WorldWideScience

Sample records for thaliana elongating cells

  1. [Ultrastructure of statocytes and cells of distal elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana under clinorotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, S M

    2010-01-01

    Results of the electron-microscopic investigation of root apices of Arabidopsis thaliana 3-, 5- and 7-days-old seedlings grown in the stationary conditions and under clinorotation are presented. It was shown the similarity in the root apex cell ultrastructure in control and under clinorotation. At the same time there were some differences in the ultrastructure of statocytes and the distal elongation zone under clinorotation. For the first time the sensitivity of ER-bodies, which are derivatives of GER and contain beta-glucosidase, to the influence of simulated microgravity was demonstrated by increased quantity and area of ER-bodies at the cell section as well as by higher variability of their form under clinorotation. A degree of these changes correlated with the duration of clinorotation. On the basis of experimental data a protective role of ER-bodies in adaptation of plants to microgravity is supposed.

  2. Identification of genes involved in the ACC-mediated control of root cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markakis Marios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone. Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Results Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. Conclusions ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream

  3. Exogenous Cellulase Switches Cell Interdigitation to Cell Elongation in an RIC1-dependent Manner in Arabidopsis thaliana Cotyledon Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Akita, Kae; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Miura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Pavement cells in cotyledons and true leaves exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like morphology in most dicotyledonous plants. Among the molecular mechanisms mediating cell morphogenesis, two antagonistic Rho-like GTPases regulate local cell outgrowth via cytoskeletal rearrangements. Analyses of several cell wall-related mutants suggest the importance of cell wall mechanics in the formation of interdigitated patterns. However, how these factors are integrated is unknown. In this study, we observed that the application of exogenous cellulase to hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons switched the interdigitation of pavement cells to the production of smoothly elongated cells. The cellulase-induced inhibition of cell interdigitation was not observed in a RIC1 knockout mutant. This gene encodes a Rho-like GTPase-interacting protein important for localized cell growth suppression via microtubule bundling on concave cell interfaces. Additionally, to characterize pavement cell morphologies, we developed a mathematical model that considers the balance between cell and cell wall growth, restricted global cell growth orientation, and regulation of local cell outgrowth mediated by a Rho-like GTPase-cytoskeleton system. Our computational simulations fully support our experimental observations, and suggest that interdigitated patterns form because of mechanical buckling in the absence of Rho-like GTPase-dependent regulation of local cell outgrowth. Our model clarifies the cell wall mechanics influencing pavement cell morphogenesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Multi-omics analysis identifies genes mediating the extension of cell walls in the Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Wilson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall composition is important for regulating growth rates, especially in roots. However, neither analyses of cell wall composition nor transcriptomes on their own can comprehensively reveal which genes and processes are mediating growth and cell elongation rates. This study reveals the benefits of carrying out multiple analyses in combination. Sections of roots from five anatomically and functionally defined zones in Arabidopsis thaliana were prepared and divided into three biological replicates. We used glycan microarrays and antibodies to identify the major classes of glycans and glycoproteins present in the cell walls of these sections, and identified the expected decrease in pectin and increase in xylan from the meristematic zone (MS, through the rapid and late elongation zones (REZ, LEZ to the maturation zone and the rest of the root, including the emerging lateral roots. Other compositional changes included extensin and xyloglucan levels peaking in the REZ and increasing levels of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP epitopes from the MS to the LEZ, which remained high through the subsequent mature zones. Immuno-staining using the same antibodies identified the tissue and (subcellular localization of many epitopes. Extensins were localized in epidermal and cortex cell walls, while AGP glycans were specific to different tissues from root-hair cells to the stele. The transcriptome analysis found several gene families peaking in the REZ. These included a large family of peroxidases (which produce the reactive oxygen species needed for cell expansion, and three xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase genes (XTH17, XTH18 and XTH19. The significance of the latter may be related to a role in breaking and re-joining xyloglucan cross-bridges between cellulose microfibrils, a process which is required for wall expansion. Knockdowns of these XTHs resulted in shorter root lengths, confirming a role of the corresponding proteins in root

  5. A new picture of cell wall protein dynamics in elongating cells of Arabidopsis thaliana: Confirmed actors and newcomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamet Elisabeth

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell elongation in plants requires addition and re-arrangements of cell wall components. Even if some protein families have been shown to play roles in these events, a global picture of proteins present in cell walls of elongating cells is still missing. A proteomic study was performed on etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis used as model of cells undergoing elongation followed by growth arrest within a short time. Results Two developmental stages (active growth and after growth arrest were compared. A new strategy consisting of high performance cation exchange chromatography and mono-dimensional electrophoresis was established for separation of cell wall proteins. This work allowed identification of 137 predicted secreted proteins, among which 51 had not been identified previously. Apart from expected proteins known to be involved in cell wall extension such as xyloglucan endotransglucosylase-hydrolases, expansins, polygalacturonases, pectin methylesterases and peroxidases, new proteins were identified such as proteases, proteins related to lipid metabolism and proteins of unknown function. Conclusion This work highlights the CWP dynamics that takes place between the two developmental stages. The presence of proteins known to be related to cell wall extension after growth arrest showed that these proteins may play other roles in cell walls. Finally, putative regulatory mechanisms of protein biological activity are discussed from this global view of cell wall proteins.

  6. Transient gibberellin application promotes Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cell elongation without maintaining transverse orientation of microtubules on the outer tangential wall of epidermal cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sauret-Güeto, Susanna

    2011-11-25

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes plant growth by stimulating cellular expansion. Whilst it is known that GA acts by opposing the growth-repressing effects of DELLA proteins, it is not known how these events promote cellular expansion. Here we present a time-lapse analysis of the effects of a single pulse of GA on the growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Our analyses permit kinetic resolution of the transient growth effects of GA on expanding cells. We show that pulsed application of GA to the relatively slowly growing cells of the unexpanded light-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyl results in a transient burst of anisotropic cellular growth. This burst, and the subsequent restoration of initial cellular elongation rates, occurred respectively following the degradation and subsequent reappearance of a GFP-tagged DELLA (GFP-RGA). In addition, we used a GFP-tagged α-tubulin 6 (GFP-TUA6) to visualise the behaviour of microtubules (MTs) on the outer tangential wall (OTW) of epidermal cells. In contrast to some current hypotheses concerning the effect of GA on MTs, we show that the GA-induced boost of hypocotyl cell elongation rate is not dependent upon the maintenance of transverse orientation of the OTW MTs. This confirms that transverse alignment of outer face MTs is not necessary to maintain rapid elongation rates of light-grown hypocotyls. Together with future studies on MT dynamics in other faces of epidermal cells and in cells deeper within the hypocotyl, our observations advance understanding of the mechanisms by which GA promotes plant cell and organ growth. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Multi-omics analysis identifies genes mediating the extension of cell walls in the Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Michael H; Holman, Tara J; Sørensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    Plant cell wall composition is important for regulating growth rates, especially in roots. However, neither analyses of cell wall composition nor transcriptomes on their own can comprehensively reveal which genes and processes are mediating growth and cell elongation rates. This study reveals......)cellular localization of many epitopes. Extensins were localized in epidermal and cortex cell walls, while AGP glycans were specific to different tissues from root-hair cells to the stele. The transcriptome analysis found several gene families peaking in the REZ. These included a large family of peroxidases (which...... which is required for wall expansion. Knockdowns of these XTHs resulted in shorter root lengths, confirming a role of the corresponding proteins in root extension growth....

  8. Folic acid orchestrates root development linking cell elongation with auxin response and acts independently of the TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Rodríguez, Juan Ángel; Barrera-Ortiz, Salvador; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Bucio, José

    2017-11-01

    Folic acid is a precursor of tetrahydrofolate (vitamin B9), which is an essential cofactor in most organisms, acting as a carrier for one-carbon units in enzymatic reactions. In this work, we employed pharmacological, genetic and confocal imaging strategies to unravel the signaling mechanism by which folic acid modulates root growth and development. Folic acid supplementation inhibits primary root elongation and induces lateral root formation in a concentration-dependent manner. An analysis of the expression of cell cycle genes pCycD6;1:GFP and CycB1:uidA, and cell expansion Exp7:uidA showed that folic acid promotes cell division but prevented cell elongation, and this correlated with altered expression of auxin-responsive DR5:GFP gene, and PIN1:PIN1:GFP, PIN3:PIN3:GFP, and PIN7:PIN7:GFP auxin transporters at the columella and vasculature of primary roots, whereas mutants defective in auxin signaling (tir1/afb1/afb2 [receptors], slr1 [repressor] and arf7/arf19 [transcription factors]) were less sensitive to folic acid induced primary root shortening and lateral root proliferation. Comparison of growth of WT and TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) antisense lines indicates that folic acid acts by an alternative mechanism to this central regulator. Thus, folic acid modulation of root architecture involves auxin and acts independently of the TOR kinase to influence basic cellular programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Arabidopsis thaliana elongator complex subunit 2 epigenetically affects root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuebin; Tian, Huiyu; Li, Hongjiang; Yu, Qianqian; Wang, Lei; Friml, Jiri; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-08-01

