnitude higher, and (ii) significantly more variable Tl isotope compositions but a mean ??205Tl value that is indistinguishable from estimates for the Earth's mantle and continental crust. The first observation can be explained by the more volatile nature of Tl compared to Pb during the production of volcanic gases, whilst the second reflects the contrasting and approximately balanced isotope fractionation effects that are generated by partial evaporation of Tl during magma degassing and partial Tl condensation as a result of the cooling and differentiation of volcanic gases. Mass balance calculations, based on results from this and other recent Tl isotope studies, were carried out to investigate whether temporal changes in the volcanic Tl fluxes could be responsible for the dramatic shift in the ??205Tl value of the oceans at ???55 Ma, which has been inferred from Tl isotope time series data for ferromanganese crusts. The calculations demonstrate that even large changes in the marine Tl input fluxes from volcanism and other sources are unable to significantly alter the Tl isotope composition of the oceans. Based on modelling, it is shown that the large inferred change in the ??205Tl value of seawater is best explained if the oceans

  5. Thallium-201 SPECT in the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. (United States)

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Balm, A J; Hilgers, F J; Koops, W; Loftus, B M; Tan, I B; Muller, S H; Hoefnagel, C A; Gregor, R T


    The accuracy of SPECT with 201Tl-chloride for the diagnosis of primary tumors, lymph node metastases and recurrences in head and neck cancer was evaluated for clinical applicability. SPECT images, obtained 60 min after administration of 150 MBq 201Tl-chloride, were compared with clinical, CT and/or MRI and histology results. In addition, whole-body images were obtained to detect distant metastases. In 79 patients studied for primary tumors (principally larynix, hypopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx and oral cavity), 201Tl SPECT correctly identified 69 of 73 (95% versus 88% for CT/MRI) histologically confirmed malignancies including 63 squamous-cell carcinomas. The method localized four occult naso- and oropharynx carcinomas not seen on CT/MRI and was correctly negative in two patients without tumor and in three of four patients with no confirmed primary tumor in the head and neck. With respect to regional spread, only patients who had cervical lymph node dissection were evaluated, and the findings were recorded per side of the neck. Thallium-201 SPECT correctly identified metastases in 31 of 36 neck dissections with proven lymph node involvement (86%), was correctly negative in nine and false-positive in one. Although the sensitivity of CT/MRI was clearly higher (97%), considerably more false-positive cases affected its accuracy (81% versus 87% for SPECT). In 30 patients investigated for recurrences, 201Tl SPECT correctly identified 27 of 29 microscopically confirmed tumor sites (93%) and was correctly negative in seven. Sensitivity of CT/MRI was lower (76%), and a greater number of false-positives (seven versus three for SPECT) further decreased its accuracy (64% versus 87% for SPECT). Distant metastases were detected in five patients. Thallium-201 SPECT appears to be an accurate method for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. The method is particularly useful for detection of occult head and neck tumors and for assessing recurrences. It also may be of

  6. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland. (United States)

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  7. In-situ pre-concentration through repeated sampling and pyrolysis for ultrasensitive determination of thallium in drinking water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Zheng, Huaili; Xu, Bincheng; Xiao, Lang; Chigan, Yong; Zhangluo, Yilan


    In this paper, a procedure for in-situ pre-concentration in graphite furnace by repeated sampling and pyrolysis is proposed for the determination of ultra-trace thallium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Without any other laborious enrichment processes that routinely result in analyte loss and contamination, thallium was directly concentrated in the graphite furnace automatically and subsequently subject to analysis. The effects of several key factors, such as the temperature for pyrolysis and atomization, the chemical modifier, and the repeated sampling times were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a limit of detection of 0.01µgL -1 was obtained, which fulfilled thallium determination in drinking water by GB 5749-2006 regulated by China. Successful analysis of thallium in certified water samples and drinking water samples was demonstrated, with analytical results in good agreement with the certified values and those by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Routine spike-recovery tests with randomly selected drinking water samples showed satisfactory results of 80-96%. The proposed method is simple and sensitive for screening of ultra-trace thallium in drinking water samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The ECG component of Thallium-201 exercise testing impacts on cardiac intervention rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deague, J.; Salehi, N.; Grigg, L.; Lichtenstein, M.; Better, N. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiology


    Full text: Thallium exercise testing (Tlex) offers superior sensitivity and specificity to exercise electrocardiography (ECG), but the value of the ECG data in Tlex remains poorly studied. While a normal Tlex is associated with an excellent prognosis, patients with a positive Tlex have a higher cardiac event rate. We aimed to see if a negative ECG Component of the Tlex (ECGTl) was associated with an improved outcome compared with a positive ECGTl, in those patients with a reversible Tlex defect. We followed 100 consecutive patients retrospectively with a reversible defect on Tlex (50 with negative and 50 with positive ECGTI) for 12 months. The ECG was reviewed as positive (1mm ST depression 0.08 seconds after J point or >2mm if on digoxin or prior ECG changes), negative, equivocal or uninterpretable. We excluded patients with pharmacological testing, and those with equivocal or uninterpretable ECGs. End-points included angiography, cardiac interventions and cardiac event rate (CER) incorporating unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac death. In conclusion 24% of patients with reversible defects on Tlex who had a negative ECGTI still proceeded to PTCA or CABG. Those with a positive ECGTI had a higher incidence of angiography and cardiac revascularisation, but this difference was only evident in patients with mild to moderate reversibility

  9. Redox-controlled release dynamics of thallium in periodically flooded arable soil. (United States)

    Antić-Mladenović, Svetlana; Frohne, Tina; Kresović, Mirjana; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Savić, Dubravka; Ličina, Vlado; Rinklebe, Jörg


    To our knowledge, this is the first work to mechanistically study the impact of the redox potential (E H ) and principal factors, such as pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), chlorides (Cl - ) and sulfates (SO 4 2- ), on the release dynamics of thallium (Tl) in periodically flooded soil. We simulated flooding using an automated biogeochemical microcosm system that allows for systematical control of pre-defined redox windows. The E H value was increased mechanistically at intervals of approximately 100 mV from reducing (-211 mV) to oxidizing (475 mV) conditions. Soluble Tl levels (0.02-0.28 μg L -1 ) increased significantly with increases in E H (r = 0.80, p soils along with a determination of the Tl species and monitoring of the Tl content in plants to achieve more detailed insight into soluble Tl behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Gökhan BAŞARAN


    Full Text Available Determination of larval growth rate of and forensic analysis of the age of Calliphoridae larvae on a corpse are useful evidence in legal investigations for the estimation of exact death time and time duration after death; post mortem interval. However many factors, such as temperature, tissue type and contamination of drugs and toxins, effect larval development of blow fly larvae and consequently theestimation of post mortem interval. The present study examined the larval growth rate of a forensically important blow fly species, Lucilia sericata Meigen 1826 in different concentrations (0,12; 0,25; 0,50; 1 and 2 μg/g of toxic heavy metal Thallium under controlled laboratory conditions. Body length and weight, death ratio of larvae and pupa between experimental and control groups were compared. Results demonstrated that the development rate of larvae between uncontaminated and contaminated diets varies significantly. In short, they molted later, reached maximum length more slowly and sometimesproduced significantly smaller pupae in contaminated food source. These results emphasized that the importance of determining the contamination rate of toxins in tissue for the forensic entomologist,while using development rates from standard curves based on larvae fed non-contaminated mediums.

  11. Value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Shiga, Kouji; Umamoto, Ikuo (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy in 80 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 50 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Twenty persons without either coronary artery stenosis or heart disease were served as controls. Areas surrounded by maximum count points on the line of each 10deg on the short axis slice through the mid-cavity of the left ventricle were obtained at 10 minutes and at 3 hours after exercise. Transient dilation index (TDI) was obtained by dividing the area on early image by that on delayed image. TDI was significantly higher in patients with two or three vessel disease in the IHD group than the control group. High TDI was observed in 8% for one vessel disease, 40% for two vessel disease, and 80% for three vessel disease, contributing to the detection of multivessel IHD. In the HCM group of 80 patients, 24 (48%) had high TDI which was frequently associated with a history of chest pain and positive ECG findings at exercise. When these 24 HCM patients underwent exercise blood pool scintiscanning, left ventricular enddiastolic volume was similar before and at 10 minutes after exercise. These findings suggest that transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity after exercise may reflect subendocardial ischemia in both IHD and HCM. TDI would become a useful indicator for transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity. (N.K.).

  12. Clinicopathologic correlation study of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in diagnosis of myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chida, Kouji; Sugiura, Masaya; Ohkawa, Shin-ichiro


    In a series of 1,000 consecutive autopsy cases, we evaluated the clinical utility of thallium-201 (Tl-201) myocardial scintigraphy and electrocardiography (ECG) in 101 patients who had been studied while alive. Fifty-five cases had myocardial infarctions (MI) at autopsy. The Tl-201 scintigram and ECG in diagnosis of MI showed sensitivities of 68 % and 60 %, specificities of 87 % and 83 %, and diagnostic accuracies of 76 % and 70 %, respectively. The sensitivity of the Tl-201 scintigram was 70 % in anterior MI, 80 % in postero-inferior MI, 25 % in lateral and subendocardial infarction. The sensitivity was 88 % for large massive MI, but was low in scattered (50 %) or middle-sized MI (17 %). The diagnostic limit of the resolution of Tl-201 scintigrams was 4.5 cm in long diameter. All 8 cases with MI of less than 4 cm could not be diagnosed with the technique. There were 48 cases of large MI (more than 5 cm), but 8 cases could not be diagnosed by scintigraphy because of non-transmural or scattered MI. A comparison of the Tl-201 scintigram and ECG showed that 27 cases out of 60 cases were diagnosed by both methods, 14 only by the Tl-201 scintigram, 9 only by ECG and 10 by neither method.

  13. Evaluation of myocardial damage in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Takuhisa; Shibuya, Noritoshi (Kawatana National Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan)); Hashiba, Kunitake; Oku, Yasuhiko; Mori, Hideki; Yano, Katsusuke


    Myocardial damage and cardiopulmonary functions in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) were assessed using thallium-201 myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and technetium-99m multigated radionuclide angiography. Twenty-five patients with DMD were divided into 4 groups according to percent of perfusion defect (%PD) calculated by the bull's-eye method and age. PD was detected in 24 (96.0%) of 25 patients with DMD, and it spread from the left ventricular lateral wall to the anterior wall and/or interventricular septum. PD was detected even in a 6-year-old DMD boy. Patients in Group I (%PD[>=]10% and age<15 years old) were shown to have a higher risk of left-sided heart failure without respiratory failure. Patients in Group II (%PD[>=]10 and age[>=]15) showed decreased pulmonary function and worsened arterial blood gas values as compared with Group IV (%PD<10 and age[>=]15). There was no significant difference in cardiac function among the 4 groups. It is postulated that myocardial damage in Group II patients is dependent primarily on a deficiency of dystrophin and on chronic respiratory failure, and that some of them are at risk of cardiopulmonary failure. It is concluded that myocardial SPECT is useful for the early diagnosis of myocardial damage and evaluation of cardiopulmonary function in DMD patients. (author).

  14. Role of relativity in high-pressure phase transitions of thallium. (United States)

    Kotmool, Komsilp; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bovornratanaraks, Thiti; Ahuja, Rajeev


    We demonstrate the relativistic effects in high-pressure phase transitions of heavy element thallium. The known first phase transition from h.c.p. to f.c.c. is initially investigated by various relativistic levels and exchange-correlation functionals as implemented in FPLO method, as well as scalar relativistic scheme within PAW formalism. The electronic structure calculations are interpreted from the perspective of energetic stability and electronic density of states. The full relativistic scheme (FR) within L(S)DA performs to be the scheme that resembles mostly with experimental results with a transition pressure of 3 GPa. The s-p hybridization and the valence-core overlapping of 6s and 5d states are the primary reasons behind the f.c.c. phase occurrence. A recent proposed phase, i.e., a body-centered tetragonal (b.c.t.) phase, is confirmed with a small distortion from the f.c.c. phase. We have also predicted a reversible b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at 800 GPa. This finding has been suggested that almost all the III-A elements (Ga, In and Tl) exhibit the b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at extremely high pressure.

  15. High thallium concentrations in soils from sites of historical Ag, Pb, and Zn mining in western Małopolska (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woch M. W.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess thallium concentration in topsoil originating from sites of historical mining of Ag, Pb and Zn in western Małopolska (S Poland. Soil samples were collected from 63 sites, sieved, ground and digested in hot HClO4. Thallium concentration was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thallium concentrations averaged 20.84 mg kg-1 and varied from 4.42 to 49.82 mg kg-1. In all studied soils they exceeded values typical for uncontaminated soils (0.02 to 2.8 mg Tl kg-1. This indicates that Tl contamination may threaten the environment and public health. Routine monitoring of Tl contamination in southern Poland is required.

  16. Preconcentration of thallium(III) with 2,6-bis( N-phenyl carbamoyl) pyridine on microcrystalline naphthalene prior to its trace determination in human serum spectrophotometrically (United States)

    Rezaei, B.; Meghdadi, S.; Majidi, N.


    A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of thallium on 2,6-bis( N-phenyl carbamoyl)pyridine-naphthalene adsorbent in the pH range 5.0-10.0, prior to its spectrophotometric determination, based on the oxidation of bromopyrogallol red at λ = 518 nm. This method makes it possible to quantitize thallium in the range of 3.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -5 M, with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 1.2 × 10 -9 M. This procedure has been successfully applied to determine the ultra trace levels of thallium in the environmental and biological samples, free from the interference of some diverse ions. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation of three measurements is better than 4.17%.

  17. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.


    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease.

  18. Influence of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock starting potential on the parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes in cesium and thallium (United States)

    Perger, W. F.; Das, B. P.


    The parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes for the 6s1/2-7s1/2 transition in cesium and the 6p1/2-7p1/2 transition in thallium have been calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The effects of using different Dirac-Hartree-Fock atomic core potentials are examined and the transition amplitudes for both the length and velocity gauges are given. It is found that the parity-nonconserving transition amplitudes exhibit a greater dependence on the starting potential for thallium than for cesium.

  19. Assessment of myocardial viability by dynamic tomographic iodine 123 iodophenylpentadecanoic acid imaging: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium 201 imaging. (United States)

    Iskandrian, A S; Powers, J; Cave, V; Wasserleben, V; Cassell, D; Heo, J


    This study examined the ability of dynamic 123I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) imaging to detect myocardial viability in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction caused by coronary artery disease. Serial 180-degree single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images (five sets, 8 minutes each) were obtained starting 4 minutes after injection of 2 to 6 mCi 123I at rest in 21 patients with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] 34% +/- 11%). The segmental uptake was compared with that of rest-redistribution 201Tl images (20 segments/study). The number of perfusion defects (reversible and fixed) was similar by IPPA and thallium (11 +/- 5 vs 10 +/- 5 segments/patient; difference not significant). There was agreement between IPPA and thallium for presence or absence (kappa = 0.78 +/- 0.03) and nature (reversible, mild fixed, or severe fixed) of perfusion defects (kappa = 0.54 +/- 0.04). However, there were more reversible IPPA defects than reversible thallium defects (7 +/- 4 vs 3 +/- 4 segments/patient; p = 0.001). In 14 patients the EF (by gated pool imaging) improved after coronary revascularization from 33% +/- 11% to 39% +/- 12% (p = 0.002). The number of reversible IPPA defects was greater in the seven patients who had improvement in EF than in the patients without such improvement (10 +/- 4 vs 5 +/- 4 segments/patient; p = 0.075). 123I-labeled IPPA SPECT imaging is a promising new technique for assessment of viability. Reversible defects predict recovery of LV dysfunction after coronary revascularization.

  20. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MACS) of the thallium superconducting phases (United States)

    Bayya, S. S.; Snyder, R. L.


    This paper explores the speed of reaction as a parameter to minimizing thallium loss. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MACS) were developed for the synthesis of Tl-2212 and Tl-2223 superconductors using Cu metal powder as a fuel. A kitchen microwave oven was used to carry out MACS reactions. The samples were reacted for few seconds and led to the formation of the superconducting phases. Further explorations and modifications in the processing could lead to the formation of single phases by MACS.

  1. Chemistry and phase evolution during roasting of toxic thallium-bearing pyrite. (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Garrido, Fernando


    In the frame of a research project on microscopic distribution and speciation of geogenic thallium (Tl) from contaminated mine soils, Tl-bearing pyrite ore samples from Riotinto mining district (Huelva, SW Spain) were experimentally fired to simulate a roasting process. Concentration and volatility behavior of Tl and other toxic heavy metals was determined by quantitative ICP-MS, whereas semi-quantitative mineral phase transitions were identified by in situ thermo X-Ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses after each firing temperature. Sample with initial highest amount of quartz (higher Si content), lowest quantity of pyrite and traces of jarosite (lower S content) developed hematite and concentrated Tl (from 10 up to 72 mg kg-1) after roasting at 900 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. However, samples with lower or absent quartz content and higher pyrite amount mainly developed magnetite, accumulating Tl between 400 and 500 °C and releasing Tl from 700 up to 900 °C (from 10-29 mg kg-1 down to 4-1 mg kg-1). These results show the varied accumulative, or volatile, behaviors of one of the most toxic elements for life and environment, in which oxidation of Tl-bearing Fe sulfides produce Fe oxides wastes with or without Tl. The initial chemistry and mineralogy of pyrite ores should be taken into account in coal-fired power stations, cement or sulfuric acid production industry involving pyrite roasting processes, and steel, brick or paint industries, which use iron ore from roasted pyrite ash, where large amounts of Tl entail significant environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, P.H.


    This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) ..-->.. 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude ..beta..E to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S ..-->.. 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(..beta..E), and can be distinguished from M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam.

  3. MRI and thallium-201 SPECT in the prediction of survival in glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, Maaike J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Neurology, PO Box 432, The Hague (Netherlands); Berkhof, Johannes [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bosma, Ingeborg; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Heimans, Jan J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Postma, Tjeerd J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sanchez, Esther [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buter, Jan [VU University Medical Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Noske, David P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology Research Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    This paper aims to study the value of MRI and Thallium 201 ({sup 201}Tl) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the prediction of overall survival (OS) in glioma patients treated with temozolomide (TMZ) and to evaluate timing of radiological follow-up. We included patients treated with TMZ chemoradiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and with TMZ for recurrent glioma. MRIs and {sup 201}Tl SPECTs were obtained at regular intervals. The value of both imaging modalities in predicting OS was examined using Cox regression analyses. Altogether, 138 MRIs and 113 {sup 201}Tl SPECTs in 46 patients were performed. Both imaging modalities were strongly related to OS (P {<=} 0.02). In newly diagnosed GBM patients, the last follow-up MRI (i.e., after six adjuvant TMZ courses) and SPECT (i.e., after three adjuvant TMZ courses) were the strongest predictors of OS (P = 0.01). In recurrent glioma patients, baseline measurements appeared to be the most predictive of OS (P < 0.01). The addition of one imaging modality to the other did not contribute to the prediction of OS. Both MRI and {sup 201}Tl SPECT are valuable in the prediction of OS. It is adequate to restrict to one of both modalities in the radiological follow-up during treatment. In the primary GBM setting, MRI after six adjuvant TMZ courses contributes significantly to the prediction of survival. In the recurrent glioma setting, baseline MRI appears to be a powerful predictor of survival, whereas follow-up MRIs during TMZ seem to be of little additional value. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ktari, L. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelhedi, M. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bouhlel, N. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Dammak, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)


    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  5. Electrochemical properties of modified copper-thallium hexacyanoferrate electrode in the presence of different univalent cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Stroka, Jadwiga [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Galus, Zbigniew [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail:


    The preparation of copper(II) hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) films on the surface of gold electrodes as well as their characterization in solutions of various alkali metal and NH{sub 4}{sup +} cations and in the presence of thallium(I) are described. The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetric techniques were used. In 0.50 M lithium nitrate, even at submillimolar concentration of Tl(I), the formal potential of CuHCF was shifted to more positive values. At higher Tl(I) concentrations, the formal potential of the CuHCF redox reaction changed linearly with the logarithm of Tl(I) concentration (in the 0.50 M solution of lithium or another alkali metal nitrate). From such dependencies, selectivity coefficients K{sub Tl/M} were calculated, and they show that the CuHCF film on the gold electrode interacts preferentially with Tl(I). High affinity of Tl(I) to copper hexacyanoferrate, that was observed in the presence of alkali metal cations, was explained by relatively strong donor-acceptor interactions of Tl(I) ions with nitrogen in CN groups of the CuHCF film. It was also shown for simple M{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] metal ferrocyanate salts (where M = Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +} and Tl{sup +}) that there is a preferential interaction of Tl{sup +} with CN group consistent with formation of a Tl-NC-Fe bridge.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in coronary artery diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikada, Ken-etsu (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Quantitative indices from circumferential profile curves of thallium-201 ([sup 201]Tl) myocardial scintigram were evaluated for diagnostic utility in coronary artery diseases (CAD). Myocardial [sup 201]Tl scintigrams with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were obtained 5 minutes (early) and 4 hours (delayed) after exercise in 20 normal subjects and 66 cases of CAD, of which 20 were angina pectoris without myocardial infarction (AP), 14 were subendocardial infarction (non-QMI) and 32 were Q-wave infarction (QMI). Tl counts, %Tl uptake and washout ratio (WR) were measured in 81 segments (9 apical segments of the slice from the longitudinal axis and all 72 segments of two slices from the short axis). A mean early defect (MED), a mean delayed defect (MDD), a mean delta washout rate (MDR), and a [Sigma] delayed defect ([Sigma]DD) were calculated from the areas which were below the two standard deviations of the mean %Tl uptake in normal subjects. A mean filling-in (MFI) was calculated from the difference of the %Tl uptake between early and delayed curves in each patient. In patients with CAD, the MED and MFI were higher, but MDW was lower with a more severe coronary stenosis, indicating that these indices were useful to detect myocardial hypo-perfuion. In severely stenotic regions, the MDD was higher in QMI than in AP and non-QMI, indicating that the ratio of infarct to the myocardium in the region was higher in QMI. In QMI, [Sigma]DD correlated well (r=0.723) with Total Wall Motion Scores with two-dimentional echocardiography which was directly related with infarct size. Further, MED, MFI and MDW were improved after aortocoronary bypass only in patients with patent graft. It is concluded that this quantitative evaluation with [sup 201]Tl-SPECT can provide an objective and quantitative estimate of regional myocardial ischemia and infarct. (author).

  7. Usefulness of thallium-201 SPECT in the evaluation of tumor natures in intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tetsuji; Nakano, Takahiro; Asano, Kenichiroh; Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki [Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hirosaki (Japan)


    Although intracranial meningiomas are regarded as benign tumors, some of them behave clinically as malignant tumors. Past reports suggest that MIB 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postoperative tumor specimens correlate with the aggressive nature of tumors, but preoperative prediction of such a nature is more useful for therapeutic planning for the tumor. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of preoperative thallium-201 chloride single-photon emission computed tomography (Tl SPECT) to evaluate biological behavior in intracranial meningiomas. Tl SPECT was performed on 39 patients with intracranial meningioma and Tl uptake indices were calculated. The difference in the Tl uptake index between atypical meningiomas and other pathological types of meningioma was evaluated. Moreover, correlation of Tl uptake indices with the MIB1 labeling index was estimated. Tl uptake indices were also compared between VEGF strongly positive and weakly positive meningiomas. The delayed index of atypical meningioma was significantly higher than that of the other pathological types (p = 0.036). Significant correlation was found between the Tl uptake index in the delayed image and MIB1 labeling index (p < 0.0001, R{sup 2} = 0.36). Moreover, VEGF strongly positive meningiomas exhibited a significantly higher Tl uptake index compared to VEGF weakly positive meningiomas in both the early image and the delayed image (p = 0.029, 0.023, respectively). Tl uptake index may be a possible preoperative surrogate marker of MIB1 and VEGF that is useful in detecting aggressive natures in intracranial meningiomas. (orig.)

  8. Effective removal of trace thallium from surface water by nanosized manganese dioxide enhanced quartz sand filtration. (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan


    Thallium (Tl) has drawn wide concern due to its high toxicity even at extremely low concentrations, as well as its tendency for significant accumulation in the human body and other organisms. The need to develop effective strategies for trace Tl removal from drinking water is urgent. In this study, the removal of trace Tl (0.5 μg L -1 ) by conventional quartz sand filtration enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) has been investigated using typical surface water obtained from northeast China. The results indicate that nMnO 2 enhanced quartz sand filtration could remove trace Tl(I) and Tl(III) efficiently through the adsorption of Tl onto nMnO 2 added to a water matrix and onto nMnO 2 attached on quartz sand surfaces. Tl(III)-HA complexes might be responsible for higher residual Tl(III) in the effluent compared to residual Tl(I). Competitive Ca 2+ cations inhibit Tl removal to a certain extent because the Ca 2+ ions will occupy the Tl adsorption site on nMnO 2 . Moreover, high concentrations of HA (10 mgTOC L -1 ), which notably complexes with and dissolves nMnO 2 (more than 78%), resulted in higher residual Tl(I) and Tl(III). Tl(III)-HA complexes might also enhance Tl(III) penetration to a certain extent. Additionally, a higher pH level could enhance the removal of trace Tl from surface water. Finally, a slight increase of residual Tl was observed after backwash, followed by the reduction of the Tl concentration in the effluent to a "steady" state again. The knowledge obtained here may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. MRI and thallium features of pigmented villonodular synovitis and giant cell tumours of tendon sheaths: a retrospective single centre study of imaging and literature review. (United States)

    Lynskey, Samuel J; Pianta, Marcus J


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the MRI and thallium-201 ((201)TI) scintigraphy attributes of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and giant cell tumours of tendon sheaths (GCTTS). The epidemiology of these uncommon lesions was also assessed and less commonly encountered pathology reported on including multifocality, necrosis and concurrent malignancy. A retrospective single centre review of MRI and (201)TI scintigraphy findings for 83 surgically proven or biopsy-proven consecutive cases of PVNS was undertaken. Radiological findings including lesion size, (201)TI uptake (as a marker of metabolic activity), location, extent and patient demographics were correlated with biopsy and surgical specimen histology. Typical appearances are described, as well as less common imaging manifestations. The study period encompassed all patients presenting or referred to a tertiary bone and soft-tissue tumour referral centre with PVNS or GCTTS between 1 January 2007 and the 1 December 2013. Lesions occur most commonly around the knee joint in the fourth decade of life, with younger patients showing a tendency to occur in the hip. Features of PVNS and GTTS include bone erosion, ligamentous and cartilage replacement, muscle infiltration and multifocality. MR signal characteristics were variable but post-contrast enhancement was near-universal. 14 of 83 cases showed no uptake of (201)TI and revealed a statistically significant smaller average axial dimension of 19.8 mm than lesions displaying active (201)TI uptake of 36.4 mm, p = 0.016. Four lesions demonstrated central necrosis on gross histology, two of each from both the (201)TI-avid and (201)TI-non-avid groups. MR is the imaging modality of choice when considering the diagnosis of these uncommon tumours. (201)TI scintigraphy as a marker of metabolic activity further adds minimal value although small lesions can appear to lack (201)TI avidity. This article depicts typical imaging findings of PVNS/GCTTS and

  10. Reduced left ventricular cavitary activity ("black hole sign") in thallium-201 SPECT perfusion images of anteroapical transmural myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Civelek, A C; Shafique, I; Brinker, J A; Durski, K; Weiss, J L; Links, J M; Natarajan, T K; Ozguven, M A; Wagner, H N


    Apparently reduced left ventricular (LV) cavitary thallium activity in both planar and tomographic perfusion images has been previously observed by these and other investigators. With single-photon emission computerized tomography, we have clinically noted that this "black hole sign" was associated with an aneurysm in the setting of a transmural anterior or anteroapical perfusion defect. We have now prospectively studied the etiology and predictive value of this sign in 84 consecutive patients with an anterior, anteroapical transmural perfusion defect. Of the 84 patients, 49 had both LV aneurysm (confirmed by contrast ventriculography, echocardiography or gated blood pool studies) and a black hole sign. Only 1 patient with an aneurysm did not have the black hole sign, and 2 without aneurysm did. Thus, it is concluded that this sign is highly accurate in diagnosing LV aneurysm. Because thallium-201 single-photon emission computerized tomography imaging is often performed as one of the first diagnostic tests soon after myocardial infarction, this has important clinical management implications.

  11. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGoldrick, P.J.; Robinson, P. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)


    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Pentoxifylline (Trental) does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia: Implications for dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.A.; Slinker, B.K. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))


    Dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is often performed in patients unable to exercise because of peripheral vascular disease. Many of these patients are taking pentoxifylline (Trental), a methylxanthine derivative which may improve intermittent claudication. Whether pentoxifylline inhibits dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia like other methylxanthines such as theophylline and should be stopped prior to dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the hyperemic response to dipyridamole in seven open-chest anesthetized dogs after pretreatment with either pentoxifylline (0, 7.5, or 15 mg/kg i.v.) or theophylline (3 mg/kg i.v.). Baseline circumflex coronary blood flows did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Dipyridamole significantly increased coronary blood flow before and after 7.5 or 15 mm/kg i.v. pentoxifylline (p less than 0.002). Neither dose of pentoxifylline significantly decreased the dipyridamole-induced hyperemia, while peak coronary blood flow was significantly lower after theophylline (p less than 0.01). We conclude that pentoxyifylline does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia even at high doses.

  13. Thallium-201 scintigraphy after dipyridamole infusion with low-level exercise. III Clinical significance and additional diagnostic value of ST segment depression and angina pectoris during the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G-J. Laarman (GertJan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.F. Verzijlbergen (Fred); C.A.P.L. Ascoop (Carl); J. Azar


    textabstractIntravenous dipyridamole thallium testing is a useful alternative procedure for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients who are unable to perform maximal exercise tests. Ischaemic ST segment depression and angina pectoris are frequently observed during the test, in particular

  14. Indium-111 antimyosin antibody imaging and thallium-201 imaging. A comparative myocardial scintigraphic study using single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takehiko; Matsumori, Akira; Nohara, Ryuji; Konishi, Junji; Sasayama, Shigetake [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Tamaki, Nagara


    Indium-111 antimyosin antibody imaging (a tracer of myocardial necrosis) and thallium-201 imaging (a tracer of myocardial perfusion) were compared in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. The distribution of each tracer and antimyosin/thallium-201 overlapping were evaluated with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Scintigraphic data were classified into 5 patterns according to the distribution of both images and were compared with histologic findings of endomyocardial biopsy: AM-D, intense and diffuse antimyosin uptake and no perfusion abnormality (active myocarditis); AM-L, localized antimyosin uptake and no perfusion abnormality (active myocarditis); HM, no antimyosin uptake with or without perfusion abnormality (healed myocarditis); DCM-NH, diffuse antimyosin uptake and inhomogeneous thallium-201 uptake (dilated cardiomyopathy); DCM-PD, diffuse or localized antimyosin uptake and myocardial perfusion defect(s) (dilated cardiomyopathy). Patients with dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were frequently found in the DCM-PD group. Taken together, comparative antimyosin/thallium-201 SPECT images are useful for evaluating the activity of myocarditis and ongoing myocardial damage even in areas with no perfusion in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  15. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in patients with normal coronary arteries and normal left ventriculogram. Comparison with hemodynamic, metabolic and morphologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loesse, B.; Kuhn, H.; Rafflenbeul, D.; Kroenert, H.; Hort, W.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Loogen, F.


    36 consecutive patients with chest pain and/or severe ventricular dysrhythmias, but normal coronary arteries and normal left ventriculogram, underwent thallium-201 myocardial imaging at rest and during exercise. The myocardial scintigram was abnormal in 27 patients (group A) and normal in only 9 patients (group B).

  16. Preconcentration of thallium (I) by single drop microextraction with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy detection using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as extractant system. (United States)

    Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossien; Darroudi, Abolfazl; Salehi, Thiery


    A simple single drop liquid-phase microextraction (SDME) technique, combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) is developed both to preconcentrate and determine thallium (I) ions in aqueous solutions. The ions were transferred from 10.0 ml of aqueous sample (donor phase) containing 0.5 ml of 1% picric acid as the ion-pair agent into a 3 microl microdrop of nitrobenzene (acceptor phase) containing dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as the complexing agent. The latter will help to improve the extraction efficiency of the analyte. After the ions have been extracted, the acceptor drop was directly injected into a graphite furnace for thallium (I) determination. Several parameters such as the extracting solvent, extraction time, temperature, concentration of picric acid and crown ether, drop volume and stirring rate were examined. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit (L.O.D.) was 0.7 ng ml(-1). The relative standard deviation for five replicate analysis of 10 ng ml(-1) of thallium (I) was 5.1%. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 3-22 ng ml(-1). The results for determination of thallium in reference material, spiked tap water and seawater demonstrated the accuracy, recovery and applicability of the presented method. The enrichment factor was 50.

  17. Synthesis and application of a novel nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer for the preconcentration and determination of thallium(I) ions in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayazi, M., E-mail: [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, M. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taher, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, R. [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati, M.R. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • A novel nanostructured thallium(I)-imprinted polymer was evaluated for trace detection of Tl(I). • The prepared sorbent displayed rapid extraction rate, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The proposed methodology was applied for quantification of Tl(I) in different water samples. - Abstract: A novel synthesized nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) was investigated for the determination of trace amount of thallium(I). For this purpose, the thallium(I) IIP particles were synthesized using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, methyl-2-[2-(2-2-[2-(methoxycarbonyl) phenoxy] ethoxyethoxy) ethoxy] benzoate as the chelating agent and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The prepared IIP particles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Various experimental factors such as pH, the amount of IIP particles, sorption and desorption time, sample volume, elution condition, and potentially interfering ions systematically examined. Under the optimum conditions, a sensitive response to Tl(I) within a wide concentration range (0.05–18 μg L{sup −1}) was achieved. The limit of detection (LOD, 3S{sub b}/m) was 6.3 ng L{sup −1}. The maximum adsorption capacity of the novel imprinted adsorbent for Tl(I) was calculated to be 18.3 mg g{sup −1}. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eight replicate detections of 0.1 μg L{sup −1} of thallium(I) was found to be 4.0%. An enrichment factor (EF) of 100 was obtained by this method. The proposed technique was successfully applied to monitoring thallium in different water samples and the certified reference material.

  18. L-Tyrosine immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes: A new substrate for thallium separation and speciation using stabilized temperature platform furnace-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Pablo H.; Gil, Raul A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica de San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, CP 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Smichowski, Patricia, E-mail: [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, CP C1033 AAJ, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia Quimica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); Polla, Griselda [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Av.Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); Martinez, Luis D., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica de San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, CP 5700, San Luis (Argentina)


    An approach for the separation and determination of inorganic thallium species is described. A new sorbent, L-tyrosine-carbon nanotubes (L-tyr-CNTs), was used and applied to the analysis of tap water samples. At pH 5.0, L-tyr was selective only towards Tl(III), while total thallium was determined directly by stabilized temperature platform furnace-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (STPF-ETAAS). The Tl(III) specie, which was retained by L-tyrosine, was quantitatively eluted from the column with 10% of nitric acid. An on-line breakthrough curve was used to determine the column capacity, which resulted to be 9.00 {mu}mol of Tl(III) g{sup -1} of L-tyr-CNTs with a molar ratio of 0.14 (moles of Tl bound to moles of L-tyr at pH 5). Transient peak areas revealed that Tl stripping from the column occurred instantaneously. Effects of sample flow rate, concentration and flow rate of the eluent, and interfering ions on the recovery of the analyte were systematically investigated. The detection limit for the determination of total thallium (3{sigma}) by STPF-ETAAS was 150 ng L{sup -1}. The detection limit (3{sigma}) for Tl(III) employing the separation system was 3 ng L{sup -1}, with an enrichment factor of 40. The precision of the method expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) resulted to be 3.4%. The proposed method was applied to the speciation and determination of inorganic thallium in tap water samples. The found concentrations were in the range of 0.88-0.91 {mu}g L{sup -1} of Tl(III), and 3.69-3.91 {mu}g L{sup -1} of total thallium.

  19. Comparison of arbutamine stress and treadmill exercise thallium-201 SPECT: Hemodynamics, safety profile and diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiat, H.; Berman, D.S. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre, Los Angeles, California, LA (United States)


    Full text: Arbutamine (ARB), a new pharmacologic stress agent with enhanced chronotropic property compared to dobutamine, was compared with treadmill (TM) exercise testing (Ex) in a multicenter study using thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT. Of the total of 184 patients who underwent ARB, 69 also had TM stress and quantitative coronary angiography. Fifty-eight patients with a low pretest likelihood of CAD also underwent ARB study for evaluation of test specificity (normalcy rate). Tl scans were scored by a central laboratory using a 20 segment (seg)/scan visual analysis (5 point system: 0=normal, 4-absent uptake). Maximum heart rate (HR) by ARB and Ex was 122 vs 141 bpm (p<0.05). Mean %HR change from baseline was similar (79% vs 82%, respectively, p=ns). Maximum systolic BP for ARB and Ex was 173 vs 175 mmHg, and mean % change from baseline was 24% vs 28% (p=ns). Sensitivity for detecting CAD (270% stenosis) by ARB Tl was 94% and 97% by Ex Tl (p=ns). Stress Tl SPECT segmental agreement for presence of defect between ARB and Ex was 92% (kappa=0.8, p<0.001). Exact segmental stress Tl score (0-4 grading) agreement was 83 % (kappa=0.7, p<0.001). Among 346 segs with stress defects by both ARB and Ex defect reversibility agreement was 86% (kappa=0.7, p<0.001). The normalcy rate for ARB TI-SPECT among patients with a low likelihood of CAD was 90%. Adverse events were mostly mild (tremor: 23%, flushing: 10%, headache: 10%, paraesthesia: 8%, dizziness: 8%, hot flushes: 4%). Arrhythimia of clinical concern occurred in 8% (10/122) of ARB patients who had cardiac catheterisation and in 1.4% (1/69) of patients who had stress Tl. Of all 184 patients with ARB stress, ARB was discontinued due to arrhythmia in 7(5%) and 1 patient had IV Metoprolol for frequent ventricular couplets. Sustained arrhythmias were not observed

  20. Source and distribution of sedimentary thallium in the Bohai Sea: Implications for hydrodynamic forces and anthropogenic impact (United States)

    Hu, Ningjing; Liu, Jihua; Shi, Xuefa


    Source and distribution of sedimentary thallium in the Bohai Sea: Implications for hydrodynamic forces and anthropogenic impact Hu Ningjing, Liu Jihua, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Thallium (Tl), a non-essential and highly toxic trace metal, is listed as priority toxic pollutant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (Keith and Telliard, 1979). However, its geochemical cycling in aquatic environment has received far less attention than that of many other trace metals. This has been attributed to relatively little commercial interest in Tl and, until recently, problems inherent in its detection at environmental concentrations (Meeravali and Jiang, 2008). In this study, we investigated the sources, distribution and fate of Tl in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea (BS), China, based on the datasets of total Tl and chemical speciation of Tl of 408 surface sediment samples in the total entire BS. The enrichment factors and chemical speciation of Tl indicated that Tl in BS was dominated by natural Tl, although anthropogenic Tl contamination was observed in the Liuguhe River mouth; the mud deposits are the sinks of Tl and the regional currents and tide systems play a key role on the accumulation of Tl in BS. The distribution of Tl consistent with that of MnO and Fe2O3 as well as the level of Fe-Mn fraction is relatively high, indicating MnO and Fe2O3 influence the geochemical behaviors of Tl in the BS. Although the positive correlation between Tl and TOC is observed for the samples in the BS, however, level of Tl in oxidizable faction could be neglected, suggesting TOC might not be a major factor affecting the concentration of Tl in BS. The low proportion of Tl in the non-residual fraction dominated by the Fe-Mn oxides suggested that the labile Tl was controlled by the Fe-Mn oxides and Tl has a low bioavailability and a minor potential threat to biota in BS. Acknowledgements: this work

  1. Clinical validation of simultaneous dual-isotope myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann, Pierre; Moretti, Jean Luc [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Avicenne Hospital, Paris XIII University, 125, Rue de Stalingrad, 93 009 Bobigny Cedex (France); Faraggi, Marc [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bichat Hospital, Paris VII University (France); Hannequin, Pascal [Centre d' Imagerie Nucleaire, Annecy (France)


    Simultaneous dual-isotope (rest thallium-201/stress technetium-99m sestamibi) myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) would be an ideal procedure; however, {sup 99m}Tc cross-talk on the {sup 201}Tl window hampers its routine use. Photon energy recovery (PER) is a spectral deconvolution technique validated for scatter and cross-talk removal in phantom studies and a limited series of patients. In this study we aimed to validate the technique in 295 patients within a context of clinical routine practice. Conventional separate rest {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPET data sets were visually compared with simultaneous dual-isotope data sets corrected by PER. Conventional separate rest {sup 201}Tl data sets were identical to dual PER-corrected {sup 201}Tl data sets in 173 (58.6%) patients. As dual PER {sup 201}Tl data sets are corrected for {sup 99m}Tc cross-talk but also for {sup 201}Tl scatter, they were compared with separate rest {sup 201}Tl data sets corrected by PER in the 122 discordant patients. No difference was found in 77 (26.1%) patients. In 26 (8.8%) patients, the difference consisted in the presence of a defect on dual PER {sup 201}Tl data sets only, mirroring an ischaemic defect on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi data sets. This difference can be attributed to the influence of stress on the kinetics of {sup 201}Tl injected at rest. In the remaining 19 (6.4%) patients, the difference between separate and simultaneous PER-corrected data sets was scored as mild in 11 and moderate in eight patients and seemed to be related to multiple methodological factors. It is concluded that PER correctly removes {sup 99m}Tc cross-talk. With the addition of an appropriate attenuation correction, the PER technique may allow the routine use of simultaneous dual-isotope myocardial scintigraphy in the near future. (orig.)


