Sample records for thallium 193

  1. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S


    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  2. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun [Kosin University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  3. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch


    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ... (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  5. Repeat thallium-201 SPECT in cerebral lymphoma. (United States)

    Borggreve, F; Dierckx, R A; Crols, R; Mathijs, R; Appel, B; Vandevivere, J; Mariën, P; Martin, J J; De Deyn, P P


    The authors report on the contribution of Thallium-201 brain SPECT in the diagnosis and follow-up of a non-immunosuppressed patient, presenting with primary cerebral lymphoma. The tumoral process was at first not diagnosed on CT-scan, but Thallium-201 SPECT suggested a tumoral invasion. During corticosteroid treatment the tumor volume on CT-scan decreased, while on Thallium-201 SPECT there was an enhancement of the accumulation and an increasing tumor to non-tumor ratio. These scintigraphical findings more closely reflected the clinical course and the postmortem results.

  6. Thallium poisoning from maliciously contaminated food. (United States)

    Meggs, W J; Hoffman, R S; Shih, R D; Weisman, R S; Goldfrank, L R


    Four young adults presented two days after one of them had received marzipan balls packaged in a box from an expensive candy manufacturer. Two ate one candy ball, while two others shared a third. The next day, variable gastrointestinal symptoms developed. On the third day, two patients developed painful paresthesiae of the hands and feet, an early but nonspecific clinical marker of thallium poisoning. A tentative diagnosis of thallium poisoning was made based on symptoms, and treatment was initiated. The remaining candies were radiographed. Metallic densities in the candies supported the diagnosis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantitate thallium content. Each candy contained a potentially fatal dose. Five to seven days later, hypertension and tachycardia developed in the two patients who had ingested an entire candy. All patients developed alopecia but recovered without overt neurologic or other sequelae. While the diagnosis of thallium poisoning is often delayed until alopecia develops, an early diagnosis favors an effective treatment strategy.

  7. Comment: 193 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Cettia_diphone_L.png 193.png Takeru Nakazato (Database Center for Life...: Takeru Nakazato (Database Center for Life Science) ウグイス Cettia diphone cantans nakazato 2008/12/22 10:09:51 2010/01/14 20:05:22 ...

  8. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.


    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  9. Examining of Thallium in Cigarette Smokers. (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; NasehGhafoori, Payam; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrzad, Fateme; Nekuei, Mina; Aaseth, Jan; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Mehrpour, Omid


    Smoking is one of the sources of thallium which is considered as a toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to determine urinary thallium levels and related variables in smokers, compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 56 participants who had smoked continuously during the year before they were referred to Kashan Smoking Cessation Clinic. Fifty-three nonsmokers who were family members or friends of the smokers were selected as the control group. Urinary thallium was measured in both groups (n = 109) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value (with SD) for urinary thallium in the smokers (10.16 ± 1.82 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.39 ± 0.63 μg/L). There was a significant relationship between smoking duration and urinary thallium levels (P = 0.003). In a subgroup of smokers who was addicted to opium and opium residues (n = 9), the mean level of thallium (37.5 ± 13.09 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the other smokers (4.93 ± 4.45; P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed opioid abuse, insomnia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), together were strong predictors of urinary thallium levels in smokers. There was no significant difference in thallium level in hookah smokers (P = 0.299) or in those with COPD compared to other smokers (P = 0.375). Urinary thallium levels of smokers with clinical signs of depression, sleep disorders, memory loss, and sweating were higher than those of smokers without these signs. Since thallium, as other toxic metals is accumulated in the body, and cigarette smoking also involves carcinogenic exposures and health hazards for passively exposed people, the need for cigarette control policies is emphasized.

  10. Thallium-201 scintigraphy in unstable angina pectoris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackers, F.J.T.; Lie, K.I.; Liem, K.L.; Sokole, E.B.; Samson, G.; Van Der Schoot, J.B.; Durrer, D.


    Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed during the pain free period in 98 patients with unstable angina. Scintiscans were positive in 39 patients, questionable in 27 patients and normal in 32 patients. Eighty-one patients responded favorably to treatment (group I). Seventeen patients had complicated courses (group II) and despite maximal treatment with propranolol either developed infarction (six patients) or continued to have angina necessitating coronary surgery (11 patients). In group I during the pain free period 26 of 81 patients had positive thallium-201 scans, whereas 20 patients had an abnormal ECG at that time; during angina 18 patients had transient ECG changes. In group II during the pain free period 13 of 17 patients had positive scans, whereas two patients had abnormal ECG at that time; during angina 12 patients showed transient ECG changes. The sensitivity to recognize group II was 76% for thallium-201 scintigraphy, 11% for ECG during the pain free period; 70% for ECG during angina; 94% for the combination of either positive scans or abnormal ECG. Thus, positive thallium-201 scans occur in patients with unstable angina, positive scans can be obtained during the pain free period, thallium-201 scans are more frequently positive in patients with complicated course.

  11. Thallium-201 uptake in a benign thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campeau, R.J.; Ey, E.H.; Varma, D.G.


    A 68-year-old woman was admitted with atypical angina. A chest radiograph showed an anterior mediastinal mass that was confirmed on CT. The mass was relatively avascular and separate from the heart and great vessels. She underwent stress thallium testing that demonstrated no exercise-induced ischemia; however, an abnormal focus of thallium activity was present in the anterior mediastinum on stress and redistribution images. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a normal left ventriculogram, coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign thymoma arising in the right lobe of the thymus gland.

  12. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Sergio; Rios, Camilo [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, ' ' Manuel Velasco Suarez' ' , Departamento de Neuroquimica, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Soriano, Luz; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD{sub 50}. Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P < 0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain. (orig.)

  13. Thallium in fractions of soil formed on floodplain terraces. (United States)

    Jakubowska, Monika; Pasieczna, Anna; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz; Swit, Zbigniew; Lukaszewski, Zenon


    Two soils formed on the floodplain terrace of a rivulet flowing through the zinc-lead ore exploration area polluted with thallium and one soil from a floodplain terrace of the reference area were investigated in terms of thallium distribution between soil fractions. Such type of soil is formed on river floodplain terraces next to the main river channel and its composition records the history of river pollution. A sequential extraction of soil according to the BCR protocol was performed with an additional initial stage of extraction with water. Apart from labile thallium, thallium entrapped in the residual parent matter was also determined. Thallium was determined by flow-injection differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. In all three cases, the major fraction is thallium entrapped in parent matter. Top soil from the polluted area contains 49.3% thallium entrapped in the residual parent matter, the bottom soil contains 41% while the reference soil contains 80% in this fraction. The major part of labile thallium is located in the reducible fraction (27.7% of total thallium in the top soil, 27% in the bottom soil and 12.4% of the reference soil). Second in terms of significance is the fraction of oxidizable thallium. The top soil contains 12% of total thallium concentration, the bottom soil contains 19% of total concentration, while the reference soil contains 4.1% of total concentration. The acid soluble/exchangeable fraction of thallium has almost the same significance as the oxidizable fraction. The top soil contains 10.4% of the total concentration, while the bottom soil contains 12% of the total concentration. Water soluble thallium concentration is very small. Comparison of the top and the bottom soil show that thallium has not been transported from the river channel onto the floodplain terrace over a long period.

  14. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2007 physics pp. 467–479. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single crystals. I M ASHRAF, H A ELSHAIKH and A M BADR. Physics Department ... pendencies of carrier lifetime on light intensity, applied voltage and temperature are also ..... 14, 797 (1935) (in Japanese). [10] A T ...

  15. Extraction separation of thallium (III) from thallium (I) with n-octylaniline. (United States)

    Shilimkar, Tulshidas N; Anuse, Mansing A; Patil, Kesharsingh J


    A novel method is developed for the extraction separation of thallium(III) from salicylate medium with n-octylaniline dissolved in toluene as an extractant. The optimum conditions have been determined by making a critical study of weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and effect of solvent on the equilibria. The thallium (III) from the pregnant organic phase is stripped with acetate buffer solution (pH 4.7) and determined complexometrically with EDTA. The method affords the sequential separation of thallium(III) from thallium(I) and also commonly associated metal ions such as Al(III), Ga(III), In(III), Fe(III), Bi(III), Sb(III) and Pb(II). It is used for analysis of synthetic mixtures of associated metal ions and alloys. The method is highly selective, simple and reproducible. The reaction takes place at room temperature and requires 15-20 min for extraction and determination of thallium(III).

  16. Thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic anisotropy examination. (United States)

    Mantsevich, S N


    Thallium bromide iodide crystal also known as KRS-5 is the well known material used in far infrared radiation applications for optical windows and lenses fabrication. The main advantage of this material is the transparency in wide band of wavelengths from 0.53 to 50μm. Despite such advantages as transparency and large acousto-optic figure of merit values, KRS-5 is rarely used in acousto-optics. Nevertheless this material seems to be promising for far infrared acousto-optic applications. The acoustic and acousto-optic properties of KRS-5 needed for the full use in optoelectronics are not well understood to date. In this paper the detailed examination of thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic properties is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thallium and its contents in Remata carbonate rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondelová Marcela


    Full Text Available The article presents at first the list of thallium own minerals and its isomorphic content in other minerals, especially in Slovakian ore deposits. This trace element was found in numerous dolomite-rock samples from Remata massif near Handlová. An interesting level of Tl content was analyzed in nonsilicified rocks; the highest content of Tl (and Ag are along the E – W line of disturbance. The presence of thallium in some limonitic aggregates in close Kremnica-gold deposit indicate any continuous relation. Some similarities to type gold deposits Carlin ( USA are discussed, even if no gold and discrete thallium phases were in Remata determined yet.

  18. 193

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 1, 2002 ... to be considered concerning the quality of data in this study is incompleteness of the demographic data. The .... odd ratio varying from 0.5 to 4 in case control studies (28). However, in Africa the role of H.pylori in the aetiology .... Tumours of the alimentary сапа). In: Tumours in a tropical, country; a survey of ...

  19. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II 21/2...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2911 - Security lighting. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security lighting. 193.2911 Section 193.2911...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2911 Security lighting. Where security warning systems are not...) and each protective enclosure must be illuminated with a minimum in service lighting intensity of not...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2517 - Purging. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purging. 193.2517 Section 193.2517 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.251...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2067 - Wind forces. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wind forces. 193.2067 Section 193.2067...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2067 Wind forces. (a) LNG facilities must be designed to withstand without loss of structural or functional integrity: (1) The direct effect of wind forces...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2625 - Corrosion protection. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion protection. 193.2625 Section 193.2625...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2625 Corrosion protection. (a) Each operator shall determine which metallic components could, unless corrosion is controlled, have their integrity or reliability...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an outer...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more, it...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2609 - Support systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support systems. 193.2609 Section 193.2609 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2609 Support systems. Each support system or foundation of each...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2519 - Communication systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communication systems. 193.2519 Section 193.2519...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 193.2519 Communication systems. (a) Each LNG plant must have a primary communication system that provides for verbal communications between all operating personnel at...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signs. 193.2917 Section 193.2917...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must be conspicuously placed along each protective enclosure at intervals so that at least one sign is recognizable at night from a...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2715 - Training: security. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training: security. 193.2715 Section 193.2715...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2715 Training: security. (a) Personnel responsible for security at an LNG plant must be trained in accordance with a written plan of...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2709 - Security. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security. 193.2709 Section 193.2709 Transportation...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2709 Security. Personnel having security duties must be qualified to perform their assigned duties by successful completion of the training...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2905 - Protective enclosures. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective enclosures. 193.2905 Section 193.2905...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2905 Protective enclosures. (a) The following facilities must be surrounded by a protective enclosure: (1) Storage tanks; (2) Impounding systems; (3) Vapor barriers; (4...

  12. 49 CFR 572.193 - Neck assembly. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Neck assembly. 572.193 Section 572.193... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.193 Neck assembly. (a) The neck assembly consists of parts shown in drawing 180-2000. For purposes of this test, the neck assembly is mounted within the headform assembly...

  13. Tracing thallium contamination in soils using isotopes (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Trubač, Jakub; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Rohovec, Jan; Penížek, Vít; Zádorová, Tereza; Pavlů, Lenka; Holubík, Ondřej; Drábek, Ondřej; Němeček, Karel; Houška, Jakub; Ash, Christopher


    We report the thallium (Tl) isotope record in moderately contaminated soils, which have been historically affected by emissions from coal-fired power plants. Our findings clearly demonstrate that Tl of anthropogenic (high-temperature) origin with light isotope composition was deposited onto the studied soils, where heavier Tl (ɛ205Tl -1) naturally occurs. The results show a positive linear relationship (R2 = 0.71) between 1/Tl and the isotope record, as determined for all the soils and bedrocks, also indicative of binary Tl mixing between two dominant reservoirs. We also identified significant Tl isotope variations within the products from coal combustion and thermo-desorption experiments with local Tl-rich coal pyrite. Bottom ash exhibited the heaviest Tl isotope composition (ɛ205Tl 0), followed by fly ash (ɛ205Tl between -2.5 and -2.8) and volatile Tl fractions (ɛ205Tl between -6.2 and -10.3), suggesting partial Tl isotope fractionations. Despite the evident role of soil processes in the isotope redistribution, we demonstrate that Tl contamination can be traced in soils, and propose that the isotope data represent a possible tool to aid our understanding of post-depositional Tl dynamics in surface environments for the future. This research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (grant no. 14-01866S and 17-03211S).

  14. Catalytic properties of Thallium-containing mesoporous silicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baradji


    Full Text Available The benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride over a series of Thallium-containing mesoporous silicas with different Tl contents has been investigated. These materials (Tl-HMS-n have been characterized by chemical analysis, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The mesoporous Thallium-containing materials showed both high activity and high selectivity for the benzylation of benzene. More interesting is the observation that these catalysts are always active and selective for large molecules like naphthenic compounds such as methoxynaphthalene.

  15. 193 nm photodissociation of acetylene (United States)

    Balko, B. A.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y. T.


    The product translational energy distribution P(ET) for acetylene photodissociation at 193 nm was obtained from the time-of-flight spectrum of the H atom fragments. The P(ET) shows resolved structure from the vibrational and electronic excitation of the C2H fragment; comparison of the translational energy release for given excited states of C2H with the known energy levels of these states gives D0(HCC-H) = 131.4 + or - 0.5 kcal/mol. This value is in agreement with that determined previously in this group from analogous studies of the C2H fragment and with the latest experimental and theoretical work. The high resolution of the experiment also reveals the nature of C2H internal excitation. A significant fraction of the H atoms detected at moderate laser power were from the secondary dissociation of C2H. The P(ET) derived for this channel indicates that most of the C2 is produced in excited electronic states.

  16. 193 nm photodissociation of acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.A.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.T. (Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720 (USA))


    The product translational energy distribution {ital P}({ital E}{sub {ital T}}) for acetylene photodissociation at 193 nm was obtained from the time-of-flight spectrum of the H atom fragments. The {ital P}({ital E}{sub {ital T}}) shows resolved structure from the vibrational and electronic excitation of the C{sub 2}H fragment; comparison of the translational energy release for given excited states of C{sub 2}H with the known energy levels of these states gives {ital D}{sub 0}(HCC--H)=131.4{plus minus}0.5 kcal/mol. This value is in agreement with that determined previously in this group from analogous studies of the C{sub 2}H fragment and with the latest experimental and theoretical work. The high resolution of the experiment also reveals the nature of C{sub 2}H internal excitation. A significant fraction of the H atoms detected at moderate laser power were from the secondary dissociation of C{sub 2}H. The {ital P}({ital E}{sub {ital T}}) derived for this channel indicates that most of the C{sub 2} is produced in excited electronic states.

  17. A comparison of the clinical relevance of thallium201 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thallium-201 is at present the radiotracer of choice for the clinical evaluation of myocardial blood flow. Although different technetium-99m-isonitrile agents have been synthesised recently, only 99mTc-melhoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc_MIBI) has proved to hold promise for clinical implementation. The myocardial distribution ...

  18. Een bepalingsmethode voor thallium in regenwater met behulp van voltammetrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs; J.; Wolfs; P.M.; Esseveld; F.G.van


    In dit rapport wordt een bepalingmethode beschreven voor thallium in het nanogram/liter-gebied, waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van differentiele pulse-anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) aan de dunne kwikfilm. Met deze techniek blijkt het mogelijk om de concentratie van dit element rechtstreeks

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (External Review Draft) (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certai...

  20. Band-Structure of Thallium by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtham, P. M.; Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    The relativistic band structure of thallium has been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method. The positions and extents of the bands were found to follow the Wigner-Seitz rule approximately, and the origin of the dispersion of the bands was established from the canonical s...

  1. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using ...

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLB193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB193 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15766-1 SLB193E (Link to Original site) SLB...193F 617 SLB193Z 633 SLB193P 1250 SLB193E 982 Show SLB193 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLB...inal site URL Representative seq. ID SLB...193E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLB193 (SLB193Q) /CSM/SL/SLB1-D/SLB...ences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLB193 (SLB193Q) /CSM/SL/SLB1-D/SLB

  3. Selective Thallium (I Ion Sensor Based on Functionalised ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Ibupoto


    Full Text Available Well controlled in length and highly aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the gold-coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. ZnO nanorods were functionalised with selective thallium (I ion ionophore dibenzyldiaza-18-crown-6 (DBzDA18C6. The thallium ion sensor showed wide linear potentiometric response to thallium (I ion concentrations ( M to  M with high sensitivity of 36.87 ± 1.49 mV/decade. Moreover, thallium (I ion demonstrated fast response time of less than 5 s, high selectivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and negligible response to common interferents. The proposed thallium (I ion-sensor electrode was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration, and it has shown good stoichiometric response for the determination of thallium (I ion.

  4. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 8, 2005 ... surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using xylenol orange as indicator. ... Reproducible and accurate results are obtained in the concentration range 4–80 mg of thallium with a relative error ≤ ±0.6% .... soluble and stable 1:1 complex with Tl(I) so formed.22 This was.

  5. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  6. Dicty_cDB: SLF193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLF193 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15976-1 | Contig-U16272-1 SLF...193P (Link to Original site) SLF193F 161 SLF193Z 400 SLF193P 560 - - Show SLF193 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLF...76-1 | Contig-U16272-1 Original site URL Representative seq. ID SLF193P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLF193 (SLF...193Q) /CSM/SL/SLF1-D/SLF193Q.Seq.d/ CGGACGCGTGGGTTTTGTTTTTTTTTTTTTATATATTTAAAAAAAAAAGATAATATTTAT

  7. Sodium dithionite as a selective demasking agent for the complexometric determination of thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sodium dithionite is proposed as a new demasking agent for the rapid and selective complexometric determination of thallium(III. In the presence of diverse metal ions, thallium (III was first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTAwas then titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5–6 (hexamine buffer using Xylenol Orange as the indicator. The EDTAequivalent to thallium was then released selectively with sodium dithionite and back titrated with a standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results were obtained in the range 4–100 mg of thallium with a relative error of ±27 % and a coefficient of variation (n = 6 of not more than 0.30 %. The effects of various diverse ions were studied. The method was applied to the determination of thallium in its complexes and in alloys.

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSF193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSF193 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15128-1 VSF193P (Link to Original site) VSF1...93F 376 VSF193Z 343 VSF193P 719 - - Show VSF193 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSF1... URL Representative seq. ID VSF1...93P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSF193 (VSF193Q) /CSM/VS/VSF1-D/VSF1... (rps17) gene, complete cds. 311 e-144 4 BG259081 |BG259081.1 602379133F1 NIH_MGC_92 Homo sapiens cDNA clone

  9. 46 CFR 193.50-10 - Location. (United States)


    ... Space Classification (see § 193.50-5) Quantity and location Safety Areas 1 Wheelhouse or fire control room None required. Stairway and elevator enclosures Do. Communicating corridors A-II 1 in each main... spaces, public spaces, offices, lockers, isolated storerooms, and pantries open decks, etc None required...

  10. 27 CFR 41.193 - Corporate documents. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporate documents. 41..., AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.193 Corporate documents. Every corporation... directors' meetings, listing the offices the incumbents of which are authorized to sign documents or...

  11. [Efficiency of hemoperfusion on clearing thallium based on atomic absorption spectrometry]. (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Wang, Yongan; Nie, Zhiyong; Wang, Jiao; Peng, Xiaobo; Yuan, Ye; Li, Wanhua; Qiu, Zewu; Xue, Yanping; Xiong, Yiru


    To determine thallium in whole blood by atomic absorption detection method, and to investigate the eliminating effect of hemoperfusion (HP) for thallium in blood. The blood of Beagle dogs which had not exposed to thallium before were obtained for preparation of thallium nitrate ( TlNO3 )-containing solution in three concentrations according to the conversion formula based on animal weight and volume of blood. HP was performed in the simulated in vivo environment. The content of TlNO3 in blood of the next group was determined on the amount of TlNO3 for the last HP of the former dose group. Thallium quantity in different samples was measured with atomic absorption spectrometer blood samples before and after HP. Finally, the thallium concentration in blood was analyzed statistically. Thallium concentrations showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0-200 μg/L (r = 0.998 4). The intra-day precision (RSD) was lower than 4.913%, the intra-day recovery rate was 96.2%-111.9%; the inter-day precision (RSD) was lower than 7.502%, the inter-day recovery rate was 89.6%-105.2%. The concentration of thallium in blood was significantly reduced after HP per time in high, middle, and low dose groups [(453.43 ± 27.80) mg/L to (56.09 ± 14.44) mg/L in high dose group, F = 8.820, P = 0.003; (64.51 ± 13.60) mg/L to (3.19 ± 0.23) mg/L in middle dose group, F = 36.312, P = 0.000; (5.40 ± 0.98) mg/L to (0.38 ± 0.25) mg/L in low dose group, F = 46.240, P = 0.000 ]. The adsorption rate of four times of HP in high, middle and low dose group were (87.63 ± 2.48 )%, (95.06 ± 1.54 )% and (92.76 ± 4.87)%, respectively, without significant difference (F = 4.231, P = 0.070). The method for measuring thallium was established, and it shows a very stable, simple, sensitive for determination of thallium. HP can effectively remove thallium from blood. Thallium concentration can be reduced by 90% after four times of HP. HP is also effective even when thallium concentration is not high.

  12. Left ventricular dilatation and pulmonary thallium uptake after single-photon emission computer tomography using thallium-201 during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Nguyen, T.; Lyons, E.; Paugh, E. (Philadelphia Heart Institute, PA (USA))


    This study examined the implications of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and increased pulmonary thallium uptake during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia. The lung-to-heart thallium ratio in the initial images was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) than normal subjects; 0.48 +/- 0.16 in 3-vessel disease (n = 16), 0.43 +/- 0.10 in 2-vessel disease (n = 20), 0.43 +/- 0.08 in 1-vessel disease (n = 16) and 0.36 +/- 0.05 in normal subjects (n = 7) (p less than 0.001, 0.09 and 0.06, respectively). There was a significant correlation between the severity and the extent of the perfusion abnormality (determined from the polar maps) and the lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.51 and 0.52, respectively, p less than 0.0002). There was also a significant correlation between lung thallium washout and lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.42, p = 0.0009) and peak heart rate (r = -0.49, p less than 0.0001). The LV dilatation was mostly due to an increase in cavity dimension (30% increase) and to a lesser extent (6% increase) due to increase in LV size. (The cavity dimensions were measured from the short-axis slices at the midventricular level in the initial and delayed images). The dilation was seen in patients with CAD but not in the normal subjects. These changes correlated with the extent and severity of the thallium perfusion abnormality. Thus, adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia may cause LV dilation and increased lung thallium uptake on the basis of subendocardial ischemia.

  13. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by— (a...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2635 - Monitoring corrosion control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monitoring corrosion control. 193.2635 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2635 Monitoring corrosion control. Corrosion protection provided as required by this subpart must be periodically monitored to give early...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic membrane liner. 193.2187 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks § 193.2187 Nonmetallic membrane liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank...

  16. 33 CFR 110.193 - Tampa Bay, Fla. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tampa Bay, Fla. 110.193 Section 110.193 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193 Tampa Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives...

  17. 33 CFR 110.193a - St. Joseph Bay, Fla. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Joseph Bay, Fla. 110.193a Section 110.193a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193a St. Joseph Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  18. 46 CFR 193.50-20 - Semiportable fire extinguishers. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiportable fire extinguishers. 193.50-20 Section 193... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing Systems, Arrangements and Details § 193.50-20 Semiportable fire extinguishers. (a) The frame or support of...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2304 - Corrosion control overview. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion control overview. 193.2304 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2304 Corrosion control overview. (a... materials specifications from a corrosion control viewpoint and determines that the materials involved will...

  20. Early detection of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by exercise-redistribution Thallium scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Wijns (William); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)


    textabstractThe value of exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in predicting recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis after a primary successful transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was prospectively evaluated. In 89 patients, a symptom-limited exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and

  1. Oral zinc sulphate in treatment of patients with thallium poisoning: A clinical therapeutic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Thallium poisoning is usually associated with typical dermatological features simulating that of zinc deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of patients with thallium poisoning.Materials and methods: This clinical therapeutic trial study was conducted in Departments of Dermatology of Baghdad and Basrah Teaching Hospitals from February 2008 - February 2010, where a total of 37 patients with thallium poisoning were enrolled.A detailed history was taken from all patients and complete clinical examination was performed. All patients received zinc sulphate in a dose of 5 mg/kg three times a day few days before confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. Thallium in urine had been measured using the colorimetric method and was positive in all patients. After confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning, thallium antidotes Prussian blue was given to 32 patients.Results: Age range of 37 patients was 5-33 (24±5.3 years. The dermatological findings were mainly: anagen hair loss affected the scalp and limbs. Also, dusky ecchymotic red dermatitis like rash was observed on the face and dorsum of hands and legs, while neurological manifestations were mainly of peripheral neuropathy, were reported in 21 (55% patients. All patients but two responded promptly to a trial of zinc sulphate within few days.Conclusion: Oral Zinc sulphate appears to be an effective and safe treatment for thallium poisoning particularly for skin and hair features and in reducing its lethal progression and complications. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:133-7

  2. Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices (United States)


    THALLIUM(I) IN REVERSE OSMOSIS AND CHLORINATED WATER MATRICES ECBC-TR-1127 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Apr 2010 - Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fate of Thallium(I) in Reverse Osmosis and Chlorinated Water Matrices... osmosis (RO) and RO water with added chlorine (RO-Cl) was measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for a period of

  3. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England. (United States)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew


    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L(-1)) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L(-1) were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (~1400 ng L(-1)) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Qualitative evaluation of coronary flow during anesthetic induction using thallium-201 perfusion scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, B.; Henkin, R.E.; Glisson, S.N.; el-Etr, A.A.; Bakhos, M.; Sullivan, H.J.; Montoya, A.; Pifarre, R.


    Qualitative distribution of coronary flow using thallium-201 perfusion scans immediately postintubation was studied in 22 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Ten patients received a thiopental (4 mg/kg) and halothane induction. Twelve patients received a fentanyl (100 micrograms/kg) induction. Baseline thallium-201 perfusion scans were performed 24 h prior to surgery. These scans were compared with the scans performed postintubation. A thallium-positive scan was accepted as evidence of relative hypoperfusion. Baseline hemodynamic and ECG data were obtained prior to induction of anesthesia. These data were compared with the data obtained postintubation. Ten patients developed postintubation thallium-perfusion scan defects (thallium-positive scan), even though there was no statistical difference between their baseline hemodynamics and hemodynamics at the time of intubation. There was no difference in the incidence of thallium-positive scans between those patients anesthetized by fentanyl and those patients anesthetized with thiopental-halothane. The authors conclude that relative hypoperfusion, and possibly ischemia, occurred in 45% of patients studied, despite stable hemodynamics, and that the incidence of these events was the same with two different anesthetic techniques.

  5. Comparison of thallium deposition with segmental perfusion in pigs with chronic hibernating myocardium. (United States)

    Baldwa, Sunil; Rana, Muzamil; Canty, John M; Fallavollita, James A


    Viable, chronically dysfunctional myocardium with reduced resting flow (or hibernating myocardium) is an important prognostic factor in ischemic heart disease. Although thallium-201 imaging is frequently used to assess myocardial viability in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, there are limited data regarding its deposition in hibernating myocardium, and this data suggest that thallium retention may be supernormal compared with control myocardium. Accordingly, pigs (n=7) were chronically instrumented with a 1.5 mm Delrin stenosis on the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to produce hibernating myocardium. Four months later, severe anteroapical hypokinesis was documented with contrast ventriculography (wall motion score, 0.7+/-0.8; normal=3), and microsphere measurements confirmed reduced resting flow (LAD subendocardium, 0.78+/-0.34 vs. 0.96+/-0.24 ml.min(-1).g(-1) in remote; P<0.001). Absolute deposition of thallium-201 and insulin-stimulated [18F]-2 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) were assessed over 1 h and compared with resting flow (n=704 samples). Thallium-201 deposition was only weakly correlated with perfusion (r2=0.20; P<0.001) and was more homogeneously distributed (relative dispersion, 0.12+/-0.03 vs. 0.29+/-0.10 for microsphere flow; P<0.01). Thus after 1 h relative thallium-201 (subendocardium LAD/remote, 0.96+/-0.16) overestimated relative perfusion (0.78+/-0.32; P<0.0001) and underestimated the relative reduction in flow. Viability was confirmed by both histology and preserved FDG uptake. We conclude that under resting conditions, thallium-201 redistribution in hibernating myocardium is nearly complete within 1 h, with similar deposition to remote myocardium despite regional differences in flow. These data suggest that in this time frame thallium-201 deposition may not discriminate hibernating myocardium from dysfunction myocardium with normal resting flow. Since hibernating myocardium has been associated with a worse prognosis

  6. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of {sup 201}TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse (Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per {sup 201}TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl<2.5 have been conservatively managed because of slow tumour growth. The other two pts have Tl>3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid {sup 201}TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid {sup 201}TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, {sup 201}TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited

  7. Evaluation of muscular lesions in connective tissue diseases: thallium 201 muscular scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, G.; Guillet, J.; Sanciaume, C.; Maleville, J.; Geniaux, M.; Morin, P.


    We performed thallium 201 muscle scans to assess muscular involvement in 40 patients with different connective tissue diseases (7 with dermatomyositis, 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 12 with progressive systemic scleroderma, 2 with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, 3 with monomelic scleroderma, 6 with morphea, and 3 with Raynaud's disease). Only 12 of these patients complained of fatigability and/or myalgia. Electromyography was performed and serum levels of muscle enzymes were measured in all patients. Comparison of thallium 201 exercise recording with the other tests revealed that scan sensitivity is greater than electromyographic and serum muscle enzymes levels. Thallium 201 scans showed abnormal findings in 32 patients and revealed subclinical lesions in 18 patients, while electromyography findings were abnormal in 25 of these 32 patients. Serum enzyme levels were raised in only 8 patients. Thallium 201 scanning proved to be a useful guide for modifying therapy when laboratory data were conflicting. It was useful to evaluate treatment efficacy. Because our data indicate a 100% positive predictive value, we believe that thallium 201 scanning should be advised for severe systemic connective tissue diseases with discordant test results.

  8. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro (Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine)


    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV{sub F} on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author).

  9. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  10. Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)


    Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. [Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of thallium in blood]. (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Gao, G


    Colloidal palladium was used as chemical modifier in the determination of blood thallium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood samples were precipitated with 5% (V/V)nitric acid, and then determined by GFAAS with colloidal palladium used as a chemical modifier. 0.2% (W/V)sodium chloride was added in the standard series to improve the matrix matching between standard solution and sample. The detection limit was 0.2 μg/L. The correlation coefficient was 0.9991. The recoveries were between 93.9% to 101.5%.The relative standard deviations were between 1.8% to 2.7%.The certified reference material of whole blood thallium was determined and the result was within the reference range Conclusion: The method is accurate, simple and sensitive, and it can meet the needs of detection thallium in blood entirely.

  12. Myocardial perfusion defect on thallium-201 imaging in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, P.P.; Weaver, Y.J.; Higginbotham, E.A.


    Six patients with angina pectoris had reversible perfusion defects on stress and redistribution thallium imaging. Three patients had a positive electrocardiographic response to exercise. No significant coronary artery lesions were seen on coronary arteriography in any of the six patients. All had mild to moderate hypoxemia at rest and physiologic evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by the decrease in the ratio of forced expiratory volume at 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC X 100) or decrease in the forced midexpiratory flow rate (FEF25-75), or both. None had clinical findings suggestive of any of the reported causes of positive thallium scans in patients with normal coronary arteriograms. Cellular dysfunction produced by hypoxemia affecting the uptake of thallium seems to be the most likely mechanism of this abnormality.

  13. Photodissociation of ethylene at 193 nm (United States)

    Balko, B. A.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y. T.


    The photodissociation of ethylene at 193 nm was studied by measuring the product translational energy distributions for the H+C2H3 and H2+C2H2 channels. In agreement with previous workers, it was determined that atomic and molecular elimination occur in relatively equal amounts. Using 1,1 D2CCH2 and 1,2 cis HDCCDH, it was shown that both acetylene and vinylidene are formed and that the acetylene/vinylidene ratio is approximately 2/3 in the molecular elimination. This H2 elimination channel has a translational energy distribution peaked at around 20 kcal/mol, indicating that it is a concerted process with a substantial exit barrier. It was found that the H atom elimination channel is best described as a simple bond rupture occurring after internal conversion of the electronically excited molecule to the vibrationally excited ground state ethylene. Some of the primary C2H3 product has sufficient internal energy to spontaneously decompose to H+HC≡CH. At higher laser intensity a large fraction of the C2H3, however, absorbs another photon and fragments to H+H2C=C: (1A1 and 3B2).

  14. Photodissociation of ethylene at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.A.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.T. (Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))


    The photodissociation of ethylene at 193 nm was studied by measuring the product translational energy distributions for the H+C{sub 2}H{sub 3} and H{sub 2}+C{sub 2}H{sub 2} channels. In agreement with previous workers, it was determined that atomic and molecular elimination occur in relatively equal amounts. Using 1,1 D{sub 2}CCH{sub 2} and 1,2 {ital cis} HDCCDH, it was shown that both acetylene and vinylidene are formed and that the acetylene/vinylidene ratio is approximately 2/3 in the molecular elimination. This H{sub 2} elimination channel has a translational energy distribution peaked at around 20 kcal/mol, indicating that it is a concerted process with a substantial exit barrier. It was found that the H atom elimination channel is best described as a simple bond rupture occurring after internal conversion of the electronically excited molecule to the vibrationally excited ground state ethylene. Some of the primary C{sub 2}H{sub 3} product has sufficient internal energy to spontaneously decompose to H+HC{equivalent to}CH. At higher laser intensity a large fraction of the C{sub 2}H{sub 3}, however, absorbs another photon and fragments to H+H{sub 2}C=C: ({sup 1}{ital A}{sub 1} and {sup 3}{ital B}{sub 2}).

  15. Early and delayed thallium-201 scintigraphy in thyroid nodules: the relationship between early thallium-201 uptake and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derebek, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Biberoglu, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Kut, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yesil, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Saydam, S. [Dept. of Surgery, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yenici, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Igci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Gokce, O. [Dept. of Surgery, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Canda, S. [Dept. of Pathology, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bueyuekgebiz, A. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Dogan, A.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Durak, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dokuz Eylul Univ., School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)


    Seventy-six patients with tyroid nodules were studied. Initially, 75 MBq of thallium-201 was injected. The thyroid gland was imaged 15 min (early) and 3 h (delayed) after the injection. Thereafter, 185 MBq technetium-99m pertechnetate was injected. Immediately after the injection, a 1-min perfusion image was acquired, followed by an image at 20 min. Increased early and delayed {sup 201}Tl uptake compared with the contralateral thyroid tissue was adopted as the criterion for malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive values were found to be 85%, 64% and 78%, respectively, in operated patients, but these values were 86%, 87% and 95%, respectively, in the whole group, including patients followed with fine-needle aspiration biopsy. With the purpose of investigating the relationship between perfusion and early {sup 201}Tl uptake, bot perfusion and early images were graded comparing nodular activity with contralateral thyroid activity. There was a poor correlation between perfusion and {sup 201}Tl uptake. The correlation was even worse in hyperactive nodules. It is concluded that early and delayed {sup 201}Tl imaging should not be used in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules and that early {sup 201}Tl uptake seems to be more closely related to factors other than perfusion. (orig.)

  16. 49 CFR 192.193 - Valve installation in plastic pipe. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve installation in plastic pipe. 192.193... Components § 192.193 Valve installation in plastic pipe. Each valve installed in plastic pipe must be designed so as to protect the plastic material against excessive torsional or shearing loads when the valve...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2615 - Isolating and purging. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Isolating and purging. 193.2615 Section 193.2615 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193.2057 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2627 - Atmospheric corrosion control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atmospheric corrosion control. 193.2627 Section... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2627 Atmospheric corrosion... atmospheric corrosion by— (a) Material that has been designed and selected to resist the corrosive atmosphere...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2013 - Incorporation by reference. (United States)


    ... (ASCE), Parallel Centre, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400. C. ASME International (ASME..., includes supplement No. 1 and Errata) § 193.2067(b)(1). D. ASME International (ASME): (1) 2007 ASME Boiler..., July 1, 2007) § 193.2321(a). (2) 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2...

  1. 14 CFR 61.193 - Flight instructor privileges. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instructor privileges. 61.193... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.193 Flight instructor privileges. A person who...

  2. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity. (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  3. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  4. Thallium pollution in China: A geo-environmental perspective. (United States)

    Xiao, Tangfu; Yang, Fei; Li, Shehong; Zheng, Baoshan; Ning, Zengping


    It is well known that thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic metal to human health, but less is known about the geo-environmentally-induced Tl pollution and its associated health impacts. High concentrations of Tl that are primarily associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals have the potential of producing Tl pollution in the environment, which has been recognized as an emerging pollutant in China. This paper aims to review the research progress in China on Tl pollution in terms of the source, mobility, transportation pathway, and health exposure of Tl and to address the environmental concerns on Tl pollution in a geo-environmental perspective. Tl associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals has been documented to disperse readily and accumulate through the geo-environmental processes of soil enrichment, water transportation and food crop growth beyond a mineralized zone. The enrichments of Tl in local soil, water, and crops may result in Tl pollution and consequent adverse health effects, e.g. chronic Tl poisoning. Investigation of the baseline Tl in the geo-environment, proper land use and health-related environmental planning and regulation are critical to prevent the Tl pollution. Examination of the human urinary Tl concentration is a quick approach to identify exposure of Tl pollution to humans. The experiences of Tl pollution in China can provide important lessons for many other regions in the world with similar geo-environmental contexts because of the high mobility and toxicity of Tl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta


    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  6. Medical geology of arsenic, selenium and thallium in China. (United States)

    Li, Shehong; Xiao, Tangfu; Zheng, Baoshan


    Arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and thallium (Tl) are three trace metals (metalloids) of high concern in China because deficiency or excess expose can cause a range of endemic diseases, such as endemic arsenism, selenosis, Keshan disease (KD), Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and thallotoxicosis. These specific endemic diseases were attributable for overabundance or deficiency (mainly referring to selenium) of these three elements in the local environment as a result of natural geochemical processes and/or anthropologic activities. The geochemistry and human health impacts of these three trace elements have been intensively studied since the 1970s in China, in terms of geochemical sources, distribution, transportation, health impact pathways, and prevention/remediation measures. Endemic arsenism in China are induced from the exposures of high As in either drinking water or domestic combustion of As-rich coals. Both endemic selenium deficiency and selenosis occurred in China. The KD and KBD were related to the deficiency of Se in the low-Se geological belt with Se contents in soil less than 0.125mg/kg stretching from northeast to southwest of China. Endemic selenosis occurred in areas with high Se concentrations in soils derived from the Se-enriched black carbonaceous siliceous rocks, carbonaceous shale and slate. Endemic Tl poisoning occurred in southwestern China due to Tl contamination in local drinking water and vegetables surrounding the Tl-rich sulfide mineralized areas. Some measures have been taken to control and remedy the endemic diseases with significant effects in reducing health risk and damage of As, Se and Tl. However, the states of the endemic diseases of As, Se and Tl in China are still serious in some areas, and substantial research efforts regarding the health impacts of these elements are further required. This paper reviews the progress of medical geology of As, Se and Tl in China, and provides with some outlooks for future research directions. Copyright

  7. New CZT cardiac cameras and myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium 201; Nouvelles cameras cardiaques a semi-conducteur cadmium -zinc- telluride (CZT) et scintigraphies myocardiques au thallium 201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songy, B. [Service de medecine et imagerie nucleaire, centre cardiologique du Nord (CCN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)


    Myocardial perfusion imaging is widely used for management of coronary artery disease. However, it suffers from technical limitations. New cardiac cameras using CZT detectors are now available and increase spatial (x2) and energy (x2) resolutions and photons sensitivity (x5). We describe here the General Electric Discovery NM 530c new camera and summarize the validation studies with technetium agents and with thallium 201, protocols to reduce doses, ultrafast protocols and perspectives offered with this new technology. (author)

  8. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the diagnostic use of thallium-201 in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, K.T. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)); Donohoe, K.J. (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Baxter, Barbara; Memisoglu, Asli; Little, J.B.; Caggana, Michele; Liber, H.L. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))


    In order to investigate possible mutagenetic effects of in vivo exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation used in nuclear medicine, the authors examined hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutant fraction (MF) and chromosome aberration (CA) frequency in 24 nuclear medicine patients before and after injection of thallium-201. The mean MF of the thallium-201-exposed cohort was 5.2{+-}4.4 x 10{sup -6} before injection exposure. No significant difference in MF was observed 24 h later. In 11 patients who were studied on a 3rd occasion, 30 days after thallium-201 exposure, there was again no significant difference in post-exposure as compared with the pre-exposure MF. The frequency of CA in peripheral blood lymphocytes was not significantly different, comparing pre- and 24h to 1 month post-radionuclide exposure . Thus, thallium-201 exposure was not associated with significant elevations in MF or CA frequency in lymphocytes of exposed individuals. (author). 40 refs.; 3 tabs.

  9. Systematics of c-axis Phonons in the Thallium- and Bismuth-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A. A; Dulic, D.; Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Kaljushnaia, G. A.; Gorina, J. I.; Senturina, N. N.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Ren, Z. F.; Wang, J. H.; Menovsky, A. A.; Palstra, T. T. M.


    Published in: Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 13196 Citing articles (CrossRef) citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present grazing incidence reflectivity measurements in the far infrared region at temperatures above and below Tc for a series of thallium (Tl2Ba2CuO6, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8) and

  10. Dipyridamole-thallium-201 tomography documenting improved myocardial perfusion with therapy in Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Spielmann, R.P.; Hausdorf, G.


    Thallium-201 tomographic perfusion studies after pharmacologic vasodilation were performed in seven children (aged 2 years 8 months to 8 years 7 months), 3 to 20 months after the acute stage of the disease. In all patients coronary aneurysms were seen on cross-sectional echocardiograms. The scintigrams of six children showed no significant regional reduction of myocardial thallium-201 uptake. These children had remained asymptomatic in the follow-up period after the acute inflammatory stage of Kawasaki disease. Persistent and transient thallium defects were present in one child with acute posterolateral myocardial infarction; obstruction of two coronary vessels supplying the defect zones was confirmed by contrast angiography. After 8 months of treatment a follow-up nuclear scan showed marked reduction in the size of the defect and almost complete abolishment of the ischemic reaction. Thus tomographic thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy in conjunction with vasodilation stress is useful to assess myocardial perfusion in children with Kawasaki disease and demonstrates marked improvement in regional perfusion after adequate medical therapy.

  11. Complexometric determination of thallium(III using ethanethiol as a selective masking agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan J.


    Full Text Available A simple and selective complexometric method for the determination of thallium in presence of other metal ions is proposed based on the selective masking ability of ethanethiol towards thallium(III. Thallium present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5-6(hexamine using xylenol orange as the indicator. A 0.3% aqueous solution of ethanethiol is then added to displace EDTA from the Tl(III-EDTA complex. The released EDTA is titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 3.70 mg to 74.07 mg of Tl (III with relative error less than ? 0.44% and coefficient of variation not more than 0.27%. The interference of various ions was studied and the method was used for the analysis of thallium in its synthetic alloy mixtures and also in complexes.

  12. Thallium-201: Autoradiography in pigmented mice and melanin-binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjaelve, H.; Nilsson, M.; Larsson, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))


    Autoradiography with /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in C57Bl mice showed a strong labelling of the eye melanin and of pigmented hair follicles. An analysis of the affinity of thallium for pigment from cow eyes indicated a binding to three groups of sites and showed a marked sensitivity to the addition of H/sup +/-ions. The results are consistent with the conception that a binding of thallium occurs to the free carboxyl groups of the melanin and that the structure of the polymer has a marked influence on the affinity. Similar results have previously been obtained with other cations. There was no indication that the strong in vivo affinity of thallium to melanin is due to a more firm binding than for other cations which do not localize on melanin in vivo. Instead, the ability of cations to pass the melanocyte membranes and reach the melanin granules is probably decisive for whether a melanin-binding will take place in vivo. Toxic effects on the eye and epilation are symptoms of thallium intoxication which may be related to its melanin-binding. The fate of /sup 201/Tl/sup +/ in some other tissues is also described and discussed.

  13. Laser-assisted decay and optical spectroscopy studies of neutron-deficient thallium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beveren, Céline; Huyse, Mark

    The neutron-deficient thallium isotopes with one proton less than the Z = 82 shell closure, are situated in an interesting region of the nuclear chart, notorious for intruder states and shape coexistence. Shape coexistence is the remarkable phenomenon in which two or more distinct types of deformation occur at low energy in the same atomic nucleus. Shape coexistence has been studied intensively, experimentally as well as theoretically in different nuclei in the light-lead region and the isomerism in the thallium isotopes was among the first indications of this phenomenon. Different shapes, whose structure has been linked to specific proton orbitals above and below the Z = 82 shell closure, are present at low energy in the neutron-deficient odd-mass thallium nuclei. In the odd-odd nuclei, the coupling of an unpaired proton and unpaired neutron gives rise to multiplets of low-lying states from which some can be isomeric. Since thallium has one proton missing in the major proton shell, and when approaching neutr...

  14. Clinical features and applications of thallium-201. With reference to scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige


    Thallium-201 is not only used widely in myocardial imaging but also has a great potential in other various nuclear medicine imaging studies. This paper presents clinical features and applications of thallium-201, focusing on clinical trials with thallium-201 at the Shinshu University School of Medicine. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy offers information on (1) ventricular position and morphology, (2) hypertrophy or dilatation of the left ventricle, (3) hypertrophy or dilatation of the right ventricle, (4) site and extent of myocardial ischemia and infarct, (5) myocardial blood flow, (6) pulmonary congestion or interstitial pulmonary edema, and (7) pericardial effusion. It can be used in the following evaluation or diagnosis: (1) acute or old myocardial infarction, (2) angina pectoris, (3) treatment strategy or prognosis of ischemic heart disease, (4) treatment strategy or observation of bypass graft or drug therapy, (5) hypertrophic or dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy, (6) myocardial lesions induced by sarcoidosis, collagen disease, and neuro-muscular disease, (7) ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary edema, and (9) pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and systolic pericarditis associated with underlying disease. The significance of tumor, liver, bone marrow scintigraphies is also referred to. (Namekawa, K) 69 refs.

  15. Optimised thallium precipitation in a waste water treatment system of the flue gas desulphurisation; Optimierte Thalliumabscheidung einer RAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzerfeld, Guenter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany); Birngruber, Ingolf [RWE Power AG, Hamm (Germany); Muelder, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Ibbenbueren (Germany)


    When co-combusting substitute fuels in power plants, the element Thallium should be checked in the drain of the waste water treatment system of flue gas desulphurisation. In 2005 Thallium-concentrations exceeding the limit value were determined for the first time as a consequence of the modified analysis of the supervisory authority. The previous lower Thallium concentrations with graphite tube-atomic absorption spectrometry were caused by the high chloride concentration in RAA waste water. The RAA operating mode was checked and changed. Equipment-related weak spots were detected and corrected. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of Polythionates as Precursors for the Formation of Thallium Sulfide Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalijus JANICKIS


    Full Text Available The processes of obtaining layers of thallium, sulfides, TlxSy, by the sorption-diffusion method on polyamide 6 using solutions of lower polythionates - sodium trithionate and tetrathionate, Na2S3O6, Na2S4O6, potassium pentathionate, K2S5O6, and of dodecathionic acid, H2S12O6, as precursors of sulfur are compared. The concentration of sorbed sulfur increases with increasing the duration of treatment, the concentration and temperature of precursor solution. It rather significantly also depends on the nature - sulfurity of polythionate, i. e. on the number of sulfur atoms in the polythionate anion: effectiveness of sulfurization using solutions of dodecathionic acid is significantly higher than that of lower polythionates. Thallium sulfide layers are formed on the surface of polyamide after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Tl(I salt solution. The concentration of thallium in the layer increases with the increase of initial sulfurization duration and in case of H2S12O6 solution used - on the temperature of this process. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of thallium sulfide layers in the surface of polyamide 6. The phase composition of layer changes depending on the conditions of initial treatment in a H2S12O6 solution. Five thallium sulfide phases, two forms of TlS, Tl2S2, Tl4S3 and Tl2S5 were identified in the composition of the layers treated for different time with a solution of dodecathionic acid at the temperature of 20 °C and 30 °C and then with Tl(I salt solution by X-ray diffraction but the maxima of TlS and Tl2S5 phases predominate in the diffractograms.

  17. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act. (United States)



  18. Mir193b-365 is essential for brown fat differentiation. (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F


    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defence against cold and obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown-fat-enriched miRNA cluster, MiR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes markedly impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression, whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of Mir193b and/or Mir365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire programme of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic conditions, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Mir193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that Mir193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis.

  19. Thermodynamic Study of Tl6SBr4 Compound and Some Regularities in Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chalcohalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Mahammad Babanly


    Full Text Available The solid-phase diagram of the Tl-TlBr-S system was clarified and the fundamental thermodynamic properties of Tl6SBr4 compound were studied on the basis of electromotive force (EMF measurements of concentration cells relative to a thallium electrode. The EMF results were used to calculate the relative partial thermodynamic functions of thallium in alloys and the standard integral thermodynamic functions (-ΔfG0, -ΔfH0, and S0298 of Tl6SBr4 compound. All data regarding thermodynamic properties of thallium chalcogen-halides are generalized and comparatively analyzed. Consequently, certain regularities between thermodynamic functions of thallium chalcogen-halides and their binary constituents as well as degree of ionization (DI of chemical bonding were revealed.

  20. A calixarene-based ion-selective electrode for thallium(I) detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Ryan [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Sohail, Manzar [Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4556 (Australia); Ogden, Mark I.; Mocerino, Mauro [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Pretsch, Ernö [ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), Universitätstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zürich (Switzerland); De Marco, Roland, E-mail: [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4556 (Australia)


    Highlights: • Tuning of metal binding cavities in thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Novel calixarene-based ionophores with improved selectivity for thallium(I). • Sandwich membrane characterization of thallium(I) binding in novel calixarenes. • Improved selectivity and sensitivity with novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. • Solid contact ion-selective electrodes for novel thallium(I) calixarene ionophores. - Abstract: Three new calixarene Tl{sup +} ionophores have been utilized in Tl{sup +} ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) yielding Nernstian response in the concentration range of 10{sup −2}–10{sup −6} M TlNO{sub 3} with a non-optimized filling solution in a conventional liquid contact ISE configuration. The complex formation constants (log β{sub IL}) for two of the calixarene derivatives with thallium(I) (i.e. 6.44 and 5.85) were measured using the sandwich membrane technique, with the other ionophore immeasurable due to eventual precipitation of the ionophore during these long-term experiments. Furthermore, the unbiased selectivity coefficients for these ionophores displayed excellent selectivity against Zn{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} with moderate selectivity against Pb{sup 2+}, Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, H{sup +}, K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cs{sup +}, noting that silver was the only significant interferent with these calixarene-based ionophores. When optimizing the filling solution in a liquid contact ISE, it was possible to achieve a lower limit of detection of approximately 8 nM according to the IUPAC definition. Last, the new ionophores were also evaluated in four solid-contact (SC) designs leading to Nernstian response, with the best response noted with a SC electrode utilizing a gold substrate, a poly(3-octylthiophene) (POT) ion-to-electron transducer and a poly(methyl methacrylate)–poly(decyl methacrylate) (PMMA–PDMA) co-polymer membrane. This electrode exhibited a slope of 58.4 mV decade

  1. Thallium Flux Assay for Measuring the Activity of Monovalent Cation Channels and Transporters. (United States)

    Weaver, C David


    Monovalent cation channels are critically important for physiological processes ranging from the control of neuronal excitability to the maintenance of solute balance. Mutations in these channels are associated with a multiplicity of diseases and monovalent cation channel-modulating drugs are used as therapeutics. Techniques that allow the measurement of the activity of these ion channels are useful for exploring their many biological roles as well as enabling the discovery and characterization of ion channel modulators for the purposes of drug discovery. Although there are numerous techniques for measuring the activity of monovalent cation channels, the thallium flux assay technique is a widely used fluorescence-based approach. Described herein is a method for using the thallium-flux technique for detecting and quantifying the activity of small-molecule potassium channel modulators in 384-well plates.

  2. Comparative studies on right ventricular pressure and volume overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, K.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kijima, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ono, K. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))


    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 44 patients with various heart diseases including mitral stenosis, atrial septal defect, primary pulmonary hypertension, and left atrial myxoma. The morphological findings of right ventricular (RV) free wall on the scintigram and RV/IVS (interventricular septum) uptake ratio of the images obtained from the left anterior oblique projection were studied in the patients with RV pressure or volume overloading.

  3. Tunable frequency-stabilization of UV laser using a Hallow-Cathode Lamp of atomic thallium

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Shy, Jow-Tsong; Liu, Yi-Wei


    A frequency-stabilized ultraviolet laser system, locked to the thallium resonant transition of 377.5 nm, was demonstrated using a novel bichromatic spectroscopy technique for tuning the zero-crossing laser-lock point. The atomic thallium system is a promising candidate in atomic parity violation and permanent electric dipole moment experiments, and its 377.5 nm 6P1/2->7S1/2 transition is important for thallium laser cooling and trapping experiment. The pressure shift, owing to the high pressure bu?er gas of the hollow-cathode lamp, was observed using an atomic beam resonance as reference. Such a shift was corrected by adjusting the peak ratio of the two Doppler-free saturation pro?les resulted from two pumping beams with a 130 MHz frequency di?erence. The resulted frequency stability of the ultraviolet laser is ?0.5 MHz at 0.1 sec integration time. This scheme is compact and versatile for stabilizing UV laser systems, which acquire a sub-MHz stability and frequency tunability.