    The elongator complex subunit 2 (ELP2) protein, one subunit of an evolutionarily conserved histone acetyltransferase complex, has been shown to participate in leaf patterning, plant immune and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, its role in root development was explored. Compared to the wild type, the elp2 mutant exhibited an accelerated differentiation of its root stem cells and cell division was more active in its quiescent centre (QC). The key transcription factors responsible for maintaining root stem cell and QC identity, such as AP2 transcription factors PLT1 (PLETHORA1) and PLT2 (PLETHORA2), GRAS transcription factors such as SCR (SCARECROW) and SHR (SHORT ROOT) and WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX5 transcription factor WOX5, were all strongly down-regulated in the mutant. On the other hand, expression of the G2/M transition activator CYCB1 was substantially induced in elp2. The auxin efflux transporters PIN1 and PIN2 showed decreased protein levels and PIN1 also displayed mild polarity alterations in elp2, which resulted in a reduced auxin content in the root tip. Either the acetylation or methylation level of each of these genes differed between the mutant and the wild type, suggesting that the ELP2 regulation of root development involves the epigenetic modification of a range of transcription factors and other developmental regulators. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. DELLA proteins restrain germination and elongation growth in Arabidopsis thaliana COP9 signalosome mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmann, Esther Mirjam Natascha; Nill, Carola; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complex with an essential role in the development of higher eukaryotes. CSN deconjugates the ubiquitin-related modifier NEDD8 from the cullin subunit of cullin-RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), and CSN-mediated cullin deneddylation is required for full CRL activity. Although several plant E3 CRL functions have been shown to be compromised in Arabidopsis csn mutants, none of these functions have so far been shown to limit growth in these mutants. Here, we examine the role of CSN in the context of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(SLEEPY1 (SLY1)), which promotes gibberellic acid (GA)-dependent responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that csn mutants are impaired in GA- and SCF(SLY1)-dependent germination and elongation growth, and we show that these defects correlate with an accumulation and reduced turnover of an SCF(SLY1)-degradation target, the DELLA protein REPRESSOR-OF-ga1-3 (RGA). Genetic interaction studies between csn mutants and loss-of-function alleles of RGA and its functional homologue GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE (GAI) further reveal that RGA and GAI repress defects of germination in strong csn mutants. In addition, we find that these two DELLA proteins are largely responsible for the elongation defects of a weak csn5 mutant allele. We thus conclude that an impairment of SCF(SLY1) is at least in part causative for the germination and elongation defects of csn mutants, and suggest that DELLA proteins are major growth repressors in these mutants. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The Root Apex of Arabidopsis thaliana Consists of Four Distinct Zones of Growth Activities: Meristematic Zone, Transition Zone, Fast Elongation Zone and Growth Terminating Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; De Cnodder, Tinne; Le, Jie; Vissenberg, Kris; Baluska, Frantisek

    2006-11-01

    In the growing apex of Arabidopsis thaliana primary roots, cells proceed through four distinct phases of cellular activities. These zones and their boundaries can be well defined based on their characteristic cellular activities. The meristematic zone comprises, and is limited to, all cells that undergo mitotic divisions. Detailed in vivo analysis of transgenic lines reveals that, in the Columbia-0 ecotype, the meristem stretches up to 200 microm away from the junction between root and root cap (RCJ). In the transition zone, 200 to about 520 microm away from the RCJ, cells undergo physiological changes as they prepare for their fast elongation. Upon entering the transition zone, they progressively develop a central vacuole, polarize the cytoskeleton and remodel their cell walls. Cells grow slowly during this transition: it takes ten hours to triplicate cell length from 8.5 to about 35 microm in the trichoblast cell files. In the fast elongation zone, which covers the zone from 520 to about 850 microm from the RCJ, cell length quadruplicates to about 140 microm in only two hours. This is accompanied by drastic and specific cell wall alterations. Finally, root hairs fully develop in the growth terminating zone, where root cells undergo a minor elongation to reach their mature lengths.

  12. Mutations in a plastid-localized elongation factor G alter early stages of plastid development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangarter Roger P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper development of plastids in embryo and seedling tissues is critical for plant development. During germination, plastids develop to perform many critical functions that are necessary to establish the seedling for further growth. A growing body of work has demonstrated that components of the plastid transcription and translation machinery must be present and functional to establish the organelle upon germination. Results We have identified Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in a gene that encodes a plastid-targeted elongation factor G (SCO1 that is essential for plastid development during embryogenesis since two T-DNA insertion mutations in the coding sequence (sco1-2 and sco1-3 result in an embryo-lethal phenotype. In addition, a point mutation allele (sco1-1 and an allele with a T-DNA insertion in the promoter (sco1-4 of SCO1 display conditional seedling-lethal phenotypes. Seedlings of these alleles exhibit cotyledon and hypocotyl albinism due to improper chloroplast development, and normally die shortly after germination. However, when germinated on media supplemented with sucrose, the mutant plants can produce photosynthetically-active green leaves from the apical meristem. Conclusion The developmental stage-specific phenotype of the conditional-lethal sco1 alleles reveals differences in chloroplast formation during seedling germination compared to chloroplast differentiation in cells derived from the shoot apical meristem. Our identification of embryo-lethal mutant alleles in the Arabidopsis elongation factor G indicates that SCO1 is essential for plant growth, consistent with its predicted role in chloroplast protein translation.

  13. Cell division versus cell elongation: the control of radicle elongation during thermoinhibition of Tagetes minuta achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicky J; Hills, Paul N; van Staden, Johannes

    2007-12-01

    Endogenous embryo factors, which act mainly in the radicle, prevent germination in Tagetes minuta at high temperatures. These factors act to prevent cell elongation, which is critical for radicle protrusion under optimal conditions. Once the radicle has emerged both cell elongation and cell division are required for post-germination growth. Germination can be induced at high temperatures by fusicoccin, which rapidly stimulates cell elongation. In addition, priming seeds at 25 degrees C on polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and mannitol could also induce germination on water at 36 degrees C, indicating that priming prevents radicle protrusion at a point subsequent to the point of control in thermoinhibited achenes. Flow cytometry studies revealed that DNA synthesis occurs during thermoinhibition and the inhibition of DNA synthesis during this process inhibits subsequent germination on water under optimal conditions, suggesting a protective role for DNA synthesis in thermoinhibited achenes of T. minuta.

  14. The strawberry gene FaGAST affects plant growth through inhibition of cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José I; Amaya, Iraida; Castillejo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Quesada, Miguel A; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2006-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) FaGAST gene encodes a small protein with 12 cysteine residues conserved in the C-terminal region similar to a group of proteins identified in other species with diverse assigned functions such as cell division, elongation, or elongation arrest. This gene is expressed in the fruit receptacle, with two peaks during ripening at the white and the red-ripe stages, both coincident with an arrest in the growth pattern. Expression is also high in the roots but confined to the cells at the end of the elongation zone. Exogenous application of gibberellin increased the transcript level of the FaGAST gene in strawberry fruits. Ectopic expression of FaGAST in transgenic Fragaria vesca under the control of the CaMV-35S promoter caused both delayed growth of the plant and fruits with reduced size. The same growth defect was observed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing FaGAST. In addition, the transgenic plants exhibited late flowering and low sensitivity to exogenous gibberellin. Taken together, the expression pattern, the regulation by gibberellin, and the transgenic phenotypes point to a role for FaGAST in arresting cell elongation during strawberry fruit ripening.

  15. Phosphorus and magnesium interactively modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary roots in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Gulei; Li, Xin; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong; Liang, Yongchao; Yu, Jingquan

    2015-07-01

    A balanced supply of essential nutrients is an important factor influencing root architecture in many plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on root growth are limited. Here, we investigated the interactive effect between phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) on root growth of Arabidopsis grown in pH-buffered agar medium at different P and Mg levels. The results showed that elongation and deviation of primary roots were directly correlated with the amount of P added to the medium but could be modified by the Mg level, which was related to the root meristem activity and stem-cell division. High P enhanced while low P decreased the tip-focused fluorescence signal of auxin biosynthesis, transport, and redistribution during elongation of primary roots; these effects were greater under low Mg than under high Mg. The altered root growth in response to P and Mg supply was correlated with AUX1, PIN2, and PIN3 mRNA abundance and expression and the accumulation of the protein. Application of either auxin influx inhibitor or efflux inhibitor inhibited the elongation and increased the deviation angle of primary roots, and decreased auxin level in root tips. Furthermore, the auxin-transport mutants aux1-22 and eir1-1 displayed reduced root growth and increased the deviation angle. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of P and Mg on the development of root morphology in Arabidopsis through auxin signals that modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary root and the expression of root differentiation and development genes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa; Rexach, Jesús; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    One of the earliest symptoms of boron (B) deficiency is the inhibition of root elongation which can reasonably be attributed to the damaging effects of B deprivation on cell wall integrity. It is shown here that exposure of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to B deficiency for 4h led to a drastic inhibition of root cell length in the transition between the elongation and differentiation zones. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene, auxin, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of B deficiency on root cell elongation, B deficiency was applied together with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, a chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), silver ions (Ag(+), an antagonist of ethylene perception), α-(phenylethyl-2-oxo)-indoleacetic acid (PEO-IAA, a synthetic antagonist of TIR1 receptor function), and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of ROS production). Interestingly, all these chemicals partially or fully restored cell elongation in B-deficient roots. To further explore the possible role of ethylene and auxin in the inhibition of root cell elongation under B deficiency, a genetic approach was performed by using Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ethylene (ein2-1) or auxin (eir1-4 and aux1-22) response. Root cell elongation in these mutants was less sensitive to B-deficient treatment than that in wild-type plants. Altogether, these results demonstrated that a signalling pathway involving ethylene, auxin, and ROS participates in the reduction of root cell elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to B deficiency. A similar signalling process has been described to reduce root elongation rapidly under various types of cell wall stress which supports the idea that this signalling pathway is triggered by the impaired cell wall integrity caused by B deficiency. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Boron deficiency inhibits root cell elongation via an ethylene/auxin/ROS-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J.; Martín-Rejano, Esperanza M.; Herrera-Rodríguez, M. Begoña; Navarro-Gochicoa, M. Teresa; Rexach, Jesús; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    One of the earliest symptoms of boron (B) deficiency is the inhibition of root elongation which can reasonably be attributed to the damaging effects of B deprivation on cell wall integrity. It is shown here that exposure of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to B deficiency for 4h led to a drastic inhibition of root cell length in the transition between the elongation and differentiation zones. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene, auxin, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the effect of B deficiency on root cell elongation, B deficiency was applied together with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, a chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), silver ions (Ag+, an antagonist of ethylene perception), α-(phenylethyl-2‐oxo)‐indoleacetic acid (PEO-IAA, a synthetic antagonist of TIR1 receptor function), and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of ROS production). Interestingly, all these chemicals partially or fully restored cell elongation in B-deficient roots. To further explore the possible role of ethylene and auxin in the inhibition of root cell elongation under B deficiency, a genetic approach was performed by using Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ethylene (ein2‐1) or auxin (eir1-4 and aux1-22) response. Root cell elongation in these mutants was less sensitive to B-deficient treatment than that in wild-type plants. Altogether, these results demonstrated that a signalling pathway involving ethylene, auxin, and ROS participates in the reduction of root cell elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to B deficiency. A similar signalling process has been described to reduce root elongation rapidly under various types of cell wall stress which supports the idea that this signalling pathway is triggered by the impaired cell wall integrity caused by B deficiency. PMID:25922480

  18. Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbez, Elke; Dünser, Kai; Gaidora, Angelika; Lendl, Thomas; Busch, Wolfgang

    2017-06-13

    Plant cells are embedded within cell walls, which provide structural integrity, but also spatially constrain cells, and must therefore be modified to allow cellular expansion. The long-standing acid growth theory postulates that auxin triggers apoplast acidification, thereby activating cell wall-loosening enzymes that enable cell expansion in shoots. Interestingly, this model remains heavily debated in roots, because of both the complex role of auxin in plant development as well as technical limitations in investigating apoplastic pH at cellular resolution. Here, we introduce 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) as a suitable fluorescent pH indicator for assessing apoplastic pH, and thus acid growth, at a cellular resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Using HPTS, we demonstrate that cell wall acidification triggers cellular expansion, which is correlated with a preceding increase of auxin signaling. Reduction in auxin levels, perception, or signaling abolishes both the extracellular acidification and cellular expansion. These findings jointly suggest that endogenous auxin controls apoplastic acidification and the onset of cellular elongation in roots. In contrast, an endogenous or exogenous increase in auxin levels induces a transient alkalinization of the extracellular matrix, reducing cellular elongation. The receptor-like kinase FERONIA is required for this physiological process, which affects cellular root expansion during the gravitropic response. These findings pinpoint a complex, presumably concentration-dependent role for auxin in apoplastic pH regulation, steering the rate of root cell expansion and gravitropic response.