    Spevack, J.S.


    An isotope concentration process is described which consists of exchanging, at two or more different temperature stages, two isotopes of an element between substances that are physically separate from each other and each of which is capable of containing either of the isotopes, and withdrawing from a point between at least two of the temperatare stages one of the substances containing an increased concentration of the desired isotope.

  3. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M.E.; Krol, M.C.; Hofmann, M.E.G.


    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of

  4. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Popa, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375806407; Krol, M. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; Hofmann, M. E. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374642907


    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a

  5. Statistical clumped isotope signatures (United States)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.


    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  6. Fractionation and Mobility of Thallium in Volcanic Ashes after Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) in Iceland. (United States)

    Karbowska, Bozena; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz


    Volcanic ash contains thallium (Tl), which is highly toxic to the biosphere. The aim of this study was to determine the Tl concentration in fractions of volcanic ash samples originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A sequential extraction scheme allowed for a study of element migration in the environment. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a flow measuring system was selected as the analytical method to determine Tl content. The highest average content of Tl in volcanic ash was determined in the fraction entrapped in the aluminosilicate matrix (0.329 µg g(-1)), followed by the oxidizable fraction (0.173 µg g(-1)). The lowest content of Tl was found in the water soluble fraction (0.001 µg g(-1)); however, this fraction is important due to the fact that Tl redistribution among all the fractions occurs through the aqueous phase.

  7. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ


    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  8. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...... is incorporated into carbonates. Hence, ancient carbonates can potentially record the Cr isotopic composition (δ53Cr ‰) of seawater in the geological past. Reliable application and interpretation of this proxy requires a detailed knowledge about processes that fractionate Cr on the Earth’s surface......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify...

  9. Determination of gold, indium, tellurium and thallium in the same sample digest of geological materials by atomic-absorption spectroscopy and two-step solvent extraction (United States)

    Hubert, A.E.; Chao, T.T.


    A rock, soil, or stream-sediment sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric acid, aqua regia, and hydrobromic acid-bromine solution. Gold, thallium, indium and tellurium are separated and concentrated from the sample digest by a two-step MIBK extraction at two concentrations of hydrobromic add. Gold and thallium are first extracted from 0.1M hydrobromic acid medium, then indium and tellurium are extracted from 3M hydrobromic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid to eliminate iron interference. The elements are then determined by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The two-step solvent extraction can also be used in conjunction with electrothermal atomic-absorption methods to lower the detection limits for all four metals in geological materials. ?? 1985.

  10. Discovery of the Indium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S


    Thirty-eight indium isotopes (A = 98-135) have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Comparison of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress-redistribution-reinjection thallium-201 SPECT and low dose dobutamine echocardiography for prediction of reversible dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Makoto; Motohiro, Masayuki; Usami, Satoru [Shimada Municipal Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)


    The usefulness of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 (GI-Tl) infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting reversible dysfunction has not been evaluated, so the present study recruited 20 patients with regional ischemic dysfunction for investigation. All patients underwent GI-Tl SPECT, post-stress Tl reinjection imaging and low dose dobutamine echocardiography. The diagnostic accuracy of these 3 techniques in predicting functional recovery was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In segments with functional recovery, regional Tl activities of GI-Tl SPECT were significantly higher than those of reinjection imaging (p<0.05), although there were no significant differences in segments without recovery. The area under the ROC curve for GI-Tl SPECT (0.75{+-}0.06) was greater than that for reinjection imaging (0.68{+-}0.07). The optimal cutoff values to identify viable myocardium were considered to be 55% of peak activity for GI-Tl SPECT and 50% for reinjection imaging. At this cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of functional recovery were, respectively, 85% and 61% for GI-Tl SPECT, and 73% and 61% for reinjection imaging. Dobutamine echocardiography had the same sensitivity (85%), but lower specificity (48%) than GI-Tl SPECT. Continuous infusion of GI-Tl solution enhances regional Tl uptake compared with conventional post-stress reinjection imaging. This study suggests that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjection imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in predicting functional recovery after ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (author)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valley. Although fossil specimens of this subspecies have been used in palaeoclimatic reconstruction, there have been no previous reports of living examples. Here We describe the local habitat, climate and some aspects of ecology and isotopic variation within the snail shell. If isotope data can be obtained for fossil shells, ...

  13. ICT: isotope correction toolbox. (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan


    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: {,} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  14. Detection and dosimetry of gamma ray emitted from thallium-201 and technetium-99m based on chemiluminescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourian, Mostafa [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Hassan, E-mail: [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatollah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-6558, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghourchian, Hedayatollah, E-mail: [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This report describes the detection and dosimetry of gamma ray emitted from Thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) and Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) based on chemiluminescence technique. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced by two gamma emitter radioisotopes of {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc were quantitatively measured by chemiluminescence method. Upon producing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a luminol alkaline solution, in the presence of diperiodatocuprate, as catalyst a chemical reaction was accrued and consequently the emitted light was measured. The determined H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was correlated with the gamma ray detection and dosimetry. The sensitivity of chemiluminescence technique for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc dosimetry was determined to be 0.20 and 0.08 MBq/l (Mega Becquerel per liter) respectively (R.S.D. = %5, N = 3). The plotted calibration curves showed detection limits of 3.24 and 1.76 MBq/l for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc, respectively.

  15. Myocardial infarction diagnosis with body surface potential mapping, electrocardiography, vectorcardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy: a correlative study with left ventriculography. (United States)

    Ackaoui, A; Nadeau, R; Sestier, F; Savard, P; Primeau, R; Lemieux, R; Descary, M C


    In 35 subjects with typical or atypical angina and/or documented myocardial infarction (MI), body surface potential maps (BSPMs), ECG, VCG and rest Thallium-201 (T1-201) have been compared to left ventriculography (LVG). BSPMs were recorded with 26 ECGs, and BSPM abnormalities for MI cases were considered to be areas of normally positive potentials that have become negative. Subjects with MI were classified according to the segmental localization and degree of asynergy on LVG. Moderate anterolateral and apical asynergy were found to correlate with BSPM diagnosis of anterolateral MI and ischemia, severe anterolateral and apical asynergy with BSPM diagnosis of anterolateral MI and ischemia, and moderate diaphragmatic and/or posterobasal asynergy with BSPM diagnosis of posterior MI. Simultaneous anterior and posterior asynergy were found for BSPM diagnosis of anterior with posterior MI. Subjects with no LVG asynergy had normal BSPMs. BSPM diagnosis had the highest correlation coefficient with the LVG diagnosis (r = 0.88). ECG and VCG showed similar results with r = 0.65 and 0.71 respectively, while T1-201 had r = 0.55. The examination of our BSPMs, as well as the ECG, VCG and T1-201, did not permit to detect apical damage in presence of anterior MI, and posterobasal damage in the presence of inferoposterior MI. It is concluded that BSPMs are slightly superior to ECG and VCG for diagnosis of MI.

  16. Thallium release from acid mine drainages: Speciation in river and tap water from Valdicastello mining district (northwest Tuscany). (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Casiot, Corinne; Onor, Massimo; Perotti, Martina; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia


    In this work we present an advantageous method for the simultaneous separation and detection of Tl(I) and Tl(III) species through ion chromatography coupled with on-line inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation between Tl(III) and Tl(I) was achieved in less than two minutes. The method was validated by recovery experiments on real samples, and by comparing the sum of the concentrations of individual Tl species with total thallium values obtained from continuous flow ICP-MS. The experimental procedure offers an accurate, sensitive and interference-free method for Tl speciation at trace levels in environmental samples. This allowed us to investigate the Tl speciation in acid mine drainages (AMD), surface waters and springs in a mining catchment in Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy), where severe Tl contamination ad been evidenced previously. This study shows for the first time that Tl(III), in addition to Tl(I), is present in considerable amounts in water samples affected by acid mining outflow, raising the question of the origin of this thermodynamically unstable species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Isotopes through the looking glass (United States)

    Mårtensson Pendrill, Ann Marie


    Nuclear distributions affect many aspects of atomic spectra. As an example, recent experimental results for the hyperfine anomaly in Fr isotopes are considered. These depend on nuclear charge and magnetization distributions. The variations in charge radii for these isotopes were studied earlier by measuring optical isotope shifts. The hyperfine anomalies for the odd-odd isotopes involve the neutron distributions, of interest for studies of parity nonconserving effects along a chain of isotopes.

  18. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland


    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50 % of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The iss...

  19. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark


    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  20. Isotope Production Facility (IPF) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced radioactive isotopes for medicine and research since the mid 1970s, when targets were first irradiated using the 800...

  1. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    ) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3....... The simulation of Greenland isotopes is tested for the isotope-enabled model CAM5. Here the importance of model resolution is investigated. A positive bias of 6-10 ‰ is found for the annual mean δ18O on the central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of Greenland δ18O is highly...

  2. Isotope toolbox turns 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenander, Fredrik; Riisager, Karsten


    REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes.......REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes....

  3. Isotope research materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.


    Preparation of research isotope materials is described. Topics covered include: separation of tritium from aqueous effluents by bipolar electrolysis; stable isotope targets and research materials; radioisotope targets and research materials; preparation of an 241Am metallurgical specimen; reactor dosimeters; ceramic and cermet development; fission-fragment-generating targets of 235UO2; and wire dosimeters for Westinghouse--Bettis. (GHT)

  4. Effects of potassium channel opener on the kinetics of thallium-201 in in-vitro and in-vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Kim, E. J.; Ahn, B. C.; Chae, S. C.; Lee, K. B. [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. K. [Mt. Sinai Medical School, New York (United States)


    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens membrane ATP-sensitive K{sup +}-channel and induces and increase in potassium efflux from cells. K-openers are powerful smooth muscle relaxants and currently used as antihypertensive, antianginal drugs or bronchodilators in clinic. Pharmacologic potency of newly synthesized K-opener is being evaluated with efflux capacity of preincubated Rb-83 from the isolated aortic vascular tissue preparation. Thallium has similar characteristics to those of rubidium and potassium in vivo. To evaluate the effect of pinacidil (a potent K-opener) on Tl-201 biokinetics, we have performed uptake/washout studies in cultured myocytes, and mice biodistribution study. Primary culture of spontaneous contracting myocytes was undertake from hearts of newborn Sprague-Dawley rat. Different concentration of pinacidil (100nM or 10uM) was co-incubated with Tl-201 in HBSS buffer to evaluate its effect on cellular uptake, or challenged to myocyte preparations pre-incubated with Tl-201 for washout study. Pinacidil was injected into mice simultaneous or 10-min after Tl-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention ratio was measured using gamma counter or dose calibrator. Co-incubation of pinacidil with Tl-201 resulted in a decrease in Tl uptake into myocytes by 1.6 - 2.5 times, and an increase in washout by 1.6 - 3.1 times. Pinacidil injection resulted in mild decrease in blood, heart and liver uptake in mice, bur renal uptake was markedly decreased in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the pinacidil Tl-201 kinetics and may potentially affect the interpretation of Tl-201 myocardial imaging.

  5. Functional Significance of Angiographic Collaterals in Patients with Totally Occluded Right Coronary Artery: Intracoronary Thallium-201 Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Jong Doo; Cho, Seung Yun; Shim, Won Heum; Ha, Jong Won; Kim, Han Soo; Kwon, Hyuk Moon; Jang, Yang Soo; Chung, Nam Sik; Kim, Sung Soon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Yun; Kim, Young Soo [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the myocardial viability in patients suffering from total occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA) with the angiographic collaterals, intracoronary injection of Thallium-201 (T1-201) was done to 14 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (pts) with total occlusion of RCA and into four normal subjects for control. All 14 CAD pts had Grade 2 or 3 collateral circulations. There were 14 male and 4 females, and their ages ranged from 31 to 70 years. In nine pts, T1-201 was injected into left main coronary artery (LCA) (300 approx 350 mu Ci) to evaluate the myocardial viability of RCA territory through collateral circulations. The remaining five pts received T1-201 into RCA (200-250 mu Ci) because two had intraarterial bridging collaterals and three had previous successful PTCA. Planar and SPECT myocardial perfusion images were obtained 30 minutes, and four to five hours after T1-201 reinjection. Intravenous T1-201 reinjection (six pts) or {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (two pts) were also performed in eight CAD pts. Intracoronary myocardial perfusion images were compared with intravenous T1-201(IV T1-201) images, EGG, and ventriculography. Intracoronary TI-201 images proved to be superior to that of IV T1-201 due to better myocardial to background uptake ratio and more effective in the detection of viable tissue. We also found that perfusion defects were smaller on intracoronary T1-201 images than those on the IV T1-201. All of the 14 CAD pts had either mostly viable myocardium (seven pts) or large area of T1-201 perfusion (seven pts) in RCA territory, however ventriculographic wall motion and ECG did not correlate well with intracoronary myocardial perfusion images. In conclusion, total RCA occlusion patients with well developed collateral circulation had large area of viable myocardial in the corresponding territory.

  6. Disease stage classification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by dual analysis of iodine-123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiasa, Go [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine


    Many patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) gradually changes from typical myocardial hypertrophy to dilated cardiomyopathy-like features. However, it is difficult to estimate the disease stage in HCM. To determine the disease stage, dual analysis of iodine-123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) and thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) myocardial scintigraphies were performed in 108 HCM patients. According to the scintigraphic distribution patterns, patients were divided into three groups. Group A (n=15): normal distributions of both {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 201}Tl, group B (n=71): normal {sup 201}Tl and low {sup 123}I-MIBG patterns, group C (n=22): low distributions of both scintigraphies. The decrease in {sup 201}Tl uptake was observed in only group C. Concerning {sup 123}I-MIBG, heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and washout rate (WOR) had good correlations with left ventricular systolic functions. H/M was decreased and WOR was increased in order of C, B and A groups. Left ventricular diastolic function reflected by isovolumic relaxation time was longer in group B than in group A. Attenuated left ventricular hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular volumes, impaired left ventricular functions and serious clinical symptoms were observed in only group C. Myocardial sympathetic abnormalities in group B may be mainly due to myocardial hypertrophy, and those in group C may be due to myocardial injury. Dual analysis of {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphies may be useful to classify disease stages of HCM. (author)

  7. New quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6: Crystal and electronic structure (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Tsisar, O. V.; Piskach, L. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Levytskyy, V. O.; Babizhetskyy, V. S.


    Crystal structure of a novel quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6 was investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction method. It was determined that the compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 with the unit cell parameters a = 10.1798(2) Å, c = 9.2872(3) Å. The relationship with similar structures was discussed. The as-synthesized TlInGe2Se6 ingot was tested with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, the XPS valence-band and core-level spectra were recorded for initial and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces of the sample under consideration. The XPS data allow for statement that the TlInGe2Se6 surface is rigid with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. Particularly, Ar+ ion-bombardment (3.0 keV, 5 min duration, ion current density fixed at 14 μA/cm2) did not cause substantial modifications of stoichiometry in topmost surface layers. Furthermore, comparison on a common energy scale of the XES Se Kβ2 and Ge Kβ2 bands and the XPS valence-band spectrum reveals that the principal contributions of the Se 4p and Ge 4p states occur in the upper and central portions of the valence band of TlInGe2Se6, respectively, with also their substantial contributions in other portions of the band. The bandgap energy of TlInGe2Se6 at the level of αg=103 cm-1 is equal to 2.38 eV at room temperature.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide and Its Neodymium(III and Thallium(III Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Nnamdi Obasi


    Full Text Available N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide (NBTCS was synthesized by condensation reaction of 4-chlorobenzenesulphonyl chloride and 2-aminobenzothiazole in acetone under reflux. Neodymium(III and thallium(III complexes of the ligand were also synthesized. Both ligand and metal complexes were characterized using UV-Vis, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopies, elemental analysis and molar conductance measurement. IR studies revealed that the ligand is tridentate and coordinates to the metal ions through nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the sulphonamide group and nitrogen atom attached to benzothiazole ring. The neodymium(III complex displays a coordination number of eight while thallium(III complex displays a coordination number of six. The ligand and its complexes were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli strains (E. coli 6 and E. coli 13, Proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar well diffusion technique. The synthesized compounds were found to be more active against the microorganisms screened relative to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole.

  9. Comparative study of body surface isopotential map, left ventriculogram and thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki


    In 16 patients with old lateral myocardial infarction, body surface isopotential maps and 12 lead electrocardiograms were compared with left ventriculographic findings. In addition 8 of these subjects were performed thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in order to determine the location and extent of myocardial necrosis. Common 12 lead electrocardiographic findings of the subjects were initial Q waves more than 30 msec and inverted T waves in only aVL lead. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to the location and extent of ventricular wall motion abnormalities group I (6 cases) showed hypokinesis in the anterior segment, group II (5 cases): akinesis in the anterior segment and hypokinesis in the seg. 6, group III (4 cases): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 7, group IV (1 case): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 4, 7. And each of the 4 groups demonstrated characteristic findings of surface isopotential maps. Group II with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 6 showed surface isopotential maps additional pattern of anterior myocardial infarction, and group III with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 7 showed additional patterns of posterior myocardial infarction. The classification according to the abnormality of ventricular wall motion was also conformed with the thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphic findings except one case. These results suggest that body surface isopotential map is more useful than the 12 lead electrocardiogram in detecting the location and extent of left ventricular wall motion abnormality in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction. (author) 53 refs.

  10. Serial thallium-201 imaging at rest in patients with unstable and stable angina pectoris: relationship of myocardial perfusion at rest to presenting clinical syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Phillips, H.R.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.


    In order to determine whether there are differences in myocardial perfusion at rest among patients with various unstable and stable angina syndromes, serial thallium-201 imaging was performed at rest in 19 patients presenting with rapidly worsening exertional angina (unstable angina, group A), 12 patients with rest angina alone without exertional symptoms (unstable angina, group B), and 34 patients with chronic stable angina. No patient had an episode of angina within 4 hours of study. Nineteen of 19 (100%) patients in group A demonstrated transient defects compared to only 3 of 12 (25%) patients in group B (p less than 0.0001) and 4 of 34 (12%) stable angina patients (p less than 0.0001). The majority of zones demonstrating transient defects in group A were associated with hypokinesis of the corresponding left ventriculogram segment without associated ECG evidence of previous infarction. There were no significant differences in the frequency of persistent thallium defects, severity of angiographic coronary artery disease, or frequency of regional wall motion abnormalities of myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries among the three groups of patients. Transient defects have been shown to reflect reduction in regional coronary blood flow to viable myocardium. Therefore, we conclude that regional resting hypoperfusion of viable myocardium is far more common in patients with exertional unstable angina symptoms than in patients with rest angina alone or chronic stable angina.

  11. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.


    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  12. Isotope geochemistry. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O₂. (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y; Ash, Jeanine L; Young, Edward D


    The abundances of molecules containing more than one rare isotope have been applied broadly to determine formation temperatures of natural materials. These applications of "clumped" isotopes rely on the assumption that isotope-exchange equilibrium is reached, or at least approached, during the formation of those materials. In a closed-system terrarium experiment, we demonstrate that biological oxygen (O2) cycling drives the clumped-isotope composition of O2 away from isotopic equilibrium. Our model of the system suggests that unique biological signatures are present in clumped isotopes of O2—and not formation temperatures. Photosynthetic O2 is depleted in (18)O(18)O and (17)O(18)O relative to a stochastic distribution of isotopes, unlike at equilibrium, where heavy-isotope pairs are enriched. Similar signatures may be widespread in nature, offering new tracers of biological and geochemical cycling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Isotopes in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir


    This book provides a concise introduction to the newly created sub-discipline of solid state physics isotopetronics. The role of isotopes in materials and their properties are describe  in this book. The problem of the enigma of the atomic mass in microphysics is briefly discussed.  The range of the applications of isotopes is wide: from biochemical process in living organisms to modern technical applications in quantum information. Isotopetronics promises to improve nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. With numerous illustrations this book is useful to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  14. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    About 3000 different isotopes have been discovered until now. A recent compilation sum- marized details of the discovery of all isotopes [1–4] including the year, laboratory and country of discovery as well as the production mechanism used to produce the isotopes. Fission, one of the largest contributing production ...

  15. Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Hopple, J.A.; Böhlke, J.K.; Peiser, H.S.; Rieder, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R.D.; Revesz, K.M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.


    Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic weight uncertainties. This compilation indicates the extent to which the atomic weight of an element in a given material may differ from the standard atomic weight of the element. For most elements given above, data are graphically illustrated by a diagram in which the materials are specified in the ordinate and the compositional ranges are plotted along the abscissa in scales of (1) atomic weight, (2) mole fraction of a selected isotope, and (3) delta value of a selected isotope ratio. There are no internationally distributed isotopic reference materials for the elements zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium. Preparation of such materials will help to make isotope ratio measurements among

  16. Syndrome of diminished vasodilator reserve of the coronary microcirculation (microvascular angina or syndrome X): Diagnosis by combined atrial pacing and thallium 201 imaging--a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magarian, G.J.; Palac, R.; Reinhart, S. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Portland, OR (USA))


    Patients with angina-like chest pain without evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease or coronary arterial vasospasm are becoming increasingly recognized. These are often related to noncardiac causes including esophageal, musculoskeletal, and hyperventilatory or panic states. However, recently a subgroup of such patients are being recognized as having true myocardial ischemia and chest pain on the basis of diminished coronary microvascular vasodilatory reserve (microvascular ischemia or Syndrome X). The authors describe such a patient who was found to have replication of anginal pain associated with a reversible ischemic defect on thallium 201 imaging during atrial pacing, suggesting ischemia in this myocardial segment. Resolution of angina and ST segment electrocardiographic changes of ischemia occurred with cessation of pacing. We believe this is the first report of a patient with this form of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by this method and should be considered in patients with anginal chest pain after significant coronary artery disease and coronary vasospasm have been excluded.

  17. Determination of perfusion defect area in experimental myocardial infarction. A comparison between 201-thallium and sup 99m Tc methoxy-isobutyl-isonitril (MIBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.D.; Rohmann, S.; Bahavar, H.; Grebe, S.F.; Schaper, W.; Schlepper, M. (Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim (Germany))


    To assess the accuracy of two myocardial perfusion markers in quantifying defect size, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded in 13 porcine hearts. Fourty minutes later 55 MBq {sup 201}TI and 370 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI were simultaneously injected i.v. in 10 animals. After injection and in vivo double nuclide SPECT acquisition, the risk area was demarcated with fluorescein (FI) dye in 5 animals. The in vitro defect area determined by {sup 201}TI was significant larger (15.8 {+-} 27%) than those of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, while FI compared to Tc showed no statistical difference. Thus, in a pig model Tc-MIBI was more accurate with ex vivo imaging. With SPECT thallium imaging defect size was overestimated. In vivo there was a distinct trend with Tc-MIBI studies to underestimate the defect size up to 16%. (orig.).

  18. High thallium content in rocks associated with Au-As-Hg-Tl and coal mineralization and its adverse environmental potential in SW Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, T.F.; Guha, J.; Boyle, D. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China)


    This study is focused on high concentrations of Tl in rocks in SW Guizhou, China, that are related to several widely scattered disseminated gold-mercury-arsenic and coal deposits, and a primary Tl deposit within an Au-As-Hg-Tl metallogenic belt of the Huijiabao anticline. The Tl, Hg and As in the Lanmuchang Hg-Tl deposit area are associated with the abundant occurrence of sulfide minerals such as lorandite, realgar, orpiment and cinnabar. Concentrations of Tl range from 100 to 35 000 ppm in sulfide ores, and 39-490 ppm in host rocks. The enrichment of Au, Tl, Hg, As, and Sb in the Yanshang gold mineralized area reflects the occurrence of Au mineralization and its mineral assemblage of Tl-Hg-As-Sb sulfides. Thallium ranges from 0.22 to 16 ppm in Au ores and host rocks. Thallium in coals is enriched up to 46 ppm within the Au-As-Hg-TI metallogenic belt, and is derived from the regional Au-As-Hg-Tl mineralization. Mercury and As show a similar distribution to Tl with high concentrations in sulfide ores, coals and host rocks. Human populations living near and downstream of Tl deposits and Tl-bearing ore deposits are susceptible to Tl contamination because of its high toxicity and high uptake rate by crops. The dispersion of Tl, Hg and As associated with the primary mineralization of Au-As-Hg-TI can be traced through physical erosion and chemical weathering, producing secondary dispersion into sods, groundwater and surface water and crops. Mining activities compound the natural processes, readily dispersing Tl into the surface environment.

  19. Functional significance of myocardial perfusion defects induced by dipyridamole using thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and two-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, A.; Suarez, J.; Mahmarian, J.J.; Zoghbi, W.A.; Quinones, M.A.; Verani, M.S. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))


    The mechanisms responsible for inhomogeneous myocardial blood flow after oral administration of a large dose (300 mg) of dipyridamole were assessed in 27 patients with serial thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and simultaneous 2-dimensional echocardiograms. Myocardial tomographic images were obtained 50 minutes and 3 to 4 hours after administration of dipyridamole. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were recorded at baseline and then every 15 minutes for 60 minutes. Dipyridamole caused only a mild reduction in blood pressure (from 129 +/- 18 to 126 +/- 16 mm Hg) and a mild increase in heart rate (from 69 +/- 15 to 73 +/- 4 beats/min). Sixteen patients had perfusion defects after dipyridamole by SPECT, which underwent partial or total filling-in. Fourteen of these patients (87.5%) had either a new abnormality or further deterioration of a preexisting wall motion abnormality by 2-dimensional echocardiography, and thus were considered to have developed transient ischemia during dipyridamole administration. Ten of 11 patients (91%) with normal perfusion or fixed defects by SPECT had no further deterioration in wall motion after oral dipyridamole, and were thus considered to have no evidence of myocardial ischemia. In conclusion, most patients with transient thallium-201 defects after dipyridamole develop transient worsening of resting wall motion by 2-dimensional echocardiography, suggestive of true myocardial ischemia. Because myocardial oxygen demand, as indicated by the heart rate-blood pressure product, did not change significantly, the mechanism of myocardial ischemia in these patients is likely to be diminished regional blood flow related to a subendocardial steal induced by dipyridamole.

  20. New Isotope 263Hs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragojevic, I.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Dvorak, J.; Ellison, P.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Stavsetra, L.; Nitsche, H.


    A new isotope of Hs was produced in the reaction 208Pb(56Fe, n)263Hs at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Six genetically correlated nuclear decay chains have been observed and assigned to the new isotope 263Hs. The measured cross section was 21+13-8.4 pb at 276.4 MeV lab-frame center-of-target beam energy. 263Hs decays with a half-life of 0.74 ms by alpha-decay and the measured alpha-particle energies are 10.57 +- 0.06, 10.72 +- 0.06, and 10.89 +- 0.06 MeV. The experimental cross section is compared to a theoretical prediction based on the Fusion by Diffusion model [W. J. Swiatecki et al., Phys. Rev. C 71, 014602 (2005)].


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  2. Therapeutic use of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc


    In December, researchers from ISOLDE-CERN, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) published the results of an in vivo study which successfully proved the effectiveness of four terbium isotopes for diagnosing and treating cancerous tumours.   Four terbium isotopes suitable for clinical purposes. “ISOLDE is the only installation capable of supplying terbium isotopes of such purity and intensity in the case of three out of the four types used in this study,” explains Karl Johnson, a physicist at ISOLDE.  “Producing over a thousand different isotopes, our equipment offers the widest choice of isotopes in the world!” Initially intended for fundamental physics research, ISOLDE has diversified its activities over time to invest in various projects in the materials science, biochemistry and nuclear medicine fields. The proof-of-concept study has confirmed that the four terbium isotopes 149Tb, 152Tb, 155Tb produ...

  3. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation (United States)

    Aldridge, Frederick T.


    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  4. Cold regions isotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)


    Clewett, G.H.; Lee, DeW.A.


    A new method is described for isotopic enrichment of uranium. It has been found that when an aqueous acidic solution of ionic tetravalent uraniunn is contacted with chelate complexed tetravalent uranium, the U/sup 238/ preferentially concentrates in the complexed phase while U/sup 235/ concentrates in the ionic phase. The effect is enhanced when the chelate compound is water insoluble and is dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent. Cupferron is one of a number of sultable complexing agents, and chloroform is a suitable organic solvent.

  6. Method of separating boron isotopes (United States)

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.


    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  7. Chromium isotope uptake in carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra

    retain an isotopically light Cr signature. Cr(VI) enriched in heavy Cr isotopes is then transported via river waters to the oceans and sequestered into marine sediments. Marine chemical sediments such asbanded iron formations and modern marine carbonates have proven useful in recording the Cr isotope...... with calcium carbonate in order to test the reliability of the Cr carbonate compositions. Several experimental approaches have been employed to elucidate the fractionation behavior of Cr isotopes when Cr(VI) is incorporated into calcium carbonate phases. These results indicate that at lower Cr concentrations......Chromium (Cr) is a redox sensitive element potentially capable of tracing fine-scale fluctuations of the oxygenation of Earth’s early surface environments and seawater. The Cr isotope composition of carbonates could perhaps be used as paleo-redox proxy to elucidate changes in the geological past...

  8. Effects of Potassium-Channel Opener on Thallium-201 Kinetics: In-vitro Study in Rat Myocyte Preparations and In-vivo Mice Biodistribution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Kim, Eun Ji; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Son, Kang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jeoung Hee [Youngnam University Medical School, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun Ki [Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York (United States)


    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens ATP-sensitive K{sup +}-channel located at membrane and induces potassium efflux from cytosol, resulting in intracellular hyperpolarization. Newly synthesized K-opener is currently examined for pharmacologic potency by means of rubidium release test from smooth muscle strip preincubated with Rb-86. Since in-vive behavior of thallium is similar to that of rubidium, we hypothesized that K-opener can alter T1-201 kinetics in vivo. This study was prepared to investigate the effects of pinacidil (one of potent K-openers) on the T1-201 uptake and clearance in cultured myocyte, and in-vivo biodistribution in mice. Spontaneous contracting myocytes were prepared to imitate in-vivo condition from 20 hearts of 3-5 days old Sprague-Dawley rat and cultured for 3-5 days before use (5 X 105 cells/ml). Pinacidil was dissolved in 10% DMSO solution at a final concentration of 100nM or 10uM and was co-incubated with T1-201 in HBSS buffer for 20-min to evaluate its effect on cellular T1-uptake, or challenged to cell preparation pre-incubated with T1-201 for washout study. Two, 40 or 100 mg of pinacidil was injected intravenously into ICR mice at 10 min after 5 muCi T1-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention rate were measured at different time points. Co-incubation of pinacidil with T1-201 resulted in a decrease in T1-201 uptake into cultured myocyte by 1.6 to 2.5 times, depending on pinacidil concentration and activity of T1-201 used. Pinacidil enhanced T1-201 washout by 1.6-3.1 times from myocyte preparations pre-incubated with T1-201. Pinacidil treatment appears to be resulted in mild decreases in blood and liver activity in normal mice, in contrast, renal and cardiac uptake were mildly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Whole body retention ratios of T1-201 were lower at 24 hour after injection with 100 mg of pinacidil than control. These results suggest that treatment with K-opener may affect the interpretation of T1

  9. Determination of particle mass deposition according to Bergerhoff; Performance characteristics of the measurement of particle mass deposition and its portions of lead, cadmium, zinc and thallium. Bestimmung des Staubniederschlags nach Bergerhoff; Verfahrenskenngroessen fuer die Messung des Staubniederschlags und seiner Anteile an Blei, Cadmium, Zink und Thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrig, R. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe); Faesi, C. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe); Hofer, P. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe)


    The requirements concerning quality assurance have increased considerably in the field of immission control. Well founded values for detection limits and confidence limits have to be given. Based on the statistical analysis of long term data series of deposition measurements of particle mass (Berghoff method), lead, cadmium, zinc and thallium performance characteristics were established for very differently polluted sites. The resulting detection limits as well as confidence limits are low enough for a reliable control of the respective immission limit values. It is further shown that the use of plastic buckets instead of the glass buckets required by the VDI guideline or the addition of a protecting agent to avoid freezing does not affect the measurements significantly. (orig.)

  10. Competition from Isotopic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre


    Full Text Available During later MOIS3, in Europe two populations were present, autochthonous Neanderthals and modern humans. Ecological competition between these two populations has often been evoked but never demonstrated. Our aim is to establish whether resource competition occurred. In this paper, in order to examine the possibility of ecological competition between these two populations, 599 isotopic data were subjected to rigorous statistical treatment and analysis through mixing models. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans over time. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans shared dietary habits in the particular environmental context of MOIS3 characterised in Europe by climatic deterioration. In this environmental context, the resource competition between Neanderthals and modern humans may have accelerated the disappearance of the Neanderthal population.

  11. Microbes: Agents of Isotopic Change (United States)

    Fogel, M. L.


    Microbes drive many of the important oxidation and reduction reactions on Earth; digest almost all forms of organic matter; and can serve as both primary and secondary producers. Because of their versatile biochemistry and physiology, they impart unique isotopic signatures to organic and inorganic materials, which have proven to be key measurements for understanding elemental cycling now and throughout Earth's history. Understanding microbial isotope fractionations in laboratory experiments has been important for interpreting isotopic patterns measured in natural settings. In fact, the pairing of simple experiment with natural observation has been the pathway for interpreting the fingerprint of microbial processes in ancient sediments and rocks. Examples of how key experiments have explained stable isotope fractionations by microbes and advanced the field of microbial ecology will be presented. Learning the isotopic signatures of Earth's microbes is a valuable exercise for predicting what isotopic signatures could be displayed by possible extant or extinct extraterrestrial life. Given the potential for discovery on Mars, Enceladus, and other solar system bodies, new methods and techniques for pinpointing what is unique about microbial isotope signatures is particularly relevant.

  12. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1

  13. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal


    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.

  14. Replacement of a photomultiplier tube in a 2-inch thallium-doped sodium iodide gamma spectrometer with silicon photomultipliers and a light guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankyu Kim


    Full Text Available The thallium-doped sodium iodide [NaI(Tl] scintillation detector is preferred as a gamma spectrometer in many fields because of its general advantages. A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM has recently been developed and its application area has been expanded as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs. It has merits such as a low operating voltage, compact size, cheap production cost, and magnetic resonance compatibility. In this study, an array of SiPMs is used to develop an NaI(Tl gamma spectrometer. To maintain detection efficiency, a commercial NaI(Tl 2′ × 2′ scintillator is used, and a light guide is used for the transport and collection of generated photons from the scintillator to the SiPMs without loss. The test light guides were fabricated with polymethyl methacrylate and reflective materials. The gamma spectrometer systems were set up and included light guides. Through a series of measurements, the characteristics of the light guides and the proposed gamma spectrometer were evaluated. Simulation of the light collection was accomplished using the DETECT 97 code (A. Levin, E. Hoskinson, and C. Moison, University of Michigan, USA to analyze the measurement results. The system, which included SiPMs and the light guide, achieved 14.11% full width at half maximum energy resolution at 662 keV.

  15. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic cardiac imaging; Comparison to myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium in ischemic cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, G.L.; Magill, H.L. [Baptist Memorial Hospital (United States); Schad, N.C.


    Recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium is essential in this era of cardiac revascularization. Positron emission tomography (PET) accurately identifies viability but is costly and unavailable to most patients. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic cardiac imaging is a potentially cost-effective alternative to PET. Using transmural myocardial biopsies obtained during coronary bypass surgery as the viability gold standard, resting IPPA imaging agreed with 39/43 (91%) biopsies, with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36(92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%) in patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eighty percent of IPPA viable, infarcted segments improved wall motion postoperatively. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-Tl) scans after myocardial infarction, there was IPPA-Tl concordance in 27/35 (77%)(Kappa=0.536, p=0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-Tl, 26/35 (74%) vs. 18/35 (51%)(p=0.047). Finally, when compared to transvenous endomyocardial biopsy for detecting rejection following cardiac transplantation, IPPA sensitivity for {>=}Grade II rejection was 100%, and IPPA screening assessment for the necessity of biopsy could result in a 31% cost-savings. Therefore, IPPA metabolic cardiac imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique with a promising future. (author).

  16. Myocardial viability assessment with dynamic low-dose iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic imaging: comparison with myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium after myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Murray, G L; Schad, N C; Magill, H L; Vander Zwaag, R


    Aggressive cardiac revascularization requires recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium, and cost considerations may well govern the technique used. Dynamic low-dose (1 mCi) [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic imaging is a potential alternative to PET using either 18FDG or 15O-water. Resting IPPA images were obtained from patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy, and transmural myocardial biopsies were obtained during coronary bypass surgery to confirm viability. Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) biopsies confirmed the results of the IPPA images with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36 (92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Postoperatively, wall motion improved in 80% of IPPA-viable, dysfunctional segments. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-TI) scans after myocardial infarction, IPPA-SPECT-TI concordance occurred in 27/35 (77%) (K = 0.536, p = 0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-TI, 26/35 (74%) versus 18/35 (51%) (p = 0.047). Metabolic IPPA cardiac viability imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique that may be a useful alternative to PET.