  4. Detection of human collateral circulation by vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A.; Salge, D.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Bleifeld, W. (University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.))


    Coronary arteriolar vasodilation may provoke redistribution of flow to collateral-dependent jeopardized myocardium. To assess the physiologic significance of collaterals, 80 consecutive post-infarction patients (age 58 +/- 8 years) underwent vasodilation-redistribution thallium-201 tomographic imaging after administration of 0.56 mg of intravenous dipyridamole/kg body weight. Circumferential profile analysis of thallium-201 uptake and redistribution in representative left ventricular tomograms provided quantitative assessment of transient and fixed defects and separation between periinfarctional and distant inducible hypoperfusion. Tomographic perfusion data were correlated to wall motion and collateral circulation between distinct anatomic perfusion territories. Patients were grouped according to presence (59%) or absence (41%) of angiographically visible collateral channels to jeopardized myocardium. In the presence of collaterals, distant reversible defects were larger than in absence of collaterals (p less than 0.05); the extent of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution was also larger in collateralized patients (p less than 0.025), whereas the size of the persistent perfusion defect was similar in both groups. By prospective analysis the tomographic perfusion pattern of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution revealed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 78% for the detection of significant collateral circulation in this group of patients. Thus, using the exhausted flow reserve as a diagnostic tool, vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography has the potential to identify and quantitate collateralized myocardium in post-infarction patients and may guide diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making.

  5. [Characterization of kale (Brassica oberacea var acephala) under thallium stress by in situ attenuated total reflection FTIR]. (United States)

    Yao, Yan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Zhen-Chun; Chen, Yong-Heng


    The experiment was designed based on consumption of carbon dioxide through the photosynthesis of Brassica oberacea var acephala leaf, and the photosynthesis of kale leaf under thallium stress was investigated by in situ attenuated total reflection FTIR (in situ ATR-FTIR). The ATR-FTIR showed that the absorption peaks of leaves had no obvious difference between plants growing in thallium stress soil and plants growing in non-thallium pollution soil, and the strong peaks at 3,380 cm(-1) could be assigned to the absorption of water, carbohydrate, protein or amide; the strong peaks at 2,916 and 2,850 cm(-1) assigned to the absorption of carbohydrate or aliphatic compound; the peaks at 1,640 cm(-1) assigned to the absorption of water. However, as detected by the in situ ATR-FTIR, the double peaks (negative peaks) at 2,360 and 2,340 cm(-1) that are assigned to the absorption of CO2 appeared and became high gradually. It was showed that kale was carrying photosynthesis. At the same time, the carbon dioxide consumption speed of leaf under thallium stress was obviously larger than that of the blank It was expressed that photosynthesis under thallium stress was stronger than the blank All these represented that kale had certain tolerance to the heavy metal thallium. Meanwhile, the carbon dioxide consumption of grown-up leaf was more than that of young leaf whether or not under thallium stress. It was also indicated that the intensity of photosynthesis in grown-up leaf is higher than that in young leaf.

  6. 7 CFR 3015.193 - Other non-profit organizations. (United States)


    ... OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Cost Principles § 3015.193 Other... Circulars published in the Federal Register by OMB, shall be used in determining the allowable costs of... contracts, and other contracts in which costs are used in pricing, administration, or settlement. It does...

  7. The photochemistry of ozone at 193 and 222 nm (United States)

    Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Gierczak, Tomasz; Thompson, John E.; Ravishankara, A. R.


    Measurements at 193 and 222nm are reported for the quantum yields for the formation of O(1D) and O(3P) from the photolysis of ozone. The quantum yield for O(3P) was observed to be 0.13 + or - 0.02 at 222 nm, and the primary quantum yield for O(1D) was found to be 0.87 + or - 0.04. The present measurements are consistent with other studies of O3 photolysis within the Hartley band which indicate that a significant portion (5-12 percent) of the products are formed in the ground state. At 193 nm the quantum yield for the production of excited state O(1D) atoms is 0.46 + or - 0.29, which is significantly less than what is observed during photolysis within the lower energy Hartley band. The quantum yield for O(3P) atoms at 193 nm was found to be 0.57 + or - 0.14. It was also observed that the quantum yield for O atoms is greater than unity at 193 nm, indicating the presence of a channel which produces three O(3P) atoms.

  8. Phenotype abnormality: 193 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 193 decreased number... of root in organ named whole plant ... whole plant ... present in fewer numbers in organism ... root ...

  9. 37 CFR 2.193 - Trademark correspondence and signature requirements. (United States)


    ... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES General Information and Correspondence in Trademark Cases § 2.193 Trademark correspondence and signature requirements. (a) Signature... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trademark correspondence and...

  10. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process will...

  11. Thallium and manganese complexes involved in the luminescence emission of potassium-bearing aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel A., E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, Javier, E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Garrido, Fernando, E-mail: [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Townsend, Peter D., E-mail: [School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Marco, Jose-Francisco, E-mail: [Instituto de Química-Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Calle Serrano 119, Madrid E-28006 (Spain)


    The luminescence emission at 285 nm in natural K-feldspar has been studied by Russian groups and associated with thallium ions in structural positions of K{sup +} sites as artificially thallium-doped feldspars display the same emission band. Here attention is focussed on spectra of CL emission bands centered near 285 and 560 nm from paragenetic adularia, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions. With accesorial thallium they show clear resemblances to each other. Associated sedimentary and hydrothermal aluminosilicate samples collected from Guadalix (Madrid, Spain) were analyzed with a wide range of experimental techniques including Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) with an attached X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and a cathodoluminescence probe (CL) and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Differential and Thermogravimetric Analyses (DTA-TG), radioluminescence (RL), Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). The luminescence emission bands at 285 and 560 nm seem to be associated with hydrous thallium–manganese complexes bonded to potassium-bearing aluminosilicates since various minerals such as K-feldspar, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions display similar CL spectra, accesorial thallium and hydroxyl groups. The presence of iron introduces a brown color which is attributed to submicroscopic iron oxides detectable in the optical and chemical microanalysis, but this does not contribute to the luminescence emission. The XPS Mn 2p spectrum of the adularia sample at room temperature is composed of a spin–orbit doublet plus clear shake-up satellite structure ∼4 eV above the main photoemision lines and is consistent with Mn{sup 2+} in good agreement with the observed luminescence emission at 560 nm for aluminosilicates produced by a {sup 4}T1({sup 4}G)→{sup 6}A1({sup 6}S) transition in tetrahedrally

  12. Diagnostic value of 123I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic and thallium 201 perfusion imaging in stable coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Walamies, M; Turjanmaa, V; Koskinen, M; Uusitalo, A


    The diagnostic value of 123I-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic cardiac imaging was studied in a group (n = 29) of patients with angiographically confirmed CAD using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A symptom-limited exercise test was first done with IPPA, and 2 days later with thallium. Medications were not withheld during testing. Fourteen healthy control subjects participated in parallel IPPA and 15 in thallium tests. Data acquisition and output were comparable in the two imaging modalities. By testing various relatively simple criteria for abnormality we found that the semiquantitative interpretation was more accurate than the visual readings. The best compromise of accuracy with the scored criteria consisted of a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 86%, obtained with IPPA polar tomograms (mild exercise defect) and a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 80% obtained with thallium (regionally decreased washout). With visual interpretation alone, a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 71% was detected with IPPA (mild exercise defect) and 72% and 73%, respectively, with thallium (partial reversibility). The sensitivity of the exercise ECG alone was 62%. The results of this study imply that IPPA imaging could be a rational, uncomplicated clinical method for non-invasive diagnosis of CAD. The diagnostic ability of IPPA is at least as good as that of thallium, and it is possible to use them in succession.

  13. Dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging: A new marker of triple-vessel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Ikeda, K.; Komatani, A.; Tsuiki, K.; Yasui, S. (Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))


    To investigate the significance and mechanism of dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging, we performed both dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging and dipyridamole radionuclide angiography on 83 patients with known angiograms. The dipyridamole/delayed ratio of the left ventricular dimension from the thallium-201 image was defined as the left ventricular dilatation ratio (LVDR). An LVDR greater than the mean + two standard deviations in patients without coronary artery disease was defined as abnormal. Twenty-two of 83 patients showed an abnormal LVDR, and 18 of the 22 patients (82%) had triple-vessel disease. By defect and washout analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying the patients as having triple-vessel disease was 72% and 76%, respectively, whereas LVDR had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 93%. When LVDR was used in combination with the defect and washout criteria, sensitivity increased to 84% without a loss of specificity. In those 22 patients with abnormal LVDRs, end-diastolic volume measured by radionuclide angiography did not change after dipyridamole infusion. Dilatation of the left ventricular cavity on dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging reflected relative subendocardial hypoperfusion induced by dipyridamole rather than actual chamber enlargement. The LVDR was moderately sensitive and highly specific for triple-vessel disease and provided complementary information to dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging.

  14. Cycloolefin/maleic anhydride copolymers for 193-nm resist compositions (United States)

    Rahman, M. D.; Dammel, Ralph R.; Cook, Michelle M.; Ficner, Stanley A.; Padmanaban, Munirathna; Oberlander, Joseph E.; Durham, Dana L.; Klauck-Jacobs, Axel


    Several novel norbornene carboxylate monomers consisting of isobornyl and alkyl ether chains on the ester groups were synthesized and polymerized with maleic anhydride (MA), t- butylnorbornene carboxylate (BNC), hydroxyethylnorbornene carboxylate (HNC) and norbornene carboxylic acid (NC). These polymers were compared with BNC/HNC/NC/MA tetra-polymers with respect to glass transition temperature (Tg) as well as photoresist performance using a 193 nm exposure tool. It was observed that introduction of these groups decreases the Tg but not to the extent where the polymers can be used as an annealing type resist. The synthesis of these polymers, their characterization, and their lithographic evaluation as 193 resists will be discussed in this paper. Further optimization in terms of final polymer composition as well as resist formulation is on-going in order to fully exploit these monomers for photoresist application.

  15. A preliminary investigation and evaluation of the thallium environmental impacts of the unmined Xiangquan thallium-only deposit in Hexian, China (United States)

    Zhou, Taofa; Fan, Yu; Yuan, Feng; Cooke, David; Zhang, Xin; Li, Liangjun


    The Xiangquan Thallium-only deposit in Hexian, east China is a newly found near-surface and unmined shallow-seated thallium deposit. The 250t Tl deposit is hosted in Lower Ordovician Lunshan Group as lenticular and confined by northeast F1, F2 faults. The metallic minerals are dominated by pyrite, more than 95% Tl occurs in pyrite as tiny individual grains or as ‘‘invisible thallium”. Tl and other trace elements pollution in ecosystems such as soils, surface and ground waters and water sediments, plants and crops, and animal and human beings in Xiangquan near the Tl ore deposit have been investigated and evaluated. Results show that Tl as well as As and Sb in ecosystems in Xiangquan around the deposit have enriched, they came from Tl-pyrite in the ore bodies and in the parent rocks of weathered soils on top of the ore bodies and went into the nearby ecosystems through weathering, leaching and dissolving. In 2 km2 around the Xiaolongwang Mountain where the Tl ore deposit seated, soils, vegetables, crops have been polluted or heavily polluted by Tl, As and Sb. Farmlands near the ore body are not fit to grow vegetables and crops. Thermal Spring water in Xiangquan town and pond water close to the Tl deposit are not potable. Tl also enriches in human hair and urinate of villagers who live close to the Tl deposit. Even through the Tl-only deposit has put clear environmental impacts on the local environment and ecosystems around it, no serious consequences of Tl pollution have so far taken place due to unmining of the Tl deposit as well as the screen effect of the silicficious breccia cap on top of it. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behavior in unmined Tl deposit, and also benefit to the local environmental protection and the future mineral resources exploration.

  16. {sup 201}Thallium SPECT, accuracy in astrocytoma diagnosis and treatment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellen, K


    The aims of the studies included in this thesis were: - to investigate the reliability of {sup 201}Thallium single photon emission computed tomography. Tl SPECT for preoperative diagnosis and histological staging of malignant astrocytomas in comparison with CT; - to develop a method for quantification of cerebral thallium uptake, and to evaluate the quantitative measurement in comparison with CT, for astrocytoma treatment follow-up purposes; - to compare quantitative Tl SPECT and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) with conventional MR imagingfor astrocytoma monitoring, and to evaluate associations between change of morphological tumour characteristics during treatment and changes of cerebral thallium uptake and metabolic ratios. Results and conclusions: - High TI-index, calculated as a ratio comparing tumour uptake to uptake in the contralateral hemisphere, is an indicator of highly malignant astrocytoma. Differentiation between the high-grade astrocytomas, the low-grade astrocytomas, and infectious lesions is only partial, with an overlap of Tl-indexes between these groups. High-grade astrocytomas that do not show contrast enhancement on CT, and astrocytomas with central necrosis and moderate ring-enhancement, tend to be underestimated when evaluated by Tl-index calculation. Tl SPECT is not a reliable method for non-invasive tumour staging among the group of highly malignant astrocytomas. - Quantification of cerebral TI-uptake, defining the volume of viable tumour tissue, is a new method for astrocytoma chemotherapy monitoring. Results suggest that the method provides prognostic information, and information of treatment efficacy, at an earlier stage than CT. - We did not find a higher accuracy of quantitative Tl SPECT than of MR for monitoring purposes and our results indicated that treatment induced MR changes were interrelated with TI-uptake variations. - Multi-voxel H-MRS was difficult to apply for astrocytoma treatment monitoring, due to the

  17. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity (United States)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd


    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  18. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings induced by thallium. (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra; Glavas, Katarina; Roje, Vibor; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana


    Thallium (Tl) is a metal of great toxicological concern because it is highly toxic to all living organisms through mechanisms that are yet poorly understood. Since Tl is accumulated by important crops, the present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of Tl in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as well as the plant's antioxidative defense mechanisms usually activated by heavy metals. Thallium toxicity was related to production of reactive oxygen species in leaves and roots of broad bean seedlings following short-term (72 h) exposure to thallium (I) acetate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/L) by evaluating DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters as well as antioxidative response. The possible antagonistic effect of potassium (K) was tested by combined treatment with 5 mg/L of Tl (Tl+) and 10 mg/L of potassium (K+) acetate. Accumulation of Tl+ in roots was 50 to 250 times higher than in broad bean shoots and was accompanied by increase in dry weight and proline. Despite responsive antioxidative defense (increased activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and pyrogallol peroxidase), Tl+ caused oxidative damage to lipids and proteins as evaluated by malondialdehyde and carbonyl group levels, and induced DNA strand breaks. Combined treatment caused no oxidative alternations to lipids and proteins though it induced DNA damage. The difference in Tl-induced genotoxicity following both acellular and cellular exposure implies indirect DNA damage. Results obtained indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of Tl toxicity and that the tolerance of broad bean to Tl is achieved, at least in part, through the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Thallium Intoxication Treated with Long-Term Hemodialysis, Forced Diuresis and Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Solgaard, Per Bent; Freund, L. Gade


    A 56 yr old woman, who ingested 2 g of thallium sulfate, was successfully treated with long-term hemodialysis for 200 h during 10 days, combined with forced diuresis and Prussian blue. The effect of the artificial kidney dialysis was determined by repeated analysis of the Tl concentration...... in the dialysis bath and in blood samples. During the 1st 120 h of hemodialysis, 143 mg of Tl was eliminated via the artificial kidney and 110 mg via the urinary tract. The present case of acute Tl intoxication is the 1st in which long-term hemodialysis has been used in the acute phase...

  20. Experimental excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natural thallium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Rebeles, R., E-mail: [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Van den Winkel, P.; Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen H-4026 (Hungary)


    Excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natural thallium leading to the formation of {sup 204m,203m2+m1+g,202m,201m+g,200}Pb and {sup 202,201m+g,200m+g}Tl isotopes were determined up to 50 MeV. The cross sections were measured by an activation technique using stacked foil irradiation. The excitation functions of the investigated reactions are compared with data reported in literature and also with the theoretical results of TALYS nuclear reaction code. From the measured cross section data, the thick target yield for the medical interesting {sup 203}Pb isotope is calculated.

  1. 1 CFR 19.3 - Routing and certification of originals and copies. (United States)


    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routing and certification of originals and copies. 19.3 Section 19.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS EXECUTIVE ORDERS AND PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS § 19.3 Routing and...

  2. 31 CFR 103.193 - Special measures against Banco Delta Asia. (United States)


    ... Asia. 103.193 Section 103.193 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Law Enforcement Access to Foreign Bank Records § 103.193 Special measures against Banco Delta Asia. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Banco Delta Asia means all branches, offices, and subsidiaries...

  3. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Szopa, Sebastian; Jabłońska, Magdalena; Łyko, Aleksandra


    Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices. PMID:22654649

  4. Evaluation of myocardial abnormalities in collagen diseases by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru; Kagoshima, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kiyotaka (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)) (and others)


    This study was performed to evaluate myocardial abnormalities in patients with collagen diseases by exercise and rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams. A total of 65 patients without ischemic ECG changes, consisting of 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 18 with polymyositis (PM), 8 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and 21 with Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS), was enrolled in this study. Reversible exercise-induced defects scintigraphically suggesting myocardial ischemia were noted in 8 cases of SLE, 4 cases of PM, 4 cases of PSS, and 3 cases of SjS. Nineteen patients had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization, 8 of whom had normal coronary angiograms. Fixed hypoperfusion areas were observed in one case of SLE, 6 cases of PM and 3 cases of SjS. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigram disclosed hypoperfusion areas which were not induced by exercise in 2 cases of SLE, 3 cases of PM, one case of PSS and 5 cases of SjS. Echocardiogram showed no significant differences in ejection fraction and % fractional shortening between the disease groups and healthy control group. These findings suggest that patients with collagen diseases have abnormalities of coronary circulation at the level of the intramural vasculature before cardiac function impairment, myocardial fibrosis and functional abnormalities at the cell membrane. (author).

  5. Follow-up Thallium-201 scintigraphy after mantle field radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierga, J.Y.; Girinski, T.; Henry-Amar, M. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)); Maunoury, C.; Valette, H.; Tchernia, G.; Desgrez, A. (Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)); Socie, G. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France) Hopital St Louis, Paris (France)); Cosset, J.M. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France) Institut Curie, Paris (France))


    Assessment of the long-term cardiac effects of mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease, by Thallium scintigraphy. 32 patients (14 males and 18 females) who underwent mantle field radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease were included in this study. Twenty patients received 4 fractions of 2.5 Gy per week and 12, five fraction of 2 Gy per week, delivered on alternate days. All the patients, except three, performed exercise testing electrocardiogram and Thallium-201 tomoscintigraphy. The average time interval from completion of treatment to the study was 7 years (range 3--13 years). No patients had clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Mean age at the time of the study was 35 years (range 23--48 years). Two electrocardiograms revealed left bundle branch block and the patients were excluded from the study. Only one out of 27 exercise electrocardiograms was abnormal in a patient with mitral valve prolapse, who was also excluded from the study. Twenty-six scintigraphies were evaluable. Twenty-two (85%) were clearly abnormal with partial or complete redistribution on delayed images. The anterior region was affected in 19 of these cases (86%). Four explorations were undoubtedly normal. Coronary angiography was not performed for ethical reasons in these asymptomatic patients. Despite possible false positive tests, the high rate of abnormality (85%) in this small series is striking. These preliminary data justify larger studies and a close long-term follow-up of these patients. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  7. [Detecting Thallium in Water Samples using Dispersive Liquid Phase Microextraction-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Li, Yan; Zheng, Bo; Tang, Wei; Chen, Xiao; Zou, Xiao-li


    To develope a method of solvent demulsification dispersive liquid phase microextraction (SD-DLPME) based on ion association reaction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) for detecting thallium in water samples. Methods Thallium ion in water samples was oxidized to Tl(III) with bromine water, which reacted with Cl- to form TlCl4-. The ionic associated compound with trioctylamine was obtained and extracted. DLPME was completed with ethanol as dispersive solvent. The separation of aqueous and organic phase was achieved by injecting into demulsification solvent without centrifugation. The extractant was collected and injected into GFAAS for analysis. With palladium colloid as matrix modifier, a two step drying and ashing temperature programming process was applied for high precision and sensitivity. The linear range was 0.05-2.0 microg/L, with a detection limit of 0.011 microg/L. The relative standard derivation (RSD) for detecting Tl in spiked water sample was 9.9%. The spiked recoveries of water samples ranged from 94.0% to 103.0%. The method is simple, sensitive and suitable for batch analysis of Tl in water samples.

  8. The learning machine in quantitative chemical analysis : Part I. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Cadmium, Lead and Thallium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Jasink, G.


    The linear learning machine method was applied to the determination of cadmium, lead and thallium down to 10-8 M by anodic stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode. With a total of three trained multicategory classifiers, concentrations of Cd, Pb and Tl could be predicted with an

  9. Thallium chloride 201Tl combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charabi, Samih Ahmed; Lassen, N A; Thomsen, J


    Thallium chloride 201Tl combined with SPECT was performed in a series of 29 patients with neuroradiological evidence of vestibular schwannoma (VS). The relative tumor uptake (U) and relative tumor concentration (C) of the radiotracer 201Tl was determined, and the cerebellum served as a reference...

  10. Development program for 1.93-micron lasers (United States)

    Longeway, P.; Zamerowski, T.; Martinelli, R.; Stolzenberger, R.; Digiuseppe, N.


    For the first time lasers operating at 1.93 microns were demonstrated. The lasers were fabricated by Vapor Phase Epitaxial (VPE) growth techniques currently used for the fabrication of high power lasers at 1.3 microns. The structure of these laser diodes consisted of compositionally graded, sulfur-doped InAsP, grown on an InP substrate; a constant-composition n+InAs(0.27)P(0.73) layer, which is the first cladding layer; an In(0.66)Ga(0.34)As layer, which is the active region, and a second InAs(0.27)P(0.73) layer. The devices were oxide-stripe DH lasers (gain-guided only). The best devices had 80 K lasing thresholds in the range of from 80 to 150 mA, and T sub o (below 220 K) in the range of 60 to 90 K. The highest observed temperature of oscillation was 15.5 C. The highest observed power output at 80 K was in the range of 3 to 5 mW. The calculated delta I/delta T was 4.4 A/K. As a part of the materials development, PIN homojunction detectors having the band edge near 1.93 were also fabricated. The best devices (100 micron diameter, mesa structure) exhibited room temperature dark currents in the range of from 20 to 50 nA and had QE at 1.93 microns in the range of 35 to 40 percent. In addition to the device results, the InGaAs-InAsP materials system was extensively investigated and low defect density layers can now be grown allowing for significant device performance improvement.

  11. Negative-tone cycloolefin photoresist for 193-nm lithography (United States)

    Fu, ShihChi; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang; Wang, Lon A.


    The chemistry of acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction and followed by crosslinking of the tert-alcohol group in the cycloolefin photoresists was used to tailor the performance of the photoresists for 193nm lithography. A radiation- sensitive photoacid generator (PAG) in this chemically amplified photoresist (CAMP) can change the polarity of the exposed area of the resist and exhibit a negative-tone behavior. The cycloolefin resists are synthesized by the free radical copolymerization of alicyclic monomer and maleic anhydride, and/or by the cationic polymerization of alicyclic monomer via Pd catalyst followed by the attaching of tert-alcohol group in to the resist. The side reaction of cycloolefin copolymer was observed at the temperature below the post exposure baking (PEB) temperature, but this problem can be eliminated by the introduction of isobornyl methacrylate into the polymer. The lithographic performance of the resists was investigated by using isopropyl alcohol as a developer under various processing conditions. The results demonstrate that these resists are the promising candidates for being used in 193nm lithography.

  12. Vitreoretinal surgery with the 193-nm excimer laser (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Hemo, Itzhak; Turovets, Igor; Zauberman, Hanan; Lewis, Aaron


    The 193-nm excimer laser is known for its ability to precisely ablate soft biological tissues in the air environment with sub- micron depth control and sub-micron damage zones in the surrounding. The lack of a convenient delivery system and strong absorption of this radiation by biological liquids prevented, until recently, microsurgical applications of this laser. We have constructed special tips that are capable of delivering enough energy for effective removal of soft tissues in a strongly absorbing liquid environment. These tips attach to an articulated arm-based delivery system. This instrument was applied to vitreoretinal membranes removal. The accepted technique for these membranes removal is mechanical peeling and cutting which is associated with strong traction of the retina and this occasionally results in retinal damage. It was demonstrated in this study that the 193-nm excimer laser is capable of safely and precisely cutting and ablating these membranes which enable their removal without exerting any tractional forces on the retina. The effective cutting regime of retina and vitreoretinal membranes occurred at energy fluence of about 250- to 350-mJ/cm2/pulse with a corresponding cutting depth of 50 to 150 micrometers /pulse. The results obtained in this study suggest that this technology could be applicable to a wide variety of intraocular procedures.

  13. Bis(2-mercapto-1-R-imidazolyl)hydroborato complexes of aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium: compounds possessing gallium-gallium bonds and a trivalent thallium alkyl. (United States)

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Coleman, Fergal; Parkin, Gerard


    The reactions of bis(mercaptoimidazolyl)hydroborato derivatives [Bm(R)]M' (R = Me, Bu(t); M' = Li, Na, Tl) with MX(3) trihalides of aluminium, gallium and indium yield both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of the types [Bm(R)]MX(2) and [Bm(R)](2)MX, respectively. Structurally characterized examples of the [Bm(R)]MX(2) series include [Bm(Me)]AlCl(2), [Bm(Me)]GaI(2), [Bm(Me)]InI(2), [Bm(Bu(t))]AlCl(2) and [Bm(Bu(t))]GaX(2) (X = Cl, Br, I), while structurally characterized examples of the [Bm(R)](2)MX series include [Bm(Bu(t))](2)InX (X = Cl, Br, I). In addition to the halide complexes, the trivalent dimethyl thallium complex [Bm(Bu(t))]TlMe(2) has been synthesized via the reaction of [Bm(Bu(t))]Tl with Me(2)TlCl. The reactions of [Bm(R)]M' with the monovalent halides, "GaI", InCl and InI, result in disproportionation. In the case of indium, the mononuclear complexes [Bm(Bu(t))](2)InI and [Bm(Bu(t))]InCl(kappa(2)-mim(Bu(t))) are obtained, whereas for gallium, dinuclear compounds that feature Ga-Ga bonds, namely [Bm(R)](GaI)(GaI)[Bm(R)] (R = Me, Bu(t)) have been isolated.

  14. Thallium stress testing does not predict cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley, J.L.; Fenton, R.A.; Arthur, R.S. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))


    This study assessed the usefulness of thallium stress testing as a predictor of perioperative cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Demographic factors influencing the exercise performance in these patients were also examined. The medical records of 189 consecutive patients with diabetic nephropathy who were evaluated for cadaveric renal transplantation were reviewed. Thallium stress testing was the initial examination of cardiovascular status in 141 patients. An adequate examination was one in which at least 70% of maximum heart rate was achieved. A thallium stress test was normal if there were no ST segment depressions on the electrocardiogram and no perfusion abnormalities on the thallium scan. Forty-four patients underwent cardiac catheterization as the initial evaluation (Group C) and four patients underwent transplantation without a formal cardiovascular evaluation (Group D). Sixty-four of the 141 patients undergoing thallium stress testing had an adequate and normal examination (Group A). The incidence of perioperative cardiac events in this group was 2%. Seventy-seven patients (Group B) had an abnormal (n = 41) or an inadequate (n = 36) thallium stress test and most (n = 61) then underwent coronary angiography. The use of beta-blockers was the only predictor of an abnormal or inadequate thallium stress test. Forty-three percent of patients with inadequate or abnormal thallium stress tests had significant coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. The perioperative risk of cardiac events was not different in Group A versus Groups B, C, and D combined. Survival of Group A and B patients was not different but was significantly longer than that of Group C patients.

  15. Evaluation of thallium-201 scanning for detection of latent coronary artery disease (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Deboer, L.; Jhingran, S.


    The use of thallium imaging as a noninvasive method to accurately screen shuttle passengers for latent coronary artery disease was investigated. All radionuclide procedures were performed using an Anger type camera with a high resolution collimator. A minimum of 200,000 counts were collected for each image using a 20% window centered on the 69-83 keV X-rays. For the images obtained following injection with the patient at rest, the testing was begun 10 minutes after injection. Injections of TT during exercise were made at a point near the termination of the treadmill procedure as determined by either the appearance of ST segment changes on the electrocardiogram consistant with subendocardial ischemia, the appearance of angina-like chest pain in the patient or fatigue in the patient which required cessation of the test. The severity of heart disease was based on the medical history, physical exam, exercise electrocardiograms, chest X-rays and the coronary arteriogram.

  16. Thallium Analysis in Environmental Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; Analisis de Talio en Muestras Ambientales por Espectrometria de Masas con Fuente de Plasma de Acoplamiento Inductivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higueras, I.; Fernandez, M.; Conde, E.; Gajate, A.


    Due to its high toxicity, thallium has been considered by the US Environmental Protection Agency as one of the priority pollutants to be controlled. While being a highly toxic element, thallium has been studied to a much lesser degree than other toxic elements, mainly because thallium is often undetected by classical analytical methods. Thallium is a rare and dispersed element that occurs mainly in sulfur-containing ores. Thus, it is a potential pollutant to surrounding environment, if Tl-rich mineral and/or their industrial wastes are not properly disposed. In this work an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analytical procedure has been developed in order to determine thallium in environmental solid samples and its application to the study of this element as a potential pollutant associated with natural and anthropogenic activities. The analytical procedure has been validated by the use of appropriate reference materials, and through the isotope dilution technique as a primary method of measurement. Finally, the developed procedure has been applied to several samples from a mining area, as one of the scenarios where thallium it is likely to occur. (Author) 87 refs.

  17. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China. (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers case-control study to investigate the association between prenatal Tl exposure and LBW. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to high levels of Tl may be associated with an increased risk of LBW. Xia W, Du X, Zheng T, Zhang B, Li Y, Bassig BA, Zhou A, Wang Y, Xiong C, Li Z, Yao Y, Hu J, Zhou Y, Liu J, Xue W, Ma Y, Pan X, Peng Y, Xu S. 2016. A case-control study of prenatal thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169;

  18. Evaluation of myocardial abnormalities in patients with collagen diseases by thallium-201 myocardial scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Shigeru (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))


    This study was performed to evaluate myocardial lesions in patients with collagen diseases by rest and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphies. A total of 76 patients without ischemic ECG changes, consisting of 27 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 17 cases of polymyositis or dermatomyositis (PM[center dot]DM), 11 cases of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), and 21 cases of Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS), were enrolled in this study. Reversible exercise-induced defects suggesting myocardial ischemia were noted in 12 cases of SLE, 5 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 3 cases of PSS, and 3 cases of SjS. Of the 23 patients who had exercise-induced defects, 9 patients showed normal coronary angiograms by cardiac catheterization. Fixed hypoperfusion areas were observed in 5 cases of SLE, 6 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 4 cases of PSS and 3 cases of SjS. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy disclosed hypoperfusion areas, which were not induced by exercise, in 1 case of SLE, 4 cases of PM[center dot]DM, 1 case of PSS and 5 cases of SjS. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed on 20 patients. Myocardial lesions in PM[center dot]DM and PSS were more severe and wide spread than in SLE. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening evaluated by echocardiography had no significant differences between each disease group and the healthy control group. These findings suggest that patients with collagen diseases show the presence of abnormalities of coronary circulation at the level of the intramyocardial vasculature in the stage before impairment of cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis and functional abnormalities of the cell membrane level that were not dependent on myocardial ischemia. (author).

  19. Development and Applications of Thallium isotopes: a new proxy tracking the extent of manganese oxide burial (United States)

    Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; Ostrander, C.; Peterson, L. C.; Anbar, A. D.


    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potential powerful paleoredox proxy with the possibility to track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ~20 thousand years, which is long enough to render modern oxic seawater conservative with respect to concentration and isotopes. The isotopic signature of Tl in the global ocean is driven mainly by two outputs (1) adsorption onto manganese oxides and (2) low temperature oceanic crust alteration. Importantly, the isotopic inputs of Tl are all nearly the same value; thus, the isotopic composition and flux of the outputs almost exclusively set the seawater signature. For relatively short term redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant isotope fractionation process is associated with manganese oxide precipitation because low temperature alteration is controlled by long-term average ocean crust production rates. We present a broad range of modern samples that span several open ocean profiles combined with water column and sediment profiles from the permanently anoxic basins of the Black Sea and Cariaco Basins. The open ocean shows no variation in depth profiles that encompass most of the major water masses in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The anoxic basins, however, reveal Tl isotope signatures closer to their inputs, which is likely due to basinal restriction. The authigenic fraction of organic-rich sediments from the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin capture the Tl isotope value of the overlying water column, which shows that Tl isotopes could be applied as a faithful deep time redox proxy. For the first time, we will present new data showing that Tl isotopes is tracking bottom water ocean oxygenation. We are applying this isotope system to ancient samples, testing the spatial and temporal variability of ocean oxygenation coinciding with major biogeochemical events.

  20. New single-layer positive photoresists for 193-nm photolithography (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Shimokawa, Tsutomu; Byers, Jeff D.; Medeiros, David R.; Willson, C. Grant; Niu, Qingshang J.; Frechet, Jean M. J.; Allen, Robert D.


    New series of chemically amplified, single layer, positive tone photoresists for 193 nm lithography have been developed. These resists were formulated from a series of cycloaliphatic co- and terpolymers of 2-methyl propyl bicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2- ene-5-carboxylate (carbo-tert-butoxynorbornene), bicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene carboxylic acid (norbornene carboxylic acid), 8-methyl-8-carboxy tetracyclo(4,4,0.12,5,17,10)dodec-3-ene (methyltetracyclododecene carboxylic acid), norbornenemethanol, and maleic anhydride, which were synthesized by free radical, vinyl addition and ring opening metathesis polymerization techniques. The polymers derived from ring opening metathesis polymerization have bee successfully hydrogenated to provide yet another member of this group of materials. The cycloaliphatic polymer backbones provide etch resistance, mechanical properties and stability to radiation. The lithographic function is provided by carefully tailored pendant groups, which include an acid functionality that is masked by protecting groups that undergo acid catalyzed thermolysis as well as polar groups that influence the adhesion, wetability and dissolution properties of the polymer. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and have glass transition temperatures ranging from less than 60 degrees Celsius to higher than 250 degrees Celsius depending on their specific structure and mode of polymerization. They are at least as transparent at 193 nm as the corresponding acrylics. Their dry etch resistance varies with the formulation, but the base polymers etch more slowly than novolac under conditions typically used to pattern polysilicon. Upon exposure and baking, the resists have demonstrated high sensitivities (9-25 mJ/cm2), and 0.16 micrometer features have bean resolved.

  1. Study of {sup 193}Os beta{sup -} decay; Estudo do decaimento beta{sup -} do {sup 193}Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme Soares


    In this work, the excited levels of {sup 193}Ir populated by the beta{sup -} decay of {sup 193}Os (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 30h) were investigated. For that purpose, {approx} 5 mg samples of 99%-enriched {sup 192}Os were irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of {approx} 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} and then analysed both using single gamma spectroscopy and a 4-detector multi parametric acquisition facility, which provided data for both a gamma gamma coincidence analysis and a directional angular correlation gamma gamma ({theta} ) study. From these data, 28 transitions were added to this decay scheme, 11 of which were previously known from nuclear reactions and 17 observed for the first time. Eight excited levels were also added to the decay scheme, 3 of which were known from nuclear reaction studies - the remaining 5 are suggested for the first time. Moreover, it was possible to confirm suspicions found in reference that the levels at 848.93 keV and 849.093 keV are indeed the same; it was also possible to confirm the existence of an excited level at 806.9 keV, which had been inferred, but not experimentally confirmed in beta decay studies to date. The angular correlation analysis allowed for the definition of the spin of the excited level at 874 keV as 5/2{sup +;} moreover, the results showed a 79% probability that the spin of the 1078 keV level is 5/2/'-, and also restricted the spin possibilities for the new excited level at 960 keV to two values (1/2 or 3/2). It was also possible to measure the multipolarity mixing ratio ({delta}{sub Ln+1}/L{sub n}) for 43 transitions - 19 of them for the first time and most of the others with a better precision than previously known. Finally, an attempt was made to understand the low-lying levels structure for this nucleus using a theoretical model, which reproduced the ground state and the two lowest-lying excited levels in {sup 193}Ir. (author)

  2. Thallium myocardial tomoscintigraphy: detection of ischemia during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Tomoscintigraphie myocardique au thallium: detection de l'ischemie provoquee par le sevrage de la ventilation assistee chez le bronchiteux chronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, L.; Valette, H.; Obama, S.; Archambaud, F.; Richard, C.; Teboul, J.L.; Hebert, J.L.; Auzepy, P.; Desgrez, A. (Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (FR))


    In order to evidence myocardial ischemia-leading to ventricular dysfunction-during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thallium myocardial tomography and gated blood pool studies were performed in 9 patients during mechanical ventilation and during weaning from mechanical ventilation. During the latter, results of gated blood pool studies showed a diffuse homogeneous left ventricular dysfunction. A fixed lower thallium uptake in the septum than in the lateral wall was found with the quantitative analysis of myocardial tomograms. Partial volume effect is likely the cause of this septal defect. The hypothesis of a diffuse ischemia cannot be excluded; but, without the absolute quantification of tomographic data, it cannot be proven.

  3. Studies of photon spectra from a thallium-204 foil source as an aid to dosimetry and shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, T M


    Beta ray foil sources incorporating nuclides such as thallium-204, promethium-147 and strontium-90 plus yttrium-90 ar increasingly used in industrial devices such as thickness gauges. These sources are so constructed that they give rise to complex photon spectra containing low energy Bremsstrahlung and X-rays characteristic of the constructional materials. The energy response of practical monitoring instruments is such that they are likely to underestimate the dose due to such spectra unless they are calibrated using appropriate spectra. This report describes a series of measurements carried out on a commercially available thallium-204 foil source and five commonly used shielding materials. The measurements made with a NaI(T1) spectrometer have been corrected for instrumental distortions to obtain the photon spectra in air. These spectra are presented and have been used to compute dose in air with the help of published data on mass energy-absorption coefficients. Also included in the report are data derived f...

  4. Septal myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 in the diagnosis of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichard, A.D.; Wiener, I.; Martinez, E.; Horowitz, S.; Patterson, R.; Meller, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Gorlin, R.; Herman, M.V.


    The use of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) to identify obstructive coronary disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery proximal to the first septal perforator (prox LAD) was studied in 60 patients. Perfusion of the septum and anteroapical areas with thallium-201 injected during exercise was compared to results of coronary arteriography. Septal MPI defect was found in 92.3% of patients with obstruction of the proximal LAD, 27.7% of patients with obstruction of LAD distal to first septal perforator, 0% in patients with obstructions involving right or circumflex arteries, and in 10.5% of patients without coronary disease. Anteroapical MPI defects were found with similar frequency in the three groups with obstructive coronary disease. Septal MPI defect had a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 85.4% in the diagnosis of proximal LAD disease. Normal septal perfusion with thallium-201 virtually excluded proximal LAD disease.

  5. Usefulness of rest-redistribution thallium scan for the indication of PTCA in an interesting case with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Mitani, Isao; Matsuo, Takeshi; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Haze, Kazuo


    A 72-year-old woman with acute myocardial infarction was received coronary thrombolytic therapy. After percutaneous transluminal coronary recanalization (PTCR), the stenosis of LAD became from 99 % to 90 %. Left ventriculogram showed dyskinesis of anterior wall in acute phase. After PTCR, she complained of postinfarctional angina. Thus, in order to evaluate the viability of anterior wall, serial thallium scintigraphy was performed at rest, which showed perfusion defect and redistribution of anterior wall. After percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), anterior wall motion became almost normal. The perfusion defect of anterior wall was also gradually disappeared. The serial thallium scintigraphy at rest is an useful method not only to evaluate the viability of myocardium in acute myocardial infarction, but also to follow the effect of PTCA.

  6. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.


    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  7. Formic acid electrooxidation on thallium-decorated shape-controlled platinum nanoparticles: an improvement in electrocatalytic activity


    Busó-Rogero, Carlos; Perales-Rondón, Juan V.; Farias, Manuel J.S.; Vidal-Iglesias, Francisco J.; Solla-Gullón, José; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M.


    Thallium modified shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles were prepared and their electrocatalytic activity towards formic acid electrooxidation was evaluated in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The electrochemical and in situ FTIR spectroscopic results show a remarkable improvement in the electrocatalytic activity, especially in the low potential region (around 0.1–0.2 V vs. RHE). Cubic Pt nanoparticles modified with Tl were found to be more active than the octahedral Pt ones in the entire range of Tl coverag...

  8. Usefulness and limitations of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in delineating location and size of prior myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niess, G.S.; Logic, J.R.; Russell, R.O. Jr.; Rackley, C.E.; Rogers, W.J.


    Thirty-two patients were evaluated at a mean of 7 +- 2 months after infarction with a 12-lead ECG, resting /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigram, biplane left ventriculogram, and coronary angiograms. From the left ventriculogram, asynergy was quantified as percent abnormally contracting segment (% ACS), the percent of end-diastolic circumference which was either akinetic or dyskinetic. Using a computerized planimetry system, we expressed /sup 201/Tl perfusion defects as a percentage of total potential thallium uptake. Of 21 patients with ECG evidence of prior transmural infarction, a /sup 201/Tl defect was present in 20, and angiographic asynergy was present in all 21. The site of prior infarction by ECG agreed with the /sup 201/T1 defect location in 24 of 32 patients and with site of angiographic asynergy in 23 of 32 patients. Scintigraphic defects were present in only four of 10 patients with ACS less than or equal to 6%, but scintigraphic defects were found in 20 of 22 patients with ACS > 6%. Thallium defect size correlated marginally with angiographic left ventricular ejection fraction but correlated closely with angiographic % ACS. Thallium defect size was similar among patients with one-, two-, or three-vessel coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% stenosis), but thallium defect size was larger in patients with electrocardiographic evidence of transmural infarction or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > 12 mm Hg. Thus, resting /sup 201/T1 myocardial scintigraphy is useful in localizing and quantifying the extent of prior myocardial infarction, but is insensitive to small infarcts (ACS < 6%).

  9. Determination of thallium at ultra-trace levels in water and biological samples using solid phase spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S; El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Kassem, Mohammed A


    A new simple, very sensitive, selective and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of thallium(III) by solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS) has been developed. The procedure is based on fixation of Tl(III) as quinalizarin ion associate on a styrene-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin. The absorbance of resin sorbed Tl(III) ion associate is measured directly at 636 and 830 nm. Thallium(I) was determined by difference measurements after oxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) with bromine. Calibration is linear over the range 0.5-12.0 μg L(-1) of Tl(III) with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.40% (n=10). The detection and quantification limits are 150 and 495 ng L(-1) using 0.6 g of the exchanger. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity are also calculated and found to be 1.31×10(7) L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.00156 ng cm(-2), respectively. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to determine thallium in water, urine and serum samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The efficient removal of thallium from sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater in ferrous metallurgy using emulsion liquid membrane. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Xiao, Jiangping; Shen, Yi; Liu, Xian; Li, Wensong; Wang, Weiyan; Yang, Yunquan


    The removal of thallium ions in flue gas desulfurization wastewater from ferrous metallurgic industry was studied by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) method using 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507) as carrier, aviation kerosene (AK) as organic solvent, polyisobutylene succinimide (T154) as surfactant, polyisobutylene (PIB) as additive, and sulfuric acid as internal reagent. Some important influence parameters such as concentrations of carrier, surfactant and stripping agent, agitation speed, extraction time, volume ratios of feed solution to emulsion phase and internal phase to membrane phase, and their effects on the removal efficiency of Tl in the ELM process were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum operating conditions of 2% of carrier, 5% of surfactant, 0.5 M of stripping agent, 350 rpm of agitation speed, 12.5:1 of volume ratio of feed solution to emulsion phase, and 3:1 volume ratio of membrane to internal phase, the maximum extraction efficiency of thallium reached 99.76% within 15-min reaction time. The ICP-MS analysis indicated that the thallium concentration in treated wastewater was below 5 μg/L and could meet the emission standard demand for industrial wastewater enacted by the local government of Hunan province of China. Meanwhile, the extraction of impurity ions calcium and magnesium in the ELM system was investigated. The result showed that an acidic environment would be in favor of the removal of Tl from calcium and magnesium contained in wastewater. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. Thallium isotopes in metallurgical wastes/contaminated soils: A novel tool to trace metal source and behavior. (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ettler, Vojtěch; Trubač, Jakub; Chrastný, Vladislav; Penížek, Vít; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Voegelin, Andreas; Zádorová, Tereza; Oborná, Vendula; Drábek, Ondřej; Holubík, Ondřej; Houška, Jakub; Pavlů, Lenka; Ash, Christopher


    Thallium (Tl) concentration and isotope data have been recorded for contaminated soils and a set of industrial wastes that were produced within different stages of Zn ore mining and metallurgical processing of Zn-rich materials. Despite large differences in Tl levels of the waste materials (1-500mgkg-1), generally small changes in ε205Tl values have been observed. However, isotopically lighter Tl was recorded in fly ash (ε205Tl∼-4.1) than in slag (ε205Tl∼-3.3), implying partial isotope fractionation during material processing. Thallium isotope compositions in the studied soils reflected the Tl contamination (ε205Tl∼-3.8), despite the fact that the major pollution period ended more than 30 years ago. Therefore, we assume that former industrial Tl inputs into soils, if significant, can potentially be traced using the isotope tracing method. We also suggest that the isotope redistributions occurred in some soil (subsurface) horizons, with Tl being isotopically heavier than the pollution source, due to specific sorption and/or precipitation processes, which complicates the discrimination of primary Tl. Thallium isotope analysis proved to be a promising tool to aid our understanding of Tl behavior within the smelting process, as well as its post-depositional dynamics in the environmental systems (soils). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photodissociation dynamics of methoxybenzoic acid at 193 nm (United States)

    Ho, Yu-Chieh; Dyakov, Yuri A.; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Ni, Chi-Kung; Sun, Yi-Lun; Hu, Wei-Ping


    The theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of the 1πσ* repulsive excited state along O-H bond of phenol have large impact on the interpretation of phenol and tyrosine photochemistry. In this work, we investigated the photodissociation dynamics of 2-, 3-, and 4-methoxybenzoic acid (MOBA) in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. In addition, the ground state and the excited state potential energy surfaces of MOBA were investigated using ab initio calculations, and branching ratios were predicted by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory. The results show that (1) the excited state potential of 1πσ* along O-CH3 bond remains similar to that of phenol and anisole, (2) CH3 elimination is the major channel for three MOBA isomers, and (3) photofragment translational energy distributions show bimodal distributions, representing the dissociation on the ground state and repulsive excited state, respectively. Comparison to the study of hydroxbenzoic acid [Y. L. Yang, Y. A. Dyakov, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Ni, Y. L. Sun, and W. P. Hu, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 034314 (2011), 10.1063/1.3526059] shows that only the intramolecular hydrogen bonding has significant effects on the excited state dynamics of phenol chromophores.

  13. Thallium-isotopic compositions of euxinic sediments as a proxy for global manganese-oxide burial (United States)

    Owens, Jeremy D.; Nielsen, Sune G.; Horner, Tristan J.; Ostrander, Chadlin M.; Peterson, Larry C.


    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potentially powerful paleoredox proxy that may track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the global burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ∼20 thousand years, which is longer than the ocean mixing time, and it has been inferred that modern oxic seawater is conservative with respect to both concentration and isotopes. Marine sources of Tl have nearly identical isotopic values. Therefore, the Tl sinks, adsorption onto manganese oxides and low temperature oceanic crust alteration (the dominant seawater output), are the primary controls of the seawater isotopic composition. For relatively short-term, ∼million years, redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant mechanism that alters the Tl isotopic composition of seawater is associated with manganese oxide burial because large variability in low temperature ocean crust alteration is controlled by long-term, multi-million years, average ocean crust production rates. This study presents new Tl isotope data for an open ocean transect in the South Atlantic, and depth transects for two euxinic basins (anoxic and free sulfide in the water column), the Cariaco Basin and Black Sea. The Tl isotopic signature of open ocean seawater in the South Atlantic was found to be homogeneous with ε205Tl = -6.0 ± 0.3 (±2 SD, n = 41) while oxic waters from Cariaco and the Black Sea are -5.6 and -2.2, respectively. Combined with existing data from the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, our Atlantic data establish the conservatism of Tl isotopes in the global ocean. In contrast, partially- and predominantly-restricted basins reveal Tl isotope differences that vary between open-ocean (-6) and continental material (-2) ε205Tl, scaling with the degree of restriction. Regardless of the differences between basins, Tl is quantitatively removed from their euxinic waters below the chemocline. The burial of Tl in euxinic sediments is estimated to be an order of magnitude

  14. 47 CFR 61.193 - Vacation of suspension order; supplements announcing same; etc. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacation of suspension order; supplements announcing same; etc. 61.193 Section 61.193 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...; supplements announcing same; etc. If the Commission vacates a suspension order, the affected carrier must...

  15. 9 CFR 381.193 - Poultry carcasses, etc., not intended for human food. (United States)


    ... Food,” or “(name of species) Food” (e.g., “Dog Food” or “Cat Food”). To be considered conspicuous, the... for human food. 381.193 Section 381.193 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... food. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, poultry carcasses, and parts and...

  16. Thallium isotopes as a potential tracer for the origin of cratonic eclogites (United States)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Williams, Helen M.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman; Viljoen, Fanus


    Cratonic eclogites are inferred to originate either from subducted ocean crust or mantle melts accreted onto the roots of continents. These models have different implications for the growth of continents, but it is currently difficult to determine the origin of individual eclogite suites. Upper ocean crust altered at low temperatures and marine sediments both display high thallium (Tl) concentrations and strongly fractionated Tl isotope signatures relative to the ambient upper mantle. In this study we carry out the first examination of the suitability of Tl isotopes as a tracer for an ocean-crust origin of cratonic eclogites. We have analysed the Tl isotope composition of clinopyroxene and garnet in six eclogites from the Kaalvallei and Bellsbank kimberlite pipes in South Africa. Minerals were pre-cleaned with an HCl leaching technique and the leachates display variably light Tl isotope ratios. These most likely reflect low-temperature hydrothermal alteration occurring after eruption of the kimberlite that carried the eclogites to the surface. The leached mineral pairs all display identical Tl isotope ratios, strongly suggesting that the source of the analysed Tl is identical for each mineral pair. It is, however, not possible to exclude the possibility that the analysed Tl originates from kimberlitic material that was not removed by the cleaning procedure. Only one of the six samples exhibits a Tl isotope composition different from ambient mantle. Assuming that the Tl isotope signatures indeed represent the eclogite minerals and not any form of contamination, the Tl isotope composition in this sample is consistent with containing a minor component (low temperatures. Thallium isotopes may become one of the most sensitive indicators for the presence of low-T altered ocean crust because of the stark contrast in Tl concentration and isotopic composition between the mantle and altered ocean crust. In fact, no other chemical or isotopic tracer could have provided an

  17. Thallium-201 SPECT in the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. (United States)

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Balm, A J; Hilgers, F J; Koops, W; Loftus, B M; Tan, I B; Muller, S H; Hoefnagel, C A; Gregor, R T


    The accuracy of SPECT with 201Tl-chloride for the diagnosis of primary tumors, lymph node metastases and recurrences in head and neck cancer was evaluated for clinical applicability. SPECT images, obtained 60 min after administration of 150 MBq 201Tl-chloride, were compared with clinical, CT and/or MRI and histology results. In addition, whole-body images were obtained to detect distant metastases. In 79 patients studied for primary tumors (principally larynix, hypopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx and oral cavity), 201Tl SPECT correctly identified 69 of 73 (95% versus 88% for CT/MRI) histologically confirmed malignancies including 63 squamous-cell carcinomas. The method localized four occult naso- and oropharynx carcinomas not seen on CT/MRI and was correctly negative in two patients without tumor and in three of four patients with no confirmed primary tumor in the head and neck. With respect to regional spread, only patients who had cervical lymph node dissection were evaluated, and the findings were recorded per side of the neck. Thallium-201 SPECT correctly identified metastases in 31 of 36 neck dissections with proven lymph node involvement (86%), was correctly negative in nine and false-positive in one. Although the sensitivity of CT/MRI was clearly higher (97%), considerably more false-positive cases affected its accuracy (81% versus 87% for SPECT). In 30 patients investigated for recurrences, 201Tl SPECT correctly identified 27 of 29 microscopically confirmed tumor sites (93%) and was correctly negative in seven. Sensitivity of CT/MRI was lower (76%), and a greater number of false-positives (seven versus three for SPECT) further decreased its accuracy (64% versus 87% for SPECT). Distant metastases were detected in five patients. Thallium-201 SPECT appears to be an accurate method for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. The method is particularly useful for detection of occult head and neck tumors and for assessing recurrences. It also may be of

  18. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland. (United States)

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  19. In-situ pre-concentration through repeated sampling and pyrolysis for ultrasensitive determination of thallium in drinking water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Zheng, Huaili; Xu, Bincheng; Xiao, Lang; Chigan, Yong; Zhangluo, Yilan


    In this paper, a procedure for in-situ pre-concentration in graphite furnace by repeated sampling and pyrolysis is proposed for the determination of ultra-trace thallium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Without any other laborious enrichment processes that routinely result in analyte loss and contamination, thallium was directly concentrated in the graphite furnace automatically and subsequently subject to analysis. The effects of several key factors, such as the temperature for pyrolysis and atomization, the chemical modifier, and the repeated sampling times were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a limit of detection of 0.01µgL -1 was obtained, which fulfilled thallium determination in drinking water by GB 5749-2006 regulated by China. Successful analysis of thallium in certified water samples and drinking water samples was demonstrated, with analytical results in good agreement with the certified values and those by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Routine spike-recovery tests with randomly selected drinking water samples showed satisfactory results of 80-96%. The proposed method is simple and sensitive for screening of ultra-trace thallium in drinking water samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The ECG component of Thallium-201 exercise testing impacts on cardiac intervention rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deague, J.; Salehi, N.; Grigg, L.; Lichtenstein, M.; Better, N. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiology


    Full text: Thallium exercise testing (Tlex) offers superior sensitivity and specificity to exercise electrocardiography (ECG), but the value of the ECG data in Tlex remains poorly studied. While a normal Tlex is associated with an excellent prognosis, patients with a positive Tlex have a higher cardiac event rate. We aimed to see if a negative ECG Component of the Tlex (ECGTl) was associated with an improved outcome compared with a positive ECGTl, in those patients with a reversible Tlex defect. We followed 100 consecutive patients retrospectively with a reversible defect on Tlex (50 with negative and 50 with positive ECGTI) for 12 months. The ECG was reviewed as positive (1mm ST depression 0.08 seconds after J point or >2mm if on digoxin or prior ECG changes), negative, equivocal or uninterpretable. We excluded patients with pharmacological testing, and those with equivocal or uninterpretable ECGs. End-points included angiography, cardiac interventions and cardiac event rate (CER) incorporating unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac death. In conclusion 24% of patients with reversible defects on Tlex who had a negative ECGTI still proceeded to PTCA or CABG. Those with a positive ECGTI had a higher incidence of angiography and cardiac revascularisation, but this difference was only evident in patients with mild to moderate reversibility

  1. Redox-controlled release dynamics of thallium in periodically flooded arable soil. (United States)

    Antić-Mladenović, Svetlana; Frohne, Tina; Kresović, Mirjana; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Savić, Dubravka; Ličina, Vlado; Rinklebe, Jörg


    To our knowledge, this is the first work to mechanistically study the impact of the redox potential (E H ) and principal factors, such as pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), chlorides (Cl - ) and sulfates (SO 4 2- ), on the release dynamics of thallium (Tl) in periodically flooded soil. We simulated flooding using an automated biogeochemical microcosm system that allows for systematical control of pre-defined redox windows. The E H value was increased mechanistically at intervals of approximately 100 mV from reducing (-211 mV) to oxidizing (475 mV) conditions. Soluble Tl levels (0.02-0.28 μg L -1 ) increased significantly with increases in E H (r = 0.80, p soils along with a determination of the Tl species and monitoring of the Tl content in plants to achieve more detailed insight into soluble Tl behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Gökhan BAŞARAN


    Full Text Available Determination of larval growth rate of and forensic analysis of the age of Calliphoridae larvae on a corpse are useful evidence in legal investigations for the estimation of exact death time and time duration after death; post mortem interval. However many factors, such as temperature, tissue type and contamination of drugs and toxins, effect larval development of blow fly larvae and consequently theestimation of post mortem interval. The present study examined the larval growth rate of a forensically important blow fly species, Lucilia sericata Meigen 1826 in different concentrations (0,12; 0,25; 0,50; 1 and 2 μg/g of toxic heavy metal Thallium under controlled laboratory conditions. Body length and weight, death ratio of larvae and pupa between experimental and control groups were compared. Results demonstrated that the development rate of larvae between uncontaminated and contaminated diets varies significantly. In short, they molted later, reached maximum length more slowly and sometimesproduced significantly smaller pupae in contaminated food source. These results emphasized that the importance of determining the contamination rate of toxins in tissue for the forensic entomologist,while using development rates from standard curves based on larvae fed non-contaminated mediums.