  19. The cotton transcription factor TCP14 functions in auxin-mediated epidermal cell differentiation and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao-Ying; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Cheng, Huan-Qing; Han, Li-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Min; Gao, Peng; Wang, Hai-Yun; Yang, Chun-Lin; Zhong, Nai-Qin; Zuo, Jian-Ru; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-07-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors play crucial roles in development, but their functional mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the cellular functions of the class I TCP transcription factor GhTCP14 from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). GhTCP14 is expressed predominantly in fiber cells, especially at the initiation and elongation stages of development, and its expression increased in response to exogenous auxin. Induced heterologous overexpression of GhTCP14 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enhanced initiation and elongation of trichomes and root hairs. In addition, root gravitropism was severely affected, similar to mutant of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) gene. Examination of auxin distribution in GhTCP14-expressing Arabidopsis by observation of auxin-responsive reporters revealed substantial alterations in auxin distribution in sepal trichomes and root cortical regions. Consistent with these changes, expression of the auxin uptake carrier AUXIN1 (AUX1) was up-regulated and PIN2 expression was down-regulated in the GhTCP14-expressing plants. The association of GhTCP14 with auxin responses was also evidenced by the enhanced expression of auxin response gene IAA3, a gene in the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) family. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GhTCP14 bound the promoters of PIN2, IAA3, and AUX1, and transactivation assays indicated that GhTCP14 had transcription activation activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GhTCP14 is a dual-function transcription factor able to positively or negatively regulate expression of auxin response and transporter genes, thus potentially acting as a crucial regulator in auxin-mediated differentiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells.

  20. Telomerase efficiently elongates highly transcribing telomeres in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin O Farnung

    Full Text Available RNA polymerase II transcribes the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes into a variety of long non-coding RNA molecules including telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA. Since TERRA discovery, advances have been made in the characterization of TERRA biogenesis and regulation; on the contrary its associated functions remain elusive. Most of the biological roles so far proposed for TERRA are indeed based on in vitro experiments carried out using short TERRA-like RNA oligonucleotides. In particular, it has been suggested that TERRA inhibits telomerase activity. We have exploited two alternative cellular systems to test whether TERRA and/or telomere transcription influence telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in human cancer cells. In cells lacking the two DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3b, TERRA transcription and steady-state levels are greatly increased while telomerase is able to elongate telomeres normally. Similarly, telomerase can efficiently elongate transgenic inducible telomeres whose transcription has been experimentally augmented. Our data challenge the current hypothesis that TERRA functions as a general inhibitor of telomerase and suggest that telomere length homeostasis is maintained independently of TERRA and telomere transcription.

  1. Transcription of DWARF4 plays a crucial role in auxin-regulated root elongation in addition to brassinosteroid homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Yoshimitsu

    Full Text Available The expression of DWARF4 (DWF4, which encodes a C-22 hydroxylase, is crucial for brassinosteroid (BR biosynthesis and for the feedback control of endogenous BR levels. To advance our knowledge of BRs, we examined the effects of different plant hormones on DWF4 transcription in Arabidopsis thaliana. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR showed that the amount of the DWF4 mRNA precursor either decreased or increased, similarly with its mature form, in response to an exogenously applied bioactive BR, brassinolide (BL, and a BR biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole (Brz, respectively. The response to these chemicals in the levels of β-glucuronidase (GUS mRNA and its enzymatic activity is similar to the response of native DWF4 mRNA in DWF4::GUS plants. Contrary to the effects of BL, exogenous auxin induced GUS activity, but this enhancement was suppressed by anti-auxins, such as α-(phenylethyl-2-one-IAA and α-tert-butoxycarbonylaminohexyl-IAA, suggesting the involvement of SCF(TIR1-mediated auxin signaling in auxin-induced DWF4 transcription. Auxin-enhanced GUS activity was observed exclusively in roots; it was the most prominent in the elongation zones of both primary and lateral roots. Furthermore, auxin-induced lateral root elongation was suppressed by both Brz application and the dwf4 mutation, and this suppression was rescued by BL, suggesting that BRs act positively on root elongation under the control of auxin. Altogether, our results indicate that DWF4 transcription plays a novel role in the BR-auxin crosstalk associated with root elongation, in addition to its role in BR homeostasis.

  2. Functional genomics of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpat, A Bulak; Waugh, Mark; Sullivan, John P; Gonzales, Michael; Frisch, David; Main, Dorrie; Wood, Todd; Leslie, Anna; Wing, Rod A; Wilkins, Thea A

    2004-04-01

    Cotton fibers are single-celled seed trichomes of major economic importance. Factors that regulate the rate and duration of cell expansion control fiber morphology and important agronomic traits. For genetic characterization of rapid cell elongation in cotton fibers, approximately 14,000 unique genes were assembled from 46,603 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from developmentally staged fiber cDNAs of a cultivated diploid species ( Gossypium arboreum L.). Conservatively, the fiber transcriptome represents 35-40% of the genes in the cotton genome. In silico expression analysis revealed that rapidly elongating fiber cells exhibit significant metabolic activity, with the bulk of gene transcripts, represented by three major functional groups - cell wall structure and biogenesis, the cytoskeleton and energy/carbohydrate metabolism. Oligonucleotide microarrays revealed dynamic changes in gene expression between primary and secondary cell wall biogenesis showing that fiber genes in the dbEST are highly stage-specific for cell expansion - a conclusion supported by the absence of known secondary cell wall-specific genes from our fiber dbEST. During the developmental switch from primary to secondary cell wall syntheses, 2553 "expansion-associated" fiber genes are significantly down regulated. Genes (81) significantly up-regulated during secondary cell wall synthesis are involved in cell wall biogenesis and energy/carbohydrate metabolism, which is consistent with the stage of cellulose synthesis during secondary cell wall modification in developing fibers. This work provides the first in-depth view of the genetic complexity of the transcriptome of an expanding cell, and lays the groundwork for studying fundamental biological processes in plant biology with applications in agricultural biotechnology.

  3. Cell wall proteome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mature stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruflé, Harold; Clemente, Hélène San; Balliau, Thierry; Zivy, Michel; Dunand, Christophe; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Plant stems carry flowers necessary for species propagation and need to be adapted to mechanical disturbance and environmental factors. The stem cell walls are different from other organs and can modify their rigidity or viscoelastic properties for the integrity and the robustness required to withstand mechanical impacts and environmental stresses. Plant cell wall is composed of complex polysaccharide networks also containing cell wall proteins (CWPs) crucial to perceive and limit the environmental effects. The CWPs are fundamental players in cell wall remodeling processes, and today, only 86 have been identified from the mature stems of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. With a destructive method, this study has enlarged its coverage to 302 CWPs. This new proteome is mainly composed of 27.5% proteins acting on polysaccharides, 16% proteases, 11.6% oxido-reductases, 11% possibly related to lipid metabolism and 11% of proteins with interacting domains with proteins or polysaccharides. Compared to stem cell wall proteomes already available (Brachypodium distachyon, Sacharum officinarum, Linum usitatissimum, Medicago sativa), that of A. thaliana stems has a higher proportion of proteins acting on polysaccharides and of proteases, but a lower proportion of oxido-reductases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Exploring Arabidopsis thaliana Root Endophytes via Single-Cell Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Derek; Woyke, Tanja; Tringe, Susannah; Dangl, Jeff

    2014-03-19

    Land plants grow in association with microbial communities both on their surfaces and inside the plant (endophytes). The relationships between microbes and their host can vary from pathogenic to mutualistic. Colonization of the endophyte compartment occurs in the presence of a sophisticated plant immune system, implying finely tuned discrimination of pathogens from mutualists and commensals. Despite the importance of the microbiome to the plant, relatively little is known about the specific interactions between plants and microbes, especially in the case of endophytes. The vast majority of microbes have not been grown in the lab, and thus one of the few ways of studying them is by examining their DNA. Although metagenomics is a powerful tool for examining microbial communities, its application to endophyte samples is technically difficult due to the presence of large amounts of host plant DNA in the sample. One method to address these difficulties is single-cell genomics where a single microbial cell is isolated from a sample, lysed, and its genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to produce enough DNA for genome sequencing. This produces a single-cell amplified genome (SAG). We have applied this technology to study the endophytic microbes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Extensive 16S gene profiling of the microbial communities in the roots of multiple inbred A. thaliana strains has identified 164 OTUs as being significantly enriched in all the root endophyte samples compared to their presence in bulk soil.

  5. Multimodal nonlinear imaging of arabidopsis thaliana root cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bumjoon; Lee, Sung-Ho; Woo, Sooah; Park, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Myeong Min; Park, Seung-Han

    2017-07-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has enabled the possibility to explore inside the living organisms. It utilizes ultrashort laser pulse with long wavelength (greater than 800nm). Ultrashort pulse produces high peak power to induce nonlinear optical phenomenon such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and harmonic generations in the medium while maintaining relatively low average energy pre area. In plant developmental biology, confocal microscopy is widely used in plant cell imaging after the development of biological fluorescence labels in mid-1990s. However, fluorescence labeling itself affects the sample and the sample deviates from intact condition especially when labelling the entire cell. In this work, we report the dynamic images of Arabidopsis thaliana root cells. This demonstrates the multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy is an effective tool for long-term plant cell imaging.