  17. Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China. (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Xuwen; Wang, Jin; Xiao, Tangfu; Chen, Diyun; Sheng, Guodong; Yin, Meiling; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thallium-201 is comparable to technetium-99m-sestamibi for estimating cardiac function in patients with abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Wu


    Full Text Available We analyzed the left-ventricular functional data obtained by cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with thallium-201 (Tl-201 and technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI protocols in different groups of patients, and compared the data between Tl-201 and MIBI. Two hundred and seventy-two patients undergoing dipyridamole stress/redistribution Tl-201 MPI and 563 patients undergoing 1-day rest/dipyridamole stress MIBI MPI were included. Higher mean stress ejection fraction (EF, rest EF, and change in EF (ΔEF were noticed in the normal MPI groups by both Tl-201 and MIBI protocols. Higher mean EF was observed in the females with normal MPI results despite their higher mean age. Comparisons between the Tl-201 and MIBI groups suggested a significant difference in all functional parameters, except for the rest end diastolic volume/end systolic volume and ΔEF between groups with negative MPI results. For the positive MPI groups, there was no significant difference in all parameters, except for the change in end diastolic volume and change in end systolic volume after stress between both protocols. The Tl-201 provides comparable left-ventricular functional data to MIBI cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with positive MPI results, and may therefore be undertaken routinely for incremental functional information that is especially valuable to this patient group.

  19. Usefulness of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy during hyperventilation and accelerated exercise test in patients with vasospastic angina and nearly normal coronary artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueda, Shozo; Mineoi, Kazuaki; Kondou, Tadashi [Takanoko Hospital, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan)] [and others


    The usefulness of thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) myocardial scintigraphy was studied in 109 patients with vasospastic angina who had nearly normal coronary arteries (degree of stenosis <50%). Coronary spasm was confirmed by pharmacologic agents in all 109 patients from January 1991 to June 1996. The appearance rate of visual redistribution on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigraphy was compared between four groups, 34 patients performing graded bicycle ergometer exercise starting at a work load of 50 W with increments of 25 W every 3 min (Ergo(3) group), 14 patients performing hyperventilation for 5 min (HV(5) group), 31 patients performing bicycle ergometer exercise with increments of 25 W every 1 min after 5 min hyperventilation (HV(5)+Ergo(1) group), and 30 patients at rest (Rest group). The value of the visual redistribution rate on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigrams in the HV(5)+Ergo(l) group (65%) was higher than that in the patients of other groups (Ergo(3) 41%, HV(5) 43%, Rest 33%). However, there were no significant differences between the four groups. Stress {sup 201}Tl imaging after hyperventilation and accelerated exercise is useful to disclose ischemic evidence in about two thirds of patients with vasospastic angina and nearly normal coronary arteries, whereas about 40% of patients had visual redistribution on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigrams by performing standard procedures. (author)

  20. On-line preconcentration of ultra-trace thallium(I in water samples with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Asadpour


    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for the determination of Tl(I based on simultaneous sorption and preconcentration with a microcolumn packed with TiO2 nanoparticle with a high specific surface area prepared by Sonochemical synthesis prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. The optimum experimental parameters for preconcentration of thallium, such as elution condition, pH, and sample volume and flow rate have been investigated. Tl(I can be quantitatively retained by TiO2 nanoparticles at pH 9.0, then eluted completely with 1.0 mol L−1 HCl. The adsorption capacity of TiO2 nanoparticles for Tl(I was found to be 25 mg g−1. Also detection limit, precision (RSD, n = 8 and enrichment factor for Tl(I were 87 ng L−1, 6.4% and 100, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of trace amounts of Tl(I in some environmental water samples with satisfactory results.

  1. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy. A histopathologic correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Toru; Yanagisawa, Atsuo; Sakata, Konomi; Shimoyama, Katsuya; Yoshino, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Kyozo [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Sakata, Hitomi; Ishihara, Tadayuki


    The pathomorphologic mechanism responsible for abnormal perfusion imaging during thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 201}Tl-SPECT) in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) was investigated. Hearts from 7 patients with DMD were evaluated histopathologically at autopsy and the results correlated with findings on initial and delayed resting {sup 201}Tl-SPECT images. The location of segments with perfusion defects correlated with the histopathologically abnormal segments in the hearts. Both the extent and degree of myocardial fibrosis were severe, especially in the posterolateral segment of the left ventricle. Severe transmural fibrosis and severe fatty infiltration were common in segments with perfusion defects. In areas of redistribution, the degree of fibrosis appeared to be greater than in areas of normal perfusion; and intermuscular edema was prominent. Thus, the degree and extent of perfusion defects detected by {sup 201}Tl-SPECT were compatible with the histopathology. The presence of the redistribution phenomenon may indicate ongoing fibrosis. Initial and delayed resting {sup 201}Tl-SPECT images can predict the site and progress of myocardial degeneration in patients with DMD. (author)

  2. Isotope-based quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir


    The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial...

  3. Isotope Geochronology: Models Versus Reality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Burchart


    Majority of the papers on isotopic dating of minerals and rocks have been devoted to some new geochronological data important for geology or to developments of apparatus and improvements of laboratory...

  4. Stable Chlorine Isotope Fractionation (United States)

    Sharp, Z.


    Chlorine isotope partitioning between different phases is not well understood. Pore fluids can have δ37Cl values as low as -8‰, with neoform sediments having strongly positive values. Most strikingly, volcanic gases have δ37Cl values that cover a range in excess of 14‰ (Barnes et al., this meeting). The large range is difficult to explain in terms of equilibrium fractionation, which, although calculated to be very large for Cl in different oxidation states, should be less than 2‰ between chloride species (Schauble et al., 2003, GCA). To address the discrepancy between Nature and theory, we have measured Cl isotope fractionation for selected equilibrium and disequilibrium experiments in order to identify mechanisms that might lead to large fractionations. 1) NaCl (s,l) NaCl (v): NaCl was sealed in an evacuated silica tube and heated at one end, causing vaporization and reprecipitation of NaCl (v) at the cool end of the tube. The fractionation is 0.2‰ at 700°C (halite-vapor) and 0.7‰ at 800°C (liquid-vapor), respectively. The larger fractionation at higher temperature may be related to equilibrium fractionation between liquid and gas vs. `stripping' of the solid in the lower T experiments. 2) Sodalite NaCl(l): Nepheline and excess NaCl were sealed in a Pt crucible at 825°C for 48 hrs producing sodalite. The measured newly-formed sodalite-NaCl fractionation is -0.2‰. 3) Volatilization of HCl: Dry inert gas was bubbled through HCl solutions and the vapor was collected in a downstream water trap. There was no fractionation for 12.4M HCl (HCl fuming) vapor at 25°C. For a 1 M boiling HCl solution, the HCl-vapor fractionation was ~9‰. The difference is probably related to the degree of dissociation in the acid, with HCl dissolved in water for the highly acidic solutions, and dissociated H3O+ and Cl- for lower concentrations. The HCl volatilization experiments are in contrast to earlier vapor-liquid experiments in NaCl-H2O system, where fractionation was

  5. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John


    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  6. Iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and single photon emission computed tomography in identifying left ventricular regional metabolic abnormalities in patients with coronary heart disease: comparison with thallium-201 myocardial tomography. (United States)

    Hansen, C L; Corbett, J R; Pippin, J J; Jansen, D E; Kulkarni, P V; Ugolini, V; Henderson, E; Akers, M; Buja, L M; Parkey, R W


    Iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is a synthetic long chain fatty acid with myocardial kinetics similar to palmitate. Two hypotheses were tested in this study. The first hypothesis was that IPPA imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful in the identification of patients with coronary artery disease. Fourteen normal volunteers (aged 27 +/- 2 years) and 33 patients (aged 54 +/- 11 years) with stable symptomatic coronary artery disease and at least one major coronary artery with luminal diameter narrowing greater than or equal to 70% were studied with symptom-limited maximal exercise testing. The IPPA (6 to 8 mCi) was injected 1 min before the termination of exercise, and tomographic imaging was performed beginning at 9 min and repeated at 40 min after the injection of IPPA. Nine of the normal volunteers and 13 of the patients had a second examination performed at rest on another day. Using the limits of normal as 2 SD from the normal mean values, 27 of the 33 patients with coronary artery disease demonstrated abnormalities in either the initial distribution or the clearance of IPPA, or both. Nineteen of the 33 patients had a maximal variation of activity distribution of greater than or equal to 25% on the 9 min IPPA images. Twenty-two of the 33 patients had a maximal variation in IPPA washout greater than 17% and 17 had a washout rate less than or equal to 2%. There was good agreement between the location of significant coronary artery stenoses and abnormalities in the initial distribution and clearance of IPPA. The second hypothesis tested was that IPPA imaging is as or more sensitive and, therefore, complementary to thallium-201 imaging in the identification of exercise-induced ischemia in patients. Twenty-five of the 33 patients underwent both thallium-201 and IPPA tomographic imaging after symptom-limited maximal exercise testing. The amount of exercise performed by each patient during both studies was similar. Twenty

  7. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr-213206 and 221Fr (United States)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration


    We present the isotope shifts of the 7 s1 /2 to 7 p1 /2 transition for francium isotopes 206 -213Fr with reference to 221Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7 s1 /2 to 7 p3 /2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D1 and D2 transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  8. Luminescent one- and two-dimensional extended structures and a loosely associated dimer based on platinum(II)-thallium(I) backbones. (United States)

    Forniés, Juan; García, Ana; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa


    Neutralization reactions between (NBu4)2[ trans-Pt(C 6F5)2(CN)2] 1 and (NBu4)2[cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2] 2 with TlPF 6 have been carried out, and the resulting structures of [trans,trans,trans-Tl2{Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2}.(CH3COCH3) ] n [4.(CH3COCH3)2] n and {Tl[Tl{cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2}].(H2O)} n [5.(H2O)] n have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Remarkably, the change from trans to cis geometry on the platinum substrate causes a significant decrease in the Pt(II)...Tl(I) metallophilic interaction. Thus, the platinum center in the trans fragment easily connects with two Tl(I) ions forming a distorted pseudo-octahedron PtTl2, which generates a final two-dimensional layered structure by secondary additional intermolecular Tl(I)...N(CN) interactions. However, the [cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2] (2-) fragment interacts strongly with just one Tl center leading to an extended helical [-Pt-Tl-Pt-Tl-] n(n-) chain. In this case, the second thallium center neutralizes the anionic chain mainly through Tl...N(CN) ( intra) and Tl...F(C 6F 5) (intra and inter)actions. The reaction of TlPF 6 with the monoanionic fragment (NBu4)[cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)(PPh2C[triple bond]CPh)] 3 yields the discrete associated dimer [Tl{cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)(PPh2C[triple bond]CPh)}] 2 [ 6] 2. Dimer [ 6] 2 could be described as two square pyramids with the thallium atoms in the apical positions, connected through Tl...N(cyano) interactions. The final heteropolynuclear Pt-Tl complexes, except 4 at room temperature, show bright emission in the solid state when irradiated with UV-vis radiation, in contrast to the precursors 1 and 3, which are not luminescent. This difference indicates that the emissions in 4- 6 are presumably related to the interaction between the metal centers. The Pt-Tl bonding interactions and, consequently, the emissive properties are lost in solution at room temperature, as shown by the conductivity and NMR measurements. However, variable-concentration luminescence measurements in glassy acetonitrile solutions

  9. Isotopes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ellam, Rob


    An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...

  10. Simultaneous dual myocardial imaging with iodine-123-[beta]-methyl iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201 in patients with coronary heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawarahara, Kei; Kurata, Chinori; Taguchi, Takahisa; Aoshima, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Noboru; Kaneko, Masao (Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan))


    To assess the clinical value of simultaneous dual myocardial imaging with iodine-123-[beta]-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid ([sup 123]I-BMIPP) and thallium-201 ([sup 201]TL), myocardial imaging was performed at rest and during execise in seven patients with coronary heart disease. When [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl images were compared, the initial exercise and resting images agreed 87% and 64%, respectively. In the initial resting images, the regional uptake of [sup 123]I-BMIPP was frequently less than that of [sup 201]Tl. The incidence of exercise-induced reversible defects by [sup 201]Tl in the Tl>BMIPP regions was significantly higher than that in the Tl=BMIPP regions (57% vs 4%, p<0.01) and the incidence of coronary narrowing of more than 90% in the Tl>BMIPP regions was also significantly higher than that in the Tl=BMIPP regions (91% vs 38%, p<0.01). In addition, this disparity (Tl>BMIPP) was found more frequently in regions with abnormal wall motion than in regions with normal wall motion (hypokinetic regions; 68%, severe hypokinetic or akinetic regions; 50%, vs normokinetic regions; 4%, p<0.01). In contrast, the uptake of [sup 123]I-BMIPP correlated closely with that of [sup 201]Tl in normal myocardium and the uptake of both [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl was severely reduced in myocardium with severe ischemia during exercise and prior infarction. These results indicate that dual myocardial imaging with [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl may provide a unique means of identifying patients with metabolically disturbed myocardium, such as hibernating and stunned myocardium. (author).

  11. BaHg2Tl2. An unusual polar intermetallic phase with strong differentiation between the neighboring elements mercury and thallium. (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Cao; Gupta, Shalabh; Gourdon, Olivier; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Corbett, John D


    High yields of the novel BaHg(2)Tl(2) are achieved from reactions of the appropriate cast alloys at approximately 400 degrees C. (Isotypic SrHg(2)Tl(2) also exists.) The tetragonal barium structure (P4(2)/mnm, a = 10.606 A, c = 5.159 A) was refined from both single-crystal X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data in order to ensure the atom site assignments although distances and calculated atom site population also support the results. The Hg and Tl network atoms are distinctive in their functions and bonding. Parallel chains of Hg hexagons and of Tl tetrahedra along c are constructed from polyhedra that share opposed like edges, and these are in turn interconnected by Hg-Tl bonds. Overall, the number of Tl-Tl bonds per cell exceeds the Hg-Hg type by 20:12, but these are approximately 1:2 each in bonding according to their average -ICOHP values (related to overlap populations). Barium is bound within a close 15-atom polyhedron, 12 atoms of which are the more electronegative Hg. LMTO-ASA calculations show that scalar relativistic effects are particularly important for Hg 5d-6s mixing in Hg-Hg and Hg-Tl bonding, whereas relatively separate Tl 6s and 6p states are more important in Tl-Tl interactions. The 6p states of Hg and Tl and 5d of Ba define a dominant conduction band around E(F), and the phase is metallic and Pauli-like paramagnetic. The thallium characteristics here are close to those in numerous alkali-metal-Tl cluster systems. Other active metal-mercury phases that have been studied theoretically are all distinctly electron-richer and more reduced, and without appreciable net 5d, 6s contributions to Hg-Hg bonding.

  12. Non-linear Isotope Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    The isotopic fractionation associated with photodissociation of N2O, OCS and CO2, at different altitudes in Earth’s atmosphere, is investigated theoretically using constructed quantum mechanical models of the dissociation processes (i.e. potential energy surfaces and relevant coupling elements......’s stratosphere is nearly mass dependent, and only a small fraction of the observed anomalous oxygen-17 excess can be attributed to N2O photolysis. In contrast, stratospheric photolysis produces a significant inverse clumped isotope effect.(ii) Stratospheric OCS photolysis significantly enrich the remaining OCS...... in heavy carbon. The sulfur fractionation is weak and photolysis of OCS in the stratosphere produces only a small and mass dependent enrichment of heavy sulfur isotopes in the remaining OCS. Sulfur fractionation from the two remaining chemical sinks (oxidation by O(3P) and OH, respectively) is weak...

  13. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.


    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  14. Cosmology: Rare isotopic insight into the Universe (United States)

    Prantzos, Nikos


    Light isotopes of hydrogen and helium formed minutes after the Big Bang. The study of one of these primordial isotopes, helium-3, has now been proposed as a useful strategy for constraining the physics of the standard cosmological model.

  15. Developmentand Application of Accelerator Isotopes in China


    YANG Yuan-you; LI Fei-ze; LIAO Jia-li; Liu, Ning


    Compared with the isotopes generated by nuclear reactor, the isotopes prepared by accelerator always show high specific activity and short half-life period. And most of such isotopes always were neutron-deficient nuclides, giving β+ or single energy γ ray. As one of the most important methods preparing radionuclides, the preparation of isotopes by accelerator has attracted more and more attention from the beginning of 21th century. The development of the preparation and application of the acc...

  16. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.


    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  17. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this series, we discussed how isotopes can be used as markers to determine the nature of intermediates in chemical reactions. The second part covered the effect of isotopes on equilibria and reactions, in processes where the bond to the isotopic a tom is broken. We showed with specific examples how.

  18. Fragmentation of exotic oxygen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leistenschneider, A.; Elze, Th.W.; Gruenschloss, A.; Palit, R. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Aumann, T.; Cortina, D.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Helariutta, K.; Hellstroem, M.; Ilievski, S.; Jones, K.; Muenzenberg, G.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Suemmerer, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, K.; Kratz, J.V.; Le Hong, Khiem [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fue Kernchemie; Canto, L.F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Carlson, B.V. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA). Dept. de Fisica; Hussein, M.S. [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Kulessa, R.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W. [Uniwersytet Jagellonski, Krakow (Poland). Instytut Fizyki; Reiter, P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Garching (Germany). Sektion Physik; Simon, H. [Technische Univ., Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik


    Abrasion-ablation models and the empirical EPAX parametrization of projectile fragmentation are described. Their cross section predictions are compared to recent data of the fragmentation of secondary beams of neutron-rich, unstable {sup 19,20,21} O isotopes at beam energies near 600 MeV/nucleon as well as data for stable {sup 17,18} O beams. (author)

  19. Isotope Harvesting Opportunities at FRIB (United States)

    Morrissey, David


    The fragmentation of fast heavy ion beams now at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) and in the future at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction produce an unprecedentedly broad spectrum of radionuclides but only a small fraction are used in the on-line rare-isotope program. Projectile fragmentation facilities provide an electromagnetically purified beam of a single projectile fragment for nuclear physics experiments ranging from low energy astrophysics, through nuclear structure studies, to probing fundamental symmetries. By augmenting the NSCL and FRIB production facilities with complimentary collection and purification of discarded ions, called isotope harvesting with chemical purification, many other nuclides will become available for off-line experiments in parallel with the primary experiment. A growing user community has established a list of key target isotopes and is working with the FRIB design team to allow inclusion of necessary equipment in the future. An overview of the possibilities and the techniques will be presented in this talk. Supported by Office of Science, US DOE and Michigan State University.

  20. Charge radii of radium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, L. W.; Schlesser, S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Dieperink, A. E. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Timmermans, R. G. E.


    We present a combined analysis of the available isotope-shift data from the optical spectra of Ra atoms and Ra+ ions. Atomic structure calculations of the field-shift and specific mass-shift constants of the low-lying levels in Ra+ are used. The nuclear radial differences delta for the radium

  1. Modeling equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation (United States)

    Anbar, A.; Jarzecki, A.; Spiro, T.


    Research into the stable isotope biogeochemistry of Fe and other transition metals has been driven primarily by analytical innovations which have revealed significant isotope effects in nature and the laboratory. Further development of these new isotope systems requires complementary theoretical research to guide analytical efforts. The results of the first such studies show some discrepancies with experiments. For example, Johnson et al. (2002) report an experimentally-determined 56Fe/54Fe equilibrium fractionation factor between Fe(II) and Fe(III) aquo complexes of ˜1.0025. This effect is ˜50% smaller than predicted theoretically by Schauble et al. (2001). It is important to resolve such discrepancies. Equilibrium isotope fractionation factors can be predicted from vibrational spectroscopic data of isotopically-substituted complexes, or from theoretical predictions of some or all of these frequencies obtained using force field models. The pioneering work of Schauble et al. (2001) utilized a modified Urey-Bradley force field (MUBFF) model. This approach is limiting in at least three ways: First, it is not ab initio, requiring as input some measured vibrational frequencies. Such data are not always available, or may have significant uncertainties. Second, the MUBFF does not include potentially important effects of solvent interaction. Third, because it makes certain assumptions about molecular symmetry, the MUBFF-based approach is not able to model the spectra of mixed-ligand complexes. To address these limitations, we are evaluating the use of density functional theory (DFT) as an ab initio method to predict vibrational frequencies of isotopically-substituted complexes and, hence, equilibrium fractionation factors. In a preliminary examination of the frequency shift upon isotope substitution of the bending and asymmetric stretching modes of the tetrahedral FeCl_42- complex, we find substantial differences between MUBFF and DFT predictions. Results for other Fe

  2. The isotopic contamination in electromagnetic isotope separators; La contagion isotopique dans les separateurs electromagnetiques d'isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassignol, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In the early years of isotope separation, and in particular electromagnetic isotope separation, needs for rapid results have conducted to empiric research. This paper describes fundamental research on the electromagnetic isotope separation to a better understanding of isotope separators as well as improving the performances. Focus has been made on the study of the principle of isotope contamination and the remedial action on the separator to improve the isotope separation ratio. In a first part, the author come back to the functioning of an electromagnetic separator and generalities on isotope contamination. Secondly, it describes the two stages separation method with two dispersive apparatus, an electromagnetic separation stage followed by an electrostatic separation stage, both separated by a diaphragm. The specifications of the electrostatic stage are given and its different settings and their consequences on isotope separation are investigated. In a third part, mechanisms and contamination factors in the isotope separation are discussed: natural isotope contamination, contamination by rebounding on the collector, contamination because of a low resolution, contamination by chromatism and diffusion effect, breakdown of condenser voltage. Analysis of experimental results shows the diffusion as the most important contamination factor in electromagnetic isotope separation. As contamination factors are dependent on geometric parameters, sector angle, radius of curvature in the magnetic field and clearance height are discussed in a fourth part. The better understanding of the mechanism of the different contamination factors and the study of influential parameters as pressure and geometric parameters lead to define a global scheme of isotope contamination and determinate optima separator design and experimental parameters. Finally, the global scheme of isotope contamination and hypothesis on optima specifications and experimental parameters has been checked during a

  3. Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1989 (United States)

    De Laeter, J. R.; Heumann, K. G.; Rosman, K. J. R.


    The Subcommittee for Isotopic Abundance Measurements (SIAM) of the IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances has carried out its biennial review of isotopic compositions, as determined by mass spectrometry and other relevant methods. The Subcommittee's critical evaluation of the published literature element by element forms the basis of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements as Determined by Mass Spectrometry 1989, which is presented in this Report. Atomic Weights calculated from the tabulated isotopic abundances are consistent with Ar(E) values listed in the Table of Standard Atomic Weights 1989.

  4. Stable isotope compounds - production, detection, and application. (United States)

    Zachleder, Vilém; Vítová, Milada; Hlavová, Monika; Moudříková, Šárka; Mojzeš, Peter; Heumann, Hermann; Becher, Johannes R; Bišová, Kateřina


    Stable isotopes are used in wide fields of application from natural tracers in biology, geology and archeology through studies of metabolic fluxes to their application as tracers in quantitative proteomics and structural biology. We review the use of stable isotopes of biogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, Mg, Se) with the emphasis on hydrogen and its heavy isotope deuterium. We will discuss the limitations of enriching various compounds in stable isotopes when produced in living organisms. Finally, we overview methods for measuring stable isotopes, focusing on methods for detection in single cells in situ and their exploitation in modern biotechnologies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.


    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  6. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue. (United States)

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles


    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  7. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  8. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (United States)

    Lin, J D; Kao, P F; Weng, H F; Lu, W T; Huang, M J


    Radioactive iodine (131I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. 201Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative 131I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of 201Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of 131I and 201Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative 201Tl and 131I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. 201Tl imaging was performed before the 131I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent 201Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the 201Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic 131I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by 201Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative 201Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on 131I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on 131I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative 201Tl and 131I scans, 15 had elevated serum Tg levels. Among these, local recurrence followed by lung metastases was manifested in

  9. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)


    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. {sup 201}Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative {sup 131}I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of {sup 201}Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. {sup 201}Tl imaging was performed before the {sup 131}I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent {sup 201}Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the {sup 201}Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic {sup 131}I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by {sup 201}Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on {sup 131}I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on {sup 131}I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I

  10. Effects of adenosine and a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist on hemodynamic and thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jadbabaie, Farid; Dione, Donald P; Meoli, David F; Purushothaman, Kailasnath; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sinusas, Albert J


    The purpose of this study was to compare a selective A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist (regadenoson) with adenosine in clinically relevant canine models with regard to effects on hemodynamics and thallium-201 ((201)Tl) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The clinical application of vasodilator stress for perfusion imaging requires consideration of the effects of these vasodilating agents on systemic hemodynamics, coronary flow, and radiotracer uptake and clearance kinetics. Sequential imaging and arterial blood sampling was performed on control, anesthetized closed-chest canines (n = 7) to evaluate radiotracer biodistribution and kinetics after either a bolus administration of regadenoson (2.5 microg/kg) or 4.5-min infusion of adenosine (280 microg/kg). The effects of regadenoson on coronary flow and myocardial radiotracer uptake were then evaluated in an open-chest canine model of a critical stenosis (n = 7). Results from ex vivo single-photon emission computed tomography were compared with tissue well-counting. The use of regadenoson compared favorably with adenosine in regard to the duration and magnitude of the hemodynamic effects and the effect on (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The arterial blood clearance half-time was significantly faster for (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (regadenoson: 1.4 +/- 0.03 min; adenosine: 1.5 +/- 0.08 min) than for (201)Tl (regadenoson: 2.5 +/- 0.16 min, p adenosine: 2.7 +/- 0.04 min, p regadenoson stress was significantly greater than the relative perfusion defect with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (0.69 +/- 0.03%, p regadenoson produced a hyperemic response comparable to a standard infusion of adenosine. The biodistribution and clearance of both (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI during regadenoson were similar to adenosine vasodilation. Ex vivo perfusion images under the most ideal conditions permitted detection of a critical stenosis, although (201)Tl offered significant advantages over (99m

  11. Comparison of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 gated myocardial perfusion SPECT for determining left ventricular systolic and diastolic parameters. (United States)

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Sumimoto, Yoji; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Watanabe, Noriaki; Ishibashi, Ken; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Yukihiro; Kihara, Yasuki


    The myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography synchronized with the electrocardiogram (gated SPECT) has been widely used for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions using Quantitative gated SPECT. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 (Tl-201) gated SPECT for determining LV systolic and diastolic parameters. The study population included 42 patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent gated SPECT by clinical indication. LV systolic and diastolic parameters were assessed on 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. There were good correlations in end-diastolic volume (r = 0.99, p < 0.001), end-systolic volume (ESV) (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and ejection fraction (EF) (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) between 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. Bland-Altman plot showed a significant negative slope of -0.08 in EDV indicating a larger difference for larger EDV. Eight-frame gated SPECT overestimated ESV by 2.3 ml, and underestimated EF by -4.2% than 16-frame gated SPECT. There were good correlations in peak filling rate (PFR) (r = 0.87, p < 0.001), one third mean filling rate (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and time to PFR (r = 0.61, p < 0.001) between 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. Eight-frame gated SPECT underestimated PFR by -0.22 than 16-frame gated SPECT. Eight-frame gated SPECT estimated as much MFR/3 and TPFR as 16-frame gated SPECT. According to the data, the study suggested that 8-frame Tl-201 gated SPECT could underestimate systolic and/or diastolic parameter when compared with 16-frame gated SPECT.

  12. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL


    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water. Many solutes in natural waters are derived from the interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system - these are termed `lithogenic` solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both within and outside of the catchment - i.e., in addition to being derived from catchment rock and soil, they are solutes that are also transported into the catchment. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing `cosmogenic` nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing `thermonuclear` nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, principally {sup 238}U (producing `in-situ` lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading `cosmogenic nuclides`, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage here, although always indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute concentrations in catchment waters, and how the isotopic compositions of the solutes can be used in integrative ways to identify these processes, thereby revealing the physical history of the water within a catchment system. The concept of a `system` is important in catchment hydrology. A catchment is the smallest landscape unit that can both participate in all of the aspects of the hydrologic cycle and

  13. Methane clumped isotopes: Progress and potential for a new isotopic tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Stolper, Daniel A.; Eiler, John M.; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Shuai, Yanhua; Bishop, Andrew; Podlaha, Olaf G.; Ferreira, Alexandre A.; Santos Neto, Eugenio V.; Niemann, Martin; Steen, Arne S.; Huang, Ling; Chimiak, Laura; Valentine, David L.; Fiebig, Jens; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Seyfried, William E.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Inskeep, William P.; Moran, James J.; Kitchen, Nami


    The isotopic composition of methane is of longstanding geochemical interest, with important implications for understanding hydrocarbon systems, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the global carbon cycle, and life in extreme environments. Recent analytical developments focusing on multiply substituted isotopologues (‘clumped isotopes’) are opening a potentially valuable new window into methane geochemistry. When methane forms in internal isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotopes can provide a direct record of formation temperature, making this property particularly valuable for identifying different methane origins. However, it has also become clear that in certain settings methane clumped isotope measurements record kinetic rather than equilibrium isotope effects. Here we present a substantially expanded dataset of methane clumped isotope analyses, and provide a synthesis of the current interpretive framework for this parameter. We review different processes affecting methane clumped isotope compositions, describe the relationships between conventional isotope and clumped isotope data, and summarize the types of information that this measurement can provide in different Earth and planetary environments.

  14. Anthropogenic lead isotopes in Antarctica (United States)

    Rosman, K. J. R.; Chisholm, W.; Boutron, C. F.; Candelone, J.-P.; Patterson, C. C.


    We report the first measurements of Pb isotopes in Antarctic snow, which show that even recent snow containing 2.3 pg/g is highly polluted with anthropogenic Pb. This follows from a comparison of isotope abundances of Pb in surface snow and terrestrial dust extracted from ancient Antarctic ice (Dome C, depth 308 m, approximate age 7,500 a BP), the latter being distinctly more radiogenic. This result is dependent of geochemical arguments based on measurements of Al, Na and SO4. South America is suggested as a likely source of this anthropogenic Pb. The presence of significantly less radiogenic Pb in the snow adjacent to two Antarctic base stations indicates that there is contamination from station emissions, although emission from Australia is an alternative explanation for a site 33 km from Dumont d'Urville.

  15. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.


    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  16. Assessment of myocardial viability using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose/Tc-99m sestamibi dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition SPECT: comparison with Tl-201 stress-reinjection SPECT. (United States)

    Wu, Yen-Wen; Huang, Por-Jau; Lee, Chii-Ming; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Lin, Lung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Ruoh-Fang


    This study compared technetium 99m sestamibi/fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) with stress-reinjection thallium 201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regard to their ability to detect myocardial viability. The study cohort consisted of 42 angiographically significant coronary artery disease patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure or regional wall motion abnormalities. In total, 398 dysfunctional segments in 40 patients were analyzed (2 patients were excluded because of poor-quality F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose images). Of the segments, 217 were diagnosed as viable and 144 as nonviable by both DISA and Tl-201, 33 were viable by DISA but nonviable by Tl-201, and 4 were viable by Tl-201 but nonviable by DISA. Most discrepancies were in the inferior wall. Of the 40 patients, 16 underwent revascularization. From the follow-up results for the 105 dysfunctional segments in these 16 patients, DISA viability appears to be a significant predicting factor (P = .014) for functional recovery after revascularization statistically whereas Tl-201 viability does not (P = .09). Our study suggests that DISA viability provides more accurate prediction of postrevascularization functional recovery than Tl-201 viability. Given the small number of patients who underwent revascularization, the superiority of DISA over Tl-201 in detecting myocardial viability may be firmly established by further study on a large scale for patients with profound left ventricular dysfunction.

  17. Anthropogenic lead isotopes in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Chisholm, W. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Bentley (Australia); Boutron, C.F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement du CNRS, St. Martin d`Heres (France)]|[Domaine Universitaire, Grenoble (France); Candelone, J.P. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement du CNRS, St. Martin d`Heres (France); Patterson, C.C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    The authors present results from the first Pb isotopic study of the sources of lead in snow samples from the Antarctic. Samples of recent snow fields were compared with measurements of samples taken from deep cores, and they reveal that recent snows show pronounced influence of anthropogenic sources. These results are independent of geochemical arguments based on influences of Al, Na, or SO{sub 4}.

  18. Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes. (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S


    The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in isotope baselines across different habitats and whether isotopic signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable isotopic variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen isotope data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape isotope data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal isotopic profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. Isotopic signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation isotope baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant isotopic characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct isotopic profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall

  19. WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes (United States)

    Firestone, R. B.; Ekstrom, L. P.; Chu, S. Y. F.


    An electronic sequel to the Table of Radioactive Isotopes (John Wiley, 1986) is being developed for use on the WWW. Updated adopted and decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Decay File (ENSDF) and other sources have been combined and edited. Decay scheme normalizations are revised when necessary. Gamma-ray and alpha-particle energies can be searched interactively by energy or parent half-life, mass, and atomic or neutron number. Summary data including half-lives, Q-values, production mode(s), genetic feedings, and a list of references published since the last full evaluation are available. Users can display energy or intensity ordered tables of gamma-rays, K and L x-rays, alpha-particles, and beta endpoints. Spectra of betas and bremsstrahlung, and Auger/conversion electrons can be viewed with an interactive JAVA applet. Decay schemes can be displayed with the JAVA version of Isotope Explorer 3.0. The URL for the Table of Radioactive Isotopes is

  20. Isotope Geochemistry for Comparative Planetology of Exoplanets (United States)

    Mandt, K. E.; Atreya, S.; Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mousis, O.; Simon, A.; Hofstadter, M. D.


    Isotope geochemistry has played a critical role in understanding processes at work in and the history of solar system bodies. Application of these techniques to exoplanets would be revolutionary and would allow comparative planetology with the formation and evolution of exoplanet systems. The roadmap for comparative planetology of the origins and workings of exoplanets involves isotopic geochemistry efforts in three areas: (1) technology development to expand observations of the isotopic composition of solar system bodies and expand observations to isotopic composition of exoplanet atmospheres; (2) theoretical modeling of how isotopes fractionate and the role they play in evolution of exoplanetary systems, atmospheres, surfaces and interiors; and (3) laboratory studies to constrain isotopic fractionation due to processes at work throughout the solar system.

  1. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E., E-mail: [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)


    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF{sup 0} Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, {sup 180}Pb and {sup 184}Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF{sup 0} functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF{sup 0} functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron

  2. Yield and excitation function measurements of some nuclear reactions on natural thallium induced by protons leading to the production of medical radioisotopes {sup 201}Tl and {sup 203}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, F.S.; Al-Harbi, A.A. [Girls College of Education, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Physics Dept.; Azzam, A. [Nuclear Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Physics Dept.


    Excitation functions for {sup 201}Pb, {sup 202m}Pb, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 204m}Pb radionuclides which are formed via proton induced reactions with natural thallium target have been measured from their respective threshold (E{sub thr}) to 27.5 MeV using activation technique. Natural copper foils were used to monitor the cyclotron beam. The integral yields (MBq/{mu}A h) of the produced radionuclides were calculated from the measured excitation functions. The optimum proton energy range for the production of {sup 203}Pb with low amount of impurities is (16-10 MeV) after 5 h of EOB. The experimental cross-sections for {sup nat}Tl(p,xn) reactions were compared with the cross-sections recommended by the IAEA and with earlier published data when it was possible. (orig.)

  3. Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1997 (United States)

    Rosman, K. J. R.; Taylor, P. D. P.


    The Commission's Subcommittee for the Isotopic Composition of the Elements has carried out its biennial review of isotopic compositions, as determined by mass spectrometry and other relevant methods. This involves a critical evaluation of the published literature, element by element, and forms the basis of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements as Determined by Mass Spectrometry presented here. New guidelines have been used to arrive at the uncertainties on the isotopic abundances and there are numerous changes to the table since it was last published in 1991. Atomic Weights calculated from this table are consistent with Ar(E) values listed in the Table of Standard Atomic Weights 1997.

  4. Stable isotope labeling methods for DNA. (United States)

    Nelissen, Frank H T; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Heus, Hans A


    NMR is a powerful method for studying proteins and nucleic acids in solution. The study of nucleic acids by NMR is far more challenging than for proteins, which is mainly due to the limited number of building blocks and unfavorable spectral properties. For NMR studies of DNA molecules, (site specific) isotope enrichment is required to facilitate specific NMR experiments and applications. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of isotope-labeling strategies for obtaining stable isotope labeled DNA as well as specifically stable isotope labeled building blocks required for enzymatic DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isotopic investigation of an Australian island environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groecke, D.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Bocherens, H. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)


    Collagen has been extracted from fossil bones of mega-fauna herbivores from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Australia). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of collagen have provided an insight into the palaeo-ecology of these late Pleistocene herbivores. In comparison with continental fossil localities in South Australia, the island herbivores have elevated nitrogen isotopic abundances. Carbon isotopic abundances suggest that browsing species had a mixed diet of grasses and leaves on the island, in contrast to the specimens from mainland Australia. Possible causes regarding elevated nitrogen isotope abundances and dietary shifts in this palaeo-ecology are discussed. (authors). 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Exploring the isotopic niche: isotopic variance, physiological incorporation, and the temporal dynamics of foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Douglas Yeakel


    Full Text Available Consumer foraging behaviors are dynamic, changing in response to prey availability, seasonality, competition, and even the consumer's physiological state. The isotopic composition of a consumer is a product of these factors as well as the isotopic `landscape' of its prey, i.e. the isotopic mixing space. Stable isotope mixing models are used to back-calculate the most likely proportional contribution of a set of prey to a consumer's diet based on their respective isotopic distributions, however they are disconnected from ecological process. Here we build a mechanistic framework that links the ecological and physiological processes of an individual consumer to the isotopic distribution that describes its diet, and ultimately to the isotopic composition of its own tissues, defined as its `isotopic niche’. By coupling these processes, we systematically investigate under what conditions the isotopic niche of a consumer changes as a function of both the geometric properties of its mixing space and foraging strategies that may be static or dynamic over time. Results of our derivations reveal general insight into the conditions impacting isotopic niche width as a function of consumer specialization on prey, as well as the consumer's ability to transition between diets over time. We show analytically that moderate specialization on isotopically unique prey can serve to maximize a consumer's isotopic niche width, while temporally dynamic diets will tend to result in peak isotopic variance during dietary transitions. We demonstrate the relevance of our theoretical findings by examining a marine system composed of nine invertebrate species commonly consumed by sea otters. In general, our analytical framework highlights the complex interplay of mixing space geometry and consumer dietary behavior in driving expansion and contraction of the isotopic niche. Because this approach is established on ecological mechanism, it is well-suited for enhancing the

  7. SWING - The Stable Water Isotope Intercomparison Group (United States)

    Werner, M.; Barras, V.; Brown, J.; Gourcy, L.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Hoffmann, G.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Kelley, M.; Noone, D.; Roads, J.; Schmidt, G.; Sturm, K.; Tindall, J.; Valdes, P.; Yoshimura, K.; Zakharov, V.