  3. Value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Shiga, Kouji; Umamoto, Ikuo (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the value of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity on stress thallium scintigraphy in 80 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 50 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Twenty persons without either coronary artery stenosis or heart disease were served as controls. Areas surrounded by maximum count points on the line of each 10deg on the short axis slice through the mid-cavity of the left ventricle were obtained at 10 minutes and at 3 hours after exercise. Transient dilation index (TDI) was obtained by dividing the area on early image by that on delayed image. TDI was significantly higher in patients with two or three vessel disease in the IHD group than the control group. High TDI was observed in 8% for one vessel disease, 40% for two vessel disease, and 80% for three vessel disease, contributing to the detection of multivessel IHD. In the HCM group of 80 patients, 24 (48%) had high TDI which was frequently associated with a history of chest pain and positive ECG findings at exercise. When these 24 HCM patients underwent exercise blood pool scintiscanning, left ventricular enddiastolic volume was similar before and at 10 minutes after exercise. These findings suggest that transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity after exercise may reflect subendocardial ischemia in both IHD and HCM. TDI would become a useful indicator for transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity. (N.K.).

  4. Clinicopathologic correlation study of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in diagnosis of myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chida, Kouji; Sugiura, Masaya; Ohkawa, Shin-ichiro


    In a series of 1,000 consecutive autopsy cases, we evaluated the clinical utility of thallium-201 (Tl-201) myocardial scintigraphy and electrocardiography (ECG) in 101 patients who had been studied while alive. Fifty-five cases had myocardial infarctions (MI) at autopsy. The Tl-201 scintigram and ECG in diagnosis of MI showed sensitivities of 68 % and 60 %, specificities of 87 % and 83 %, and diagnostic accuracies of 76 % and 70 %, respectively. The sensitivity of the Tl-201 scintigram was 70 % in anterior MI, 80 % in postero-inferior MI, 25 % in lateral and subendocardial infarction. The sensitivity was 88 % for large massive MI, but was low in scattered (50 %) or middle-sized MI (17 %). The diagnostic limit of the resolution of Tl-201 scintigrams was 4.5 cm in long diameter. All 8 cases with MI of less than 4 cm could not be diagnosed with the technique. There were 48 cases of large MI (more than 5 cm), but 8 cases could not be diagnosed by scintigraphy because of non-transmural or scattered MI. A comparison of the Tl-201 scintigram and ECG showed that 27 cases out of 60 cases were diagnosed by both methods, 14 only by the Tl-201 scintigram, 9 only by ECG and 10 by neither method.

  5. Evaluation of myocardial damage in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Takuhisa; Shibuya, Noritoshi (Kawatana National Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan)); Hashiba, Kunitake; Oku, Yasuhiko; Mori, Hideki; Yano, Katsusuke


    Myocardial damage and cardiopulmonary functions in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) were assessed using thallium-201 myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and technetium-99m multigated radionuclide angiography. Twenty-five patients with DMD were divided into 4 groups according to percent of perfusion defect (%PD) calculated by the bull's-eye method and age. PD was detected in 24 (96.0%) of 25 patients with DMD, and it spread from the left ventricular lateral wall to the anterior wall and/or interventricular septum. PD was detected even in a 6-year-old DMD boy. Patients in Group I (%PD[>=]10% and age<15 years old) were shown to have a higher risk of left-sided heart failure without respiratory failure. Patients in Group II (%PD[>=]10 and age[>=]15) showed decreased pulmonary function and worsened arterial blood gas values as compared with Group IV (%PD<10 and age[>=]15). There was no significant difference in cardiac function among the 4 groups. It is postulated that myocardial damage in Group II patients is dependent primarily on a deficiency of dystrophin and on chronic respiratory failure, and that some of them are at risk of cardiopulmonary failure. It is concluded that myocardial SPECT is useful for the early diagnosis of myocardial damage and evaluation of cardiopulmonary function in DMD patients. (author).

  6. Role of relativity in high-pressure phase transitions of thallium. (United States)

    Kotmool, Komsilp; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bovornratanaraks, Thiti; Ahuja, Rajeev


    We demonstrate the relativistic effects in high-pressure phase transitions of heavy element thallium. The known first phase transition from h.c.p. to f.c.c. is initially investigated by various relativistic levels and exchange-correlation functionals as implemented in FPLO method, as well as scalar relativistic scheme within PAW formalism. The electronic structure calculations are interpreted from the perspective of energetic stability and electronic density of states. The full relativistic scheme (FR) within L(S)DA performs to be the scheme that resembles mostly with experimental results with a transition pressure of 3 GPa. The s-p hybridization and the valence-core overlapping of 6s and 5d states are the primary reasons behind the f.c.c. phase occurrence. A recent proposed phase, i.e., a body-centered tetragonal (b.c.t.) phase, is confirmed with a small distortion from the f.c.c. phase. We have also predicted a reversible b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at 800 GPa. This finding has been suggested that almost all the III-A elements (Ga, In and Tl) exhibit the b.c.t. → f.c.c. phase transition at extremely high pressure.

  7. High thallium concentrations in soils from sites of historical Ag, Pb, and Zn mining in western Małopolska (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woch M. W.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess thallium concentration in topsoil originating from sites of historical mining of Ag, Pb and Zn in western Małopolska (S Poland. Soil samples were collected from 63 sites, sieved, ground and digested in hot HClO4. Thallium concentration was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thallium concentrations averaged 20.84 mg kg-1 and varied from 4.42 to 49.82 mg kg-1. In all studied soils they exceeded values typical for uncontaminated soils (0.02 to 2.8 mg Tl kg-1. This indicates that Tl contamination may threaten the environment and public health. Routine monitoring of Tl contamination in southern Poland is required.

  8. Preconcentration of thallium(III) with 2,6-bis( N-phenyl carbamoyl) pyridine on microcrystalline naphthalene prior to its trace determination in human serum spectrophotometrically (United States)

    Rezaei, B.; Meghdadi, S.; Majidi, N.


    A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of thallium on 2,6-bis( N-phenyl carbamoyl)pyridine-naphthalene adsorbent in the pH range 5.0-10.0, prior to its spectrophotometric determination, based on the oxidation of bromopyrogallol red at λ = 518 nm. This method makes it possible to quantitize thallium in the range of 3.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -5 M, with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 1.2 × 10 -9 M. This procedure has been successfully applied to determine the ultra trace levels of thallium in the environmental and biological samples, free from the interference of some diverse ions. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation of three measurements is better than 4.17%.

  9. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.


    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease.

  10. Influence of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock starting potential on the parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes in cesium and thallium (United States)

    Perger, W. F.; Das, B. P.


    The parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes for the 6s1/2-7s1/2 transition in cesium and the 6p1/2-7p1/2 transition in thallium have been calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The effects of using different Dirac-Hartree-Fock atomic core potentials are examined and the transition amplitudes for both the length and velocity gauges are given. It is found that the parity-nonconserving transition amplitudes exhibit a greater dependence on the starting potential for thallium than for cesium.

  11. Assessment of myocardial viability by dynamic tomographic iodine 123 iodophenylpentadecanoic acid imaging: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium 201 imaging. (United States)

    Iskandrian, A S; Powers, J; Cave, V; Wasserleben, V; Cassell, D; Heo, J


    This study examined the ability of dynamic 123I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) imaging to detect myocardial viability in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction caused by coronary artery disease. Serial 180-degree single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images (five sets, 8 minutes each) were obtained starting 4 minutes after injection of 2 to 6 mCi 123I at rest in 21 patients with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] 34% +/- 11%). The segmental uptake was compared with that of rest-redistribution 201Tl images (20 segments/study). The number of perfusion defects (reversible and fixed) was similar by IPPA and thallium (11 +/- 5 vs 10 +/- 5 segments/patient; difference not significant). There was agreement between IPPA and thallium for presence or absence (kappa = 0.78 +/- 0.03) and nature (reversible, mild fixed, or severe fixed) of perfusion defects (kappa = 0.54 +/- 0.04). However, there were more reversible IPPA defects than reversible thallium defects (7 +/- 4 vs 3 +/- 4 segments/patient; p = 0.001). In 14 patients the EF (by gated pool imaging) improved after coronary revascularization from 33% +/- 11% to 39% +/- 12% (p = 0.002). The number of reversible IPPA defects was greater in the seven patients who had improvement in EF than in the patients without such improvement (10 +/- 4 vs 5 +/- 4 segments/patient; p = 0.075). 123I-labeled IPPA SPECT imaging is a promising new technique for assessment of viability. Reversible defects predict recovery of LV dysfunction after coronary revascularization.

  12. 14 CFR 193.5 - How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from disclosure? (United States)


    ... SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.5 How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from disclosure? 193.5 Section 193.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...

  13. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to...

  14. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MACS) of the thallium superconducting phases (United States)

    Bayya, S. S.; Snyder, R. L.


    This paper explores the speed of reaction as a parameter to minimizing thallium loss. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and microwave-assisted combustion synthesis (MACS) were developed for the synthesis of Tl-2212 and Tl-2223 superconductors using Cu metal powder as a fuel. A kitchen microwave oven was used to carry out MACS reactions. The samples were reacted for few seconds and led to the formation of the superconducting phases. Further explorations and modifications in the processing could lead to the formation of single phases by MACS.

  15. Tracking along-arc sediment inputs to the Aleutian arc using thallium isotopes (United States)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Yogodzinski, Gene; Prytulak, Julie; Plank, Terry; Kay, Suzanne M.; Kay, Robert W.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Owens, Jeremy D.; Auro, Maureen; Kading, Tristan


    Sediment transport from the subducted slab to the mantle wedge is an important process in understanding the chemical and physical conditions of arc magma generation. The Aleutian arc offers an excellent opportunity to study sediment transport processes because the subducted sediment flux varies systematically along strike (Kelemen et al., 2003) and many lavas exhibit unambiguous signatures of sediment addition to the sub-arc mantle (Morris et al., 1990). However, the exact sediment contribution to Aleutian lavas and how these sediments are transported from the slab to the surface are still debated. Thallium (Tl) isotope ratios have great potential to distinguish sediment fluxes in subduction zones because pelagic sediments and low-temperature altered oceanic crust are highly enriched in Tl and display heavy and light Tl isotope compositions, respectively, compared with the upper mantle and continental crust. Here, we investigate the Tl isotope composition of lavas covering almost the entire Aleutian arc a well as sediments outboard of both the eastern (DSDP Sites 178 and 183) and central (ODP Hole 886C) portions of the arc. Sediment Tl isotope compositions change systematically from lighter in the Eastern to heavier in the Central Aleutians reflecting a larger proportion of pelagic sediments when distal from the North American continent. Lavas in the Eastern and Central Aleutians mirror this systematic change to heavier Tl isotope compositions to the west, which shows that the subducted sediment composition is directly translated to the arc east of Kanaga Island. Moreover, quantitative mixing models of Tl and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes reveal that bulk sediment transfer of ∼0.6-1.0% by weight in the Eastern Aleutians and ∼0.2-0.6% by weight in the Central Aleutians can account for all four isotope systems. Bulk mixing models, however, require that fractionation of trace element ratios like Ce/Pb, Cs/Tl, and Sr/Nd in the Central and Eastern Aleutians occurs after

  16. Controls on thallium uptake during hydrothermal alteration of the upper ocean crust (United States)

    Coggon, Rosalind M.; Rehkämper, Mark; Atteck, Charlotte; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Cooper, Matthew J.


    Hydrothermal circulation is a fundamental component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, the magnitude of the high temperature axial hydrothermal fluid flux remains disputed, and the lower temperature ridge flank fluid flux is difficult to quantify. Thallium (Tl) isotopes behave differently in axial compared to ridge flank systems, with Tl near-quantitatively stripped from the intrusive crust by high temperature hydrothermal reactions, but added to the lavas during low temperature reaction with seawater. This contrasting behavior provides a unique approach to determine the fluid fluxes associated with axial and ridge flank environments. Unfortunately, our understanding of the Tl isotopic mass balance is hindered by poor knowledge of the mineralogical, physical and chemical controls on Tl-uptake by the ocean crust. Here we use analyses of basaltic volcanic upper crust from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1301B on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, combined with published analyses of dredged seafloor basalts and upper crustal basalts from Holes 504B and 896A, to investigate the controls on Tl-uptake by mid-ocean ridge basalts and evaluate when in the evolution of the ridge flank hydrothermal system Tl-uptake occurs. Seafloor basalts indicate an association between basaltic uptake of Tl from cold seawater and uptake of Cs and Rb, which are known to partition into K-rich phases. Although there is no clear relationship between Tl and K contents of seafloor basalts, the data do not rule out the incorporation of at least some Tl into the same minerals as the alkali elements. In contrast, we find no relationship between the Tl content and either the abundance of secondary phyllosilicate minerals, or the K, Cs or Rb contents in upper crustal basalts. We conclude that the uptake of Tl and alkali elements during hydrothermal alteration of the upper crust involves different processes and/or mineral phases compared to those that govern seafloor weathering. Furthermore

  17. 36 CFR 223.193 - Procedures for reporting acquisition and disposition of unprocessed Federal timber. (United States)


    ... Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program § 223.193 Procedures for reporting...; (iii) An agreement to maintain and/or replace all brands and paint identifying the Federal origin of...

  18. Chemistry and phase evolution during roasting of toxic thallium-bearing pyrite. (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Garrido, Fernando


    In the frame of a research project on microscopic distribution and speciation of geogenic thallium (Tl) from contaminated mine soils, Tl-bearing pyrite ore samples from Riotinto mining district (Huelva, SW Spain) were experimentally fired to simulate a roasting process. Concentration and volatility behavior of Tl and other toxic heavy metals was determined by quantitative ICP-MS, whereas semi-quantitative mineral phase transitions were identified by in situ thermo X-Ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses after each firing temperature. Sample with initial highest amount of quartz (higher Si content), lowest quantity of pyrite and traces of jarosite (lower S content) developed hematite and concentrated Tl (from 10 up to 72 mg kg-1) after roasting at 900 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. However, samples with lower or absent quartz content and higher pyrite amount mainly developed magnetite, accumulating Tl between 400 and 500 °C and releasing Tl from 700 up to 900 °C (from 10-29 mg kg-1 down to 4-1 mg kg-1). These results show the varied accumulative, or volatile, behaviors of one of the most toxic elements for life and environment, in which oxidation of Tl-bearing Fe sulfides produce Fe oxides wastes with or without Tl. The initial chemistry and mineralogy of pyrite ores should be taken into account in coal-fired power stations, cement or sulfuric acid production industry involving pyrite roasting processes, and steel, brick or paint industries, which use iron ore from roasted pyrite ash, where large amounts of Tl entail significant environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, P.H.


    This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) ..-->.. 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude ..beta..E to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S ..-->.. 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(..beta..E), and can be distinguished from M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam.

  20. MRI and thallium-201 SPECT in the prediction of survival in glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, Maaike J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Neurology, PO Box 432, The Hague (Netherlands); Berkhof, Johannes [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bosma, Ingeborg; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Heimans, Jan J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Postma, Tjeerd J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sanchez, Esther [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buter, Jan [VU University Medical Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Noske, David P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology Research Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    This paper aims to study the value of MRI and Thallium 201 ({sup 201}Tl) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the prediction of overall survival (OS) in glioma patients treated with temozolomide (TMZ) and to evaluate timing of radiological follow-up. We included patients treated with TMZ chemoradiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and with TMZ for recurrent glioma. MRIs and {sup 201}Tl SPECTs were obtained at regular intervals. The value of both imaging modalities in predicting OS was examined using Cox regression analyses. Altogether, 138 MRIs and 113 {sup 201}Tl SPECTs in 46 patients were performed. Both imaging modalities were strongly related to OS (P {<=} 0.02). In newly diagnosed GBM patients, the last follow-up MRI (i.e., after six adjuvant TMZ courses) and SPECT (i.e., after three adjuvant TMZ courses) were the strongest predictors of OS (P = 0.01). In recurrent glioma patients, baseline measurements appeared to be the most predictive of OS (P < 0.01). The addition of one imaging modality to the other did not contribute to the prediction of OS. Both MRI and {sup 201}Tl SPECT are valuable in the prediction of OS. It is adequate to restrict to one of both modalities in the radiological follow-up during treatment. In the primary GBM setting, MRI after six adjuvant TMZ courses contributes significantly to the prediction of survival. In the recurrent glioma setting, baseline MRI appears to be a powerful predictor of survival, whereas follow-up MRIs during TMZ seem to be of little additional value. (orig.)

  1. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ktari, L. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelhedi, M. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bouhlel, N. [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Dammak, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)


    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  2. Electrochemical properties of modified copper-thallium hexacyanoferrate electrode in the presence of different univalent cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Stroka, Jadwiga [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Galus, Zbigniew [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail:


    The preparation of copper(II) hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) films on the surface of gold electrodes as well as their characterization in solutions of various alkali metal and NH{sub 4}{sup +} cations and in the presence of thallium(I) are described. The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetric techniques were used. In 0.50 M lithium nitrate, even at submillimolar concentration of Tl(I), the formal potential of CuHCF was shifted to more positive values. At higher Tl(I) concentrations, the formal potential of the CuHCF redox reaction changed linearly with the logarithm of Tl(I) concentration (in the 0.50 M solution of lithium or another alkali metal nitrate). From such dependencies, selectivity coefficients K{sub Tl/M} were calculated, and they show that the CuHCF film on the gold electrode interacts preferentially with Tl(I). High affinity of Tl(I) to copper hexacyanoferrate, that was observed in the presence of alkali metal cations, was explained by relatively strong donor-acceptor interactions of Tl(I) ions with nitrogen in CN groups of the CuHCF film. It was also shown for simple M{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] metal ferrocyanate salts (where M = Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +} and Tl{sup +}) that there is a preferential interaction of Tl{sup +} with CN group consistent with formation of a Tl-NC-Fe bridge.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in coronary artery diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikada, Ken-etsu (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Quantitative indices from circumferential profile curves of thallium-201 ([sup 201]Tl) myocardial scintigram were evaluated for diagnostic utility in coronary artery diseases (CAD). Myocardial [sup 201]Tl scintigrams with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were obtained 5 minutes (early) and 4 hours (delayed) after exercise in 20 normal subjects and 66 cases of CAD, of which 20 were angina pectoris without myocardial infarction (AP), 14 were subendocardial infarction (non-QMI) and 32 were Q-wave infarction (QMI). Tl counts, %Tl uptake and washout ratio (WR) were measured in 81 segments (9 apical segments of the slice from the longitudinal axis and all 72 segments of two slices from the short axis). A mean early defect (MED), a mean delayed defect (MDD), a mean delta washout rate (MDR), and a [Sigma] delayed defect ([Sigma]DD) were calculated from the areas which were below the two standard deviations of the mean %Tl uptake in normal subjects. A mean filling-in (MFI) was calculated from the difference of the %Tl uptake between early and delayed curves in each patient. In patients with CAD, the MED and MFI were higher, but MDW was lower with a more severe coronary stenosis, indicating that these indices were useful to detect myocardial hypo-perfuion. In severely stenotic regions, the MDD was higher in QMI than in AP and non-QMI, indicating that the ratio of infarct to the myocardium in the region was higher in QMI. In QMI, [Sigma]DD correlated well (r=0.723) with Total Wall Motion Scores with two-dimentional echocardiography which was directly related with infarct size. Further, MED, MFI and MDW were improved after aortocoronary bypass only in patients with patent graft. It is concluded that this quantitative evaluation with [sup 201]Tl-SPECT can provide an objective and quantitative estimate of regional myocardial ischemia and infarct. (author).

  4. Thallium-201 for cardiac stress tests: residual radioactivity worries patients and security. (United States)

    Geraci, Matthew J; Brown, Norman; Murray, David


    A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in duress and stated he was "highly radioactive." There were no reports of nuclear disasters, spills, or mishaps in the local area. This report discusses the potential for thallium-201 (Tl-201) patients to activate passive radiation alarms days to weeks after nuclear stress tests, even while shielded inside industrial vehicles away from sensors. Characteristics of Tl-201, as used for medical imaging, are described. This patient was twice detained by Homeland Security Agents and searched after he activated radiation detectors at a seaport security checkpoint. Security agents deemed him not to be a threat, but they expressed concern regarding his health and level of personal radioactivity. The patient was subsequently barred from his job and sent to the hospital. Tl-201 is a widely used radioisotope for medical imaging. The radioactive half-life of Tl-201 is 73.1h, however, reported periods of extended personal radiation have been seen as far out as 61 days post-administration. This case describes an anxious, but otherwise asymptomatic patient presenting to the ED with detection of low-level personal radiation. Documentation should be provided to and carried by individuals receiving radionuclides for a minimum of five to six half-lives of the longest-lasting isotope provided. Patients receiving Tl-201 should understand the potential for security issues; reducing probable tense moments, confusion, and anxiety to themselves, their employers, security officials, and ED staff. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Usefulness of thallium-201 SPECT in the evaluation of tumor natures in intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tetsuji; Nakano, Takahiro; Asano, Kenichiroh; Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki [Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hirosaki (Japan)


    Although intracranial meningiomas are regarded as benign tumors, some of them behave clinically as malignant tumors. Past reports suggest that MIB 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postoperative tumor specimens correlate with the aggressive nature of tumors, but preoperative prediction of such a nature is more useful for therapeutic planning for the tumor. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of preoperative thallium-201 chloride single-photon emission computed tomography (Tl SPECT) to evaluate biological behavior in intracranial meningiomas. Tl SPECT was performed on 39 patients with intracranial meningioma and Tl uptake indices were calculated. The difference in the Tl uptake index between atypical meningiomas and other pathological types of meningioma was evaluated. Moreover, correlation of Tl uptake indices with the MIB1 labeling index was estimated. Tl uptake indices were also compared between VEGF strongly positive and weakly positive meningiomas. The delayed index of atypical meningioma was significantly higher than that of the other pathological types (p = 0.036). Significant correlation was found between the Tl uptake index in the delayed image and MIB1 labeling index (p < 0.0001, R{sup 2} = 0.36). Moreover, VEGF strongly positive meningiomas exhibited a significantly higher Tl uptake index compared to VEGF weakly positive meningiomas in both the early image and the delayed image (p = 0.029, 0.023, respectively). Tl uptake index may be a possible preoperative surrogate marker of MIB1 and VEGF that is useful in detecting aggressive natures in intracranial meningiomas. (orig.)

  6. Effective removal of trace thallium from surface water by nanosized manganese dioxide enhanced quartz sand filtration. (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan


    Thallium (Tl) has drawn wide concern due to its high toxicity even at extremely low concentrations, as well as its tendency for significant accumulation in the human body and other organisms. The need to develop effective strategies for trace Tl removal from drinking water is urgent. In this study, the removal of trace Tl (0.5 μg L -1 ) by conventional quartz sand filtration enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) has been investigated using typical surface water obtained from northeast China. The results indicate that nMnO 2 enhanced quartz sand filtration could remove trace Tl(I) and Tl(III) efficiently through the adsorption of Tl onto nMnO 2 added to a water matrix and onto nMnO 2 attached on quartz sand surfaces. Tl(III)-HA complexes might be responsible for higher residual Tl(III) in the effluent compared to residual Tl(I). Competitive Ca 2+ cations inhibit Tl removal to a certain extent because the Ca 2+ ions will occupy the Tl adsorption site on nMnO 2 . Moreover, high concentrations of HA (10 mgTOC L -1 ), which notably complexes with and dissolves nMnO 2 (more than 78%), resulted in higher residual Tl(I) and Tl(III). Tl(III)-HA complexes might also enhance Tl(III) penetration to a certain extent. Additionally, a higher pH level could enhance the removal of trace Tl from surface water. Finally, a slight increase of residual Tl was observed after backwash, followed by the reduction of the Tl concentration in the effluent to a "steady" state again. The knowledge obtained here may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Excitation energy and spins of the Yrast superdeformed states in {sup 193}Tl; Energie d`excitation et spins des etats superdeformes Yrast de {sup 193}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouneau, S.; Duprat, J.; Azaiez, F. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others


    Discrete {gamma}-rays of high energy connecting states of the two Yrast superdeformed bands in {sup 193}Tl to the normal deformed states have been identified. Thus, for the first time, in an odd SD nucleus, it has been possible to propose an excitation energy and spins of the two lowest bands. (authors) 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Reduced left ventricular cavitary activity ("black hole sign") in thallium-201 SPECT perfusion images of anteroapical transmural myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Civelek, A C; Shafique, I; Brinker, J A; Durski, K; Weiss, J L; Links, J M; Natarajan, T K; Ozguven, M A; Wagner, H N


    Apparently reduced left ventricular (LV) cavitary thallium activity in both planar and tomographic perfusion images has been previously observed by these and other investigators. With single-photon emission computerized tomography, we have clinically noted that this "black hole sign" was associated with an aneurysm in the setting of a transmural anterior or anteroapical perfusion defect. We have now prospectively studied the etiology and predictive value of this sign in 84 consecutive patients with an anterior, anteroapical transmural perfusion defect. Of the 84 patients, 49 had both LV aneurysm (confirmed by contrast ventriculography, echocardiography or gated blood pool studies) and a black hole sign. Only 1 patient with an aneurysm did not have the black hole sign, and 2 without aneurysm did. Thus, it is concluded that this sign is highly accurate in diagnosing LV aneurysm. Because thallium-201 single-photon emission computerized tomography imaging is often performed as one of the first diagnostic tests soon after myocardial infarction, this has important clinical management implications.

  9. The analysis of thallium in geological materials by radiochemical neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGoldrick, P.J.; Robinson, P. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)


    Carrier-based radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) is a precise and accurate technique for the analysis of Tl in geological materials. For about a decade, until the mid-80s, a procedure modified from Keays et al. (1974) was used at the University of Melbourne to analyse for Tl in a wide variety of geological materials. Samples of powdered rock weighing several hundred milligrams each were irradiated in HIFAR for between 12 hours and 1 week, and subsequently fused with a sodium hydroxide - sodium peroxide mixture and several milligrams of inactive Tl carrier. Following acid digestion of the fusion mixture anion exchange resin was used to separate Tl from the major radioactive rock constituents. The Tl was then stripped from the resin and purified as thallium iodide and a yield measured gravimetrically. Activity from {sup 204}Tl (a {beta}-emitter with a 3 8 year half-life) was measured and Tl determined by reference to pure chemical standards irradiated and processed along with the unkowns. Detection limits for the longer irradiations were about one part per billion. Precision was monitored by repeat analyses of `internal standard` rocks and was estimated to be about five to ten percent (one standard deviation). On the other hand, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) was seen as an excellent cost-effective alternative for thallium analysis in geological samples, down to 1 ppm. 6 refs. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. Pentoxifylline (Trental) does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia: Implications for dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.A.; Slinker, B.K. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))


    Dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is often performed in patients unable to exercise because of peripheral vascular disease. Many of these patients are taking pentoxifylline (Trental), a methylxanthine derivative which may improve intermittent claudication. Whether pentoxifylline inhibits dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia like other methylxanthines such as theophylline and should be stopped prior to dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the hyperemic response to dipyridamole in seven open-chest anesthetized dogs after pretreatment with either pentoxifylline (0, 7.5, or 15 mg/kg i.v.) or theophylline (3 mg/kg i.v.). Baseline circumflex coronary blood flows did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Dipyridamole significantly increased coronary blood flow before and after 7.5 or 15 mm/kg i.v. pentoxifylline (p less than 0.002). Neither dose of pentoxifylline significantly decreased the dipyridamole-induced hyperemia, while peak coronary blood flow was significantly lower after theophylline (p less than 0.01). We conclude that pentoxyifylline does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia even at high doses.

  11. Thallium-201 scintigraphy after dipyridamole infusion with low-level exercise. III Clinical significance and additional diagnostic value of ST segment depression and angina pectoris during the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G-J. Laarman (GertJan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.F. Verzijlbergen (Fred); C.A.P.L. Ascoop (Carl); J. Azar


    textabstractIntravenous dipyridamole thallium testing is a useful alternative procedure for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients who are unable to perform maximal exercise tests. Ischaemic ST segment depression and angina pectoris are frequently observed during the test, in particular

  12. Indium-111 antimyosin antibody imaging and thallium-201 imaging. A comparative myocardial scintigraphic study using single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takehiko; Matsumori, Akira; Nohara, Ryuji; Konishi, Junji; Sasayama, Shigetake [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Tamaki, Nagara


    Indium-111 antimyosin antibody imaging (a tracer of myocardial necrosis) and thallium-201 imaging (a tracer of myocardial perfusion) were compared in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. The distribution of each tracer and antimyosin/thallium-201 overlapping were evaluated with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Scintigraphic data were classified into 5 patterns according to the distribution of both images and were compared with histologic findings of endomyocardial biopsy: AM-D, intense and diffuse antimyosin uptake and no perfusion abnormality (active myocarditis); AM-L, localized antimyosin uptake and no perfusion abnormality (active myocarditis); HM, no antimyosin uptake with or without perfusion abnormality (healed myocarditis); DCM-NH, diffuse antimyosin uptake and inhomogeneous thallium-201 uptake (dilated cardiomyopathy); DCM-PD, diffuse or localized antimyosin uptake and myocardial perfusion defect(s) (dilated cardiomyopathy). Patients with dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were frequently found in the DCM-PD group. Taken together, comparative antimyosin/thallium-201 SPECT images are useful for evaluating the activity of myocarditis and ongoing myocardial damage even in areas with no perfusion in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  13. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in patients with normal coronary arteries and normal left ventriculogram. Comparison with hemodynamic, metabolic and morphologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loesse, B.; Kuhn, H.; Rafflenbeul, D.; Kroenert, H.; Hort, W.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Loogen, F.


    36 consecutive patients with chest pain and/or severe ventricular dysrhythmias, but normal coronary arteries and normal left ventriculogram, underwent thallium-201 myocardial imaging at rest and during exercise. The myocardial scintigram was abnormal in 27 patients (group A) and normal in only 9 patients (group B).

  14. Preconcentration of thallium (I) by single drop microextraction with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy detection using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as extractant system. (United States)

    Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossien; Darroudi, Abolfazl; Salehi, Thiery


    A simple single drop liquid-phase microextraction (SDME) technique, combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) is developed both to preconcentrate and determine thallium (I) ions in aqueous solutions. The ions were transferred from 10.0 ml of aqueous sample (donor phase) containing 0.5 ml of 1% picric acid as the ion-pair agent into a 3 microl microdrop of nitrobenzene (acceptor phase) containing dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as the complexing agent. The latter will help to improve the extraction efficiency of the analyte. After the ions have been extracted, the acceptor drop was directly injected into a graphite furnace for thallium (I) determination. Several parameters such as the extracting solvent, extraction time, temperature, concentration of picric acid and crown ether, drop volume and stirring rate were examined. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit (L.O.D.) was 0.7 ng ml(-1). The relative standard deviation for five replicate analysis of 10 ng ml(-1) of thallium (I) was 5.1%. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 3-22 ng ml(-1). The results for determination of thallium in reference material, spiked tap water and seawater demonstrated the accuracy, recovery and applicability of the presented method. The enrichment factor was 50.

  15. Synthesis and application of a novel nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer for the preconcentration and determination of thallium(I) ions in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayazi, M., E-mail: [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, M. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taher, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, R. [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati, M.R. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • A novel nanostructured thallium(I)-imprinted polymer was evaluated for trace detection of Tl(I). • The prepared sorbent displayed rapid extraction rate, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The proposed methodology was applied for quantification of Tl(I) in different water samples. - Abstract: A novel synthesized nanostructured ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) was investigated for the determination of trace amount of thallium(I). For this purpose, the thallium(I) IIP particles were synthesized using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, methyl-2-[2-(2-2-[2-(methoxycarbonyl) phenoxy] ethoxyethoxy) ethoxy] benzoate as the chelating agent and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The prepared IIP particles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Various experimental factors such as pH, the amount of IIP particles, sorption and desorption time, sample volume, elution condition, and potentially interfering ions systematically examined. Under the optimum conditions, a sensitive response to Tl(I) within a wide concentration range (0.05–18 μg L{sup −1}) was achieved. The limit of detection (LOD, 3S{sub b}/m) was 6.3 ng L{sup −1}. The maximum adsorption capacity of the novel imprinted adsorbent for Tl(I) was calculated to be 18.3 mg g{sup −1}. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eight replicate detections of 0.1 μg L{sup −1} of thallium(I) was found to be 4.0%. An enrichment factor (EF) of 100 was obtained by this method. The proposed technique was successfully applied to monitoring thallium in different water samples and the certified reference material.

  16. L-Tyrosine immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes: A new substrate for thallium separation and speciation using stabilized temperature platform furnace-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Pablo H.; Gil, Raul A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica de San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, CP 5700, San Luis (Argentina); Smichowski, Patricia, E-mail: [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, CP C1033 AAJ, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia Quimica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); Polla, Griselda [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Av.Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina); Martinez, Luis D., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica de San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, CP 5700, San Luis (Argentina)


    An approach for the separation and determination of inorganic thallium species is described. A new sorbent, L-tyrosine-carbon nanotubes (L-tyr-CNTs), was used and applied to the analysis of tap water samples. At pH 5.0, L-tyr was selective only towards Tl(III), while total thallium was determined directly by stabilized temperature platform furnace-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (STPF-ETAAS). The Tl(III) specie, which was retained by L-tyrosine, was quantitatively eluted from the column with 10% of nitric acid. An on-line breakthrough curve was used to determine the column capacity, which resulted to be 9.00 {mu}mol of Tl(III) g{sup -1} of L-tyr-CNTs with a molar ratio of 0.14 (moles of Tl bound to moles of L-tyr at pH 5). Transient peak areas revealed that Tl stripping from the column occurred instantaneously. Effects of sample flow rate, concentration and flow rate of the eluent, and interfering ions on the recovery of the analyte were systematically investigated. The detection limit for the determination of total thallium (3{sigma}) by STPF-ETAAS was 150 ng L{sup -1}. The detection limit (3{sigma}) for Tl(III) employing the separation system was 3 ng L{sup -1}, with an enrichment factor of 40. The precision of the method expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) resulted to be 3.4%. The proposed method was applied to the speciation and determination of inorganic thallium in tap water samples. The found concentrations were in the range of 0.88-0.91 {mu}g L{sup -1} of Tl(III), and 3.69-3.91 {mu}g L{sup -1} of total thallium.

  17. Tracing subducted sediment inputs to the Ryukyu arc-Okinawa Trough system: Evidence from thallium isotopes (United States)

    Shu, Yunchao; Nielsen, Sune G.; Zeng, Zhigang; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuai


    Sediments are actively subducted in virtually every arc worldwide. However, quantifying their contributions to arc lavas and thereby establishing budgets of how sediments participate in slab-mantle interaction is challenging. In this contribution we use thallium (Tl) abundances and isotopic compositions of lavas from the Ryukyu arc (including south Kyushu) and its back-arc basin, Okinawa Trough, to investigate the influence of sediments from arc to back-arc. We also present extensive geochemical data for sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC) outboard of the northern (DSDP Sites 296, 442B, 443 and 444) and central (DSDP Sites 294 and 295) part of the Ryukyu arc. The Tl isotopic compositions of sediments change systematically from lighter outboard of northern Ryukyu arc to heavier outboard of central Ryukyu arc. The feature reflects the dominance of terrigenous material and pelagic sedimentation outboard of the northern and central Ryukyu arc, respectively. Central and northern sections of Ryukyu arc and Okinawa Trough display larger range of Tl isotopic variation than southern section, which is consistent with more pelagic provenance for sediments outboard of central and northern Ryukyu arcs than that of expected sediments outboard of southern Ryukyu arc. Identical Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope variations are found when comparing arc and back arc lavas, which indicates that sediments fluxes also account for the Tl isotopic variations in the Okinawa Trough lavas. Two-end-member mixing models of Tl with Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes require sediment inputs ofsediment end members predict very similar sediment fluxes when using Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes, which indicates that fractionation of these elements must have happened after mixing between mantle and sediments. This conclusion is corroborated by model calculations of mixing between sediment melts with fractionated Sr/Nd ratios and mantle wedge, which show that no arc lava plot on such mixing lines. Thus bulk sediment

  18. Comparison of arbutamine stress and treadmill exercise thallium-201 SPECT: Hemodynamics, safety profile and diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiat, H.; Berman, D.S. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre, Los Angeles, California, LA (United States)


    Full text: Arbutamine (ARB), a new pharmacologic stress agent with enhanced chronotropic property compared to dobutamine, was compared with treadmill (TM) exercise testing (Ex) in a multicenter study using thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT. Of the total of 184 patients who underwent ARB, 69 also had TM stress and quantitative coronary angiography. Fifty-eight patients with a low pretest likelihood of CAD also underwent ARB study for evaluation of test specificity (normalcy rate). Tl scans were scored by a central laboratory using a 20 segment (seg)/scan visual analysis (5 point system: 0=normal, 4-absent uptake). Maximum heart rate (HR) by ARB and Ex was 122 vs 141 bpm (p<0.05). Mean %HR change from baseline was similar (79% vs 82%, respectively, p=ns). Maximum systolic BP for ARB and Ex was 173 vs 175 mmHg, and mean % change from baseline was 24% vs 28% (p=ns). Sensitivity for detecting CAD (270% stenosis) by ARB Tl was 94% and 97% by Ex Tl (p=ns). Stress Tl SPECT segmental agreement for presence of defect between ARB and Ex was 92% (kappa=0.8, p<0.001). Exact segmental stress Tl score (0-4 grading) agreement was 83 % (kappa=0.7, p<0.001). Among 346 segs with stress defects by both ARB and Ex defect reversibility agreement was 86% (kappa=0.7, p<0.001). The normalcy rate for ARB TI-SPECT among patients with a low likelihood of CAD was 90%. Adverse events were mostly mild (tremor: 23%, flushing: 10%, headache: 10%, paraesthesia: 8%, dizziness: 8%, hot flushes: 4%). Arrhythimia of clinical concern occurred in 8% (10/122) of ARB patients who had cardiac catheterisation and in 1.4% (1/69) of patients who had stress Tl. Of all 184 patients with ARB stress, ARB was discontinued due to arrhythmia in 7(5%) and 1 patient had IV Metoprolol for frequent ventricular couplets. Sustained arrhythmias were not observed

  19. Thallium Isotopes Tracking Mn-Oxide Burial - A Proxy for Deoxygenation During Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (United States)

    Ostrander, C.; Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.


    Thallium (Tl) is proving to be a useful paleoredox proxy given that the Tl isotope composition of seawater is highly dependent on the magnitude of manganese (Mn) oxide burial in the ocean. In turn, Mn oxides require oxygen at the sediment-water interface to precipitate, linking the Tl isotope cycle to ocean oxygenation. Currently, the marine residence time of Tl is ~20kyrs and the Tl isotope composition of seawater is invariant, which suggests Tl isotopes could be a global tracer of marine Mn-oxide burial. Importantly, recent research suggests sediments deposited under a euxinic water column faithfully record the Tl isotope value of the overlying oxic water column (e.g. Black Sea and Cariaco Basin). Therefore, analysis of organic-rich black shales may prove useful in evaluating the seawater Tl isotope composition of past oceans and, hence, large-scale burial of Mn-oxides and the extent of bottom water ocean oxygenation. A logical test for this proxy is during the well-studied Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event termed Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2) at ~94 Ma. It is known that the global extent of anoxia and euxinia increased during this event, however, to what extent global bottom water deoxygenation occured is unconstrained. If deep water deoxygenation occurred, it would be hypothesized that Mn-oxide precipitation would decrease, resulting in a positive Tl isotope excursion during OAE-2. We have analyzed the Tl isotope composition of organic-rich black shales from Site 1258 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) spanning the period before, during, and after OAE-2. Based on Fe redox proxies, the entire section is euxinic and thus no Mn-oxides are present (i.e. no local redox changes). Before the event, Tl isotope compositions are similar or slightly heavier than modern seawater values. Just prior to the onset of OAE-2, a positive shift occurs and is maintained until recovery, slightly before the termination of the event. The shift to heavier values and subsequent

  20. Geochemical translocation of thallium in the sediments from the North River, China (United States)

    Liu, J.


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare heavy metal. As a sulphophile element, it usually occurs in numerous sulphide minerals (such as pyrite, galena, sphlerite). Guangdong north region, known as the hometown of nonferrous metals, has abundant containing Tl mineral resources. Numerous industrial activities, such as mining, smelting, and electroplating are also flourishing. In 2010, a serious Tl pollution in the North River (a major river in the Northern Guangdong Province) shocked the society. The Tl pollution in water appeared to be under control after that incident. But in fact, even if the wastewater discharge of pollution sources has been controlled, the potential risk of heavy metal pollution in the sediments of the North River still exists, for the metals are easy to precipitate and accumulate into sediment from water. So far, Tl pollution in sediments has been studied to a very limited extent. In this paper, we investigated the content and vertical distribution characteristics of Tl and some other related heavy metals in a typical sediment profile from the North River by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Then the Pb isotopic compositions in the sediments were measured by using multi-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Several sediments from typical layers were also subjected to sequential extraction procedure for investigating the geochemical fractions of Tl. The risk of Tl and other metal pollution was finally assessed by calculating geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and potential ecological risk. The results showed that: (1) Tl concentrations range 1.03 mg/kg to 3.13 mg/kg with a mean of 1.89 mg/kg, three times higher than that in local background soil; (2) Tl content generally increased with depth with some fluctuations and significant correlations were found between Tl and Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni; (3) About 46 % to 70 % in sediment cores were resided in the residual fraction; (4) Igeo showed that the studied

  1. Changes in gene expression by 193- and 248-nm excimer laser radiation in cultured human fibroblasts. (United States)

    Rimoldi, D; Flessate, D M; Samid, D


    Tissue ablation by ultraviolet excimer lasers results in exposure of viable cells to subablative doses of radiation. To understand the potential biological consequences better, we have studied changes in gene expression in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to either 193- or 248-nm laser light. Northern blot analyses revealed that both treatments up-regulate a common set of genes, including interstitial collagenase, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease, metallothionein, and the proto-oncogene c-fos. Dose-response and kinetic studies of collagenase induction by 193-nm radiation showed a maximal effect with 60 J/m2 and at approximately 24 h. The induction was still persistent 96 h later. In addition to the commonly affected genes, known to be activated also by conventional UV light (254 nm) and tumor-promoting phorbol esters, other genes were found to be selectively induced by the 193-nm radiation. The heat-shock hsp70 mRNA, undetectable in controls and in cultures irradiated at 248 nm, was transiently induced 8 h after exposure to 193-nm radiation. Furthermore, a selective up-regulation of collagen type I expression was observed. The results indicate that the 193- and 248-nm radiations by excimer lasers elicit specific and different cellular responses, in addition to an overlapping pathway of gene activation common also to UV radiation by germicidal lamps. The laser-induced genes could serve as molecular markers in evaluating cell injury in situ.

  2. Source and distribution of sedimentary thallium in the Bohai Sea: Implications for hydrodynamic forces and anthropogenic impact (United States)

    Hu, Ningjing; Liu, Jihua; Shi, Xuefa


    Source and distribution of sedimentary thallium in the Bohai Sea: Implications for hydrodynamic forces and anthropogenic impact Hu Ningjing, Liu Jihua, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Thallium (Tl), a non-essential and highly toxic trace metal, is listed as priority toxic pollutant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (Keith and Telliard, 1979). However, its geochemical cycling in aquatic environment has received far less attention than that of many other trace metals. This has been attributed to relatively little commercial interest in Tl and, until recently, problems inherent in its detection at environmental concentrations (Meeravali and Jiang, 2008). In this study, we investigated the sources, distribution and fate of Tl in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea (BS), China, based on the datasets of total Tl and chemical speciation of Tl of 408 surface sediment samples in the total entire BS. The enrichment factors and chemical speciation of Tl indicated that Tl in BS was dominated by natural Tl, although anthropogenic Tl contamination was observed in the Liuguhe River mouth; the mud deposits are the sinks of Tl and the regional currents and tide systems play a key role on the accumulation of Tl in BS. The distribution of Tl consistent with that of MnO and Fe2O3 as well as the level of Fe-Mn fraction is relatively high, indicating MnO and Fe2O3 influence the geochemical behaviors of Tl in the BS. Although the positive correlation between Tl and TOC is observed for the samples in the BS, however, level of Tl in oxidizable faction could be neglected, suggesting TOC might not be a major factor affecting the concentration of Tl in BS. The low proportion of Tl in the non-residual fraction dominated by the Fe-Mn oxides suggested that the labile Tl was controlled by the Fe-Mn oxides and Tl has a low bioavailability and a minor potential threat to biota in BS. Acknowledgements: this work

  3. Design, synthesis, and characterization of fluorine-free PAGs for 193-nm lithography (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Glodde, Martin; Varanasi, Pushkara R.


    Photoacid generators (PAGs) are a key component in chemically amplified resists used in photolithography. Perfluorooctanesulfonates (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFAS) have been well adopted as PAGs in 193 nm photoresist. Recently, concerns have been raised about their environmental impact due to their chemical persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity. It is a general interest to find environmentally benign PAGs that are free of fluorine atoms. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of novel fluorine-free onium salts as PAGs for 193 nm photoresists. These PAGs demonstrated desirable physical and lithography properties when compared with PFAS-based PAGs for both dry and immersion exposures.

  4. Fractionation and Mobility of Thallium in Volcanic Ashes after Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) in Iceland. (United States)

    Karbowska, Bozena; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz


    Volcanic ash contains thallium (Tl), which is highly toxic to the biosphere. The aim of this study was to determine the Tl concentration in fractions of volcanic ash samples originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A sequential extraction scheme allowed for a study of element migration in the environment. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a flow measuring system was selected as the analytical method to determine Tl content. The highest average content of Tl in volcanic ash was determined in the fraction entrapped in the aluminosilicate matrix (0.329 µg g(-1)), followed by the oxidizable fraction (0.173 µg g(-1)). The lowest content of Tl was found in the water soluble fraction (0.001 µg g(-1)); however, this fraction is important due to the fact that Tl redistribution among all the fractions occurs through the aqueous phase.

  5. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.193 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered airplane along an intended route unless he complies...

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-90 - Installations contracted for prior to March 1, 1968. (United States)


    ... shall be protected by a system discharging principally below the floorplates. Perforated pipe may be used in lieu of discharge nozzles for such systems. The number of pounds of carbon dioxide shall be... as noted in Table 193.15-90(a)(6). This table is based on cylinders having discharge outlets and...

  7. Open reading frame 193R of Chilo iridescent virus encodes a functional inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, I.A.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.; Demirbag, Z.; Nalcacioglu, R.; Oers, van M.M.


    Programmed cell death or apoptosis is a major defense mechanism in insects in response to viral infections. The genome of Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) has three ORFs with homology to baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis (iap) genes. The proteins encoded by the 157L, 193R, and 332L ORFs contain 152,

  8. The topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor ICRF-193 preferentially targets telomeres that are capped by TRF2. (United States)

    Chen, Lianxiang; Zhu, Xiaowei; Zou, Yaru; Xing, Jun; Gilson, Eric; Lu, Yiming; Ye, Jing


    The increased level of chromosome instability in cancer cells is not only a driving force for oncogenesis but also can be the Achille's heel of the disease since many chemotherapies kill cells by inducing a nontolerable rate of DNA damage. A wealth of published evidence showed that telomere stability can be more affected than the bulk of the genome by several conventional antineoplastic drugs. In the present study, HT1080 cell lines compromised for either telomere repeats binding factor 2 (TRF2) or POT1 were treated with ICRF-193 (3 μM, 24 h) or bleomycin (1 μM, 24 h). DNA damage was assayed by combining telomeric DNA staining of a (CCCTAA)n PNA probe with immunofluorescence of 53BP1 to score the rate of telomere colocalization with 53BP1 foci. We found that ICRF-193, but not bleomycin, leads to DNA damage preferentially at telomeres, which can be rescued by TRF2 inhibition. POT1 inhibition exacerbates telomere dysfunction induced by ICRF-193. Thus, ICRF-193 induces damage at telomeres properly capped by TRF2 but not by POT1. These findings are expected to broaden our view on the mechanism by which conventional therapeutic molecules act to eliminate cancer cells and how to use TRF2 and POT1 levels as surrogate markers for anti-topoisomerase II sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. 46 CFR 193.05-15 - Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire... Equipment, Where Required § 193.05-15 Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall...

  10. O(P-3(J)) alignment from the photodissociation of SO2 at 193 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouard, M.; Cireasa, D.R.; Clark, A.P.; Preston, T.J.; Vallance, C.; Groenenboom, G.C.; Vasyutinskii, O.S.


    The 193-nm photodissociation Of SO2 has been studied using the resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization of ground-state O(P-3(J)), coupled with velocity-map ion imaging. The dependence of the ion images on the linear polarization of pump and probe radiation has been used to determine the

  11. Determination of gold, indium, tellurium and thallium in the same sample digest of geological materials by atomic-absorption spectroscopy and two-step solvent extraction (United States)

    Hubert, A.E.; Chao, T.T.


    A rock, soil, or stream-sediment sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric acid, aqua regia, and hydrobromic acid-bromine solution. Gold, thallium, indium and tellurium are separated and concentrated from the sample digest by a two-step MIBK extraction at two concentrations of hydrobromic add. Gold and thallium are first extracted from 0.1M hydrobromic acid medium, then indium and tellurium are extracted from 3M hydrobromic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid to eliminate iron interference. The elements are then determined by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The two-step solvent extraction can also be used in conjunction with electrothermal atomic-absorption methods to lower the detection limits for all four metals in geological materials. ?? 1985.

  12. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing inadvertently generated PCBs. 761.193 Section 761.193 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  13. 25 CFR 900.193 - Does FTCA coverage extend to individuals who provide health care services under a personal... (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does FTCA coverage extend to individuals who provide health care services under a personal services contract providing services in a facility that is owned, operated, or constructed under the jurisdiction of the IHS? 900.193 Section 900.193 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND...

  14. 41 CFR 102-193.15 - What are the records management responsibilities of the Administrator of General Services (the... (United States)


    ... management responsibilities of the Administrator of General Services (the Administrator), the Archivist of the United States (the Archivist), and the Heads of Federal agencies? 102-193.15 Section 102-193.15... Administrator), the Archivist of the United States (the Archivist), and the Heads of Federal agencies? (a) The...

  15. Aging effect of AlF3 coatings for 193 nm lithography (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Weili; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda


    As important part of components for 193 nm lithography, AlF3 coatings deposited by resistive heating method acquire advantages like lower optical loss and higher laser damage threshold, but they also possess some disadvantages like worse stability, which is what aging effect focuses on. AlF3 single-layer coatings were deposited; optical property, surface morphology and roughness, and composition were characterized in different periods. Owing to aging effect, refractive index and extinction coefficient increased; larger and larger roughness caused more and more scattering loss, which was in the same order with absorption at 193.4 nm and part of optical loss; from composition analysis, proportional substitution of AlF3 by alumina may account for changes in refractive index as well as absorption.