  6. Plant cell wall proteomics: the leadership of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile eALBENNE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cells walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last ten years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions.

  7. A role for arabinogalactan-proteins in plant cell expansion: evidence from studies on the interaction of ß-glucosyl Yariv reagent with seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willats, William George Tycho; Knox, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were germinated and grown in medium containing ß-glucosyl Yariv reagent (ßGlcY), a synthetic phenyl glycoside that interacts specifically with arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), a class of plant cell surface proteoglycans. The effect of ßGlcY on the seedlings...... was to reduce the overall growth of both the root and the shoot. ßGlcY only accumulated in the root tissues and the reduced growth of the shoot appeared to be an indirect effect of impaired root growth. Reduced root growth was a consequence of a reduction in cell elongation during the postproliferation phase...... suspension-cultured cells that had been induced to elongate rather than proliferate, cell elongation was inhibited. The AGP-unreactive a-galactosyl Yariv reagent (aGalY) had no biological activity in either of these systems....

  8. Cosuppression of Eukaryotic Release Factor 1-1 in Arabidopsis Affects Cell Elongation and Radial Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsch, Katherine Anne; Mylne, Joshua; Botella, José Ramón

    2005-01-01

    The role of the eukaryotic release factor 1 (eRF1) in translation termination has previously been established in yeast; however, only limited characterization has been performed on any plant homologs. Here, we demonstrate that cosuppression of eRF1-1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has a profound effect on plant morphology, resulting in what we term the broomhead phenotype. These plants primarily exhibit a reduction in internode elongation causing the formation of a broomhead-like cluster of malformed siliques at the top of the inflorescence stem. Histological analysis of broomhead stems revealed that cells are reduced in height and display ectopic lignification of the phloem cap cells, some phloem sieve cells, and regions of the fascicular cambium, as well as enhanced lignification of the interfascicular fibers. We also show that cell division in the fascicular cambial regions is altered, with the majority of vascular bundles containing cambial cells that are disorganized and possess enlarged nuclei. This is the first attempt at functional characterization of a release factor in vivo in plants and demonstrates the importance of eRF1-1 function in Arabidopsis. PMID:16113224

  9. Adherens junction distribution mechanisms during cell-cell contact elongation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Goldenberg

    Full Text Available During Drosophila gastrulation, amnioserosa (AS cells flatten and spread as an epithelial sheet. We used AS morphogenesis as a model to investigate how adherens junctions (AJs distribute along elongating cell-cell contacts in vivo. As the contacts elongated, total AJ protein levels increased along their length. However, genetically blocking this AJ addition indicated that it was not essential for maintaining AJ continuity. Implicating other remodeling mechanisms, AJ photobleaching revealed non-directional lateral mobility of AJs along the elongating contacts, as well as local AJ removal from the membranes. Actin stabilization with jasplakinolide reduced AJ redistribution, and live imaging of myosin II along elongating contacts revealed fragmented, expanding and contracting actomyosin networks, suggesting a mechanism for lateral AJ mobility. Actin stabilization also increased total AJ levels, suggesting an inhibition of AJ removal. Implicating AJ removal by endocytosis, clathrin endocytic machinery accumulated at AJs. However, dynamin disruption had no apparent effect on AJs, suggesting the involvement of redundant or dynamin-independent mechanisms. Overall, we propose that new synthesis, lateral diffusion, and endocytosis play overlapping roles to populate elongating cell-cell contacts with evenly distributed AJs in this in vivo system.

  10. Characterization of the snowy cotyledon 1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: the impact of chloroplast elongation factor G on chloroplast development and plant vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Verónica; Ingenfeld, Anke; Apel, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    During seedling development chloroplast formation marks the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. The development and activity of chloroplasts may differ in cotyledons that initially serve as a storage organ and true leaves whose primary function is photosynthesis. A genetic screen was used for the identification of genes that affect selectively chloroplast function in cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana. Several mutants exhibiting pale cotyledons and green true leaves were isolated and dubbed snowy cotyledon (sco). One of the mutants, sco1, was characterized in more detail. The mutated gene was identified using map-based cloning. The mutant contains a point mutation in a gene encoding the chloroplast elongation factor G, leading to an amino acid exchange within the predicted 70S ribosome-binding domain. The mutation results in a delay in the onset of germination. At this early developmental stage embryos still contain undifferentiated proplastids, whose proper function seems necessary for seed germination. In light-grown sco1 seedlings the greening of cotyledons is severely impaired, whereas the following true leaves develop normally as in wild-type plants. Despite this apparent similarity of chloroplast development in true leaves of mutant and wild-type plants various aspects of mature plant development are also affected by the sco1 mutation such as the onset of flowering, the growth rate, and seed production. The onset of senescence in the mutant and the wild-type plants occurs, however, at the same time, suggesting that in the mutant this particular developmental step does not seem to suffer from reduced protein translation efficiency in chloroplasts.

  11. How cotton fibers elongate: a tale of linear cell-growth mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yong-Mei; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2011-02-01

    Cotton fibers (cotton lint) are single-celled trichomes that differentiate from the ovule epidermis. Unidirectional and fast-growing cells generally expand at the dome-shaped apical zone (tip-growth mode); however, previous studies suggest that elongating fiber cells expand via a diffuse-growth mode. Tip-localized Ca(2+) gradient and active secretary vesicle trafficking are two important phenomena of tip-growth. Recently, a high Ca(2+) gradient is found in the cytoplasm of fast-elongating cotton fiber cells near the growing tip. Several protein coding genes participating in vesicle coating and transport are highly expressed in elongating fiber cells. Taken together with the observation that ethylene acts as a positive regulator for cotton fiber and several Arabidopsis tissues that are known to elongate via tip growth prompted us to propose a linear-growth mode for similar cell types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Cotton Transcription Factor TCP14 Functions in Auxin-Mediated Epidermal Cell Differentiation and Elongation1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao-Ying; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Cheng, Huan-Qing; Han, Li-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Min; Gao, Peng; Wang, Hai-Yun; Yang, Chun-Lin; Zhong, Nai-Qin; Zuo, Jian-Ru; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors play crucial roles in development, but their functional mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the cellular functions of the class I TCP transcription factor GhTCP14 from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). GhTCP14 is expressed predominantly in fiber cells, especially at the initiation and elongation stages of development, and its expression increased in response to exogenous auxin. Induced heterologous overexpression of GhTCP14 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enhanced initiation and elongation of trichomes and root hairs. In addition, root gravitropism was severely affected, similar to mutant of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) gene. Examination of auxin distribution in GhTCP14-expressing Arabidopsis by observation of auxin-responsive reporters revealed substantial alterations in auxin distribution in sepal trichomes and root cortical regions. Consistent with these changes, expression of the auxin uptake carrier AUXIN1 (AUX1) was up-regulated and PIN2 expression was down-regulated in the GhTCP14-expressing plants. The association of GhTCP14 with auxin responses was also evidenced by the enhanced expression of auxin response gene IAA3, a gene in the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) family. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GhTCP14 bound the promoters of PIN2, IAA3, and AUX1, and transactivation assays indicated that GhTCP14 had transcription activation activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GhTCP14 is a dual-function transcription factor able to positively or negatively regulate expression of auxin response and transporter genes, thus potentially acting as a crucial regulator in auxin-mediated differentiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells. PMID:23715527

  13. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: reyesm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Alonso, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC 27109 (United States); Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam.

  14. Cytokinin acts through the auxin influx carrier AUX1 to regulate cell elongation in the root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Ian H; Mathews, Dennis E; Yamburkenko, Maria V; Sorooshzadeh, Ali; John, Roshen T; Swarup, Ranjan; Bennett, Malcolm J; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2016-11-01

    Hormonal interactions are crucial for plant development. In Arabidopsis, cytokinins inhibit root growth through effects on cell proliferation and cell elongation. Here, we define key mechanistic elements in a regulatory network by which cytokinin inhibits root cell elongation in concert with the hormones auxin and ethylene. The auxin importer AUX1 functions as a positive regulator of cytokinin responses in the root; mutation of AUX1 specifically affects the ability of cytokinin to inhibit cell elongation but not cell proliferation. AUX1 is required for cytokinin-dependent changes of auxin activity in the lateral root cap associated with the control of cell elongation. Cytokinin regulates root cell elongation through ethylene-dependent and -independent mechanisms, both hormonal signals converging on AUX1 as a regulatory hub. An autoregulatory circuit is identified involving the control of ARR10 and AUX1 expression by cytokinin and auxin, this circuit potentially functioning as an oscillator to integrate the effects of these two hormones. Taken together, our results uncover several regulatory circuits controlling interactions of cytokinin with auxin and ethylene, and support a model in which cytokinin regulates shootward auxin transport to control cell elongation and root growth. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Thermoperiodic control of hypocotyl elongation depends on auxin-induced ethylene signaling that controls downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 ACTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, Ralph; Kohlen, Wouter; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We show that antiphase light-temperature cycles (negative day-night temperature difference [2DIF]) inhibit hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This is caused by reduced cell elongation during the cold photoperiod. Cell elongation in the basal part of the hypocotyl under 2DIF

  16. Mechanical roles of apical constriction, cell elongation, and cell migration during neural tube formation in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Watanabe, Tadashi; Yasue, Naoko; Tateo, Itsuki; Adachi, Taiji; Ueno, Naoto

    2016-12-01

    Neural tube closure is an important and necessary process during the development of the central nervous system. The formation of the neural tube structure from a flat sheet of neural epithelium requires several cell morphogenetic events and tissue dynamics to account for the mechanics of tissue deformation. Cell elongation changes cuboidal cells into columnar cells, and apical constriction then causes them to adopt apically narrow, wedge-like shapes. In addition, the neural plate in Xenopus is stratified, and the non-neural cells in the deep layer (deep cells) pull the overlying superficial cells, eventually bringing the two layers of cells to the midline. Thus, neural tube closure appears to be a complex event in which these three physical events are considered to play key mechanical roles. To test whether these three physical events are mechanically sufficient to drive neural tube formation, we employed a three-dimensional vertex model and used it to simulate the process of neural tube closure. The results suggest that apical constriction cued the bending of the neural plate by pursing the circumference of the apical surface of the neural cells. Neural cell elongation in concert with apical constriction further narrowed the apical surface of the cells and drove the rapid folding of the neural plate, but was insufficient for complete neural tube closure. Migration of the deep cells provided the additional tissue deformation necessary for closure. To validate the model, apical constriction and cell elongation were inhibited in Xenopus laevis embryos. The resulting cell and tissue shapes resembled the corresponding simulation results.