    For more than four decades the isotopic composition of water stored in various archives (e.g. ice cores, ground water) has been used to study changes in the hydrological cycle on timescales from glacial-interglacial to short term variations. However, the interpretation of isotopic variations in terms of climate change is often handicapped by a lack of other relevant observational climate parameters (e.g. temperature, relative humidity, precipitation) both in space and time. Modeling the isotopic composition of water within the hydrological cycle of general circulation models (GCM) may help to overcome this deficit on available climate data. Isotope GCMs simulate the 18O/16O (and/or 2H/1H) relation as an independent quantity within a closed "model world" where all other relevant climate parameters are known, too. This enables an improved analysis of (simulated) isotope variability in terms of climate change and during the last decade several state-of-the-art GCM models (GISS, ECHAM, LMD, GENESIS and others) have been enhanced by the capability to simulate the atmospheric and/or ocean cycle of H218O and 1H2H16O. To ensure isotope GCM reliability, any isotope GCM simulation must pass a rigorous comparison of simulated versus observed isotope data (model-data-intercomparison). In addition, artifacts in isotope simulations based on a specific GCM model parameterization or set-up have to be identified by comparing simulation results of several different isotope GCMs (model-model intercomparison). In our presentation we will give an overview and first results of the SWING project, founded in 2004. This initiative serves as a community platform for experts from the various isotope research groups and has the following objectives: (1) enable an overview about ongoing isotope GCM modeling capabilities; (2) define and perform future common GCM isotope simulation experiments of the various research groups; (3) identify the most important need of new observational isotope data

  8. Selected scientific topics of the 11th International Isotope Symposium on the Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labeled Compounds. (United States)

    Atzrodt, Jens; Derdau, Volker


    This micro-review describes hot topics and new trends in isotope science discussed at the 11th International Isotope Symposium on the Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labeled Compounds from a personal perspective. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  10. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastagner, P.


    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  11. Dual Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Hemminga & Mateo. (1996), values of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios vary considerably between seagrass species. It might also be expected that the remaining seagrass species could have some influence on the shrimp carbon signal. Isotopic evidence for mangroves being a carbon source for shrimps ...

  12. Isotopic niches support the resource breadth hypothesis. (United States)

    Rader, Jonathan A; Newsome, Seth D; Sabat, Pablo; Chesser, R Terry; Dillon, Michael E; Martínez Del Rio, Carlos


    Because a broad spectrum of resource use allows species to persist in a wide range of habitat types, and thus permits them to occupy large geographical areas, and because broadly distributed species have access to more diverse resource bases, the resource breadth hypothesis posits that the diversity of resources used by organisms should be positively related with the extent of their geographic ranges. We investigated isotopic niche width in a small radiation of South American birds in the genus Cinclodes. We analysed feathers of 12 species of Cinclodes to test the isotopic version of the resource breadth hypothesis and to examine the correlation between isotopic niche breadth and morphology. We found a positive correlation between the widths of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic niches (which estimate breadth of elevational range) and widths of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic niches (which estimates the diversity of resources consumed, and hence of habitats used). We also found a positive correlation between broad isotopic niches and wing morphology. Our study not only supports the resource breadth hypothesis but it also highlights the usefulness of stable isotope analyses as tools in the exploration of ecological niches. It is an example of a macroecological application of stable isotopes. It also illustrates the importance of scientific collections in ecological studies. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  13. Isotopic niches support the resource breadth hypothesis (United States)

    Rader, Jonathan A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Sabat, Pablo; Chesser, R. Terry; Dillon, Michael E.; Martinez del Rio, Carlos


    Because a broad spectrum of resource use allows species to persist in a wide range of habitat types, and thus permits them to occupy large geographical areas, and because broadly distributed species have access to more diverse resource bases, the resource breadth hypothesis posits that the diversity of resources used by organisms should be positively related with the extent of their geographic ranges.We investigated isotopic niche width in a small radiation of South American birds in the genus Cinclodes. We analysed feathers of 12 species of Cinclodes to test the isotopic version of the resource breadth hypothesis and to examine the correlation between isotopic niche breadth and morphology.We found a positive correlation between the widths of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic niches (which estimate breadth of elevational range) and widths of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic niches (which estimates the diversity of resources consumed, and hence of habitats used). We also found a positive correlation between broad isotopic niches and wing morphology.Our study not only supports the resource breadth hypothesis but it also highlights the usefulness of stable isotope analyses as tools in the exploration of ecological niches. It is an example of a macroecological application of stable isotopes. It also illustrates the importance of scientific collections in ecological studies.

  14. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E


    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  15. The isotopic dipole moment of HDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise; Mohallem, Jose R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    An adiabatic variational approximation is used to study the monodeuterated water molecule, HDO, accounting for the isotopic effect. The isotopic dipole moment, pointing from D to H, is then calculated for the first time, yielding (1.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -3} Debye, being helpful in the interpretation of experiments. (fast track communication)

  16. Environmental isotopes investigation in groundwater of Challaghatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiogenic isotopes (3H and 14C) and stable isotope (18O) together with TDS, EC and salinity of water were used to discriminate qualitative and quantitative groundwater age, probable recharge time, flow respectively in groundwater of Challaghatta valley, Bangalore. The variations between TDS and EC values of sewage ...

  17. Isotope Program Report June FY2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jr, Benjamin E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Egle, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Isotope Program Monthly Highlights are briefly described. These include data on isotopes shipped, updates on equipment fabrication and testing, a potential new approach for nondestructive measurement of the amount of Cf-252 deposited on a surface, and efforts to recover and purify uranium-234 obtained from old PuBe sources.

  18. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 8. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms-Secondary Kinetic Isotope Effect. Uday Maitra J Chandrasekhar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 8 August 1997 pp 18-25 ...

  19. Correction of MS data for naturally occurring isotopes in isotope labelling experiments. (United States)

    Millard, Pierre; Letisse, Fabien; Sokol, Serguei; Portais, Jean-Charles


    Mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with isotope labelling experiments is widely used for investigations of metabolism and other biological processes. Quantitative applications-e.g., (13)C metabolic flux analysis-require correction of raw MS data (isotopic clusters) for the contribution of all naturally abundant isotopes. This chapter describes how to perform such correction using the software IsoCor. This flexible, user-friendly software can be used to exploit any isotopic tracer, from well-known ((13)C, (15)N, (18)O, etc.) to unusual ((57)Fe, (77)Se, etc.) isotopes. It also provides options-e.g., correction for the isotopic purity of the tracer-to improve the accuracy of quantitative isotopic studies, and allows automated correction of large datasets that can be collected with modern MS methods.

  20. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.


    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the full text or extended abstracts of papers number 61- to number 114

  1. Selected Isotopes for Optimized Fuel Assembly Tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.


    In support of our ongoing signatures project we present information on 3 isotopes selected for possible application in optimized tags that could be applied to fuel assemblies to provide an objective measure of burnup. 1. Important factors for an optimized tag are compatibility with the reactor environment (corrosion resistance), low radioactive activation, at least 2 stable isotopes, moderate neutron absorption cross-section, which gives significant changes in isotope ratios over typical fuel assembly irradiation levels, and ease of measurement in the SIMS machine 2. From the candidate isotopes presented in the 3rd FY 08 Quarterly Report, the most promising appear to be Titanium, Hafnium, and Platinum. The other candidate isotopes (Iron, Tungsten, exhibited inadequate corrosion resistance and/or had neutron capture cross-sections either too high or too low for the burnup range of interest.

  2. Oxygen isotope fractionation in stratospheric CO2 (United States)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Jackson, T.; Mauersberger, K.; Schueler, B.; Morton, J.


    A new cryogenic collection system has been flown on board a balloon gondola to obtain separate samples of ozone and carbon dioxide without entrapping major atmospheric gases. Precision laboratory isotopic analysis of CO2 samples collected between 26 and 35.5 km show a mass-independent enrichment in both O-17 and O-18 of about 11 per mil above tropospheric values. Ozone enrichment in its heavy isotopes was 9 to 16 percent in O3-50 and 8 to 11 percent in O3-49, respectively (Schueler et al., 1990). A mechanism to explain the isotope enrichment in CO2 has been recently proposed by Yung et al. (1991). The model is based on the isotope exchange between CO2 and O3 via O(1D), resulting in a transfer of the ozone isotope enrichment to carbon dioxide. Predicted enrichment and measured values agree well.

  3. Manus Water Isotope Investigation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Jessica L [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Cobb, Kim M [Georgia Institute of Technology; Noone, David [University of Colorado, Boulder


    The objective of this field campaign was to investigate climatic controls on the stable isotopic composition of water vapor, precipitation, and seawater in the western tropical Pacific. Simultaneous measurements of the stable isotopic composition of vapor and precipitation from April 28 to May 8, 2013, at the Manus Tropical Western Pacific Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site, provided several key insights into the nature of the climate signal archived in precipitation and vapor isotope ratios. We observed a large shift from lower to higher isotopic values in vapor and precipitation because of the passage of a mesoscale convective system west of the site and a transition from a regional stormy period into a more quiescent period. During the quiescent period, the stable isotopic composition of vapor and precipitation indicated the predominance of oceanic evaporation in determining the isotopic composition of boundary-layer vapor and local precipitation. There was not a consistent relationship between intra-event precipitation amount at the site and the stable isotopic composition of precipitation, thus challenging simplified assumptions about the isotopic “amount effect” in the tropics on the time scale of individual storms. However, some storms did show an amount effect, and deuterium excess values in precipitation had a significant relationship with several meteorological variables, including precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and cloud base height across all measured storms. The direction of these relationships points to condensation controls on precipitation deuterium excess values on intra-event time scales. The relationship between simultaneous measurements of vapor and precipitation isotope ratios during precipitation events indicates the ratio of precipitation-to-vapor isotope ratios can diagnose precipitation originating from a vapor source unique from boundary-layer vapor and rain re-evaporation.

  4. A carbon isotope mass balance for an anoxic marine sediment: Isotopic signatures of diagenesis (United States)

    Boehme, Susan E.


    A carbon isotope mass balance was determined for the sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, NC to constrain the carbon budgets published previously. The diffusive, ebullitive and burial fluxes of sigma CO2 and CH4, as well as the carbon isotope signatures of these fluxes, were measured. The flux-weighted isotopic signature of the remineralized carbon (-18.9 plus or minus 2.7 per mil) agreed with the isotopic composition of the remineralized organic carbon determined from the particulate organic carbon (POC) delta(C-13) profiles (-19.2 plus or minus 0.2), verifying the flux and isotopic signature estimates. The measured delta(C-13) values of the sigma CO2 and CH4 diffusive fluxes were significantly different from those calculated from porewater gradients. The differences appear to be influenced by methane oxidation at the sediment-water interface, although other potential processes cannot be excluded. The isotope mass balance provides important information concerning the locations of potential diagenetic isotope effects. Specifically, the absence of downcore change in the delta(C-13) value of the POC fraction and the identical isotopic composition of the POC and the products of remineralization indicate that no isotopic fractionation is expressed during the initial breakdown of the POC, despite its isotopically heterogeneous composition.

  5. Measurement of isotope abundance variations in nature by gravimetric spiking isotope dilution analysis (GS-IDA). (United States)

    Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas


    Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.

  6. Nitrogen isotope fractionation during archaeal ammonia oxidation: Coupled estimates from isotopic measurements of ammonium and nitrite (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Bayer, Barbara; Jochum, Lara; Melcher, Michael; Wanek, Wolfgang


    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments and knowledge about the nitrogen (N) isotope effect associated with their ammonia oxidation activity will allow a better understanding of natural abundance isotope ratios, and therefore N transformation processes, in the environment. Here we examine the kinetic isotope effect for ammonia oxidation in a pure soil AOA culture (Ca. Nitrososphaera viennensis) and a marine AOA enrichment culture. We estimated the isotope effect from both isotopic signatures of ammonium and nitrite over the course of ammonia oxidation. Estimates of the isotope effect based on the change in the isotopic signature of ammonium give valuable insight, because these estimates are not subject to the same concerns (e.g., accumulation of an intermediate) as estimates based on isotopic measurements of nitrite. Our results show that both the pure soil AOA culture and a marine AOA enrichment culture have similar but substantial isotope effect during ammonia consumption (31-34 per mill; based on ammonium) and nitrite production (43-45 per mill; based on nitrite). The 15N fractionation factors of both cultures tested fell in the upper range of the reported isotope effects for archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation (10-41 per mill) or were even higher than those. The isotope fractionation for nitrite production was significantly larger than for ammonium consumption, indicating that (1) some intermediate (e.g., hydroxylamine) of ammonia oxidation accumulates, allowing for a second 15N fractionation step to be expressed, (2) a fraction of ammonia oxidized is lost via gaseous N forms (e.g., NO or N2O), which is 15N-enriched or (3) a fraction of ammonium is assimilated into AOA biomass, biomass becoming 15N-enriched. The significance of these mechanisms will be explored in more detail for the soil AOA culture, based on isotope modeling and isotopic measurements of biomass and N2O.

  7. Isotopic geochemistry of Panama rivers (United States)

    Harmon, Russell S.; Worner, Gerhard; Pribil, Michael; Kern, Zoltan; Forizs, Istvan; Lyons, W. Berry; Gardner, Christopher B.; Goldsmith, Steven T.


    River water samples collected from 78 watersheds rivers along a 500-km transect across a Late Cretaceous-Tertiary andesitic volcanic arc terrane in west-central Panama provide a synoptic overview of riverine geochemistry, chemical denudation, and CO2 consumption in the tropics. D/H and 18O/16O relationships indicate that bedrock dissolution of andesitic arc crust in Panama is driven by water-rock interaction with meteoric precipitation as it passes through the critical zone, with no evidence of a geothermal or hydrothermal input. Sr-isotope relationships suggest a geochemical evolution for Panama riverine waters that involves mixing of bedrock pore water with water having 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7037-0.7043 and relatively high Sr-contents with waters of low Sr content that enriched in radiogenic Sr that are diluted by infiltrating rainfall to variable extents.

  8. Studies of control materials of isotope transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Abe, Fujio; Numazawa, Takenori [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    To control wavelength of laser, the physical properties of control materials of molecular excitation and isotope should be studied. We carried out isotopic enrichment, Si thin film growth, and preparation of boron isotope crystal and to make a calculation code of nuclear transmutation simulation. A gas circulation system for developing isotope laser was produced in order to control of molecular vibration excitation. We developed a single straight system of silicon isotope enrichment and silicon thin film preparation by infrared laser. When laser irradiated Si{sub 2}F{sub 6}, unreacted Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} contained 99.72% of {sup 28}Si at about 956 cm{sup -1} wavelength. When SiF{sub 4} or Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} with enriched isotope were directly decomposed by the plasma CVD method at about from 350 to 450degC, the yield of silicon crystal was about 28%. A homogeneous crystal with 10 mm diameter was obtained as the control material of boron isotope. The computer code for simulation of nuclear transmutation was improved to calculate the displacement damage, change of composition, induced radioactivity and decay heat. (S.Y.)

  9. Si isotope homogeneity of the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Jackson, Matthew G. [Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Barrat, Jean-Alix, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Université Européenne de Bretagne, Université de Brest, CNRS UMR 6538 (Domaines Océaniques), I.U.E.M., Place Nicolas Copernic, F-29280 Plouzané Cedex (France)


    The presence or absence of variations in the mass-independent abundances of Si isotopes in bulk meteorites provides important clues concerning the evolution of the early solar system. No Si isotopic anomalies have been found within the level of analytical precision of 15 ppm in {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si across a wide range of inner solar system materials, including terrestrial basalts, chondrites, and achondrites. A possible exception is the angrites, which may exhibit small excesses of {sup 29}Si. However, the general absence of anomalies suggests that primitive meteorites and differentiated planetesimals formed in a reservoir that was isotopically homogenous with respect to Si. Furthermore, the lack of resolvable anomalies in the calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion measured here suggests that any nucleosynthetic anomalies in Si isotopes were erased through mixing in the solar nebula prior to the formation of refractory solids. The homogeneity exhibited by Si isotopes may have implications for the distribution of Mg isotopes in the solar nebula. Based on supernova nucleosynthetic yield calculations, the expected magnitude of heavy-isotope overabundance is larger for Si than for Mg, suggesting that any potential Mg heterogeneity, if present, exists below the 15 ppm level.

  10. Seafloor alteration, oxygen isotopes and climate (United States)

    Kanzaki, Y.; Kump, L. R.; Kasting, J. F.


    Seafloor alteration can be related to climate in two ways: through storage of carbon dioxide as carbonates and indirectly through its influence on the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater. Low temperature alteration of the seafloor, or seafloor weathering, can store carbon dioxide as carbonates formed as the result of dissolution of cations from silicate rocks, and since this process is temperature dependent, can serve as a climate regulator. On the other hand, the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater is determined by the balance between low temperature crustal alteration (including continental weathering) and high temperature seafloor alteration, because the heavy isotope is depleted from and added to seawater in low and high temperature alteration, respectively. The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater is a parameter necessary to estimate surface temperature of the Earth from the oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic sedimentary rocks. Thus seafloor alteration is related to reconstruction of Earth's climate. We have developed a comprehensive model of seafloor alteration that captures both seafloor weathering and oxygen isotope exchange, and use it to reconcile observations of long-term stability in both climate and altered ocean crust δ18O with secular changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of marine sediments.

  11. Isotopic tracing of perchlorate in the environment (United States)

    Sturchio, Neil C.; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Jackson, W. Andrew; Baskaran, Mark


    Isotopic measurements can be used for tracing the sources and behavior of environmental contaminants. Perchlorate (ClO 4 − ) has been detected widely in groundwater, soils, fertilizers, plants, milk, and human urine since 1997, when improved analytical methods for analyzing ClO 4 −concentration became available for routine use. Perchlorate ingestion poses a risk to human health because of its interference with thyroidal hormone production. Consequently, methods for isotopic analysis of ClO 4 − have been developed and applied to assist evaluation of the origin and migration of this common contaminant. Isotopic data are now available for stable isotopes of oxygen and chlorine, as well as 36Cl isotopic abundances, in ClO 4 − samples from a variety of natural and synthetic sources. These isotopic data provide a basis for distinguishing sources of ClO 4 − found in the environment, and for understanding the origin of natural ClO 4 − . In addition, the isotope effects of microbial ClO 4 − reduction have been measured in laboratory and field experiments, providing a tool for assessing ClO 4 − attenuation in the environment. Isotopic data have been used successfully in some areas for identifying major sources of ClO 4 − contamination in drinking water supplies. Questions about the origin and global biogeochemical cycle of natural ClO 4 − remain to be addressed; such work would benefit from the development of methods for preparation and isotopic analysis of ClO 4 − in samples with low concentrations and complex matrices.

  12. Intramolecular Isotopic Studies: Chemical Enhancements and Alternatives (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.


    As mass spectroscopic and NMR-based methods now appropriately flourish, chemical techniques should not be forgotten. First, the methods developed by pioneering intramolecular analysts can be reapplied to new samples. Second, they can be extended. The synthesis of intramolecular isotopic standards is particularly important and straightforward. It requires only that a chemical reaction has no secondary products. An example is provided by the addition of carbon dioxide to a Grignard reagent. The reaction proceeds with an isotope effect. The isotopic composition of the carboxyl group in the acid which is produced is thus not equal to that of the starting carbon dioxide but the unconsumed CO2 can be recovered and analyzed. A simple titration can show that all the rest of the CO2 is in the product acid. The isotopic composition of the carboxyl group can then be calculated by difference. The product is an intramolecular isotopic standard, an organic molecule in which the isotopic composition of a specific carbon position is known accurately. Both analysts and reviewers can thus gain invaluable confidence in the accuracy of instrumental results. A second example: the haloform reaction quantitatively degrades methyl ketones, producing a carboxylic acid which can be decarboxylated to determine the isotopic composition of the parent carbonyl and a haloform (CHI3, for example) that can be combusted to determine the isotopic composition of the methyl group. Ketones thus analyzed can be combined with Grignard reagents to yield carbon skeletons in which the isotopic compositions of internal and terminal -CH2- and -CH3 groups are known accurately. In general, analysts accustomed to demanding quantitative reactions should remember the power of mass balances and recognize that many organic-chemical reactions, while not quantitative, lack side products and can be driven to the total consumption of at least one reactant.

  13. Heavy Stable Isotopes: From Exceptional to Expected (United States)

    Anbar, A.


    Less than a decade ago, the stable isotope geochemistry of transition metals and other "heavy" elements was a highly specialized niche confined to a few seemingly exceptional elements. This situation was transformed by the development and refinement of MC-ICP-MS techniques, particularly in the last five years. Measurable stable isotope variations turn out to be ubiquitous across the periodic table, from Li to Hg. It is now safe to assume that the isotopic composition of any element with two or more stable isotopes is measurably variable. What was once exceptional is now expected. Among the first of these new systems to be explored were Fe and Mo isotopes. A number of lessons emerging from this work can be applied to the development of other isotope systems. Most important is that initial expectations are often wrong. For example, based on their environmental chemistries it was expected that redox reactions should produce some of the largest isotope effects for both elements. In the case of Fe, theoretical and experimental studies converge to convincingly indicate that a fractionation of ~ 1.5 ‰/amu occurs between Fe(III) and Fe(II) aquo complexes at equilibrium (e.g., Welch et al., 2003; Anbar et al., 2005). Consistent with these findings, most natural variations of are < 1.5 ‰/amu (e.g., Johnson et al., 2004). This redox-related fractionation is at the heart of emerging interpretations of variations in the isotopic composition of Fe and their application to understanding ancient ocean redox (e.g., Dauphas et al., 2004; Rouxel et al., 2005). In contrast, Mo isotope variations turn out to be controlled only indirectly by redox conditions. Instead, one of the most important Mo isotope effects in the environment appears to be a fractionation of ~ 1 ‰/amu during adsorption of Mo to Mn-oxides (Barling et al., 2001; Siebert et al., 2003). This fractionation has been reproduced in the laboratory (Barling and Anbar, 2004) and appears to be an equilibrium isotope

  14. Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts (United States)

    Lee, D.-C.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.; Burton, K.W.; Christensen, J.N.; Gunther, D.


    A Cenozoic record of hafnium isotopic compositions of central Pacific deep water has been obtained from two ferromanganese crusts. The crusts are separated by more than 3000 kilometers but display similar secular variations. Significant fluctuations in hafnium isotopic composition occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene, possibly related to direct advection from the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Hafnium isotopic compositions have remained approximately uniform for the past 20 million years, probably reflecting increased isolation of the central Pacific. The mechanisms responsible for the increase in 87Sr/86Sr in seawater through the Cenozoic apparently had no effect on central Pacific deep-water hafnium.

  15. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrede C.


    Full Text Available The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB is a United States Department of Energy user facility currently under construction on the campus of Michigan State University. Based on a 400 kW, 200 MeV/u heavy-ion driver linac, FRIB will deliver high-quality fast, thermalized, and re-accelerated beams of rare isotopes with unprecedented intensities to a variety of experimental areas and equipment. New science opportunities at the frontiers of nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental symmetries, and societal applications will be enabled by this future world-leading rare-isotope beam facility.

  16. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (United States)

    Wrede, C.


    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a United States Department of Energy user facility currently under construction on the campus of Michigan State University. Based on a 400 kW, 200 MeV/u heavy-ion driver linac, FRIB will deliver high-quality fast, thermalized, and re-accelerated beams of rare isotopes with unprecedented intensities to a variety of experimental areas and equipment. New science opportunities at the frontiers of nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental symmetries, and societal applications will be enabled by this future world-leading rare-isotope beam facility.

  17. Titanium Isotopes Provide Clues to Lunar Origin (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    The idea that the Moon formed as the result of the giant impact of a Mars-sized impactor with the still-growing Earth explains two central facts about the Earth-Moon system: its total angular momentum (Earth's spin and the Moon's orbital motion), and the sizes of the metallic cores of the Earth (large) and Moon (tiny). This gives cosmochemists some confidence in the hypothesis, but they would greatly appreciate additional compositional tests. One undisputed point is the identical abundance of the three oxygen isotopes in Earth and Moon. Junjun Zhang and colleagues at the University of Chicago (USA) and the University of Bern (Switzerland) have added another isotopic system to the cosmochemical testing tool kit, titanium isotopes. They find that the ratio of titanium-50 to titanium-47 is identical in Earth and Moon to within four parts per million. In contrast, other solar system materials, such as carbonaceous chondrites, vary by considerably more than this-- up to 150 times as much. The identical oxygen and titanium isotopic compositions in Earth and Moon are surprising in light of what we think we know about planet formation and formation of the Moon after a giant impact. The variations in oxygen and titanium isotopes among meteorite types suggest that it is unlikely that the Moon-forming giant impactor would have had the same isotopic composition as the Earth. Simulations show that the Moon ends up constructed mostly (40-75%) from the impactor materials. Thus, the Moon ought to have different isotopic composition than does Earth. The isotopes might have exchanged in the complicated, messy proto-lunar disk (as has been suggested for oxygen isotopes), making them the same. However, Zhang and colleagues suggest that this exchange is unlikely for a refractory element like titanium. Could the impact simulations be greatly overestimating the contributions from the impactor? Was the mixing of building-block materials throughout the inner solar system much less than

  18. Beneficial uses and production of isotopes

    CERN Document Server


    Isotopes, radioactive and stable, are used worldwide in various applications related to medical diagnosis or care, industry and scientific research. More than fifty countries have isotope production or separation facilities operated for domestic supply, and sometimes for international markets. This publication provides up-to-date information on the current status of, and trends in, isotope uses and production. It also presents key issues, conclusions and recommendations, which will be of interest to policy makers in governmental bodies, scientists and industrial actors in the field.

  19. Hafnium isotope stratigraphy of ferromanganese crusts (United States)

    Lee; Halliday; Hein; Burton; Christensen; Gunther


    A Cenozoic record of hafnium isotopic compositions of central Pacific deep water has been obtained from two ferromanganese crusts. The crusts are separated by more than 3000 kilometers but display similar secular variations. Significant fluctuations in hafnium isotopic composition occurred in the Eocene and Oligocene, possibly related to direct advection from the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Hafnium isotopic compositions have remained approximately uniform for the past 20 million years, probably reflecting increased isolation of the central Pacific. The mechanisms responsible for the increase in (87)Sr/(86)Sr in seawater through the Cenozoic apparently had no effect on central Pacific deep-water hafnium.

  20. New Isotopic Tracers for Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids (United States)

    The combined application of geochemistry, stable isotopes (δ18O, δ2H), strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr), boron isotopes (δ11B), and radium isotopes (228Ra/226Ra) provides a unique methodology for tracing and monitoring shale gas and fracking fluids in the environment.

  1. Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.


    This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.

  2. Evaluating chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratios and mass spectra of polychlorinated molecules. (United States)

    Elsner, Martin; Hunkeler, Daniel


    Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis receives much interest to assess the fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in contaminated environments. This paper provides a theoretical basis to calculate isotope ratios and quantify isotope fractionation from ion-current ratios of molecular- and fragment-ion multiplets. Because both (35)Cl and (37)Cl are of high abundance, polychlorinated hydrocarbons consist of molecules containing different numbers of (37)Cl denoted as isotopologues. We show that, during reactions, the changes in isotopologue ratios are proportional to changes in the isotope ratio assuming a nonselective isotope distribution in the initial compound. This proportionality extents even to fragments formed in the ion source of a mass spectrometer such as C 2Cl 2 (double dechlorinated fragment of perchloroethylene, PCE). Fractionation factors and kinetic isotope effects (KIE) may, therefore, be evaluated from isotope, isotopologue or even fragment ratios according to conventional simple equations. The proportionality is exact with symmetric molecules such as dichloroethylene (DCE) and PCE, whereas it is approximately true with molecules containing nonreactive positions such as trichloroethylene (TCE). If in the latter case isotope ratios are derived from dechlorinated fragments, e.g., C 2HCl 2, it is important that fragmentation in the ion source affect all molecular positions alike, as otherwise isotopic changes in reactive positions may be underrepresented.

  3. Application of heavy stable isotopes in forensic isotope geochemistry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Jugdeep [W.M. Keck Isotope Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)], E-mail:; Habicht-Mauche, Judith; Juarez, Chelsey [Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Light stable isotopes have been used for many years to characterize the source and transport of materials. More recently heavy isotope systems such as Sr, Nd and Pb have been added to this list in order to aid source identification. With the advent of multiple collector ICP-MS, the range of isotopic tools now available has increased considerably, however, until the isotope systematics of these new non-traditional isotope systems have become better understood, they will not be as useful in characterizing material source and transportation. Applications using heavy metal stable isotopes (mostly traditional heavy isotopes) have reached most avenues in science, including earth sciences, archaeology, anthropology, animal physiology, ecology and toxicology. This field will continue to grow as new applications are developed and techniques become simpler and quicker. This paper provides a review of how this field has grown and presents two new applications using Pb and Sr isotopes in glazes to determine the source of ore used in glazes, and using Sr isotopes to determine the origin of undocumented deceased Mexican border crossers.

  4. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry

    crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we...... report the results of a broad study of the iron isotope compositions of gabbros within the layered and upper border series of the Skaergaard intrusion, pegmatite and granophyre associated with these gabbroic rocks, and the sandwich horizon thought to represent the product of extreme differentiation and....... Forward modeling of closed system fractional crystallization constrained by cumulate volumes, whole rock and mineral compositions, mineral modes and independent constraints on Fe isotope fractionation factors account for the stratigraphic relations, except during the final stages of differentiation...

  5. Quantification of isotopic turnover in agricultural systems (United States)

    Braun, A.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.


    The isotopic turnover, which is a proxy for the metabolic rate, is gaining scientific importance. It is quantified for an increasing range of organisms, from microorganisms over plants to animals including agricultural livestock. Additionally, the isotopic turnover is analyzed on different scales, from organs to organisms to ecosystems and even to the biosphere. In particular, the quantification of the isotopic turnover of specific tissues within the same organism, e.g. organs like liver and muscle and products like milk and faeces, has brought new insights to improve understanding of nutrient cycles and fluxes, respectively. Thus, the knowledge of isotopic turnover is important in many areas, including physiology, e.g. milk synthesis, ecology, e.g. soil retention time of water, and medical science, e.g. cancer diagnosis. So far, the isotopic turnover is quantified by applying time, cost and expertise intensive tracer experiments. Usually, this comprises two isotopic equilibration periods. A first equilibration period with a constant isotopic input signal is followed by a second equilibration period with a distinct constant isotopic input signal. This yields a smooth signal change from the first to the second signal in the object under consideration. This approach reveals at least three major problems. (i) The input signals must be controlled isotopically, which is almost impossible in many realistic cases like free ranging animals. (ii) Both equilibration periods may be very long, especially when the turnover rate of the object under consideration is very slow, which aggravates the first problem. (iii) The detection of small or slow pools is improved by large isotopic signal changes, but large isotopic changes also involve a considerable change in the input material; e.g. animal studies are usually carried out as diet-switch experiments, where the diet is switched between C3 and C4 plants, since C3 and C4 plants differ strongly in their isotopic signal. The

  6. The Most Useful Actinide Isotope: Americium-241. (United States)

    Navratil, James D.; And Others


    Reviewed is the discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses of an isotope of Americium (Am-241). Production and separation techniques used in industry are emphasized. Processes are illustrated in flow sheets. (CW)

  7. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.


    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.


    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  9. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Tellurium Isotopes (United States)

    Eastman, Micah; Krane, Kenneth


    Neutron capture by the stable even-mass Te isotopes (A = 120 to 130) produces in the neighboring odd-neutron isotopes a low-spin ground state (1/2 or 3/2) and a high-spin (11/2) isomeric state. By irradiating samples of natural isotopic Te in our reactor, we have measured the neutron capture cross sections for all of the odd-mass radioactive ground states and isomers produced in the capture process. By using Cd-shielded and unshielded irradiations, we have been able to obtain both the effective thermal cross sections and the resonance integrals. Comparison with similar neutron capture processes in Sn isotopes leads to interesting systematic effects, especially among the thermal cross sections of the low-spin and high-spin states.

  10. Robust optical carbon dioxide isotope analyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Isotopic analysis of carbon dioxide is an important tool for characterization of the exchange and transformation of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere....

  11. Benchmarking stable isotope labeling based quantitative proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altelaar, A.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833517; Frese, C.K.; Preisinger, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325801703; Hennrich, M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406778; Schram, A.W.; Timmers, H.T.M.; Heck, A.J.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Mohammed, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483632X

    Several quantitative mass spectrometry based technologies have recently evolved to interrogate the complexity, interconnectivity and dynamic nature of proteomes. Currently, the most popular methods use either metabolic or chemical isotope labeling with MS based quantification or chemical labeling

  12. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  13. Water isotope systematics: Improving our palaeoclimate interpretations (United States)

    Jones, M. D.; Dee, S.; Anderson, L.; Baker, A.; Bowen, G.; Noone, D.


    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, measured in a variety of archives, are widely used proxies in Quaternary Science. Understanding the processes that control δ18O change have long been a focus of research (e.g. Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Talbot, 1990 ; Leng, 2006). Both the dynamics of water isotope cycling and the appropriate interpretation of geological water-isotope proxy time series remain subjects of active research and debate. It is clear that achieving a complete understanding of the isotope systematics for any given archive type, and ideally each individual archive, is vital if these palaeo-data are to be used to their full potential, including comparison with climate model experiments of the past. Combining information from modern monitoring and process studies, climate models, and proxy data is crucial for improving our statistical constraints on reconstructions of past climate variability.As climate models increasingly incorporate stable water isotope physics, this common language should aid quantitative comparisons between proxy data and climate model output. Water-isotope palaeoclimate data provide crucial metrics for validating GCMs, whereas GCMs provide a tool for exploring the climate variability dominating signals in the proxy data. Several of the studies in this set of papers highlight how collaborations between palaeoclimate experimentalists and modelers may serve to expand the usefulness of palaeoclimate data for climate prediction in future work.This collection of papers follows the session on Water Isotope Systematics held at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Papers in that session, the breadth of which are represented here, discussed such issues as; understanding sub-GNIP scale (Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation, (IAEA/WMO, 2006)) variability in isotopes in precipitation from different regions, detailed examination of the transfer of isotope signals from precipitation to geological archives, and the

  14. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Leavitt


    Full Text Available The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR. Here we provide the only direct observation of the major (34S/32S and minor (33S/32S, 36S/32S sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB. Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in 34S/32S (hereafter, 34εDsrAB to be 15.3±2‰, 2σ. The accompanying minor isotope effect in 33S, described as 33λDsrAB, is calculated to be 0.5150±0.0012, 2σ. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3 to 0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in 34εDsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of 34εDsrAB is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where 34εr-p = 16.1‰ (r – p indicates reactant versus product, n = 648. This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments (34εSO4-H2S = 17.3±1.5‰ and in modern marine sediments (34εSO4-H2S = 17.3±3.8‰. Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the biogeochemical and geobiological sulfur isotope records in modern

  15. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine (United States)

    Homolova, V.; Richter, F. M.; Watson, E. B.; Chaussidon, M.


    Systematic lithium isotope variations along concentration gradients found in olivine and pyroxene grains from terrestrial, lunar and martian rocks have been attributed to diffusive isotopic fractionation [Beck et al., 2006; Tang et al., 2007]. In some cases, these isotopic excursions are so large that a single grain may display isotopic variability that spans almost the entire range of documented terrestrial values [Jeffcoate et al., 2007]. In this study, we present the results of experiments to examine diffusive isotopic fractionation of lithium in olivine. The experiments comprised crystallographically oriented slabs of San Carlos olivine juxtaposed with either spodumene powder or a lithium rich pyroxene crystal. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 0.1MPa over a temperature range of 1000 to 1125⁰C. Oxygen fugacity in the 0.1MPa experiments was controlled using the wustite-magnetite and nickel-nickel oxide solid buffer assemblages. Lithium concentrations generally decrease smoothly away from the edges of the grains; however, experiments involving diffusion parallel to the a-axis consistently show peculiar wavy or segmented concentration profiles. Lithium diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is on the order of 1E-14m2/s at 1100⁰C. The diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is more than an order of magnitude faster than diffusion parallel to the b-axis and correlates positively with oxygen fugacity. The lithium isotopic composition, δ7Li = 1000‰ * ((δ7Lisample- δ7Ligrain center)/ δ7Ligrain center), shows a decrease away from the edge of the grain to a minimum value (up to 70‰ lighter) and then an abrupt increase back to the initial isotopic composition of the olivine grain. This isotopic profile is similar to those found in natural grains and an experimental study on diffusive fractionation of lithium isotopes in pyroxene [Richter et al., 2014]. Results from the present study are modeled using the approach of Dohmen et al. [2010], which assumes lithium

  16. Isotope analysis in the transmission electron microscope


    Susi, Toma; Hofer, Christoph; Argentero, Giacomo; Leuthner, Gregor T.; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Mangler, Clemens; Meyer, Jannik C.; Kotakoski, Jani


    The {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-sized probe of the scanning transmission electron microscope can visualize and collect spectra from single atoms. This can unambiguously resolve the chemical structure of materials, but not their isotopic composition. Here we differentiate between two isotopes of the same element by quantifying how likely the energetic imaging electrons are to eject atoms. First, we measure the displacement probability in graphene grown from either $^{12}$C or $^{13}$C and describe the proc...

  17. Nickel isotopic composition of the mantle (United States)

    Gall, Louise; Williams, Helen M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Kerr, Andrew C.


    This paper presents a detailed high-precision study of Ni isotope variations in mantle peridotites and their minerals, komatiites as well as chondritic and iron meteorites. Ultramafic rocks display a relatively large range in δ60 Ni (permil deviation in 60 Ni /58 Ni relative to the NIST SRM 986 Ni isotope standard) for this environment, from 0.15 ± 0.07‰ to 0.36 ± 0.08‰, with olivine-rich rocks such as dunite and olivine cumulates showing lighter isotope compositions than komatiite, lherzolite and pyroxenite samples. The data for the mineral separates shed light on the origin of these variations. Olivine and orthopyroxene display light δ60 Ni whereas clinopyroxene and garnet are isotopically heavy. This indicates that peridotite whole-rock δ60 Ni may be controlled by variations in modal mineralogy, with the prediction that mantle melts will display variable δ60 Ni values due to variations in residual mantle and cumulate mineralogy. Based on fertile peridotite xenoliths and Phanerozoic komatiite samples it is concluded that the upper mantle has a relatively homogeneous Ni isotope composition, with the best estimate of δ60Nimantle being 0.23 ± 0.06‰ (2 s.d.). Given that >99% of the Ni in the silicate Earth is located in the mantle, this also defines the Ni isotope composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE). This value is nearly identical to the results obtained for a suite of chondrites and iron meteorites (mean δ60 Ni 0.26 ± 0.12‰ and 0.29 ± 0.10‰, respectively) showing that the BSE is chondritic with respect to its Ni isotope composition, with little to no Ni mass-dependent isotope fractionation resulting from core formation.

  18. Metastasic bone pain management with radioactive isotopes


    Juan Coya Viña


    Pain is the commonest clinical manifestation of bone metastases. Its treatment is palliative in nature, and consists of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonotherapy, diphosphonates, and drug therapy (i. e., opiates). Radioactive isotopes represent an appealing alternative to conventional treatment modalities. Among the different types of isotopes, wide clinical experience with 153Sm has been obtained in this laboratory. In the present study, 94 patients (mean age = 65 years), who had been diagn...

  19. IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes (United States)

    Holden, N.E.; Coplen, T.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Wieser, M.E.; Singleton, G.; Walczyk, T.; Yoneda, S.; Mahaffy, P.G.; Tarbox, L.V.


    For almost 150 years, the Periodic Table of the Elements has served as a guide to the world of elements by highlighting similarities and differences in atomic structure and chemical properties. To introduce students, teachers, and society to the existence and importance of isotopes of the chemical elements, an IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes (IPTI) has been prepared and can be found as a supplement to this issue.