  16. 193nm resist deprotection study from outgassing measurements by TD-GCMS/FID (United States)

    Tiron, Raluca; Derrough, Samir; Fontaine, Hervé; Cetre, Sylviane; Perret, Damien; Thackeray, James W.; Paniez, Patrick


    A methodology was developed in order to characterize the deprotection mechanisms implied in 193nm chemically amplified (CA) resists. This method is based on resist outgassing measurements as a function of exposure dose and bake temperature using Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry / Flame Ionization Detector (TDGCMS/ FID) technique. This approach allows both quantitative and qualitative studies of the outgassing behaviour and was validated from a 193nm model resist representative of CA formulations. In so doing, the identification of outgassed by-products respectively coming from the PAG, from the polymer as well as from the solvent is made possible. In parallel, quantitative results as a function of exposure dose and temperature allowed us to monitor the deprotection process and the solvent evaporation. The quantitative results obtained by this technique were in good agreement with Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) results. Such a methodology can be used not only to characterise 193nm resist outgassing during exposure, but also be extended to monitor resist behaviour during implant, thermal treatment, e-beam exposure.

  17. Evaluating resist degradation during reactive ion oxide etching using 193 nm model resist formulations (United States)

    May, M. J.; Mortini, B.; Sourd, C.; Perret, D.; Chung, D. W.; Barclay, G.; Brochon, C.; Hadziioannou, G.


    The weaker etch resistance of 193 nm resists1 is raising questions concerning their usability for the coming nodes as a single layer resist. We have found that 193 nm positive tone resists, that have been designed2 incorporating etch resistant groups like adamantyl or isobornyl 3-7, exhibit chemical modifications concerning these grafted functions while undergoing an oxide etch step. Previously performed experiments have pointed out that the photoacid generator (PAG) that is still contained in the unexposed regions of the sacrificial layer might be a reason for the modifications in the chemical buildup of this resists. Therefore, this work has focused on evaluating the impact of reactive ion oxide etching 8-10 on 193nm materials, for positive and negative tone chemically amplified resists. We used Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transformed Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to check model formulations based on PHS, methacrylate or cyclic olefin polymers with various protecting groups having different activation energies and formulated with or without PAG and in order to understand the impact of the photoactive compound in the resist degradation behavior during plasma etch.

  18. Comparing 193 nm photoresist roughening in an inductively coupled plasma system and vacuum beam system (United States)

    Titus, M. J.; Nest, D. G.; Chung, T.-Y.; Graves, D. B.


    We present a comparison of blanket 193 nm photoresist (PR) roughening and chemical modifications of samples processed in a well-characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and an ultra-high vacuum beam system. In the ICP system, PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and Ar ions, while in the vacuum beam system, samples are irradiated with either a Xe-line VUV source or Ar-lamp VUV source with Ar ions. Sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that under VUV-only conditions in the vacuum beam and ICP (with no substrate bias applied) systems 193 nm PR does not roughen. However, roughness increases with simultaneous high energy (>70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV irradiation and is a function of VUV fluence, substrate temperature and photon-to-ion flux ratio. PR processed in the ICP system experiences increased etching, probably due to release of H- and O-containing gaseous products and subsequent chemical etching, in contrast to samples in the vacuum beam system where etch-products are rapidly pumped away. The surface roughness structure and behaviour, however, remain similar and this is attributed to the synergy between VUV-photon and positive ions.

  19. Comparison of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), stress-redistribution-reinjection thallium-201 SPECT and low dose dobutamine echocardiography for prediction of reversible dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Makoto; Motohiro, Masayuki; Usami, Satoru [Shimada Municipal Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)


    The usefulness of glucose-insulin-thallium-201 (GI-Tl) infusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting reversible dysfunction has not been evaluated, so the present study recruited 20 patients with regional ischemic dysfunction for investigation. All patients underwent GI-Tl SPECT, post-stress Tl reinjection imaging and low dose dobutamine echocardiography. The diagnostic accuracy of these 3 techniques in predicting functional recovery was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In segments with functional recovery, regional Tl activities of GI-Tl SPECT were significantly higher than those of reinjection imaging (p<0.05), although there were no significant differences in segments without recovery. The area under the ROC curve for GI-Tl SPECT (0.75{+-}0.06) was greater than that for reinjection imaging (0.68{+-}0.07). The optimal cutoff values to identify viable myocardium were considered to be 55% of peak activity for GI-Tl SPECT and 50% for reinjection imaging. At this cutoff point, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of functional recovery were, respectively, 85% and 61% for GI-Tl SPECT, and 73% and 61% for reinjection imaging. Dobutamine echocardiography had the same sensitivity (85%), but lower specificity (48%) than GI-Tl SPECT. Continuous infusion of GI-Tl solution enhances regional Tl uptake compared with conventional post-stress reinjection imaging. This study suggests that GI-Tl SPECT is superior to reinjection imaging and dobutamine echocardiography in predicting functional recovery after ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  20. Photodissociation dynamics of 2-nitropropane and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane at 248 and 193 nm. (United States)

    Sengupta, Sumana; Indulkar, Yogesh; Kumar, Awadhesh; Dhanya, Suresh; Naik, Prakash Dattatray; Bajaj, Parma Nand


    Dynamics of formation of electronically excited NO2 and formation of OH fragment, during photo dissociation of 2-nitropropane (NP) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane (MNP), were investigated at 193 and 248 nm. The radiative lifetime of the electronically excited NO2 fragment, observed at 193 nm, was measured to be 1.2 ( 0.1 micros and the rate coefficient of quenching of its emission by MNP was measured as (2.7 ( 0.1) x 10(-10) molecule(-1) cm3 s(-1). Formation of the ground electronic state of OH was confirmed in both molecules. State selective laser induced fluorescence technique was used to detect the nascent OH (X 2Pi, v'', J'') fragments in different ro-vibrational states, and to obtain information on energy partitioning. Though MNP and NP differ in the types of the available H atoms, the dynamics of OH formation is found to be the same in both. The relative population in different rotational states does not follow Boltzmann equilibrium distribution in both the molecules at 193 and 248 nm. The translational energies of the OH fragments, calculated from the Doppler width, are 21.2 ( 7.2 and 25.0 ( 2.5 kcal mol-1 for NP at 248 and 193 nm, respectively. The translational energies of the OH fragments, in the case of MNP, are found to be lower, 17.5 ( 4.1 and 22.0 ( 3.2 kcal mol-1,respectively, at 248 nm 193 nm. These results are compared with the earlier reports on photodissociation of nitromethane (NM), nitroethane (NE), and other nitroalkanes. All possible dissociation pathways of these molecules--NM, NE, NP, and MNPs leading to the formation of the OH fragment were investigated computationally, with geometry optimization at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level and energy calculation at the MP4(SDQ)/6-311+G (d,p) level. The results suggest that in NM, OH is formed after isomerization to CH2N(OH)O, whereas in all other cases OH is formed from HONO, a primary product of molecular elimination of nitroalkanes, formed with sufficient internal energy.

  1. Detection and dosimetry of gamma ray emitted from thallium-201 and technetium-99m based on chemiluminescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourian, Mostafa [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Hassan, E-mail: [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatollah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-6558, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghourchian, Hedayatollah, E-mail: [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali [Laboratory of Microanalysis, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This report describes the detection and dosimetry of gamma ray emitted from Thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) and Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) based on chemiluminescence technique. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced by two gamma emitter radioisotopes of {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc were quantitatively measured by chemiluminescence method. Upon producing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a luminol alkaline solution, in the presence of diperiodatocuprate, as catalyst a chemical reaction was accrued and consequently the emitted light was measured. The determined H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was correlated with the gamma ray detection and dosimetry. The sensitivity of chemiluminescence technique for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc dosimetry was determined to be 0.20 and 0.08 MBq/l (Mega Becquerel per liter) respectively (R.S.D. = %5, N = 3). The plotted calibration curves showed detection limits of 3.24 and 1.76 MBq/l for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc, respectively.

  2. Myocardial infarction diagnosis with body surface potential mapping, electrocardiography, vectorcardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy: a correlative study with left ventriculography. (United States)

    Ackaoui, A; Nadeau, R; Sestier, F; Savard, P; Primeau, R; Lemieux, R; Descary, M C


    In 35 subjects with typical or atypical angina and/or documented myocardial infarction (MI), body surface potential maps (BSPMs), ECG, VCG and rest Thallium-201 (T1-201) have been compared to left ventriculography (LVG). BSPMs were recorded with 26 ECGs, and BSPM abnormalities for MI cases were considered to be areas of normally positive potentials that have become negative. Subjects with MI were classified according to the segmental localization and degree of asynergy on LVG. Moderate anterolateral and apical asynergy were found to correlate with BSPM diagnosis of anterolateral MI and ischemia, severe anterolateral and apical asynergy with BSPM diagnosis of anterolateral MI and ischemia, and moderate diaphragmatic and/or posterobasal asynergy with BSPM diagnosis of posterior MI. Simultaneous anterior and posterior asynergy were found for BSPM diagnosis of anterior with posterior MI. Subjects with no LVG asynergy had normal BSPMs. BSPM diagnosis had the highest correlation coefficient with the LVG diagnosis (r = 0.88). ECG and VCG showed similar results with r = 0.65 and 0.71 respectively, while T1-201 had r = 0.55. The examination of our BSPMs, as well as the ECG, VCG and T1-201, did not permit to detect apical damage in presence of anterior MI, and posterobasal damage in the presence of inferoposterior MI. It is concluded that BSPMs are slightly superior to ECG and VCG for diagnosis of MI.

  3. Thallium release from acid mine drainages: Speciation in river and tap water from Valdicastello mining district (northwest Tuscany). (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Casiot, Corinne; Onor, Massimo; Perotti, Martina; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia


    In this work we present an advantageous method for the simultaneous separation and detection of Tl(I) and Tl(III) species through ion chromatography coupled with on-line inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation between Tl(III) and Tl(I) was achieved in less than two minutes. The method was validated by recovery experiments on real samples, and by comparing the sum of the concentrations of individual Tl species with total thallium values obtained from continuous flow ICP-MS. The experimental procedure offers an accurate, sensitive and interference-free method for Tl speciation at trace levels in environmental samples. This allowed us to investigate the Tl speciation in acid mine drainages (AMD), surface waters and springs in a mining catchment in Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy), where severe Tl contamination ad been evidenced previously. This study shows for the first time that Tl(III), in addition to Tl(I), is present in considerable amounts in water samples affected by acid mining outflow, raising the question of the origin of this thermodynamically unstable species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. miR-193b Modulates Resistance to Doxorubicin in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulating MCL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpei Long


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs family, which is involved in cancer development, proliferation, apoptosis, and drug resistance, is a group of noncoding RNAs that modulate the expression of oncogenes and antioncogenes. Doxorubicin is an active cytotoxic agent for breast cancer treatment, but the acquisition of doxorubicin resistance is a common and critical limitation to cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miR-193b mediated the resistance of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by targeting myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1. In this study, we found that miR-193b levels were significantly lower in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/DOXR cells than in the parental MCF-7 cells. We observed that exogenous miR-193b significantly suppressed the ability of MCF-7/DOXR cells to resist doxorubicin. It demonstrated that miR-193b directly targeted MCL-1 3′-UTR (3′-Untranslated Regions. Further studies indicated that miR-193b sensitized MCF-7/DOXR cells to doxorubicin through a mechanism involving the downregulation of MCL-1. Together, our findings provide evidence that the modulation of miR-193b may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. MiR-193b-365, a brown fat enriched microRNA cluster, is essential for brown fat differentiation (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M.; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C. Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F.


    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue (WAT) primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defense against cold and obesity 1, 2. Recent studies demonstrate that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown fat-enriched miRNA cluster, miR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes dramatically impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of miR-193b and/or miR-365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire program of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic condition, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. MiR-193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that miR-193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis. PMID:21743466

  6. Research of cornea section's shape ablated by 193-nm ArF laser spots (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Yinshan; Deng, Guoqing


    The ablation theory of cornea and biology effect by 193-nm ArF excimer laser are introduced. The ablation tracks model is put forward to make laser spots scan around cornea by many steps and many areas to change cornea curvature. The corneal average ablation curve is calculated by software so as to explain the feasibility of the ablation tracks model. By analyzing the actual ablation shapes of many arbitrary cornea sections, the optimal ablation method for deciding the random position of every laser spot in every ablation track is obtained. Experiments combining the ablation model with the device testify the energy stability of laser spots and the accuracy of rectifying anisometropia.

  7. Photodissociation of H2S and the HS radical at 193.3 nm (United States)

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.


    Photodissociation of H2S has been studied at 193.3 nm using H atom photofragment-translational spectroscopy with mass-spectrometric detection. H + HS(v) product branching ratios are reported which are not in quantitative agreement with other recent experimental results. Secondary photodissociation of HS radicals has also been observed, showing that both S(3P) and S(1D) are produced via perpendicular transition. The HS bond energy was found to be 3.62 ± 0.03 eV.

  8. Absolute vacuum ultraviolet flux in inductively coupled plasmas and chemical modifications of 193 nm photoresist (United States)

    Titus, M. J.; Nest, D.; Graves, D. B.


    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons in plasma processing systems are known to alter surface chemistry and may damage gate dielectrics and photoresist. We characterize absolute VUV fluxes to surfaces exposed in an inductively coupled argon plasma, 1-50 mTorr, 25-400 W, using a calibrated VUV spectrometer. We also demonstrate an alternative method to estimate VUV fluence in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor using a chemical dosimeter-type monitor. We illustrate the technique with argon ICP and xenon lamp exposure experiments, comparing direct VUV measurements with measured chemical changes in 193 nm photoresist-covered Si wafers following VUV exposure.

  9. [Cleavage of DNA fragments induced by UV nanosecond laser excitation at 193 nm]. (United States)

    Vtiurina, N N; Grokhovskiĭ, S L; Filimonov, I V; Medvedkov, O I; Nechipurenko, D Iu; Vasil'ev, S A; Nechipurenko, Iu D


    The cleavage of dsDNA fragments in aqueous solution after irradiation with UV laser pulses at 193 nm has been studied. Samples were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensity of damage of particular phosphodiester bond after hot alkali treatment was shown to depend on the base pair sequence. It was established that the probability of cleavage is twice higher for sites of DNA containing two or more successively running guanine residues. A possible mechanism of damage to the DNA molecule connected with the migration of holes along the helix is discussed.

  10. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland


    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata


    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50 % of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The iss...

  11. Effects of potassium channel opener on the kinetics of thallium-201 in in-vitro and in-vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Kim, E. J.; Ahn, B. C.; Chae, S. C.; Lee, K. B. [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. K. [Mt. Sinai Medical School, New York (United States)


    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens membrane ATP-sensitive K{sup +}-channel and induces and increase in potassium efflux from cells. K-openers are powerful smooth muscle relaxants and currently used as antihypertensive, antianginal drugs or bronchodilators in clinic. Pharmacologic potency of newly synthesized K-opener is being evaluated with efflux capacity of preincubated Rb-83 from the isolated aortic vascular tissue preparation. Thallium has similar characteristics to those of rubidium and potassium in vivo. To evaluate the effect of pinacidil (a potent K-opener) on Tl-201 biokinetics, we have performed uptake/washout studies in cultured myocytes, and mice biodistribution study. Primary culture of spontaneous contracting myocytes was undertake from hearts of newborn Sprague-Dawley rat. Different concentration of pinacidil (100nM or 10uM) was co-incubated with Tl-201 in HBSS buffer to evaluate its effect on cellular uptake, or challenged to myocyte preparations pre-incubated with Tl-201 for washout study. Pinacidil was injected into mice simultaneous or 10-min after Tl-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention ratio was measured using gamma counter or dose calibrator. Co-incubation of pinacidil with Tl-201 resulted in a decrease in Tl uptake into myocytes by 1.6 - 2.5 times, and an increase in washout by 1.6 - 3.1 times. Pinacidil injection resulted in mild decrease in blood, heart and liver uptake in mice, bur renal uptake was markedly decreased in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the pinacidil Tl-201 kinetics and may potentially affect the interpretation of Tl-201 myocardial imaging.

  12. Functional Significance of Angiographic Collaterals in Patients with Totally Occluded Right Coronary Artery: Intracoronary Thallium-201 Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Jong Doo; Cho, Seung Yun; Shim, Won Heum; Ha, Jong Won; Kim, Han Soo; Kwon, Hyuk Moon; Jang, Yang Soo; Chung, Nam Sik; Kim, Sung Soon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Yun; Kim, Young Soo [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the myocardial viability in patients suffering from total occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA) with the angiographic collaterals, intracoronary injection of Thallium-201 (T1-201) was done to 14 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (pts) with total occlusion of RCA and into four normal subjects for control. All 14 CAD pts had Grade 2 or 3 collateral circulations. There were 14 male and 4 females, and their ages ranged from 31 to 70 years. In nine pts, T1-201 was injected into left main coronary artery (LCA) (300 approx 350 mu Ci) to evaluate the myocardial viability of RCA territory through collateral circulations. The remaining five pts received T1-201 into RCA (200-250 mu Ci) because two had intraarterial bridging collaterals and three had previous successful PTCA. Planar and SPECT myocardial perfusion images were obtained 30 minutes, and four to five hours after T1-201 reinjection. Intravenous T1-201 reinjection (six pts) or {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (two pts) were also performed in eight CAD pts. Intracoronary myocardial perfusion images were compared with intravenous T1-201(IV T1-201) images, EGG, and ventriculography. Intracoronary TI-201 images proved to be superior to that of IV T1-201 due to better myocardial to background uptake ratio and more effective in the detection of viable tissue. We also found that perfusion defects were smaller on intracoronary T1-201 images than those on the IV T1-201. All of the 14 CAD pts had either mostly viable myocardium (seven pts) or large area of T1-201 perfusion (seven pts) in RCA territory, however ventriculographic wall motion and ECG did not correlate well with intracoronary myocardial perfusion images. In conclusion, total RCA occlusion patients with well developed collateral circulation had large area of viable myocardial in the corresponding territory.

  13. Disease stage classification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by dual analysis of iodine-123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiasa, Go [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine


    Many patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) gradually changes from typical myocardial hypertrophy to dilated cardiomyopathy-like features. However, it is difficult to estimate the disease stage in HCM. To determine the disease stage, dual analysis of iodine-123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) and thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) myocardial scintigraphies were performed in 108 HCM patients. According to the scintigraphic distribution patterns, patients were divided into three groups. Group A (n=15): normal distributions of both {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 201}Tl, group B (n=71): normal {sup 201}Tl and low {sup 123}I-MIBG patterns, group C (n=22): low distributions of both scintigraphies. The decrease in {sup 201}Tl uptake was observed in only group C. Concerning {sup 123}I-MIBG, heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and washout rate (WOR) had good correlations with left ventricular systolic functions. H/M was decreased and WOR was increased in order of C, B and A groups. Left ventricular diastolic function reflected by isovolumic relaxation time was longer in group B than in group A. Attenuated left ventricular hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular volumes, impaired left ventricular functions and serious clinical symptoms were observed in only group C. Myocardial sympathetic abnormalities in group B may be mainly due to myocardial hypertrophy, and those in group C may be due to myocardial injury. Dual analysis of {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphies may be useful to classify disease stages of HCM. (author)

  14. New quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6: Crystal and electronic structure (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Tsisar, O. V.; Piskach, L. V.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Levytskyy, V. O.; Babizhetskyy, V. S.


    Crystal structure of a novel quaternary thallium indium germanium selenide TlInGe2Se6 was investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction method. It was determined that the compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 with the unit cell parameters a = 10.1798(2) Å, c = 9.2872(3) Å. The relationship with similar structures was discussed. The as-synthesized TlInGe2Se6 ingot was tested with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). In particular, the XPS valence-band and core-level spectra were recorded for initial and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces of the sample under consideration. The XPS data allow for statement that the TlInGe2Se6 surface is rigid with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. Particularly, Ar+ ion-bombardment (3.0 keV, 5 min duration, ion current density fixed at 14 μA/cm2) did not cause substantial modifications of stoichiometry in topmost surface layers. Furthermore, comparison on a common energy scale of the XES Se Kβ2 and Ge Kβ2 bands and the XPS valence-band spectrum reveals that the principal contributions of the Se 4p and Ge 4p states occur in the upper and central portions of the valence band of TlInGe2Se6, respectively, with also their substantial contributions in other portions of the band. The bandgap energy of TlInGe2Se6 at the level of αg=103 cm-1 is equal to 2.38 eV at room temperature.

  15. Performance of 193-nm resists based on alicyclic methacrylate and cyclo-olefin systems (United States)

    Padmanaban, Munirathna; Cook, Michelle M.; Durham, Dana L.; Khanna, Dinesh N.; Klauck-Jacobs, Axel; Oberlander, Joseph E.; Rahman, M. D.; Dammel, Ralph R.


    Among the chemistries/polymers reported for the 193nm photoresist applications, methacrylate copolymers consisting of 2-methyl-2-adamantane methacrylate and mevalonic lactone methacrylate and cycloolefin polymers derived from derivatives of norbornene have shown promising results. We have studied the lithographic properties of these two but different promising chemistries. Both system offer linear resolutions down to 0.13 micrometers using conventional 193 nm illumination and high sensitivity at standard developer conditions. While the methacrylate based system shows best performance on substrates with bottom coats, the cycloolefin-Maleic anhydride alternate copolymer based resists performs well on bare silicon as well as substrates with bottom coats. The etch rates of the methacrylate and cycloolefin based resists were found to be 1.4 and 1.3 times relative to that of KrF resist APEX-E. Further, new polymers consisting of isobornyl and alkyl ether chains on the ester groups of norbornene carboxylate were made in order to decrease the glass-transition temperatures of the norbornene-maleic anhydride type polymers. These results will be included and discussed in detail.

  16. The Soybean Rfg1 Gene Restricts Nodulation by Sinorhizobium fredii USDA193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglun Fan


    Full Text Available Sinorhizobium fredii is a fast-growing rhizobial species that can establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with a wide range of legume species including soybeans (Glycine max. In soybeans, this interaction shows a high level of specificity such that particular S. fredii strains nodulate only a limited set of plant genotypes. Here we report the identification of a dominant gene in soybeans that restricts nodulation with S. fredii USDA193. Genetic mapping in an F2 population revealed co-segregation of the underlying locus with the previously cloned Rfg1 gene. The Rfg1 allele encodes a member of the Toll-interleukin receptor/nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rich repeat class of plant resistance proteins that restricts nodulation by S. fredii strains USDA257 and USDA205, and an allelic variant of this gene also restricts nodulation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA122. By means of complementation tests and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts, we demonstrate that the Rfg1 allele also is responsible for resistance to nodulation by S. fredii USDA193. Therefore, the Rfg1 allele likely provides broad-spectrum resistance to nodulation by many S. fredii and B. japonicum strains in soybeans.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide and Its Neodymium(III and Thallium(III Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Nnamdi Obasi


    Full Text Available N-(Benzothiazol-2-yl-4-chlorobenzenesulphonamide (NBTCS was synthesized by condensation reaction of 4-chlorobenzenesulphonyl chloride and 2-aminobenzothiazole in acetone under reflux. Neodymium(III and thallium(III complexes of the ligand were also synthesized. Both ligand and metal complexes were characterized using UV-Vis, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopies, elemental analysis and molar conductance measurement. IR studies revealed that the ligand is tridentate and coordinates to the metal ions through nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the sulphonamide group and nitrogen atom attached to benzothiazole ring. The neodymium(III complex displays a coordination number of eight while thallium(III complex displays a coordination number of six. The ligand and its complexes were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli strains (E. coli 6 and E. coli 13, Proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the agar well diffusion technique. The synthesized compounds were found to be more active against the microorganisms screened relative to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole.

  18. Comparative study of body surface isopotential map, left ventriculogram and thallium-201 myocardial scintigram in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki


    In 16 patients with old lateral myocardial infarction, body surface isopotential maps and 12 lead electrocardiograms were compared with left ventriculographic findings. In addition 8 of these subjects were performed thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in order to determine the location and extent of myocardial necrosis. Common 12 lead electrocardiographic findings of the subjects were initial Q waves more than 30 msec and inverted T waves in only aVL lead. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to the location and extent of ventricular wall motion abnormalities group I (6 cases) showed hypokinesis in the anterior segment, group II (5 cases): akinesis in the anterior segment and hypokinesis in the seg. 6, group III (4 cases): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 7, group IV (1 case): hypokinesis in the anterior segment and seg. 4, 7. And each of the 4 groups demonstrated characteristic findings of surface isopotential maps. Group II with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 6 showed surface isopotential maps additional pattern of anterior myocardial infarction, and group III with coexisting hypokinesis in the seg. 7 showed additional patterns of posterior myocardial infarction. The classification according to the abnormality of ventricular wall motion was also conformed with the thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphic findings except one case. These results suggest that body surface isopotential map is more useful than the 12 lead electrocardiogram in detecting the location and extent of left ventricular wall motion abnormality in patients with old lateral myocardial infarction. (author) 53 refs.

  19. Serial thallium-201 imaging at rest in patients with unstable and stable angina pectoris: relationship of myocardial perfusion at rest to presenting clinical syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Phillips, H.R.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.


    In order to determine whether there are differences in myocardial perfusion at rest among patients with various unstable and stable angina syndromes, serial thallium-201 imaging was performed at rest in 19 patients presenting with rapidly worsening exertional angina (unstable angina, group A), 12 patients with rest angina alone without exertional symptoms (unstable angina, group B), and 34 patients with chronic stable angina. No patient had an episode of angina within 4 hours of study. Nineteen of 19 (100%) patients in group A demonstrated transient defects compared to only 3 of 12 (25%) patients in group B (p less than 0.0001) and 4 of 34 (12%) stable angina patients (p less than 0.0001). The majority of zones demonstrating transient defects in group A were associated with hypokinesis of the corresponding left ventriculogram segment without associated ECG evidence of previous infarction. There were no significant differences in the frequency of persistent thallium defects, severity of angiographic coronary artery disease, or frequency of regional wall motion abnormalities of myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries among the three groups of patients. Transient defects have been shown to reflect reduction in regional coronary blood flow to viable myocardium. Therefore, we conclude that regional resting hypoperfusion of viable myocardium is far more common in patients with exertional unstable angina symptoms than in patients with rest angina alone or chronic stable angina.

  20. Comparison of 3D surfaces produced by 248-nm and 193-nm excimer laser radiation (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Graumann, Christoph; Rinke, Marcus; Hesener, Hanno; Kulik, Christian


    Currently there is a strong demand for refractive optical elements made from glass in 21/2D and 3D-structures. Due to the characteristics of brittle materials like glass, only a limited number of manufacturing methods can be used to machine these materials with sub-micron resolution. Thus, current microstructures made out of glass are mainly manufactured by photolithography and etching process. Lithography techniques are only for economic purposes for a series production, but is not suitable for manufacturing prototypes or a small series. Micromachining done with Excimer Lasers in combination with high precision CNC- controlled handling systems offers flexible design possibilities for optical components. Due to the limitations of conventional machining techniques for brittle materials, a new laser machining system for material processing at a wavelength of 193 nm has been designed and built. The better absorption of 193 nm compared to 248 nm or larger wavelengths leads to damage free microstructuring of most glasses. Data generation for the volume to be ablated starts with the mathematical description of the surface shape of the optical component. The contour can be derived from a mathematical function or individual xyz-data point information from any CAD-program. A pre-processor calculates the CNC-data for laser triggering, xyz-table and the CNC- mask control. Each laser pulse leads to a material removal, defined by the illuminated surface on the workpiece as well as the energy density. Superposition or overlapping of pulses allows the creation of the desired surface. The surface roughness is determined by the wavelength as well as the chosen ablation strategy. To achieve best results, the process has to be carefully adjusted for a specific material. This technique is a sufficient method for structuring grooves in ceramics or glass as well as producing aspherical transparent optical surfaces or micro lens arrays. This paper shall describe the potential of 193 nm

  1. New approaches to production-worthy 193-nm photoresists based on acrylic copolymers (United States)

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Allen, Robert D.; Opitz, Juliann; Di Pietro, Richard A.; Brock, Phillip J.; Sooriyakumaran, Ratnam; Hofer, Donald C.


    We describe a series of improvements to the `v2' etch- resistant methacrylate 193 nm photoresist platform. `V2' itself possesses many desirable characteristics, but requires weak developers and lacks ultimate etch resistance for production processes. Modifications to address these challenges include incorporation of polar modifier monomers which provide improved developer compatibility, and use of alternative etch-resistant monomers which ameliorate the excessive hydrophobicity of isobornyl methacrylate. Specifically, we explore the use of methacrylonitrile as a polar modifier which simultaneously imparts strong-developer compatibility and improves RIE performance. Integration of these improvements results in methacrylate resists displaying strong-developer compatibility, sub-0.15 micrometers resolution, and etch rates equivalent to current 248 nm photoresists in prototype materials.

  2. The effect of 193 nm excimer laser radiation on the human corneal endothelial cell density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isager, P.; Hjortdal, J.Oe.; Ehlers, N. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Aarhus (Denmark)


    The effect of 193 nm excimer laser radiation on human corneal endothelial cell density was examined. Fifty-five eyes from 35 patients underwent photorefractive keratectomy for myopia. Photomicrographs of the endothelium were taken a short time before the operation and on an average of 7 months postoperatively with a specular microscope. The average endothelial cell densities were preoperatively 3375 {+-} 266 cells/mm{sup 2} (means {+-} SD) and postoperatively 3348 {+-} 287 cells/mm{sup 2}, corresponding to a fall of 27 cells/mm{sup 2} (N = 55). This fall in endothelial cell density was not statistically significant. A significant correlation between the change in cell density and age of the patient was found, with older patients losing more cells (N = 35, 2p < 0.05). The magnification of the specular microscope was found to change with corneal thickness. The importance of correcting the endothelial cell densities for corneal thickness is discussed. (au) 14 refs.

  3. CD-SEM image acquisition effects on 193-nm resists line slimming (United States)

    Sullivan, Neal T.; Mastovich, Martin E.; Bowdoin, Scott; Brandom, Robert


    ArF resist slimming under electron beam exposure introduces significant measurement uncertainty in the metrology of 193nm resists. Previous studies have demonstrated the primary effect of electron landing energy on ArF resist line slimming; this work examines the influence of acquisition time, beam blanking, probe current and measurement magnification. This work will demonstrate, in concurrence with other research, that reducing landing energy remains the most effective method for minimizing line slimming of ArF resist under electron beam exposure. However, the other parameters studied can also affect the magnitude of line slimming. This becomes especially important for line edge roughness (LER) measurements which require a greater total dose be imparted to the sample to maintain measurement precision. Control over all acquisition parameters is essential to achieve accurate and repeatable LER measurements.

  4. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3}) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} 2CH{sub 3} + SO; (2a) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + SOCH{sub 3}; and (2b) SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} SO + CH{sub 3}. Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH{sub 3} and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2.

  5. Photoinitiated decomposition of substituted ethylenes: The photodissociation of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    Ethylene and its substituted analogues (H{sub 2}CCHX) are important molecules in hydrogen combustion. As the simplest {pi}-bonded hydrocarbons these molecules serve as prototypical systems for understanding the decomposition of this important class of compounds. The authors have used the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline to investigate the dissociation of vinyl chloride (X=Cl) and acrylonitrile (X=CN) following absorption at 193 nm. The technique uses a molecular beam of the reactant seeded in helium which is crossed at 90 degrees with the output of an excimer laser operating on the ArF transition, 193.3 nm. The neutral photoproducts which recoil out of the molecular beam travel 15.1 cm where they are photoionized by the VUV undulator radiation, mass selected, and counted as a function of time. The molecular beam source is rotatable about the axis of the dissociation laser. The authors have directly observed all four of the following dissociation channels for both systems: (1) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}X; (2) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} X + C{sub 2}H{sub 3}; (3) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}HX; and (4) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} HX + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. They measured translational energy distributions for all of the observed channels and measured the photoionization onset for many of the photoproducts which provided information about their chemical identity and internal energy content. In the case of acrylonitrile, selective product photoionization provided the ability to discriminate between channels 2 and 4 which result in the same product mass combination.

  6. An AC phase measuring interferometer for measuring dn/dT of fused silica and calcium fluoride at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N.


    A novel method for the measurement of the change in index of refraction vs. temperature (dn/dT) of fused silica and calcium fluoride at the 193 nm wavelength has been developed in support of thermal modeling efforts for the development of 193 nm-based photolithographic exposure tools. The method, based upon grating lateral shear interferometry, uses a transmissive linear grating to divide a 193 nm laser beam into several beam paths by diffraction which propagate through separate identical material samples. One diffracted order passing through one sample overlaps the undiffracted beam from a second sample and forms interference fringes dependent upon the optical path difference between the two samples. Optical phase delay due to an index change from heating one of the samples causes the interference fringes to change sinusoidally with phase. The interferometer also makes use of AC phase measurement techniques through lateral translation of the grating. Results for several samples of fused silica and calcium fluoride are demonstrated.

  7. A mathematical model of bimodal epigenetic control of miR-193a in ovarian cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H C Cheng

    Full Text Available Accumulating data indicate that cancer stem cells contribute to tumor chemoresistance and their persistence alters clinical outcome. Our previous study has shown that ovarian cancer may be initiated by ovarian cancer initiating cells (OCIC characterized by surface antigen CD44 and c-KIT (CD117. It has been experimentally demonstrated that a microRNA, namely miR-193a, targets c-KIT mRNA for degradation and could play a crucial role in ovarian cancer development. How miR-193a is regulated is poorly understood and the emerging picture is complex. To unravel this complexity, we propose a mathematical model to explore how estrogen-mediated up-regulation of another target of miR-193a, namely E2F6, can attenuate the function of miR-193a in two ways, one through a competition of E2F6 and c-KIT transcripts for miR-193a, and second by binding of E2F6 protein, in association with a polycomb complex, to the promoter of miR-193a to down-regulate its transcription. Our model predicts that this bimodal control increases the expression of c-KIT and that the second mode of epigenetic regulation is required to generate a switching behavior in c-KIT and E2F6 expressions. Additional analysis of the TCGA ovarian cancer dataset demonstrates that ovarian cancer patients with low expression of EZH2, a polycomb-group family protein, show positive correlation between E2F6 and c-KIT. We conjecture that a simultaneous EZH2 inhibition and anti-estrogen therapy can constitute an effective combined therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  8. 75 FR 63504 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  9. The photodissociation dynamics of ozone at 193 nm: An O(D-1(2)) angular momentum polarization study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouard, M.; Cireasa, D.R.; Clark, A.P.; Groenenboom, G.C.; Hancock, G.; Horrocks, S.J.; Quadrini, F.; Ritchie, G.A.D.; Vallance, C.


    Polarized laser photolysis, coupled with resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization detection of O(D-1(2)) and velocity-map ion imaging, has been used to investigate the photodissociation dynamics of ozone at 193 nm. The use of multiple pump and probe laser polarization geometries and probe

  10. Syndrome of diminished vasodilator reserve of the coronary microcirculation (microvascular angina or syndrome X): Diagnosis by combined atrial pacing and thallium 201 imaging--a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magarian, G.J.; Palac, R.; Reinhart, S. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Portland, OR (USA))


    Patients with angina-like chest pain without evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease or coronary arterial vasospasm are becoming increasingly recognized. These are often related to noncardiac causes including esophageal, musculoskeletal, and hyperventilatory or panic states. However, recently a subgroup of such patients are being recognized as having true myocardial ischemia and chest pain on the basis of diminished coronary microvascular vasodilatory reserve (microvascular ischemia or Syndrome X). The authors describe such a patient who was found to have replication of anginal pain associated with a reversible ischemic defect on thallium 201 imaging during atrial pacing, suggesting ischemia in this myocardial segment. Resolution of angina and ST segment electrocardiographic changes of ischemia occurred with cessation of pacing. We believe this is the first report of a patient with this form of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by this method and should be considered in patients with anginal chest pain after significant coronary artery disease and coronary vasospasm have been excluded.

  11. Determination of perfusion defect area in experimental myocardial infarction. A comparison between 201-thallium and sup 99m Tc methoxy-isobutyl-isonitril (MIBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.D.; Rohmann, S.; Bahavar, H.; Grebe, S.F.; Schaper, W.; Schlepper, M. (Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim (Germany))


    To assess the accuracy of two myocardial perfusion markers in quantifying defect size, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded in 13 porcine hearts. Fourty minutes later 55 MBq {sup 201}TI and 370 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI were simultaneously injected i.v. in 10 animals. After injection and in vivo double nuclide SPECT acquisition, the risk area was demarcated with fluorescein (FI) dye in 5 animals. The in vitro defect area determined by {sup 201}TI was significant larger (15.8 {+-} 27%) than those of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, while FI compared to Tc showed no statistical difference. Thus, in a pig model Tc-MIBI was more accurate with ex vivo imaging. With SPECT thallium imaging defect size was overestimated. In vivo there was a distinct trend with Tc-MIBI studies to underestimate the defect size up to 16%. (orig.).

  12. Determination of effective resonance energy for the 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction by the cadmium ratio method (United States)

    Budak, Mustafa Guray; Karadag, Mustafa; Yücel, Haluk


    In this work, the effective resonance energy, Ebarr -value for the 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction was measured using cadmium ratio method. A dual monitor (197Au-98Mo), which has convenient resonance properties, was employed for characterization of the irradiation sites. Then analytical grade iridium oxide samples diluted with CaCO3 to lower neutron self-shielding effect stacked in small cylindrical Teflon boxes were irradiated once with a 1 mm thick Cd cylindrical box placed in a thermalized neutron field of an 241Am-Be neutron source then without it. The activities produced in samples during 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction were measured using a p-type HPGe detector γ-ray spectrometer with a 44.8% relative efficiency. The correction factors for thermal, epithermal neutron self-shielding (Gth, Gepi), true coincidence summing (Fcoi) and gamma-ray self-absorption (Fs) effects were determined with appropriate approaches and programs. Thus, the experimental Ebarr -value was determined to be 2.65 ± 0.61 eV for 193Ir target nuclide. The recent data for Q0 and FCd values for Ebarr determination were based on k0-NAA online database. The present experimental Ebarr value was calculated and compared with more recent values for Q0 and FCd for 193Ir. Additionally, the Ebarr -values was theoretically calculated from the up-to-date resonance data obtained from ENDF/B VII library using two different approaches. Since there is no experimentally determined Ebarr -value for the 193Ir isotope, the results are compared with the calculated ones given in the literature.

  13. Phase I biodistribution and pharmacokinetic study of Lewis Y-targeting immunoconjugate CMD-193 in patients with advanced epithelial cancers. (United States)

    Herbertson, Rebecca A; Tebbutt, Niall C; Lee, Fook-Thean; MacFarlane, David J; Chappell, Bridget; Micallef, Noel; Lee, Sze-Ting; Saunder, Timothy; Hopkins, Wendie; Smyth, Fiona E; Wyld, David K; Bellen, John; Sonnichsen, Daryl S; Brechbiel, Martin W; Murone, Carmel; Scott, Andrew M


    This phase I study explored the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the immunoconjugate CMD-193 [a humanized anti-Lewis Y (Le(y)) antibody conjugated with calicheamicin in patients with advanced cancers expressing the Le(y) antigen. The primary objectives were to determine biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of CMD-193. Secondary objectives included response rates and change in tumor metabolism. Patients with progressive, measurable, and Le(y) positive malignancies were eligible for enrollment in one of two dose cohorts, 1.0 and 2.6 mg/m(2). The first cycle was trace labeled with (111)In for biodistribution assessment using gamma camera imaging. Subsequent cycles were administered every 3 weeks up to a maximum of six cycles, depending on toxicity and response. Pharmacokinetic analysis was based on radioassay and ELISA. Nine patients were enrolled in the study. Biodistribution images showed initial blood pool activity, followed by markedly increased hepatic uptake by day 2, and fast blood clearance in all patients. There was low uptake in tumor in all patients. The overall T(1/2)beta of (111)In-CMD-193 was 102.88 +/- 35.67 hours, with no statistically significant difference between the two dose levels. One patient had a partial metabolic response on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) after four cycles, but no radiological responses were observed. Myelosuppression and effects on liver function were the most significant adverse effects. CMD-193 shows rapid blood clearance and increased hepatic uptake compared with prior studies of the parental antibody hu3S193. These results highlight the importance of biodistribution and pharmacodynamic assessment in early phase studies of new biologics to assist in clinical development.

  14. High thallium content in rocks associated with Au-As-Hg-Tl and coal mineralization and its adverse environmental potential in SW Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, T.F.; Guha, J.; Boyle, D. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China)


    This study is focused on high concentrations of Tl in rocks in SW Guizhou, China, that are related to several widely scattered disseminated gold-mercury-arsenic and coal deposits, and a primary Tl deposit within an Au-As-Hg-Tl metallogenic belt of the Huijiabao anticline. The Tl, Hg and As in the Lanmuchang Hg-Tl deposit area are associated with the abundant occurrence of sulfide minerals such as lorandite, realgar, orpiment and cinnabar. Concentrations of Tl range from 100 to 35 000 ppm in sulfide ores, and 39-490 ppm in host rocks. The enrichment of Au, Tl, Hg, As, and Sb in the Yanshang gold mineralized area reflects the occurrence of Au mineralization and its mineral assemblage of Tl-Hg-As-Sb sulfides. Thallium ranges from 0.22 to 16 ppm in Au ores and host rocks. Thallium in coals is enriched up to 46 ppm within the Au-As-Hg-TI metallogenic belt, and is derived from the regional Au-As-Hg-Tl mineralization. Mercury and As show a similar distribution to Tl with high concentrations in sulfide ores, coals and host rocks. Human populations living near and downstream of Tl deposits and Tl-bearing ore deposits are susceptible to Tl contamination because of its high toxicity and high uptake rate by crops. The dispersion of Tl, Hg and As associated with the primary mineralization of Au-As-Hg-TI can be traced through physical erosion and chemical weathering, producing secondary dispersion into sods, groundwater and surface water and crops. Mining activities compound the natural processes, readily dispersing Tl into the surface environment.

  15. Functional significance of myocardial perfusion defects induced by dipyridamole using thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and two-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, A.; Suarez, J.; Mahmarian, J.J.; Zoghbi, W.A.; Quinones, M.A.; Verani, M.S. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))


    The mechanisms responsible for inhomogeneous myocardial blood flow after oral administration of a large dose (300 mg) of dipyridamole were assessed in 27 patients with serial thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and simultaneous 2-dimensional echocardiograms. Myocardial tomographic images were obtained 50 minutes and 3 to 4 hours after administration of dipyridamole. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were recorded at baseline and then every 15 minutes for 60 minutes. Dipyridamole caused only a mild reduction in blood pressure (from 129 +/- 18 to 126 +/- 16 mm Hg) and a mild increase in heart rate (from 69 +/- 15 to 73 +/- 4 beats/min). Sixteen patients had perfusion defects after dipyridamole by SPECT, which underwent partial or total filling-in. Fourteen of these patients (87.5%) had either a new abnormality or further deterioration of a preexisting wall motion abnormality by 2-dimensional echocardiography, and thus were considered to have developed transient ischemia during dipyridamole administration. Ten of 11 patients (91%) with normal perfusion or fixed defects by SPECT had no further deterioration in wall motion after oral dipyridamole, and were thus considered to have no evidence of myocardial ischemia. In conclusion, most patients with transient thallium-201 defects after dipyridamole develop transient worsening of resting wall motion by 2-dimensional echocardiography, suggestive of true myocardial ischemia. Because myocardial oxygen demand, as indicated by the heart rate-blood pressure product, did not change significantly, the mechanism of myocardial ischemia in these patients is likely to be diminished regional blood flow related to a subendocardial steal induced by dipyridamole.

  16. Continuous evolution of lithographic films through process steps: an example with 193 chemically amplified resists (United States)

    Derrough, Samir; Tiron, Raluca; Perret, Damien; Thackeray, James W.; Sourd, Claire; Paniez, Patrick


    Chemically Amplified resists are complex systems. If the main mechanisms implied have already been described, the challenge to even better control and model these formulations remains important as performance requirements become more and more stringent and critical dimensions get smaller and smaller. This paper tries to assess and deconvolute some of the main potential mechanisms involved during the process of a 193 nm chemically amplified resist, before correlating them with the final lithographic results obtained. A formulation was selected in order to offer a large range of film physical properties, thus allowing the resist film to switch from non-annealing to annealing conditions. The use of thermal analysis as the main characterization technique allowed correlation between the variations in physico-chemical properties and process conditions. This investigation also included a study of the behavior of some additives during bake steps. In so doing, it became possible to correlate the variations of the resist properties under different bake conditions to the changes in its final lithographic performance, i.e. contrast, sensitivity and line edge roughness.

  17. Photolysis of pure solid O3 and O2 films at 193 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Raut, U; Famá, M; Baragiola, R A


    We studied quantitatively the photochemistry of solid O3 and O2 films at 193 nm and 22 K with infrared spectroscopy and microgravimetry. Photolysis of pure ozone destroyed O3, but a small amount of ozone remained in the film at high fluence. Photolysis of pure O2 produced O3 in an amount that increased with photon fluence to a stationary level. For both O2 and O3 films, the O3:O2 ratio at saturation is 0.03, nearly 10-30 times larger than those obtained in gas phase photolysis. This enhancement is attributed to the increased photodissociation of O2 due to photoabsorption by O2 dimers, a process significant at solid state densities. We obtain initial quantum yield for ozone synthesis from solid oxygen, {\\Phi} (O3) = 0.18 and for destruction of ozone and oxygen in their parent solids, {\\Phi} (- O3) = 1.7 and {\\Phi} (-O2) = 0.28. Combined with known photoabsorption cross sections, we estimate probabilities for germinate recombination of 0.15 for O3 fragments and 0.90 for oxygen atoms from O2 dissociation. Using ...

  18. Spin, quadrupole moment, and deformation of the magnetic-rotational band head in (193)Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Balabanski, D L; Iordachescu, A; Bazzacco, D; Brandolini, F; Bucurescu, D; Chmel, S; Danchev, M; De Poli, M; Georgiev, G; Haas, H; Hubel, H; Marginean, N; Menegazzo, R; Neyens, G; Pavan, P; Rossi Alvarez, C; Ur, C A; Vyvey, K; Frauendorf, S


    The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the T(1/2) = 9.4(5) ns isomer in (193)Pb at an excitation energy E(ex) = (2585 + x) keV is measured by the time-differential perturbed angular distribution method as vertical bar Q(s)vertical bar = 2.6(3) e b. Spin and parity I(pi) = 27/2(-) are assigned to it based on angular distribution measurements. This state is the band head of a magnetic-rotational band, described by the coupling of a neutron hole in the 1i(13/2) subshell with the (3s(1/2)(-2)1h(9/2)1i(13/2))(11-) proton excitation. The pairing-plus-quadrupole tilted-axis cranking calculations reproduce the measured quadrupole moment with a moderate oblate deformation epsilon(2) = -0.11, similar to that of the 11(-)proton intruder states, which occur in the even-even Pb nuclei in the region. This is the first direct measurement of a quadrupole moment and thus of the deformation of a magnetic-rotational band head.

  19. Fast evaluation of photomask near-fields in subwavelength 193-nm lithography (United States)

    Tirapu-Azpiroz, Jaione; Yablonovitch, Eli


    Sub-wavelength lithography places a serious limitation on the conventional "thin mask" approximation of the field immediately behind the patterned mask. This approximation fails to account for the increasingly important topographical effects of the mask or "thick mask" effects. This approximation of the photomask near-fields results from the direct application of Kirchhoff Boundary Conditions, which multiply the incident field by a binary transmission function of the patterned mask. Polarization dependent edge diffraction effects, as well as phase and amplitude transmission errors that arise from the vector nature of light, and the finite thickness of the substrate and chrome layers, produce significant errors in the scalar simulations of the lithographic image. Based on the comparison of aerial images at the wafer plane produced by both rigorous electromagnetic solutions of the field on the mask and their "thin mask" counterparts, a more accurate model is proposed that consists of a fixed-width, locally-determined boundary layer of imaginary transmission coefficient added to every edge of the initial "thin mask" approximation. The accuracy of the resultant Boundary Layer model has been exhaustively tested against rigorously simulated aerial images of isolated as well as periodic features of very different profiles and dimensions. The conclusion being that this simple approach is capable of modeling "thick mask" effects at both 248nm and 193nm wavelength and high NA lithography. This greatly improves the accuracy of aerial image computation in photolithography simulations at a reasonable computational cost.

  20. 193-nm radiation durability study of MoSi binary mask and resulting lithographic performance (United States)

    Servin, Isabelle; Belledent, Jérôme; Pain, Laurent; Connolly, Brid; Sczyrba, Martin; Lamantia, Matt


    Dimensions on mask continue to shrink to keep up with the ITRS roadmap. This has implications on the material of choice for the blanks. For example, the new binary OMOG stack (Opaque MOSi on Glass) was successfully introduced to meet the mask specifications at the 32nm technology node. Obviously 193-nm optical lithography will be further used in production at even higher NA and lower k1 emphasizing, for example, the impact on wafer of any electromagnetic field migration effects. Indeed, long term radiation damage inducing CD growth and consequently, device yield loss, has already been reported [1, 2]. This mechanism, known as Electric Field induced Migration of chrome (EMF) often shortens the mask's lifetime. Here, a study was conducted to investigate the impact of intensive ArF scanner exposure both on final wafer and mask performances. The Si printed wafers measured with top-down CD-SEM were characterized with respect to CD uniformity, linearity, Sub Resolution Assist Feature (SRAF) printability through process window, MEEF, DOF, and OPC accuracy. The data was also correlated to advanced mask inspection results (e.g. AIMSTM) taken at the same location. More precisely, this work follows a preliminary study [1] which pointed out that OMOG is less sensitive to radiation than standard COG (Chrome On Glass). And, in this paper, we report on results obtained at higher energy to determine the ultimate lifetime of OMOG masks.

  1. k193hw.m77t and k193hw.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity K-1-93-HW in Oahu, Hawaii from 02/20/1993 to 02/26/1993 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise K-1-93-HW. The cruise was conducted in Oahu,...

  2. a193yb.m77t and a193yb.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity A-1-93-YB in Yakukat Bay, Alaska from 08/21/1993 to 08/27/1993 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with GPS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise A-1-93-YB. The cruise was conducted in Yakukat...

  3. [193 excimer laser trepanation in perforating keratoplasty. Report of 70 patients]. (United States)

    Naumann, G O; Seitz, B; Lang, G K; Langenbucher, A; Kus, M M


    In penetrating keratoplasty, trephination with the 193 nm excimer laser may help avoid the differences in the deformation of the donor and recipient wound margins which occur with the conventional procedure. By varying the shape of the "open metal mask", other cut configurations can be achieved besides circular. Thus, "vertical tilt" and "horizontal torsion", both potential reasons for persistent long-term astigmatism after PK, may be minimized. Following experimental studies, the authors present the results obtained in their first 70 consecutive patients. 38 women and 32 men were treated (mean age 60.6 years, range 17 to 89 years). Indications were corneal processes without vascularization: Fuchs' dystrophy (n = 32), other stromal dystrophies (n = 5), secondary corneal endothelial decompensation (n = 6), keratoconus (n = 15), nonvascularized corneal scars (n = 4) and miscellaneous (n = 8 ). We used elliptical metal masks with/without orientation teeth and circular masks with four and eight orientation teeth, respectively. The HeNe aiming beam was manually controlled by a micromanipulator ("joystick"). The technical data of the laser were as follows: spot mode, 1.5 x 1.5 mm; repetition rate 30/sec and 25/sec, respectively; pulse energy 15-25 mJ; mean number of pulses 6407 (recipient) and 9150 (donor). With an elliptical outline, wound closure was usually achieved with single sutures. With a circular outline with orientation teeth, wound closure was most commonly achieved with a double running suture. Patients were prospectively documented using modified Erlangen record sheets. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.4 years (mean 11.4 months). With two exceptions, penetration of the anterior chamber with the 193 nm excimer laser was accomplished without deformation of the cut edges. The elliptical outline facilitated fitting of the graft into the recipient wound bed, and the orientation teeth made fitting even easier. Initial intraoperative complications due to

  4. Breast ultrasound elastography-Results of 193 breast lesions in a prospective study with histopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, F.K.W., E-mail: [Breast Centre, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3/Haus 24, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Heer, I.; Schaefer, P.J.; Mundhenke, C.; Osterholz, S.; Order, B.M.; Hofheinz, N.; Hedderich, J.; Heller, M.; Jonat, W.; Schreer, I. [Breast Centre, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3/Haus 24, 24105 Kiel (Germany)


    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound elastography in breast masses. Material and methods: 193 lesions (129 benign, 64 malignant) were analyzed with the EUB 8500 Logos-ultrasonic-unit (Hitachi Medical, Japan) and a linear-array-transducer of 7.5-13-MHz. Standard of reference was cytology (FNAfine needle aspiration) or histology (core biopsy). The elastic-score was classified according to a 6-point colour-scale (Ueno classification; 1-3 = benign, 4-5 = malignant). Conventional B-mode ultrasound (US) findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. Statistical analysis included sensitivity, specificity, ROC-analysis and kappa-values for intra-/interobserver reliability. Results: The mean score for elasticity was 4.1 {+-} 0.9 for malignant lesions, and 2.1 {+-} 1.0 for benign lesions (p < 0.001). With a best cut-off point between elasticity scores 3 and 4, sensitivity was 96.9%, and specificity 76%. Setting a best cut-off point for conventional US between BI-RADS 4 and 5, sensitivity was 57.8%, and specificity 96.1%. Elastography provided higher sensitivity and lower specificity than conventional US, but two lesions with elasticity score 1 were false negative, whereas no lesion scored BI-RADS 1-3 were false negative. ROC-curve was 0.884 for elastography, and 0.820 for conventional US (p < 0.001). Weighted kappa-values for intra-/interobserver reliability were 0.784/0.634 for BI-RADS classification, and 0.720/0.561 for elasticity scores. Conclusion: In our study setting, elastography does not have the potential to replace conventional B-mode US for the detection of breast cancer, but may complement conventional US to improve the diagnostic performance.