  17. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-08

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.

  18. Contribution of cell elongation to the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during anaerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mi Young; Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO(2) (-)) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process.

  19. Cell elongation is an adaptive response for clearing long chromatid arms from the cleavage plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotadia, Shaila; Montembault, Emilie; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell cleavage to ensure correct transmission of the genome to daughter cells. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster neuronal stem cells coordinate sister chromatid segregation with cleavage furrow ingression. Cells adapted to a dramatic increase in chromatid arm length by transiently elongating during anaphase/telophase. The degree of cell elongation correlated with the length of the trailing chromatid arms and was concomitant with a slight increase in spindle length and an enlargement of the zone of cortical myosin distribution. Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Pebble)–depleted cells failed to elongate during segregation of long chromatids. As a result, Pebble-depleted adult flies exhibited morphological defects likely caused by cell death during development. These studies reveal a novel pathway linking trailing chromatid arms and cortical myosin that ensures the clearance of chromatids from the cleavage plane at the appropriate time during cytokinesis, thus preserving genome integrity. PMID:23185030

  20. The architecture of polarized cell growth: the unique status of elongating plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Wojtaszek, Przemysław; Volkmann, Dieter; Barlow, Peter

    2003-06-01

    Polarity is an inherent feature of almost all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In most eukaryotic cells, growth polarity is due to the assembly of actin-based growing domains at particular locations on the cell periphery. A contrasting scenario is that growth polarity results from the establishment of non-growing domains, which are actively maintained at opposite end-poles of the cell. This latter mode of growth is common in rod-shaped bacteria and, surprisingly, also in the majority of plant cells, which elongate along the apical-basal axes of plant organs. The available data indicate that the non-growing end-pole domains of plant cells are sites of intense endocytosis and recycling. These actin-enriched end-poles serve also as signaling platforms, allowing bidirectional exchange of diverse signals along the supracellular domains of longitudinal cell files. It is proposed that these actively remodeled end-poles of elongating plant cells remotely resemble neuronal synapses. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. DYNAMIQUE DES PROTÉINES PARIÉTALES AU COURS DE L'ÉLONGATION CELLULAIRE DANS DES HYPOCOTYLES ÉTIOLÉS D'ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA : APPROCHES PROTÉOMIQUE ET TRANSCRIPTOMIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    The cell wall of higher plants is a complex dynamic entity that performs a variety of functions during growth and development as well as in response to environmental stresses. Cell wall proteins play important roles in cell elongation. Etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana were chosen as elongating organs since they undergo rapid and polar elongation without cell division. Two developmental stages were compared through proteomic and transcriptomic surveys: active elongation (5- day-old...

  2. Structure and organ specificity of an anionic peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Abelskov, A K; Mattsson, O

    1996-01-01

    The predominant peroxidase (pI 3.5) (E.C. 1.11.1.7) of an Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was purified and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotides were designed and a specific probe was obtained. A cDNA clone was isolated from an Arabidopsis cell suspension cDNA library and completely...

  3. Latrunculin B-induced plant dwarfism: Plant cell elongation is F-actin-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, F; Jasik, J; Edelmann, H G; Salajová, T; Volkmann, D

    2001-03-01

    Marine macrolides latrunculins are highly specific toxins which effectively depolymerize actin filaments (generally F-actin) in all eukaryotic cells. We show that latrunculin B is effective on diverse cell types in higher plants and describe the use of this drug in probing F-actin-dependent growth and in plant development-related processes. In contrast to other eukaryotic organisms, cell divisions occurs in plant cells devoid of all actin filaments. However, the alignment of the division planes is often distorted. In addition to cell division, postembryonic development and morphogenesis also continue in the absence of F-actin. These experimental data suggest that F-actin is of little importance in the morphogenesis of higher plants, and that plants can develop more or less normally without F-actin. In contrast, F-actin turns out to be essential for cell elongation. When latrunculin B was added during germination, morphologically normal Arabidopsis and rye seedlings developed but, as a result of the absence of cell elongation, these were stunted, resembling either genetic dwarfs or environmental bonsai plants. In conclusion, F-actin is essential for the plant cell elongation, while this F-actin-dependent cell elongation is not an essential feature of plant-specific developmental programs.

  4. Profilin Plays a Role in Cell Elongation, Cell Shape Maintenance, and Flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, S.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Ishimaru, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Profilin (PFN) is an ubiquitous, low-M-r, actin-binding protein involved in the organization of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotes including higher plants. PFNs are encoded by a multigene family in Arabidopsis. We have analyzed in vivo functions of Arabidopsis PFN by generating transgenic plants carr...... expressed in the vascular bundles of cotyledons and leaves. Our results show that Arabidopsis PFNs play a role in cell elongation, cell shape maintenance, polarized growth of root hair, and unexpectedly, in determination of flowering time........ Compared with equivalent cells in WT, most cells in PFN-U hypocotyls and roots were shorter, but more isodiametric, and microscopic observations of etiolated PFN-U hypocotyls revealed a rough epidermal surface. In contrast, light-grown seedlings overexpressing PFN had longer roots and root hair although...... etiolated seedlings overexpressing PFN were either the same size or slightly longer than WT seedlings. Transgenic seedlings harboring a PFN-1-GUS transgene directed expression in root and root hair and in a ring of cells at the elongating zone of the root tip. As the seedlings matured PFN-1-GUS was mainly...

  5. In Vivo Cell Wall Loosening by Hydroxyl Radicals during Cress Seed Germination and Elongation Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, K.; Linkies, A.; Vreeburg, R.A.M.; Fry, S.C.; Krieger-Liszkay, A.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2009-01-01

    Loosening of cell walls is an important developmental process in key stages of the plant life cycle, including seed germination, elongation growth, and fruit ripening. Here, we report direct in vivo evidence for hydroxyl radical (·OH)-mediated cell wall loosening during plant seed germination and

  6. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-L-fucose induces defects in root cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Bardor, Muriel; Burel, Carole; Vauzeilles, Boris; Lerouxel, Olivier; Anderson, Charles T; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Lerouge, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Screening of commercially available fluoro monosaccharides as putative growth inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that 2-fluoro 2-l-fucose (2F-Fuc) reduces root growth at micromolar concentrations. The inability of 2F-Fuc to affect an Atfkgp mutant that is defective in the fucose salvage pathway indicates that 2F-Fuc must be converted to its cognate GDP nucleotide sugar in order to inhibit root growth. Chemical analysis of cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins demonstrated that fucosylation of xyloglucans and of N-linked glycans is fully inhibited by 10 μm 2F-Fuc in Arabidopsis seedling roots, but genetic evidence indicates that these alterations are not responsible for the inhibition of root development by 2F-Fuc. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall polysaccharides also affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). At low concentrations, 2F-Fuc induced a decrease in RG-II dimerization. Both RG-II dimerization and root growth were partially restored in 2F-Fuc-treated seedlings by addition of boric acid, suggesting that the growth phenotype caused by 2F-Fuc was due to a deficiency of RG-II dimerization. Closer investigation of the 2F-Fuc-induced growth phenotype demonstrated that cell division is not affected by 2F-Fuc treatments. In contrast, the inhibitor suppressed elongation of root cells and promoted the emergence of adventitious roots. This study further emphasizes the importance of RG-II in cell elongation and the utility of glycosyltransferase inhibitors as new tools for studying the functions of cell wall polysaccharides in plant development. Moreover, supplementation experiments with borate suggest that the function of boron in plants might not be restricted to RG-II cross-linking, but that it might also be a signal molecule in the cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy- l -fucose induces defects in root cell elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Marie [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Lehner, Arnaud [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Bardor, Muriel [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Burel, Carole [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Vauzeilles, Boris [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay (ICMMO) UMR CNRS 8182, Université de Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay France; Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (ICSN) UPR CNRS 2301, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette France; Click4Tag, Zone Luminy Biotech, Case 922, 163 Avenue de Luminy 13009 Marseille France; Lerouxel, Olivier [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolécules Végétales (CERMAV) - CNRS BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 France; Anderson, Charles T. [Department of Biology and Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Mollet, Jean-Claude [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Lerouge, Patrice [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France

    2015-12-01

    Screening of commercially available fluoro monosaccharides as putative growth inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that 2-fluoro 2-l-fucose (2F-Fuc) reduces root growth at micromolar concentrations. The inability of 2F-Fuc to affect an Atfkgp mutant that is defective in the fucose salvage pathway indicates that 2F-Fuc must be converted to its cognate GDP nucleotide sugar in order to inhibit root growth. Chemical analysis of cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins demonstrated that fucosylation of xyloglucans and of N-linked glycans is fully inhibited by 10 μm 2F-Fuc in Arabidopsis seedling roots, but genetic evidence indicates that these alterations are not responsible for the inhibition of root development by 2F-Fuc. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall polysaccharides also affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). At low concentrations, 2F-Fuc induced a decrease in RG-II dimerization. Both RG-II dimerization and root growth were partially restored in 2F-Fuc-treated seedlings by addition of boric acid, suggesting that the growth phenotype caused by 2F-Fuc was due to a deficiency of RG-II dimerization. Closer investigation of the 2F-Fuc-induced growth phenotype demonstrated that cell division is not affected by 2F-Fuc treatments. In contrast, the inhibitor suppressed elongation of root cells and promoted the emergence of adventitious roots. This study further emphasizes the importance of RG-II in cell elongation and the utility of glycosyltransferase inhibitors as new tools for studying the functions of cell wall polysaccharides in plant development. Moreover, supplementation experiments with borate suggest that the function of boron in plants might not be restricted to RG-II cross-linking, but that it might also be a signal molecule in the cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism.