  20. Isotope separation in a "seeded beam%". (United States)

    Anderson, J B; Davidovits, P


    A new method of separating isotopes in a gaseous mixture is described. The method takes advantage of the differences in velocities of isotopic species in a molecular beam formed by expansion of the mixture with a light gas from a nozzle source. For the separation of the hexafluorides of uranium-235 and uranium-238 the technique has an estimated separative work factor about 500 times higher than the gaseous diffusion process and 100 times higher than the curved-jet method.

  1. Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron Rich Bismuth Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia


    %IS344 :\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to measure the optical isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of bismuth isotopes across the N=126 shell closure in order to extract the change in mean square charge radii ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle$) and static moments. These include the first isotones of lead to be measured directly above the shell closure and will provide new information on the systematics of the kink ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle)$ seen in the lead isotopic chain. After two very successful runs the programme has been extended to include the neutron deficient isotopes below $^{201}$Bi to study the systematics across the $i_{13/2}$ neutron sub-shell closure at N=118.\\\\ \\\\ During the initial 2 runs (9 shifts) the isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of three new isotopes, $ ^{210,212,213}$Bi and the 9$^{-}$ isomer of $^{210}$Bi have been measured. The accuracy of the previous measurements of $^{205,206,208}$Bi have been greatly improved. The samples of $ ^{208,210,210^{m}}$Bi were prepared by c...

  2. The discovery of isotopes a complete compilation

    CERN Document Server

    Thoennessen, Michael


    This book describes the exciting discovery of every isotope observed on earth to date, which currently numbers some 3000. For each isotope a short essay highlights the authors of the first publication for the isotope, the laboratory and year where and when the isotope was discovered, as well as details about the production and detection methods used. In controversial cases previously claims are also discussed. At the end a comprehensive table lists all isotopes sorted by elements and a complete list of references. Preliminary versions of these paragraphs have been published over the last few years as separate articles in the journal "Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables". The work re-evaluates all assignments judging them with a uniform set of criteria. In addition, the author includes over 100 new isotopes which have been discovered since the articles published. This book is a source of information for researchers as well as enthusiastic laymen alike. From the prepublication review: “The explanations focus ...

  3. Stable water isotopes in the MITgcm (United States)

    Völpel, Rike; Paul, André; Krandick, Annegret; Mulitza, Stefan; Schulz, Michael


    We present the first results of the implementation of stable water isotopes in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). The model is forced with the isotopic content of precipitation and water vapor from an atmospheric general circulation model (NCAR IsoCAM), while the fractionation during evaporation is treated explicitly in the MITgcm. Results of the equilibrium simulation under pre-industrial conditions are compared to observational data and measurements of plankton tow records (the oxygen isotopic composition of planktic foraminiferal calcite). The broad patterns and magnitude of the stable water isotopes in annual mean seawater are well captured in the model, both at the sea surface as well as in the deep ocean. However, the surface water in the Arctic Ocean is not depleted enough, due to the absence of highly depleted precipitation and snowfall. A model-data mismatch is also recognizable in the isotopic composition of the seawater-salinity relationship in midlatitudes that is mainly caused by the coarse grid resolution. Deep-ocean characteristics of the vertical water mass distribution in the Atlantic Ocean closely resemble observational data. The reconstructed δ18Oc at the sea surface shows a good agreement with measurements. However, the model-data fit is weaker when individual species are considered and deviations are most likely attributable to the habitat depth of the foraminifera. Overall, the newly developed stable water isotope package opens wide prospects for long-term simulations in a paleoclimatic context.

  4. Stable water isotopes in the MITgcm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Völpel


    Full Text Available We present the first results of the implementation of stable water isotopes in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm. The model is forced with the isotopic content of precipitation and water vapor from an atmospheric general circulation model (NCAR IsoCAM, while the fractionation during evaporation is treated explicitly in the MITgcm. Results of the equilibrium simulation under pre-industrial conditions are compared to observational data and measurements of plankton tow records (the oxygen isotopic composition of planktic foraminiferal calcite. The broad patterns and magnitude of the stable water isotopes in annual mean seawater are well captured in the model, both at the sea surface as well as in the deep ocean. However, the surface water in the Arctic Ocean is not depleted enough, due to the absence of highly depleted precipitation and snowfall. A model–data mismatch is also recognizable in the isotopic composition of the seawater–salinity relationship in midlatitudes that is mainly caused by the coarse grid resolution. Deep-ocean characteristics of the vertical water mass distribution in the Atlantic Ocean closely resemble observational data. The reconstructed δ18Oc at the sea surface shows a good agreement with measurements. However, the model–data fit is weaker when individual species are considered and deviations are most likely attributable to the habitat depth of the foraminifera. Overall, the newly developed stable water isotope package opens wide prospects for long-term simulations in a paleoclimatic context.

  5. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.


    The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

  6. Identification of isotopically primitive interplanetary dust particles: A NanoSIMS isotopic imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, C; Stadermann, F J; Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R; Bajt, S; Graham, G; Lea, A S


    We have carried out a comprehensive survey of the isotopic compositions (H, B, C, N, O, S) of a suite of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), including both cluster and individual particles. Isotopic imaging with the NanoSIMS shows the presence of numerous discrete hotspots that are strongly enriched in {sup 15}N, including the largest {sup 15}N enrichments ({approx}1300 {per_thousand}) observed in IDPs to date. A number of the IDPs also contain larger regions with more modest enrichments in {sup 15}N, leading to average bulk N isotopic compositions that are {sup 15}N-enriched in these IDPs. Although C isotopic compositions are normal in most of the IDPs, two {sup 15}N-rich N-hotspots have correlated {sup 13}C anomalies. CN{sup -}/C{sup -} ratios suggest that most of the {sup 15}N-rich hotspots are associated with relatively N-poor carbonaceous matter, although specific carriers have not been determined. H isotopic distributions are similar to those of N: D anomalies are present both as distinct very D-rich hotspots and as larger regions with more modest enrichments. Nevertheless, H and N isotopic anomalies are not directly correlated, consistent with results from previous studies. Oxygen isotopic imaging shows the presence of abundant presolar silicate grains in the IDPs. The O isotopic compositions of the grains are similar to those found in presolar oxide and silicate grains from primitive meteorites. Most of the silicate grains in the IDPs have isotopic ratios consistent with meteoritic Group 1 oxide grains, indicating origins in oxygen-rich red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars, but several presolar silicates exhibit the {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O enrichments of Group 4 oxide grains, whose origin is less well understood. Based on their N isotopic compositions, the IDPs studied here can be divided into two groups. One group is characterized as being ''isotopically primitive'' and consists of those IDPs that have anomalous bulk N isotopic

  7. In-situ Nd isotope measurements on accessory minerals: Insights into isotope equilibration during metamorphism (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Spandler, Carl; Kemp, Tony; Pirard, Cassian


    Understanding isotope equilibration processes during metamorphism has huge implications for a range of geoscience applications, ranging from provenance studies of sedimentary units to the origin of magmas and ore bodies. Furthermore, recent claims of isotope disequilibrium situations during the melting of continental crust have questioned the reliability of using certain isotope systems to track magma sources. Our recent work investigated a prograde sequence of high-temperature, low-pressure (350-650 ˚C, ~3-5 kbar) metasedimentary rocks from the Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia that underwent widespread pervasive fluid flow at peak metamorphism. In situ Nd-isotope analyses by LA-MC-ICP-MS found that the detrital signature of apatite survives temperatures of 500 °C. However, the observed isotope equilibration of REE-bearing accessory minerals at ~600 °C, before the onset of partial melting, suggests that isotope disequilibrium is unlikely during high-grade metamorphism of upper crustal rocks where fluid induced melting takes place. Here, we extend our research to metasedimentary rocks from (ultra)-high pressure metamorphic terrains from northern New Caledonia, and Dabieshan, China that represent pressure and temperature conditions found in subduction zones. Our study helps to understand isotope equilibration processes from heterogeneous protoliths as well as the impact of retrogression and the resetting of isotope systems over a pressure-temperature range from ~350 °C to 700 °C and ~15 kbar to 40 kbar. Nd isotope analyses of apatite, allanite, titanite, xenotime, monazite, lawsonite and epidote in pelitic and psammitic samples allow the investigation of isotope equilibration on a mineral and sub-mineral scale, as well as comparison with traditional bulk rock isotope analyses. Our preliminary results show that under high-pressure conditions (~20 to 30 kbar) and temperatures to ~650 °C, REE-bearing phases show variable ɛNd values in some cases. These

  8. KIPS kilowatt isotope power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Control System topical report covers basic control requirements, selection of control system and a recent review of an electromechanical approach to the flow control valve. Section I covers the basic control requirements for Organic Rankine cycle systems, particular requirements for an isotope fueled space power system, and special requirements imposed by launch, Shuttle deployment and spacecraft requirements. Various control devices which can be used to meet system requirements are discussed. In Section II, various combinations of control functions and devices are presented with comments as to the suitability of each for the intended application. This is essentially a review of the selection process used to pick the present KIPS control system. The formal trade-off matrix, component description, and system selection, as prepared for Design Reviews 2 and 3, is included as Appendix A to the report. Section 3 covers the recently completed design of an electronic-electromechanical flow control valve and compares this approach to the thermal bulb-hydro-mechanical flow control valve baseline. The results of this comparative study indicate that the present configuration is preferable to an electrical valve.

  9. Chemical stability of levoglucosan: an isotopic perspective (United States)

    Sang, Xuefang; Gensch, Iulia; Schlag, Patrick; Wildt, Juergen; Laumer, Werner; Kammer, Beatrix; Tillmann, Ralf; Chitwan, Ojha; Heinichen, Gesa; Kiendler-scharr, Astrid


    Levoglucosan, used in receptor models as a specific tracer of biomass burning aerosols, has long been considered chemically stable in the atmosphere. Recent laboratory investigations found significant chemical degradation of levoglucosan when exposed to OH radicals (Hennigan et al., 2010). Stable carbon isotopic analyses, complementarily to concentration measurements, can provide additional evidence for physical and chemical processing in the atmosphere, since chemical processing causes changes in the relative abundance between heavy and light isotopes due to kinetic isotope effect (KIE). In this study, the chemical stability of levoglucosan was studied by exploring the isotopic fractionation of the reactant during the oxidation by OH. Mixed particles with levoglucosan and ammonium sulfate were generated in a continuous-stirred flow reactor and exposed to different levels of OH. Levoglucosan chemical degradation as function of OH exposure was derived from the decrease of levoglucosan/(NH4)2SO4 concentration ratios using aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS). Filter samples were collected for off-line isotopic analyses. Liquid extraction - Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (LE-GC-IRMS) was applied to measure stable carbon isotope ratios of levoglucosan. The observed d13C became more positive with increasing OH exposure, showing isotopic fractionations up to 3 ‰ at a reactant conversion of 45%. From the dependence of levoglucosan d13C on the OH exposure, a KIE of 1.00451 was derived, being within the range of predicted values for alkanes and alkenes with the same number of carbon atoms. With known source isotopic composition of levoglucosan in biomass burning aerosol (Sang et al., 2012), ambient measurements of levoglucosan d13C composition can therefore be used to determine the extent of chemical processing at the observation site. Reference: Hennigan, C. J., et al. 2010. Levoglucosan stability in biomass burning particles exposed to hydroxyl radicals

  10. Chromium isotope heterogeneity in the mantle (United States)

    Xia, Jiuxing; Qin, Liping; Shen, Ji; Carlson, Richard W.; Ionov, Dmitri A.; Mock, Timothy D.


    To better constrain the Cr isotopic composition of the silicate Earth and to investigate potential Cr isotopic fractionation during high temperature geological processes, we analyzed the Cr isotopic composition of different types of mantle xenoliths from diverse geologic settings: fertile to refractory off-craton spinel and garnet peridotites, pyroxenite veins, metasomatised spinel lherzolites and associated basalts from central Mongolia, spinel lherzolites and harzburgites from North China, as well as cratonic spinel and garnet peridotites from Siberia and southern Africa. The δ53CrNIST 979 values of the peridotites range from - 0.51 ± 0.04 ‰ (2SD) to + 0.75 ± 0.05 ‰ (2SD). The results show a slight negative correlation between δ53Cr and Al2O3 and CaO contents for most mantle peridotites, which may imply Cr isotopic fractionation during partial melting of mantle peridotites. However, highly variable Cr isotopic compositions measured in Mongolian peridotites cannot be caused by partial melting alone. Instead, the wide range in Cr isotopic composition of these samples most likely reflects kinetic fractionation during melt percolation. Chemical diffusion during melt percolation resulted in light Cr isotopes preferably entering into the melt. Two spinel websterite veins from Mongolia have extremely light δ53Cr values of - 1.36 ± 0.04 ‰ and - 0.77 ± 0.06 ‰, respectively, which are the most negative Cr isotopic compositions yet reported for mantle-derived rocks. These two websterite veins may represent crystallization products from the isotopically light melt that may also metasomatize some peridotites in the area. The δ53Cr values of highly altered garnet peridotites from southern Africa vary from - 0.35 ± 0.04 ‰ (2SD) to + 0.12 ± 0.04 ‰ (2SD) and increase with increasing LOI (Loss on Ignition), reflecting a shift of δ53Cr to more positive values by secondary alteration. The Cr isotopic composition of the pristine, fertile upper mantle is

  11. Magnesium isotope systematics in Martian meteorites (United States)

    Magna, Tomáš; Hu, Yan; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Mezger, Klaus


    Magnesium isotope compositions are reported for a suite of Martian meteorites that span the range of petrological and geochemical types recognized to date for Mars, including crustal breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034. The δ26Mg values (per mil units relative to DSM-3 reference material) range from -0.32 to -0.11‰; basaltic shergottites and nakhlites lie to the heavier end of the Mg isotope range whereas olivine-phyric, olivine-orthopyroxene-phyric and lherzolitic shergottites, and chassignites have slightly lighter Mg isotope compositions, attesting to modest correlation of Mg isotopes and petrology of the samples. Slightly heavier Mg isotope compositions found for surface-related materials (NWA 7034, black glass fraction of the Tissint shergottite fall; δ26Mg > -0.17‰) indicate measurable Mg isotope difference between the Martian mantle and crust but the true extent of Mg isotope fractionation for Martian surface materials remains unconstrained. The range of δ26Mg values from -0.19 to -0.11‰ in nakhlites is most likely due to accumulation of clinopyroxene during petrogenesis rather than garnet fractionation in the source or assimilation of surface material modified at low temperatures. The rather restricted range in Mg isotope compositions between spatially and temporally distinct mantle-derived samples supports the idea of inefficient/absent major tectonic cycles on Mars, which would include plate tectonics and large-scale recycling of isotopically fractionated surface materials back into the Martian mantle. The cumulative δ26Mg value of Martian samples, which are not influenced by late-stage alteration processes and/or crust-mantle interactions, is - 0.271 ± 0.040 ‰ (2SD) and is considered to reflect δ26Mg value of the Bulk Silicate Mars. This value is robust taking into account the range of lithologies involved in this estimate. It also attests to the lack of the Mg isotope variability reported for the inner Solar System bodies at current

  12. Significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with myocardial infarction involving the left circumflex artery. Evaluation by exercise thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koitabashi, Norimichi; Toyama, Takuji; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi [Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan)] [and others


    The significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with left circumflex artery involvement was investigated by comparing exercise electrocardiography with exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (Tl-SPECT) and the wall motion estimated by left ventriculography. Tl-SPECT and exercise electrocardiography were simultaneously performed in 51 patients with left circumflex artery involvement (angina pectoris 30, myocardial infarction 21). In patients with myocardial infarction, exercise-induced ST depression was frequently found in the V{sub 2}, V{sub 3} and V{sub 4} leads. In patients with angina pectoris, ST depression was frequently found in the II, III, aV{sub F}, V{sub 5} and V{sub 6} leads. There was no obvious difference in the leads of ST depression in patients with myocardial infarction with ischemia and without ischemia on Tl-SPECT images. In patients with myocardial infarction, the lateral wall motion of the infarcted area evaluated by left ventriculography was more significantly impaired in the patients with ST depression than without ST depression (p<0.01). Exercise-induced ST depression in the precordial leads possibly reflects wall motion abnormality rather than ischemia in the lateral infarcted myocardium. (author)

  13. Isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries - Carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen (United States)

    Schidlowski, M.; Hayes, J. M.; Kaplan, I. R.


    In processes of biological incorporation and subsequent biochemical processing sizable isotope effects occur as a result of both thermodynamic and kinetic fractionations which take place during metabolic and biosynthetic reactions. In this chapter a review is provided of earlier work and recent studies on isotope fractionations in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Attention is given to the biochemistry of carbon isotope fractionation, carbon isotope fractionation in extant plants and microorganisms, isotope fractionation in the terrestrial carbon cycle, the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism on the isotopic composition of sedimentary carbon, the isotopic composition of sedimentary carbon through time, implications of the sedimentary carbon isotope record, the biochemistry of sulfur isotope fractionation, pathways of the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, and the D/H ratio in naturally occurring materials.

  14. Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Organics (United States)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.


    Natural organic molecules exhibit a wide range of internal site-specific isotope variation (i.e., molecules with same isotopic substitution type but different site). Such variations are generally unconstrained by bulk isotopic measurements. If known, site-specific variations might constrain temperatures of equilibrium, mechanisms of formation or consumption reactions, and possibly other details. For example, lipids can exhibit carbon isotope differences of up to 30‰ between adjacent carbon sites as a result of fractionations arising during decarboxylation of pyruvate and other steps in lipid biosynthesis(1). We present a method for site-specific carbon isotope analysis of propane, based on high-resolution, multi-collector gas source mass spectrometry, using a novel prototype instrument - the Thermo MAT 253 Ultra. This machine has an inlet system and electron bombardment ion source resembling those in conventional stable isotope gas source mass spectrometers, and the energy filter, magnet, and detector array resembling those in multi-collector ICPMS and TIMS. The detector array has 7 detector positions, 6 of which are movable, and each of which can collect ions with either a faraday cup (read through amplifiers ranging from 107-1012 ohms) or an SEM. High mass resolving power (up to 27,000, MRP = M/dM definition) is achieved through a narrow entrance slit, adjustable from 250 to 5 μm. Such resolution can cleanly separate isobaric interferences between isotopologues of organic molecules having the same cardinal mass (e.g., 13CH3 and 12CH2D). We use this technology to analyze the isotopologues and fragments of propane, and use such data to solve for the site-specific carbon isotope fractionation. By measuring isotopologues of both the one-carbon (13CH3) and the two-carbon (13C12CH4) fragment ion, we can solve for both bulk δ13C and the difference in δ13C between the terminal and central carbon position. We tested this method by analyzing mixtures between natural

  15. Spatial isotopic heterogeneity during the Guttenberg isotopic carbon excursion: Mechanisms and implications for craton-wide isotope gradients (United States)

    Metzger, J. G.; Fike, D. A.


    The carbon isotopic compositions of carbonate carbon (δ13Ccarb) and organic carbon (δ13Corg) in marine limestones are frequently used as paleoenvironmental proxies and as chemostratigraphic tools for aligning strata. These functions are predicated upon the assumption that isotopic variability in these strata reflects the secular variation in the marine reservoir of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). As such, the utility of these isotopic systems largely depends on the assumed spatial homogeneity of marine δ13CDIC. While other isotope systems such as sulfate and strontium have been shown to be extremely well mixed in the modern ocean, a 1-2‰ range in δ13CDIC exists over the entire depth and latitude range of the ocean. This variability in δ13CDIC is largely the result of differences in the local balance of organic carbon fixation and export (increasing δ13CDIC) and/or organic carbon oxidation (decreasing δ13CDIC). The preservation of such isotopic variability in the geologic record has been advocated on several occasions. In particular, previous workers have argued for an ocean-to-interior seaway isotopic gradient in δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, and ɛNd across Laurentia during the Late Ordovician across the interval that spans the Guttenberg Isotopic Carbon Excursion (GICE). Here we examine two Late Ordovician-aged sections from Missouri, USA that contain the GICE. At first glace, our data showed high degree of stratigraphic and lateral variability. Detailed petrographic and geochemical (e.g., trace element abundance) screening reveals that the majority of the isotopic heterogeneity in our sections is the result of local syndepositional/diagenetic alteration - and not the result of primary gradients in δ13CDIC between the localities examined. Our 'least-altered' δ13Ccarb profile matches closely with previously published records from Iowa; however, sections adjacent both to our locations in Missouri and to the similar δ13Ccarb profile in Iowa are characterized by

  16. Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals (United States)

    Schauble, Edwin A.


    Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor–crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from 119Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium

  17. Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals. (United States)

    Schauble, Edwin A


    Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor-crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from (119)Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium.

  18. Defining fish community structure in Lake Winnipeg using stable isotopes (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 34}S): Implications for monitoring ecological responses and trophodynamics of mercury and other trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofukany, Amy F.A. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3 (Canada); Wassenaar, Leonard I. [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5 (Canada); Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5 (Canada); Hobson, Keith A. [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5 (Canada)


    The ecological integrity of freshwater lakes is influenced by atmospheric and riverine deposition of contaminants, shoreline development, eutrophication, and the introduction of non-native species. Changes to the trophic structure of Lake Winnipeg, Canada, and consequently, the concentrations of contaminants and trace elements measured in tissues of native fishes, are likely attributed to agricultural runoff from the 977,800 km{sup 2} watershed and the arrival of non-native zooplankters and fishes. We measured δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 34}S along with concentrations of 15 trace elements in 17 native fishes from the north and south basins of Lake Winnipeg in 2009 and 2010. After adjusting for differences in isotopic baseline values between the two basins, fishes in the south basin had consistently higher δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 34}S, and lower δ{sup 15}N. We found little evidence of biomagnification of trace elements at the community level, but walleye (Sander vitreus) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) had higher mercury and selenium concentrations with increased trophic position, coincident with increased piscivory. There was evidence of growth dilution of cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, thallium, and vanadium, and bioaccumulation of mercury, which could be explained by increases in algal (and consequently, lake and fish) productivity. We conclude that the north and south basins of Lake Winnipeg represent very different communities with different trophic structures and trace element concentrations. - Highlights: • Anthropogenic eutrophication and non-native species affect Lake Winnipeg’s ecosystem. • We measured stable isotopes and trace elements in 15 native fish species. • There was more evidence for growth dilution than biomagnification for most elements. • The trophic structures of the north and south basins were different. • These results will help determine the effects of recent arrival of zebra mussels.

  19. Matching isotopic distributions from metabolically labeled samples. (United States)

    McIlwain, Sean; Page, David; Huttlin, Edward L; Sussman, Michael R


    In recent years stable isotopic labeling has become a standard approach for quantitative proteomic analyses. Among the many available isotopic labeling strategies, metabolic labeling is attractive for the excellent internal control it provides. However, analysis of data from metabolic labeling experiments can be complicated because the spacing between labeled and unlabeled forms of each peptide depends on its sequence, and is thus variable from analyte to analyte. As a result, one generally needs to know the sequence of a peptide to identify its matching isotopic distributions in an automated fashion. In some experimental situations it would be necessary or desirable to match pairs of labeled and unlabeled peaks from peptides of unknown sequence. This article addresses this largely overlooked problem in the analysis of quantitative mass spectrometry data by presenting an algorithm that not only identifies isotopic distributions within a mass spectrum, but also annotates matches between natural abundance light isotopic distributions and their metabolically labeled counterparts. This algorithm is designed in two stages: first we annotate the isotopic peaks using a modified version of the IDM algorithm described last year; then we use a probabilistic classifier that is supplemented by dynamic programming to find the metabolically labeled matched isotopic pairs. Such a method is needed for high-throughput quantitative proteomic metabolomic experiments measured via mass spectrometry. The primary result of this article is that the dynamic programming approach performs well given perfect isotopic distribution annotations. Our algorithm achieves a true positive rate of 99% and a false positive rate of 1% using perfect isotopic distribution annotations. When the isotopic distributions are annotated given 'expert' selected peaks, the same algorithm gets a true positive rate of 77% and a false positive rate of 1%. Finally, when annotating using machine selected peaks, which

  20. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales (United States)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.


    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by water column processes, namely the degree of oxidation of the ferrous seawater iron reservoir, control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a decreasing supply of Fe

  1. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas


    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  2. Carbon Isotopes in an Earth System Model (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Reick, C. H.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Heimann, M.; Scholze, M.; Naegler, T.


    We present first calculations of the carbon isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the Earth System Model (ESM) COSMOS. Earth System models consist of coupled models of the ocean, the atmosphere, the land surface, the biosphere (marine and terrestrial, plants and soils), and the cryosphere (snow and ice). In COSMOS from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, these components are the model of the atmospheric circulation ECHAM, the physical ocean model MPI-OM, the land surface parameterisation JSBACH and the oceanic carbon cycle model HAMOCC. The ESM COSMOS therefore calculates its own climate and CO2 concentrations during the diel course with a few degrees resolution, driven only by solar activity and human perturbations. The new model version now computes the multiple fractionation processes occurring during uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere by the terrestrial and marine biosphere. The model then redistributes the isotopic compositions in the land and ocean biospheres, including respiration, phenology, fire, land-use change and carbon export. This means that it includes a full isotopic carbon cycle, in the atmosphere, the ocean and on land. The model calculates not only the stable carbon isotope signatures but also radiocarbon activities in the Earth System. It will include in future the radiocarbon perturbation due to nuclear bomb tests. We compare first results of the ESM with other global estimates of terrestrial discrimination. We also compare predicted zonal and seasonal variations of isotope ratios in atmospheric CO2 with measurements from the GLOBALVIEW flask network. The stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are excellent tests for the overall model performance but also for individual model components. For example radiocarbon will be used to test stratosphere-troposphere exchange, ocean circulation and air-sea gas exchange. The isotope-enabled model can be used in future for example to predict carbon isotope ratios of terrestrial

  3. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.


    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (δ186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display δ186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in

  4. Iron Isotope Constraints on Planetesimal Core Formation (United States)

    Jordan, M.; Young, E. D.


    The prevalence of iron in both planetary cores and silicate mantles renders the element a valuable tool for understanding core formation. Magmatic iron meteorites exhibit an enrichment in 57Fe/54Fe relative to chondrites and HED meteorites. This is suggestive of heavy Fe partitioning into the cores of differentiated bodies. If iron isotope fractionation accompanies core formation, we can elucidate details about the history of accretion for planetary bodies as well as their compositions and relative core sizes. The equilibrium 57Fe/54Fe between metal and silicate is necessary for understanding observed iron isotope compositions and placing constraints on core formation. We measure this fractionation in two Aubrite meteorites, Norton County and Mount Egerton, which have known temperatures of equilibration and equilibrated silicon isotopes. Iron was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Data were collected on a ThermoFinnigan NeptuneTM multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) run in wet plasma mode. The measured fractionation Δ57Femetal-silicate is 0.08‰ ± 0.039 (2 SE) for Norton County and 0.09‰ ± 0.019 (2 SE) for Mount Egerton, indicating that the heavy isotopes of Fe partition into the metallic phase. These rocks are in isotopic equilibrium at a temperature of 1130 K and 1200 K ± 80 K, respectively. The concentration of the heavy isotopes of iron in the metallic phase is consistent with recent experimental studies. Using our measured metal-silicate Fe isotope fractionation and the resulting temperature calibration, while taking into account impurities in the metallic phase and temperatures of equilibration, determine that core formation could explain the observed difference between magmatic iron meteorites and chondrites if parent bodies have small cores. In order to verify that Rayleigh distillation during fractional crystallization was not a cause of iron isotope fractionation in iron meteorites, we measured

  5. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes at ISOLTRAP and the development of an ultra-stable voltage source for the PENTATRAP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Christine


    Atomic masses and hence binding energies of nuclides are of great importance for studies of nuclear structure since they reflect all effective interactions in a nucleus. Within this thesis the masses of seven nuclides, namely {sup 194}Au, {sup 194}Hg, {sup 190,193,198}Tl and {sup 202,208}Pb, were determined at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The thallium region in the chart of isotopes is of special interest due to the occurrence of nuclear structure effects like low-lying isomers, level inversion, shape coexistence and deformations. These effects are investigated by applying finite-difference mass formulas, such as the two-neutron separation energies or the so-called empirical pairing gaps. The second topic addressed within the present thesis is an ultra-stable voltage source, called StaReP (Stable Reference for Penning Trap Experiments), which was developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik. It is one of the key components of the high-precision mass spectrometer PENTATRAP, containing a tower of five Penning traps. A 25-channel voltage source with a relative stability of few 10{sup -8} over a period of 10 minutes in the range of 0 to -100V is mandatory for PENTATRAP aiming for mass measurements with relative mass uncertainties of ≤ 10{sup -11}. Mass values with such a high precision allow for stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electric fields, testing Einstein's mass-energy relation E = mc{sup 2} as well as measurements of decay energies (Q-values) with applications in neutrino physics.

  6. CERN to start producing medical isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    A promising project that was hailed at the ICTR-PHE 2012 medical conference (see Bulletin issues 10-11/2012 and 12-13/2012) has seen the light of day at CERN. The project, known by the name of MEDICIS, will make it possible to produce a large variety of radioactive isotopes for medical research.   This image of a brain, superimposed on a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, was taken by a PET scanner after injecting a molecule containing a positron-emitting isotope. CERN-MEDICIS will produce new isotopes for imaging which will be able to show up cancerous tissues and destroy them by emitting local radiation as the isotopes decay. In the United States, a new radium-based drug which targets bone metastases is about to go on the market. Radium, which can be brought to bear at the cell level, is a potent weapon in the fight against certain types of cancer, and is opening the way to a new form of medicine. This is the direction that CERN has decided to follow through the CERN-MEDICIS* (Medical Isotopes...

  7. Tin isotope fractionation in terrestrial cassiterites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNaughton, N.J. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia)); Rosman, K.J.R. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Bentley (Australia))


    The isotopic composition of tin has been measured in a range of cassiterites and pure reagents to assess the extent to which this element is isotopically fractionated in natural processes. Only two samples showed evidence of isotopic fractionation, and it is concluded that natural Sn isotope fractionation is small and uncommon. This feature reflects the world dominance of Sn-oxide ores Sn-sulfide ores, and the highly efficient processes of Sn dissolution and precipitation which negate equilibrium and kinetic fractionation of Sn isotopes, respectively. The two samples which show slight fractionation are a highly purified and cassiterite from the Archaean Greenbushes pegmatite, Western Australia. The latter Sn is 0.15{per thousand} per mass unit heavier than the authors laboratory standard, whereas the former is 0.12{per thousand} per mass unit lighter. Although the cassiterite fractionation is considered to result from natural geological processes, the fractionation of purified Sn may be either natural or relate to the purification process, the fractionation of this magnitude has a negligible effect on the current best estimate of the atomic weight of Sn, but it does place a lower limit on its associated accuracy.

  8. Oxygen isotope fractionation in double carbonates. (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Böttcher, Michael E


    Oxygen isotope fractionations in double carbonates of different crystal structures were calculated by the increment method. Synthesis experiments were performed at 60 °C and 100 °C to determine oxygen and carbon isotope fractionations involving PbMg[CO3]2. The calculations suggest that the double carbonates of calcite structure are systematically enriched in (18)O relative to those of aragonite and mixture structures. Internally consistent oxygen isotope fractionation factors are obtained for these minerals with respect to quartz, calcite and water at a temperature range of 0-1200 °C. The calculated fractionation factors for double carbonate-water systems are generally consistent with the data available from laboratory experiments. The experimentally determined fractionation factors for PbMg[CO3]2, BaMg[CO3]2 and CaMg[CO3]2 against H2O not only fall between fractionation factors involving pure carbonate end-members but are also close to the calculated fractionation factors. In contrast, experimentally determined carbon isotope fractionation factors between PbMg[CO3]2 and CO2 are much closer to theoretical predictions for the cerussite-CO2 system than for the magnesite-CO2 system, similar to the fractionation behavior for BaMg[CO3]2. Therefore, the combined theoretical and experimental results provide insights into the effects of crystal structure and exchange kinetics on oxygen isotope partitioning in double carbonates.

  9. Stable isotope analysis of dynamic lipidomics. (United States)

    Brandsma, Joost; Bailey, Andrew P; Koster, Grielof; Gould, Alex P; Postle, Anthony D


    Metabolic pathway flux is a fundamental element of biological activity, which can be quantified using a variety of mass spectrometric techniques to monitor incorporation of stable isotope-labelled substrates into metabolic products. This article contrasts developments in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the measurement of lipid metabolism with more established gas chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies. ESI-MS combined with diagnostic tandem MS/MS scans permits the sensitive and specific analysis of stable isotope-labelled substrates into intact lipid molecular species without the requirement for lipid hydrolysis and derivatisation. Such dynamic lipidomic methodologies using non-toxic stable isotopes can be readily applied to quantify lipid metabolic fluxes in clinical and metabolic studies in vivo. However, a significant current limitation is the absence of appropriate software to generate kinetic models of substrate incorporation into multiple products in the time domain. Finally, we discuss the future potential of stable isotope-mass spectrometry imaging to quantify the location as well as the extent of lipid synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.


    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the foreword, technical program, the author index and of the papers (1-60) presented at the conference.

  11. Stable Isotope Spectroscopy for Diagnostic Medicine (United States)

    Murnick, D. E.


    Isotopic tracers have been used in medical research for more than fifty years. Radioactive isotopes have been most used because of the high detection efficiencies possible. With increased awareness of the effects of low level radiation and radioactive waste management problems, the need for safe non radioactive tracers has become apparent. Rare stable isotopes of biologically active elements can be used for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies provided that both sufficient detection sensitivity can be achieved and reliable cost effective instruments can be developed. High resolution optical spectroscopic methods which can determine isotopic ratios with high precision and accuracy are viable for research and clinical use. The study of 13C/12C ratios in CO2 for breath test diagnostics will be described in detail. Using the laser optogalvonic effect with isotopic lasers a specific medical diagnostic for h-pylori infection, has recently received FDA approval. Opportunities exist to study D/H ratios in water and 18O/16O ratios in CO2 and water for basic metabolism diagnostics and 15N/14N ratios in urine for liver function and related studies.

  12. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul


    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  13. Fusion and the Discovery of Isotopes (United States)

    Thoennessen, M.


    Heavy-ion fusion-evaporation has been the most productive method to form and identify new isotopes. Of the presently known over 3200 isotopes, almost 25% were discovered with heavy-ion induced reactions. Since the development of the first heavy-ion beam at Berkeley in 1950 most of the nuclides on the neutron-deficient side of the line of stability and all isotopes of the superheavy elements were discovered utilizing fusion reactions. In addition, some isotopes were first produced in heavy-ion transfer, charge-exchange, incomplete fusion or deep inelastic reactions. The discovery of isotopes relies on new advances in accelerator and detector technology. The continuous development of pioneering and innovative separation and detection techniques have pushed the limit towards ‒ and in many cases beyond ‒ the proton-dripline. A review of the discovery of neutron-deficient and super-heavy nuclides in heavy-ion induced reactions as well as an outlook for the discovery potential in the future is presented.

  14. A Hydrogen and He Isotope Nanoprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Deusen, Stuart B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Materials that incorporate hydrogen and helium isotopes are of great interest at Sandia and throughout the NNSA and DOE. The Ion Beam Lab at SNL-NM has invented techniques using micron to mm-size MeV ion beams to recoil these light isotopes (Elastic Recoil Detection or ERD) that can very accurately make such measurements. However, there are many measurements that would benefit NW and DOE that require much better resolution, such as the distribution of H isotopes (and 3He) in individual grains of materials relevant to TPBARs, H and He-embrittlement of weapon components important to Tritium Sustainment Programs, issues with GTSs, batteries… Higher resolution would also benefit the field of materials science in general. To address these and many other issues, nm-scale lateral resolution is required. This LDRD demonstrated that neutral H atoms could be recoiled through a thin film by 70 keV electrons and detected with a Channeltron electron multiplier (CEM). The electrons were steered away from the CEM by strong permanent magnets. This proved the feasibility that the high energy electrons from a transmissionelectron- microscope-TEM can potentially be used to recoil and subsequently detect (e-ERD), quantify and map the concentration of H and He isotopes with nm resolution. This discovery could lead to a TEM-based H/He-isotope nanoprobe with 1000x higher resolution than currently available.

  15. Zn Isotope Fractionation during Sorption onto Kaolinite. (United States)

    Guinoiseau, Damien; Gélabert, Alexandre; Moureau, Julien; Louvat, Pascale; Benedetti, Marc F


    In this study, we quantify zinc isotope fractionation during its sorption onto kaolinite, by performing experiments under various pH, ionic strength, and total Zn concentrations. A systematic enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes on the surface of kaolinite was measured, with Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution ranging from 0.11‰ at low pH and low ionic strength to 0.49‰ at high pH and high ionic strength. Both the measured Zn concentration and its isotopic ratio are correctly described using a thermodynamic sorption model that considers two binding sites: external basal surfaces and edge sites. Based on this modeling approach, two distinct Zn isotopic fractionation factors were calculated: Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution = 0.18 ± 0.06‰ for ion exchange onto basal sites, and Δ(66)Znadsorbed-solution = 0.49 ± 0.06‰ for specific complexation onto edge sites. These two distinct factors indicate that Zn isotope fractionation is dominantly controlled by the chemical composition of the solution (pH, ionic strength).

  16. Combining Solvent Isotope Effects with Substrate Isotope Effects in Mechanistic Studies of Alcohol and Amine Oxidation by Enzymes* (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F.


    Oxidation of alcohols and amines is catalyzed by multiple families of flavin-and pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Measurement of solvent isotope effects provides a unique mechanistic probe of the timing of the cleavage of the OH and NH bonds, necessary information for a complete description of the catalytic mechanism. The inherent ambiguities in interpretation of solvent isotope effects can be significantly decreased if isotope effects arising from isotopically labeled substrates are measured in combination with solvent isotope effects. The application of combined solvent and substrate (mainly deuterium) isotope effects to multiple enzymes is described here to illustrate the range of mechanistic insights that such an approach can provide. PMID:25448013

  17. Water Metabolism of Walruses by Isotope Dilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acquarone, M.; Born, E. W.; Chwalibog, A.

    In August 2000, the hydrogen isotope dilution method was used on 7 adult male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) (weight: 1197±148 kg, mean±SD, range 1013-1508 kg) at a terrestrial haul-out in Northeastern Greenland to determine their body water pool sizes and body water turnover rates....... During immobilization by use of etorphine HCl (reversed with diprenorphine HCl), a first blood sample was taken to measure background isotope levels. The animals were then enriched with deuterium oxide by infusion into the epidural vein. During recovery, while the animals were still on the beach, blood...... was sampled via an epidural catheter, at regular intervals, for up to seven hours after the initial enrichment to assess isotope equilibration in the body water pools. Five individuals returned to the haul-out after feeding trips of varying duration (158±86 hr, 44-287 hr) where they were immobilized again...

  18. Laser spectroscopy of neutron deficient Sn isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the ground state properties of neutron-deficient Sn isotopes towards the doubly-magic nucleus $^{100}$Sn. Nuclear spins, changes in the rms charge radii and electromagnetic moments of $^{101-121}$Sn will be measured by laser spectroscopy using the CRIS experimental beam line. These ground-state properties will help to clarify the evolution of nuclear structure properties approaching the $\\textit{N = Z =}$ 50 shell closures. The Sn isotopic chain is currently the frontier for the application of state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations. Our knowledge of the nuclear structure of the Sn isotopes will set a benchmark for the advances of many-body methods, and will provide an important test for modern descriptions of the nuclear force.