  5. Azimuthal anisotropy of strange hadrons in U+U collisions at √SNN = 193 GeV at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bairathi Vipul


    Full Text Available We present the measurement of the azimuthal anisotropy of strange hadrons (K0s, ϕ and Λ at mid-rapidity (|y| < 1.0 in U+U collisions at SNN = 193 GeV using the STAR detector at RHIC. We present the centrality and transverse momentum dependence of flow coefficients υn for n = 2, 3, 4. A strong centrality dependence of υ2 is observed for the particles K0s, ϕ and Λ in U+U collisions at SNN = 193 GeV similar to Au+Au collisions at SNN = 200 GeV. We studied the number of constituent quark scaling (NCQ of the flow coefficients. The NCQ scaling of the flow coefficients holds within uncertainties for the particles studied in the U+U collisions. We also present the comparison of the results to the AMPT transport model.

  6. Experimental measurements of diffraction for periodic patterns by 193-nm polarized radiation compared to rigorous EMF simulations (United States)

    Bennett, Marylyn H.; Grenville, Andrew; Hector, Scott D.; Palmer, Shane R.; Leunissen, Leonardus H. A.; Philipsen, Vicky; Bloomstein, Theodore M.; Hardy, Dennis E.; Rothschild, Mordechai; Hilfiker, James N.


    Polarization dependent diffraction efficiencies in transmission through gratings on specially designed masks with pitch comparable to the wavelength were measured using an angle-resolved scatterometry apparatus with a 193 nm excimer source. Four masks - two binary, one alternating and one attenuated phase shift mask - were included in the experimental measurements. The validity of models used in present commercially available simulation packages and additional polarization effects were evaluated against the experimental scattering efficiencies.

  7. Effects of Potassium-Channel Opener on Thallium-201 Kinetics: In-vitro Study in Rat Myocyte Preparations and In-vivo Mice Biodistribution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Kim, Eun Ji; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Son, Kang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jeoung Hee [Youngnam University Medical School, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun Ki [Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York (United States)


    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens ATP-sensitive K{sup +}-channel located at membrane and induces potassium efflux from cytosol, resulting in intracellular hyperpolarization. Newly synthesized K-opener is currently examined for pharmacologic potency by means of rubidium release test from smooth muscle strip preincubated with Rb-86. Since in-vive behavior of thallium is similar to that of rubidium, we hypothesized that K-opener can alter T1-201 kinetics in vivo. This study was prepared to investigate the effects of pinacidil (one of potent K-openers) on the T1-201 uptake and clearance in cultured myocyte, and in-vivo biodistribution in mice. Spontaneous contracting myocytes were prepared to imitate in-vivo condition from 20 hearts of 3-5 days old Sprague-Dawley rat and cultured for 3-5 days before use (5 X 105 cells/ml). Pinacidil was dissolved in 10% DMSO solution at a final concentration of 100nM or 10uM and was co-incubated with T1-201 in HBSS buffer for 20-min to evaluate its effect on cellular T1-uptake, or challenged to cell preparation pre-incubated with T1-201 for washout study. Two, 40 or 100 mg of pinacidil was injected intravenously into ICR mice at 10 min after 5 muCi T1-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention rate were measured at different time points. Co-incubation of pinacidil with T1-201 resulted in a decrease in T1-201 uptake into cultured myocyte by 1.6 to 2.5 times, depending on pinacidil concentration and activity of T1-201 used. Pinacidil enhanced T1-201 washout by 1.6-3.1 times from myocyte preparations pre-incubated with T1-201. Pinacidil treatment appears to be resulted in mild decreases in blood and liver activity in normal mice, in contrast, renal and cardiac uptake were mildly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Whole body retention ratios of T1-201 were lower at 24 hour after injection with 100 mg of pinacidil than control. These results suggest that treatment with K-opener may affect the interpretation of T1

  8. Determination of particle mass deposition according to Bergerhoff; Performance characteristics of the measurement of particle mass deposition and its portions of lead, cadmium, zinc and thallium. Bestimmung des Staubniederschlags nach Bergerhoff; Verfahrenskenngroessen fuer die Messung des Staubniederschlags und seiner Anteile an Blei, Cadmium, Zink und Thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrig, R. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe); Faesi, C. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe); Hofer, P. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. fuer Luftfremdstoffe)


    The requirements concerning quality assurance have increased considerably in the field of immission control. Well founded values for detection limits and confidence limits have to be given. Based on the statistical analysis of long term data series of deposition measurements of particle mass (Berghoff method), lead, cadmium, zinc and thallium performance characteristics were established for very differently polluted sites. The resulting detection limits as well as confidence limits are low enough for a reliable control of the respective immission limit values. It is further shown that the use of plastic buckets instead of the glass buckets required by the VDI guideline or the addition of a protecting agent to avoid freezing does not affect the measurements significantly. (orig.)

  9. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal


    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.

  10. Replacement of a photomultiplier tube in a 2-inch thallium-doped sodium iodide gamma spectrometer with silicon photomultipliers and a light guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankyu Kim


    Full Text Available The thallium-doped sodium iodide [NaI(Tl] scintillation detector is preferred as a gamma spectrometer in many fields because of its general advantages. A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM has recently been developed and its application area has been expanded as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs. It has merits such as a low operating voltage, compact size, cheap production cost, and magnetic resonance compatibility. In this study, an array of SiPMs is used to develop an NaI(Tl gamma spectrometer. To maintain detection efficiency, a commercial NaI(Tl 2′ × 2′ scintillator is used, and a light guide is used for the transport and collection of generated photons from the scintillator to the SiPMs without loss. The test light guides were fabricated with polymethyl methacrylate and reflective materials. The gamma spectrometer systems were set up and included light guides. Through a series of measurements, the characteristics of the light guides and the proposed gamma spectrometer were evaluated. Simulation of the light collection was accomplished using the DETECT 97 code (A. Levin, E. Hoskinson, and C. Moison, University of Michigan, USA to analyze the measurement results. The system, which included SiPMs and the light guide, achieved 14.11% full width at half maximum energy resolution at 662 keV.

  11. Myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and thallium-201 in patients with coronary artery disease: a comparative dual-isotope study. (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Rauch, B; Kapp, M; Bubeck, B; Neumann, F J; Seitz, F; Stokstad, P; Mall, G; Tillmanns, H; Kübler, W


    To characterise the clinical usefulness of serial myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in comparison with thallium-201, dual-isotope investigations were performed in 41 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Both tracers were administered simultaneously during symptom-limited ergometry. Planar scintigrams were acquired immediately after stress, and delayed imaging was performed after 1 h for IPPA and 4 h for 201Tl. Scintigrams were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using a newly developed algorithm for automated image superposition. Initial myocardial uptake of both tracers was closely correlated (r = 0.75, p or = 75% (IP-PA: 70.0%, 201Tl: 66.3%, P = NS) with identical specificity (69.8%). The number of persistent defects, however, was significantly higher with IPPA (P = 0.021), suggesting that visual analysis of serial IPPA scintigrams may overestimate the presence of myocardial scar tissue. On the other hand, previous Q wave myocardial infarction was associated with a decreased regional IPPA clearance (29% +/- 11% vs 44% +/- 11% in normal myocardium, P IPPA is essentially as sensitive as scintigraphy with 201Tl for the detection of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of myocardial IPPA kinetics, however, is required for the evaluation of tissue viability.

  12. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic cardiac imaging; Comparison to myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium in ischemic cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, G.L.; Magill, H.L. [Baptist Memorial Hospital (United States); Schad, N.C.


    Recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium is essential in this era of cardiac revascularization. Positron emission tomography (PET) accurately identifies viability but is costly and unavailable to most patients. Dynamic low dose I-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic cardiac imaging is a potentially cost-effective alternative to PET. Using transmural myocardial biopsies obtained during coronary bypass surgery as the viability gold standard, resting IPPA imaging agreed with 39/43 (91%) biopsies, with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36(92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%) in patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eighty percent of IPPA viable, infarcted segments improved wall motion postoperatively. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-Tl) scans after myocardial infarction, there was IPPA-Tl concordance in 27/35 (77%)(Kappa=0.536, p=0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-Tl, 26/35 (74%) vs. 18/35 (51%)(p=0.047). Finally, when compared to transvenous endomyocardial biopsy for detecting rejection following cardiac transplantation, IPPA sensitivity for {>=}Grade II rejection was 100%, and IPPA screening assessment for the necessity of biopsy could result in a 31% cost-savings. Therefore, IPPA metabolic cardiac imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique with a promising future. (author).

  13. Myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and thallium-201 in patients with coronary artery disease: A comparative dual-isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.; Rauch, B.; Kapp, M.; Neumann, F.J.; Seitz, F.; Kuebler, W. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology); Bubeck, B. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Mall, G. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pathology); Tillmanns, H. (Giessen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology); Stokstad, P.


    To characterise the clinical usefulness of serial myocardial scintigraphy with iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in comparison with thallium-201, dual-isotope investigations were performed in 41 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Both tracers were adminstered simultaneously during symptom-limited ergometry. Planar scintigrams were acquired immediately after stress, and delayed imaging was performed after 1 h for IPPA and 4 h for {sup 201}Tl. Scintigrams were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using a newly developed algorithm for automated image superposition. Initial myocardial uptake of both tracers was closely correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Both tracers also revealed a similar sensitivity for the identification of individual coronary artery stenoses {>=}75% (IPPA: 70%, {sup 201}Tl: 66.3%, P=NS) with identical specificity (69.8%). The number of persistent defects, however, was significantly higher with IPPA (P=0.021), suggesting that visual analysis of serial IPPA scintigrams may overestimate the presence of myocardial scar tissue. On the other hand, previous Q wave myocardial infarction was associated with a decreased regional IPPA clearance (29%{+-}11% vs 44%{+-}11% in normal myocardium, P<0.05). The data indicate that serial myocardial scintigraphy with IPPA is essentially as sensitive as scintigraphy with {sup 201}Tl for the detection of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of myocardial IPPA kinetics, however, is required for the evaluation of tissue viability. (orig.).

  14. Myocardial viability assessment with dynamic low-dose iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic imaging: comparison with myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium after myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Murray, G L; Schad, N C; Magill, H L; Vander Zwaag, R


    Aggressive cardiac revascularization requires recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium, and cost considerations may well govern the technique used. Dynamic low-dose (1 mCi) [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic imaging is a potential alternative to PET using either 18FDG or 15O-water. Resting IPPA images were obtained from patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy, and transmural myocardial biopsies were obtained during coronary bypass surgery to confirm viability. Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) biopsies confirmed the results of the IPPA images with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36 (92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Postoperatively, wall motion improved in 80% of IPPA-viable, dysfunctional segments. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-TI) scans after myocardial infarction, IPPA-SPECT-TI concordance occurred in 27/35 (77%) (K = 0.536, p = 0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-TI, 26/35 (74%) versus 18/35 (51%) (p = 0.047). Metabolic IPPA cardiac viability imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique that may be a useful alternative to PET.

  15. Identification and Decay Studies of New, Neutron-Rich Isotopes of Bismuth, Lead and Thallium by means of a Pulsed Release Element Selective Method

    CERN Multimedia

    Mills, A; Kugler, E; Van duppen, P L E; Lettry, J


    % IS354 \\\\ \\\\ It is proposed to produce, identify and investigate at ISOLDE new, neutron-rich isotopes of bismuth, lead and thallium at the mass numbers A=215 to A=218. A recently tested operation mode of the PS Booster-ISOLDE complex, taking an advantage of the unique pulsed proton beam structure, will be used together with a ThC target in order to increase the selectivity. The decay properties of new nuclides will be studied by means of $\\beta$-, $\\gamma$- and X- ray spectroscopy methods. The expected information on the $\\beta$-half-lives and excited states will be used for testing and developing the nuclear structure models ``south-east'' of $^{208}$Pb, and will provide input data for the description of the r-process path at very heavy nuclei. The proposed study of the yields and the decay properties of those heavy nuclei produced in the spallation of $^{232}$Th by a 1~GeV proton beam contributes also the data necessary for the simulations of a hybrid accelerator-reactor system.

  16. Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China. (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Xuwen; Wang, Jin; Xiao, Tangfu; Chen, Diyun; Sheng, Guodong; Yin, Meiling; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thallium-201 is comparable to technetium-99m-sestamibi for estimating cardiac function in patients with abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Wu


    Full Text Available We analyzed the left-ventricular functional data obtained by cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with thallium-201 (Tl-201 and technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI protocols in different groups of patients, and compared the data between Tl-201 and MIBI. Two hundred and seventy-two patients undergoing dipyridamole stress/redistribution Tl-201 MPI and 563 patients undergoing 1-day rest/dipyridamole stress MIBI MPI were included. Higher mean stress ejection fraction (EF, rest EF, and change in EF (ΔEF were noticed in the normal MPI groups by both Tl-201 and MIBI protocols. Higher mean EF was observed in the females with normal MPI results despite their higher mean age. Comparisons between the Tl-201 and MIBI groups suggested a significant difference in all functional parameters, except for the rest end diastolic volume/end systolic volume and ΔEF between groups with negative MPI results. For the positive MPI groups, there was no significant difference in all parameters, except for the change in end diastolic volume and change in end systolic volume after stress between both protocols. The Tl-201 provides comparable left-ventricular functional data to MIBI cardiac-gated single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with positive MPI results, and may therefore be undertaken routinely for incremental functional information that is especially valuable to this patient group.

  18. Usefulness of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy during hyperventilation and accelerated exercise test in patients with vasospastic angina and nearly normal coronary artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueda, Shozo; Mineoi, Kazuaki; Kondou, Tadashi [Takanoko Hospital, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan)] [and others


    The usefulness of thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) myocardial scintigraphy was studied in 109 patients with vasospastic angina who had nearly normal coronary arteries (degree of stenosis <50%). Coronary spasm was confirmed by pharmacologic agents in all 109 patients from January 1991 to June 1996. The appearance rate of visual redistribution on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigraphy was compared between four groups, 34 patients performing graded bicycle ergometer exercise starting at a work load of 50 W with increments of 25 W every 3 min (Ergo(3) group), 14 patients performing hyperventilation for 5 min (HV(5) group), 31 patients performing bicycle ergometer exercise with increments of 25 W every 1 min after 5 min hyperventilation (HV(5)+Ergo(1) group), and 30 patients at rest (Rest group). The value of the visual redistribution rate on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigrams in the HV(5)+Ergo(l) group (65%) was higher than that in the patients of other groups (Ergo(3) 41%, HV(5) 43%, Rest 33%). However, there were no significant differences between the four groups. Stress {sup 201}Tl imaging after hyperventilation and accelerated exercise is useful to disclose ischemic evidence in about two thirds of patients with vasospastic angina and nearly normal coronary arteries, whereas about 40% of patients had visual redistribution on {sup 201}Tl myocardial scintigrams by performing standard procedures. (author)

  19. On-line preconcentration of ultra-trace thallium(I in water samples with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Asadpour


    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for the determination of Tl(I based on simultaneous sorption and preconcentration with a microcolumn packed with TiO2 nanoparticle with a high specific surface area prepared by Sonochemical synthesis prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. The optimum experimental parameters for preconcentration of thallium, such as elution condition, pH, and sample volume and flow rate have been investigated. Tl(I can be quantitatively retained by TiO2 nanoparticles at pH 9.0, then eluted completely with 1.0 mol L−1 HCl. The adsorption capacity of TiO2 nanoparticles for Tl(I was found to be 25 mg g−1. Also detection limit, precision (RSD, n = 8 and enrichment factor for Tl(I were 87 ng L−1, 6.4% and 100, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of trace amounts of Tl(I in some environmental water samples with satisfactory results.

  20. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy. A histopathologic correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Toru; Yanagisawa, Atsuo; Sakata, Konomi; Shimoyama, Katsuya; Yoshino, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Kyozo [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Sakata, Hitomi; Ishihara, Tadayuki


    The pathomorphologic mechanism responsible for abnormal perfusion imaging during thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 201}Tl-SPECT) in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) was investigated. Hearts from 7 patients with DMD were evaluated histopathologically at autopsy and the results correlated with findings on initial and delayed resting {sup 201}Tl-SPECT images. The location of segments with perfusion defects correlated with the histopathologically abnormal segments in the hearts. Both the extent and degree of myocardial fibrosis were severe, especially in the posterolateral segment of the left ventricle. Severe transmural fibrosis and severe fatty infiltration were common in segments with perfusion defects. In areas of redistribution, the degree of fibrosis appeared to be greater than in areas of normal perfusion; and intermuscular edema was prominent. Thus, the degree and extent of perfusion defects detected by {sup 201}Tl-SPECT were compatible with the histopathology. The presence of the redistribution phenomenon may indicate ongoing fibrosis. Initial and delayed resting {sup 201}Tl-SPECT images can predict the site and progress of myocardial degeneration in patients with DMD. (author)

  1. Symmetric stretch excitation of CH3 in the 193.3 nm photolysis of CH3I (United States)

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.


    New high resolution photofragment translational spectroscopy measurements on the 193.3 nm photolysis of CH3I reveal up to four quanta of ν1 C-H symmetric stretch excitation in the C-I bond fission channel. In addition these experiments show for the first time that C-H bond fission occurs at wavelengths longer than 185 nm with a quantum yield of ˜3%. The data yields upper bounds to the C-H bond dissociation energy in CH3I of 101±1 kcal/mol and for the C-I bond energy, 55.0±0.3 kcal/mol.

  2. Metal1 patterning study for random-logic applications with 193i, using calibrated OPC for litho and etch (United States)

    Mailfert, Julien; Van de Kerkhove, Jeroen; De Bisschop, Peter; De Meyer, Kristin


    A Metal1-layer (M1) patterning study is conducted on 20nm node (N20) for random-logic applications. We quantified the printability performance on our test vehicle for N20, corresponding to Poly/M1 pitches of 90/64nm, and with a selected minimum M1 gap size of 70nm. The Metal1 layer is patterned with 193nm immersion lithography (193i) using Negative Tone Developer (NTD) resist, and a double-patterning Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE) process. Our study is based on Logic test blocks that we OPCed with a combination of calibrated models for litho and for etch. We report the Overlapping Process Window (OPW), based on a selection of test structures measured after-etch. We find that most of the OPW limiting structures are EOL (End-of-Line) configurations. Further analysis of these individual OPW limiters will reveal that they belong to different types, such as Resist 3D (R3D) and Mask 3D (M3D) sensitive structures, limiters related to OPC (Optical Proximity Corrections) options such as assist placement, or the choice of CD metrics and tolerances for calculation of the process windows itself. To guide this investigation, we will consider a `reference OPC' case to be compared with other solutions. In addition, rigorous simulations and OPC verifications will complete the after-etch measurements to help us to validate our experimental findings.

  3. Iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and single photon emission computed tomography in identifying left ventricular regional metabolic abnormalities in patients with coronary heart disease: comparison with thallium-201 myocardial tomography. (United States)

    Hansen, C L; Corbett, J R; Pippin, J J; Jansen, D E; Kulkarni, P V; Ugolini, V; Henderson, E; Akers, M; Buja, L M; Parkey, R W


    Iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is a synthetic long chain fatty acid with myocardial kinetics similar to palmitate. Two hypotheses were tested in this study. The first hypothesis was that IPPA imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful in the identification of patients with coronary artery disease. Fourteen normal volunteers (aged 27 +/- 2 years) and 33 patients (aged 54 +/- 11 years) with stable symptomatic coronary artery disease and at least one major coronary artery with luminal diameter narrowing greater than or equal to 70% were studied with symptom-limited maximal exercise testing. The IPPA (6 to 8 mCi) was injected 1 min before the termination of exercise, and tomographic imaging was performed beginning at 9 min and repeated at 40 min after the injection of IPPA. Nine of the normal volunteers and 13 of the patients had a second examination performed at rest on another day. Using the limits of normal as 2 SD from the normal mean values, 27 of the 33 patients with coronary artery disease demonstrated abnormalities in either the initial distribution or the clearance of IPPA, or both. Nineteen of the 33 patients had a maximal variation of activity distribution of greater than or equal to 25% on the 9 min IPPA images. Twenty-two of the 33 patients had a maximal variation in IPPA washout greater than 17% and 17 had a washout rate less than or equal to 2%. There was good agreement between the location of significant coronary artery stenoses and abnormalities in the initial distribution and clearance of IPPA. The second hypothesis tested was that IPPA imaging is as or more sensitive and, therefore, complementary to thallium-201 imaging in the identification of exercise-induced ischemia in patients. Twenty-five of the 33 patients underwent both thallium-201 and IPPA tomographic imaging after symptom-limited maximal exercise testing. The amount of exercise performed by each patient during both studies was similar. Twenty

  4. Luminescent one- and two-dimensional extended structures and a loosely associated dimer based on platinum(II)-thallium(I) backbones. (United States)

    Forniés, Juan; García, Ana; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa


    Neutralization reactions between (NBu4)2[ trans-Pt(C 6F5)2(CN)2] 1 and (NBu4)2[cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2] 2 with TlPF 6 have been carried out, and the resulting structures of [trans,trans,trans-Tl2{Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2}.(CH3COCH3) ] n [4.(CH3COCH3)2] n and {Tl[Tl{cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2}].(H2O)} n [5.(H2O)] n have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Remarkably, the change from trans to cis geometry on the platinum substrate causes a significant decrease in the Pt(II)...Tl(I) metallophilic interaction. Thus, the platinum center in the trans fragment easily connects with two Tl(I) ions forming a distorted pseudo-octahedron PtTl2, which generates a final two-dimensional layered structure by secondary additional intermolecular Tl(I)...N(CN) interactions. However, the [cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)2] (2-) fragment interacts strongly with just one Tl center leading to an extended helical [-Pt-Tl-Pt-Tl-] n(n-) chain. In this case, the second thallium center neutralizes the anionic chain mainly through Tl...N(CN) ( intra) and Tl...F(C 6F 5) (intra and inter)actions. The reaction of TlPF 6 with the monoanionic fragment (NBu4)[cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)(PPh2C[triple bond]CPh)] 3 yields the discrete associated dimer [Tl{cis-Pt(C6F5)2(CN)(PPh2C[triple bond]CPh)}] 2 [ 6] 2. Dimer [ 6] 2 could be described as two square pyramids with the thallium atoms in the apical positions, connected through Tl...N(cyano) interactions. The final heteropolynuclear Pt-Tl complexes, except 4 at room temperature, show bright emission in the solid state when irradiated with UV-vis radiation, in contrast to the precursors 1 and 3, which are not luminescent. This difference indicates that the emissions in 4- 6 are presumably related to the interaction between the metal centers. The Pt-Tl bonding interactions and, consequently, the emissive properties are lost in solution at room temperature, as shown by the conductivity and NMR measurements. However, variable-concentration luminescence measurements in glassy acetonitrile solutions

  5. Simultaneous dual myocardial imaging with iodine-123-[beta]-methyl iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201 in patients with coronary heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawarahara, Kei; Kurata, Chinori; Taguchi, Takahisa; Aoshima, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Noboru; Kaneko, Masao (Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan))


    To assess the clinical value of simultaneous dual myocardial imaging with iodine-123-[beta]-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid ([sup 123]I-BMIPP) and thallium-201 ([sup 201]TL), myocardial imaging was performed at rest and during execise in seven patients with coronary heart disease. When [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl images were compared, the initial exercise and resting images agreed 87% and 64%, respectively. In the initial resting images, the regional uptake of [sup 123]I-BMIPP was frequently less than that of [sup 201]Tl. The incidence of exercise-induced reversible defects by [sup 201]Tl in the Tl>BMIPP regions was significantly higher than that in the Tl=BMIPP regions (57% vs 4%, p<0.01) and the incidence of coronary narrowing of more than 90% in the Tl>BMIPP regions was also significantly higher than that in the Tl=BMIPP regions (91% vs 38%, p<0.01). In addition, this disparity (Tl>BMIPP) was found more frequently in regions with abnormal wall motion than in regions with normal wall motion (hypokinetic regions; 68%, severe hypokinetic or akinetic regions; 50%, vs normokinetic regions; 4%, p<0.01). In contrast, the uptake of [sup 123]I-BMIPP correlated closely with that of [sup 201]Tl in normal myocardium and the uptake of both [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl was severely reduced in myocardium with severe ischemia during exercise and prior infarction. These results indicate that dual myocardial imaging with [sup 123]I-BMIPP and [sup 201]Tl may provide a unique means of identifying patients with metabolically disturbed myocardium, such as hibernating and stunned myocardium. (author).

  6. Imaging of brain tumors in AIDS patients by means of dual-isotope thallium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Pena, R.C.; Ketonen, L.; Villanueva-Meyer, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas, Galveston (United States)


    Our aim was to evaluate the use of dual-isotope thallium-201 (Tl) and technetium-99m sestamibi (sestamibi) simultaneous acquisition in brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the differentiation between brain lymphoma and benign central nervous system (CNS) lesions in AIDS patients. Thirty-six consecutive patients with enhancing mass lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were included in the study. SPET of the brain was performed to obtain simultaneous Tl and sestamibi images. Regions-of-interest were drawn around the lesion and on the contralateral side to calculate uptake ratios. The final diagnosis was reached by pathologic findings in 17 patients and clinical and/or MR follow-up in 19 patients. Of the 36 patients, 11 had brain lymphoma, 1 glioblastoma multiforme, 15 toxoplasmosis and 9 other benign CNS lesions. Correlation between SPET and the final diagnosis revealed in 10 true-positive, 23 true-negative, 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative studies. All patients with toxoplasmosis had negative scans. A patient with a purulent infection had positive scans. Tl and sestamibi scans were concordant in every lesion. The same lesions that took up Tl were also visualized with sestamibi. However, sestamibi scans showed higher lesion-to-normal tissue uptake ratios (3.7{+-}1.8) compared with those of Tl (2.3{+-}0.8, P<0.002). Simultaneous acquisition of Tl and sestamibi can help differentiate CNS lymphoma from benign brain lesions in AIDS patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 34 refs.

  7. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate/thallium-201 dual-isotope SPECT imaging predicts reperfusion injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction after reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Nishimura, Hideki; Hamazaki, Yuji; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Microcirculatory failure after reperfusion is clinically indicated to cause reperfusion injury whereas excessive intracellular calcium ion overload is experimentally proved as a key mechanism of reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) uptake in injured but viable infarct-related myocardium with preserved myocardial perfusion after reperfusion estimated by thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) uptake would be associated with final functional recovery. Dual-isotope Tc-PYP/{sup 201}Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 2 days after successful reperfusion therapy in patients with first acute myocardial infarction, and 50 patients (63 {+-} 13 years old, female 22%) with preserved {sup 201}Tl uptakes of {>=}50% in reperfused myocardium was followed for 1 month. Tc-PYP uptake was assessed as the heart-to-sternum (H/S) ratio. Two-dimensional echocardiography was also performed 2 days and 1 month after reperfusion to evaluate functional recovery. High Tc-PYP uptake, defined as the H/S ratio {>=}0.81, was predictive of chronic phase no functional recovery (73.7% in 14 of 19 patients with high uptake vs 16.1% in five of 31 patients without those, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, including electrocardiographic persistent ST segment elevation at 1 h after reperfusion, high Tc-PYP uptake remained independently predictive of no functional recovery with odds ratio of 8.7 (95% confidential interval = 2 to 38.7; p = 0.005). High Tc-PYP uptake in reperfused but viable infarct-related myocardium was a powerful predictor of no functional recovery, which may reflect excessive intracellular calcium ion overload caused by reperfusion injury. Tc-PYP/{sup 201}Tl dual-isotope SPECT imaging can provide prognostic information after reperfusion. (orig.)

  8. BaHg2Tl2. An unusual polar intermetallic phase with strong differentiation between the neighboring elements mercury and thallium. (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Cao; Gupta, Shalabh; Gourdon, Olivier; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Corbett, John D


    High yields of the novel BaHg(2)Tl(2) are achieved from reactions of the appropriate cast alloys at approximately 400 degrees C. (Isotypic SrHg(2)Tl(2) also exists.) The tetragonal barium structure (P4(2)/mnm, a = 10.606 A, c = 5.159 A) was refined from both single-crystal X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data in order to ensure the atom site assignments although distances and calculated atom site population also support the results. The Hg and Tl network atoms are distinctive in their functions and bonding. Parallel chains of Hg hexagons and of Tl tetrahedra along c are constructed from polyhedra that share opposed like edges, and these are in turn interconnected by Hg-Tl bonds. Overall, the number of Tl-Tl bonds per cell exceeds the Hg-Hg type by 20:12, but these are approximately 1:2 each in bonding according to their average -ICOHP values (related to overlap populations). Barium is bound within a close 15-atom polyhedron, 12 atoms of which are the more electronegative Hg. LMTO-ASA calculations show that scalar relativistic effects are particularly important for Hg 5d-6s mixing in Hg-Hg and Hg-Tl bonding, whereas relatively separate Tl 6s and 6p states are more important in Tl-Tl interactions. The 6p states of Hg and Tl and 5d of Ba define a dominant conduction band around E(F), and the phase is metallic and Pauli-like paramagnetic. The thallium characteristics here are close to those in numerous alkali-metal-Tl cluster systems. Other active metal-mercury phases that have been studied theoretically are all distinctly electron-richer and more reduced, and without appreciable net 5d, 6s contributions to Hg-Hg bonding.

  9. Symmetric stretch excitation of CH/sub 3/ in the 193. 3 nm photolysis of CH/sub 3/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continetti, R.E.; Balko, B.A.; Lee, Y.T.


    New high resolution photofragment translational spectroscopy measurements on the 193.3 nm photolysis of CH/sub 3/I reveal up to four quanta of 1/ C--H symmetric stretch excitation in the C--I bond fission channel. In addition these experiments show for the first time that C--H bond fission occurs at wavelengths longer than 185 nm with a quantum yield of approx.3%. The data yields upper bounds to the C--H bond dissociation energy in CH/sub 3/I of 101 +- 1 kcal/mol and for the C--I bond energy, 55.0 +- 0.3 kcal/mol.

  10. PK of immunoconjugate anticancer agent CMD-193 in rats: ligand-binding assay approach to determine in vivo immunoconjugate stability. (United States)

    Hussain, Azher; Gorovits, Boris; Leal, Mauricio; Fluhler, Eric


    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a new generation of anticancer therapeutics. The objective of this manuscript is to propose a methodology that can be used to assess the stability of the ADCs by using the PK data obtained by ligand-binding assays that measure various components of ADCs. The ligand-binding assays format of different components of ADCs provided unique valuable PK information. The mathematical manipulation of the bioanalytical data provided an insight into the in vivo integrity, indicating that the loading of the calicheamicin on the G193 antibody declines in an apparent slow first-order process. This report demonstrates the value of analyzing various components of the ADC and their PK profiles to better understand the disposition and in vivo stability of ADCs.

  11. $\\Upsilon$ production in U + U collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=193 GeV measured with the STAR experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L.


    We present a measurement of the inclusive production of Upsilon mesons in U+U collisions at 193 GeV at mid-rapidity (|y| < 1). Previous studies in central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV show a suppression of Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) production relative to expectations from the Upsilon yield in p+p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (Ncoll), with an indication that the Upsilon(1S) state is also suppressed. The present measurement extends the number of participant nucleons in the collision (Npart) by 20% compared to Au+Au collisions, and allows us to study a system with higher energy density. We observe a suppression in both the Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) and Upsilon(1S) yields in central U+U data, which consolidates and extends the previously observed suppression trend in Au+Au collisions.

  12. NC-controlled production of smooth 3D surfaces in brittle materials with 193-nm excimer laser (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Graumann, Christoph; Hesener, Hanno; Rinke, Marcus


    Micromachining performed by Excimer Lasers in conjunction with NC-controlled machines offer flexible production possibilities for 3-D-surfaces. Due to the limitations of conventional micromachining technology for brittle transparent materials in the micro range, a new laser machining beam guiding and data handling system was designed and built. The data handling starts with the mathematical description of the surface shape to be machined. The contour can be derived from a mathematical function or individual xyz-data point information from any CAD-program. A pre-processor calculates the nc-data for laser triggering, xyz-motion and the nc-mask control. Each laser pulse leads to a material removal, defined by the illuminated surface on the work piece as well as the energy density. The principal of superposition of pulses allows the creation of the desired contour. The chosen ablation strategy determines the surface roughness and the process speed. To achieve best results, it has to be carefully adjusted for a specific material. This technique does not require prefabricated tools such as semiconductor masks. This is a sufficient method for structuring grooves in ceramics, diamonds or glass as well as aspherical transparent optical surfaces or micro lens arrays. The excellent absorption of 193 nm compared to 248 nm or larger wavelengths leads to damage free structuring of most brittle materials. The optimized surface ablation process requires spot sizes and energy densities on the work piece which can not be realized with a mirror based beam guidance system. To eliminate these restrictions, a new mirror free machining concept with a gas flushed beam guiding system mounted on a granite vibration reduction table with air bearing positioning system was build. This paper describes the potential of 193 nm treatment of 3-D micro surfaces with a process optimized machine and data handling system.

  13. Increasing level of prostate-specific antigen and prostate cancer risk factors among 193 men examined in screening procedure. (United States)

    Opalińska, Edyta; Michalak, Anna; Stoma, Filip; Latalski, Maciej; Goniewicz, Mariusz


    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men, therefore has become recently an essential problem of public health. The factors influencing cancer include: androgens metabolism disorders, diabetes mellitus, overweight and obesity, smoking, alcohol and black coffee intake, diet rich in saturated fats and poor in unsaturated, lack of physical activity, geographical zone, race, such carcinogenic substances as: cadmium, materials used in rubber, painting, printing, ship industry etc., contagious factors and also older age and a positive family history of the disease. To diagnose prostate cancer in its early stage such screening procedures as physical examination--digital rectal exam (DRE) and determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in blood serum are used. The aim of the study was to assess prostate cancer risk factors occurrence in the examined 193 men, aged 50-70 years, who reported to urology outpatient department at Clinical Hospital in Lublin, measure the PSA level in blood serum and examine the correlation between them. Respondents filled in a questionnaire about the presence of prostate cancer risk factors and urogenital symptoms. The questionnaire was completed with DRE and PSA measurement. The results led us to the following conclusions: 1/ in the studied population elevated PSA level is determined in 3.1% of 193 examined men, 2/ increased PSA occurs mainly in men from rural areas, with elementary education, divorced, older (>60 years), using fat-rich diet, smokers, black coffee drinkers, with overweight or obesity and non diabetic, 3/ a combination of PSA test with DRE seems to be useful and rather cheap for the detection of prostate cancer in the early stage of its development.

  14. Hb G-Waimanalo [A1] or α64(E13)Asp→Asn (α1) (HBA1: c.193G>A) Observed in a Bulgarian Family. (United States)

    Petkov, Georgi; Dimishkovska, Marija; Tsoneva Ivanova, Vanya; Yordanov, Georgi; Zdraveski, Alexandar; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana


    The abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) with an aspartic acid to asparagine substitution at α64 has been found on both the α2- and α1-globin genes. It has been described in many different populations under different names, but never in Bulgaria. Using the recently proposed nomenclature, Hb G-Waimanalo [A1] refers to the HBA1: c.193G > A, while Hb G-Waimanalo [A2] refers to the HBA2: c.193G > A mutation. Here, we present the first family from Bulgaria with Hb G-Waimanalo [A1].

  15. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (United States)

    Lin, J D; Kao, P F; Weng, H F; Lu, W T; Huang, M J


    Radioactive iodine (131I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. 201Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative 131I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of 201Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of 131I and 201Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative 201Tl and 131I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. 201Tl imaging was performed before the 131I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent 201Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the 201Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic 131I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by 201Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative 201Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on 131I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on 131I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative 201Tl and 131I scans, 15 had elevated serum Tg levels. Among these, local recurrence followed by lung metastases was manifested in

  16. MRI and thallium features of pigmented villonodular synovitis and giant cell tumours of tendon sheaths: a retrospective single centre study of imaging and literature review. (United States)

    Lynskey, Samuel J; Pianta, Marcus J


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the MRI and thallium-201 ((201)TI) scintigraphy attributes of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and giant cell tumours of tendon sheaths (GCTTS). The epidemiology of these uncommon lesions was also assessed and less commonly encountered pathology reported on including multifocality, necrosis and concurrent malignancy. A retrospective single centre review of MRI and (201)TI scintigraphy findings for 83 surgically proven or biopsy-proven consecutive cases of PVNS was undertaken. Radiological findings including lesion size, (201)TI uptake (as a marker of metabolic activity), location, extent and patient demographics were correlated with biopsy and surgical specimen histology. Typical appearances are described, as well as less common imaging manifestations. The study period encompassed all patients presenting or referred to a tertiary bone and soft-tissue tumour referral centre with PVNS or GCTTS between 1 January 2007 and the 1 December 2013. Lesions occur most commonly around the knee joint in the fourth decade of life, with younger patients showing a tendency to occur in the hip. Features of PVNS and GTTS include bone erosion, ligamentous and cartilage replacement, muscle infiltration and multifocality. MR signal characteristics were variable but post-contrast enhancement was near-universal. 14 of 83 cases showed no uptake of (201)TI and revealed a statistically significant smaller average axial dimension of 19.8 mm than lesions displaying active (201)TI uptake of 36.4 mm, p = 0.016. Four lesions demonstrated central necrosis on gross histology, two of each from both the (201)TI-avid and (201)TI-non-avid groups. MR is the imaging modality of choice when considering the diagnosis of these uncommon tumours. (201)TI scintigraphy as a marker of metabolic activity further adds minimal value although small lesions can appear to lack (201)TI avidity. This article depicts typical imaging findings of PVNS/GCTTS and

  17. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)


    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. {sup 201}Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative {sup 131}I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of {sup 201}Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. {sup 201}Tl imaging was performed before the {sup 131}I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent {sup 201}Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the {sup 201}Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic {sup 131}I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by {sup 201}Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on {sup 131}I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on {sup 131}I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I

  18. Effects of adenosine and a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist on hemodynamic and thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jadbabaie, Farid; Dione, Donald P; Meoli, David F; Purushothaman, Kailasnath; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sinusas, Albert J


    The purpose of this study was to compare a selective A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist (regadenoson) with adenosine in clinically relevant canine models with regard to effects on hemodynamics and thallium-201 ((201)Tl) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The clinical application of vasodilator stress for perfusion imaging requires consideration of the effects of these vasodilating agents on systemic hemodynamics, coronary flow, and radiotracer uptake and clearance kinetics. Sequential imaging and arterial blood sampling was performed on control, anesthetized closed-chest canines (n = 7) to evaluate radiotracer biodistribution and kinetics after either a bolus administration of regadenoson (2.5 microg/kg) or 4.5-min infusion of adenosine (280 microg/kg). The effects of regadenoson on coronary flow and myocardial radiotracer uptake were then evaluated in an open-chest canine model of a critical stenosis (n = 7). Results from ex vivo single-photon emission computed tomography were compared with tissue well-counting. The use of regadenoson compared favorably with adenosine in regard to the duration and magnitude of the hemodynamic effects and the effect on (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The arterial blood clearance half-time was significantly faster for (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (regadenoson: 1.4 +/- 0.03 min; adenosine: 1.5 +/- 0.08 min) than for (201)Tl (regadenoson: 2.5 +/- 0.16 min, p adenosine: 2.7 +/- 0.04 min, p regadenoson stress was significantly greater than the relative perfusion defect with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (0.69 +/- 0.03%, p regadenoson produced a hyperemic response comparable to a standard infusion of adenosine. The biodistribution and clearance of both (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI during regadenoson were similar to adenosine vasodilation. Ex vivo perfusion images under the most ideal conditions permitted detection of a critical stenosis, although (201)Tl offered significant advantages over (99m

  19. Comparison of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 gated myocardial perfusion SPECT for determining left ventricular systolic and diastolic parameters. (United States)

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Sumimoto, Yoji; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Watanabe, Noriaki; Ishibashi, Ken; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Yukihiro; Kihara, Yasuki


    The myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography synchronized with the electrocardiogram (gated SPECT) has been widely used for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions using Quantitative gated SPECT. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 (Tl-201) gated SPECT for determining LV systolic and diastolic parameters. The study population included 42 patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent gated SPECT by clinical indication. LV systolic and diastolic parameters were assessed on 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. There were good correlations in end-diastolic volume (r = 0.99, p < 0.001), end-systolic volume (ESV) (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and ejection fraction (EF) (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) between 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. Bland-Altman plot showed a significant negative slope of -0.08 in EDV indicating a larger difference for larger EDV. Eight-frame gated SPECT overestimated ESV by 2.3 ml, and underestimated EF by -4.2% than 16-frame gated SPECT. There were good correlations in peak filling rate (PFR) (r = 0.87, p < 0.001), one third mean filling rate (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and time to PFR (r = 0.61, p < 0.001) between 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. Eight-frame gated SPECT underestimated PFR by -0.22 than 16-frame gated SPECT. Eight-frame gated SPECT estimated as much MFR/3 and TPFR as 16-frame gated SPECT. According to the data, the study suggested that 8-frame Tl-201 gated SPECT could underestimate systolic and/or diastolic parameter when compared with 16-frame gated SPECT.

  20. Monophasic expression of FliC by Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 does not alter its pathogenicity during infection of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. (United States)

    Crayford, Georgina; Coombes, Janine L; Humphrey, Tom J; Wigley, Paul


    Non-typhoidal serotypes of Salmonella enterica remain important food-borne pathogens worldwide and the frequent emergence of epidemic strains in food-producing animals is a risk to public health. In recent years, Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- isolates, expressing only phase 1 (FliC) of the two flagellar antigens, have emerged and increased in prevalence worldwide. In Europe, the majority of 4,[5],12:i:- isolates belong to phage types DT193 and DT120 of Salmonella Typhimurium and pigs have been identified as the reservoir species. In this study we investigated the ability of pig-derived monophasic (4,[5],12:i:-) and biphasic DT193 isolates to invade a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-1) and activate TLR-5, IL-8 and caspases. We found that the 4,[5],12:i:- isolates exhibited comparable adhesion and invasion to that of the virulent S. Typhimurium isolate 4/74, suggesting that these strains could be capable of colonizing the small intestine of pigs in vivo. Infection with 4,[5],12:i:- and biphasic DT193 isolates resulted in approximately the same level of TLR-5 (a flagellin receptor) and IL-8 (a proinflammatory chemokine) mRNA upregulation. The monophasic variants also elicited similar levels of caspase activation and cytotoxicity to the phase-variable DT193 isolates. These findings suggest that failure of 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 isolates to express a second phase of flagellar antigen (FljB) is unlikely to hamper their pathogenicity during colonization of the porcine intestinal tract. © 2014 The Authors.

  1. Production of the therapeutic radionuclides 193mPt and 195mPt with high specific activity via alpha-particle-induced reactions on 192Os. (United States)

    Hilgers, K; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M


    For the production of therapy-relevant radionuclides (193m)Pt (T(1/2)=4.33 d) and (195m)Pt (T(1/2)=4.03 d) with a high specific activity, the (192)Os(alpha,n)(195m)Pt and (192)Os(alpha,3n)(193m)Pt nuclear reactions were investigated for the first time from their respective thresholds up to 28 MeV. Thin samples of enriched (192)Os were prepared by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross-section measurements. The calculated thick target yields were found to be 0.013 MBq/microA h for the (192)Os(alpha,n)(195m)Pt reaction in the energy range of E(alpha)=24-->18 MeV, and 0.25 MBq/microA h for the (192)Os(alpha,3n)(193m)Pt reaction in the energy range of E(alpha)=28-->24 MeV. The two radionuclides could not be detected in the interactions of (3)He particles with (192)Os. A production method involving high-current alpha-particle irradiation of enriched (192)Os and efficient chemical separation of radioplatinum was developed. Batch yields of about 1 MBq (195m)Pt and 8.7 MBq (193m)Pt were achieved. Compared to the reactor production these batch yields are very low, but the (192)Os(alpha,n)(195m)Pt and (192)Os(alpha,3n)(193m)Pt reactions are superior with respect to the specific activity of the products which is higher by two orders of magnitude.

  2. Electro-optical and dielectric properties of a high tilt antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture (W-193B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Kundu, Sudarshan; Roy, Subir Kr [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta-700032 (India); Majumder, Tapas Pal [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal (India); Bennis, Noureddine; Oton, Jose Manuel [Department of TecnologIa Fotonica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dabrowski, Roman, E-mail: spskr@iacs.res.i [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)


    The electro-optical properties and dielectric relaxation have been investigated for an antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture W-193B. The material exhibits smectic A*, smectic C* and a wide range of anticlinic smectic C{sub A}{sup *} phases. The high tilt and broad room temperature smectic C{sub A}{sup *} phase make it a good candidate for antiferroelectric display materials. Dielectric studies have been made in a planarly aligned cell in the frequency range 10 Hz-13 MHz. Dielectric spectroscopy reveals the existence of soft mode in the smectic A* phase and Goldstone mode in the smectic C* phase. In the smectic C{sub A}{sup *} phase the dielectric spectrum of the material exhibits two absorption peaks related to the rotational fluctuation around the short axis of the molecules and antiphase azimuthal angle fluctuation, respectively, and are separated by about two orders of frequency. Electro-optical response using a low frequency triangular wave showed a very high quasi-static contrast ratio of 132 : 1, threshold voltage of around 7 V and saturation of 17 V. Surface-stabilized, low thickness cells of this mixture showed a perfect double hysteresis loop with a 1 Hz triangular signal, reaching different transmission levels for different voltage amplitudes. These levels can be stabilized with a single holding voltage, making it possible for the material to be passively multiplexed at video rate.

  3. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus among 193,435 Cats Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England. (United States)

    O'Neill, D G; Gostelow, R; Orme, C; Church, D B; Niessen, S J M; Verheyen, K; Brodbelt, D C


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disease of cats. The prevalence of DM in cats in England is not well-defined. To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for DM in a large population of cats attending primary-care practices. A cohort of 193,563 cats in the VetCompass Programme attending 118 primary-care practices in England. Cross-sectional analysis of cohort clinical data. Data were extracted covering September 1st 2009 and August 31st 2014. Period prevalence of DM was calculated. Associations between risk factors and DM were assessed using logistic regression modelling. Of 1,128 DM cases were identified among 194,563 cats (period prevalence 0.58%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.61). Multivariable modelling indicated that Tonkinese (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.8-9.6; P = .001), Norwegian Forest (odds ratio [OR] 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.6; P = .001) and Burmese (OR 3.0; 95% CI 2.0-4.4; P Diabetes mellitus is an important component of the primary-care practice caseload with 1-in-200 cats affected. An increased risk of DM in certain cat breeds supports a genetic predisposition. These results can guide future research and preventative healthcare. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Controllable Change of Photoluminescence Spectra of Silicone Rubber Modified by 193 nm ArF Excimer Laser (United States)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Iyono, Minako; Inoue, Narumi


    Photoluminescence spectra of silicone rubber ([SiO(CH3)2]n) photochemically modified by a 193 nm ArF excimer laser was found to be controllable. Compared with the modification in air, the photoluminescence spectra could be blueshifted by the modification in vacuum or the additional irradiation of ArF excimer laser in vacuum after the modification in air. To redshift, on the other hand, the additional irradiation of a 157 nm F2 laser in air after the modification in air, the modification in oxygen gas, or the postannealing after the modification in oxygen gas was effective. The blue and redshifts of the photoluminescence were essentially due to the acceleration of reduction and oxidation reactions of silicone rubber, respectively, because the photoluminescence derives its origin from oxygen deficiency centers and peroxy centers of the silica structure in the modified silicone rubber. On the basis of the spectra changes, colorful light-guiding sheets made of silicone rubber under illumination of a 375 nm light-emitting diode were successfully fabricated for cellular phone use.

  5. Potential impacts of 40 CFR 193 on the development of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, R.A. [Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, Austin, TX (United States)


    Since the publication of the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in August, 1983, the proposed environmental regulations regarding low-level radioactive waste have become a serious uncertainty in the development of new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The proposed rule has been discussed on several occasions by the Technical Coordinating Committee and the purpose of this paper is to present the results of the Committee`s discussions regarding the proposed rule. The proposed standard has several closely related elements. The rule would prescribe limits on radiation exposure to individuals during processing, management and storage of low-level radioactive waste. It would set BRC levels and also set dose standards for the period following site closure. An important portion of the standard, as far as developing new facilities, is the ground water protection standard. The comments received during developing of 40 CFR 193 has also led the Environmental Protection Agency to propose 40 CFR 764 governing the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material or NORM.

  6. Forward $J/\\psi$ production in U$+$U collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=193 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Alexander, J; Alfred, M; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bai, X; Bandara, N S; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belmont, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Cronin, N; Crossette, N; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Danley, D; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; DeBlasio, K; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Ding, L; Dion, A; Diss, P B; Do, J H; D'Orazio, L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Ge, H; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamilton, H F; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hasegawa, S; Haseler, T O S; Hashimoto, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoshino, T; Hotvedt, N; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Isinhue, A; Ivanishchev, D; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, C; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, G W; Kim, M; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kimelman, B; Kistenev, E; Kitamura, R; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kofarago, M; Komkov, B; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Krizek, F; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, G H; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S; Lee, S H; Leitch, M J; Leitgab, M; Lewis, B; Li, X; Lim, S H; Liu, M X; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Maruyama, T; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, S; Montuenga, P; Moon, T; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagashima, K; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nishimura, S; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oide, H; Okada, K; Koop, J D Orjuela; Osborn, J D; Oskarsson, A; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J S; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Peng, J -C; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ramson, B J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Rinn, T; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Ryu, M S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sekiguchi, Y; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Sharma, D; Shaver, A; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skolnik, M; Slunečka, M; Snowball, M; Solano, S; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Stone, M R; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Tieulent, R; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, C L; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Whitaker, S; White, A S; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J H; Yoon, I; You, Z; Younus, I; Yu, H; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S; Zou, L


    The invariant yields for $J/\\psi$ production at forward rapidity $(1.2<|y|<2.2)$ in U$+$U collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=193 GeV have been measured as a function of collision centrality. The invariant yields and nuclear-modification factor $R_{AA}$ are presented and compared with those from Au$+$Au collisions in the same rapidity range. Additionally, the direct ratio of the invariant yields from U$+$U and Au$+$Au collisions within the same centrality class is presented, and used to investigate the role of $c\\bar{c}$ coalescence. Two different parameterizations of the deformed Woods-Saxon distribution were used in Glauber calculations to determine the values of the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions in each centrality class, $N_{\\rm coll}$, and these were found to give significantly different $N_{\\rm coll}$ values. Results using $N_{\\rm coll}$ values from both deformed Woods-Saxon distributions are presented. The measured ratios show that the $J/\\psi$ suppression, relative to binary collision scaling...

  7. Study of (n,2n reaction on 191,193Ir isotopes and isomeric cross section ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastou R.


    Full Text Available The cross section of 191Ir(n,2n190Irg+m1 and 191Ir(n,2n190Irm2 reactions has been measured at 17.1 and 20.9 MeV neutron energies at the 5.5 MV tandem T11/25 Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR “Demokritos”, using the activation method. The neutron beams were produced by means of the 3H(d,n4He reaction at a flux of the order of 2 × 105 n/cm2s. The neutron flux has been deduced implementing the 27Al(n,α reaction, while the flux variation of the neutron beam was monitored by using a BF3 detector. The 193Ir(n,2n192Ir reaction cross section has also been determined, taking into account the contribution from the contaminant 191Ir(n,γ192Ir reaction. The correction method is based on the existing data in ENDF for the contaminant reaction, convoluted with the neutron spectra which have been extensively studied by means of simulations using the NeusDesc and MCNP codes. Statistical model calculations using the code EMPIRE 3.2.2 and taking into account pre-equilibrium emission, have been performed on the data measured in this work as well as on data reported in literature.

  8. Pages 193 - 197.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Results: Age >60 years, female sex, presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), proliferative DR, shorter DM duration, glaucoma, macular ... Conclusion: The risk of visual disability is 4 times higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy and 2 times higher in females with DM. ..... patients. Oxidative stress may accelerate DR and.

  9. Pages 193 - 197.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    cataracts, macular degeneration and glaucoma)4. The same situation is shown in emerging economic areas5,6. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) however, the issues of visual disability due to Diabetes Mellitus. (DM) are overshadowed by the ...

  10. Yield and excitation function measurements of some nuclear reactions on natural thallium induced by protons leading to the production of medical radioisotopes {sup 201}Tl and {sup 203}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, F.S.; Al-Harbi, A.A. [Girls College of Education, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Physics Dept.; Azzam, A. [Nuclear Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Physics Dept.


    Excitation functions for {sup 201}Pb, {sup 202m}Pb, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 204m}Pb radionuclides which are formed via proton induced reactions with natural thallium target have been measured from their respective threshold (E{sub thr}) to 27.5 MeV using activation technique. Natural copper foils were used to monitor the cyclotron beam. The integral yields (MBq/{mu}A h) of the produced radionuclides were calculated from the measured excitation functions. The optimum proton energy range for the production of {sup 203}Pb with low amount of impurities is (16-10 MeV) after 5 h of EOB. The experimental cross-sections for {sup nat}Tl(p,xn) reactions were compared with the cross-sections recommended by the IAEA and with earlier published data when it was possible. (orig.)

  11. Strangeness production in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.93 AGeV; Production d'etrangete dans les collisions Ni+Ni a 1.93 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, X


    This work deals with the production of strange particles in Ni + Ni collisions at 1.93 A GeV detected with the Fopi (four pi) detector at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS (GSI - Germany). We have limited our investigation to the study of {lambda} and {xi} hyperons. The first chapter presents the models used to describe ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions. In the second chapter we present the main experimental results concerning the production and transport of strange particles in an energy domain ranging from SIS to RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) energies. The third chapter is dedicated to the specificities of the Fopi detector. The fourth chapter deals with the production of {lambda} particles in Ni + Ni collisions. An analysis method based on neuron network has been used in parallel with a more classical method. The production rate and temperature of {lambda} have been deduced from both methods. The neuron network method gives a statistical gain and allows a better identification of particles with low transverse impulses. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the detection of the doubly strange {xi}{sup -} particle. A detailed study about the stability of the signal is presented. In the last chapter all our experimental results are confronted with theoretical predictions. The UrQMD model that uses a hard equation of state, can simulate satisfactorily the production rates of {lambda} and K{sup +} as well as their dependency on collision centrality despite the fact that this model does not use a potential linked to the medium density. The comparison between experimental results and predictions given by the IQMD model (that is based on a soft equation of state) is better when the version of the model that does not take into account the effects of the media is used. We see that the choices for the nuclear matter compressibility, for the particles involved in Kaon and {lambda} creation process, or for the interaction potential with dense medium, appear to be

  12. Clinical significance of miR-140-5p and miR-193b expression in patients with breast cancer and relationship to IGFBP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Güllü


    Full Text Available The functional role of IGFBP5 in breast cancer is complicated. Experimental and bioinformatics studies have shown that IGFBP5 is targeted by miR-140-5p and miR-193b, although this has not yet been proven in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of miR-140-5p and miR-193b in breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue and assess its correlation with IGFBP5 and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. IGFBP5 protein expression was analyzed immunohistochemically and IGFBP5, miR-140 and miR-193b mRNA expression levels were analyzed with real-time RT-PCR. Tumor tissue had higher miR-140-5p expression than adjacent normal tissue (p = 0.015. Samples with no immunohistochemical staining for IGFBP5 showed increased miR-140-5p expression (p = 0.009. miR-140-5p expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinomas (p = 0.002, whereas basal-like tumors had decreased expression of miR-140-5p compared to other tumors (p = 0.008. Lymph node-positive samples showed an approximately 13-fold increase in miR-140-5p expression compared to lymph node-negative tissue (p = 0.049. These findings suggest that miR-140-5p, but not miR-193b, could be an important determinant of IGFBP5 expression and clinical phenotype in breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the expressional regulation of IGFBP5 by miR-140-5p.