  8. Photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue and red light. Effects on hydraulic and cell wall properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kigel, J.; Cosgrove, D.J. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel) Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The underlying mechanism of photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue (BL) and red light (RL) was studied in etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska). Brief BL irradiations resulted in fast transient inhibition of elongation, while a delayed (lay approximately 60 minutes) but prolonged inhibition was observed after brief RL. Possible changes in the hydraulic and wall properties of the growing cells during photoinhibition were examined. Cell sap osmotic pressure was unaffected by BL and RL, but both irradiations increased turgor pressure by approximately 0.05 megapascal (pressure-probe technique). Cell wall yielding was analyzed by in vivo stress relaxation (pressure-block technique). BL and RL reduced the initial rate of relaxation by 38 and 54%, while the final amount of relaxation was decreased by 48 and 10%, respectively. These results indicate that RL inhibits elongation mainly by lowering the wall yield coefficient, while most of the inhibitory effect of BL was due to an increase of the yield threshold. Mechanical extensibility of cell walls (Instron technique) was decreased by BL and RL, mainly due to a reduction in the plastic component of extensibility. Thus, photoinhibitions of elongation by both BL and RL are achieved through changes in cell wall properties, and are not due to effects on the hydraulic properties of the cell.

  9. Contraction and elongation: Mechanics underlying cell boundary deformations in epithelial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    The cell-cell boundaries of epithelial cells form cellular frameworks at the apical side of tissues. Deformations in these boundaries, for example, boundary contraction and elongation, and the associated forces form the mechanical basis of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. In this review, using data from recent Drosophila studies on cell boundary contraction and elongation, I provide an overview of the mechanism underlying the bi-directional deformations in the epithelial cell boundary, that are sustained by biased accumulations of junctional and apico-medial non-muscle myosin II. Moreover, how the junctional tensions exist on cell boundaries in different boundary dynamics and morphologies are discussed. Finally, some future perspectives on how recent knowledge about single cell boundary-level mechanics will contribute to our understanding of epithelial tissue morphogenesis are discussed. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  10. Elongated Nanostructures for Radial Junction Thin Film Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber layer primarily is the reduced consumption of material and energy during production, but also the increased production rates and lower cost. While this is of interest to

  11. Codon usage regulates protein structure and function by affecting translation elongation speed in Drosophila cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangzhou; Yu, Chien-Hung; Liu, Yi

    2017-08-21

    Codon usage biases are found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and have been proposed to regulate different aspects of translation process. Codon optimality has been shown to regulate translation elongation speed in fungal systems, but its effect on translation elongation speed in animal systems is not clear. In this study, we used a Drosophila cell-free translation system to directly compare the velocity of mRNA translation elongation. Our results demonstrate that optimal synonymous codons speed up translation elongation while non-optimal codons slow down translation. In addition, codon usage regulates ribosome movement and stalling on mRNA during translation. Finally, we show that codon usage affects protein structure and function in vitro and in Drosophila cells. Together, these results suggest that the effect of codon usage on translation elongation speed is a conserved mechanism from fungi to animals that can affect protein folding in eukaryotic organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. NIMA-related kinases regulate directional cell growth and organ development through microtubule function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motose, Hiroyasu; Takatani, Shogo; Ikeda, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Taku

    2012-12-01

    NIMA-related kinase 6 (NEK6) regulates cellular expansion and morphogenesis through microtubule organizaiton in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss-of-function mutations in NEK6 (nek6/ibo1) cause ectopic outgrowth and microtubule disorganization in epidermal cells. We recently found that NEK6 forms homodimers and heterodimers with NEK4 and NEK5 to destabilize cortical microtubules possibly by direct binding to microtubules and the β-tubulin phosphorylation. Here, we identified a new allele of NEK6 and further analyzed the morphological phenotypes of nek6/ibo1 mutants, along with alleles of nek4 and nek5 mutants. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that NEK6 is required for the directional growth of roots and hypocotyls, petiole elongation, cell file formation, and trichome morphogenesis. In addition, nek4, nek5, and nek6/ibo1 mutants were hypersensitive to microtubule inhibitors such as propyzamide and taxol. These results suggest that plant NEKs function in directional cell growth and organ development through the regulation of microtubule organization.

  13. Interaction between calcium and potassium modulates elongation rate in cotton fiber cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Tu, Lili; He, Yonghui; Deng, Jinwu; Wang, Maojun; Huang, Hui; Li, Zhonghua; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-11-02

    Calcium (Ca2+) is necessary for fiber cell development in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), both as a cell wall structural component and for environmental signaling responses. It is also known that potassium (K+) plays a critical role in cotton fiber cell elongation. However, it is unclear whether Ca2+ integrates its activities with K+ to regulate fiber elongation. Here, we report the novel discovery that Ca2+ deficiency, when integrated with K+ signaling, promotes fiber elongation. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we determined dynamic profiles of the ionome in ovules and fibers at different developmental stages, and found that a high accumulation of macro-elements, but not Ca2+, was associated with longer fibers. Using an in vitro ovule culture system, we found that under Ca2+-deficient conditions, sufficient K+ (52 mM) rapidly induced ovule and fiber browning, while reduced K+ (2 or 27 mM) not only suppressed tissue browning but also altered fiber elongation. Reduced K+ also enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging ability and maintained abscisic acid and jasmonic acid levels, which in turn compensated for Ca2+ deficiency. Ca2+ deficiency combined with reduced K+ (0 mM Ca2+ and 27 mM K+) produced longer fibers in cultured ovules, due to cell wall loosening by phytosulfokine (PSK), expansin (EXP), and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and an increase of the K+ content of fiber cells. Using transgenic cotton, we showed that the CBL-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE 6 (GhCIPK6) gene mediates the uptake of K+ under Ca2+-deficient conditions. This study establishes a new link between Ca2+, K+, and fiber elongation. © Society for Experimental Biology 2017.

  14. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Ko, E-mail: miyoshi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato [Department of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2009-10-30

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  15. Induction of cell death by graphene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cell suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Parvin, E-mail: parvinchy@ees.hokudai.ac.jp; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • This study was set up to explore potential influence of graphene on T87 cells. • Fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction were observed. • ROS increased, ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. • Translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed. • Graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. -- Abstract: The toxicity of graphene on suspensions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia ecotype) T87 cells was investigated by examining the morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and translocation of graphene as the toxicological endpoints. The cells were grown in Jouanneau and Péaud-Lenoel (JPL) media and exposed to graphene at concentrations 0–80 mg/L. Morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope and the adverse effects such as fragmented nuclei, membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed with fluorescence microscopy by staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide and succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme). Analysis of intracellular ROS by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate demonstrated that graphene induced a 3.3-fold increase in ROS, suggesting that ROS are key mediators in the cell death signaling pathway. Transmission electron microscopy verified the translocation of graphene into cells and an endocytosis-like structure was observed which suggested graphene entering into the cells by endocytosis. In conclusion, our results show that graphene induced cell death in T87 cells through mitochondrial damage mediated by ROS.

  16. Exocyst-Dependent Membrane Addition Is Required for Anaphase Cell Elongation and Cytokinesis in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Giansanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitotic and cytokinetic processes harness cell machinery to drive chromosomal segregation and the physical separation of dividing cells. Here, we investigate the functional requirements for exocyst complex function during cell division in vivo, and demonstrate a common mechanism that directs anaphase cell elongation and cleavage furrow progression during cell division. We show that onion rings (onr and funnel cakes (fun encode the Drosophila homologs of the Exo84 and Sec8 exocyst subunits, respectively. In onr and fun mutant cells, contractile ring proteins are recruited to the equatorial region of dividing spermatocytes. However, cytokinesis is disrupted early in furrow ingression, leading to cytokinesis failure. We use high temporal and spatial resolution confocal imaging with automated computational analysis to quantitatively compare wild-type versus onr and fun mutant cells. These results demonstrate that anaphase cell elongation is grossly disrupted in cells that are compromised in exocyst complex function. Additionally, we observe that the increase in cell surface area in wild type peaks a few minutes into cytokinesis, and that onr and fun mutant cells have a greatly reduced rate of surface area growth specifically during cell division. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy reveals a massive build-up of cytoplasmic astral membrane and loss of normal Golgi architecture in onr and fun spermatocytes, suggesting that exocyst complex is required for proper vesicular trafficking through these compartments. Moreover, recruitment of the small GTPase Rab11 and the PITP Giotto to the cleavage site depends on wild-type function of the exocyst subunits Exo84 and Sec8. Finally, we show that the exocyst subunit Sec5 coimmunoprecipitates with Rab11. Our results are consistent with the exocyst complex mediating an essential, coordinated increase in cell surface area that potentiates anaphase cell elongation and cleavage furrow ingression.

  17. A balance between elongation and trimming regulates telomere stability in stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Teresa; Haggblom, Candy; Cosconati, Sandro; Karlseder, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length maintenance ensures self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), however the mechanisms governing telomere length homeostasis in these cell types are unclear. Here, we report that telomere length is determined by the balance between telomere elongation mediated by telomerase and telomere trimming, controlled by the homologous recombination proteins XRCC3 and Nbs1 that generate single-stranded C-rich telomeric DNA and double-stranded telomeric circular DNA (T-circles), respectively. We found that reprogramming of differentiated cells induces T-circle and single stranded C-rich telomeric DNA accumulation, indicating the activation of telomere trimming pathways that compensate telomerase dependent telomere elongation in hiPSCs. Excessive telomere elongation compromises telomere stability and promotes the formation of partially single-stranded telomeric DNA circles (C-circles) in hESCs, suggesting heightened sensitivity of stem cells to replication stress at overly long telomeres. Thus, tight control of telomere length homeostasis is essential to maintain telomere stability in hESCs. PMID:27918544

  18. Cell patterns emerge from coupled chemical and physical fields with cell proliferation dynamics: the Arabidopsis thaliana root as a study system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Barrio

    Full Text Available A central issue in developmental biology is to uncover the mechanisms by which stem cells maintain their capacity to regenerate, yet at the same time produce daughter cells that differentiate and attain their ultimate fate as a functional part of a tissue or an organ. In this paper we propose that, during development, cells within growing organs obtain positional information from a macroscopic physical field that is produced in space while cells are proliferating. This dynamical interaction triggers and responds to chemical and genetic processes that are specific to each biological system. We chose the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana to develop our dynamical model because this system is well studied at the molecular, genetic and cellular levels and has the key traits of multicellular stem-cell niches. We built a dynamical model that couples fundamental molecular mechanisms of the cell cycle to a tension physical field and to auxin dynamics, both of which are known to play a role in root development. We perform extensive numerical calculations that allow for quantitative comparison with experimental measurements that consider the cellular patterns at the root tip. Our model recovers, as an emergent pattern, the transition from proliferative to transition and elongation domains, characteristic of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. In addition, we successfully predict altered cellular patterns that are expected under various applied auxin treatments or modified physical growth conditions. Our modeling platform may be extended to explicitly consider gene regulatory networks or to treat other developmental systems.