  19. Stable isotope dilution assays in mycotoxin analysis. (United States)

    Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan


    The principle and applications of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) in mycotoxin analysis are critically reviewed. The general section includes historical aspects of SIDAs, the prerequisites and limitations of the use of stable isotopically labelled internal standards, and possible calibration procedures. In the application section actual SIDAs for the analysis of trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, patulin, and ochratoxin A are presented. The syntheses and availability of labelled mycotoxins for use as internal standards is reviewed and specific advances in food analysis and toxicology are demonstrated. The review indicates that LC-MS applications, in particular, require the use of stable isotopically labelled standards to compensate for losses during clean-up and for discrimination due to ion suppression. As the commercial availability of these compounds continues to increase, SIDAs can be expected to find expanding use in mycotoxin analysis.

  20. Strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Pelotas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerfass, Geise de Santana dos Anjos, E-mail: [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES/PDGEO/BPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello; Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias. Dept. de Geoquimica e Petrologia; Costa, Karen Badaraco, E-mail: [Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kawashita, Koji, E-mail: [Unversidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas


    Strontium isotope data were obtained from foraminifera shells of the Pelotas Basin Tertiary deposits to facilitate the refinement of the chronostratigraphic framework of this section. This represents the first approach to the acquisition of numerical ages for these strata. Strontium isotope stratigraphy allowed the identification of eight depositional hiatuses in the Eocene-Pliocene section, here classified as disconformities and a condensed section. The reconnaissance of depositional gaps based on confident age assignments represents an important advance considering the remarkably low chronostratigraphic resolution in the Cenozoic section of the Pelotas Basin. The recognition of hiatuses that match hiatuses is based on biostratigraphic data, as well as on global events. Furthermore, a substantial increase in the sedimentation rate of the upper Miocene section was identified. Paleotemperature and productivity trends were identified based on oxygen and carbon isotope data from the Oligocene-Miocene section, which are coherent with worldwide events, indicating the environmental conditions during sedimentation. (author)

  1. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    link the observed seasonal regression/transgression pattern to the inland recharge cycle, which is expressed in hydraulic head configuration and submarine groundwater discharge rates at the fieldsite. Nonetheless, those observed dynamics could not be simulated due to numerical limitations. By the use...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... young age. Those results are in contrast to earlier age estimations from groundwater samples just beneath the stream. We therefore suggest the conceptualization of the hydrological conditions at this headwater catchment to be revised....

  2. Sourcing explosives: a multi-isotope approach. (United States)

    Widory, David; Minet, Jean-Jacques; Barbe-Leborgne, Martine


    Although explosives are easily identified with current instrumental techniques, it is generally impossible to distinguish between sources of the same substance. To alleviate this difficulty, we present a multi-stable isotope (delta13C, delta15N, delta18O, deltaD) approach for appraising the possibility of discriminating explosives. The results from 30 distinct PETN, TNT and ANFO samples show that the different families of explosives are clearly differentiated by both their specific isotope signatures and their combination with corresponding element concentrations. Coupling two or more of the studied isotope systematics yields an even more precise differentiation on the basis of their raw-material origin and/or manufacturing process.

  3. Isotope analysis in the transmission electron microscope (United States)

    Susi, Toma; Hofer, Christoph; Argentero, Giacomo; Leuthner, Gregor T.; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Mangler, Clemens; Meyer, Jannik C.; Kotakoski, Jani


    The Ångström-sized probe of the scanning transmission electron microscope can visualize and collect spectra from single atoms. This can unambiguously resolve the chemical structure of materials, but not their isotopic composition. Here we differentiate between two isotopes of the same element by quantifying how likely the energetic imaging electrons are to eject atoms. First, we measure the displacement probability in graphene grown from either 12C or 13C and describe the process using a quantum mechanical model of lattice vibrations coupled with density functional theory simulations. We then test our spatial resolution in a mixed sample by ejecting individual atoms from nanoscale areas spanning an interface region that is far from atomically sharp, mapping the isotope concentration with a precision better than 20%. Although we use a scanning instrument, our method may be applicable to any atomic resolution transmission electron microscope and to other low-dimensional materials.

  4. Stable isotope dilution assays in mycotoxin analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan [Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Lebensmittelchemie der Technischen, Garching (Germany)


    The principle and applications of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) in mycotoxin analysis are critically reviewed. The general section includes historical aspects of SIDAs, the prerequisites and limitations of the use of stable isotopically labelled internal standards, and possible calibration procedures. In the application section actual SIDAs for the analysis of trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, patulin, and ochratoxin A are presented. The syntheses and availability of labelled mycotoxins for use as internal standards is reviewed and specific advances in food analysis and toxicology are demonstrated. The review indicates that LC-MS applications, in particular, require the use of stable isotopically labelled standards to compensate for losses during clean-up and for discrimination due to ion suppression. As the commercial availability of these compounds continues to increase, SIDAs can be expected to find expanding use in mycotoxin analysis. (orig.)

  5. Chromium isotope fractionation in ferruginous sediments (United States)

    Bauer, Kohen W.; Gueguen, Bleuenn; Cole, Devon B.; Francois, Roger; Kallmeyer, Jens; Planavsky, Noah; Crowe, Sean A.


    Ferrous Fe is a potent reductant of Cr(VI), and while a number of laboratory studies have characterized Cr isotope fractionation associated with Cr(VI) reduction by ferrous iron, the expression of this fractionation in real-world ferrous Fe-rich environments remains unconstrained. Here we determine the isotope fractionation associated with Cr(VI) reduction in modern ferrous Fe-rich sediments obtained from the previously well studied Lake Matano, Indonesia. Whole core incubations demonstrate that reduction of Cr(VI) within ferruginous sediments provides a sink for Cr(VI) leading to Cr(VI) concentration gradients and diffusive Cr(VI) fluxes across the sediment water interface. As reduction proceeded, Cr(VI) remaining in the overlying lake water became progressively enriched in the heavy isotope (53Cr), increasing δ53Cr by 2.0 ± 0.1‰ at the end of the incubation. Rayleigh distillation modelling of the evolution of Cr isotope ratios and Cr(VI) concentrations in the overlying water yields an effective isotope fractionation of εeff = 1.1 ± 0.2‰ (53Cr/52Cr), whereas more detailed diagenetic modelling implies an intrinsic isotope fractionation of εint = 1.80 ± 0.04‰. Parallel slurry experiments performed using anoxic ferruginous sediment yield an intrinsic isotope fractionation of εint = 2.2 ± 0.1‰. These modelled isotope fractionations are corroborated by direct measurement of the δ53Cr composition on the upper 0.5 cm of Lake Matano sediment, revealing an isotopic offset from the lake water of Δ53Cr = 0.21-1.81‰. The data and models reveal that effective isotope fractionations depend on the depth at which Cr(VI) reduction takes place below the sediment water interface-the deeper the oxic non-reactive zone, the smaller the effective fractionation relative to the intrinsic fractionation. Based on the geochemistry of the sediment we suggest the electron donors responsible for reduction are a combination of dissolved Fe(II) and 0.5 M HCl extractable (solid

  6. Ca isotope fractionation on the moon (United States)

    Russell, W. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Tombrello, T. A.; Epstein, S.


    Ca has been measured in a lunar soil in order to establish the presence of isotopically mass-fractionated components. Ca was extracted by a series of water leaches after the soils were 'activated' by brief exposures to fluorine gas. The O2 obtained by this fluorination is found to have delta (O-18) of +21 per mil and to be, therefore, significantly mass-fractionated. Ca obtained in the leaches was analyzed using the double-spike technique. Very small Ca isotope fractionation is found in the leaches of this soil of up to 1 per mil per mass unit difference. The small Ca effects are in marked contrast to the measured delta (O-18) for the same sample and to large effects observed in many soils for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and potassium. The data on Ca provide stringent constraints on models which attempt to explain the isotope mass-fractionation effects in lunar soils.

  7. Guideline on Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is used to determine the concentration of an element of interest in a bulk sample. It is a destructive analysis technique that is applicable to a wide range of analytes and bulk sample types. With this method, a known amount of a rare isotope, or ‘spike’, of the element of interest is added to a known amount of sample. The element of interest is chemically purified from the bulk sample, the isotope ratio of the spiked sample is measured by mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the element of interest is calculated from this result. This method is widely used, although a mass spectrometer required for this analysis may be fairly expensive.

  8. Isotope shift measurements on the D1 line in francium isotopes at TRIUMF (United States)

    Collister, R.; Tandecki, M.; Gwinner, G.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.


    Francium is the heaviest alkali and has no stable isotopes. The longest-lived among them, with half-lives from seconds to a few minutes, are now available in the new Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF, Canada, for future weak interaction studies. We present isotope shift measurements on the 7S1 / 2 --> 7P1 / 2 (D 1) transition on three isotopes, 206, 207 and 213 in a magneto-optical trap. The shifts are measured using a c.w. Ti:sapphire laser locked to a stabilized cavity at the mid-point between two hyperfine transitions of the reference isotope 209Fr. Scanning tunable microwave sidebands locate transitions in the other isotopes. In combination with the D 2 isotope shifts, analysis can provide a separation of the field shift, due to a changing nuclear charge radius, and specific mass shift, due to changing electron correlations, in these isotopes. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONYACT from Mexico.

  9. Zinc isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation and the isotopic composition of the bulk Earth (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Savage, Paul S.; Teng, Fang-Zehn; Helz, Rosalind T.; Moynier, Frédéric


    he zinc stable isotope system has been successfully applied to many and varied fields in geochemistry, but to date it is still not completely clear how this isotope system is affected by igneous processes. In order to evaluate the potential application of Zn isotopes as a proxy for planetary differentiation and volatile history, it is important to constrain the magnitude of Zn isotopic fractionation induced by magmatic differentiation. In this study we present high-precision Zn isotope analyses of two sets of chemically diverse, cogenetic samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii, and Hekla volcano, Iceland, which both show clear evidence of having undergone variable and significant degrees of magmatic differentiation. The Kilauea Iki samples display small but resolvable variations in Zn isotope composition (0.26‰66Zn66Zn defined as the per mille deviation of a sample's 66Zn/64Zn compositional ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard), with the most differentiated lithologies exhibiting more positive δ66Zn values. This fractionation is likely a result of the crystallization of olivine and/or Fe–Ti oxides, which can both host Zn in their crystal structures. Samples from Hekla have a similar range of isotopic variation (0.22‰66Zn66Zn=0.28±0.05‰ (2s.d.).

  10. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and 28Si enriched layers, enables the observation of 30Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the 28Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly

  11. Modeling chlorine isotope trends during sequential transformation of chlorinated ethenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunkeler, D.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Elsner, M.


    There is increasing interest in combined carbon-chlorine compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) to differentiate between contaminant sources and to assess transformation processes. However, the significant abundance of polychlorinated molecules with several heavy chlorine isotopes complicates the

  12. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich


    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  13. Isotopic compositions of boron in sediments and their implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Yingkai, X.

    The abundance and isotopic compositions of boron in sediments from the salt lakes of Qaidam Basin, China have been determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of cesium borate. The results show large variations in the isotopic compositions...

  14. Production of medical 99 m Tc isotope via photonuclear reaction (United States)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, K.; Takahashi, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Fan, G. T.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishimura, M.


    99 m Tc with a 6 hour half-life is one of the most important medical isotopes used for the Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) inspection in hospitals of US, Canada, Europe and Japan. 99 m Tc isotopes are extracted by the milking method from parent 99Mo isotopes with a 66 hour half-life. The supply of 99Mo isotopes now encounters a serious crisis. Hospitals may not suitably receive 99Mo medical isotopes in near future, due to difficulties in production by research nuclear reactors. Many countries are now looking for alternative ways to generate 99Mo isotopes other than those with research reactors. We discuss a sustained availability of 99 m Tc isotopes via the nat Mo(γ, n) photonuclear reaction, and discuss to solve technical problems for extracting pure 99 m Tc isotopes from other output materials of photonuclear reactions.

  15. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  16. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O2 (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y.; Ash, Jeanine L.; Young, Edward D.


    The abundances of molecules containing more than one rare isotope have been applied broadly to determine formation temperatures of natural materials. These applications of “clumped” isotopes rely on the assumption that isotope-exchange equilibrium is reached, or at least approached, during the formation of those materials. In a closed-system terrarium experiment, we demonstrate that biological oxygen (O2) cycling drives the clumped-isotope composition of O2 away from isotopic equilibrium. Our model of the system suggests that unique biological signatures are present in clumped isotopes of O2—and not formation temperatures. Photosynthetic O2 is depleted in 18O18O and 17O18O relative to a stochastic distribution of isotopes, unlike at equilibrium, where heavy-isotope pairs are enriched. Similar signatures may be widespread in nature, offering new tracers of biological and geochemical cycling.

  17. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review. (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt


    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Isotopic dependence of the caloric curve (United States)

    Trautmann, W.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bacri, C. O.; Barczyk, T.; Bassini, R.; Bianchin, S.; Boiano, C.; Botvina, A. S.; Boudard, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Chbihi, A.; Cibor, J.; Czech, B.; De Napoli, M.; Ducret, J.-É.; Emling, H.; Frankland, J. D.; Hellström, M.; Henzlova, D.; Immè, G.; Iori, I.; Johansson, H.; Kezzar, K.; Lafriakh, A.; Le Fèvre, A.; Le Gentil, E.; Leifels, Y.; Lühning, J.; Łukasik, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Lynen, U.; Majka, Z.; Mocko, M.; Müller, W. F. J.; Mykulyak, A.; Orth, H.; Otte, A. N.; Palit, R.; Pawłowski, P.; Pullia, A.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sann, H.; Schwarz, C.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sümmerer, K.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Volant, C.; Wallace, M.; Weick, H.; Wiechula, J.; Wieloch, A.; Zwiegliński, B.


    Isotopic effects in projectile fragmentation at relativistic energies have been studied with the ALADIN forward spectrometer at SIS. Stable and radioactive Sn and La beams with an incident energy of 600 MeV per nucleon have been used in order to explore a wide range of isotopic compositions. Chemical freeze-out temperatures are found to be nearly invariant with respect to the A/Z ratio of the produced spectator sources, consistent with predictions for expanded systems. Consequences for the proposed interpretation of chemical breakup temperatures as representing the limiting temperatures predicted by microscopic models are discussed.

  19. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter


    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  20. Precision Mass Measurement of Argon Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Lunney, D


    % IS388\\\\ \\\\ A precision mass measurement of the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{32,33,34}$Ar is proposed. Mass values of these isotopes are of importance for: a) a stringent test of the Isobaric-Multiplet- Mass-Equation, b) a verification of the correctness of calculated charge-dependent corrections as used in super-allowed $\\beta$- decay studies aiming at a test of the CVC hypothesis, and c) the determination of the kinematics in electron-neutrino correlation experiments searching for scalar currents in weak interaction. The measurements will be carried out with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer.

  1. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue (United States)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.


    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  2. Iron isotope fractionation in planetary crusts


    Wang, Kun; Moynier, Frédéric; Dauphas, Nicolas; Barrat, Jean-Alix,; Craddock, Paul; Sio, Corliss,


    International audience; We present new high precision iron isotope data (δ56Fe vs. IRMM-014 in per mil) for four groups of achondrites: one lunar meteorite, 11 martian meteorites, 32 howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites (HEDs), and eight angrites. Angrite meteorites are the only planetary materials, other than Earth/Moon system, significantly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Fe compared to chondrites (by an average of +0.12‰ in δ56Fe). While the reason for such fractionation is not complet...

  3. Isotope separation and advanced manufacturing technology (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Kan, T.

    This is the fourth issue of a semiannual report for the Isotope Separation and Advanced Materials Manufacturing (ISAM) Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary objectives include: (1) the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (UAVLIS) process, which is being developed and prepared for deployment as an advanced uranium enrichment capability; (2) Advanced manufacturing technologies, which include industrial laser and E-beam material processing and new manufacturing technologies for uranium, plutonium, and other strategically important materials in support of DOE and other national applications. This report features progress in the ISAM Program from October 1993 through March 1994.

  4. Novel PEFC Application for Deuterium Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Matsushima


    Full Text Available The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium (D was investigated. Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium (H in H2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased.

  5. Isotopic effect on thermal physical properties of isotopically modified boron single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Quanli [Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Noda, Tetsuji; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Numazawa, Takenori; Hirano, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nogi, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Satoru [University of Tokyo, Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, Tokyo (Japan)


    The measurement of specific heat and thermal conductivity at low temperature for isotopically modified boron single crystals was performed between 0.5 and 100K using relaxation method and steady heat flow method, respectively. The results indicate that the specific heat has obvious divergences at T<5K. At 40K, the thermal conductivity of {sup 10}B-enriched crystal is about 570 W/m{center_dot}K, which is 40% larger than that of natural boron crystal. The influence of lattice vibration modes and the isotopic effect on specific heat and thermal conductivity for isotopically modified boron are discussed. (author)

  6. Determination of fission gas yields from isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    This paper describes a method of calculating the actual fission yield of Kr and Xe in nuclear fuel including the effect of neutron capture reactions and decay. The bases for this calculation are the cumulative yields (ref. 1) of Kr and Xe isotopes (or pairs of isotopes) which are unaffected...... by neutron capture reactions, and measured Kr and Xe isotope ratios. Also the burnup contribution from the different fissile heavy isotopes must be known in order to get accurate fission gas yields....

  7. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.


    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  8. Stable isotope deltas: tiny, yet robust signatures in nature. (United States)

    Brand, Willi A; Coplen, Tyler B


    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including (14)C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. (13)C, (2)H, and (18)O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as-25 per mil can be written as-25 mUr (or-2.5 cUr or-0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg 'units' are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  9. Theoretical Evaluation of Intermolecular and Intramolecular Isotope Fractionations in Fragmentation


    Tang, Caiming; Peng, Xianzhi


    Revelation of the effects of isotope fractionation during fragmentation in electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) on compound-specific isotope analysis of chlorine and bromine (CSIA-Cl/Br) may be of crucial significance, yet a theoretical basis for elucidating the effects is absent. This study provides a solid theoretical deduction regarding the isotope fractionation taking place during fragmentation in EI-MS. Both intermolecular and intramolecular isotope fractionations present in deh...

  10. Use of dual isotope tracers in biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F

    Biomedical stable isotope studies involve administration of tracer and measurement of isotope enrichment in blood, urine, feces or breath. The aim of the studies is to gather quantitative information about a specific metabolic function. However, the measured isotope enrichment may be affected by

  11. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kathawa, J; Thoennessen, M


    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail:


    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C


    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes (United States)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.


    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, J L


    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Towards a "perfect" Penning trap mass spectrometer for unstable isotopes (United States)

    Bollen, G.; Hartmann, H.; Kluge, H.-J.; König, M.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Stolzenberg, H.; ISOLDE Collaboration


    A Penning trap mass spectrometer has been set up at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN for the mass determination of unstable heavy isotopes. The spectrometer should fulfil the following requirements: capture of external ions in high efficiency, high resolving power and accuracy, general applicability to all elements and isotopes available at the on-line facility.

  17. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to measure...

  18. Production and application of stable enriched isotopes in the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudziev, A.G. (Institute of Stable Isotopes, Tbilisi (USSR))


    At present stable enriched isotopes are contributing essentially to the progress in many fields of sciences and national economy. The application of isotopically modified compounds and materials allowed to obtain a number of remarkable scientific results and initiated developments of great applied significance. This presentation will survey status and development activities involving enriched stable isotopes in the USSR. (orig.).

  19. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D


    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  20. Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.


    The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

  1. Stable Isotope Characteristics of Akiri Vein Copper Mineralization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Akiri vein copper mineralization was investigated for its carbon and oxygen isotopic composition to determine the characteristics of the mineralizing fluid. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of Akiri siderite range between δ13C values (-1.05 to -1.71‰) and δ13O values (-14.94 to -15.18) respectively. δ 13C isotopic ...

  2. Atmospheric Argon Isotope Evolution Informed by MAVEN Results (United States)

    Slipski, M.; Jakosky, B. M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Elrod, M. K.


    Mars' atmosphere is enriched in heavy isotopes of its major species. We have modeled the evolution of Ar isotopes of 4 Gyr due to volcanic outgassing and loss to space, using MAVEN results to constrain how sputtering loss fractionates Ar isotopes.

  3. Platinum isotopes in iron meteorites: Galactic cosmic ray effects and nucleosynthetic homogeneity in the p-process isotope 190Pt and the other platinum isotopes (United States)

    Hunt, Alison C.; Ek, Mattias; Schönbächler, Maria


    Platinum isotopes are sensitive to the effects of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which can alter isotope ratios and mask nucleosynthetic isotope variations. Platinum also features one p-process isotope, 190Pt, which is very low abundance and therefore challenging to analyse. Platinum-190 is relevant for early solar-system chronology because of its decay to 186Os. Here, we present new Pt isotope data for five iron meteorite groups (IAB, IIAB, IID, IIIAB and IVA), including high-precision measurements of 190Pt for the IAB, IIAB and IIIAB irons, determined by multi-collector ICPMS. New data are in good agreement with previous studies and display correlations between different Pt isotopes. The slopes of these correlations are well-reproduced by the available GCR models. We report Pt isotope ratios for the IID meteorite Carbo that are consistently higher than the predicted effects from the GCR model. This suggests that the model predictions do not fully account for all the GCR effects on Pt isotopes, but also that the pre-atmospheric radii and exposure times calculated for Carbo may be incorrect. Despite this, the good agreement of relative effects in Pt isotopes with the predicted GCR trends confirms that Pt isotopes are a useful in-situ neutron dosimeter. Once GCR effects are accounted for, our new dataset reveals s- and r-process homogeneity between the iron meteorite groups studied here and the Earth. New 190Pt data for the IAB, IIAB and IIIAB iron meteorites indicate the absence of GCR effects and homogeneity in the p-process isotope between these groups and the Earth. This corresponds well with results from other heavy p-process isotopes and suggests their homogenous distribution in the inner solar system, although it does not exclude that potential p-process isotope variations are too diluted to be currently detectable.

  4. Diagnostic value of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction to predict clinically significant and insignificant fractional flow reserve: A single-center prospective study. (United States)

    Tanaka, Haruki; Takahashi, Teruyuki; Ohashi, Norihiko; Tanaka, Koichi; Okada, Takenori; Kihara, Yasuki


    The aim of this study was to clarify the predictive value of fractional flow reserve (FFR) determined by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using thallium (Tl)-201 IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CT-AC) for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).We assessed 212 angiographically identified diseased vessels using adenosine-stress Tl-201 MPI-IQ-SPECT/CT in 84 consecutive, prospectively identified patients with stable CAD. We compared the FFR in 136 of the 212 diseased vessels using visual semiquantitative interpretations of corresponding territories on MPI-IQ-SPECT images without and with CT-AC.FFR inversely correlated most accurately with regional summed difference scores (rSDS) in images without and with CT-AC (r = -0.584 and r = -0.568, respectively, both P < .001). Receiver-operating characteristics analyses using rSDS revealed an optimal FFR cut-off of <0.80 without and with CT-AC. Although the diagnostic accuracy of FFR <0.80 did not significantly differ, FFR ≥0.82 was significantly more accurate with, than without CT-AC. Regions with rSDS ≥2 without or with CT-AC predicted FFR <0.80, and those with rSDS ≤1 without and with CT-AC predicted FFR ≥0.81, with 73% and 83% sensitivity, 84% and 67% specificity, and 79% and 75% accuracy, respectively.Although limited by the sample size and the single-center design, these findings showed that the IQ-SPECT system can predict FFR at an optimal cut-off of <0.80, and we propose a novel application of CT-AC to MPI-IQ-SPECT for predicting clinically significant and insignificant FFR even in nonobese patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 and I-123-{beta}-methyl-i-pentadecanoic acid in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Katsuya [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine


    Dual single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) using {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) for myocardial fatty acid metabolism and {sup 201}thallium (Tl)-chloride for myocardial perfusion. The left ventricle was divided into 9 segments, and accumulation of the radiotracers was assessed visually for each segment to calculate defect score for each tracer. There was some degree of decrease in myocardial accumulation of both tracers in all DMD patients. Reduced accumulation was most common at the apex (BMIPP: 67%, Tl: 63%), followed by the posterior wall, lateral wall, and anterior wall. On the other hand, reduced accumulation was less common at the septum. BMIPP showed a higher accumulation than Tl in all segments but the septum. When BMIPP defect score was larger than Tl defect score, BMIPP defect score tended to increase during 4 years follow-up (p<0.042). However, when Tl defect score was larger than BMIPP defect score, an increase in Tl defect score was slight. A significant negative correlation was found between the sum of the BMIPP and Tl defect scores and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r=0.66, p<0.0001). According to the histo-pathological study of two autopsied hearts, severe myocardial fibrosis was seen in segments with fixed perfusion defect. In addition, the mismatched segments of BMIPP defect score > Tl defect score revealed a slight fibrosis or normal myocardium. It can be concluded that the dual SPECT myocardial scintigraphy using BMIPP and Tl provides accurate information about disease progression of the heart in patients with DMD by detecting abnormalities of the myocardial metabolism of each substance, thereby enabling the assessment of left ventricular function. (author)

  6. Isotope fingerprinting of precipitation associated with western ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghulam Jeelani


    Nov 22, 2017 ... by geographic factors such as altitude, latitude, moisture source, and transport process (e.g., Craig. 1961; Siegenthaler and Oeschger 1980; Gat 1996; ..... cel over the continent, its isotopic composition is expected to change from its initial value due to various processes like picking up of locally recycled.

  7. Isotope specific arbitrary material flow meter (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Post, John C.; Jones, Edwin


    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  8. Isotope effects on the crotonase reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahnson, B.J.; Anderson, V.E. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA))


    The primary, alpha-secondary, beta-secondary, and beta'-secondary deuterium and primary 18O kinetic isotope effects on V/K for the dehydration of ((3S)-3-hydroxybutyryl)pantetheine by bovine liver crotonase (enoyl-CoA hydratase, EC have been determined by the equilibrium perturbation method. The primary deuterium and 18O kinetic isotope effects are 1.61 and 1.051, respectively. The secondary deuterium effects at C-2, C-3, and C-4 are 1.12, 1.13, and 1.00 per H, respectively. The large 18O isotope effect suggests C-O bond cleavage is largely rate determining but is consistent with either an E1cb or E2 mechanism with a large amount of carbanion character. The beta-secondary effect is a factor of 1.05 greater than the equilibrium isotope effect, indicating that this C-H bond is less stiff in the affected transition state or that its motion is coupled to the reaction coordinate motion. Analytical solutions to the differential equations describing uni-uni equilibrium perturbations are presented.

  9. Seabird modulations of isotopic nitrogen on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available The transport of nutrients by migratory animals across ecosystem boundaries can significantly enrich recipient food webs, thereby shaping the ecosystems' structure and function. To illustrate the potential role of islands in enabling the transfer of matter across ecosystem boundaries to be gauged, we investigated the influence of seabirds on nitrogen input on islands. Basing our study on four widely differing islands in terms of their biogeography and ecological characteristics, sampled at different spatial and temporal intervals, we analyzed the nitrogen isotopic values of the main terrestrial ecosystem compartments (vascular plants, arthropods, lizards and rodents and their relationship to seabird values. For each island, the isotopic values of the ecosystem were driven by those of seabirds, which ultimately corresponded to changes in their marine prey. First, terrestrial compartments sampled within seabird colonies were the most enriched in δ(15N compared with those collected at various distances outside colonies. Second, isotopic values of the whole terrestrial ecosystems changed over time, reflecting the values of seabirds and their prey, showing a fast turnover throughout the ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that seabird-derived nutrients not only spread across the terrestrial ecosystems and trophic webs, but also modulate their isotopic values locally and temporally on these islands. The wealth of experimental possibilities in insular ecosystems justifies greater use of these model systems to further our understanding of the modalities of trans-boundary nutrient transfers.

  10. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    titative measurements of equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects. In this part, we describe an ingenious way of studying ... is whether the structure obtained is the preferred one or just the superposition of some other equilibrating structures. ... Ammonia is a pyramidal molecule, but it undergoes rapid umbrella inversion. On the ...

  11. Function and application of isotope controlled materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Numazawa, Takenori; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    As large amounts of silicone isotopes were separated in previous research, we tried to develop function of isotope controlled materials. Molecular vibration excitation control to control laser wavelength, physical properties of isotope control materials and nuclear transformation function were studied. A gas circulation system for isotope laser development was manufactured. When a part of {sup 16}O in CO{sub 2} were changed by {sup 18}O, the stretching mode of CO{sub 2} became unsymmetrical mode. P17 and P19 of laser oscillation were observed. They are odd lines that have never been observed. SiF{sub 4} and Si{sub 2}F{sub 6} were decomposed by plasma CVD method. About 28% Si crystal was obtained by controlling the reaction temperature at about 350 to 450degC. Homogeneous P single crystal(100) with 10 mm diameter was obtained. Thermal conductivity of B single crystal with {sup 10}B showed 1.5 times as much as that of natural components. Calculation of displacement damages, change of components, induced radioactivity and decay heat were improved by arrangement of simulation code. (S.Y.)

  12. Tomographic, hydrochemical and isotopic investigations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An electrical imaging tomography survey was carried out to identify the lateral and vertical salinity distribution in the oasis shallow aquifers of the Nefzaoua region located in southwestern Tunisia. In addition, hydrochemical and isotopic data were examined to determine the main factors and mechanisms controlling the ...

  13. Stable carbon isotope analysis of coprocessing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, F. P.; Winschel, R. A.; Lancet, M. S.


    The program is designed to address a substantial, demonstrated need of the coprocessing community (both exploratory and development) for a technique to quantitatively distinguish the contributions of the individual coprocessing feedstocks to the various products. The carbon isotope technique is currently in routine use for other applications. Results achieved this quarter include: Feed and product fractions from a Kentucky 9 coal/Kentucky tar sand bitumen coprocessing bench unit run at the Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) were analyzed for carbon isotope ratios. Corrections were made to the coal carbon recoveries and selectivities from the products of HRI Run 227-53. Feeds (Westerholt coal/Cold Lake VSB) and products from two periods of HRI coprocessing Run 238-1 were analyzed. Three petroleum samples and three coal samples were pyrolyzed at 800{degree}F for 30 min to determine the effect of pyrolysis on the isotopic homogeneity of each petroleum and coal sample. Products from each pyrolysis test were separated into five fractions; an additional set of coprocessing samples and a set of two-stage coal liquefaction samples were obtained from HRI for future work; work performed by the Pennsylvania State University show that microscopy is a promising method for distinguishing coal and petroleum products in residual coprocessing materials; and coal and petroleums that have large differences in carbon isotope ratios were identified for Auburn University. 7 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Geochemistry of the stable isotopes of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douthitt, C.B. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences)


    One hundred thirty two new measurements of the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of silicon in terrestrial materials are presented. The total variation of delta/sup 30/Si found is 6.2 parts per thousand, centered on the mean of terrestrial mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, delta/sup 30/Si = -0.4 parts per thousand. Igneous rocks show limited variation; coexisting minerals exhibit small, systematic silicon isotopic fractionations that are roughly 1/3 the magnitude of concomitant oxygen isotopic fractionations at 1150/sup 0/C. In both igneous minerals and rocks, delta/sup 30/Si shows a positive correlation with silicon content, as does delta/sup 18/O. Opal from both sponge spicules and sinters is light, with delta/sup 30/Si = -2.3 and -1.4 parts per thousand respectively. Large delta/sup 30/Si values of both positive and negative sign are reported for the first time from clay minerals, opaline phytoliths, and authigenic quartz. All highly fractionated samples were precipitated from solution at low temperatures; however, aqueous silicon is not measurably fractionated relative to quartz at equilibrium. A kinetic isotope fractionation of approximately 3.5 parts per thousand is postulated to occur during the low temperature precipitation of opal and, possibly, poorly ordered phyllosilicates, with the silicate phase being enriched in /sup 28/Si. This fractionation, coupled with a Rayleigh precipitation model, is capable of explaining most non-magmatic delta/sup 30/Si variations.

  15. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms Distinguishing between Single Minima and Rapidly Equilibrating Structures. Uday Maitra J Chandrasekhar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 29-37 ...

  16. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms - Distinguishing between Single Mimima and Rapidly Equilibrating Structures. Uday Maitra J Chandrasekhar. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1315-1323 ...

  17. Exploring the calcium isotope signature of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hippler, D.; Witbaard, R.; van Aken, H.M.; Buhl, D.; Immenhauser, A.


    The calcium-isotope composition (delta Ca-44/40) of the aragonitic bivalve Arctica islandica grown in laboratory and field cultures was investigated in terms of environmental and biological controls to explore its potential as a palaeoceanographic proxy. While we found no significant effect of

  18. Pb isotopes during mingling and melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles E.


    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...

  19. Methodology for the Validation of Isotopic Analyses by Mass Spectrometry in Stable-Isotope Labeling Experiments. (United States)

    Heuillet, Maud; Bellvert, Floriant; Cahoreau, Edern; Letisse, Fabien; Millard, Pierre; Portais, Jean-Charles


    Stable-isotope labeling experiments (ILEs) are widely used to investigate the topology and operation of metabolic networks. The quality of isotopic data collected in ILEs is of utmost importance to ensure reliable biological interpretations, but current evaluation approaches are limited due to a lack of suitable reference material and relevant evaluation criteria. In this work, we present a complete methodology to evaluate mass spectrometry (MS) methods used for quantitative isotopic studies of metabolic systems. This methodology, based on a biological sample containing metabolites with controlled labeling patterns, exploits different quality metrics specific to isotopic analyses (accuracy and precision of isotopologue masses, abundances, and mass shifts and isotopic working range). We applied this methodology to evaluate a novel LC-MS method for the analysis of amino acids, which was tested on high resolution (Orbitrap operating in full scan mode) and low resolution (triple quadrupole operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode) mass spectrometers. Results show excellent accuracy and precision over a large working range and revealed matrix-specific as well as mode-specific characteristics. The proposed methodology can identify reliable (and unreliable) isotopic data in an easy and straightforward way and efficiently supports the identification of sources of systematic biases as well as of the main factors that influence the overall accuracy and precision of measurements. This approach is generic and can be used to validate isotopic analyses on different matrices, analytical platforms, labeled elements, or classes of metabolites. It is expected to strengthen the reliability of isotopic measurements and thereby the biological value of ILEs.

  20. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in body water and hair: modeling isotope dynamics in nonhuman primates. (United States)

    O'Grady, Shannon P; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Remien, Christopher H; Enright, Lindsey E; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Wagner, Janice D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R


    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water ((2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O expressed as δ(2) H and δ(18)O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of gut water and the (18)O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (α(ow)). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of α(ow) was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mg Isotopes of USGS Igneous Rock Standards (United States)

    Huang, F.; Glessner, J. J.; Lundstrom, C. C.


    Magnesium has three stable isotopes, 24Mg, 25Mg, and 26Mg with abundances of 78.99%, 10.00%, and 11.01%, respectively. It is one of the most abundant elements in the crust and mantle. As advancements of analytical techniques using MC-ICP-MS have dramatically advanced our ability to measure isotope ratios of Mg with greater precision, Mg isotopes can now be applied to study a variety of fundamental geological processes, such as continental crust weathering, chemical diffusion, and chondrule formation. Therefore the need for well characterized Mg isotope ratios for geological materials is increasingly important. Routine measurement of readily-available USGS rock standards is a viable way for inter-lab comparison to show the quality of data. However, the Mg isotope data for USGS standards reported in the literature are limited and inconsistent. USGS standards reported by different MC-ICP-MS labs have a range of Mg isotopic data outside of the normal external error of 0.1‰ (2σ). Mg isotopes of USGS igneous rock standards (dunite, DTS-1; basalts, BCR-1, BCR-2, BHVO-1; and andesite, AGV-1) were measured by a sample-standard bracketing method using a low resolution MC-ICP- MS (Nu-Plasma HR). The method has a large tolerance of matrix bias with Na/Mg and Al/Mg > 100% only changing the δ26Mg by less than 0.1‰. Dilution effects do not cause significant error (99.5%) and acceptable concentrations of matrix (mainly Na, Al, Ca, and Fe) are included in these results. Duplicate analyses of independently processed standards yielded the following results (δ26MgDSM-3 (‰)): BCR-2 (-0.306±0.144, - 0.290±0.116, -0.283±0.048, -0.288±0.057), BCR-1 (-0.399±0.079, -0.346±0.046), AGV-1 (-0.295±0.110, -0.307±0.086, -0.339±0.068), BHVO-1 (-0.308±0.076, - 0.299±0.103), and DTS-1 (-0.299±0.163, -0.368±0.059). δ26MgDSM-3 of measured USGS standards are consistent within error (2σ).

  2. Iron Isotope Fractionation in Artic Weathering Environments (United States)

    Rouxel, O. J.; Escoube, R.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Wisch, M.; Miller, C.


    While our current knowledge of Fe isotope systematics in rivers is still limited, Fe isotopes provide a new approach to important questions concerning Fe sources, Fe speciation and its bioavailability in the hydrological cycles. Here, we investigated several Arctic rivers for elemental and Fe-isotopic composition with specific emphasis on silicate weathering and organic C content in order to provide new insights into the delivery of trace nutrients, such as Fe, that are important for the biological productivity of the Arctic Ocean. Without such characterization of the present state of the system, future changes in the response of these river systems to global change cannot be properly evaluated. Our Fe isotope systematics results in Siberian rivers, include (1) a time-series of water samples from large rivers (Ob and Lena) focusing on the peak flow that has not yet been investigated despite its critical importance for annual budgets; (2) the colloidal fractions (1 kDa to 0.45 μm) of rivers and their estuaries in the White Sea, including the Severnaya Dvina River to assess the influence of Fe-rich colloids flocculation on the Fe isotopic composition of the estuarine waters. Dissolved iron fractions (ice break-up on the rivers. In contrast, dissolved iron fractions in the Severnaya Dvina River and its tributaries yield more positive δ56Fe values, with values ranging from -0.09 to up to 0.64‰, averaging 0.2‰ (n=19). Small swamp rivers from the South White Sea coast reveal an even higher spread of dissolved δ56Fe values, from -1.1 to +0.8‰ with some clear variations among the various colloidal fractions (1 kDa-10 kDa - 100 kDa). These results, together with the high Fe and DOC concentrations in the water samples, suggest that Fe-redox cycling in soil aquifer, as well as the formation of organic-rich colloids, may impart specific Fe-isotope signatures in dissolved Fe reaching the Artic Ocean. Recent studies (e.g. Fantle and De Paolo, 2004 and Bergquist and

  3. The Valanginian terrestrial carbon-isotope record (United States)

    Grocke, D. R.; Price, G. D.; Baraboshkin, E.; Mutterlose, J.; Ruffell, A. H.