  13. Infection of chickens with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium-like variants: an emerging risk to the poultry industry? (United States)

    Parsons, B N; Crayford, G; Humphrey, T J; Wigley, P


    Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica poses a particular risk to public health, and in particular isolates belonging to clonal lineages such as Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 cause epidemics across species including poultry. In recent years, antimicrobial-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193 and specifically the monophasic S. Typhimurium-like variants of this phage type, serotypes 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:-, have become an increasing risk to public health in Europe and the USA and now account for nearly one-half of human S. Typhimurium infections in the UK. Unlike S. Typhimurium that possesses two forms of flagella which can vary between phase 1 and phase 2 during infection, monophasic variants possess only phase 1 flagella. These monophasic antimicrobial-resistant variants have become a major problem in pig production but human cases have also been associated with poultry consumption and have been found in UK flocks through surveillance schemes since 2010. In this study we determined the ability of antimicrobial-resistant DT193 serotype 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:- isolates from pigs to infect chickens. All isolates were found to colonize the caeca and liver. All but one isolate of serotype 4,5,12:i:- also infected the spleen. Levels of infection and pathology were comparable with those found with the virulent S. Typhimurium isolate 4/74. These findings indicate that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants of this phage type usually associated with pigs are capable of colonizing the chicken. This shows that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants represent a significant and potential emerging threat to poultry production from "spill-over" of these isolates from the pig industry or other sources.

  14. Point mutation in the NF2 gene of HEI-193 human schwannoma cells results in the expression of a merlin isoform with attenuated growth suppressive activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepont, Pierig; Stickney, John T.; Foster, Lauren A.; Meng, Jin-Jun; Hennigan, Robert F. [Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, Vontz Center for Molecular Studies, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States); Ip, Wallace [Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, Vontz Center for Molecular Studies, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States)], E-mail:


    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of bilateral schwannomas of the eighth cranial nerve. Although the protein product of the NF2 gene (merlin) is a classical tumor suppressor, the mechanism by which merlin suppresses cell proliferation is not fully understood. The availability of isolated tumor cells would facilitate a better understanding of the molecular function of merlin, but primary schwannoma cells obtained from patients grow slowly and do not yield adequate numbers for biochemical analysis. In this study, we have examined the NF2 mutation in HEI-193 cells, an immortalized cell line derived from the schwannoma of an NF2 patient. Previous work showed that the NF2 mutation in HEI-193 cells causes a splicing defect in the NF2 transcript. We have confirmed this result and further identified the resultant protein product as an isoform of merlin previously designated as isoform 3. The level of isoform 3 proteins in HEI-193 cells is comparable to the levels of merlin isoforms 1 and 2 in normal human Schwann cells and several other immortalized cell lines. In contrast to many mutant forms of merlin, isoform 3 is as resistant to proteasomal degradation as isoforms 1 and 2 and can interact with each of these isoforms in vivo. Cell proliferation assays showed that, in NF2{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, exogenously expressed merlin isoform 3 does exhibit growth suppressive activity although it is significantly lower than that of identically expressed merlin isoform 1. These results indicate that, although HEI-193 cells have undetectable levels of merlin isoforms 1 and 2, they are, in fact, not a merlin-null model because they express the moderately active growth suppressive merlin isoform 3.

  15. Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Moroccan Patients with Gastric Pathology: New Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in TNF-α−193 (G/A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Essadik


    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α gene are emerging as key determinants of gastric diseases. The TNF-α−308 (G/A and TNF-α−238 (G/A single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs are the most extensively studied. However, all these studies are conducted in Caucasian and Asian populations. Thus, for the first time in Africa, we sought to investigate whether polymorphisms in TNF-α gene were associated with the development of gastric pathology in Morocco. Two SNPs located in the promoter region (positions −308 and −238 in TNF-α gene were genotyped in 244 individuals (170 patients and 74 healthy controls. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using logistic regression analysis. The TNF-α−238 (G/A genotype was significantly associated with a high risk of gastritis and gastric cancer (GC (P=0.001 and P=0.002, resp.. Furthermore, a new polymorphism located in the promoter region at position −193 in TNF-α gene was identified. The distribution of this SNP was markedly different in patients suffering from ulcers. The association between TNF-α−193 (G/A genotype and high risk of ulcer was significant (P=0.03. These results suggest that the TNF-α−193 (G/A allele has a protective function against gastric cancer by developing ulcer.

  16. Neonatal mortality levels for 193 countries in 2009 with trends since 1990: a systematic analysis of progress, projections, and priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Zahle Oestergaard


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historically, the main focus of studies of childhood mortality has been the infant and under-five mortality rates. Neonatal mortality (deaths <28 days of age has received limited attention, although such deaths account for about 41% of all child deaths. To better assess progress, we developed annual estimates for neonatal mortality rates (NMRs and neonatal deaths for 193 countries for the period 1990-2009 with forecasts into the future. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled a database of mortality in neonates and children (<5 years comprising 3,551 country-years of information. Reliable civil registration data from 1990 to 2009 were available for 38 countries. A statistical model was developed to estimate NMRs for the remaining 155 countries, 17 of which had no national data. Country consultation was undertaken to identify data inputs and review estimates. In 2009, an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life-compared with 4.6 million neonatal deaths in 1990-and more than half of all neonatal deaths occurred in five countries of the world (44% of global livebirths: India 27.8% (19.6% of global livebirths, Nigeria 7.2% (4.5%, Pakistan 6.9% (4.0%, China 6.4% (13.4%, and Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6% (2.1%. Between 1990 and 2009, the global NMR declined by 28% from 33.2 deaths per 1,000 livebirths to 23.9. The proportion of child deaths that are in the neonatal period increased in all regions of the world, and globally is now 41%. While NMRs were halved in some regions of the world, Africa's NMR only dropped 17.6% (43.6 to 35.9. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal mortality has declined in all world regions. Progress has been slowest in the regions with high NMRs. Global health programs need to address neonatal deaths more effectively if Millennium Development Goal 4 (two-thirds reduction in child mortality is to be achieved.

  17. Ultraviolet photochemistry of trichlorovinylsilane and allyltrichlorosilane: vinyl radical (HCCH2) and allyl radical (H2CCHCH2) production in 193 nm photolysis. (United States)

    DeSain, John D; Jusinski, Leonard E; Taatjes, Craig A


    The absolute gas phase ultraviolet absorption spectra of trichlorovinylsilane and allyltrichlorosilane have been measured from 191 to 220 nm. Over this region the absorption spectra of both species are broad and relatively featureless, and their cross sections increase with decreasing wavelength. The electronic transitions of trichlorovinylsilane were calculated by ab initio quantum chemical methods and the observed absorption bands assigned to the A(1)A''<-- X[combining tilde](1)A'' transition. The maximum absorption cross section in the region, at 191 nm, is sigma = (8.50 +/- 0.06) x 10(-18) cm(2) for trichlorovinylsilane and sigma = (2.10 +/- 0.02) x 10(-17) cm(2) for allyltrichlorosilane. The vinyl radical and the allyl radical are formed promptly from the 193 nm photolysis of their respective trichlorosilane precursors. By comparison of the transient visible absorption and the 1315 nm I atom absorption from 266 nm photolysis of vinyl iodide and allyl iodide, the absorption cross sections at 404 nm of vinyl radical ((2.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(-19) cm(2)) and allyl radical ((3.6 +/- 0.8) x 10(-19) cm(2)) were derived. These cross sections are in significant disagreement with literature values derived from kinetic modeling of allyl or vinyl radical self-reactions. Using these cross sections, the vinyl radical yield from trichlorovinylsilane was determined to be phi = (0.9 +/- 0.2) per 193 nm photon absorbed, and the allyl radical yield from allyltrichlorosilane phi = (0.7 +/- 0.2) per 193 nm photon absorbed.

  18. Production of isomers by neutron-induced inelastic scattering on 193Ir and influence of spin distribution in the pre-equilibrium process (United States)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Chadwick, Mark B.


    We present calculations of the production cross-section of isomeric-state for 193Ir. The isomer was produced by neutron inelastic scattering, and several γ-ray production cross-sections were measured at LANSCE with the GEANIE detector. The total isomer production cross-section is then inferred by combining the experimental data with the GNASH statistical model calculations. The spin distribution is calculated with the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) quantum mechanical pre-equilibrium theory, and it is incorporated with the GNASH results. We found that the inclusion of FKK has a significant impact on the isomer production cross-sections at high energies.

  19. Production of isomers by neutron-induced inelastic scattering on {sup 193}Ir and influence of spin distribution in the pre-equilibrium process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail:; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States); Chadwick, Mark B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)


    We present calculations of the production cross-section of isomeric-state for {sup 193}Ir. The isomer was produced by neutron inelastic scattering, and several {gamma}-ray production cross-sections were measured at LANSCE with the GEANIE detector. The total isomer production cross-section is then inferred by combining the experimental data with the GNASH statistical model calculations. The spin distribution is calculated with the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) quantum mechanical pre-equilibrium theory, and it is incorporated with the GNASH results. We found that the inclusion of FKK has a significant impact on the isomer production cross-sections at high energies.

  20. Synthesis of Narrow Molecular Weight Distribution Norbornene-Lactone Functionalized Polymers by Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization: Candidates for 193-nm Photoresist Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Jun Wang


    Full Text Available One hundred ninety three-nanometer candidate photoresist materials were synthesized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP. Statistical copolymerizations of 5-methacryloyloxy-2,6-norboranecarbolactone (NLAM with 5–10 mol% of controlling co-monomers (which are necessary for controlled polymerizations of methacrylates by NMP with the initiator used in the feed, such as styrene (ST, p-acetoxystyrene (AcOST, 2-vinyl naphthalene (VN and pentafluorostyrene (PFS, using the unimolecular BlocBuilder® initiator in 35 wt% dioxane solution at 90 °C were performed. As little as 5 mol% controlling comonomer in the feed was demonstrated to be sufficient to lead to linear evolution of number average molecular weight  with respect to conversion up to 50%, and the resulting copolymers had dispersities  of ~1.3 in most cases, an attractive feature for reducing line width roughness (LWR in photoresists. The copolymers generally showed relatively low absorbance at 193 nm, comparable to other 193-nm candidate photoresists reported previously, despite the inclusion of a small amount of the styrenic co-monomers in the copolymer.

  1. Significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with myocardial infarction involving the left circumflex artery. Evaluation by exercise thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koitabashi, Norimichi; Toyama, Takuji; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi [Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan)] [and others


    The significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with left circumflex artery involvement was investigated by comparing exercise electrocardiography with exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (Tl-SPECT) and the wall motion estimated by left ventriculography. Tl-SPECT and exercise electrocardiography were simultaneously performed in 51 patients with left circumflex artery involvement (angina pectoris 30, myocardial infarction 21). In patients with myocardial infarction, exercise-induced ST depression was frequently found in the V{sub 2}, V{sub 3} and V{sub 4} leads. In patients with angina pectoris, ST depression was frequently found in the II, III, aV{sub F}, V{sub 5} and V{sub 6} leads. There was no obvious difference in the leads of ST depression in patients with myocardial infarction with ischemia and without ischemia on Tl-SPECT images. In patients with myocardial infarction, the lateral wall motion of the infarcted area evaluated by left ventriculography was more significantly impaired in the patients with ST depression than without ST depression (p<0.01). Exercise-induced ST depression in the precordial leads possibly reflects wall motion abnormality rather than ischemia in the lateral infarcted myocardium. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu BRÎNZA


    Full Text Available Prezentul articol este dedicat analizei juridico-penale a infracţiunilor contra patrimoniului, săvârşite în lipsa unui scop special. Acestea sunt prevăzute la art.193, 197 şi 199 CP RM. Sunt examinate elementele constitutive (obiectul, latura obiectivă, latura subiectivă şi subiectul, precum şi elementele circumstanţiale agravante ale infracţiunilor în cauză. Sunt propuse criterii de delimitare a infracţiunilor specificate la art.193, 197 şi 199 CP RM de faptele conexe de factură penală sau nepenală. Regulile de calificare a faptelor conform acestor articole, precum şi procedeele de interpretare a art.193, 197 şi 199 CP RM, urmăresc scopul eficientizării aplicării răspunderii pentru faptele infracţionale corespunzătoare. OFFENCES AGAINST PATRIMONY, COMMITED IN THE ABSENCE OF A SPECIAL PURPOSE (art.193, 197 and 199 PC RM: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTSThis article is dedicated to the legal-penal analysis of the offences against patrimony, committed in the absence of a special purpose. The offences mentioned above are included in art.193, 197 and 199 PC RM; there are examined the constituents (the object, objective side, subjective side and the subject, as well as the circumstantial aggravating elements of the offences in question. There are also proposed delimitation criteria of the offences specified at art.193, 197 and 199 PC RM from the ancillary penal or non-penal acts. The rules of qualification of the acts under these articles, including the methods of interpretation of art.193, 197 and 199 PC RM, aim to streamline the application of penal liability for the appropriate criminal acts. 

  3. Chemonuclear studies for identification for new production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt; Kernchemische Studien zur Entwicklung neuerer Produktionsverfahren fuer die therapierelevanten Radionuklide {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, K.


    New production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt were investigated. Cross section data were measured using the stacked-foil technique and compared with theoretical calculations. A production method for the platinum nuclides was developed. The {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd and {sup nat}Ce({sup 3}He, xn){sup 140}Nd reactions were investigated for production of {sup 140}Nd. Cross section data of nuclear reactions leading to the side products {sup 141}Nd, {sup 139}Nd and {sup 139}Ce could also be achieved. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations using the code ALICE-IPPE. A comparison of the calculated thick target yields showed that the {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd reaction gives a higher yield. The {sup 192}Os(p, n){sup 192}Ir reaction was examined in the context of the production of {sup 192}Ir. Cross section data were determined and compared with theoretical calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE II. The yield of this reaction was compared with the yield of the reactor production of this nuclide. The reactor production seems to be more suitable because of a higher purity and yield. Cross section data were measured for the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt, {sup 192}Os({alpha}, 3n){sup 193m}Pt and {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He, 4n){sup 191}Pt reactions. The activity of {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was determined by X-ray spectroscopy after a chemical separation procedure. The ALICE-IPPE code was found to be inappropriate to reproduce the experimental values. The calculated yields were compared with the yields of other reactions, especially the reactor production of {sup 195m}Pt. The yield of the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt reaction is lower compared to the yield of the reactor production, but offers lower target costs and higher specific activity. A production method for {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was developed. Batch yields of 0.9 MBq

  4. Cl2O photochemistry: ultraviolet/vis absorption spectrum temperature dependence and O(3P) quantum yield at 193 and 248 nm. (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Feierabend, Karl J; Burkholder, James B


    The photochemistry of Cl(2)O (dichlorine monoxide) was studied using measurements of its UV/vis absorption spectrum temperature dependence and the O((3)P) atom quantum yield, Φ(Cl(2)O)(O)(λ), in its photolysis at 193 and 248 nm. The Cl(2)O UV/vis absorption spectrum was measured over the temperature range 201-296 K between 200 and 500 nm using diode array spectroscopy. Cl(2)O absorption cross sections, σ(Cl(2)O)(λ,T), at temperatures <296 K were determined relative to its well established room temperature values. A wavelength and temperature dependent parameterization of the Cl(2)O spectrum using the sum of six Gaussian functions, which empirically represent transitions from the ground (1)A(1) electronic state to excited states, is presented. The Gaussian functions are found to correlate well with published theoretically calculated vertical excitation energies. O((3)P) quantum yields in the photolysis of Cl(2)O at 193 and 248 nm were measured using pulsed laser photolysis combined with atomic resonance fluorescence detection of O((3)P) atoms. O((3)P) quantum yields were measured to be 0.85 ± 0.15 for 193 nm photolysis at 296 K and 0.20 ± 0.03 at 248 nm, which was also found to be independent of temperature (220-352 K) and pressure (17 and 28 Torr, N(2)). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and include estimated systematic errors. ClO radical temporal profiles obtained following the photolysis of Cl(2)O at 248 nm, as reported previously in Feierabend et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 12052, (2010)], were interpreted to establish a <5% upper-limit for the O + Cl(2) photodissociation channel, which indicates that O((3)P) is primarily formed in the three-body, O + 2Cl, photodissociation channel at 248 nm. The analysis also indirectly provided a Cl atom quantum yield of 1.2 ± 0.1 at 248 nm. The results from this work are compared with previous studies where possible. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. A thin FinFET Si-fin body structure fabricated with 193-nm scanner photolithography and composite hard mask etching technique upon bulk-Si substrate (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Shiang; Liu, Yu-Huan; Chang, Wen-Tung; Chen, Tung-Hung; Shih, Tommy; Tsen, Huan-Chiu; Chung, Lee


    A thin FinFET bulk Si-fin body structure has been successfully fabricated upon bulk-Si wafers through using 193nm scanner lithography and a composite hard mask etching technique. First, a 100Å-thick buffer SiO II layer was thermally grown upon the bulk silicon layer and subsequently a 1200Å-thick SiN x layer and a 1000Å-thick TEOS SiO II hard mask layer was chemically vapor deposited to form a composite hard mask structure of buffer-SiO II/SiN x/TEOS. Second, both 1050Å-thick BARC and 2650Å-thick photoresist (P/R) were coated and a 193nm scanner lithography tool was used for the Si-fin body layout patterning under relatively high exposure energy. This achieves the ADI (after develop inspection) of 80nm from the original as-drawn Si-fin layout of 110nm. Then, a deep sub-micron plasma etcher was used for an aggressive P/R and BARC trimming down processing and both the capping TEOS and CVD-SiN x with its underlying buffer oxide layers were subsequently etched in other etching plasma chambers, respectively. Resultantly, the AMI (after mask inspection) can reach 60nm. Subsequently, both the P/R and BARC were removed with a nominal plasma ashing as well as a RCA cleaning for the final sub-micron Si-fin plasma etching. Eventually, a 60nm-width and 400nm-height bulk Si-fin body structure can be successfully etched out after a fixed time-mode silicon plasma etching.

  6. Demethylation of miR-9-3 and miR-193a Genes Suppresses Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Wang


    Full Text Available Background: MicroRNAs miR-9-3 and miR-193a have recently been found to be hypermethylated in a variety of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells and primary human tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the role of demethylation of miR-9-3 and miR-193a genes in regulating proliferation and apoptosis in NSCLCs, and to decipher the potential mechanisms underlying the properties. Methods: MTT and population doubling time by flow cytometry were used to assess cell proliferation. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and caspase-3 activity assay were employed to evaluate apoptosis. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to quantify gene expression at mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Methylation-specific PCR was utilized to assess methylation status. Results: We found that demethylation agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AzaC reduced cell numbers and prolonged population doubling time (PDT, and promoted doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in seven NSCLC cell lines with different methylation statuses on miR-9-3 and miR-193a promoter regions: NCI-H1993/NCI-H1915 (miR-9-3+/miR-193a+, NCI-H1975/NCI-H200 (miR-9-3+/miR-193a-, A427/NCI-H2073 (miR-9-3-/miR-193a+, and NCI-H1703 (miR-9-3-/miR-193a-. Treatment with 5-AzaC concomitantly upregulated expression of miR-9-3 and miR-193a, and downregulated their respective target genes NF-κB and Mcl-1. The effects of 5-AzaC were abolished by concomitant knockdown of miR-9-3 and miR-193a using the complex antisense technique, whereas forced ectopic expression of miR-9-3 and miR-193a mimicked the effects of 5-AzaC. We further observed that the strength of proliferation inhibition and apoptosis promotion elicited by 5-AzaC was in the order of NCI-H1993/NCI-H1915 > A427/NCI-H2073 > NCI-H1975/NCI-H200 > NCI-H1703. Conclusions: Methylation-silencing of miR-9-3 and miR-193a may be an important epigenetic mechanisms favoring NSCLC cell growth and survival for carcinogenesis and cancer progression, and

  7. Diagnostic value of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction to predict clinically significant and insignificant fractional flow reserve: A single-center prospective study. (United States)

    Tanaka, Haruki; Takahashi, Teruyuki; Ohashi, Norihiko; Tanaka, Koichi; Okada, Takenori; Kihara, Yasuki


    The aim of this study was to clarify the predictive value of fractional flow reserve (FFR) determined by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using thallium (Tl)-201 IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CT-AC) for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).We assessed 212 angiographically identified diseased vessels using adenosine-stress Tl-201 MPI-IQ-SPECT/CT in 84 consecutive, prospectively identified patients with stable CAD. We compared the FFR in 136 of the 212 diseased vessels using visual semiquantitative interpretations of corresponding territories on MPI-IQ-SPECT images without and with CT-AC.FFR inversely correlated most accurately with regional summed difference scores (rSDS) in images without and with CT-AC (r = -0.584 and r = -0.568, respectively, both P < .001). Receiver-operating characteristics analyses using rSDS revealed an optimal FFR cut-off of <0.80 without and with CT-AC. Although the diagnostic accuracy of FFR <0.80 did not significantly differ, FFR ≥0.82 was significantly more accurate with, than without CT-AC. Regions with rSDS ≥2 without or with CT-AC predicted FFR <0.80, and those with rSDS ≤1 without and with CT-AC predicted FFR ≥0.81, with 73% and 83% sensitivity, 84% and 67% specificity, and 79% and 75% accuracy, respectively.Although limited by the sample size and the single-center design, these findings showed that the IQ-SPECT system can predict FFR at an optimal cut-off of <0.80, and we propose a novel application of CT-AC to MPI-IQ-SPECT for predicting clinically significant and insignificant FFR even in nonobese patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 and I-123-{beta}-methyl-i-pentadecanoic acid in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Katsuya [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine


    Dual single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD) using {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) for myocardial fatty acid metabolism and {sup 201}thallium (Tl)-chloride for myocardial perfusion. The left ventricle was divided into 9 segments, and accumulation of the radiotracers was assessed visually for each segment to calculate defect score for each tracer. There was some degree of decrease in myocardial accumulation of both tracers in all DMD patients. Reduced accumulation was most common at the apex (BMIPP: 67%, Tl: 63%), followed by the posterior wall, lateral wall, and anterior wall. On the other hand, reduced accumulation was less common at the septum. BMIPP showed a higher accumulation than Tl in all segments but the septum. When BMIPP defect score was larger than Tl defect score, BMIPP defect score tended to increase during 4 years follow-up (p<0.042). However, when Tl defect score was larger than BMIPP defect score, an increase in Tl defect score was slight. A significant negative correlation was found between the sum of the BMIPP and Tl defect scores and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r=0.66, p<0.0001). According to the histo-pathological study of two autopsied hearts, severe myocardial fibrosis was seen in segments with fixed perfusion defect. In addition, the mismatched segments of BMIPP defect score > Tl defect score revealed a slight fibrosis or normal myocardium. It can be concluded that the dual SPECT myocardial scintigraphy using BMIPP and Tl provides accurate information about disease progression of the heart in patients with DMD by detecting abnormalities of the myocardial metabolism of each substance, thereby enabling the assessment of left ventricular function. (author)

  9. Fast neutron capture cross sections of /sup 169/Tm, /sup 191/Ir, /sup 193/Ir, and /sup 175/Lu for 3 less than or equal to E/sub n/ less than or equal to 2000 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, R.L.; Drake, D.M.; Malanify, J.J.


    Fast neutron capture cross sections of /sup 169/Tm, /sup 191/Ir, /sup 193/Ir, and /sup 175/Lu, and the /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 3/H cross sections to which they are normalized are presented in tabular form for neutron energies between 3 and 2000 keV.

  10. The Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed regulation of low level radioactive waste (40 CFR Part 193): A Department of Energy overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangos, T.G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages one of the world`s largest programs for storage, treatment, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. This system with facilities located at sites across the nation has evolved over some forty years in response to changing needs, technologies, and increasing public awareness and concerns for environmental protection. The DOE has operated in a self regulatory mode in most aspects of its low-level waste (LLW) programs. It has been DOE`s policy and practice to provide at least the same level of safety and protection for the public, DOE and contractor employees, and the general environment, as that required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for commercial operations. DOE`s policies have been implemented through a management system that historically has been highly decentralized so as to be responsive to the needs of DOE sites which generate a wide variety of wastes at some 25 locations. In addition to concerns with the LLW that it manages, DOE has an interest in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) promulgation of 40 CFR Part 193 because of its responsibilities under the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) to manage certain classes of waste and to assist and encourage the development of interstate compact-managed regional low-level waste disposal sites.

  11. A high aspect ratio Si-fin FinFET fabricated with 193nm scanner photolithography and thermal oxide hard mask etching techniques (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Shiang


    A vertical double gate (FinFET) devices with a high Si-fin aspect ratio of height/width (H/W) = 87nm/11nm have been successfully fabricated on SOI wafers. Firstly, a 50nm-thick capping oxide layer was thermally grown upon the SOI crystalline silicon layer. Secondly, both 105nm-thick BARC and 265nm-thick photoresist were coated and a 193nm scanner lithography tool was used for the Si-fin layout patterning under high ASML exposure energy. Then, a deep sub-micron plasma etcher was used for an aggressive photoresist and BARC trimming down processing and the Si-fin capping oxide layer was subsequently plasma etched in another etching chamber without breaking the plasma etcher's loadlock vacuum. Continuously, the photoresist and BARC were removed with a plasma ashing and a RCA cleaning. Also, the patterned Si-fin capping oxide can be further trimmed down with an additional DHF cleaning and the remained ~22nm-thick capping oxide was still thick enough to act as a robust hard mask for the subsequent Si-fin plasma etching. Finally, an ultra thin Si-fin width 11nm and Si-fin height of 87nm can be successfully fabricated through the last silcon plasma etching.

  12. Update on the in vitro activity of daptomycin tested against 17,193 Gram-positive bacteria isolated from European medical centers (2005-2007). (United States)

    Sader, H S; Moet, G; Jones, R N


    The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 17,193 Gram-positive isolates consecutively collected from 28 medical centers in 12 countries in europe and israel in 2005-2007 were evaluated by Clinical and laboratory Standards institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methods supplemented with calcium to 50 mg/l for testing daptomycin. Overall, the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 28.3%, varying from 32.3% in 2005 to 27.1% in 2006 and 28.5% in 2007. Vancomycin resistance rates were 0.8% and 21.5% among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. Among E. faecium, vancomycin resistance increased from 17.9% in 2005 to 26.3% in 2007, and varied from 0.0% in Spain, Sweden and Switzerland to as high as 54.6% in ireland for 2007. All isolates tested, except for seven CoNS (0.2%; 3,234 tested) were considered susceptible to daptomycin using breakpoints established by the United States food and Drug Administration, the CLSI and the EUCAST. Daptomycin was very active against all Gram-positive species with the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results being 1, 4, 2 and 4 mg/l for S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. Daptomycin activity was not adversely influenced by resistance to oxacillin among staphylococci or to vancomycin among enterococci.

  13. Evaluation of myocardial flow reserve using pharmacological stress thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography: is there a difference between total arterial off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and conventional coronary artery bypass grafting? (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Ryu, Sang Wan; Song, Hyun; Kim, Kyung Sun; Yang, Yu Jung; Moon, Dae Hyeuk


    The advantage of total arterial off-pump coronary bypass grafting (OPCAB) over conventional onpump coronary artery bypass grafting with 1 internal thoracic artery and veins (CCAB) in terms of myocardial flow reserve has not been studied. We studied these procedures using thallium- 201 perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (Tl-201 perfusion SPECT). Between 1997 and 2001, 152 patients were recruited from our database (OPCAB, n = 100; CCAB, n = 52). All patients underwent pharmacological stress Tl-201 perfusion SPECT 3 to 12 months after bypass surgery. Myocardial perfusion was analyzed semiquantitatively with a 5-point scoring system in a 20-segment model (0, normal, to 4, absence of uptake). Summed stress (SSS), rest (SRS), and difference score (SDS) of the entire myocardium as well as average scores (ASS, ARS, ADS) of individual walls (anterior, septal, lateral, and inferior) were compared by Student t test as well as by repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. The SSS, SRS, and SDS of OPCAB versus those of CCAB were 6.86 +/- 0.72 versus 7.17 +/- 0.92, 3.95 +/- 0.57 versus 3.75 +/- 0.73, and 2.91 +/- 0.47 versus 3.42 +/- 0.74 (P > .05). However, the lateral wall showed lower scores in OPCAB (ASS, 0.18 versus 0.41, P = .015; ARS, 0.12 versus 0.20, P = .168; ADS, 0.06 versus 0.21, P = .031). The septal wall had higher scores in OPCAB (ASS, 0.33 versus 0.12, P = .003; ARS, 0.18 versus 0.07, P = .037; ADS, 0.14 versus 0.04, P = .030). The anterior and inferior walls were not different between the 2 groups. OPCAB led to results similar to those of CCAB. The better results in the lateral wall have been the effect of grafting radial artery rather than vein. The similarity in myocardial reserve in the inferior wall between the 2 groups needs further study. There was no deleterious effect of off-pump as opposed to on-pump CAB.

  14. Search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in {sup 193}Pb nucleus with the EUROGAM II multidetector array; Recherche et analyse des etats superdeformes et aplatis dans le noyau {sup 193}Pb a l'aide du multidetecteur EUROGAM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducroux, L. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)


    This work is devoted to the search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in {sup 193}Pb nucleus. High spin states of this isotope, populated via fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 168}Er ({sup 30}Si, 5n) {sup 193}Pb, have been studied with the EUROGAM II {gamma} multidetector array located near the VIVITRON accelerator in Strasbourg. New sorting and analysis programs have been developed in particular related to the background treatment. Angular distribution and linear polarisation analysis allowed us to assign the {gamma} transition multipolarities. Five dipole bands, corresponding to a weakly oblate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed and connected to the low-lying states. The level scheme has been considerably extended up to a spin of 61/2 {Dirac_h} and an excitation energy of about 8 MeV. These structures have been interpreted as based on a high-K two-quasi-proton excitation coupled to rotation aligned quasi-neutrons. Six superdeformed bands, corresponding to a high prolate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed. These six bands have been interpreted as three pairs of signature partners based on quasineutron excitations. The extraction of the g-factor of a K=9/2 neutron superdeformed orbital has been done for the first time in lead isotopes, giving access to the magnetic properties of the extreme nuclear matter. All these results have been discussed in terms of microscopic mean field self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the microscopic 'rotor + particle(s)' model. (author)

  15. High-efficient discharge-pumped ArF (193 nm) excimer laser with a TPI thyratron as a high-voltage switch (United States)

    Razhev, Alexander M.; Zhupikov, Andrey A.; Churkin, Dmitry S.


    The results of using the thyratron of the TPI series (pseudo spark gap) as a high-voltage switch in the excitation system of ArF (193 nm) excimer laser are presented. The excitation system of the LC-inverter type based on TPI 10k/20 thyratron in absence of any non-linear elements was developed. An experimental investigation of the energy and temporal parameters of the pumping and lasing for ArF laser on the He:Ar:F II mixture with excitation system developed was carried out. The comparative analysis of the ArF laser pumping and radiation parameters in dependence of the high-voltage switch type such as a standard spark gap RU-65, and thyratron TPI 10k/20 was performed. The output radiation energy for a laser with thyratron TPI 10k/20 was obtained to be of 1.4 times higher than that with standard spark gap RU-65 at the same pumping conditions. Such increase the output energy was shown to be achieving owing to higher level of the pumping intensity due to higher voltage on the discharge gap that occurs due to lower energy losses into TPI thyratron in comparison with the RU- 65 spark gap and leads to more efficient energy transfer from storage to discharge circuit. As a result for ArF laser with TPI thyratron in He:Ar:F II mixture the output radiation energy of 1.0 J with the total efficiency of 1.7% has been achieved. The advantages of using the TPI thyratron in the excitation system of the ArF excimer laser over spark gap are described.

  16. FEM for modelling 193 nm excimer laser treatment of SiO{sub 2}/Si/Si{sub (1-x)}Ge{sub x} heterostructures on SOI substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.C.; Chiussi, S.; Gontad, F.; Gonzalez, P. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I.I. University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, Rua Maxwell s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Martin, E. [Dpto. de Mecanica, Maquinas, Motores Termicos y Fluidos, E.T.S.I.I. University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, Rua Maxwell s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)


    Research on epitaxial crystalline silicon (c-Si) and silicon-germanium (Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}) alloys growth and annealing for microelectronic purposes, such as Micro- or Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS or NEMS) and Silicon-On-Nothing (SON) devices is continuously in progress. Laser assisted annealing techniques using commercial ArF Excimer Laser sources are based on ultra-rapid heating and cooling cycles induced by the 193 nm pulses of 20 ns, which are absorbed in the near surface region of the heterostructures. During and after the absorption of these laser pulses, complex physical processes appear that strongly depend on sample structure and applied laser pulse energy densities. The control of the experimental parameters is therefore a key task for obtaining high quality alloys. The Finite ElementsMethod (FEM) is a powerful tool for the optimization of such treatments, because it provides the spatial and temporal temperature fields that are produced by the laser pulses. In this work, we have used a FEM commercial software, to predict the temperatures gradients induced by ArF excimer laser over a wide energy densities range, 0.1<{phi}<0.4 J/cm{sup 2}, on different SiO{sub 2}/Si/Si{sub (1-x)}Ge{sub (x)} thin films deposited on SOI substrate. These numerical results allow us to predict the threshold energies needed to reach the melting point (MP) of the Si and SiGe alloy without oxidation of the thin films system. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the conditions to achieve high quality epitaxy films. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Pharmacodynamic and cytogenetic evaluation in CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 allelomorphism in South Indian population with clopidogrel therapy. (United States)

    Tantray, Javeed Ahmad; Reddy, K Pratap; Jamil, Kaiser; Kumar, Y Shiva


    Genetic factors play a significant role in pathogenesis of most diseases of heart. The present study was undertaken to correlate coronary artery disease with demographical, biochemical alterations, SNPs, gene expression and chromosomal abnormalities and for further enlightening the investigation in this field. 150 patients taking clopidogrel drug were selected and single nucleotide polymorphism was done by PCR-RFLP techniques. With the same patients cytogenetic analysis was carried out on leukocyte cultures by karyotyping. Gene expression studies for 20 CAD patients and normal controls were done by RT-PCR techniques. In this study of patients with coronary artery disease the frequencies of the Extreme Metabolizers, Intermediate Metabolizers in CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285) were present in 90% and 10% but no Poor Metabolizers were found in this allele. The frequencies of Extreme Metabolizer, Intermediate Metabolizer and Poor Metabolizer in CYP2C19*3 (rs4986893) were present in 41%, 50% and 9% respectively. Among 20 CAD samples, 13 of 20 (65%) showed CYP2C19 gene over expression in CAD patients and all controls showed normal expression. Among the 150 CAD patients, 145 had normal karyotype, only five patients showed change in normal karyogram carried out by leukocyte culture. Genetic testing of CYP2C19 may help in prescribing a dose according to genetic makeup and represent the initial steps towards the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutic strategies that will substantially improve human health. This study highlights the progress that has been made in using pharmacogenomic and gene expression analysis, cardiovascular genomic research and the potential for applying these findings in clinical medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme and enzymatic inactivation by mutation of the heme coordinating residue His-193

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suits,M.; Jaffer, N.; Jia, Z.


    Heme oxygenases catalyze the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. For pathogenic microorganisms, heme uptake and degradation are critical mechanisms for iron acquisition that enable multiplication and survival within hosts they invade. Here we report the first crystal structure of the pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme at 1.45 {angstrom} resolution. When compared with other heme oxygenases, ChuS has a unique fold, including structural repeats and a {beta}-sheet core. Not surprisingly, the mode of heme coordination by ChuS is also distinct, whereby heme is largely stabilized by residues from the C-terminal domain, assisted by a distant arginine from the N-terminal domain. Upon heme binding, there is no large conformational change beyond the fine tuning of a key histidine (His-193) residue. Most intriguingly, in contrast to other heme oxygenases, the propionic side chains of heme are orientated toward the protein core, exposing the {alpha}-meso carbon position where O{sub 2} is added during heme degradation. This unique orientation may facilitate presentation to an electron donor, explaining the significantly reduced concentration of ascorbic acid needed for the reaction. Based on the ChuS-heme structure, we converted the histidine residue responsible for axial coordination of the heme group to an asparagine residue (H193N), as well as converting a second histidine to an alanine residue (H73A) for comparison purposes. We employed spectral analysis and CO measurement by gas chromatography to analyze catalysis by ChuS, H193N, and H73A, demonstrating that His-193 is the key residue for the heme-degrading activity of ChuS.


    Adachi, Kei; Nakai, Hiroyuki


    Directed evolution through genetic engineering of viral capsids followed by selection has emerged as a powerful means to create novel recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors with desired tropism and enhanced properties. One of the most effective approaches uses rAAV-based random peptide display libraries. Here we report a novel system based on an infection-defective rAAV1.9-3 as a platform for random peptide display, and show that biopanning of the libraries in vitro effectively identifies the peptides that restore and enhance rAAV transduction. rAAV1.9-3 has a genetically engineered AAV1 capsid with amino acids 445-568 being replaced with those of AAV9, and has been identified as a variant exhibiting significantly impaired infectivity and delayed blood clearance when infused into mice. In this study, we generated rAAV1.9-3 variant libraries in which 7- or 12-mer random peptides were expressed at the capsid amino acid position 590. Three rounds of positive selection for primary human dermal fibroblasts successfully identified new rAAV-peptide variants that transduce them more efficiently than the prototype rAAV2. Thus our study demonstrates that an infection-defective rAAV variant serves as a novel detargeted platform for random peptide display libraries. We also describe a brief review of recent progress in rAAV-based random peptide display library approaches.


    Adachi, Kei; Nakai, Hiroyuki


    Directed evolution through genetic engineering of viral capsids followed by selection has emerged as a powerful means to create novel recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors with desired tropism and enhanced properties. One of the most effective approaches uses rAAV-based random peptide display libraries. Here we report a novel system based on an infection-defective rAAV1.9-3 as a platform for random peptide display, and show that biopanning of the libraries in vitro effectively identifies the peptides that restore and enhance rAAV transduction. rAAV1.9-3 has a genetically engineered AAV1 capsid with amino acids 445–568 being replaced with those of AAV9, and has been identified as a variant exhibiting significantly impaired infectivity and delayed blood clearance when infused into mice. In this study, we generated rAAV1.9-3 variant libraries in which 7- or 12-mer random peptides were expressed at the capsid amino acid position 590. Three rounds of positive selection for primary human dermal fibroblasts successfully identified new rAAV-peptide variants that transduce them more efficiently than the prototype rAAV2. Thus our study demonstrates that an infection-defective rAAV variant serves as a novel detargeted platform for random peptide display libraries. We also describe a brief review of recent progress in rAAV-based random peptide display library approaches. PMID:21603583

  1. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramana – Journal of Physics. Current Issue : Vol. 90, Issue 1 · Current Issue Volume 90 | Issue 1. January 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...



    Adachi, Kei; Nakai, Hiroyuki


    Directed evolution through genetic engineering of viral capsids followed by selection has emerged as a powerful means to create novel recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors with desired tropism and enhanced properties. One of the most effective approaches uses rAAV-based random peptide display libraries. Here we report a novel system based on an infection-defective rAAV1.9-3 as a platform for random peptide display, and show that biopanning of the libraries in vitro effectively ide...

  3. Measurement of the Ir-191,193(n,2n)Ir-190,192 Reaction Cross Section Between 9.0 and 16.5 MeV (United States)

    Wildenhain, Elizabeth; Finch, Sean; Tornow, Werner; Krishichayan, F.


    Iridium is one of the elements prioritized by Nonproliferation and Homeland Security agencies. In addition, Ir-192 is being used in various medical treatments. Improved data and corresponding evaluations of neutron-induced reactions on the iridium isotopes are required to meet the demands of several applications of societal interest. This study measured the cross section of the Ir-191,193(n, 2n)Ir-190,192 reactions at energies from 9.0 to 16.5 MeV using the activation technique. Natural Ir samples [Ir-191 37.3%, Ir-193 62.7%] were sandwiched between Au-197 monitor foils and irradiated with monoenergetic neutron beams at the tandem facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Gamma rays from the irradiated samples were counted in TUNL's low background facility using high-efficient HPGe detectors. Measured cross-section data are compared to previous data and to predictions from nuclear data libraries (e.g. ENDF). Research at TUNL funded by the NSF.

  4. ArF excimer laser modulation of TNF-alpha and gelatinase B in NIH 3T3 cells; Modulation de l`expression du TNF-alpha et de la gelatinase B, apres irradiation de fibroblastes NIH 3T3 par un laser a excimeres a 193 NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudy-Vives, C.; Courant, D.; Perot, J.C.; Garcia, J.; Fretier, P.; Court, L.; Dormont, D.


    The effects on TNF-alpha and gelatinase B activity in mammalian cells induced by 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser have been investigated. The data show that a secretion of 92 kDa type IV collagenase and TNF-alpha were increased in cell culture supernatants. Moreover, the 193 nm laser radiation produces a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of cell activation 8 hours after irradiation. The total protein amount increases with the delivered dose. Same, but less effects were obtained after exposure to a conventional UV lamp at 254 nm. (author). 8 refs.

  5. 18 June 2012 - DST Global Founder Y. Milner signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the AD facility in building 193 with AEGIS Collaboration Spokesperson M. Doser and Adviser for the Russian Federation T. Kurtyka. Managing Director I. Osborne also present with Mrs J. Milner and DST Global A. Lebedkina.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    18 June 2012 - DST Global Founder Y. Milner signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the AD facility in building 193 with AEGIS Collaboration Spokesperson M. Doser and Adviser for the Russian Federation T. Kurtyka. Managing Director I. Osborne also present with Mrs J. Milner and DST Global A. Lebedkina.

  6. A damage assessment model of oil spill accident combining historical data and satellite remote sensing information: a case study in Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident of China. (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Hu, Zhuowei; Dong, Lin; Zhao, Wenji


    Oil spills are one of the major sources of marine pollution; it is important to conduct comprehensive assessment of losses that occur as a result of these events. Traditional methods are required to assess the three parts of losses including cleanup, socioeconomic losses, and environmental costs. It is relatively slow because assessment is complex and time consuming. A relatively quick method was developed to improve the efficiency of assessment, and then applied to the Penglai 19-3 accident. This paper uses an SAR image to calculate the oil spill area through Neural Network Classification, and uses historical oil-spill data to build the relationship between loss and other factors including sea-surface wind speed, and distance to the coast. A multiple regression equation was used to assess oil spill damage as a function of the independent variables. Results of this study can be used for regulating and quickly dealing with oil spill assessment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Publications | Page 193 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Clean energy and water : low-cost climate adaptation options for East Africa; draft journal article (restricted access). This study assesses renewable energy use in water services in East Africa and implications for adaptation to climate change impacts. The case studies demonstrate to some extent, that windpumps and treadle ...

  8. Publications | Page 193 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC works with developing-country researchers and institutions to build local capacity through funding, knowledge sharing, and training. Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. We share the results of our funded ...

  9. Overall view of AA in Bld. 193

    CERN Multimedia


    See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  10. Overall view of AA (Bld 193)

    CERN Multimedia


    See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  11. 29 CFR 19.3 - Authorization. (United States)


    ... written request under the Act only if: (a) No administrative summons or subpoena authority reasonably... records are sought; (b) There is reason to believe that the records sought are relevant to a legitimate... delegate this authority to others; (d) The request adheres to the requirements set forth in § 19.4; and (e...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.193 - Combined funding. (United States)


    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy... combined funding, the applicant must submit separate applications for both types of assistance (grant and...

  13. 196 193 Species Abundance and Colour Prefer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the occurrence and colour preferences of oviposition by mosquitoes in man-made containers under field conditions. A total of nine (9) different colour 2 litre plastic containers were used as artificial mosquito oviposition containers. They were filled with equal ...

  14. Ogunkunle and Fatoba 185-193

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural populations of ectohydric moss Barbula lambarenensis growing in a cement polluted environment were collected and subjected to Sequential Elution Technique using 0.2M EDTA as the extracting agent, in order to quantify the Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Zn contents of the extracellular, intracellular and particulate fractions.

  15. Reference: 193 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ous electrophysiological studies as the slow vacuolar channel. Slow vacuolar chan...scisic acid-induced repression of germination and in the response of stomata to extracellular calcium. These studies


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2002 ... while in females cancer of cervix, breast, NHL, stomach and KS were found most frequent. Conclusion: This pattern ... stomach and penila cancer were found to be rare whereas oesophageal cancer was one of the commonest ..... where screening programmes are established. the incidence of cancer of the ...

  17. 196 193 Species Abundance and Colour Prefer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... habits. Water collection, human activities and behaviour such as discarding of empty containers, planting ornamental plants around houses may potentially encourage breeding of mosquitoes (Horsfall 1972). Oviposition is an important component of most mosquito-borne diseases (Bentley and Day,. 1989).

  18. 49 CFR 193.2007 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... dikes and floors which is designed to confine a spill of hazardous liquid. Impounding system includes an impounding space, including dikes and floors for conducting the flow of spilled hazardous liquids to an.... Vaporization means an addition of thermal energy changing a liquid to a vapor or gaseous state. Vaporizer means...

  19. Publications | Page 193 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ENACQKT-ing : Caribbean nurses enhancing care, quality and knowledge through technology; final technical report (open access) ... Refugees and migrants in transit countries like Egypt are linked into wider Diaspora networks that help support them, and in turn enable the migrants to support their families and ...

  20. 193-IJBCS-Article-Dr Aboubakar Dandjouma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    caroténoïdes). Une augmentation significative (p < 0,05) des indices d'acide, peroxyde, K232 et K270 a été observée au cours du temps, le stockage à 25 °C ..... de grignons d'olive raffinée. CODEX. STAN 33-1981 (Rév. 1-1989) ; 6p. Coppin EA, Pike O. 2001. Oil Stability Index correlated with sensory determination of.

  1. An ultra-narrow FinFET poly-Si gate structure fabricated with 193nm photolithography and in-situ PR/BARC and TEOS hard mask etching (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Shiang; Wu, Cheng-Han; Tang, Mao-Chyuan; Huang, Sheng-Yi; Shih, Tommy; Liaw, Yue-Gie; Chen, Kun-Ming; Chen, Tung-Hung; Tsen, Huan-Chiu; Chung, Lee


    A vertical double gate MOSFET (FinFET) device with an ultra-small poly-Si gate of 30nm and promising device performances has been successfully developed after integrating a 14Å nitrided gate oxide on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. First, a 500Å-thick TEOS capping oxide layer was deposited upon a 1000Å-thick poly-Si gate layer. Second, both 1050Å-thick bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) and 2650Å-thick photoresist (PR) were coated. A deep ultra-violet (DUV) 193nm wavelength ASML scanner lithography tool was used for the ultra-small poly-Si layout patterning under high energy exposure. After an organic-based trimming down plasma etching of both PR and BARC, the TEOS capping oxide layer was plasma etched in another oxide-based etching chambers without breaking the plasma etcher's loadlock vacuum. Then, without removing the already plasma patterned and trim-downed PR and BARC, an in-situ PR/BARC and TEOS hard mask etching was rendered for the final 1000Å-thick poly-Si gate electrode. The poly-Si etching can be automatically stopped by setting the over-time etching mode to a few seconds after detecting the endpoint signal of the bottom buried oxide (BOX) insulating layer. Finally, after PR and BARC plasma as well as additional wet cleaning, an ultra-narrow poly-Si gate electrode, i.e., after etching inspection (AEI) of 30nm, with its capping TEOS hard mask was successfully fabricated.

  2. Thallium in the marine environment: first ecotoxicological assessments in the Guadalquivir estuary and its potential adverse effect on the donana european natural reserve after the Aznalcollar mining spill (SW Spain); Talio en el medio marino: primera valoracion ecotoxicologica en el estuario del Guadalquivir y su efecto potencial adverso en la reserva natural de donana despues del vertido minero de Aznalcollar (SW de Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelValls, T.A [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Saenz, V; Arias, A.M; Blasco, J [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)


    Thallium (Tl) is an extremely toxic but little-studied element in the marine environment and practically no information has been reported on the levels of Tl in marine organisms. After the Aznalcollar mining Spill (April 1998), high levels of metals were put into the environment. This acud-contaminated medium was responsible for the initial pollution effects measured in the Guadiamar River, which is an affluent of the Guadalquivir River and very close to the biggest natural reserve in Europe (Donana). Four different species were used in the monitoring from April to September 1998 and a sediment field bioassay to check bioacumulation was performed. We present the first ecotoxicological evaluation of the mining spill in the Guadalquivir River, with reference to Tl, a little-known metal. Also, Pb and Cd data were compared to Tl during field sediment testing. Results show low levels of this metal in all of the organisms studied and they do not show any increase in the level of this metal, ranging from 40 to 90 ng g{sup -}1, 80 to 210 ng g{sup -}1, 15 to 98 ng g{sup -}1 and 75 to 125 whole body dry weight for Scrobicularia plana, Liza ramada (muscle), Crassostrea angulata and Uca Tangeri, respectively. These are the first field data of Tl concentration measured using estuarine organisms. Field sediment toxicity test results confirm those obtained during the monitoring: Tl is not bioaccumulated by the organisms (C. angulata) used in the test. The sequence in bioaccumulation of metals was Cd > Pb > Tl. Both studies, bioaccumulation and sediment toxicity, should be maintained during the next few years to really evaluate the potential effect of the mining spill on the ecosystem and society. [Spanish] El talio (Tl) es un elemento extremadamente toxico aunque poco estudiado en el medio marino y la informacion sobre niveles de Tl en organismos marinos con anterioridad al presente trabajo es practicamente nula. Despues del vertido minero de Aznalcollar (abril de 1998) se

  3. faas determination of thallium after preconcentration using nitroso-s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENTAL. Apparatus. A Shimadzu AA-670 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used in the following conditions: wavelength: 276.8 nm, lamp ... hydrogen phosphate and 0.1 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.5 M aqueous ammonia and ... The residue was dried at the room temperature in the folds.

  4. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))


    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  5. Thallium Toxicity: The Problem; An Analytical Approach; An Antidotal Study (United States)


    Nixon CE: The 1932 thallotoxi- cosis outbreak in California. JAMA 100:1315-1319, 1933. 21. Aoyama H, Yoshida M, Yamamura Y: Acute poisoning by...lower extremities); ataxia; muscle/joint pain; aptosis; strabismis; facial palsy; mydriasis; psychotic signs (permanent neurological and psychiatric

  6. Sequential thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy after acute infarction in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.W.; Mueller, H.S.; Rao, P.S.


    Three sequential Tl-201 myocardial perfusion studies were performed in 21 patients (18 men, 3 women) with first acute transmural myocardia infarction. The Tl-201 image defect size was determined with a semiquantitative visual scoring method and temporal changes in image defect size were compared to CK-MB infarct size and enzymatic evidence of progressive myocardial necrosis and infarct extension. Progressive decreases in Tl-201 image defect size were observed and the visual score in all 21 patients decreased significantly from 6.5 +- 3.7 (mean +- SD) on day 1 to 4.9 +- 3.5 on day 12. Eleven patients without evidence of infarct extension had significantly lower infarct size, a significant decrease in visual score by the 12th day and had significantly smaller Tl-201 defects at all three study times compared to 10 patients with infarct extension. Seven of 10 (70%) with extension had an initial visual score greater than or equal to 7 compared to only 2/11 (18%) without extension. The temporal behavior of Tl-201 image defects is related to the size of the infarction and presence or absence of extension. Sequential studies comparing early initial and subsequent defect size may assist in evaluating the behavior of ischemic and infarcted myocardium in the postinfarction period.

  7. A comparison of the clinical relevance of thallium- 201 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 1, 1990 ... group of 20 patients, who underwent both 201TI single photon emission computed tomography and 99mTc_MIBI study as well as coronary angiography. The sensitivity for predicting a lesion ranged from 25% to 88% in different areas of the heart and was comparable for the two radiophannaceuticals. The.

  8. Thallium isotope variations in anthropogenically-affected soils (United States)

    Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Penizek, Vit; Mihaljevic, Martin; Komarek, Michael; Cabala, Jerzy


    Our preliminary data from soils impacted by long-term Tl deposition in the vicinity of a primary/secondary Zn smelter at Olkusz (Poland) indicate apparent variability of ɛ205Tl within soil profiles. The identified ɛ205Tl values presented for the forest soil profile reached -1.7 in the surface/organic horizon, +1.9 in the organo-mineral horizon (Ap), and +1.0 in the mineral horizon (C). This finding suggests both the enrichment of 203Tl isotope in the topsoil, as well as its preferential release during smelting operations, as "lighter" Tl tends to enter the emissions during a high-temperature process. The maximum ɛ205Tl value in the subsurface horizon Ap is in accordance with the concentration peak of oxalate-extractable Mn, indicating the presence of amorphous/poorly-crystalline Mn oxides with a potential to isotopically fractionate Tl toward the "heavier" fraction. The Tl isotope signature in the bottom horizon probably reflects the composition of a local geochemical anomaly of Tl. However, a portion of mobile (anthropogenic) Tl with negative ɛ205Tl moving downwards in the soil profile cannot be neglected. In general, there is no detailed information about the biogeochemical cycling and variations of Tl isotopes in areas affected by significant anthropogenic inputs of the metal (e.g., coal burning and primary metallurgy); the questions of the degree to which the factors such as soil (and sediment) chemistry, mineralogy, local biota, and pollution source control Tl isotope fractionation remain unresolved. Therefore, further research on the topic is needed before any principal conclusions will be made.