  19. Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Hormone-Regulated Differential Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Joseph R.

    2002-12-03

    The authors have utilized the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to the plant hormone ethylene to identify new genes involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and differential cell growth. In building a genetic framework for the action of these genes, they developed a molecular model that has facilitated the understanding of the molecular requirements of ethylene for cell elongation processes. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis appears to be primarily linear and is defined by the genes: ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, EIN5 EIN6, and EIN. Downstream branches identified by the HLS1, EIR1, and AUX1 genes involve interactions with other hormonal (auxin) signals in the process of differential cell elongation in the hypocotyl hook. Cloning and characterization of HLS1 and three HLS1-LIKE genes in the laboratory has been supported under this award. HLS1 is required for differential elongation of cells in the hypocotyl and may act in the establishment of hormone gradients. Also during the award period, they have identified and begun preliminary characterization of two genes that genetically act upstream of the ethylene receptors. ETO1 and RAN1 encode negative regulators of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling respectively. Progress on the analysis of these genes along with HOOKLESS1 is described.

  20. Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Hormone-Regulated Differential Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Joseph R.

    2005-09-15

    We have utilized the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to the plant hormone ethylene to identify new genes involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and differential cell growth. In building a genetic framework for the action of these genes, we have developed a molecular model that has facilitated our understanding of the molecular requirements of ethylene for cell elongation processes. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis appears to be primarily linear and is defined by the genes: ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, EIN5, EIN6, and EIN. Downstream branches identified by the HLS1, EIR1, and AUX1 genes involve interactions with other hormonal (auxin) signals in the process of differential cell elongation in the hypocotyl hook. Cloning and characterization of HLS1 (and three HLL genes) and ETO1 (and ETOL genes) in my laboratory has been supported under this award. HLS1 is required for differential elongation of cells in the hypocotyl and may act in the establishment of hormone gradients. Also during the previous period, we have identified and characterized a gene that genetically acts upstream of the ethylene receptors. ETO1 encodes negative regulators of ethylene biosynthesis.

  1. Methylglyoxal synthase regulates cell elongation via alterations of cellular methylglyoxal and spermidine content in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Min; Song, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kwak, Min-Kyu; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2017-10-01

    Methylglyoxal regulates cell division and differentiation through its interaction with polyamines. Loss of their biosynthesizing enzyme causes physiological impairment and cell elongation in eukaryotes. However, the reciprocal effects of methylglyoxal and polyamine production and its regulatory metabolic switches on morphological changes in prokaryotes have not been addressed. Here, Bacillus subtilis methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA) and polyamine biosynthesizing genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (SpeA), agmatinase (SpeB), and spermidine synthase (SpeE), were disrupted or overexpressed. Treatment of 0.2mM methylglyoxal and 1mM spermidine led to the elongation and shortening of B. subtilis wild-type cells to 12.38±3.21μm (P<0.05) and 3.24±0.73μm (P<0.01), respectively, compared to untreated cells (5.72±0.68μm). mgsA-deficient (mgsA - ) and -overexpressing (mgsA OE ) mutants also demonstrated cell shortening and elongation, similar to speB- and speE-deficient (speB - and speE - ) and -overexpressing (speB OE and speE OE ) mutants. Importantly, both mgsA-depleted speB OE and speE OE mutants (speB OE /mgsA - and speE OE /mgsA - ) were drastically shortened to 24.5% and 23.8% of parental speB OE and speE OE mutants, respectively. These phenotypes were associated with reciprocal alterations of mgsA and polyamine transcripts governed by the contents of methylglyoxal and spermidine, which are involved in enzymatic or genetic metabolite-control mechanisms. Additionally, biophysically detected methylglyoxal-spermidine Schiff bases did not affect morphogenesis. Taken together, the findings indicate that methylglyoxal triggers cell elongation. Furthermore, cells with methylglyoxal accumulation commonly exhibit an elongated rod-shaped morphology through upregulation of mgsA, polyamine genes, and the global regulator spx, as well as repression of the cell division and shape regulator, FtsZ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells in response to plant natriuretic peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2015-06-30

    Proteome changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells in response to the A. thaliana plant natriuretic peptide (PNP), AtPNP-A (At2g18660) were assessed using quantitative proteomics employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). In this study, we characterized temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM AtPNP-A at 0, 10 and 30 min post-treatment. Both concentrations we found to yield a distinct differential proteome signature. The data shown in this article are associated with the article “Plant natriuretic peptides induce a specific set of proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to abiotic stress” by Turek et al. (Front. Plant Sci. 5 (2014) 661) and have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001386.

  3. Telomere Elongation and Naive Pluripotent Stem Cells Achieved from Telomerase Haplo-Insufficient Cells by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ying Sung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Haplo-insufficiency of telomerase genes in humans leads to telomere syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenital and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from telomerase haplo-insufficient donor cells would provide unique opportunities toward the realization of patient-specific stem cell therapies. Recently, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (ntESCs have been efficiently achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. We tested the hypothesis that SCNT could effectively elongate shortening telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient cells in the ntESCs with relevant mouse models. Indeed, telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient (Terc+/− mouse cells are elongated in ntESCs. Moreover, ntESCs derived from Terc+/− cells exhibit naive pluripotency as evidenced by generation of Terc+/− ntESC clone pups by tetraploid embryo complementation, the most stringent test of naive pluripotency. These data suggest that SCNT could offer a powerful tool to reprogram telomeres and to discover the factors for robust restoration of telomeres and pluripotency of telomerase haplo-insufficient somatic cells.

  4. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation due to shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Adam; DeStefano, Jackson; Ye, Mao; Wong, Andrew D; Searson, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial cells in straight sections of vessels are known to elongate and align in the direction of flow. This phenotype has been replicated in confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in cell culture under physiological shear stress. Here we report on the morphological response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in confluent monolayers in response to shear stress. Using a microfluidic platform we image confluent monolayers of HBMECs and HUVECs under shear stresses up to 16 dyne cm(-2). From live-cell imaging we quantitatively analyze the cell morphology and cell speed as a function of time. We show that HBMECs do not undergo a classical transition from cobblestone to spindle-like morphology in response to shear stress. We further show that under shear stress, actin fibers are randomly oriented in the cells indicating that there is no cytoskeletal remodeling. These results suggest that HBMECs are programmed to resist elongation and alignment under shear stress, a phenotype that may be associated with the unique properties of the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolism of ibuprofen in higher plants: A model Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Šíša, Miroslav; Lacina, O.; Moťková, Kateřina; Langhansová, Lenka; Rezek, Jan; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 220, JAN (2017), s. 383-392 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22593S Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Ibuprofen * Metabolism * Plant cells * Sequestration Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  6. Mitochondrial elongation-mediated glucose metabolism reprogramming is essential for tumour cell survival during energy stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Huang, Q; Long, X; Guo, X; Sun, X; Jin, X; Li, Z; Ren, T; Yuan, P; Huang, X; Zhang, H; Xing, J

    2017-08-24

    To date, mechanisms of tumour cell survival under energy stress are not well understood. Cumulative evidence is beginning to reveal that specific mitochondrial morphologies are often associated with energetic states and survival of cells. However, the functional roles of mitochondria in the metabolic adaptation of tumour cells to energy stress remain to be elucidated. In this study, we first investigated the changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by nutrition deprivation in tumour cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism. We then systematically explored glucose metabolism reprogramming by energy stress-induced alteration of mitochondrial morphology and its effect on tumour cell survival. Our results showed that starvation treatment resulted in a dramatic mitochondrial elongation, which was mainly mediated by DRP1S637 phosphorylation through protein kinase A activation and subsequent suppression of mitochondrial translocation of DRP1. We further observed that tumour cells under an energy stress condition exhibited a clear shift from glycolysis towards oxidative phosphorylation, which was reversed by the recovery of mitochondrial fission induced by forced expression of mutant DRP1S637A. Mechanistically, energy stress-induced mitochondrial elongation facilitated cristae formation and assembly of respiratory complexes to enhance oxidative phosphorylation, which in turn exhibited a feedback inhibitory effect on glycolysis through NAD+-dependent SIRT1 activation. In addition, our data indicated that DRP1S637-mediated mitochondrial elongation under energy stress was essential for tumour cell survival both in vitro and in vivo and predicted poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Overall, our study demonstrates that remodelling of mitochondrial morphology plays a critical role in tumour cell adaptation to energy stress by reprogramming glucose metabolism.

  7. Local calcium elevation and cell elongation initiate guided motility in electrically stimulated osteoblast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Ozkucur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of the mechanisms of guided cell migration can contribute to our understanding of many crucial biological processes, such as development and regeneration. Endogenous and exogenous direct current electric fields (dcEF are known to induce directional cell migration, however the initial cellular responses to electrical stimulation are poorly understood. Ion fluxes, besides regulating intracellular homeostasis, have been implicated in many biological events, including regeneration. Therefore understanding intracellular ion kinetics during EF-directed cell migration can provide useful information for development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the initial events during migration of two osteogenic cell types, rat calvarial and human SaOS-2 cells, exposed to strong (10-15 V/cm and weak (< or = 5 V/cm dcEFs. Cell elongation and perpendicular orientation to the EF vector occurred in a time- and voltage-dependent manner. Calvarial osteoblasts migrated to the cathode as they formed new filopodia or lamellipodia and reorganized their cytoskeleton on the cathodal side. SaOS-2 cells showed similar responses except towards the anode. Strong dcEFs triggered a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels, whereas a steady state level of intracellular calcium was observed in weaker fields. Interestingly, we found that dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation was initiated with a local rise on opposite sides in calvarial and SaOS-2 cells, which may explain their preferred directionality. In calcium-free conditions, dcEFs induced neither intracellular calcium elevation nor directed migration, indicating an important role for calcium ions. Blocking studies using cadmium chloride revealed that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs are involved in dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data form a time scale of the morphological and physiological

  8. Translational Capacity of a Cell Is Determined during Transcription Elongation via the Ccr4-Not Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan Gupta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current understanding of gene expression considers transcription and translation to be independent processes. Challenging this notion, we found that translation efficiency is determined during transcription elongation through the imprinting of mRNAs with Not1, the central scaffold of the Ccr4-Not complex. We determined that another subunit of the complex, Not5, defines Not1 binding to specific mRNAs, particularly those produced from ribosomal protein genes. This imprinting mechanism specifically regulates ribosomal protein gene expression, which in turn determines the translational capacity of cells. We validate our model by SILAC and polysome profiling experiments. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that enhanced translation compensates for transcriptional elongation stress. Taken together, our data indicate that in addition to defining mRNA stability, components of the Ccr4-Not imprinting complex regulate RNA translatability, thus ensuring global gene expression homeostasis.