    A stratigraphic, biostratigraphic and isotopic investigation has been performed on a Crimean section located on the Kacha River, Verkhorechie Village, SW Crimea. This clastic-dominated succession consists of a series of bioturbated inter-bedded shallow-marine silty sands, claystones and some oolitic sands. A published detailed study of the ammonite fauna has been undertaken and has revealed that the succession can be compared to standard Tethyan schemes. The lower part of the succession is dated on the basis of the ammonite fauna as Early Valanginian (otopeta-campylotoxus ammonite Zones), although this latter zone is highly condensed. A more expanded Late Valanginian is present (verrucosum, callidiscus and tauricum ammonite Zones), and is overlain by sand-dominated sediments of Early Hauterivian age. Throughout this section woody plant matter ranging in preservation from charcoal to coal has been collected and analyzed for stable carbon-isotope ratios. There is no correlation between state of preservation and carbon-isotope ratios. Carbon-isotope ratios range in the Early Valanginian from -24 ppm to -22 ppm, and in the mid-verrucosum Zone values shift abruptly towards more positive values and peak at -18 ppm in the lower callidiscus Zone. Wood carbon-isotope ratios decrease gradually through the remainder of the callidiscus Zone and return to pre-excursion values in the tauricum Zone. The remaining Hauterivian values fluctuate between -24 ppm to -21 ppm. The structure, magnitude and timing of the terrestrial carbon-isotope curve is very similar to the marine carbonate curve (from +1 ppm to +3 ppm) for the Valanginian. This would indicate, based on a delta-delta relationship between organic matter and carbonate, that there was very little change in atmospheric CO_2 concentrations during the Valanginian, and that the isotopic composition of the global carbon reservoir shifted. Future research on an Early Cretaceous (Valanginian-Hauterivian) interval from the Yatria

  4. Free Air Respiratory Carbon Isotope Enrichment Experiment (United States)

    Sternberg, L. D.; Greaver, T.; Schaffer, B.; Moreno, T.


    Recycling of respiratory carbon in canopies is difficult to measure. Other than a steady state model, there are currently no direct methods of measuring recycling. Respiratory carbon recycling not only will affect the carbon isotope ratio signature of the canopy, but is also important in partitioning gross photosynthesis and respiration from net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In order to better understand recycling, we empirically derived an integrated measure of recycling in a cover crop (Crotalaria juncea L.) and compared it with that derived by the steady state model. A measured dose of nitrogen gas having CO2 with a high Carbon-13 abundance (41%) was applied at ground level ( ˜10 cm above the soil surface) with a system of hoses in a 10 by 10 m plot embedded in a 30 by 30 m plot. We adjusted the flux rate of this enriched gas weekly to correspond to weekly measurements of soil respiration rates. The gas application rates at ground level were sufficiently low so as to not affect the carbon dynamics of the treatment plot relative to that of a control plot with only nitrogen (no CO2) applied. The isotopic composition of the applied gas, however, was high enough to significantly increase the isotopic composition of respired CO2. Using the carbon isotopic composition of respiration and biomass from the control and treatment plots and mass balance principles we calculated that 45% of the total respired CO2 is recycled by this crop, which compares well with that derived by the steady state model (48%). Partitioning of gross photosynthesis and respiration by isotopic methods usually assumes no recycling. Recycling, however, will have an effect on the isotopic composition of respired CO2. After correcting for the recycling effects on the carbon isotope ratios of respired CO2 leaving the canopy, we calculated that the average gross photosynthesis for this crop was 40.4μ moles/m2s and gross respiration was in the order of 17.8 μ moles/m2s. These values are similar to those

  5. Iron isotope systematics in planetary reservoirs (United States)

    Sossi, Paolo A.; Nebel, Oliver; Foden, John


    Iron is the only polyvalent major element, and controls reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions in a host of geologic processes and reservoirs, from the mineral- to planetary-scale, on Earth and in space. Mass transfer of Fe is often accompanied by changes in bonding environment, meaning the resultant variation in bond-strength in crystals, liquids and gases induces stable isotope fractionation, even at high temperatures. In the absence of iron exchange, electron transfer can also affect iron's valence state and calculated oxygen fugacity (fO2), however its isotope composition remains unchanged. Thus, iron isotopes are a powerful tool to investigate processes that involve mass transfer, redox reactions and changes in bonding environment in planetary systems. Primitive chondritic meteorites show remarkable isotopic homogeneity, δ57 Fe = - 0.01 ± 0.01 ‰ (2SE), over a wide range of Fe/Mg vs Ni/Mg, a proxy for fO2 in the solar nebula. In chondrites, there are iron isotope differences between metal and silicates that become more pronounced at higher metamorphic grades. However, on a planetary scale, Mars and Vesta overlap with chondrites, preserving no trace of core formation or volatile depletion on these bodies. Upon assessment of pristine lherzolites, the Bulk Silicate Earth is heavier than chondrites (δ57 Fe = + 0.05 ± 0.01 ‰; 2SE), and similar to or slightly lighter than the Moon. That the mantles of some differentiated inner solar system bodies extend to heavier compositions (+ 0.2 ‰) than chondrites may principally result from volatile depletion either at a nebular or late accretion stage. Within terrestrial silicate reservoirs, iron isotopes provide insight into petrogenetic and geodynamic processes. Partial melting of the upper mantle produces basalts that are heavier than their sources, scaling with degree of melting and driving the increasingly refractory peridotite to lighter compositions. Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORBs) are homogeneous to δ57 Fe

  6. Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry. (United States)

    Hartig, Kyle C; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Jovanovic, Igor


    The ability to perform not only elementally but also isotopically sensitive detection and analysis at standoff distances is impor-tant for remote sensing applications in diverse ares, such as nuclear nonproliferation, environmental monitoring, geophysics, and planetary science. We demonstrate isotopically sensitive real-time standoff detection of uranium by the use of femtosecond filament-induced laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry. A uranium oxide molecular emission isotope shift of 0.05 ± 0.007 nm is reported at 593.6 nm. We implement both spectroscopic and acoustic diagnostics to characterize the properties of uranium plasma generated at different filament-uranium interaction points. The resulting uranium oxide emis-sion exhibits a nearly constant signal-to-background ratio over the length of the filament, unlike the uranium atomic and ionic emission, for which the signal-to-background ratio varies significantly along the filament propagation. This is explained by the different rates of increase of plasma density and uranium oxide density along the filament length resulting from spectral and temporal evolution of the filament along its propagation. The results provide a basis for the optimal use of filaments for standoff detection and analysis of uranium isotopes and indicate the potential of the technique for a wider range of remote sensing applications that require isotopic sensitivity.

  7. Determination of porphyrin carbon isotopic composition using gas chromatography-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Yu, Z; Sheng, G; Fu, J; Peng, P


    Carbon isotopic compositions of aetio I occurring in the form of free-base, nickel, demetallation, dihydroxysilicon(IV) and bis(tert.-butyldimethylsiloxy)silicon(IV) [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] have shown that it has experienced no obvious isotope fractionation during the synthesis of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] porphyrin from aetio I. Here, aetio I porphyrin species such as free-base, nickel, demetallated and dihydroxysilicon were analyzed by the conventional method, namely it is combusted in sealed system, and followed by isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometric analysis. [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] aetio I was assayed by gas chromatography-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). A porphyrin mixture of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] aetio I and octaethylporphyrin was also prepared. Their carbon isotopic compositions measured by GC-IRMS indicate that no isotope exchange took place between the porphyrins during the synthesis of [(tBDMSO)2Si(IV)] porphyrins. This method is employed for delta13C determination of geoporphyrins from the Maoming and Jianghan oil shales.

  8. Carbon isotope ratios and isotopic correlations between components in fruit juices (United States)

    Wierzchnicki, Ryszard


    Nowadays food products are defined by geographical origin, method of production and by some regulations concerning terms of their authenticity. Important data for confirm the authenticity of product are providing by isotopic methods of food control. The method checks crucial criteria which characterize the authenticity of inspected product. The European Union Regulations clearly show the tendency for application of the isotopic methods for food authenticity control (wine, honey, juice). The aim of the legislation steps is the protection of European market from possibility of the commercial frauds. Method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry is very effective tool for the use distinguishably the food products of various geographical origin. The basic problem for identification of the sample origin is the lack of databases of isotopic composition of components and information about the correlations of the data. The subject of the work was study the isotopic correlations existing between components of fruits. The chemical and instrumental methods of separation: water, sugars, organic acids and pulp from fruit were implemented. IRMS technique was used to measure isotopic composition of samples. The final results for original samples of fruits (apple, strawberry etc.) will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under grant NR12-0043-10/2010.

  9. Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (United States)

    Hartig, Kyle C.; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Jovanovic, Igor


    The ability to perform not only elementally but also isotopically sensitive detection and analysis at standoff distances is impor-tant for remote sensing applications in diverse ares, such as nuclear nonproliferation, environmental monitoring, geophysics, and planetary science. We demonstrate isotopically sensitive real-time standoff detection of uranium by the use of femtosecond filament-induced laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry. A uranium oxide molecular emission isotope shift of 0.05 ± 0.007 nm is reported at 593.6 nm. We implement both spectroscopic and acoustic diagnostics to characterize the properties of uranium plasma generated at different filament-uranium interaction points. The resulting uranium oxide emis-sion exhibits a nearly constant signal-to-background ratio over the length of the filament, unlike the uranium atomic and ionic emission, for which the signal-to-background ratio varies significantly along the filament propagation. This is explained by the different rates of increase of plasma density and uranium oxide density along the filament length resulting from spectral and temporal evolution of the filament along its propagation. The results provide a basis for the optimal use of filaments for standoff detection and analysis of uranium isotopes and indicate the potential of the technique for a wider range of remote sensing applications that require isotopic sensitivity.

  10. Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets (United States)

    Sponheimer, Matt; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Cerling, Thure E.; Grine, Frederick E.; Kimbel, William H.; Leakey, Meave G.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Kyalo Manthi, Fredrick; Reed, Kaye E.; Wood, Bernard A.; Wynn, Jonathan G.


    Carbon isotope studies of early hominins from southern Africa showed that their diets differed markedly from the diets of extant apes. Only recently, however, has a major influx of isotopic data from eastern Africa allowed for broad taxonomic, temporal, and regional comparisons among hominins. Before 4 Ma, hominins had diets that were dominated by C3 resources and were, in that sense, similar to extant chimpanzees. By about 3.5 Ma, multiple hominin taxa began incorporating 13C-enriched [C4 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)] foods in their diets and had highly variable carbon isotope compositions which are atypical for African mammals. By about 2.5 Ma, Paranthropus in eastern Africa diverged toward C4/CAM specialization and occupied an isotopic niche unknown in catarrhine primates, except in the fossil relations of grass-eating geladas (Theropithecus gelada). At the same time, other taxa (e.g., Australopithecus africanus) continued to have highly mixed and varied C3/C4 diets. Overall, there is a trend toward greater consumption of 13C-enriched foods in early hominins over time, although this trend varies by region. Hominin carbon isotope ratios also increase with postcanine tooth area and mandibular cross-sectional area, which could indicate that these foods played a role in the evolution of australopith masticatory robusticity. The 13C-enriched resources that hominins ate remain unknown and must await additional integration of existing paleodietary proxy data and new research on the distribution, abundance, nutrition, and mechanical properties of C4 (and CAM) plants.

  11. Strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Halley, Robert B.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Peterman, Zell E.


    87Sr/86Sr ratios determined for samples from a 350 m core of Neogene lagoonal, shallow-water limestones from Enewetak Atoll display a remarkably informative trend. Like the recently published data for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) carbonates, 87Sr/86Sr at Enewetak increases monotonically but not smoothly from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene. The data show intervals of little or no change in 87Sr/86Sr, punctuated by sharp transitions to lower values toward greater core depths. The sharp transitions correlate with observed solution disconformities caused by periods of subaerial erosion, whereas the intervals of little or no change in 87Sr/86Sr correspond to intervals of rapid accumulation of shallow-water carbonate sediments. When converted to numerical ages using the published DSDP 590B trend, the best-resolved time breaks are at 282 m (12.3 to 18.2 Ma missing) and 121.6 m (3.0 to 5.3 Ma missing) below the lagoon floor. At Enewetak, Sr isotopes offer a stratigraphic resolution for these shallow-marine Neogene carbonates comparable to that of nannofossil zonation in deep-sea carbonates (0.3-3 m.y.). In addition, the correlation of times of Sr-isotope breaks at Enewetak with times of rapid Sr-isotope change in the DSDP 590B samples confirms the importance off sea-level changes in the evolution of global-marine Sr isotopes and shows that the Sr-isotope response to sea-level falls is rapid.

  12. Radiochemical studies of neutron deficient actinide isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.


    The production of neutron deficient actinide isotopes in heavy ion reactions was studied using alpha, gamma, x-ray, and spontaneous fission detection systems. A new isotope of berkelium, /sup 242/Bk, was produced with a cross-section of approximately 10 in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7.0 +- 1.3 minutes. The alpha-branching ratio for this isotope is less than 1% and the spontaneous fission ratio is less than 0.03%. Studies of (Heavy Ion, pxn) and (Heavy Ion, ..cap alpha..xn) transfer reactions in comparison with (Heavy ion, xn) compound nucleus reactions revealed transfer reaction cross-sections equal to or greater than the compound nucleus yields. The data show that in some cases the yield of an isotope produced via a (H.I.,pxn) or (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) reaction may be higher than its production via an xn compound nucleus reaction. These results have dire consequences for proponents of the ''Z/sub 1/ + Z/sub 2/ = Z/sub 1+2/'' philosophy. It is no longer acceptable to assume that (H.I.,pxn) and (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) product yields are of no consequence when studying compound nucleus reactions. No evidence for spontaneous fission decay of /sup 228/Pu, /sup 230/Pu, /sup 232/Cm, or /sup 238/Cf was observed indicating that strictly empirical extrapolations of spontaneous fission half-life data is inadequate for predictions of half-lives for unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes.

  13. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments - FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.C. (comp.)


    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope.

  14. Influence of attenuation correction on transient left ventricular dilation in dual isotope myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Brodov, Yafim; Frenkel, Alex; Chouraqui, Pierre; Przewloka, Kinga; Rispler, Shmuel; Abadi, Sobhi; Keidar, Zohar


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of attenuation correction (AC) on left ventricular (LV) volumes and LV transient ischemic dilatation (TID) during dual-isotope single-photon emission computer tomographic (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Ninety-six patients (mean age 58 ± 11 years, 15% women, 38 patients completed exercise and 58 dipyridamole pharmacologic stress tests) assessed for known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent dual-isotope thallium-201 rest and technetium-99m sestamibi stress SPECT MPI with computed tomography-based AC. The TID ratio was calculated separately for non-AC and AC SPECT MPI studies as the ratio of the LV endocardial volume at stress divided by LV endocardial volume at rest. The mean and range of the gated LV ejection fraction during exercise and pharmacologic stress was 54 ± 12% (29% to 80%) and 58 ± 12% (27% to 80%), respectively. In the exercise stress group, the same mean LV endocardial volumes in non-AC and AC stress (76.4 ± 30 and 76.5 ± 28) and rest (66.3 ± 26 and 66.4 ± 24) studies were found (p = 0.90). There was no statistical difference between the mean exercise TID ratio in non-AC and AC studies (1.27 vs 1.31, respectively, p = 0.10). The same mean LV endocardial volumes in non-AC and AC in pharmacologic stress (79.9 ± 42 and 80 ± 41) and rest (71.4 ± 41 and 72.3 ± 37), respectively, were found (p = 0.50). There was no statistical difference between the mean dipyridamole TID ratio in non-AC and AC studies (1.20 vs 1.17, respectively, p = 0.10). In conclusion, LV volumes and TID indexes obtained on SPECT MPI with exercise or pharmacologic stress using dipyridamole are not affected by AC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.


    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  16. Stable isotope analysis of the bioelements: an introduction. (United States)

    Flenker, Ulrich


    The abundances of the stable isotopes of the bioelements are not constant. Subtle, but significant, variations may be induced by physical, physiological and biochemical processes. These variations may be detected and quantified. Often, isotope fingerprints are characteristic of certain processes and may reveal information concerning the sources and origins of compounds of interest. Moreover, natural variabilities of stable isotopes may be exploited in order to perform tracer experiments. The most accurate technology to perform stable isotope analysis is (gas) isotope ratio MS (IRMS). Compound-specific approaches employ hyphenation of GC and LC to IRMS. In these approaches, complete conversion to simple gases prior to MS is required. Analysis by stable isotope ratio spectroscopy currently approaches the accuracy of IRMS. However, for bioanalytical projects, it is still predominantly confined to material synthetically enriched with stable isotopes.

  17. Production Situation and Technology Prospect of Medical Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Feng;LIN Li;LIU Yu-hao;MA Xing-jun


    Full Text Available The isotope production technology was overviewed, including traditional and newest technology. The current situation of medical isotope production was introduced. The problems faced by isotope supply and demand were analyzed. The future development trend of medical isotopes and technology prospect were put forward. As the most populous country, nuclear medicine develops rapidly, however, domestic isotope mainly relies on imports. The highly productive and relatively safe MIPR is expected to be an effective way to breakthrough the bottleneck of the development of nuclear medicine. Traditional isotope production technologies with reactor can be improved. It's urgent to research and promote new isotope production technologies with reactor. Those technologies which do not depend on reactor will have a bright market prospects.

  18. Further development of IDGS: Isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (United States)

    Li, T. K.; Parker, J. L.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kamata, M.; Akiyama, T.

    The isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique for determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic composition of highly radioactive spent-fuel dissolver solutions has been further developed. Both the sample preparation and the analysis have been improved. The plutonium isotopic analysis is based on high-resolution, low-energy gamma-ray spectrometry. The plutonium concentration in the dissolver solutions then is calculated from the measured isotopic differences among the spike, the dissolver solution, and the spiked dissolver solution. Plutonium concentrations and isotopic compositions of dissolver solutions analyzed from this study agree well with those obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and are consistent with the first IDGS experimental result. With the current detector efficiency, sample size, and a 100-min count time, the estimated precision is approximately 0.5 percent for Pu-239 and Pu-240 isotopic analyses and approximately 1 percent for the plutonium concentration analysis.

  19. Large deuterium isotope effects and their use: a historical review. (United States)

    Krumbiegel, Peter


    Isotope effects are differences in the properties of the isotopes of an element resulting in different reaction rates of a corresponding compound, in equilibrium constants and in the spectra. Shortly after the discovery of stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, Jacob Bigeleisen formulated a theory of isotope effects and calculated possible maximum values. Large isotope effects of (2)H (deuterium) against (1)H (protium) were seen to possibly influence interpretations of reaction mechanisms if corresponding labelling is used. Much work was invested to ensure the safety of deuterium use in men in spite of the large isotope effect. On the other hand, large deuterium isotope effects gave rise to several practical applications. Examples are the enhancement of the stability of some technical products against oxidative and against hydrolytic degradation (oils, pharmaceuticals) as well as alterations of the detoxification metabolism of pharmaceuticals in vivo.

  20. Isotopic ratio correlation for the isotopic composition analysis of plutonium in Am-Pu mixed samples having high americium content. (United States)

    Patra, Sabyasachi; Agarwal, Chhavi; Chaudhury, Sanhita; Newton Nathaniel, T; Gathibandhe, M; Goswami, A


    Interference of high amount of americium in the plutonium isotopic composition analysis has been studied by simulating gamma-ray spectra for Am-Pu samples over a wide composition range (5-97% (241)Am) for both power and research reactor grade plutonium. An alternate way for isotopic composition analysis has been proposed by correlating the isotopic ratios available in our old database with the experimentally obtained (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio. The proposed method has been validated using simulated spectra of known isotopic compositions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc isotope fractionation during adsorption on calcite (United States)

    Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.


    Zinc is an important element as a nutrient in the marine biosphere. However, our understanding of its biogeochemical cycling in the oceans is relatively limited. The Zn stable isotope system holds the promise of providing novel insights, since published Zn isotopic values for various natural samples reveal significant fractionations in the marine environment. Surface seawater, basalts, shales, deep-sea clay sediments, sediment trap material, bulk plankton and zooplankton samples, and eolian dust fall within a tight range (δ66/64Zn from -0.1 to 0.5‰), but modern ferromanganese crusts (δ66/64Zn from 0.5 to 1.2‰), as well as carbonates (δ66/64Zn from 0.3 to 1.4‰), are notably enriched in heavy Zn isotopes [1-4]. In this study we seek to constrain the mechanism by which carbonates are enriched in heavier isotopes. In particular, we have conducted experiments to quantify isotope fractionation during adsorption of Zn onto the surfaces of calcite crystals that are in equilibrium with solution. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a series of small-volume batch reactions in a clean laboratory environment, using high-purity reagents and calcite seed crystals. The calcite was equilibrated with the solution prior to addition of Zn at atmospheric CO2 pressure (i.e., in air) for 5 days until a stable pH of 8.3 was reached. Later, a small aliquot of dissolved ZnCl2 was added such that the solution remained undersaturated with respect to hydrozincite. Experimental duration varied among the replicates from 6 to 144 hours, and then all solids and solutions were separated by filtration, purified by ion exchange chromatography, and analyzed by MC-ICP-MS. Zn adsorbed on calcite is isotopically heavier than in the co-existing solutions, with Δ68/66Zncalcite-solution of approximately 0.3‰. The variation of Δ68/66Zncalcite-solution beyond 24 hours is insignificant, so we infer that isotopic equilibrium is reached by this time. Previous work strongly suggests that a

  2. Uranium Isotope Systematic in Saanich Inlet (United States)

    Amini, M.; Holmden, C.; Francois, R.


    As a redox-sensitive element Uranium has become the focus of stable isotope studies. Based on the nuclear field shift effect [1], U isotope fractionation was predicted as a function of U(IV)-U(VI) exchange reactions with the insoluble reduced U(IV) species being heavier than the soluble oxidized U(VI) species. Recently, variations in 238U/235U were reported in low temperature aqueous and sedimentary environments [2,3] indicating that U deposited in well-oxygenated environments is characterized by light isotopic composition, whereas suboxic and anoxic deposits tend towards a heavy isotopic signature. U isotope fractionation has been hence proposed as a promising new paleo-redox proxy. In order to test the efficacy of U isotope fractionation to record oxidation states in marine systems, we are investigating sediment samples deposited over a range of redox conditions in the seasonally anoxic Saanich Inlet, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. We have also made δ238U measurements for water samples from above and below the redoxcline. The measurements were carried out by MC-ICPMS using 233U/236U-double spike technique. The data are reported as δ238U relative to NBL 112a with a 238U/235U ratio of 137.88 (2sd). External precision is better than 0.10 permil (2sd). Eleven analyses of seawater performed over the course of this work yielded δ238U of -0.41±0.07 permil (2sd). No clear difference in δ238U values has been found, thus far, in water samples collected at 10m (O2~380μM) and 200m (O2~1μM) depths from a single location in the middle of the inlet. The mean of two measurements of the deepwater sample yielded -0.43±0.01 permil (2sd). Two measurements of the shallow water sample yielded a mean value of -0.38±0.03 permil (2sd). The δ238U values for HF-HNO3 digestions of the organic rich sediments, one taken in the middle of the basin (3.11% organic carbon) below seasonally anoxic bottom waters (-0.22±0.01 permil, n=2), and the other taken from the sill (1

  3. Redefining the utility of the three-isotope method (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobin; Bao, Huiming


    The equilibrium isotope fractionation factor αeq is a fundamental parameter in the study of stable isotope effects. Experimentally, it has been difficult to establish that a system has attained equilibrium. The three-isotope method, using the initial trajectory of changing isotope ratios (e.g. 16O, 17O, and 18O) to deduce the final equilibrium point of isotope exchange, has long been hailed as the most rigorous experimental approach. However, over the years some researchers have cautioned on the limitations of this method, but the foundation of three-isotope method has not been properly examined and the method is still widely used in calibrating αeq for both traditional and increasingly non-traditional isotope systems today. Here, using water-water and dissolved CO2-water oxygen exchange as model systems, we conduct an isotopologues-specific kinetic analysis of the exchange processes and explore the underlying assumptions and validity of the three-isotope method. We demonstrate that without knowing the detailed exchange kinetics a priori the three-isotope method cannot lead to a reliable αeq. For a two-reservoir exchanging system, α determined by this method may be αeq, kinetic isotope effect, or apparent kinetic isotope effect, which can all bear different values. When multiple reservoirs exist during exchange, the evolving trajectory can be complex and hard to predict. Instead of being a tool for αeq determination, three-isotope method should be used as a tool for studying kinetic isotope effect, apparent kinetic isotope effect, and detailed exchange kinetics in diverse systems.

  4. Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for geochemical reactions (United States)

    Thorstenson, D.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.


    Theory is derived from the work of Urey (Urey H. C. [1947] The thermodynamic properties of isotopic substances. J. Chem. Soc. 562-581) to calculate equilibrium constants commonly used in geochemical equilibrium and reaction-transport models for reactions of individual isotopic species. Urey showed that equilibrium constants of isotope exchange reactions for molecules that contain two or more atoms of the same element in equivalent positions are related to isotope fractionation factors by ?? = (Kex)1/n, where n is the number of atoms exchanged. This relation is extended to include species containing multiple isotopes, for example 13C16O18O and 1H2H18O. The equilibrium constants of the isotope exchange reactions can be expressed as ratios of individual isotope equilibrium constants for geochemical reactions. Knowledge of the equilibrium constant for the dominant isotopic species can then be used to calculate the individual isotope equilibrium constants. Individual isotope equilibrium constants are calculated for the reaction CO2g = CO2aq for all species that can be formed from 12C, 13C, 16O, and 18O; for the reaction between 12C18 O2aq and 1H218Ol; and among the various 1H, 2H, 16O, and 18O species of H2O. This is a subset of a larger number of equilibrium constants calculated elsewhere (Thorstenson D. C. and Parkhurst D. L. [2002] Calculation of individual isotope equilibrium constants for implementation in geochemical models. Water-Resources Investigation Report 02-4172. U.S. Geological Survey). Activity coefficients, activity-concentration conventions for the isotopic variants of H2O in the solvent 1H216Ol, and salt effects on isotope fractionation have been included in the derivations. The effects of nonideality are small because of the chemical similarity of different isotopic species of the same molecule or ion. The temperature dependence of the individual isotope equilibrium constants can be calculated from the temperature dependence of the fractionation

  5. Clumped-isotope geochemistry of carbonates: A new tool for the reconstruction of temperature and oxygen isotope composition of seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernasconi, Stefano M., E-mail: [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmid, Thomas W.; Grauel, Anna-Lena [Geological Institute, ETH Zuerich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mutterlose, Joerg [Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)


    Highlights: > Clumped-isotope thermometry of carbonates is discussed. > Clumped isotopes of Belemnites show higher sea surface temperatures than commonly assumed for the lower Cretaceous. > The potential of clumped-isotope measurement on foraminifera is discussed. - Abstract: Clumped-isotope geochemistry deals with State of ordering of rare isotopes in molecules, in particular with their tendency to form bonds with other rare isotopes rather than with the most abundant ones. Among its possible applications, carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry is the one that has gained most attention because of the wide potential of applications in many disciplines of the earth sciences. In particular, it allows reconstructing the temperature of formation of carbonate minerals without knowledge of the isotopic composition of the water from which they were formed. In addition, the O isotope composition of the waters from which they were formed can be calculated using the {delta}{sup 18}O of the same carbonate sample. This feature offers new approaches in paleoclimatology for reconstructing past global geochemical cycles. In this contribution two applications of this method are presented. First the potential of a new analytical method of measurement of clumped isotopes on small samples of foraminifera, for high-resolution SST and seawater {delta}{sup 18}O reconstructions from marine sediments is shown. Furthermore the potential of clumped isotope analysis of belemnites, for reconstructing seawater {delta}{sup 18}O and temperatures in the Cretaceous is shown.

  6. Isotope systematics of Icelandic thermal fluids (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Hilton, David R.; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E.; Torssander, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Barnes, Jaime D.; Ono, Shuhei; Halldórsson, Sæmundur Ari; Fiebig, Jens; Arnórsson, Stefán


    Thermal fluids in Iceland range in temperature from 440 °C and are dominated by water (> 97 mol%) with a chloride concentration from 20,000 ppm. The isotope systematics of the fluids reveal many important features of the source(s) and transport properties of volatiles at this divergent plate boundary. Studies spanning over four decades have revealed a large range of values for δD (- 131 to + 3.3‰), tritium (- 0.4 to + 13.8 TU), δ18O (- 20.8 to + 2.3‰), 3He/4He (3.1 to 30.4 RA), δ11B (- 6.7 to + 25.0‰), δ13C∑ CO2 (- 27.4 to + 4.6‰), 14C∑ CO2 (+ 0.6 to + 118 pMC), δ13CCH4 (- 52.3 to - 17.8‰), δ15N (- 10.5 to + 3.0‰), δ34S∑ S- II (- 10.9 to + 3.4‰), δ34SSO4 (- 2.0 to + 21.2‰) and δ37Cl (- 1.0 to + 2.1‰) in both liquid and vapor phases. Based on this isotopic dataset, the thermal waters originate from meteoric inputs and/or seawater. For other volatiles, degassing of mantle-derived melts contributes to He, CO2 and possibly also to Cl in the fluids. Water-basalt interaction also contributes to CO2 and is the major source of H2S, SO4, Cl and B in the fluids. Redox reactions additionally influence the composition of the fluids, for example, oxidation of H2S to SO4 and reduction of CO2 to CH4. Air-water interaction mainly controls N2, Ar and Ne concentrations. The large range of many non-reactive volatile isotope ratios, such as δ37Cl and 3He/4He, indicate heterogeneity of the mantle and mantle-derived melts beneath Iceland. In contrast, the large range of many reactive isotopes, such as δ13C∑ CO2 and δ34S∑ S- II, are heavily affected by processes occurring within the geothermal systems, including fluid-rock interaction, depressurization boiling, and isotopic fractionation between secondary minerals and the aqueous and vapor species. Variations due to these geothermal processes may exceed differences observed among various crust and mantle sources, highlighting the importance and effects of chemical reactions on the isotope

  7. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea (United States)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas


    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 matter origin in submicron marine aerosol by 13 C and 14 C isotope analysis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 8593-8606, 2011. Ceburnis, D., Masalaite, A., Ovadnevaite, J., Garbaras, A., Remeikis, V., Maenhaut, W., Claeys, M., Sciare, J., Baisnée, D., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Stable isotopes measurements reveal dual carbon pools contributing to organic matter enrichment in marine aerosol, Scientific Reports, 6, 2016. Masalaite, A., Remeikis, V., Garbaras, A., Dudoitis, V., Ulevicius, V., and Ceburnis, D.: Elucidating carbonaceous aerosol sources by the stable carbon δ13C TC ratio in size

  8. Oxygen isotope fractionation in phosphates: the role of dissolved complex anions in isotope exchange. (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Oxygen isotope fractionation factors for phosphates were calculated by means of the increment method. The results suggest that Ag3PO4 and BiPO4 are enriched in (18)O relative to AgPO4, and the three phosphates are consistently depleted in (18)O relative to Ba3[PO4]2; fluorapatite and chlorapatite exhibit a similar behaviour of oxygen isotope fractionation with consistent enrichment of (18)O relative to hydroxyapatite. The valence, radii and coordination of metal cations play a quantitative role in dictating the (18)O/(16)O partitioning in these phosphates of different compositions. The calculated fractionation factors for the Ag3PO4-H2O system are in agreement with experimental determinations derived from enzyme-catalysed isotope exchange between dissolved inorganic phosphate and water at the longest reaction durations at low temperatures. This demonstrates that the precipitated Ag3PO4 has completely captured the oxygen isotope fractionation in the dissolved inorganic phosphate. The calculated fractionation factors for the F/Cl-apatite-water systems are in agreement with the enzyme-catalysed experimental fractionations for the dissolved phosphate-water system at the longest reaction durations but larger than fractionations derived from bacteria-facilitated exchange and inorganic precipitation experiments as well as natural observations. For the experimental calibrations of oxygen isotope fractionation involving the precipitation of dissolved phosphate species from aqueous solutions, the fractionation between precipitate and water is primarily dictated by the isotope equilibration between the dissolved complex anions and water prior to the precipitation. Therefore, the present results provide a quantitative means to interpret the temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation in inorganic and biogenic phosphates.

  9. Isotopic analysis of oxidative pollutant degradation pathways exhibiting large H isotope fractionation. (United States)

    Wijker, Reto S; Adamczyk, Pawel; Bolotin, Jakov; Paneth, Piotr; Hofstetter, Thomas B


    Oxidation of aromatic rings and its alkyl substituents are often competing initial steps of organic pollutant transformation. The use of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) to distinguish between these two pathways quantitatively, however, can be hampered by large H isotope fractionation that precludes calculation of apparent (2)H-kinetic isotope effects (KIE) as well as the process identification in multi-element isotope fractionation analysis. Here, we investigated the C and H isotope fractionation associated with the transformation of toluene, nitrobenzene, and four substituted nitrotoluenes by permanganate, MnO4(-), to propose a refined evaluation procedure for the quantitative distinction of CH3-group oxidation and dioxygenation. On the basis of batch experiments, an isotopomer-specific kinetic model, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we successfully derived the large apparent (2)H-KIE of 4.033 ± 0.20 for the CH3-group oxidation of toluene from H isotope fractionation exceeding >1300‰ as well as the corresponding (13)C-KIE (1.0324 ± 0.0011). Experiment and theory also agreed well for the dioxygenation of nitrobenzene, which was associated with (2)H- and (13)C-KIEs of 0.9410 ± 0.0030 (0.9228 obtained by DFT) and 1.0289 ± 0.0003 (1.025). Consistent branching ratios for the competing CH3-group oxidation and dioxygenation of nitrotoluenes by MnO4(-) were obtained from the combined modeling of concentration as well as C and H isotope signature trends. Our approach offers improved estimates for the identification of contaminant microbial and abiotic oxidation pathways by CSIA.

  10. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Dai, J.; Katz, B.; Zhang, S.; Tang, Y.


    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using ??D values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the ??13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that ??D values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that ??D values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Ion implantation system and process for ultrasensitive determination of target isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, III, Orville T.; Liezers, Martin


    A system and process are disclosed for ultrasensitive determination of target isotopes of analytical interest in a sample. Target isotopes may be implanted in an implant area on a high-purity substrate to pre-concentrate the target isotopes free of contaminants. A known quantity of a tracer isotope may also be implanted. Target isotopes and tracer isotopes may be determined in a mass spectrometer. The present invention provides ultrasensitive determination of target isotopes in the sample.

  12. Stable Chlorine Isotope Study: Application to Early Solar System Materials (United States)

    Mala,ira. M/; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C-Y; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.


    A significantly large mass fractionation between two stable chlorine isotopes is expected during planetary processes In addition, in view of the isotopic heterogeneity of other light elements, the chlorine isotopes can potentially be used as a tracer for the origins and evolutionary processes of early solar system materials. Due to analytical difficulties, however, current chlorine isotope studies on planetary materials are quite controversial among IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and/or TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1-3]. Although a cross-calibration of IRMS and TIMS indicates that both techniques are sufficiently consistent with each other [4], some authors have claimed that the Cl-37/Cl-35 ratio of geological samples obtained by TIMS technique are, in general, misleadingly too high and variable compared to those of IRMS [3]. For example, almost no differences of Cl isotope composition were observed among mantle materials and carbonaceous meteorites by [3]. On the other hand, according to more recent IRMS work [2], significant Cl isotope variations are confirmed for mantle materials. Therefore, additional careful investigation of Cl isotope analyses are now required to confirm real chlorine isotope variations for planetary materials including carbonaceous chondrites [5]. A significantly large mass fractionation between two stable chlorine isotopes is expected during planetary processes In addition, in view of the isotopic heterogeneity of other light elements, the chlorine isotopes can potentially be used as a tracer for the origins and evolutionary processes of early solar system materials. Due to analytical difficulties, however, current chlorine isotope studies on planetary materials are quite controversial among IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and/or TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1-3]. Although a cross-calibration of IRMS and TIMS indicates that both techniques are sufficiently consistent with each

  13. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion (United States)

    Reed, Cameron


    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  14. Isotopic And Geochemical Investigations Of Meteorites (United States)

    Walker, Richard J.


    The primary goals of our research over the past four years are to constrain the timing of certain early planetary accretion/differentiation events, and to constrain the proportions and provenance of materials involved in these processes. This work was achieved via the analysis and interpretation of long- and short-lived isotope systems, and the study of certain trace elements. Our research targeted these goals primarily via the application of the Re-187, Os-187, Pt-190 Os-186 Tc-98 Ru-99 and Tc-99 Ru-99 isotopic systems, and the determination/modeling of abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE; including Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pd, Pt, and maybe Tc). The specific events we examined include the segregation and crystallization histories of asteroidal cores, the accretion and metamorphic histories of chondrites and chondrite components, and the accretionary and differentiation histories of Mars and the Moon.

  15. Oxygen Isotope Systematics of Almahata Sitta (United States)

    Kita, N. T.; Goodrich, C. A.; Herrin, J. S.; Shaddad, M. H.; Jenniskens, P.


    The Almahata Sitta (hereafter "AHS") meteorite was derived from an impact of asteroid 2008TC3 on Earth and is classified as an anomalous polymict ureilite. More than 600 meteorite fragments have been recovered from the strewnfield. Previous reports indicate that these fragments consist mainly of ureilitic materials with textures and compositions, while some fragments are found to be chondrites of a wide range of chemical classes. Bulk oxygen three isotope analyses of ureilitic fragments from AHS fall close to the CCAM (Carbonaceous Chondrite Anhydrous Mineral) line similar to ureilites. In order to further compare AHS with known ureilites, we performed high precision SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer) oxygen isotope analyses of some AHS samples

  16. On-line orientation of bromine isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barham, C.G.; Alghamdi, S.S.; Grant, I.S. (Schuster Lab., Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom)); Bhagwat, A.; Singleton, B.D.D.; Walker, P.M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)); Booth, M.; Lindroos, M.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N.J. (Clarendon Lab., Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom))


    Assignments for the principal Nilsson configuration in light [beta][sup +]-decaying bromine isotopes were proposed in a contribution to the OLNO-1 conference. These assignments were made on the basis of magnetic moments derived from the temperature dependence of anisotropies in daughter Se isotopes observed in the DOLIS-COLD facility at Daresbury. Anisotropy measurements have since been extended to a lower base temperature in [sup 74m]Br and [sup 72g]Br decay, leading to more stringent limits on the ground state moment of [sup 72]Br. The proposed [pi][312]3/2 configuration for [sup 75]Br has also now been confirmed by a measurement of the sign of its magnetic moment. This was done by observing the [beta]-asymmetry in [sup 75]Br decay using high purity Si detectors mounted within the dilution refrigerator. (orig.).

  17. New isotopes of interest to astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Davids, C N; Pardo, R C; Parks, L A


    The beta decays of the new isotopes /sup 53/Ti and /sup 59/Mn have been studied. These neutron-rich isotopes have half-lives of 32.7+or-0.9 s and 4.75+or-0.14 s, respectively. They were produced via the /sup 48/Ca(/sup 7/Li, pn)/sup 53/Ti and /sup 48/Ca(/sup 13/C, pn) /sup 59/Mn reactions using beams from the Argonne National Laboratory FN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. Measurement of gamma singles, gamma - gamma coincidences, and beta - gamma coincidences were facilitated by a pneumatic target-transfer system ('rabbit'). Decay schemes are presented, and the measured masses compared with various predictions. The relevance to astrophysics will be discussed. In addition, a new 8-target multiple rabbit system will be described. (7 refs).

  18. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J. [Charles University of Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T. [MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)


    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  19. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of the Sun (United States)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Kallio, A.; Heber, V. S.; Jarzebinski, G.; Mao, P.; Coath, C.; Kunihiro, T.; Wiens, R. C.; Judith, A.; Burnett, D. S.