  9. Inside Hall 193 for the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) ring

    CERN Multimedia


    Installation work is in full swing. A model quadrupole on the left shows where the magnet ring will be. The cables wound on drums are part of the pulse-forming network for the injection kicker. See Annual Report 1979 p. 103, Fig. 9 and photo 7911303. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  10. 40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions. (United States)


    ... month n, determined according to § 98.194(c) (metric tons MgO/metric ton lime). 2000/2205 = Conversion...). 2000/2205 = Conversion factor for metric tons to tons. (iii) You must calculate the annual CO2.../2205 = Conversion factor for metric tons to tons. (iv) You must calculate annual CO2 process emissions...

  11. PODAAC-GHN19-3CO02 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  12. PODAAC-GHN19-3PE01 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSH193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1( AM075832 |pid:none) Malus x domestica mRNA for beclin ... 133 5e-47 (Q9VCE1) RecName: Full=Beclin-1-like ..... 133 2e-45 AM075829_1( AM075829 |pid:none) Glycine max mRNA for beclin 1 prot... 126 4e-45 AY701316_1( AY7...5834 |pid:none) Solanum tuberosum mRNA for beclin ... 124 1e-44 AM075824_1( AM075824 |pid:none) Hordeum vulgare mRNA for beclin...4 4e-44 AY036610_1( AY036610 |pid:none) Triticum aestivum beclin1-like pro... 117

  14. 15 CFR 922.193 - Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities. (United States)


    ..., seizure or disposition of seized property in connection with enforcement of the Act or any regulations... an emergency threatening life or the environment. (d) The prohibitions in paragraphs (a) (1) through...

  15. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose. (United States)


    ... shall be limited to any position from the horizontal to the vertical pointing downward, so that the hose... a garden hose nozzle that is bronze or metal with strength and corrosion resistance equivalent to...

  16. Dicty_cDB: VHI193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  17. 40 CFR 264.193 - Containment and detection of releases. (United States)


    ... management as a hazardous waste in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262 through 265 of... conducted at least annually. [Note: The practices described in the American Petroleum Institute (API...

  18. 40 CFR 265.193 - Containment and detection of releases. (United States)


    ... material is a hazardous waste under part 261 of this chapter, it is subject to management as a hazardous... to be assessed. Note: The practices described in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication...

  19. Dicty_cDB: SFL193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available skt*m*m**sw*kmlcxdsl**sl*frlwxrf*mxn*t*wfrxlcpfrktx xttt*km**xmptrp*mxsxstwkrmlrccpxttxkmlfkmsxkt*m*sqplw*rm...GVKXXP*ixvh*rxphxheckvdpngkemlrqip*ttt trslfikmpskt*m*m**sw*kmlcxdsl**sl*frlwxrf*mxn*t*wfrxlcpfrktx xttt*km*...l *ryi*ylyi*k*ll*kfiq*psc*sik*mlqs*wiy*nynsnrvflf*cqd*rmclir*i m*fpkxllfksnfllpr*inl*rfklw--- ---*rcppnhexrf...ndqxhqxwgkgspmnxcsltxxxxp*m*s*sqw*rnvasdpidhhh qkfvh*dalqnmnvnvmimvknvvxrfivmkfvi*ivvevlnv*ldmmvqxvvsvqkdxt

  20. 193 A Contrastive Morphological Analysis of Tense Formation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formation of tenses in these languages and immediately correct ... language problem. One of such efforts is the National Policy on. Education, which has encouraged the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction at the primary school level. ..... word, are referentially opaque, that is, it is impossible to refer to.

  1. 14 CFR 21.193 - Experimental certificates: general. (United States)


    ... previously certificated type without appreciable change in the external configuration, three-view drawings or three-view dimensioned photographs of the aircraft. (e) In the case of a light-sport aircraft assembled... aircraft kit manufacturer and issued a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category. (2...

  2. 19 CFR 191.193 - Application procedure for compliance program. (United States)


    ... office where the claims will be filed. (c) Letter of application; contents. A party requesting..., along with the number estimated to be filed over the next 12-month period, and the estimated amount of... the records that will be maintained, including at least sample import documents, sample export...

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFG193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Value N L49527 |L49527.1 Dictyostelium discoideum cortexillin I mRNA, complete cds. 813 0.0 1 AX430298 |AX430298...(bits) Value (Q9Y0T4) RecName: Full=Cortexillin-1; AltName: Full=Cortexillin ... 166 3e-40 (Q66H60) RecName:

  4. RT-PCR protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 193

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Joseph


    .... Here the newcomer will find readily reproducible protocols for highly sensitive detection and quantification of gene expression, the in situ localization of gene expression in tissue, and the cloning...

  5. All projects related to | Page 193 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Sexual Violence and Impunity in South Asia. Project. Silence around the topic of sexual violence has increased in South Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, even as its incidence has also increased in recent conflicts. End Date: August 23, 2016. Topic: SEXUAL ABUSE, SOCIAL ...

  6. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (United States)


    ... of ingredients prescribed for that specific natural cheese variety promulgated pursuant to section 401 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In addition a spiced and/or flavored standardized... standardized cheese shall include in addition to the varietal name of the natural cheese, a declaration of any...

  7. Dicty_cDB: VSJ193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available qfqninlmklqkk lqlmkrikle*vivqfvyvnsqsiqkh*nyhvniifimnv*ipg*kllllvqtvvihyrq lmlnmnqwle*leimn*kmvqlivrqppiitmt...*ilkelnlh*nidqyhqfqninlmklqkk lqlmkrikle*vivqfvyvnsqsiqkh*nyhvniifimnv*ipg*kllllv...liikkkk*ilkelnlh*nidqyhqfqninlmkl qkklqlmkrikle*vivqfvyvnsqsiqkh*nyhvniifimnv*ipg*kllllvqtvvih yrqlmlnmnqwle

  8. Decay of {sup 185}Tl, {sup 185m+g}Hg, {sup 189m+g}Pb and energy location of the 13/2{sup +} isomeric states in {sup 185}Hg, {sup 189}Pb, {sup 193}Po and {sup 197}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvage, J.; Roussiere, B.; Franchoo, S.; Barre, N.; Bourgeois, C.; Clavelin, J.F.; Grave, X.; Kilcher, P.; Oms, J. [IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Genevey, J. [IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble Cedex (France); Andreyev, A.N. [University of York, Department of Physics, York (United Kingdom); Ben Braham, A. [Faculte des sciences de Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia); Witte, H. de; Huyse, M.; Mukha, I.; Vel, K.V. de; Duppen, P. van [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Fedorov, D.V.; Volkov, Yu.M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Fedoseyev, V.N.; Marsh, B.A. [ISOLDE, CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fraile, L.M. [Universidad Complutense, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Huber, G. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Koester, U. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kunz, P. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); Lesher, S.R. [University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse (United States); Porquet, M.G. [Centre de Sciences Nucleaires et de Sciences de la Matiere, Orsay (France); Seliverstov, M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Stefanescu, I. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Garching (Germany); Wojtasiewicz, A. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland)


    The {beta}{sup +} /EC decay of {sup 185}Tl was studied at the ISOLDE facility, the {gamma} -rays belonging to {sup 185}Hg have been identified and a partial low-spin level scheme of {sup 185}Hg has been built. The decay of {sup 185m+g}Hg was studied at the ISOCELE facility. Conversion electron lines of very low-energy transitions were observed for the first time. Electron data have been obtained for four transitions in {sup 185}Au and two transitions in {sup 185}Hg. From the analysis performed using an internal energy calibration procedure the energy location of the {sup 185m}Hg has been determined to be E{sub IS}= 103.7(4) keV. This E{sub IS} value is consistent with that determined independently, E{sub IS}=94(13) keV, using {sup 185m+g}Hg {alpha} -decay data from literature. New {alpha} particles emitted from {sup 189m+g}Pb have been detected and their origins determined by in-source laser spectroscopy at the ISOLDE facility. {alpha} - {gamma} coincidence results have served to locate the 13/2{sup +} isomeric state of {sup 189}Pb at E{sub IS}=40(4) keV. This latter E{sub IS} value added to {alpha} -decay data from literature have allowed the energy location of the 13/2{sup +} isomeric states of {sup 193}Po and {sup 197}Rn at 95(7)keV and 194(12)keV, respectively. The nuclear structure of the isomeric and ground states in the nuclei of the three {alpha} -emitter chains starting with {sup 195m+g,} {sup 197m+g,} {sup 199m+g}Rn are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Enhanced magnetostrictive effect in epoxy-bonded Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 0.9−x}Nd{sub 0.1}(Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}){sub 1.93} pseudo 1–3 particulate composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J. J., E-mail:, E-mail:; Pan, Z. B.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, Z. R. [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Ren, W. J. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)


    The spin configuration and spontaneous magnetostriction λ{sub 111} of Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 0.9−x}Nd{sub 0.1}(Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}){sub 1.93} (0.20 ≤ x ≤ 0.60) alloys have been investigated. The easy magnetization direction (EMD) at room temperature was observed towards the 〈111〉 axis when 0.40 ≤ x ≤ 0.60, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion with large spontaneous magnetostriction coefficients λ{sub 111}, which increases from 1640 ppm for x = 0.40 to 1900 ppm for x = 0.60. The strong 〈111〉-oriented pseudo 1–3 particulate composite was fabricated by embedding and aligning particles in a passive epoxy matrix under an applied magnetic field. An enhanced magnetostrictive effect, the large low-field magnetostriction, λ{sub a}, as high as 480 ppm at 3 kOe, was obtained for the sample of x = 0.40, in an excess of 75% of its polycrystalline alloy although it only contains 27 vol. % alloy particles. This enhanced effect can be attributed to its low magnetic anisotropy, anisotropic magnetostrictive nature (e.g., λ{sub 111} ≠ λ{sub 100,} 〈111〉EMD), chain structure, and the 〈111〉-textured orientation. In addition, we give a direct experimental support that the 〈111〉EMD of particle and the strong 〈111〉-textured orientation are the crucial factors to realize the enhanced magnetostrictive effect in 1–3 particulate composites.

  10. Investigation of thallium fluxes from subaerial volcanism-Implications for the present and past mass balance of thallium in the oceans (United States)

    Baker, R.G.A.; Rehkamper, M.; Hinkley, T.K.; Nielsen, S.G.; Toutain, J.P.


    A suite of 34 volcanic gas condensates and particulates from Kilauea (Hawaii), Mt. Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Mt. Merapi (Indonesia), White Island and Mt. Nguaruhoe (New Zealand) were analysed for both Tl isotope compositions and Tl/Pb ratios. When considered together with published Tl-Pb abundance data, the measurements provide globally representative best estimates of Tl/Pb = 0.46 ?? 0.25 and ??205Tl = -1.7 ?? 2.0 for the emissions of subaerial volcanism to the atmosphere and oceans (??205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio from NIST SRM 997 isotope standard in parts per 10,000). Compared to igneous rocks of the crust and mantle, volcanic gases were found to have (i) Tl/Pb ratios that are typically about an order of magnitude higher, and (ii) significantly more variable Tl isotope compositions but a mean ??205Tl value that is indistinguishable from estimates for the Earth's mantle and continental crust. The first observation can be explained by the more volatile nature of Tl compared to Pb during the production of volcanic gases, whilst the second reflects the contrasting and approximately balanced isotope fractionation effects that are generated by partial evaporation of Tl during magma degassing and partial Tl condensation as a result of the cooling and differentiation of volcanic gases. Mass balance calculations, based on results from this and other recent Tl isotope studies, were carried out to investigate whether temporal changes in the volcanic Tl fluxes could be responsible for the dramatic shift in the ??205Tl value of the oceans at ???55 Ma, which has been inferred from Tl isotope time series data for ferromanganese crusts. The calculations demonstrate that even large changes in the marine Tl input fluxes from volcanism and other sources are unable to significantly alter the Tl isotope composition of the oceans. Based on modelling, it is shown that the large inferred change in the ??205Tl value of seawater is best explained if the oceans of the early Cenozoic featured significantly larger Tl output fluxes to oxic pelagic sediments, whilst the sink fluxes to altered ocean crust remained approximately constant. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Anonimi, “Ges al meu grat non sui joglar” (BdT 461.126, “Per zo no·m voil desconortar” (BdT 461.193, “Va, cobla: al Juge de Galur” (BdT 461.246, “Seigner Juge, ben aug dir a la gen” (BdT 461.217, “Ges per li diz non er bons prez sabuz” (BdT 461.133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Noto


    Full Text Available My paper provides a new critical edition, with critical apparatus, comment and translation of a set of anonymous ‘coblas’, copied as a sequence in the anthology present at ff. 55-66 in chansonnier P: BdT 461.126; BdT 461.193; BdT 461.246; BdT 461.217; BdT 461.133 (all of which are unica. I will examine in particular the attributions suggested so far for one or more of these ‘coblas’ (a name that has frequently been put forward is that of Paolo Lanfranchi da Pistoia, author of the sonnet in ‘cobla’ form copied in P immediately preceding the poems discussed here and address the hypothesis put forward by several scholars (and upheld with convincing evidence by Stefano Asperti that the sequence under consideration points to the strong presence of a Tuscan tradition in chansonnier P, clearly contributing, among other things, to outline a “fundamental coherence” (Asperti between some aspects of Dante’s literary culture and this particular songbook.

  12. Two new examples of very short thallium-transition metal contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karanovic, Ljiljana; Poleti, Dejan; Balic Zunic, Tonci


    Two new sulphosalts Tl3Ag3Sb2S6, (1) and Tl(3)Ag(3)AS(2)S(6), (2) were prepared in reaction of synthetic binary sulfides: argentite (Ag2S), carlinite (Tl2S) and orpiment (As2O3) or stibnite (Sb2S3), and their crystal structures have been determined using single-crystal data. The compounds are iso....... It is also pointed out that if only valence shell electrons are considered (Tl-Ag)(2+) group is isoelectronic with the (Hg-Hg)(2+) ion, therefore new examples of short Tl-Ag contacts could be expected. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Observation of electric quadrupole X-ray transitions in muonic thallium, lead and bismuth

    CERN Document Server

    Schneuwly, H; Engfer, R; Jahnke, U; Kankeleit, E; Lindenberger, K H; Pearce, R M; Petitjean, C; Schellenberg, L; Schröder, W U; Walter, H K; Zehnder, A


    Electric quadrupole X-ray transitions (5g to 3d, 4f to 2p, and 3d to 1s) have been observed in muonic Tl, Pb and Bi. From the 3 to 1 transitions, energy splittings of the n=3 levels were deduced. From a comparison of the relative intensities of E1 and E2 transitions the population ratios 5g/5f, 4f/4d, and 3d/3p were deduced. These ratios are well reproduced by a cascade calculation assuming a statistical initial population at n=20, including K, L and M shell conversion. In the case of /sup 205/Tl discrepancies between the experimental and the calculated 3d-1s/3p-is intensity ratio can be explained by nuclear excitation. From the 3p/sub 3/2/ to 1s/sub 1/2/ intensity in /sup 209 /Bi one can deduce the ratio of the radiationless to the X-ray transition width and give limits for prompt neutron emission from the 3d level. (23 refs).

  14. Coronary blood flow and thallium 201 uptake in rejecting rat heart transplantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsland, J.; Hwang, K.; Driscoll, R.; Carr, E.A.; Wright, J.R.; Curran-Everett, D.C.; Carroll, M.; Krasney, E.; Krasney, J.A. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Buffalo, NY (USA))


    The effects of rejection on coronary flow (CAF) in heart allografts are unclear, although previous evidence with cardiac imaging agents indicates impaired flow during advanced rejection. The purpose of this study was to measure CAF in heterotopically placed heart grafts. Lewis rats (LEW) received grafts from either syngeneic Lewis rats (LEW/LEW group) or allogeneic ACI rats (ACI/LEW group). CAF was measured in both the transplanted and native hearts with radiolabeled microspheres. Rejection was measured histologically (grades 0 (absent) to 4+ (severe)). In addition systemic blood pressure and cardiac outputs of the native hearts were determined with microspheres. Different animals were studied during relatively early (4 days) and late (6 days) rejection. Among the 4-day animals a cyclosporine-treated group was included (ACI/LEW CyA). In 6-day rats CAF in allografts was lower (0.56 +/- .06 ml/gm/min) compared with syngeneic grafts (1.72 +/- 0.4 ml/gm/min) (p less than 0.05). The CAF in the native hearts did not differ significantly but was higher than in the grafts in both groups. Heart rates were reduced in allografts (p less than 0.05). It is interesting that arterial pressure and cardiac output were significantly lower in animals bearing allogeneic than syngeneic grafts. In rats studied at 4 days graft CAF was lower than in the native heart in both the LEW/LEW and ACI/LEW groups, but there was no significant difference in behavior between groups. The same was true for a cyclosporine-treated group. Graft heart rates were similar in all 4-day rats.

  15. Comparison of planar and tomographic thallium scintigraphy in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, D.L.; Weiss, A.T.; Snyder, S.H.; Yaffe, S.; Gotsman, M.S.; Atlan, H.


    Planar and tomographic scans from 57 patients are compared and related to coronary arteriographic results. Tomography identified inferior and septal defects not seen on planar imaging. Planar imaging better identified apical defects. Lesions of the left circumflex were poorly defined by both techniques.

  16. Relationship between thallium-201 myocardial SPECT and findings of endomyocardial biopsy specimens in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Motohiro; Gotoh, Kohshi; Nagashima, Kenshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)


    The purpose of this study was to clarify which myocardial histological findings associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are reflected in quantitative {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT. We obtained studied SPECT images from 21 patients with DCM 10 minutes and 2 hours after they received an injection of 111 MBq {sup 201}Tl at rest. We calculated the percent coefficient of variation of myocardial {sup 201}Tl counts [%CV(Tl)], the washout rate (WR), standard deviation of WR [SD(WR)], extent score (ES) and severity score (SS). We used image analysis to measure % fibrosis, % myocytes, the ratio of fibrous tissue to myocyte tissue (F/My), myocyte size and standard deviation of myocyte size [SD(My)] in left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy specimens. The %CV(Tl) was correlated with % fibrosis and F/My. The ES and SS also correlated with F/My. The correlation between SD(WR) and SD(My) was significant. The present findings suggest that %CV(Tl), ES and SS of rest {sup 201}Tl SPECT reflect myocardial fibrosis and that the standard deviation of washout reflects the distribution of myocyte size. (author)

  17. Thallium dynamics in contrasting light sandy soils--soil vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic contamination. (United States)

    Vanek, Ales; Chrastný, Vladislav; Komárek, Michael; Galusková, Ivana; Drahota, Petr; Grygar, Tomás; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ondrej


    The influence of different soil conditions and the presence of LMWOA (Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids) on anthropogenic Tl dynamics were discussed in this study. A shift from the "labile" to the residual fraction during the ageing was identified, indicating Tl incorporation into stable phases (e.g., illite and/or amorphous silicates). The increased water-soluble Tl concentration (1.8-fold, in maximum) after the split application of LMWOA (simulating root exudation) was observed in all soils; partial dissolution of relatively "insoluble" Tl-bearing phases (silicates and eventually oxides) in the presence of LMWOA is suggested. Thermodynamic modeling showed that Tl mobilization in the presence of citric and oxalic acids was indirect and could be attributed to complexation of major elements (Ca, Mg, Al) originating from the dissolution of various soil phases. On the contrary, H(+)-promoted dissolution by acetic acid was assumed as the predominant mechanism of Tl mobilization. Manganese(III,IV) oxides, illite and probably amorphous silicates were evaluated as the dominant phases responsible for Tl retention in the soils. In carbonate-rich soils, Tl coprecipitation with the newly formed carbonates seems to be an important factor influencing Tl release. Therefore, we suggest data on CEC, pH(ZPC) and soil mineralogy to be critical for assessment of Tl behavior in soil systems.

  18. Electron and ligand transfer reactions between cyclometallated platinum(II) compounds and thallium(III) carboxylates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Ploeg, A.F.M.J. van der; Vrieze, K.


    Reaction of trans-[(2-Me{2}NCH{2}C{6}H{4}{2}Pt}I{}I{] with Tl}I{}I{}I{(O{2}CR){3} (R = Me, i-Pr) gave direct elimination of Tl}I{(O{2}CR) and formation of the oxidative addition product [(2-Me{2}NCH{2}C{6}H{4}){2}Pt}I{}V{ (O{2}CR){2}], in two isomeric forms. A structure with the carbon ligands in

  19. Induced phosphorescence of some aza- and thio-stilbenes embedded in thallium-exchanged zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorba, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Clennan, Edward L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Mazzucato, U. [Department of Chemistry, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Spalletti, A., E-mail: faby@unipg.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy)


    The emission properties of some aza-stilbenes (2-, 3- and 4-styrylpyridine) and thio-stilbenes [2- and 3-styrylthiophene and 1,2-di-(3-thienyl)ethene]have been investigated after inclusion in commercial (NaY) and cation-exchanged (TlY) faujasite zeolites to get information on the triplet properties through population of the T{sub 1} state induced by the heavy atom effect. The fluorescence properties in NaY and TlY were compared with those reported in solution. The phosphorescence spectra, observed in TlY at liquid nitrogen temperature, allowed the energy levels of the T{sub 1} states to be obtained. Phosphorescence lifetimes were also measured. Their comparison with the lifetime known for stilbene showed that the radiative decay is little affected by the heteroatoms. - Research highlights: {yields} The exchange of Na{sup +} with heavy Tl{sup +} cations in faujasite zeolites allowed the triplet properties of some hetero-stilbenes to be obtained. {yields} The absorption and fluorescence spectra in NaY and TlY were measured and compared with those in fluid solutions. {yields} The triplet energy levels and lifetimes of three aza-stilbenes and three thio-stilbenes in TlY were determined by measuring their phosphorescence emission at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  20. Predictive value of early maximal exercise test and thallium scintigraphy after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Wijns (William); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)


    textabstractRestenosis of the dilated vessel after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty can be detected by non-invasive procedures but their ability to predict later restenosis soon after a successful angioplasty as well as recurrence of angina has not been assessed. A maximal exercise

  1. Effect of procainamide, lidocaine and diphenylhydantoin on thallium-201 chloride uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.R.; Oster, Z.H.; Sacker, D.F.; Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.


    The effect of procainamide, lidocaine and diphenylhydantoin on the organ distribution (particularly the heart) of /sup 201/Tl chloride in rats was studied. The results show that diphenylhydantoin significantly decreases the uptake of /sup 201/Tl chloride in several organs of rats previously treated with this drug. No statistically significant effects were noted with procainamide and lidocaine.

  2. Interaction of the univalent thallium cation with antamanide: Experimental and theoretical study (United States)

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Böhm, Stanislav; Vaňura, Petr; Ruzza, Paolo


    On the basis of extraction experiments and γ-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium Tl+(aq) + 1·Na+(nb) ⇔ 1·Tl+ (nb) + Na+(aq) occurring in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system (1 = antamanide; aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) was determined as log Kex (Tl+, 1·Na+) = 0.7 ± 0.1. Further, the stability constant of the 1·Tl+ complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 °C: log βnb (1·Tl+) = 4.5 ± 0.2. Finally, by using quantum mechanical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of the cationic complex species 1·Tl+ was derived. In the resulting complex, the "central" cation Tl+ is bound by four bond interactions to the corresponding four carbonyl oxygen atoms of the parent ligand 1. Besides, the whole 1·Tl+ complex structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The interaction energy of the considered 1·Tl+ complex was found to be -359.0 kJ/mol, confirming also the formation of this cationic species.

  3. Sequential dual-isotope SPECT imaging with thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestamibi. (United States)

    Heo, J; Wolmer, I; Kegel, J; Iskandrian, A S


    This study examined the results of sequential SPECT dual-isotope imaging with 201Tl and 99mTc-sestamibi in 148 patients, 114 of whom also had coronary angiography and 34 had exercise testing or adenosine infusion at a rate of 140 micrograms/kg/min for 6 min. The study was completed within 2 hr. The stress and rest images were normal in 11 of 17 patients (65%) with no CAD by angiography and in 33 of 34 patients with a low pretest probability of CAD (normalcy rate = 97%). The images were abnormal in 75 patients with CAD (77%). The perfusion pattern was compared to wall motion in 485 segments (97 patients) assessed by contrast ventriculography. There were no or reversible perfusion defects in 357 of 386 segments (92%) with no wall motion abnormality. Sequential dual-isotope imaging is feasible and can be completed in a short period of time and may therefore enhance laboratory throughput and patient convenience.

  4. The Plastic Deformation of Thallium Halides in Relation to Crystal Orientation (United States)


    und Chem. I_2., 443 (1867). 6. J. Tanmann and A. Mueller, Zs.f. Metallkunde 18, 69 (1926). 3 -• a a-- - . .. Fig. 1. Press patterns on Cu-crystal...metry. Actually, under the proper lighting conditions, there can 7. J. Tammann and A. Mueller, Zs.f. Metallkunde 18, 69 (1926). 7 -41ZI 4, 4, 0 %4 ~4- 0

  5. Nuclear volume effects in equilibrium stable isotope fractionations of mercury, thallium and lead (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Liu, Yun


    The nuclear volume effects (NVEs) of Hg, Tl and Pb isotope systems are investigated with careful evaluation on quantum relativistic effects via the Dirac’s formalism of full-electron wave function. Equilibrium 202Hg/198Hg, 205Tl/203Tl, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope fractionations are found can be up to 3.61‰, 2.54‰, 1.48‰ and 3.72‰ at room temperature, respectively, larger than fractionations predicted by classical mass-dependent isotope fractionations theory. Moreover, the NVE can cause mass-independent fractionations (MIF) for odd-mass isotopes and even-mass isotopes. The plot of vs. for Hg-bearing species falls into a straight line with the slope of 1.66, which is close to previous experimental results. For the first time, Pb4+-bearing species are found can enrich heavier Pb isotopes than Pb2+-bearing species to a surprising extent, e.g., the enrichment can be up to 4.34‰ in terms of 208Pb/206Pb at room temperature, due to their NVEs are in opposite directions. In contrast, fractionations among Pb2+-bearing species are trivial. Therefore, the large Pb fractionation changes provide a potential new tracer for redox conditions in young and closed geologic systems. The magnitudes of NVE-driven even-mass MIFs of Pb isotopes (i.e., ) and odd-mass MIFs (i.e., ) are almost the same but with opposite signs. PMID:26224248

  6. Nondestructive method for quantifying thallium dopant concentrations in CsI:Tl crystals. (United States)

    Miller, Stuart R; Ovechkina, Elena E; Bennett, Paul; Brecher, Charles


    We report a quantitative method for using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to nondestructively measure the true content of Tl dopant in CsI:Tl scintillator crystals. The instrument is the handheld LeadTracer™, originally developed at RMD Instruments for measuring Pb concentration in electronic components. We describe both the measurement technique and specific findings on how changes in crystal size and growth parameters affect Tl concentration. This method is also applicable to numerous other activator ions important to scintillators, such as Ce(3+) and Eu(2+). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. KN193L01: WHOI cruise 193 leg 01 aboard the R/V Knorr from 2008-03-14 - 2008-04-12 (NODC Accession 0071817) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Post-cruise download of raw data from shipboard computer(s) as furnished by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Shipboard Scientific Support Group and archived...

  8. KN193L07: WHOI cruise 193 leg 07 aboard the R/V Knorr from 2008-07-14 - 2008-08-07 (NODC Accession 0080943) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Post-cruise download of raw data from shipboard computer(s) as furnished by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Shipboard Scientific Support Group and archived...

  9. KN193L04: WHOI cruise 193 leg 04 aboard the R/V Knorr from 2008-05-24 - 2008-06-03 (NODC Accession 0080942) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Post-cruise download of raw data from shipboard computer(s) as furnished by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Shipboard Scientific Support Group and archived...

  10. Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 1992-93. Research Report 1-93. (United States)

    Balfour, Linda F., Comp.

    This abstract presents statistical data on higher education activities in North Carolina from simple counts of enrollment and degrees conferred to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among institutions. Data for the abstract were assembled from information supplied by the colleges and universities for the 1992-93 academic year.…

  11. Immunogenic potential of a Salmonella Typhimurium live vaccine for pigs against monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium DT 193. (United States)

    Theuß, Tobias; Ueberham, Elke; Lehmann, Jörg; Lindner, Thomas; Springer, Sven


    Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mSTM) strains account for up to 8.6% of all human Salmonellosis cases. They have an increasing prevalence during recent years and several human cases with hospitalisation were reported. These strains are often isolated from pigs and pork - one primary source of human infection. A Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) live vaccine has been proven successful in controlling of STM infections in pigs for many years. The aim of this study was to test the immunogenicity of the vaccine in weaners during oral challenge with a virulent mSTM strain and to examine the kinetics of STM-specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies induced by vaccination and infection. Despite clinical signs being present in both groups, the vaccination led to a significant reduction of diarrhoea, overall clinical symptoms and a milder elevation of the body temperature. Necropsy revealed fewer pathological lesions in the gastrointestinal tract of vaccinated compared to control animals. Moreover, in the ileal and caecal mucosa and in the ileocaecal lymph nodes the challenge strain burden was significantly reduced by vaccination. Significant differences in the antibody responses of both groups were present during the vaccination period and after infection. In vaccinated animals Salmonella-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels increased significantly after vaccination and were even more pronounced in response to challenge. In contrast, similarly low levels of IgM antibodies were detected during the vaccination period in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals. However, after challenge IgM antibody levels increased significantly in control pigs while neither IgA nor IgG antibodies were detectable. The data demonstrate that mSTM can evoke clinical signs in weaners. Due to the vaccination their incidence and magnitude were significantly milder. Vaccination also led to a significantly reduced challenge strain burden in the intestine and the lymph nodes which is comparable to previous studies using the same vaccine in a challenge with biphasic STM. Therefore, it is concluded that this vaccine induces immunity against monophasic and biphasic STM strains. Furthermore, the results of antibody profiles in response to vaccination and infection provide additional evidence for humoral immune mechanisms triggered during Salmonella infection or vaccination.

  12. 26 CFR 1.193-1 - Deduction for tertiary injectant expenses. (United States)


    ... (which includes oil recovered from sources such as oil shale and condensate). (5) Injectant defined. For... taxpayer why uses the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting, uses an approved tertiary... components of the injectant before injection, the hydrocarbons would have a fair market value of $80x. B uses...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #193 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 2 of 2 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. FCJ-193 Harbouring Dissent: Greek Independent and Social Media and the Antifascist Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sky Croeser


    Full Text Available This article examines Greek activists’ use of a range of communication technologies, including social media, blogs, citizen journalism sites, Web radio, and anonymous networks. Drawing on Anna Tsing’s theoretical model, the article examines key frictions around digital technologies that emerged within a case study of the antifascist movement in Athens, focusing on the period around the 2013 shutdown of Athens Indymedia. Drawing on interviews with activists and analysis of online communications, including issue networks and social media activity, we find that the antifascist movement itself is created and recreated through a process of productive friction, as different groups and individuals with varying ideologies and experiences work together.

  15. Women, Wit, and Witchcraft: The Burden of Stereotypes. Working Paper No. 193. (United States)

    Levy, Barbara

    This paper examines the negative stereotypes so long foisted on witty women and the move of contemporary witty women writers into a comic vision beyond the imposed connection of female wit to sly cleverness and witchcraft. To illustrate how the woman writer had to cope with a prejudice against and a fear of her wit, the paper considers three…

  16. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YPL070W, YPR193C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YPL070W MUK1 Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function containing a Vps9 domain; computational...1 Bait description Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function containing a Vps9 domain; computational

  17. : tous les projets | Page 193 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des spécialistes canadiens participent à des travaux de recherche portant sur les risques auxquels sont exposés les milieux humides le long de la côte atlantique de l'Amérique du Sud et sur leur vulnérabilité. End Date: 16 mars 2017. Sujet: URUGUAY. Région: Brazil, Uruguay, Canada, Portugal. Programme: Climate ...

  18. Long Coherence Length 193 nm Laser for High-Resolution Nano-Fabrication (United States)


    ArF excimer lasers . In this Phase I STTR we have successfully designed and modeled a solid-state laser source that exceeds our target specifications...briefly in section 6. More details of the fiber modeling and analysis work are given in the appendix. The solid-state196 nm laser system is discussed...will limit the pulse energy . Efficiency of the system is another potential problem, as is scalability in power. A third system would use a 946 nm

  19. Page 1 193 Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during the wet season. However, it had longer vines in both seasons as well as higher number of shoots and leaves/cutting during the dry season. Vegetative stem cutting propagation of a selected clone of G. latifolia can thus be achieved with any of the physiological ages in both seasons at varying levels of success.

  20. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YJR055W, YPL193W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available unknown function, required for growth at high temperature Rows with this bait as bait (1) Rows with this...unknown function, required for growth at high temperature Rows with this bait as bait Rows with this bait

  1. In-situ Mueller matrix polarimetry of projection lenses for 193-nm lithography (United States)

    Nomura, Hiroshi; Higashikawa, Iwao


    For immersion lithography with aggressive polarization illumination settings, it is important to newly construct two systems for diagnosing lithography tools; Stokes polarimetry of illumination and Mueller matrix polarimetry of projection lenses. At the SPIE conference on Optical Microlithography XXI in 2008, the authors had already reported on the former Stokes polarimetry. True polarization states of several illumination settings emerged. On the other hand, the latter Mueller matrix polarimetry is thought more complicated than the Stokes polarimetry. Therefore, the Mueller matrix polarimetry is reported separating into two papers. A theoretical approach to realizing the polarimetry has reported at the SPIE conference on Lithography Asia 2009. The test mask for the Mueller matrix polarimetry also comprises thin-plate polarizers and wide-view-angle quarter-waveplates, both which are developed by collaboration with Kogakugiken Corporation in Japan. Mueller matrices of the sample projecting optics are reconstructed by sixteen measurements of Stokes parameters of a light ray that reaches the wafer plane though the test mask and the projecting optics. The Stokes parameters are measured with a polarization measurement system already equipped on a side stage lying at the wafer plane. It took about seven hours to capture all the images at five image heights within the static exposure field. Stokes parameters are automatically calculated from the images and outputted from the lithography tools as a text file, and Mueller matrices are calculated by homebuilt software in a short time. All the images were captured under the identical illumination condition that the tool manufacturer calls "un-polarization".

  2. 193nm high power lasers for the wide bandgap material processing (United States)

    Fujimoto, Junichi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Kakizaki, Koji; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Mimura, Toshio; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru


    Recently infrared laser has faced resolution limit of finer micromachining requirement on especially semiconductor packaging like Fan-Out Wafer Level Package (FO-WLP) and Through Glass Via hole (TGV) which are hard to process with less defect. In this study, we investigated ablation rate with deep ultra violet excimer laser to explore its possibilities of micromachining on organic and glass interposers. These results were observed with a laser microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). As the ablation rates of both materials were quite affordable value, excimer laser is expected to be put in practical use for mass production.

  3. 1935 15' Quad #193 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 34 CFR 403.193 - What are the information requirements regarding special populations? (United States)


    ... grade level in which vocational education programs are first generally available in the State, but in no case later than the beginning of the ninth grade. (c) Each eligible institution or consortium of... seeks admission to, vocational education programs offered by the institution or consortium of eligible...

  5. SU-E-T-193: FMEA Severity Scores - Do We Really Know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A; Robertson, JD; Narra, V; Yue, N; Howell, R


    Purpose: Mycosis fungoides is a common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which generally affects the skin. A typical course of treatment may include fractionated total skin electron beam therapy. Given the difficulties in uniformly irradiating some regions of the body and the need for frequent visits within the context of a fractionated protocol, this study investigated the feasibility of delivering the dose using form-fitting cloth which contained phosphorous-32 as a source for beta particle irradiation. Methods: A piece of fabric (0.97 g) consisting of a blend of spandex and flame retardant material impregnated with phosphorus-31 (2000 ppm) was bombarded with neutrons to produce phosphorus-32. The cloth was then laid flat and a stack of radiochromic film placed on top. Sheets of film and tissue equivalent plastic were layered to form a stack measuring a total of 1 cm thickness and remained sandwiched for 77.3 hr. Results: The initial activity of the activated cloth was 44 μCi of P-32. The absorbed dose was uniform within planes parallel to the cloth and exponentially dependent on depth, delivering 560cGy at 0.3mm and falling to 20cGy at 3mm. Conclusion: The total dose prescribed for a typical course of TSET for mycosis fungoides is 36Gy delivered over 9 weeks and is expected to treat to at least 5mm depth. Therefore, the P-32 impregnated cloth may not be clinically indicated to treat this disease given the unfavorable depth-dose characteristics. However, a major advantage of using form-fitting cloth is the uniformity with which the dose could be delivered over the skin in areas which are not flat. Increasing the distance between cloth and skin could improve the depth-dose characteristics.

  6. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YPR086W, YMR193W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available prey as bait (0) Literature on bait (YPD) 56 Literature on prey (YPD) 8 Literature shared by bait and...and prey 0 Literature sharing score 0 CuraGen (0 or 1) 0 S. Fields (0 or 1) 0 Association (0 or 1,YPD)

  7. Thallium 2223 high Tc superconductor in a silver matrix and its magnetic shielding, hermal cycle and time aging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, X.; He, W.S.; Havenhill, A. [and others


    Superconducting Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} (Tl2223) was ground to powder. Mixture with silver powder (0--80% weight) and press to desired shape. After proper annealing, one can get good silver-content Tl2223 bulk superconductor. It is time-stable and has good superconducting property as same as pure Tl2223. It also has better mechanical property and far better thermal cycle property than pure Tl2223.

  8. Kinetic analysis of 18F-fluorodihydrorotenone as a deposited myocardial flow tracer: Comparison to thallium-201.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; O' Neil, James P.; La Belle, Michael; Huesman, Ronald H.; VanBrocklin, Henry F.


    The goal of this investigation was to assess the accuracy of 18F-fluorodihydrorotenone (18F-FDHR) as a new deposited myocardial flow tracer and compare the results to those for 201Tl. Methods. The kinetics of these flow tracers were evaluated in 22 isolated, erythrocyte- and albumin-perfused rabbit hearts over a flow range encountered in patients. The two flow tracers plus a vascular reference tracer (131I-albumin) were introduced as a bolus through a port just above the aortic cannula. Myocardial extraction, retention, washout, and uptake parameters were computed from the venous outflow curves using the multiple indicator dilution technique and spectral analysis. Results. The mean initial extraction fractions of 18F-FDHR (0.85 +- 0.07) and 201Tl (0.87 +- 0.05) were not significantly different, although the initial extraction fraction for 18F-FDHR declined with flow (P < 0.0001), whereas the initial extraction fraction of 201Tl did not. Washout of 201Tl was faster (P < 0.001) and more affected by flow (P < 0.05) than 18F-FDHR washout. Except for initial extraction fraction, 18F-FDHR retention was greater (P < 0.001) and less affected by flow (P < 0.05) than 201Tl retention. Reflecting its superior retention, net uptake of 18F-FDHR was better correlated with flow than 201Tl uptake at both one and fifteen minutes after tracer introduction (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Conclusion. The superior correlation of 18F-FDHR uptake with flow indicates that it is a better flow tracer than 201Tl in the isolated rabbit heart. Compared to the other currently available positron-emitting flow tracers (82Rb, 13N-ammonia, and 15O-water), 18F-FDHR has the potential of providing excellent image resolution without the need for an on-site cyclotron.

  9. Quantitative angiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery: correlations with pressure gradient and results of exercise thallium scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Wijns (William); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.H.C. Reiber (Johan); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); C.J. Kooijman; K. Balakumaran (Kulasekaram); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)


    textabstractTo evaluate, during cardiac catheterization, what constitutes a physiologically significant obstruction to blood flow in the human coronary system, computer-based quantitative analysis of coronary angiograms was performed on the angiograms of 31 patients with isolated disease of the

  10. Comparison of I-123 IPPA and thallium-201 for the prediction of functional improvement after myocardial revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C.L.; Van Decker, W.; Iskandrian, A.S. [Temple Univ. Hospital, Allegheny Univ. of the Health Sciences, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Sixteen patients in the phase I/II study of IPPA had RRT prior to MR. Patients were injected with 2-6 mCi of IPPA; sequential SPECT imaging was begun at 4 minutes. Radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and 8 weeks after MR. The ability of IPPA and RRT to identify patients with a 5% increase in EF after MR were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The IPPA images were analyzed using two techniques: The first method looked at the fraction of the myocardium (FM) demonstrating abnormal metabolism and the second at the FM demonstrating descreased initial perfusion and abnormal metabolism. RRT images were analyzed three different ways: Thresholded uptake on the initial images, thresholded uptake on the delayed images and relative improvement between the initial and delayed images. The parameters giving the highest ROC areas were identified for both IPPA and RRT and then compared. Five patients underwent PTCA and 11 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The mean EF increased from 36{+-}12% to 41{+-}14% after MR (p=0.012). The amount of myocardium (AM) showing intermediate metabolism (IM) of IPPA from 0.001 to 0.013 In counts/min was a strong predictor of FI after MR (area=0.92{+-}0.05). The AM that was hypoperfused and had IM (activity<90% of maximum uptake and metabolism from 0.002-0.013 In counts/min) was a stronger predictor (area=0.97 0.03). Using RRT, the best predictor was the AM with greater than 55% of maximal activity on the initial images (area=0.83{+-}0.10); the AM>45% of maximal activity on the delayed images was slightly lower (area=0.81{+-}0.10); improvement between the initial and delayed images was comparatively weak (0.56{+-}0.13). The difference between the areas between IPPA and RRT, however, was not statistically significant. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Sechzehn Patienten der Phase-I/II-IPPA-Studie wurden einer RRT vor MR unterzogen. Es wurden 75-220 MBq IPPA injiziert und 4 min p.i. eine sequentielle SPECT-Akquisition gestartet. Eine Radionuklid-Ventrikulographie wurde vor und acht Wochen nach MR durchgefuehrt. Die Moeglichkeit von IPPA und RRT, solche Patienten zu erkennen, die eine Zunahme der EF>5% nach der MR aufwiesen, wurde mit der Receiver-Operating-Characteristic-(ROC)-Kurvenanalyse evaluiert. Die IPPA-Bilder wurden ueber zwei Methoden analysiert: Die erste erfasste Anteile des Myokards (AM), die einen abnormen Metabolismus aufwiesen, und die zweite AM mit einer initial verringerten Durchblutung und einem abnormen Metabolismus. Die RRT-Bilder wurden auf drei Weisen analysiert: Die schwellenabhaengige Aufnahme im fruehen Bild, die schwellenabhaengige Aufnahme im spaeten Bild und eine relative Verbesserung zwischen beiden. Fuer IPPA und RRT wurden diejenigen Schwellenwerte, die die groesste Flaeche unter den ROC-Kurven ergaben, ermittelt und miteinander verglichen. Fuenf Patienten wurden einer PTCA unterzogen und 11 einer koronaren Bypass-Operation. Die mittlere EF stieg von 36{+-}12% auf 41{+-}14% nach der MR (p=0,012). Der AM, der einen mittelgradigen Stoffwechsel (MS) des IPPA von 0,001-0,013 In Counts/min aufwies, war stark praediktiv fuer die KV nach MR (Flaeche=0,92{+-}0,05). Der AM, der eine initial verringerte Durchblutung und einen MS (Aktivitaet <90% der maximalen Aufnahme und Stoffwechsel von 0,002-0,013 In Counts/Minute) zeigte, war sogar staerker praediktiv (Flaeche=0,97{+-}0,03). Bei Verwendung von RRT war der beste Praediktor derjenige AM, der eine Aufnahme >55% des Maximums in den fruehen Bildern zeigte (Flaeche=0,83{+-}0,1); der AM, der ueber einen Uptake>45% der maximalen Aktivitaet in den spaeten Aufnahmen verfuegte, war geringfuegig schlechter (Flaeche=0,81{+-}0,1); eine Verbesserung zwischen dem fruehen und spaeten Bild war vergleichsweise schwach (Flaeche=0,56{+-}0,13). Der Unterschied zwischen IPPA und RRT war statistisch nicht signifikant (IPPA=0,97{+-}0,03 vs. RRT=0,83{+-}0,1; p=0,13). (orig./MG)

  11. Exercise-induced U-wave changes in patients with coronary artery disease. Correlation with tomographic thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoda, Hiroyuki; Endo, Akihiro; Kato, Masahiko; Kato, Tatsuo; Omodani, Hiroki; Osaki, Shuichi; Kinugawa, Toru; Hoshio, Akira [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine; Mashiba, Hiroto


    We studied the relation between exercise-induced U-wave changes and the site of a reversible defect in tomographic {sup 201}Tl myocardial imaging. Coronary artery disease and control groups consisted of 116 and 42 patients, respectively. In the anteroapical-ischemia group (n=37), the sensitivity of U-wave inversion in the anterior precordial leads for ischemia was 62% (23/37) and that of prominent U-waves without an increase in the height of the T-wave in the inferior limb leads was 57% (21/37). In this group, 18 patients (49%) met both criteria (18 =78%= of 23 patients with the former; 18 =86%= of 21 patients with the latter). In the posterior-ischemia group (n=59), the sensitivity of prominent U-waves with a decrease in the height of the T-wave in the anterior precordial leads for ischemia was 63% (37/59) and that of U-wave inversion in the inferior limb leads was 20% (12/59). In this group, 12 patients (20%) met both criteria (12 =32%= of 37 patients with the former; all 12 patients with the latter). The specificity of U-wave criteria was 100%. In the anteroapical and posterior-ischemia group (n=20), the sensitivity of U-wave criteria for anteroapical and posterior ischemia was 85% (17/20) and 40% (8/20), respectively. In conclusion, U-wave criteria are not only specific but also sensitive for myocardial ischemia determined by {sup 201}Tl imaging. (author)

  12. Structural, dielectric and vibrational studies of the new mixed solid solution of thallium potassium sulfate selenate tellurate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferjani, A.; Abdelhedi, M.; Dammak, M.; Kolsi, A.W. [University of Sfax, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, UR 11ES73, B. P. 1171, Sfax (Tunisia)


    The new mixed compound Tl{sub 1.89}K{sub 0.11}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.9}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.1}Te(OH){sub 6} which is crystallized in the monoclinic system with space group P2{sub 1}/c was analyzed at room temperature using X-ray diffractometer data. The unit cell parameters are a = 12.3308(7), b = 7.2011(4), c = 12.0298(8) Aa, β = 110.755(4) , V = 998.87(11) Aa{sup 3} and Z = 4. The final refinement led to R = 0.035 and Rw = 0.038. The main feature of these atomic arrangements is the coexistence of three and different anions (SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4} {sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6} {sup 6-} groups) in the unit cell, connected by hydrogen bonds (O-H..O) which make the building of the crystal. The Tl{sup +} and K{sup +} cations, occupying the same positions, are located between these polyhedral. The crystals of Tl{sub 1.89}K{sub 0.11}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.9}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.1}Te(OH){sub 6} underwent three endothermic peaks at 377, 466 and 472 K. These transitions were detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements using the impedance and modulus spectroscopy techniques. The IR and Raman spectra recorded at room temperature in the frequency ranges (50-1200) and (400-4000) cm{sup -1}, respectively, have confirmed the presence of TeO{sub 6} {sup 6-}, SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} and SeO{sub 4} {sup 2-} groups in the crystal. (orig.)

  13. Studies on the adsorption of caesium, thallium, strontium and cobalt radionuclides on activated carbons from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Utrilla, J.; Ferro-Garcia, M.A.; Mata-Arjona, A.; Gonzalez-Gomez, C. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)


    Individual adsorption studies of Cs/sup +/, Tl/sup +/, Sr/sup 2 +/ and Co/sup 2 +/ on activated carbons from aqueous solutions are reported. The carbon samples were characterised using different techniques. The surface area and the micro-, meso- and macropore volumes of all samples have been calculated. The chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbons was also studied. Optimal conditions for the adsorption of the metal ions have been identified. The adsorption of these cations by the carbon samples was also determined in the presence of a number of different anions. The data suggest the possible use of activated carbons for the preconcentration and separation of some cations.

  14. One-dimensional phosphinite platinum chains based on hydrogen bonding interactions and phosphinite tetranuclear platinum(II)-thallium(I) complexes. (United States)

    Díez, Alvaro; Forniés, Juan; Gómez, Julio; Lalinde, Elena; Martín, Antonio; Moreno, M Teresa; Sánchez, Sergio


    The mononuclear pentafluorophenyl platinum complex containing the chelated diphenylphosphinous acid/diphenylphosphinite system [Pt(C(6)F(5)){(PPh(2)O)(2)H}(PPh(2)OH)] 1 has been prepared and characterised. 1 and the related alkynyl complex [Pt(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CBu(t)){(PPh(2)O)(2)H}(PPh(2)OH)] 2 form infinite one-dimensional chains in the solid state based on intermolecular O-H[dot dot dot]O hydrogen bonding interactions. Deprotonation reactions of [PtL{(PPh(2)O)(2)H}(PPh(2)OH)] (L = C(6)F(5), C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CBu(t), C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh 3) with [Tl(acac)] yields tetranuclear Pt(2)Tl(2) complexes [PtL{(PPh(2)O)(2)H}(PPh(2)O)Tl](2) (L = C(6)F(5) 4, C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CBu(t), C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh ). The structure of the tert-butylalkynyl derivative , established by X-ray diffraction, shows two anionic discrete units [Pt(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CBu(t)){(PPh(2)O)(2)H}(PPh(2)O)](-) joined by two Tl(i) centres via Tl-O and Pt-Tl bonds. Despite the existence of Pt-Tl interactions, they do not show luminescence.

  15. Dual-tracer autoradiography with thallium-201 and iodine-125 MIBG in BIO 14. 6 cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Takahisa; Kobayashi, Akira; Kurata, Chinori; Tawarahara, Kei; Yamazaki, Noboru (Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan))


    Dual-tracer imaging of the heart with [sup 125]I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and [sup 201]Tl can simultaneously demonstrate the distribution of sympathetic nerve endings and the underlying myocardial perfusion. A quantitative dual-tracer autoradiographic study with [sup 201]Tl and [sup 125]I-MIBG was performed to investigate changes in the distribution of cardiac sympathetic innervation with the progression of cardiomyopathy in BIO 14.6 hamsters. The distribution of [sup 201]Tl was uniform in control hamsters and BIO 14.6 hamsters at all stages of cardiomyopathy. In contrast, a reduction in MIBG accumulation occurred in the endocardial region of the left ventricular free wall and the left ventricular aspect of the interventricular septum in BIO 14.6 hamsters at 3 and 8 months of age. Thus, there was an uncoupling of the left ventricular distribution of [sup 201]Tl and [sup 125]I-MIBG in BIO 14.6 hamsters. In addition, interstitial fibrosis was increased in the interventricular septum, the subendocardial region of the left ventricular free wall, and the right ventricular wall, which were the sites of reduced MIBG accumulation. This study shows that dual myocardial imaging with MIBG and [sup 201]Tl may be useful for investigating patients with cardiomyopathy. (author).

  16. Assessment of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Shiga, Kouji; Umamoto, Ikuo (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)


    Exercise Tl scintigraphy (EX-Tl) provides a noninvasive means of identifying myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients (pts) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We have noted that some pts with HCM have a pattern of transient dilation of the left ventricle (LV) on the immediate post exercise images as compared with 3 hour redistribution images. We presumed that left ventricular dilation was caused by subendocardial hypoperfusion. So we studied transient dilation of the LV in 50 pts with HCM and 20 controls (C). Initial and delayed conventional short tomographic images were obtained after reconstruction of 30 projections acquired over 180 degrees. Thirty six radii every 10 degrees were generated from the center of the middle myocardial images of the short axis. An area surrounded by the thirty six points of maximal count on each radius was calculated in initial and delayed images. Transient dilation index (TDI) as an index of dilation was determined by dividing an area in initial image by an area in delayed image. TDI in pts with HCM was larger than that in C. Pts with HCM were classified into the two groups, Group A: TDI>1.11 (mean+2 SD in C), 24 pts, Group B: TDI>1.11, 26 pts. Frequency of pts with history of chest pain in Group A was higher than that in Group B, and frequency of pts with positive exercise ECG in Group A was higher than that in Group B. End diastolic volume in Group B did not change 10 minutes after exercise by radionuclide ventriculography. In conclusion, transient dilation of the LV in pts with HCM by Ex-Tl is in appearance, and may reflect subendocardial ischemia. (author).

  17. Vestibularis-schwannomers diagnostik og vaekst bedømt ved SPECT kombineret med TL-201 Thallium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charabi, S; Lassen, N A; Jacobsen, G K


    The value of SPECT scanning in diagnosis and growth potential of vestibular schwannoma (VS) was investigated in a series of 29 patients. SPECT demonstrated all tumours > 0.8 cm3, but had limitations as a diagnostic modality of small intracanalicular tumours, when compared to gadolinium DTPA...

  18. Assessment of myocardial viability by exercise stress-redistribution myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201; The usefulness of C-map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan))


    This study was intended to clarify whether Tl-201 washout rate abnormality after exercise stress can detect myocardial viability in the myocardium with perfusion defect on redistribution (RD) images. The subjects were 29 patients with ischemic heart disease in whom perfusion defect was seen on delayed (3 hr) RD images and had percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). A combined map (C-map) was prepared by adding the location of washout rate abnormality ([<=]30%) to perfusion defect on RD images before PTCA. The C-map and myocardial images after PTCA (Post-map) were compared. The left ventriculogram was divided into 17 segments. C-map and Post-map were qualitatively concordant with each other in 27 of 29 patients (93%). In the other 2 patients, only one segment showed discordance of findings between the two maps. Out of 152 segments with perfusion defect on RD images, 75 segments (50%) showed normal perfusion in both the C-map and the Post-map. In segmental analysis, the C-map and the Post-map were found consistent in 80% of the cases. In 12 patients with fixed defect before PTCA, the agreement between the C-map and the Post-map was also excellent (86%). The present C-map was useful for not only qualitative but also quantitative analyses of myocardial viability in myocardial segments which show perfusion defect on standard RD images. (N.K.).