    An accurate and precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun is the highest priority scientific goal of the Genesis Mission [1] as such data would provide a baseline from which one could interpret the oxygen isotopic anomalies found at all spatial scales in inner solar system materials. We have measured oxygen isotope compositions of implanted solar wind in 40 spots along a radial traverse of the Genesis SiC target sample 60001 by depth profiling with the UCLA MegaSIMS [2]. Mass-dependent fractionation induced by the solar wind concentrator [3] ion optics was corrected by comparison of the concentrator 22Ne/20Ne with that measured in a bulk solar wind target (diamond-like carbon on Si, [4]). The solar wind captured at L1 has an isotopic composition of (δ18O, δ17O) ≈ (-99, -79)‰, a value which is far removed from the terrestrial mass fractionation line. Profiles from the central portion of the target, where solar concentrations are highest and background corrections minimal, yield a mean Δ17O = -28.3 ± 1.8 ‰ indicating that the Earth and other planetary materials from the inner solar system are highly depleted in 16O relative to the solar wind. A mass-dependent fractionation of ~ -20%/amu in the acceleration of solar wind is required if we hypothesize that the photospheric oxygen isotope value, which represents the bulk starting composition of the solar system, is on the 16O-mixing line characteristic of refractory phase in primitive meteorites [5]. With this assumption, our preferred value for the bulk solar oxygen isotope composition is δ18O ≈ δ17O ≈ -57‰. A mechanism is required to fractionate oxygen isotopes in a non-mass-dependent manner to deplete 16O by ~6 to 7% in the rocky materials of the solar nebula. As oxygen is the third most abundant element in the solar system, and the most abundant in the terrestrial planets, this mechanism must operate on a large scale. Isotope-selective photochemistry, for example as in

  20. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton


    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  1. Stable isotope ratios of rain and vapor in 1995 hurricanes (United States)

    Lawrence, James Robert; Gedzelman, Stanley David; Zhang, Xiaoping; Arnold, Robert


    Isotope ratios of rain and vapor samples collected at the surface from four tropical cyclones during the active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season were determined. A two-dimensional bulk microphysics isotope model was applied to steady symmetric tropical cyclones to explain the observed low mean values and inward decrease of isotope ratios of the rain and vapor. The low mean value is caused by the tropical cyclone's relatively large size, longevity, and deep clouds. The inward decrease is due to diffusive isotope exchange between falling rain and converging vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer. Dean, a minimal tropical storm, produced relatively high isotope ratios because of its small size and youth. Rains from the extreme outer edge of Felix, a category 3 hurricane, exhibited high isotope ratios similar to normal summer rain. Isotope ratios of rains and vapors from Hurricane Luis in Puerto Rico decreased as the storm approached. Isotope ratios of rain exhibited an abrupt jump from low values in the eastern half of Puerto Rico to high values farther west which is linked to the storm's rainbands. Isotope ratios of Hurricane Opal's rains reflected the storm's asymmetric structure, with lowest values west of the point of landfall. Record low isotope ratios from a squall line that struck eastern Texas two days before landfall are linked to low-level outflow from Opal and demonstrate that hurricanes can vent enormous quantities of vapor to the surroundings.

  2. Uniform Silicon Isotope Ratios Across the Milky Way Galaxy (United States)

    Monson, Nathaniel N.; Morris, Mark R.; Young, Edward D.


    We report the relative abundances of the three stable isotopes of silicon, 28Si, 29Si, and 30Si, across the Galaxy using the v=0,J=1\\to 0 transition of silicon monoxide. The chosen sources represent a range in Galactocentric radii ({R}{GC}) from 0 to 9.8 kpc. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity afforded by the Green Bank Telescope permit isotope ratios to be corrected for optical depths. The optical-depth-corrected data indicate that the secondary-to-primary silicon isotope ratios {}29{Si}{/}28{Si} and {}30{Si}{/}28{Si} vary much less than predicted on the basis of other stable isotope ratio gradients across the Galaxy. Indeed, there is no detectable variation in Si isotope ratios with {R}{GC}. This lack of an isotope ratio gradient stands in stark contrast to the monotonically decreasing trend with {R}{GC} exhibited by published secondary-to-primary oxygen isotope ratios. These results, when considered in the context of the expectations for chemical evolution, suggest that the reported oxygen isotope ratio trends, and perhaps those for carbon as well, require further investigation. The methods developed in this study for SiO isotopologue ratio measurements are equally applicable to Galactic oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen isotope ratio measurements, and should prove useful for future observations of these isotope systems.

  3. Measurement system analysis (MSA) of the isotopic ratio for uranium isotope enrichment process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josue C. de; Barbosa, Rodrigo A.; Carnaval, Joao Paulo R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rezende, RJ (Brazil)


    Currently, one of the stages in nuclear fuel cycle development is the process of uranium isotope enrichment, which will provide the amount of low enriched uranium for the nuclear fuel production to supply 100% Angra 1 and 20% Angra 2 demands. Determination of isotopic ration n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) in uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6} - used as process gas) is essential in order to control of enrichment process of isotopic separation by gaseous centrifugation cascades. The uranium hexafluoride process is performed by gas continuous feeding in separation unit which uses the centrifuge force principle, establishing a density gradient in a gas containing components of different molecular weights. The elemental separation effect occurs in a single ultracentrifuge that results in a partial separation of the feed in two fractions: an enriched on (product) and another depleted (waste) in the desired isotope ({sup 235}UF{sub 6}). Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) has used quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) by electron impact (EI) to perform isotopic ratio n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) analysis in the process. The decision of adjustments and change te input variables are based on the results presented in these analysis. A study of stability, bias and linearity determination has been performed in order to evaluate the applied method, variations and systematic errors in the measurement system. The software used to analyze the techniques above was the Minitab 15. (author)

  4. Utilizing Stable Isotopes and Isotopic Anomalies to Study Early Solar System Formation Processes (United States)

    Simon, Justin


    Chondritic meteorites contain a diversity of particle components, i.e., chondrules and calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs), that have survived since the formation of the Solar System. The chemical and isotopic compositions of these materials provide a record of the conditions present in the protoplanetary disk where they formed and can aid our understanding of the processes and reservoirs in which solids formed in the solar nebula, an important step leading to the accretion of planetesimals. Isotopic anomalies associated with nucleosynthetic processes are observed in these discrete materials, and can be compared to astronomical observations and astrophysical formation models of stars and more recently proplyds. The existence and size of these isotopic anomalies are typically thought to reflect a significant state of isotopic heterogeneity in the earliest Solar System, likely left over from molecular cloud heterogeneities on the grain scale, but some could also be due to late stellar injection. The homogenization of these isotopic anomalies towards planetary values can be used to track the efficiency and timescales of disk wide mixing,

  5. Daresbury on-line isotope separator (DOLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, I.S.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Walker, P.M.; Green, V.R.; Rikovska, J.; Stone, N.J.; Hamilton, W.D.


    The isotope separator DOLIS, which is on-line to the Daresbury Laboratory's 20-MV tandem accelerator, is used to measure nuclear moments and decay schemes. Separated beams may be collected on a tape and transported to a counting station, implanted directly into a host lattice at on-line temperatures down to less than 10 mK, or allowed to interact with a collinear laser beam. The present status of DOLIS and its ancillary equipment is described.

  6. Graphs for Isotopes of 108-Hs (Hassium) (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 108-Hs (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108).

  7. Groundwater Paleohydrology Using Microsample Sr Isotopic Data (United States)

    Farmer, G.; Fritz, D. E.


    Physical microsampling of silicate alteration phases produced during past episodes of groundwater flow, combined with Sr isotopic data, can be used to determine the age of the alteration phases and to define paleogroundwater flow paths. For example, we have obtained microsamples of secondary adularia present in the K-metasomatized, mid-Tertiary Lemitar Tuff in southern New Mexico. The microsamples (~25 micrograms) yield a Rb-Sr "errochron" (MSWD~29) of 6.3 Ma, and an 87Sr/86Sr (6 Ma)=0.7206. The adularia isotopic compositions are considerably higher than those determined for igneous plagioclase and sanidine phenocrysts in the same tuff (0.710), or for the tuff matrix, and indicate that the radiogenic Sr incorporated into the adularia was introduced to the tuff during alteration. Na-Ca sulfates present in playa deposits in the Tertiary Popotosa Formation have Sr isotopic compositions similar to the unaltered tuffs, and not the adularia, and suggest that the fluids responsible for the K-metasomatism of the Lemitar Tuff were not down-flowing saline fluids originating from playa lakes in the Popotosa Basin. Instead, we argue that the fluids were generated during topographically driven flow of meteoric waters through high 87Sr/86Sr Precambrian basement-cored horsts generated during early Basin and Range extension in this area. These data illustrate the utility of such Sr isotopic information in investigations of paleogroundwater flow and we are currently extending the technique to study the origin of the multiple low-T groundwater flow events recorded in the various secondary silicate, sulfate, and carbonate phases present in the Late Paleozoic Fountain Formation in northern Colorado.

  8. Nuclear sizes and the isotope shift


    Friar, J. L.; Martorell Domenech, Juan; Sprung, Donald W. L.


    Darwin-Foldy nuclear-size corrections in electronic atoms and nuclear radii are discussed from the nuclear-physics perspective. The interpretation of precise isotope-shift measurements is formalism dependent, and care must be exercised in interpreting these results and those obtained from relativistic electron scattering from nuclei. We strongly advocate that the entire nuclear-charge operator be used in calculating nuclear-size corrections in atoms rather than relegating portions of it to th...

  9. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of zeolites (United States)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.


    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios for natural samples of the zeolites analcime, chabazite, clinoptilolite, laumontite, mordenite, and natrolite have been obtained. The zeolite samples were classified into sedimentary, hydrothermal, and igneous groups. The ratios for each species of zeolite are reported. The results are used to discuss the origin of channel water, the role of zeolites in water-rock interaction, and the possibility that a calibrated zeolite could be used as a low-temperature geothermometer.

  10. Stable isotopic analyses in paleoclimatic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigand, P.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Most traditional paleoclimatic proxy data have inherent time lags between climatic input and system response that constrain their use in accurate reconstruction of paleoclimate chronology, scaling of its variability, and the elucidation of the processes that determine its impact on the biotic and abiotic environment. With the exception of dendroclimatology, and studies of short-lived organisms and pollen recovered from annually varved lacustrine sediments, significant periods of time ranging from years, to centuries, to millennia may intervene between climate change and its first manifestation in paleoclimatic proxy data records. Reconstruction of past climate through changes in plant community composition derived from pollen sequences and plant remains from ancient woodrat middens, wet environments and dry caves all suffer from these lags. However, stable isotopic analyses can provide more immediate indication of biotic response to climate change. Evidence of past physiological response of organisms to changes in effective precipitation as climate varies can be provided by analyses of the stable isotopic content of plant macrofossils from various contexts. These analyses consider variation in the stable isotopic (hydrogen, oxygen and carbon) content of plant tissues as it reflects (1) past global or local temperature through changes in meteoric (rainfall) water chemistry in the case of the first two isotopes, and (2) plant stress through changes in plant respiration/transpiration processes under differing water availability, and varying atmospheric CO, composition (which itself may actually be a net result of biotic response to climate change). Studies currently being conducted in the Intermountain West indicate both long- and short-term responses that when calibrated with modem analogue studies have the potential of revealing not only the timing of climate events, but their direction, magnitude and rapidity.

  11. Iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates in near shore environments (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.


    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radula (teeth or rasping tongue) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radula might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radula collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Furthermore, by comparing two species that have very different feeding habits but collected from the same location, we infer a possible link between diet and Fe isotopic signatures. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds primarily on green algae, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Although chitons are not simple recorders of the ambient seawater Fe isotopic signature, these preliminary results suggest that Fe isotopes provide information concerning Fe biogeochemical cycling in near shore environments, and might be used to probe sources of Fe in the diets of different organisms.

  12. PREFACE: Processes in Isotopes and Molecules (United States)

    Bogdan, Diana; Tosa, Valer


    These Proceedings present some of the Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers of the International Conference 'Processes in Isotopes and Molecules' (PIM), held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 24-26 September 2009. The PIM conference, started in 1999 as a local event, is now an international conference organized every two years by the National Institute for R&D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies in Cluj-Napoca, the capital city of Transylvania, Romania. The meetings are attended by researchers in the field of atomic and molecular physics as well as those developing new materials and technologies. The scientific subjects are at the cross-roads of three fundamental research areas: physics, chemistry, and biology. The papers here are grouped according to the five conference topics: T1 - Molecular and biomolecular systems T2 - Modern techniques and technologies T3 - Environmental molecular processes T4 - Hydrogen and renewable sources of energy T5 - Nanostructured materials and nanocomposites We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of our colleagues from the Scientific Committee and Program Committee who contributed their time, energy and expertise to the refereeing process. Finally, we would like to thank people from IOP Publishing for their friendly advice and prompt help during the editing process, as well as for their efforts making the Journal of Physics: Conference Series available to the scientific community. Diana Bogdan and Valer Tosa National Institute for R&D Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca

  13. Radium isotopes in the Ulsan Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seong [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:; Kim, Kee Hyun [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Duck Soo [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to estimate the fluxes of Ra isotopes, we measured {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra activities in the Ulsan Bay mixing zone. The convex upwards curvature of the plot of Ra isotope activities versus salinity for the mixing zone suggests that Ra isotopes are supplied from particles entering the mixing zone from both the river and bottom sediments. This addition increases the estuarine flux of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra to the outer sea by factors of 15 and 95 over the flux attributable to Ra dissolved in the riverine water alone. In order to estimate the residence time of the water in Ulsan Bay, we applied a mass balance model to the distribution of {sup 224}Ra and {sup 226}Ra activities in the Ulsan Bay mixing zone with the inflow from the Taehwa River. The obtained residence times of the waters in the Ulsan Bay were estimated to be 6.8-11.4 d. The waters in the upper part of the estuary have long residence times whereas those in the lower part, in contact with the open sea, have shorter residence times. The mean residence time of the water in the Ulsan Bay was estimated to be 9.1 d.

  14. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes (United States)

    Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.


    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10−5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method. PMID:23565016

  15. Measuring Isotope Ratios Across the Solar System (United States)

    Webster, Chris R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.


    Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biology [1]. For the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, for example, the (sup 1)(sup 3)C/(sup 1)(sup 2)C ratio identifies it as a Mars (SNC) meteorite; the ??K/??Ar ratio tells us the last time the rock cooled to solid, namely 4 Gya; isotope ratios in (sup 3)He, (sup 2)(sup 1)Ne and (sup 3)?Ar show it was in space (cosmic ray exposure) for 10-20 million years; (sup 1)?C dating that it sat in Antarctica for 13,000 years before discovery; and clumped isotope analysis of (sup 1)?O(sup 1)(sup 3)C(sup 1)?O in its carbonate that it was formed at 18+/-4 ?C in a near-surface aqueous environment [2]. Solar System Formation

  16. Isotopic fractionation of tritium in biological systems. (United States)

    Le Goff, Pierre; Fromm, Michel; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Guétat, Philippe


    Isotopic fractionation of tritium is a highly relevant issue in radiation protection and requires certain radioecological considerations. Sound evaluation of this factor is indeed necessary to determine whether environmental compartments are enriched/depleted in tritium or if tritium is, on the contrary, isotopically well-distributed in a given system. The ubiquity of tritium and the standard analytical methods used to assay it may induce biases in both the measurement and the signification that is accorded to the so-called fractionation: based on an exhaustive review of the literature, we show how, sometimes large deviations may appear. It is shown that when comparing the non-exchangeable fraction of organically bound tritium (neOBT) to another fraction of tritium (e.g. tritiated water) the preparation of samples and the measurement of neOBT reported frequently led to underestimation of the ratio of tritium to hydrogen (T/H) in the non-exchangeable compartment by a factor of 5% to 50%. In the present study, corrections are proposed for most of the biological matrices studied so far. Nevertheless, the values of isotopic fractionation reported in the literature remain difficult to compare with each other, especially since the physical quantities and units often vary between authors. Some improvements are proposed to better define what should encompass the concepts of exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)


    HCN is ubiquitous in extraterrestrial environments and is central to current theories on the origin of early solar system organic compounds such as amino acids. These compounds, observed in carbonaceous meteorites, were likely important in the origin and/or evolution of early life. As part of our attempts to understand the origin(s) of meteoritic CN{sup –}, we have analyzed the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N isotopic composition of HCN gas released from water extracts of the Murchison meteorite and found its value to be near those of the terrestrial atmosphere. The findings, when evaluated viz-a-viz molecular abundances and isotopic data of meteoritic organic compounds, suggest that HCN formation could have occurred during the protracted water alteration processes known to have affected the mineralogy of many asteroidal bodies during their solar residence. This was an active synthetic stage, which likely involved simple gasses, organic molecules, their presolar precursors, as well as mineral catalysts and would have lead to the formation of molecules of differing isotopic composition, including some with solar values.

  18. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in methane plasma (United States)

    Robert, François; Derenne, Sylvie; Lombardi, Guillaume; Hassouni, Khaled; Michau, Armelle; Reinhardt, Peter; Duhamel, Rémi; Gonzalez, Adriana; Biron, Kasia


    The hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) is commonly used to reconstruct the chemical processes at the origin of water and organic compounds in the early solar system. On the one hand, the large enrichments in deuterium of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from the carbonaceous meteorites are interpreted as a heritage of the interstellar medium or resulting from ion-molecule reactions taking place in the diffuse part of the protosolar nebula. On the other hand, the molecular structure of this IOM suggests that organic radicals have played a central role in a gas-phase organosynthesis. So as to reproduce this type of chemistry between organic radicals, experiments based on a microwave plasma of CH4 have been performed. They yielded a black organic residue in which ion microprobe analyses revealed hydrogen isotopic anomalies at a submicrometric spatial resolution. They likely reflect differences in the D/H ratios between the various CHx radicals whose polymerization is at the origin of the IOM. These isotopic heterogeneities, usually referred to as hot and cold spots, are commensurable with those observed in meteorite IOM. As a consequence, the appearance of organic radicals in the ionized regions of the disk surrounding the Sun during its formation may have triggered the formation of organic compounds.

  19. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes (United States)

    Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.


    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10-5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method.

  20. Multispectral dual isotope and NMR image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannier, M.W.; Beihn, R.M.; Butterfield, R.L.; De Land, F.H.


    Dual isotope scintigraphy and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging produce image data that is intrinsically multispectral. That is multiple images of the same anatomic region are generated with different gray scale distribution and morphologic content that is largely redundant. Image processing technology, originally developed by NASA for satellite imaging, is available for multispectral analysis. These methods have been applied to provide tissue characterization. Tissue specific information encoded in the grapy scale data from dual isotope and NMR studies may be extracted using multispectral pattern recognition methods. The authors used table lookup minimum distance, maximum likelihood and cluster analysis techniques with data sets from Ga-67 / Tc-99m, 1-131 labeled antibodies / Tc-99m, Tc-99m perfusion / Xe-133 ventilation, and NMR studies. The results show; tissue characteristic signatures exist in dual isotope and NMR imaging, and these spectral signatures are identifiable using multispectral image analysis and provide tissue classification maps with scatter diagrams that facilitate interpretation and assist in elucidating subtle changes.

  1. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.


    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  2. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.


    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of d13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  3. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.


    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  4. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.


    Rationale: We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence,

  5. Constraints on post-depositional isotope modifications in East Antarctic firn from analysing temporal changes of isotope profiles (United States)

    Münch, Thomas; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Meyer, Hanno; Laepple, Thomas


    The isotopic composition of water in ice sheets is extensively used to infer past climate changes. In low-accumulation regions their interpretation is, however, challenged by poorly constrained effects that may influence the initial isotope signal during and after deposition of the snow. This is reflected in snow-pit isotope data from Kohnen Station, Antarctica, which exhibit a seasonal cycle but also strong interannual variations that contradict local temperature observations. These inconsistencies persist even after averaging many profiles and are thus not explained by local stratigraphic noise. Previous studies have suggested that post-depositional processes may significantly influence the isotopic composition of East Antarctic firn. Here, we investigate the importance of post-depositional processes within the open-porous firn (≳ 10 cm depth) at Kohnen Station by separating spatial from temporal variability. To this end, we analyse 22 isotope profiles obtained from two snow trenches and examine the temporal isotope modifications by comparing the new data with published trench data extracted 2 years earlier. The initial isotope profiles undergo changes over time due to downward advection, firn diffusion and densification in magnitudes consistent with independent estimates. Beyond that, we find further modifications of the original isotope record to be unlikely or small in magnitude (≪ 1 ‰ RMSD). These results show that the discrepancy between local temperatures and isotopes most likely originates from spatially coherent processes prior to or during deposition, such as precipitation intermittency or systematic isotope modifications acting on drifting or loose surface snow.

  6. Fishing for isotopes in the Brookhaven Lab Isotope Producer (BLIP) cooling water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider Accelerator Dept.


    Be-7 has been used in environmental studies; the isotope is produced during BLIP irradiations and accumulates in the 320 gallons of cooling water. Be-7 has a 53.24 day half-life, so the optimal production/purification time is at the end of the BLIP run season. To purify Be-7 fifteen to twenty gallons of BLIP cooling water are removed and pumped through ion exchange columns that retain Be-7. This labor intensive approach captures ~15 mCi of Be-7, but the solution requires further purification. The method can lead to increased radiation exposure to staff. The ideal way to capture isotopes from large volumes is to reach in to the solution and selectively pull out the desired isotope. It is a lot like fishing.

  7. Evaluation of myocardial flow reserve using pharmacological stress thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography: is there a difference between total arterial off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and conventional coronary artery bypass grafting? (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Ryu, Sang Wan; Song, Hyun; Kim, Kyung Sun; Yang, Yu Jung; Moon, Dae Hyeuk


    The advantage of total arterial off-pump coronary bypass grafting (OPCAB) over conventional onpump coronary artery bypass grafting with 1 internal thoracic artery and veins (CCAB) in terms of myocardial flow reserve has not been studied. We studied these procedures using thallium- 201 perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (Tl-201 perfusion SPECT). Between 1997 and 2001, 152 patients were recruited from our database (OPCAB, n = 100; CCAB, n = 52). All patients underwent pharmacological stress Tl-201 perfusion SPECT 3 to 12 months after bypass surgery. Myocardial perfusion was analyzed semiquantitatively with a 5-point scoring system in a 20-segment model (0, normal, to 4, absence of uptake). Summed stress (SSS), rest (SRS), and difference score (SDS) of the entire myocardium as well as average scores (ASS, ARS, ADS) of individual walls (anterior, septal, lateral, and inferior) were compared by Student t test as well as by repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. The SSS, SRS, and SDS of OPCAB versus those of CCAB were 6.86 +/- 0.72 versus 7.17 +/- 0.92, 3.95 +/- 0.57 versus 3.75 +/- 0.73, and 2.91 +/- 0.47 versus 3.42 +/- 0.74 (P > .05). However, the lateral wall showed lower scores in OPCAB (ASS, 0.18 versus 0.41, P = .015; ARS, 0.12 versus 0.20, P = .168; ADS, 0.06 versus 0.21, P = .031). The septal wall had higher scores in OPCAB (ASS, 0.33 versus 0.12, P = .003; ARS, 0.18 versus 0.07, P = .037; ADS, 0.14 versus 0.04, P = .030). The anterior and inferior walls were not different between the 2 groups. OPCAB led to results similar to those of CCAB. The better results in the lateral wall have been the effect of grafting radial artery rather than vein. The similarity in myocardial reserve in the inferior wall between the 2 groups needs further study. There was no deleterious effect of off-pump as opposed to on-pump CAB.

  8. Isotope ratio analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry (United States)

    Eiler, J. M.; Chimiak, L. M.; Dallas, B.; Griep-Raming, J.; Juchelka, D.; Makarov, A.; Schwieters, J. B.


    Several technologies are being developed to examine the intramolecular isotopic structures of molecules (i.e., site-specific and multiple substitution), but various limitations in sample size and type or (for IRMS) resolution have so far prevented the creation of a truly general technique. We will discuss the initial findings of a technique based on Fourier transform mass spectrometry, using the Thermo Scientific Q Exactive GC — an instrument that contains an Orbitrap mass analyzer. Fourier transform mass spectrometry is marked by exceptionally high mass resolutions (the Orbitrap reaches M/∆M in the range 250,000-1M in the mass range of greatest interest, 50-200 amu). This allows for resolution of a large range of nearly isobaric interferences for isotopologues of volatile and semi-volatile compounds (i.e., involving isotopes of H, C, N, O and S). It also provides potential to solve very challenging mass resolution problems for isotopic analysis of other, heavier elements. Both internal and external experimental reproducibilities of isotope ratio analyses using the Orbitrap typically conform to shot-noise limits down to levels of 0.2 ‰ (1SE), and routinely in the range 0.5-1.0 ‰, with similar accuracy when standardized to concurrently run reference materials. Such measurements can be made without modifications to the ion optics of the Q Exactive GC, but do require specially designed sample introduction devices to permit sample/standard comparison and long integration times. The sensitivity of the Q Exactive GC permits analysis of sub-nanomolar samples and quantification of multiply-substituted species. The site-specific capability of this instrument arises from the fact that mass spectra of molecular analytes commonly contain diverse fragment ion species, each of which samples a specific sub-set of molecular sites. We will present applications of this technique to the biological and abiological chemistry of amino acids, forensic identification of

  9. Stable water isotope patterns in a climate change hotspot: the isotope hydrology framework of Corsica (western Mediterranean). (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Taubald, Heinrich; Barth, Johannes A C


    The Mediterranean is regarded as a region of intense climate change. To better understand future climate change, this area has been the target of several palaeoclimate studies which also studied stable isotope proxies that are directly linked to the stable isotope composition of water, such as tree rings, tooth enamel or speleothems. For such work, it is also essential to establish an isotope hydrology framework of the region of interest. Surface waters from streams and lakes as well as groundwater from springs on the island of Corsica were sampled between 2003 and 2009 for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. Isotope values from lake waters were enriched in heavier isotopes and define a local evaporation line (LEL). On the other hand, stream and spring waters reflect the isotope composition of local precipitation in the catchment. The intersection of the LEL and the linear fit of the spring and stream waters reflect the mean isotope composition of the annual precipitation (δP) with values of-8.6(± 0.2) ‰ for δ(18)O and-58(± 2) ‰ for δ(2)H. This value is also a good indicator of the average isotope composition of the local groundwater in the island. Surface water samples reflect the altitude isotope effect with a value of-0.17(± 0.02) ‰ per 100 m elevation for oxygen isotopes. At Vizzavona Pass in central Corsica, water samples from two catchments within a lateral distance of only a few hundred metres showed unexpected but systematic differences in their stable isotope composition. At this specific location, the direction of exposure seems to be an important factor. The differences were likely caused by isotopic enrichment during recharge in warm weather conditions in south-exposed valley flanks compared to the opposite, north-exposed valley flanks.

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotope signatures in ferruginous lakes: new insights into ancient carbonate isotope excursions (United States)

    Wittkop, C.; Swanner, E.; Lambrecht, N.; Torgeson, J.; Katsev, S.; Myrbo, A.


    Dissolved iron, nutrient, and oxygen profiles from two newly documented ferruginous lakes demonstrate their ability to serve as ancient ocean analogs. Profiles of δ13C composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) from eutrophic Brownie Lake in Minnesota and oligotrophic Canyon Lake in Michigan confirm features previously documented in ferruginous lakes: significant variability in δ13CDIC between surface, chemocline, and bottom waters, told by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions at the chemocline, shifting to significant enrichments in deep waters. Dissolved methane concentrations and methane isotope compositions in Canyon Lake are consistent with pelagic anaerobic methane oxidation, which appears to be the dominant influence on δ13CDIC at the chemocline of this site. Microprobe data from paleo-ferruginous (Quaternary) lake sediments reveal the presence of zoned Fe-Mn carbonates in finely banded sediments where Fe-speciation data lack a magnetite signature associated with diagenetic dissimilatory iron reduction, suggestive of a water-column origin for some ferruginous carbonates. These field and sediment data are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonate δ13C signatures widely assumed to be diagenetic may also be attributed to processes that occur in a ferruginous water column. Carbonate precipitation at a ferruginous chemocline would yield depleted carbon isotope signatures similar to those imparted by diagenetic organic matter mineralization, while carbonate precipitation at a ferruginous sediment-water interface may yield significantly enriched carbon isotope signatures similar to those imparted by diagenetic methanogenesis. Careful evaluation of sediment texture and geochemistry is needed to discern the potential for water column isotopic signatures in ancient ferruginous carbonates. This model may be applied to enigmatic carbon isotope signatures recorded in Precambrian iron formation carbonates including the Kalahari Manganese Field

  11. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the amphiboles: Isotope effects of cation substitutions in minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, M.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Valley, J.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics


    The occurrence of coexisting amphiboles in rocks and the likelihood of concurrent isotope closure allows equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations among the amphiboles to be recovered from natural samples. Oxygen isotope analyses of mineral separates using laser fluorination show that coexisting amphiboles increasingly partition {sup 18}O in the order: hornblende {much_lt} gedrite < cummingtonite {le} anthophyllite. The observed fractionations at {approximately}575 C are: {Delta}(Ged-Hbl) = 0.8%, {Delta}(Cum-Hbl) = 0.9, {Delta}(Cum-Ged) = 0.2, {Delta}(Ath-Ged) = 0.3, and {Delta}(Ath-Hbl) > 0.9. Previously published data for hornblende, actinolite, glaucophane, and garnet show that {Delta}(Act-Hbl) {approximately} 0.2, {Delta}(Gin-Grt) {much_gt} 1, and {Delta}(Hbl-Grt) {approximately} 0. Thus, glaucophane strongly partitions {sup 18}O relative to the calcic amphiboles. The fractionation between two amphiboles of arbitrary composition can be predicted from the known fractionations for mica endmembers, pyroxene endmembers, and exchange components. Applications of the exchange component method reproduce measured amphibole fractionations to within {+-}0.1 to {+-}0.2%, whereas other predictive methods cause misfit for typical metamorphic hornblende of {ge}0.5% at 575 C. Although the isotope effects of cation exchanges may be small at high-T, they magnify dramatically for minerals formed in surficial, diagenetic, and low-T metamorphic environments. Different composition clays are predicted to have equilibrium {delta}{sup 18}O differences of 2--9%. If the isotope fractionation can be determined for one mineral endmember, then calibrated exchanges allow accurate prediction of the isotope fractionations for intermediate compositions of most ortho-, ring-, chain-, and sheet-silicates.

  12. Converting isotope ratios to diet composition - the use of mixing models - June 2010 (United States)

    One application of stable isotope analysis is to reconstruct diet composition based on isotopic mass balance. The isotopic value of a consumer’s tissue reflects the isotopic values of its food sources proportional to their dietary contributions. Isotopic mixing models are used ...

  13. Identifying migrations in marine fishes through stable-isotope analysis. (United States)

    Trueman, C N; MacKenzie, K M; Palmer, M R


    The isotopic composition of many elements varies across both land and ocean surfaces in a predictable fashion. These stable-isotope ratios are transferred into animal tissues, potentially providing a powerful natural geospatial tag. To date, most studies using stable isotopes as geolocators in marine settings have focussed on mammals and seabirds conducting large ocean-basin scale migrations. An increasing understanding of isotopic variation in the marine environment, and improved sampling and analytical techniques, however, means that stable isotopes now hold genuine promise as a natural geolocation tag in marine fishes. Here, the theoretical background underpinning the use of stable isotopes of C, N and O in otolith, scale and muscle tissues as geolocation tools in the marine environment is reviewed, and examples of their applications are provided. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Ubiquitous isotopic anomalies in Ti from normal Allende inclusions (United States)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.


    A novel technique for the high-precision isotopic analysis of titanium was applied to three terrestrial rocks and coarse- and fine-grained Allende inclusions. Repeated analyses of the three terrestrial rocks gave excellent agreement with a Ti metal standard. All seven Allende inclusions were previously determined to contain isotopically normal Nd and/or Sm, indicating that none belongs to a small group of peculiar intrusions. The discovery of widespread Ti isotopic anomalies in normal Allende inclusions establishes Ti as the first non-noble gas element studied since oxygen to show such isotopic heterogeneity. A survey of nucleosynthetic origins of Ti isotopes suggests that the dominant Ti-50 excesses in these inclusions are due to the relative enrichment of isotopes synthesized during hydrostatic burning in, or near, the core of a massive star.

  15. Carbon isotopes of graphite: Implications on fluid history


    F.J. Luque; E. Crespo-Feo; J.F. Barrenechea; L. Ortega


    Stable carbon isotope geochemistry provides important information for the recognition of fundamental isotope exchange processes related to the movement of carbon in the lithosphere and permits the elaboration of models for the global carbon cycle. Carbon isotope ratios in fluid-deposited graphite are powerful tools for unravelling the ultimate origin of carbon (organic matter, mantle, or carbonates) and help to constrain the fluid history and the mechanisms involved in graphite deposition. Gr...

  16. Magnesium isotope fractionation during carbonatite magmatism at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania (United States)

    Li, Wang-Ye; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Halama, Ralf; Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis


    To investigate the behaviour of Mg isotopes during carbonatite magmatism, we analyzed Mg isotopic compositions of natrocarbonatites and peralkaline silicate rocks from Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. The olivine melilitites from the vicinity of Oldoinyo Lengai have homogeneous and mantle-like Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg of -0.30 to -0.26‰), indicating limited Mg isotope fractionation during mantle melting. The highly evolved peralkaline silicate rocks not related to silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility, including phonolites from the unit Lengai I, combeite-wollastonite nephelinites (CWNs) from the unit Lengai II A and carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinites (carbCWMNs), have δ26Mg values (from -0.25 to -0.10‰) clustered around the mantle value. By contrast, the CWNs from the unit Lengai II B, which evolved from the silicate melts that were presumably generated by silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility, have heavier Mg isotopes (δ26Mg of -0.06 to +0.09‰). Such a difference suggests Mg isotope fractionation during liquid immiscibility and implies, based on mass-balance calculations, that the original carbonatite melts at Lengai were isotopically light. The variable and positive δ26Mg values of natrocarbonatites (from +0.13 to +0.37‰) hence require a change of their Mg isotopic compositions subsequent to liquid immiscibility. The negative correlations between δ26Mg values and contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals of natrocarbonatites suggest Mg isotope fractionation during fractional crystallization of carbonatite melts, with heavy Mg isotopes enriched in the residual melts relative to fractionated carbonate minerals. Collectively, significant Mg isotope fractionation may occur during both silicate-carbonatite liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization of carbonatite melts, making Mg isotopes a potentially useful tracer of these processes relevant to carbonatite petrogenesis.

  17. Isotopic Evidence of Unaccounted for Fe and Cu Erythropoietic Pathways (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Telouk, P.; Lamboux, A.; Jaouen, K.; Balter, V.


    Despite its potential importance for understanding perturbations in the Fe-Cu homeostatic pathways, the natural isotopic variability of these metals in the human body remains unexplored. We measured the Fe, Cu, and Zn isotope compositions of total blood, serum, and red blood cells of ~50 young blood donors by multiple-collector ICP-MS after separation and purification by anion exchange chromatography. Zn is on average 0.2 permil heavier in erythrocytes (δ 66Zn=0.44±0.33 permil) with respect to serum but shows much less overall isotopic variability than Fe and Cu, which indicates that isotope fractionation depends more on redox conditions than on ligand coordination. On average, Fe in erythrocytes (δ 56Fe=-2.59±0.47 permil) is isotopically light by 1-2 permil with respect to serum, whereas Cu in erythrocytes (δ 65Cu=0.56±0.50 permil) is 0.8 percent heavier. Fe and Cu isotope compositions clearly separate erythrocytes of men and women. Fe and Cu from B-type men erythrocytes are visibly more fractionated than all the other blood types. Isotope compositions provide an original method for evaluating metal mass balance and homeostasis. Natural isotope variability shows that the current models of Fe and Cu erythropoiesis, which assume that erythropoiesis is restricted to bone marrow, violate mass balance requirements. It unveils unsuspected major pathways for Fe, with erythropoietic production of isotopically heavy ferritin and hemosiderin, and for Cu, with isotopically light Cu being largely channeled into blood and lymphatic circulation rather than into superoxide dismutase-laden erythrocytes. Iron isotopes provide an intrinsic measuring rod of the erythropoietic yield, while Cu isotopes seem to gauge the relative activity of erythropoiesis and lymphatics.

  18. The process of glauconitization: chemical and isotopic evidence (United States)

    Stille, Peter; Clauer, Norbert


    Sequential leaching experiments were made on Recent glauconies and clay fractions of the associated mud from off-shore Africa near the estuary of the Congo River. Analyses of major/rare earth elements (REE) and Nd isotopic compositions on the resulting leachate and residue pairs allow identification of at least three important and isotopically distinct components which contributed to the glauconitization process: (1) a detrital component with relatively high 87Sr/86Sr and relatively low 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios; (2) a phosphate phase rich in REE and Sr with sea water Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics; (3) a component rich in organic matter and Ca with a sea water Sr isotopic signature, a relatively low Nd isotopic composition and elevated Sm/Nd ratios. This latter component probably represents the suspended organic and carbonate-rich river load. The detrital and the river components were mixed up in the muddy off-shore sediment, ingested by worms, and integrated into faecal pellets. The resulting material has Sr and Nd isotopic signatures intermediate between those of the detrital and river components, and represents the precursor of the glaucony minerals. During the subsequent dissolution-crystallization process, the glauconitic pellets remain isotopically closed to any external supply, but expulsion of Sr and Nd with increasing degree of maturation is observed without any effect on the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. At a higher maturation stage (K2O>4.5%), the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions tend to decrease and increase, respectively, approximating the isotopic composition values of the phosphate-rich phase. Because the Sr and Nd concentrations decrease, the evolution of the glauconies toward lower Sr and higher Nd isotopic compositions can only be explained by expulsion of Sr and Nd of the detrital component with high Sr and low Nd isotopic signatures. Dissolution of the chemically unstable, wormdigested clay material from mud may be responsible for the

  19. Rising atmospheric methane: 2007–2014 growth and isotopic shift

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nisbet, E. G; Dlugokencky, E. J; Manning, M. R; Lowry, D; Fisher, R. E; France, J. L; Michel, S. E; Miller, J. B; White, J. W. C; Vaughn, B; Bousquet, P; Pyle, J. A; Warwick, N. J; Cain, M; Brownlow, R; Zazzeri, G; Lanoisellé, M; Manning, A. C; Gloor, E; Worthy, D. E. J; Brunke, E.‐G; Labuschagne, C; Wolff, E. W; Ganesan, A. L


    .... The isotopic evidence presented here suggests that the methane rise was dominated by significant increases in biogenic methane emissions, particularly in the tropics, for example, from expansion...

  20. A new method for carbon isotopic analysis of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))


    The reaction of ninhydrin with amino acids can be used in carbon isotopic studies of protein. The reaction can be applied to extract as carbon dioxide only peptide-bonded carbon in proteinaceous material, thus avoiding most, if not all, contaminants. Test radiocarbon dates on ancient bone indicate that the method provides reliable ages, and stable carbon isotopic data suggest that our understanding of isotopic dietary reconstruction needs detailed examination. The technique should also be useful in biochemical tracing experiments and in global carbon budget studies, and the underlying principle may be applicable to other isotopes and molecules. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.