  19. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzakh, A. E., E-mail:; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)


    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for {sup 189–198,} {sup 211}Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  20. Modeling the rovibrationally excited C2H4OH radicals from the photodissociation of 2-bromoethanol at 193 nm. (United States)

    Ratliff, B J; Womack, C C; Tang, X N; Landau, W M; Butler, L J; Szpunar, D E


    This study photolytically generates, from 2-bromoethanol photodissociation, the 2-hydroxyethyl radical intermediate of the OH + ethene reaction and measures the velocity distribution of the stable radicals. We introduce an impulsive model to characterize the partitioning of internal energy in the C(2)H(4)OH fragment. It accounts for zero-point and thermal vibrational motion to determine the vibrational energy distribution of the nascent C(2)H(4)OH radicals and the distribution of total angular momentum, J, as a function of the total recoil kinetic energy imparted in the photodissociation. We render this system useful for the study of the subsequent dissociation of the 2-hydroxyethyl radical to the possible asymptotic channels of the OH + ethene reaction. The competition between these channels depends on the internal energy and the J distribution of the radicals. First, we use velocity map imaging to separately resolve the C(2)H(4)OH + Br((2)P(3/2)) and C(2)H(4)OH + Br((2)P(1/2)) photodissociation channels, allowing us to account for the 10.54 kcal/mol partitioned to the Br((2)P(1/2)) cofragment. We determine an improved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) line strength for the Br transitions at 233.681 nm (5p (4)P(1/2) distribution of total internal energy, rotational and vibrational, in the C(2)H(4)OH radicals. Then, using 10.5 eV photoionization, we measure the velocity distribution of the radicals that are stable to subsequent dissociation. The onset of dissociation occurs at internal energies much higher than those predicted by theoretical methods and reflects the significant amount of rotational energy imparted to the C(2)H(4)OH photofragment. Instead of estimating the mean rotational energy with an impulsive model from the equilibrium geometry of 2-bromoethanol, our model explicitly includes weighting over geometries across the quantum wave function with zero, one, and two quanta in the harmonic mode that most strongly alters the exit impact parameter. The model gives a nearly perfect prediction of the measured velocity distribution of stable radicals near the dissociation onset using a G4 prediction of the C-Br bond energy and the dissociation barrier for the OH + ethene channel calculated by Senosiain et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 6960). The model also indicates that the excited state dissociation proceeds primarily from a conformer of 2-bromoethanol that is trans across the C-C bond. We discuss the possible extensions of our model and the effect of the radical intermediate's J-distribution on the branching between the OH + ethene product channels.

  1. Genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 strains D153 and D193 from bovine pneumonia (United States)

    Here we report two genomes, one complete and one draft, from virulent bovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica(strains D171 and D35)serotype A2 recovered prior to the field usage of modern antimicrobial drugs....

  2. Development and numerical solution of a mechanistic model for corneal tissue ablation with the 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser (United States)

    Fisher, Brian T.; Hahn, David W.


    We detail the development and implementation of a global ablation model that incorporates a dynamically changing tissue absorption coefficient. Detailed spectroscopic measurements rule out plasma-shielding effects during the laser-tissue interaction and thereby support a photochemical mechanism. The model predicts ablation rate behavior that agrees well with a variety of experimental ablation rate data and that substantially deviates from a static Beer-Lambert model. The dynamic model predicts an enhancement in the tissue absorption coefficient of about 25%-50% as compared with the initial, static value. In addition, the model predicts an increase in the tissue ablation rate as corneal hydration increases, which may provide additional insight into variations in refractive surgery outcome.

  3. Coaxial Measurement of the Translational Distribution of CS Produced in the Laser Photolysis of CS2 at 193nm. (United States)


    multiplicity during a transition. A similar conclusion was reached earlier (4,5) using methods that are entirely different from those used .. in these...IKasakawi, and R. Bersohn, J. Chemn. Phys. 72, 4058 (1980). *2. M.C. Addison, C.D. Bryne and R.J. Donovan, Chem. Phys. Letters, 64, 57 (1979). *3. J.E

  4. SU-F-T-193: Evaluation of a GPU-Based Fast Monte Carlo Code for Proton Therapy Biological Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleei, R; Qin, N; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Peeler, C [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jia, X [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr, Dallas, TX (United States)


    Purpose: Biological treatment plan optimization is of great interest for proton therapy. It requires extensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to compute physical dose and biological quantities. Recently, a gPMC package was developed for rapid MC dose calculations on a GPU platform. This work investigated its suitability for proton therapy biological optimization in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Methods: We performed simulations of a proton pencil beam with energies of 75, 150 and 225 MeV in a homogeneous water phantom using gPMC and FLUKA. Physical dose and energy spectra for each ion type on the central beam axis were scored. Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) was calculated using repair-misrepair-fixation model. Microdosimetry calculations were performed using Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS). Results: Ranges computed by the two codes agreed within 1 mm. Physical dose difference was less than 2.5 % at the Bragg peak. RBE-weighted dose agreed within 5 % at the Bragg peak. Differences in microdosimetric quantities such as dose average lineal energy transfer and specific energy were < 10%. The simulation time per source particle with FLUKA was 0.0018 sec, while gPMC was ∼ 600 times faster. Conclusion: Physical dose computed by FLUKA and gPMC were in a good agreement. The RBE differences along the central axis were small, and RBE-weighted dose difference was found to be acceptable. The combined accuracy and efficiency makes gPMC suitable for proton therapy biological optimization.

  5. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart R of... - Minor Projects for Purposes of § 922.193(a)(2)(iii) (United States)


    ... water and drift material. (b) Spring piles and pile clusters when their design and purpose is usual for... values or interests, including navigation and water quality. (h) Fish or wildlife habitat structures..., water monitoring devices, water quality testing devices, survey devices, and core sampling devices, if...

  6. Bogidiella stocki, a new species from the Sinai Peninsula (Amphipoda, Bogidiellidae) (Contribution to the knowledge of the Amphipoda 193)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaman, Gordan S.


    The new species of the family Bogidiellidae (Amphipoda Gammaridea), Bogidiella stocki, n. sp., is described and figured from the subterranean waters of Beer Gideih (Sinai peninsula), and its taxonomical status is discussed.

  7. Synergy of decay spectroscopy and mass spectrometry for the study of exotic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanja, Juliane


    With only two ingredients, atomic nuclei exhibit a rich structure depending on the ordering of the different proton- and neutron-occupied states. This ordering can give rise to excited states with exceptionally long half-lives, also known as isomers, especially near shell closures. On-line mass spectrometry can often be compromised by the existence of such states that may even be produced in higher proportion than the ground state. This thesis presents the first results obtained from a nuclear spectroscopy setup coupled with the high-resolution Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP, at CERN's radioactive ion beam facility ISOLDE. The isomerism in the neutron-deficient thallium isotopes was investigated. The data on {sup 184,190,193-195}Tl allow an improvement of existing mass values as well as a mass-spin-state assignment in {sup 190,193,194}Tl. Due to the presence of the ground and isomeric state for {sup 194}Tl the excitation energy of the latter was determined for the first time experimentally. Systematic trends in the vicinity of the Z = 82 shell closure have been discussed.

  8. Biokinetics of radiolabeled Iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (I-123-IPPA) and thallium-201 in a rabbit model of chronic myocardial infarction measured using a series of thermoluminescent dosimeters (United States)

    Medich, David Christopher


    The biokinetics of Iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-IPPA) during a chronic period of myocardial infarction were determined and compared to 201Tl. IPPA was assessed as a perfusion and metabolic tracer in the scintigraphic diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The myocardial clearance kinetics were measured by placing a series of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on normal and infarcted tissue to measure the local myocardial activity content over time. The arterial blood pool activity was fit to a bi-exponential function for 201Tl and a tri-exponential function for 123I-IPPA to estimate the left ventricle contribution to TLD response. At equilibrium, the blood pool contribution was estimated experimentally to be less than 5% of the total TLD response. The method was unable to resolve the initial uptake of the imaging agent due in part to the 2 minute TLD response integration time and in part to the 30 second lag time for the first TLD placement. A noticeable disparity was observed between the tracer concentrations of IPPA in normal and ischemic tissue of approximately 2:1. The fitting parameters (representing the biokinetic eigenvalue rate constants) were related to the fundamental rate constants of a recycling biokinetic model. The myocardial IPPA content within normal tissue was elevated after approximately 130 minutes post injection. This phenomenon was observed in all but one (950215) of the IPPA TLD kinetics curves.

  9. Combined thallium-201 and dynamic iodine-123 iodophenylpentadecanoic acid single-photon emission computed tomography in patients after acute myocardial infarction with effective reperfusion. (United States)

    Richter, W S; Beckmann, S; Cordes, M; Schuppenhauer, T; Schartl, M; Munz, D L


    Considerable derangements of energy metabolism are to be expected during ischemia and reperfusion. In ischemic myocardium, the oxidative degradation of carbohydrates is shifted toward the anaerobic production of lactate and the oxidation of fatty acids is suppressed. The aim of this study was to examine the uptake and metabolism of iodine-123 (123I) iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in stunned myocardium. In 15 patients, SPECT with 201Tl and 123I IPPA as well as echocardiography with low-dose dobutamine stimulation were performed 12 +/- 5 days after myocardial infarction with reperfusion. Follow-up echocardiography was carried out 24 +/- 8 days later for documentation of functional improvement. Uptake of 201Tl and 123I IPPA were obtained in five left ventricular segments, and dynamic SPECT imaging was used for calculation of the fast and the slow components of the biexponential myocardial 123I IPPA clearance. Wall motion improved in 14 of 26 dysfunctional segments (54%). Stunned segments were characterized by a reduced 123I IPPA extraction, a shorter half-life of the fast, and a longer half-life of the slow clearance component. All parameters of the combined 201Tl/123I IPPA study predicted functional recovery with similar accuracies (area under the receiver operator characteristic curves between 0.68 and 0.76; p = NS). Analysis of 201Tl uptake alone could not predict functional recovery in this study. Stunned myocardium is characterized by a disturbance of fatty acid metabolism. For prediction of functional improvement, 123I IPPA imaging added significant diagnostic information.

  10. Thallium 2223 high T(sub c) superconductor in a silver matrix and its magnetic shielding, hermalcycle and time aging properties (United States)

    Fei, X.; He, W. S.; Havenhill, A.; Ying, Z. Q.; Xin, Y.; Alzayed, N.; Wong, K. K.; Guo, Y.; Reichle, D.; Lucas, M. S. P.


    Superconducting Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 (Tl2223) was ground to powder. Mixture with silver powder (0-80% weight) and press to desired shape. After proper annealing, one can get good silver-content Tl2223 bulk superconductor. It is time-stable and has good superconducting property as same as pure Tl2223. It also has better mechanical property and far better thermal cycle property than pure Tl2223.

  11. Identification of advanced coronary artery disease with exercise myocardial perfusion imaging: the clinical value of a novel approach for assessing lung thallium-201 uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moralidis, Efstratios [Hippokration Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Hippokration Medical Center, Larissa (Greece); Spyridonidis, Tryfon [Hippokration Medical Center, Larissa (Greece); Arsos, Georgios [Hippokration Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Royal Brompton Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, London (United Kingdom)


    The precise clinical utility of lung{sup 201}Tl uptake in exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging remains open to research. This study validates an optimal index for lung{sup 201}Tl uptake measurement and assesses its value in the prediction of higher-risk coronary artery disease (CAD). Three hundred and ninety-eight patients underwent exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. They were separated into derivation (n = 217) and validation (n = 186) groups, both including sub-populations of lower- and higher-risk CAD, according to coronary angiography. Another 56 individuals with a low probability of CAD comprised the control group. From a planar, anterior, post-exercise acquisition, the lung (L) to heart (H) maximal (L/H{sub max}), total (L/H{sub mean}) and background-subtracted total (L/H{sub net}) ratios were calculated. These were also adjusted for confounding variables, as assessed from the control group. ROC analysis was used to compare the L/H ratios and define thresholds of abnormality. The performance of the optimal index was assessed in the derivation group and was then tested in the validation population. Subsequently, it was compared with other scintigraphic, exercise electrocardiography and clinical variables. In the derivation group L/H{sub net} was a better discriminator for higher-risk CAD than both L/H{sub max} and L/H{sub mean}. Similarly, the adjusted L/H{sub net} was a better discriminator than both the adjusted L/H{sub max} and the adjusted L/H{sub mean}. No significant difference was attained between L/H{sub net} and the adjusted L/H{sub net}. At the upper defined threshold of abnormality, sensitivity and specificity of L/H{sub net} in the detection of higher-risk CAD in the derivation and the validation cohorts were 52% and 92% versus 47% and 94%, respectively (p = ns). The results were similar at other defined thresholds. Moreover, L/H{sub net} was found to be a significant predictor of higher-risk CAD, superior to myocardial perfusion images, transient ventricular dilation measurements, and clinical and exercise testing variables (ROC analysis and logistic regression). By raising the threshold of abnormality of L/H{sub net}, specificity and positive predictive value increased, whereas sensitivity and negative predictive value decreased. Lung{sup 201}Tl assessment assists substantially in the identification of higher-risk CAD in exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and this is best achieved by L/H{sub net}. This index is a significant predictor of higher-risk CAD, superior to myocardial perfusion images, and its value is associated with the probability of a disease state. (orig.)

  12. Subcutaneous injection of thallium-201 chloride and gallium-67 citrate at acupuncture point K-3; An animal experiment and human-being study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johg, Shiang-Bin; Wu, Chung-Chieng; Chen, Ming-Feng; Wu, Sheng-Nan (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China))


    Subcutaneous (SC) injection of [sup 99m]Tc pertechnetate ([sup 99m]Tc) at acupuncture points K-3 is a new method of lower-limb radionuclide venography. To investigate the mechanism of absorption of [sup 99m]Tc from SC injected sites into vascular system, various radioisotopes such as [sup 201]Tl chloride ([sup 201]Tl) and [sup 67]Ga citrate ([sup 67]Ga) were SC injected at K-3 points in animal and human-beings experiments. It was found that [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl were absorbed rapidly from K-3 points through venous system and into whole body soft tissue. However, [sup 67]Ga with a larger effective ionic radius than [sup 201]Tl was not absorbed throughout the observation of 5 minutes. Furthermore, intravenous administration of digitalis, a Na[sup +]-K[sup +] pump blocker, did not inhibit the absorption of [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl after SC injection at K-3 points. These results suggest that absorption of radionuclides on SC injection at K-3 points is mainly through the passive pathway of diffusion rather than the active transport, and the effective ionic radius may be a major factor influencing the absorption rate of the radionuclides. (author).

  13. Interaction of the thallium cation with 1,3-alternate-25,27-bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6: Experimental and theoretical study (United States)

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Dybal, Jiří; Vaňura, Petr


    From extraction experiments and γ-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium Tl+ (aq) + 1·Cs+ (nb) ⇔ 1·Tl+ (nb) + Cs+ (aq) taking place in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system (1 = 1,3-alternate-25,27-bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6; aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) was evaluated as log Kex (Tl+, 1·Cs+) = -2.1 ± 0.1. Further, the stability constant of the 1·Tl+ complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 °C: log βnb(1·Tl+) = 11.6 ± 0.2. Finally, by using quantum mechanical DFT calculations, the most probable structures A and B of the cationic complex species 1·Tl+, which are obviously in a dynamic equilibrium, were indicated. In both of these structures of the resulting 1·Tl+ complex, the "central" cation Tl+ is bound by eight strong bond interactions to six oxygen atoms from the 18-crown-6 moiety and to two carbons of the respective two benzene rings of the parent ligand 1 via cation-π interaction.

  14. Calix[4]arene-(2,3-naphthylene-crown-6,crown-6) as an extraordinarily efficient macrocyclic receptor for the univalent thallium cation (United States)

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Böhm, Stanislav; Kvíčalová, Magdalena; Vaňura, Petr; Asfari, Zouhair


    On the basis of extraction experiments and γ-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium Tl+ (aq) + 1.Cs+ (nb) ? 1.Tl+ (nb) + Cs+ (aq) taking place in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system (1 = calix[4]arene-(2,3-naphthylene-crown-6,crown-6); aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) was determined as log Kex(Tl+,1.Cs+) = 0.3 ± 0.1. Further, the extremely high stability constant of the 1.Tl+ complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 °C: log βnb(1.Tl+) = 10.0 ± 0.2. Finally, applying quantum mechanical calculations, the most probable structure of the cationic complex species 1.Tl+ was derived. In the resulting complex, the 'central' cation Tl+ is bound by eight strong bonds to six oxygen atoms of the crown-6 moiety and to two carbons from the respective two benzene rings of the parent ligand 1 via cation-π interaction. The interaction energy, E(int), of the considered 1.Tl+ complex was found to be -305.7 kJ/mol, also confirming the formation of this cationic species.

  15. A new method of detecting subendocardial ischemia in patients with aortic valvular stenosis without coronary artery disease using thallium-201 single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umamoto, Ikuo; Sugihara, Hiroki; Harada, Yoshiaki (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)


    The purpose of this study was to detect myocardial ischemia in aortic valvular stenosis (AVS) without coronary artery disease by using exercise Tl-201 SPECT. The subjects were 18 AVS patients. Twenty other patients were served as controls. Transient 'left ventricular subendocardial dilation and decreased wall thickness', obtained on early SPECT images, were quantitatively determined by transient dilation index (TDI). Washout rates (WR) were calculated from overlapping early and delayed images to obtain WR map. According to TDI, 18 AVS patients were classified as having TDI[<=]1.11 (Group A, n=9) and TDI>1.11 (Group B, n=9). WR map in Group B presented the direction from the pericardial toward the endocardial side, revealing a pattern of decreased WR and a decreased coronary flow reserve on the endocardial side. Both pressure gradient between the aorta and left ventricle and left ventricular wall thickness were significantly greater in Group B than Group A. In 3 patients in Group B, TDI returned to normal and WR map became homogeneous after aortic valve replacement. In addition, fibrosis was noted in the endocardial site on biopsy. In AVS associated with great pressure gradient, endocardial ischemia may occur on exercise, resulting from a decreased coronary flow reserve, and a decreased compliance due to fibrosis and hypertrophy. Exercise Tl-201 myocardial SPECT is capable of detecting distribution patterns of subendocardial ischemia and coronary flow reserve in AVS. (N.K.).

  16. Exercise {beta}-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and resting thallium delayed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of ischemia and viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Takao; Hayakawa, Masanori; Hattori, Kaoru; Awano, Koujirou; Masuda, Jun; Inatome, Tetsuya; Fukuzaki, Hisashi [Miki City Hospital, Hyogo (Japan)


    To clarify the significance of exercise BMIPP and resting Tl delayed SPECT in the assessment of ischemia and viability, we studied maximal exercise-loading BMIPP SPECT following rest-injected Tl 3h SPECT in 11 control subjects, 20 with effort angina and 38 with old myocardial infarction. BMIPP and Tl uptake were scored as 0=normal, 1=reduced, 2=severely reduced, or 3=absent. Discordance was defined as when segments with a reduced BMIPP uptake had a better resting Tl uptake. Significant coronary artery stenosis was defined as stenosis of 75% or greater on coronary arteriogram. Left ventricular wall motion was assessed as either normokinesis, hypokinesis, severe hypokinesis, akinesis or dyskinesis on left ventriculogram. When discordance was considered to be a marker of ischemia, the sensitivity and specificity in effort angina and control subjects were 95.2% and 84.6% for patients and 83.9% and 94.4% for disease vessels, respectively. There were no differences between the sensitivity and specificity in left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) lesions (83.3%, 95.5% in LAD, 83.3%, 95.5% in LCx, 85.7%, 92.6% in RCA, respectively). All of the patients with old myocardial infarction had reduced exercise BMIPP uptake in infarcted regions. In old myocardial infarction, 35 patients had segments with discordant uptake. Discordance was observed in 75 (91.5%) of 82 segments with hypokinesis, and in 24 (92.3%) of 26 segments with severe hypokinesis. Even among the 36 segments with akinesis or dyskinesis, 25 (69.0%) had discordant uptake. When discordance in the infarcted region was considered to be a marker of viability, regions with severe asynergy showed a high possibility of viability. Thus, discordant uptake on exercise BMIPP and resting Tl delayed SPECT may be a useful marker of ischemia in effort angina and of viability in old myocardial infarction. (author).

  17. Leg {sup 201}Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome; Tomoscintigraphie des jambes au thallium 201 dans le diagnostic du syndrome de loge chronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A. [Hopital Hautepierre, Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Lecocq, J. [Hopital Hautepierre, Service de Medecine Physique et Readaptation, 67 - Strasbourg (France)


    Leg {sup 201}Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have {sup 201}Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg {sup 201}Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of {sup 201}Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest {sup 201}Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: {sup 201}Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  18. Method of fabricating a (1223) Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconductor (United States)

    Tkaczyk, John Eric; Lay, Kenneth Wilbur; He, Qing


    A method is disclosed for fabricating a polycrystalline thallium-containing superconductor having high critical current at elevated temperatures and in the presence of a magnetic field. A powder precursor containing compounds other than thallium is compressed on a substrate. Thallium is incorporated in the densified powder precursor at a high temperature in the presence of a partial pressure of a thallium-containing vapor.

  19. Constrictive pericarditis causing a positive TI-201 SPECT stress test for myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R.J.; Lightfoote, J.; Grusd, R.S. (Diagnostic Imaging of Southern California Medical Group, Sherman Oaks (USA))


    A case of constritive pericarditis was demonstrated by a positive thallium SPECT stress test for myocardial ischemia. After pericardiectomy, the repeat thallium stress test was normal. The disappearance of the criteria for a positive test suggests that constrictive pericarditis can cause myocardial ischemia, which can be demonstrated by thallium SPECT stress testing.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Georg F


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. Cellular Senescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 5...

  1. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance US General Serices Administration - Project 193, John W. Bricker Federal Building, Columbus, OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.


    This report documents the findings from an onsite audit of the John W. Bricker Federal building located in Columbus, Ohio. The Federal landlord for this building is the General Services Administration (GSA). The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost or low-cost energy efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would either reduce electrical and gas consumption or increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.

  2. « Storehouses and systems at Persepolis. Evidence from the Persepolis Fortification Tablets », JESHO, 42, 2, (1999), pp. 151-193.


    Boucharlat, Rémy


    Depuis quelques années l’A. travaille sur les Persepolis Fortification Tablets comme documentation  inépuisable  sur l’économie impériale. Dans cet article, il s’intéresse aux procédures de collecte des taxations sous forme de produits et leur redistribution comme provisions ; ces opérations ont lieu dans les entrepôts à Persépolis et dans plusieurs points de l’Élam  qui pour lui exclut la Susiane. Pour cela, il tente de définir les personnages chargés de ce double mouvement, leur fonction...

  3. The development and validation of an analytical method for doxycycline quantification in human plasma - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Aguiar


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple, quick and sensitive assay for determination of doxycycline concentration in human plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Doxycycline and Oxytetracycline (internal standard were extracted from 0,5 mL human plasma into ethyl acetate. The HPLC system was operated isocratically at controlled temperature (30°C with reversed phase Phenomenex Luna C8 column (150 mm x 4.6mm i.d.; 4 ?m particle size and using a mobile phase consisting in water: acetonitrile: tetrahydrofuran (80:15:5 v/v/v adjusted to pH 2.5, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was achieved with a UV detector at 357 nm. Method validation investigated parameters such as the sensitivity, linearity (r2= 0.9946, precision, accuracy, recovery and stability. The limit of quantification was 0,25 ?g/mL. Under the assay conditions, doxycycline and oxytetracycline had retention times of 7,5 and 2,4 minutes, respectively. No interferences with endogenous compounds or with anticoagulant were observed. The mean recovery of doxycycline was 84.57%, and 80.73% for the intern standard at working concentration (20?g/mL. The method showed to be precise and accurate both for analyses held in a same day (intra-day as in different days (inter-days. A good stability of doxycycline and oxytetracycline was observed during extraction and analysis, when stored over a fourmonth period at -20°C, on the auto sample during 24 hours and to 3 freeze-thaw cycles. The present method is suitable for sensitive, precise and accurate determination of doxycycline concentrations in human plasma, within the limits established for this type of analyses

  4. Circulating miR-192 and miR-193b are markers of prediabetes and are modulated by an exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Párrizas, Marcelina; Brugnara, Laura; Esteban, Yaiza


    CONTEXT: Diabetes is frequently diagnosed late, when the development of complications is almost inevitable, decreasing the quality of life of patients. However, early detection of affected individuals would allow the implementation of timely and effective therapies. OBJECTIVE: Here we set to desc...

  5. Detailed gravimetric geoid confirmation of short wavelength features of sea surface topography detected by the Skylab S-193 altimeter in the Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.; Mcclinton, A. T.; Chang, E. S.


    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea area in support of the calibration and evaluation of the GEOS-C altimeter. This geoid, computed on a 15 ft. x 15 ft. grid was based upon a combination of surface gravity data with the GSFC GEM-6 satellite derived gravity data. A comparison of this gravimetric geoid with 10 passes of SKYLAB altimeter data is presented. The agreement of the two data types is quite good with the differences generally less than 2 meters. Sea surface manifestations of numerous short wavelength (approximately 100 km) oceanographic features are now indicated in the gravimetric geoid and are also confirmed by the altimetry data.

  6. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- DT193 ASSuT strains from two outbreaks in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Ramon, Elena; Cortini, Enzo


    BlnI-PFGE and MLVA generated different profiles among the strains related to that outbreak. Combining the PFGE profiles obtained by XbaI and BlnI and comparing them with the MLVA profiles, the two methods grouped the same isolates based on identity. Moreover, genomic deletions of the genes included...

  7. SU-F-J-193: Efficient Dose Extinction Method for Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) of Real Tissue Samples for Validation of CT HU to Stopping Power Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Baer, E; Jee, K; Sharp, G; Flanz, J; Lu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose: For proton therapy, an accurate model of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) conversion is essential. In current practice, validation of these models relies solely on measurements of tissue substitutes with standard compositions. Validation based on real tissue samples would be much more direct and can address variations between patients. This study intends to develop an efficient and accurate system based on the concept of dose extinction to measure WEPL and retrieve RSP in biological tissue in large number of types. Methods: A broad AP proton beam delivering a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used to irradiate the samples with a Matrixx detector positioned immediately below. A water tank was placed on top of the samples, with the water level controllable in sub-millimeter by a remotely controlled dosing pump. While gradually lowering the water level with beam on, the transmission dose was recorded at 1 frame/sec. The WEPL were determined as the difference between the known beam range of the delivered SOBP (80%) and the water level corresponding to 80% of measured dose profiles in time. A Gammex 467 phantom was used to test the system and various types of biological tissue was measured. Results: RSP for all Gammex inserts, expect the one made with lung-450 material (<2% error), were determined within ±0.5% error. Depends on the WEPL of investigated phantom, a measurement takes around 10 min, which can be accelerated by a faster pump. Conclusion: Based on the concept of dose extinction, a system was explored to measure WEPL efficiently and accurately for a large number of samples. This allows the validation of CT HU to stopping power conversions based on large number of samples and real tissues. It also allows the assessment of beam uncertainties due to variations over patients, which issue has never been sufficiently studied before.

  8. Energy and cost savings analysis of Wood Burning Boiler Plant, Fort Stewart, Georgia: Final report, Validation of ECIP Project No. 193: DOD, Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broders, M.A.; Miller, D.R.


    An Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) project to install a 94,900 lb steam per hour wood burning boiler in the Fort Stewart Central Energy Plant was selected by the US Army for validation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This ECIP project was justified on the basis of fuel cost savings and the use of a renewable energy source: wood waste, which is abundantly available at Fort Stewart, Georgia. This report documents the results of a 1-year postretrofit study designed to validate the energy and cost savings attributed to the installation of the new wood burning boiler. During the postretrofit validation study period (FY 1986), the new wood burning boiler produced approximately 90% of the steam required by the Central Energy Plant to meet the seasonal heating and cooling demands of Fort Stewart. In doing so, over 2,880,000 gal of No. 5 fuel oil (a nonrenewable energy source) was conserved. With full consideration given to the increase in electrical energy required to operate the new Wood Burning Boiler Plant addition, an annual nonrenewable energy savings of over 400,000 MBtu is projected. Based on the results of a life cycle cost analysis performed on this ECIP project, a first-year savings of over $1,200,000 is estimated. The resultant discounted savings ratio is 3.36, and the estimated simple payback period is 6.7 years. It was concluded that installation and operation of a wood burning boiler at a military installation such as Fort Stewart can result in significant cost and nonrenewable energy savings.

  9. Environmental Assessment: MCON Project P-193, Waterfront Improvements for Wharves K10-K11, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, O'ahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renard, Gail; Fee, Thomas A


    ...) in the Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, Oahu, Hawaii. Based on information gathered during preparation of the EA, the Department of the Navy finds that the proposed waterfront improvements for Wharves K10-K11 at the FISC Pearl, Oahu, Hawaii will...

  10. Effect of long-term cholesterol-lowering treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (Simvastatin) of myocardial perfusion evaluated by thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Nohara, Ryuji; Linxue, Li; Sasayama, Shigetake [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Tamaki, Shunichi; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Masahiro; Miki, Shinji


    Fifteen patients with either angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction, who had positive {sup 201}Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and coronary sclerosis of more than 50%, were treated with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (simvastatin) for more than 1 year. They were compared with an untreated control group (n=25). Total cholesterol decreased 22% and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) increased 9% with simvastatin; both changes were significantly different from those in controls. Long-term simvastatin induced improvement of myocardial perfusion on {sup 201}Tl SPECT images both during exercise and at rest, which was also significantly different from controls. In addition, the improvement of myocardial perfusion on {sup 201}Tl SPECT images was clearly related to the improvements in cholesterol values, especially nonHDL cholesterol. Thus, the greater the decrease in nonHDL cholesterol, the greater the improvement in myocardial perfusion at rest or during exercise with long-term treatment using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. These findings indicate that the improvements in cholesterol values caused by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy are related to improvements of myocardial perfusion seen on {sup 201}Tl SPECT images. (author)

  11. Improvement of critical current density in thallium-based (Tl,Bi)Sr{sub 1.6}Ba{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Z.F.; Wang, C.A.; Wang, J.H. [State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, NY (United States)] [and others


    Epitaxial (Tl,Bi)Sr{sub 1.6}Ba{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Tl,Bi)-1223 thin films on (100) single crystal LaAlO{sub 3} substrates were synthesized by a two-step procedure. Phase development, microstructure, and relationships between film and substrate were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Resistance versus temperature, zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization, and transport critical current density (J{sub c}) were measured. The zero-resistance temperature was 105-111 K. J{sub c} at 77 K and zero field was > 2 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The films exhibited good flux pinning properties.

  12. Calculation of parity violating effects in the 6/sup 2/P/sub 1/2/-7/sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ forbidden M1 transition in thallium. [E1 amplitude, circular dichroism, parity violation, hyperfine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D.B.


    Calculations are presented of the E1 amplitude expected in forbidden M1 transitions of Tl and Cs if parity is violated in the neutral weak e-N interaction, as proposed in a number of gauge models, including that of Weinberg and Salam. Valence electron wave functions are generated as numerical solutions to the Dirac equation in a modified Tietz central potential. These wave functions are used to calculate allowed E1 transition rates, hfs splittings, and Stark E1 transition ampitudes. These results are compared with experiment and the agreement is generally good. The relativistic Tl 6/sup 2/P/sub 1/2/-7/sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ M1 transition amplitude M is also calculated, and corrections due to interconfiguration interaction, Breit interaction, and hfs mixing are included. The parity violating E1 amplitude E/sub PV/ is calculated and a value for the circular dichroism in the Weinberg model delta = -2.6 x 10/sup -3/ is obtained. Parity violating effects in other Tl transitions are discussed. Contributions to the M1 amplitude for the forbidden Cs 6/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/-7/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ and 6/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/-8/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ transitions and to the Cs 6/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ g-factor anomaly from relativistic effects, Breit interaction, interconfiguration interaction, and hfs mixing are calculated, and it is found that this current theoretical description is not entirely adequate. The parity violating E1 amplitude E/sub PV/ for the 6S/sub 1/2/-7/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ and 6S/sub 1/2/-8/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ transitions is evaluated. With a measured value M/sub expt/ and the Weinberg value Q/sub W/ = -99, a circular dichroism delta = 1.64 x 10/sup -4/ for the 6/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/-7/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ transition is found.

  13. The crystal structure of Gabrielite, Tl2AgCu2As3S7, a new species of Thallium Sulfosalt from Lengenbach, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Makovicky, Emil; Karanovic, Ljiljana


    ), 2.520(60)(2 3), and 2.978(60)(324). Gabrielite is opaque with a grey to black color, metallic luster and blackish red streak. Individual crystals reach up to approximately 0.4 mm, and aggregates may exceed 1 mm across. Euhedral crystals are short prismatic to platy parallel to (001), with excellent......5.95(Ag2.56Cu6.46) 9.02(As8.23Sb0.48) 8.71S21, was derived. The simplified formula is Tl2AgCu2As3S7. The calculated density Dcalc is 5.38 g/cm3. In reflected light, gabrielite is white, has common red internal reflections, shows weak anisotropy and moderate reflectivity [%Rmax in air (COM...

  14. Contribution à l'étude du système quaternaire argent-mercure-thallium-tellure: Étude de la coupe AgTlTeHgTe (United States)

    Gardes, B.; Ayral-Marin, R. M.; Brun, G.; Tedenac, J. C.


    The AgTlTeHgTe system has been studied by DTA and X-ray diffraction techniques. The diagram is characterized by an intermediate phase Ag 3HgTl 3Te 4 (or Ag 0.27Hg 0.09Tl 0.27Te 0.36) with 25 mol% HgTe and a high-temperature phase for T > 597 K in the range from 30 to 60 mol% HgTe. Electric measurements have been carried out for Ag 3HgTl 3Te 4.

  15. Nuclear stress test (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  16. Clinical usefulness of myocardial scintigraphy for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Sotoyuki; Murakami, Eiji; Takekoshi, Noboru (Kanazawa Medical Univ. (Japan))


    Methods for noninvasive diagnosis an evaluation of coronary artery disease have been dramatically advanced by the development of myocardial scintigraphy. In this paper, 225 patients with coronary artery disease were studied with the following results: (1) With the use of 99mTc-PYP acute myocardial infarction areas were successfully detected in 80 % of the patients. (2) In the detection of myocardial infarction coincidence of the location of scan site defined by electrocardiogram with that of thallium defect at rest was 72 %. Coincidence of the area of dyssynergy in left ventriculogram with the site of thallium defect was 79 %. (3) The sensitivity of thallium-201 myocardial scintigram was 54 % and the specificity was 82 % in detecting angina pectoris. In detecting myocardial infarction the sensitivity was 81 % and the specificity was 75 %. In LCX the sensitivity of thallium-201 decreased considerably. (4) The sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 imaging in detection of coronary artery disease after exercise were 78 % and 63 %, respectively.

  17. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes at ISOLTRAP and the development of an ultra-stable voltage source for the PENTATRAP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Christine


    Atomic masses and hence binding energies of nuclides are of great importance for studies of nuclear structure since they reflect all effective interactions in a nucleus. Within this thesis the masses of seven nuclides, namely {sup 194}Au, {sup 194}Hg, {sup 190,193,198}Tl and {sup 202,208}Pb, were determined at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The thallium region in the chart of isotopes is of special interest due to the occurrence of nuclear structure effects like low-lying isomers, level inversion, shape coexistence and deformations. These effects are investigated by applying finite-difference mass formulas, such as the two-neutron separation energies or the so-called empirical pairing gaps. The second topic addressed within the present thesis is an ultra-stable voltage source, called StaReP (Stable Reference for Penning Trap Experiments), which was developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik. It is one of the key components of the high-precision mass spectrometer PENTATRAP, containing a tower of five Penning traps. A 25-channel voltage source with a relative stability of few 10{sup -8} over a period of 10 minutes in the range of 0 to -100V is mandatory for PENTATRAP aiming for mass measurements with relative mass uncertainties of ≤ 10{sup -11}. Mass values with such a high precision allow for stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electric fields, testing Einstein's mass-energy relation E = mc{sup 2} as well as measurements of decay energies (Q-values) with applications in neutrino physics.

  18. Grapefruit juice and its constituents augment the effect of low pH on inhibition of survival and adherence to intestinal epithelial cells of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PT193. (United States)

    Yin, Xianhua; Gyles, Carlton L; Gong, Joshua


    The present study examined the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and its adherence to intestinal epithelial cells following inoculation into grapefruit juice and apple cider. Both liquids significantly inactivated S. Typhimurium (0.8-2.2 log reduction compared to the control); surviving Salmonella in grapefruit juice was 1.0-1.4 log lower than in apple cider at 24h incubation. Grapefruit juice contains the antimicrobial substances naringin (NAR) and naringenin (NGE); however, the effect of grapefruit juice on growth and adherence of S. Typhimurium appeared not to be related to NAR. NGE at 100-200 μg/mL reduced the adherence of Salmonella to epithelial cells by 57% and 73% compared to the control (TSB at pH 7.4) after 24 h treatment, but stimulated rather than inhibited growth of Salmonella. However, when NGE at 200 μg/mL was added to TSB at pH 3.5 Salmonella survival and adherence to intestinal epithelial cells were reduced by 2.5 log and 79%, respectively, compared to the control (TSB at pH 3.5). Addition of NGE to apple cider also caused a slight reduction in the survival of S. Typhimurium, but did not enhance the inhibitory effect on adherence due to apple cider. These data showed that low pH augmented the inhibitory effect of NGE on growth and adherence of Salmonella to intestinal epithelial cells, but the mechanism of the observed augmentative effect is not clear. Understanding the mechanism of the interaction between low pH and NGE and its inhibitory effect on growth and adherence of enteric pathogens may lead to the development of new antibacterial agents. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. L'aristocrazia senatoria ispanica, nel corso del Ule del IVsecólo d. C, dall'awento di Settimio Severo alia morte di Teodosio (193 d.C-395 d.C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal GABRIELLI


    Full Text Available RIASSUNTO: Questo articolo analizza l'aristocrazia senatoria, originaria delle tre province romane della Spagna (Baetica, Lusitania ed Hispania Citerior nel periodo tardo imperiale, dall'awento di Settimio Severo alia morte di Teodosio. 11 lavoro presenta una lista dei membri dell'aristocrazia senatoria ispanica e analizza l'estrazione sociale di questi personaggi, la loro distribuzione geográfica, il ruólo politico ed amministrativo che svolsero nella Spagna e nel resto dell'Impero ed i loro rapporti con il Senato di Roma e gli imperatori. L'aristocrazia senatoria spagnola non é mai stata oggetto di uno studio prosopografico completo e questa analisi si propone di esaminare come questo numeroso grupo di senatori spagnoli reagisca di fronte agli eventi del III e del IV secólo d. C. ABSTRACT: This article analyses the senatorial aristocracy, born in one of the three roman provinces of Spain (Baetica, Lusitania and Hispania Citerior in the late imperial period, from the reign of the emperor Septimius Severus to the death of Theodosius the Great. The job presents a list of the members of the Spanish senatorial aristocracy, anol analyses the social extraction of these important persons, their geographical distribution, the political and administrative part that they played in Spain and in the other partes of the Empire and their relations with the Senate of Rome and the emperors. The Spanish senatorial aristocracy hasn't ever been object of a complete prosopographic study and this analysis examines how these numerous senators behave in front of the events of the 3th and the 4th century A.D.

  20. Test accuracy at different cut-offs when plasma concentrations of metabolic indicators are used to detect decreased fertility in dairy cows (Poster topic 01, Poster 27, p. 193)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    Negative energy balance is a known risk factor for decreased fertility in dairy cows. This study evaluates the accuracy of measuring plasma concentrations of two indicators of negative energy balance, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hyrdroxy buturate (BHBA), when they are used to predict ...

  1. Multibeam collection for KN193-06: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2008-06-29 to 2008-07-12, departing from St. George's, Bermuda and returning to Norfolk, VA (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. VIDEIRA, Sandra Lúcia; COSTA, Pierre Alves; FAJARDO, Sérgio. (org. Geografia Econômica: (re leituras contemporâneas. Rio de Janeiro: Letra Capital, 2011. 193 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Serafim Gomes


    Full Text Available O livro aqui apresentado “Geografia Econômica: (re leituras contemporâneas” é uma coletânea com 9 capítulos, reunindo pesquisadores das regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, que se debruçam sobre a temática da Geografia Econômica. No prefácio, os organizadores apresentam ao leitor a riqueza de temas relacionados à Geografia Econômica abordados no livro, a saber: América do Sul, economia mundial, crise energética, indústria do petróleo, tradings agroindústrias, cooperativas, informação, internacionalização do capital, empresas internacionais, capital estrangeiro, dinâmica econômica, logística e reestruturação produtiva.

  3. Electromyographic activity and scapular dyskenesia in athletes with and without shoulder impingement syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of scapular dyskinesis and pain, satisfaction and function levels, as well as analyze the activation of scapular stabilizing muscles during isometric tasks of shoulder abduction in athletes with and without SIS. Thirty men athletes were divided into two groups: SIS group and Control group. The volunteers answered the Penn Shoulder Score questionnaire translated into Portuguese, which evaluates pain, dysfunction, and satisfaction with the shoulder. They were also evaluated for the presence of scapular dyskinesis through the Slide Scapular Lateral Test. The electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius (UT, middle trapezius (MT, lower trapezius (LT, and serratus anterior (SA muscles was evaluated during the isometric shoulder abduction in the frontal and scapular planes at angles of 45º, 90°, and 120°. The SIS group had a higher indication of pain and scapular dyskinesis when compared to control group. In the SIS group, higher values of electromyographic ratios between UT/LT and UT/SA were observed in the frontal plane in relation to the scapular plane. The conclusion can be made that pain, scapular dyskinesis, and altered muscle activation pattern was more frequent in the SIS group compared to the Control group. Therefore, exercises that emphasize the scapular muscles should be considered when planning rehabilitation programs for the SIS.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 266 - Reference Air Concentrations* (United States)


    ...-36-0 0.3 Barium 7440-39-3 50 Barium Cyanide 542-62-1 50 Bromomethane 74-83-9 0.8 Calcium Cyanide 592... Cyanide (free) 57-12-15 20 Cyanogen 460-19-5 30 Cyanogen Bromide 506-68-3 80 Di-n-butyl Phthalate 84-74-2...) Carbonate 6533-73-9 0.3 Thallium (I) Chloride 7791-12-0 0.3 Thallium (I) Nitrate 10102-45-1 0.5 Thallium...

  5. Detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease using routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    monitored stress testing may result in a greater sensitivity and specificity being achieved. A study was undertaken to determine whether the addition of thallium imaging to conventional exercise stress testing holds any benefits in ...

  6. Movement - uncoordinated (United States)

    ... sclerosis (MS) Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) Poisoning or toxic effects caused by: Alcohol Certain medicines Heavy metals such as mercury, thallium, and lead Solvents such as toluene or ...

  7. Spin-rotor Interpretation of Identical Bands and Quantized Alignment in Superdeformed A $\\approx$ 190 Nuclei


    Cizewski, J. A.; Bijker, R.


    The ``identical'' bands in superdeformed mercury, thallium, and lead nuclei are interpreted as examples of orbital angular momentum rotors with the weak spin-orbit coupling of pseudo-$SU(3)$ symmetries and supersymmetries.

  8. Drug: D02402 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02402 Drug Thallium (201Tl) chloride injection (JP16); Thallous chloride Tl 201 (U...rugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D02402 Thallium (201Tl) chloride injection (JP16); Thallous chloride Tl 201 (USP...iopharmaceuticals V09GX01 Thallium (201Tl) chloride D02402 Thallium (201Tl) chloride injection (JP16); Thallous chloride Tl 201 (USP) CAS: 55172-29-7 PubChem: 7849460 ATOM 2 1 Z Tl 23.7341 -17.9308 #+ 2 X Cl 26.1441 -17.9308 #- BOND 0 InChI=1S/ClH.Tl/h1H;/q;+1/p-1/i;1-3 ...

  9. Myocardial imaging artifacts caused by mitral valve annulus calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, L.E.; Movahed, A.; Reeves, W.C. (East Carolina Univ. School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))


    Knowledge of imaging artifact of myocardial perfusion studies with thallium-201 is critical for improving the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery disease. Three patients are described who underwent exercise or pharmacologic stress thallium-201 imaging studies and had a moderate, fixed myocardial perfusion defect (scar) involving the posterolateral and inferoposterior walls of the left ventricle. This was an imaging artifact caused by a heavily calcified mitral valve annulus.

  10. A highly efficient luminescent Pt2Tl2 chain with a short Tl(I)-Tl(I) interaction. (United States)

    Jamali, Sirous; Ashtiani, Mona M; Jamshidi, Zahra; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa; Samouei, Hamidreza; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi


    The preparation of an unsupported tetranuclear cluster with a linear Pt(0)-Tl(I)-Tl(I)-Pt(0) metal chain is described. The complex shows strong red emission in the solid state, having a quantum yield of 73%. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations show that red emission originated from a platinum to thallium-thallium charge-transfer excited state.

  11. Radio-adaptive Response in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Induced by Technetium-99m. (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shabestani-Monfared, Ali; Shahidi, Maryam; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Gorji, Kourosh Ebrahim Nejad


    Low dose radiation will induce adaptation and following exposure to an adaptive dose, the cells are more resistance to following challenging doses. This phenomenon is known as radio-adaptive response. The aim of this study was to investigate the percentage of apoptotic cells in the peripheral blood samples of the patients which undergo myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) before thallium scan to assess the induction of radio-adaptive response. In this study, 97 samples from 74 patients, referred to nuclear medicine center of Mazandaran Heart Hospital for MPI, which had no history of diagnostic, therapeutic, occupational, and radioactive exposures during past 2 years, were provided. The participants were classified into four groups including control, patients which were scanned solely with technetium, the patients which examined by thallium and the last group were the patients that examined by technetium followed by thallium. Then 2 ml Peripheral blood samples were obtained, and after 24 h incubating, the samples were studied by neutral comet assay. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student's t-test along with one-way analysis of variance. The mean percentage of apoptotic cells in the exposed groups were higher than the control. Furthermore, among exposed groups, the apoptotic cells in thallium group were more than others and this index was significantly lower in the group which was undergone technetium administration before thallium scan. These findings suggest that exposure to Tc-99m could induce a radio-adaptive response against the exposure of thallium-201.

  12. Infarction and post-infarction; Infarctus et postinfarctus. Diagnostic precoce d`ischemie residuelle par tomoscintigraphie myocardique au thallium couplee a un test a l`adenosine dans l`infarctus du myocarde recent. Facteurs pronostiques apres infarctus du myocarde. Place de la tomoscintigraphie monophonique dans la detection de la viabilite myocardique postinfarctus. Revascularisation myocardique apres infarctus du myocarde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadiou, C.; Helias, J.; Trochu, J.N.; Godin, J.F.; Crochet, D. [Hopital Laennec, CHR, 44 - Nantes (France); Citron, B.; Lipiecki, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire G-Montpied, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Danchin, N.; Angioi, M.; Py, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 54 - Nancy (France)


    The poor prognosis of residual ischemia after myocardial necrosis is now well established B. Citron makes a review of factors influencing mortality and morbidity after myocardial necrosis is now well established. B. Citron makes a review of factors influencing mortality and morbidity after myocardial necrosis. C. Cadiou exposes the interest of adenosine stress testing in patients after myocardial necrosis. J. Liepecki details the interest of myocardial scintigraphy in the detection of viability after myocardial necrosis. N. Danchin highlights the prognostic value of myocardial scintigraphy in this condition. (authors). 61 refs.

  13. Influence of i{sub 13/2} proton and j{sub 15/2} neutron intruding orbitals on the behaviour of 190 mass region superdeformed nuclei; Influence des orbitales intruses proton i{sub 13/2} et neutron j{sub 15/2} sur le comportement des noyaux superdeformes de la region de masse 190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, J.


    This work concerns the study of the nuclear superdeformation phenomenon in the A = 190 mass region. The superdeformed (SD) states in {sup 193}Tl, {sup 194}Tl {sup 195}Tl were produced via heavy-ion induced reactions and studied with the EUROGAM gamma multidetector array. The analysis of high-multiplicity events allowed the study of the magnetic properties of the SD states in these nuclei. For the first time, the g-factor of a proton orbital in a SD nucleus in the A = 190 mass region has been extracted. This measurement indicates that the two known bands in {sup 195}Tl-SD are built on the i{sub 13/2} proton intruder orbital. A new SD band has been found in this isotope: it is the first SD band built on an excited proton state found in the A = 190 region. Finally an interaction between two pairs of bands has been established in {sup 194}Tl; this interaction indicate the crossing of two neutron orbitals above the N = 112 gap. The magnetic properties of the states of the SD bands in {sup 194}Tl reveals that these bands are built on configurations in which the single proton and neutron intrinsic spins are aligned. Comparison between different SD bands in the Thallium isotopes shows the prominent role of the i{sub 13/2} proton and the j{sub 15/2} neutron intruder orbitals in the smooth increase of the dynamical moment of inertia as a function of the rotational frequency. In addition, this work reports on the first observation of a SD rotational band produced in a (HI, {alpha}xn) reaction channel. The study of the maximum spin reached by the SD bands indicates both a competition between alpha emission and fission of the compound nucleus, and the limitation due to the fission process in the population of the SD nuclei in the A = 190 region. (author). 120 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs., 2 ann.

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_006582 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  15. ORF Alignment: NC_006138 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  16. The perfusion pattern in coronary artery occlusion: comparison of exercise and adenosine.p6. (United States)

    Iskandrian, A S; Kegel, J; Heo, J; Ogilby, J D; Untereker, W J; Cave, V


    This study compared exercise to adenosine thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography in detecting occlusion of left anterior descending or right coronary arteries in patients with no previous myocardial infarction. There were 41 patients who underwent adenosine thallium imaging (adenosine infusion at a rate of 140 micrograms/kg/min for 6 min), and 143 patients who underwent exercise thallium imaging. There were more patients with right coronary than left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Thus, in the adenosine group, there were 15 patients with left anterior descending artery occlusion, and 26 with right coronary artery occlusion, and in the exercise group, there were 46 patients with left anterior descending artery occlusion, and 97 patients with right coronary artery occlusion. In the adenosine group, the thallium images were abnormal in 41 patients (100%), while in the exercise group, the thallium images were abnormal in 125 patients (87%, P exercise group (P:NS). In patients with isolated single vessel occlusion, the size of the perfusion abnormality was 28 +/- 9% with adenosine, and 21 +/- 12% with exercise (P:NS). Thus, most patients with occlusion of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery have regional perfusion abnormality during stress; the different role of collaterals with each type of stress may explain the higher percentage of abnormal results with adenosine than exercise.

  17. Study of /sup 201/Tl uptake by bone and bone marrow on /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy. With special reference to bone marrow abnormalities

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    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Handa, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Fumiko; Yano, Kesato; Ueda, Hitoshi


    Thallium-201 (Tl-201) uptake in the bone and bone marrow was examined in a total of 93 patients with various diseases. Sternal uptake of Tl-201 was observed when patients had bone marrow abnormality especially associated with hematopoietic disease. It was associated with proliferation of immature cells and of various types of bone marrow cells, especially erythroblastic and plasma cells. Whole-body Tl-201 scanning showed a high uptake (82%) in the sternum, chest, lumbar vertebrae, and pelvis. Thallium-201 was definitively taken up by the sternum in polycythemia (5/41), hemolytic anemia (2/2), iron deficiency anemia (2/2), and multiple myeloma (2/5). For leukemia, Tl-201 uptake was slight or negative. Thallium-201 scanning proved useful in visualizing bone marrow abnormality, although careful interpretation of bone and bone marrow uptake is required. (Namekawa, K).

  18. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.


    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.

  19. LARANJEIRA, Lia Dias. O culto da Serpente no reino de Uidá: um estudo da literatura de viagem europeia, séculos XVII e XVIII. Salvador: EdUFBA. 2015. 193p. (Dossiê:As fontes para a História da África

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    Thiago Henrique Mota


    Full Text Available Resumo: Fruto de investigações em fontes europeias para compreensão da história africana e resultado de investidas anteriores da autora na história africana, durante a graduação, o livro destaca-se pelo cuidado metodológico, que a possibilitou acessar informações que vão além da superfície textual. A análise da intertextualidade percorre toda a obra, marcada pelos diferentes lugares sociais ocupados pelos cronistas sob escrutínio, que influenciaram diretamente no sentido produzido dentro de seus textos, no tocante ao objeto central de interesse de Lia Laranjeira, que lhe nomeia o livro: O culto da Serpente no reino de Uidá.Palavras-chave: Uidá, história AfricanaAbstract: As a result of investigations in European sources for understanding of African history and the result of previous advances the author in African history, during graduation, the book stands out for methodological care that enabled access information beyond the textual surface. The analysis of intertextuality runs the work, marked by different social spaces occupied by the chroniclers under scrutiny, which directly influenced the effect produced within their texts, regarding the central object of interest Lia Laranjeira appointing him the book: The Cult Serpent in Ouidah kingdom.Keywords: Ouidah, African historyRecebido em: 23/12/2015  – Aceito em 04/04/2016

  20. Characterization of the microbiota of the skin and oral cavity of Oreochromis niloticusCaracterização da microbiota da pele e cavidade oral de Oreochromis niloticusdoi:10.12662/2317-3076jhbs.v4i3.767.p193-197.2016

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    Edmar Maciel Lima Junior


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fish are usually exposed to higher microbial loads than land or air animals. The microbiota of fish mostly consists of Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefasciens, Acinetobacter spp. and Moraxella spp. The objective of this study was to analyze the oral cavity, and skin tissue microbiota on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, a fish species raised commercially in Brazil. Methods: Samples were collected from the oral cavity and skin of 20 Nile tilapia specimens (Oreochromis niloticus, each weighing approximately 1,000 grams. The samples were cultures for quantitative analysis on sheep blood agar (SBA and chromID™ CPS® agar (CPS. Results: Eleven different bacterial species were identified on CPS and SBA plates. Gram-negative species were the most prevalent, while gram-positive Globicatella spp, Streptococcus spp and Enterococcus faecalis were also found. Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were isolated from all samples. Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis was found in 70 and 60% of the skin and oral samples, respectively. Conclusion: For all samples studied, the microbial load was less than 100,000 CFU/g of tissue. This value is a cutoff standardized for the American Society of Microbiology to differentiate the causal agent from the colonizers. In light of this result and considering the absence of infectious signs in the fish samples, we conclude that the CFU values found in this study reflect a normal, non-infectious colonization/microbiota.