  9. Nuclear-Shell Biopolymers Initiated by Telomere Elongation for Individual Cancer Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Jiao, Yuting; Zhu, Mengting; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-04-04

    Here, we propose a strategy for unique nuclear-shell biopolymers initiated by telomere elongation for telomerase activity detection and precise drug delivery to individual cancer cells. Telomerase-triggered DNA rolling-circle amplification (RCA) is used to assemble nuclear-shell biopolymers with signal molecules for selective cancer cell recognition and efficient drug delivery to targeted individual cells. This strategy not only should allow the creation of clustered 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-fluorescence spots in response to human-telomerase activity in individual cancer cells but also could efficiently deliver drugs to reduce the undesired death of healthy cells. These findings offer new opportunities to improve the efficacy of cancer cell imaging and therapy.

  10. Citral induces auxin and ethylene-mediated malformations and arrests cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, E; Sotelo, T; Díaz-Tielas, C; Araniti, F; Krasuska, U; Bogatek, R; Reigosa, M J; Sánchez-Moreiras, A M

    2013-02-01

    Citral is a linear monoterpene which is present, as a volatile component, in the essential oil of several different aromatic plants. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of citral to alter the mitotic microtubules of plant cells, especially at low concentrations. The changes to the microtubules may be due to the compound acting directly on the treated root and coleoptile cells or to indirect action through certain phytohormones. This study, performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, analysed the short-term effects of citral on the auxin content and mitotic cells, and the long-term effects of these alterations on root development and ethylene levels. The results of this study show that citral alters auxin content and cell division and has a strong long-term disorganising effect on cell ultra-structure in A. thaliana seedlings. Its effects on cell division, the thickening of the cell wall, the reduction in intercellular communication, and the absence of root hairs confirm that citral is a strong phytotoxic compound, which has persistent effects on root development.

  11. Plant Polygalacturonases Involved in Cell Elongation and Separation—The Same but Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashodar Babu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells are surrounded by the primary cell wall, a rigid framework that needs to be modified in order to allow cell growth. Recent data suggest that in addition to the cellulose-hemicellulose network, the pectin matrix plays a critical role in determining the elasticity of the primary cell wall. Polygalacturonases are key homogalacturonan-hydrolyzing enzymes that function in a wide range of developmental processes. In this review, we present recent progress in understanding the role of polygalacturonases during cell elongation and separation. In discussing the specificities and possible redundancies of polygalacturonases, we focus particularly on newly discovered Arabidopsis mutants that have measurable loss-of-function phenotypes. However, data from other species are included when necessary.

  12. Elongation, proliferation & migration differentiate endothelial cell phenotypes and determine capillary sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popel Aleksander S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of capillaries from preexisting blood vessels, has been extensively studied experimentally over the past thirty years. Molecular insights from these studies have lead to therapies for cancer, macular degeneration and ischemia. In parallel, mathematical models of angiogenesis have helped characterize a broader view of capillary network formation and have suggested new directions for experimental pursuit. We developed a computational model that bridges the gap between these two perspectives, and addresses a remaining question in angiogenic sprouting: how do the processes of endothelial cell elongation, migration and proliferation contribute to vessel formation? Results We present a multiscale systems model that closely simulates the mechanisms underlying sprouting at the onset of angiogenesis. Designed by agent-based programming, the model uses logical rules to guide the behavior of individual endothelial cells and segments of cells. The activation, proliferation, and movement of these cells lead to capillary growth in three dimensions. By this means, a novel capillary network emerges out of combinatorially complex interactions of single cells. Rules and parameter ranges are based on literature data on endothelial cell behavior in vitro. The model is designed generally, and will subsequently be applied to represent species-specific, tissue-specific in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initial results predict tip cell activation, stalk cell development and sprout formation as a function of local vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations and the Delta-like 4 Notch ligand, as it might occur in a three-dimensional in vitro setting. Results demonstrate the differential effects of ligand concentrations, cell movement and proliferation on sprouting and directional persistence. Conclusion This systems biology model offers a paradigm closely related to biological phenomena and highlights previously

  13. High-Resolution Cell-Type Specific Analysis of Cytokinins in Sorted Root Cell Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Ondřej; Antoniadi, Ioanna; Ljung, Karin

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method combining fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with one-step miniaturized isolation and accurate quantification of cytokinins (CKs) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) to measure these phytohormones in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. The methodology provides information of unprecedented resolution about spatial distributions of CKs, and thus should facilitate attempts to elucidate regulatory networks involved in root developmental processes.

  14. Myelinating Schwann Cell Polarity and Mechanically-Driven Myelin Sheath Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaud, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Myelin sheath geometry, encompassing myelin sheath thickness relative to internodal length, is critical to optimize nerve conduction velocity and these parameters are carefully adjusted by the myelinating cells in mammals. In the central nervous system these adjustments could regulate neuronal activities while in the peripheral nervous system they lead to the optimization and the reliability of the nerve conduction velocity. However, the physiological and cellular mechanisms that underlie myelin sheath geometry regulation are not yet fully elucidated. In peripheral nerves the myelinating Schwann cell uses several molecular mechanisms to reach and maintain the correct myelin sheath geometry, such that myelin sheath thickness and internodal length are regulated independently. One of these mechanisms is the epithelial-like cell polarization process that occurs during the early phases of the myelin biogenesis. Epithelial cell polarization factors are known to control cell size and morphology in invertebrates and mammals making these processes critical in the organogenesis. Correlative data indicate that internodal length is regulated by postnatal body growth that elongates peripheral nerves in mammals. In addition, the mechanical stretching of peripheral nerves in adult animals shows that myelin sheath length can be increased by mechanical cues. Recent results describe the important role of YAP/TAZ co-transcription factors during Schwann cell myelination and their functions have linked to the mechanotransduction through the HIPPO pathway and the epithelial polarity factor Crb3. In this review the molecular mechanisms that govern mechanically-driven myelin sheath elongation and how a Schwann cell can modulate internodal myelin sheath length, independent of internodal thickness, will be discussed regarding these recent data. In addition, the potential relevance of these mechanosensitive mechanisms in peripheral pathologies will be highlighted.

  15. Gene expression analysis of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures during a parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbick, Maren; Barjaktarović, Žarko; Hampp, Ruediger

    Plants sense gravity by specialized cells (statocytes) and adjust growth and development accordingly. It has, however, also been shown that plant cells which are not part of specialized tissues are also able to sense gravitational forces. Therefore we used undifferentiated, homogeneous cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) in order to identify early alterations in gene expression as a response to altered gravitational field strengths. In this contribution we report on cell cultures exposed to parabolic flights (approximately 20 sec of microgravity). For this short-term exposure study, we specifically checked for genes at the beginning of signal transduction chains, such as those coding for transcription factors (TFs). TFs are small proteins that regulate expression of their target genes by binding to specific promoter sequences. Our main focus were members of the so-called WRKY TF family. WRKY TFs are known to be involved in various physiological processes like senescence and pathogen defense. By quantifying transcriptional changes of these genes by real-time RT-PCR, we wanted to find out, how gene expression is affected by both hyperand microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight. For this purpose Arabidopsis thaliana callus cultures were metabolically quenched by the injection of RNAlater at the end of the microgravity-phase of each parabola. The data we present will show how fast changes in amounts of transcripts will occur, and to what degree the expression profiles are comparable with data obtained from exposures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity.

  16. Translational repression of mRNA for eucaryotic elongation factors in Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobin, L I; Jordan, P

    1984-11-15

    Poly(A)-containing mRNA was prepared from polyribosomes and postpolyribosomal messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNP) from Friend erythroleukemic cells. Both mRNA types were translated in vitro and the 35S-labeled translation products examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among the most abundant untranslated mRNA species was the mRNA coding for eucaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu). In addition, the mRNA for eucaryotic elongation factor Ts was also present in Friend cells in untranslated form. Calculations based on translation assays indicate that eEF-Tu represents about 15% of the translation products of RNP mRNA and that approximately 40% of the eEF-Tu synthesized in vitro is encoded by translationally repressed mRNA. This repressed mRNA can be activated by addition of cycloheximide to cell cultures. At the level of 0.1 micrograms/ml, cycloheximide was found to inhibit cellular protein synthesis by about 50% while augmenting the relative rate of eEF-Tu synthesis 1.6-fold. This result suggested that eEF-Tu mRNA might initiate poorly. However, addition of supersaturating levels of mRNA to a reticulocyte lysate augmented eEF-Tu synthesis about twofold, while generally depressing the synthesis of other proteins by about 40%. Thus the storage of large amounts of eEF-Tu mRNA in vivo is unlikely to be due directly to the ineffectiveness of the mRNA in competing for the initiation machinery of the cell. The results presented in this report suggest that the supply of active eEF-Tu in erythroleukemic cells is controlled, at least in part, by a translational mechanism.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase 1 protein is present in sporophytic and gametophytic cells and undergoes endocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J; de Vries, S C; Russinova, E

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing AtSERK1 fused to yellow-fluorescent protein were generated. Fluorescence was detected predominantly at the cell periphery, most likely the plasma membrane, of cells in ovules, embryo sacs, anthers, and embryos and in seedlings. The AtSERK1 protein was detect...

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of a cell-wall invertase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaest, Maureen [Laboratorium voor Analytische Chemie en Medicinale Fysicochemie, Faculteit Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, KU Leuven, E. Van Evenstraat 4, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Le Roy, Katrien [Laboratorium voor Moleculaire Plantenfysiologie, Faculteit Wetenschappen, Departement Biologie, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sansen, Stefaan [Laboratorium voor Analytische Chemie en Medicinale Fysicochemie, Faculteit Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, KU Leuven, E. Van Evenstraat 4, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); De Coninck, Barbara [Laboratorium voor Moleculaire Plantenfysiologie, Faculteit Wetenschappen, Departement Biologie, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lammens, Willem [Laboratorium voor Analytische Chemie en Medicinale Fysicochemie, Faculteit Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, KU Leuven, E. Van Evenstraat 4, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Moleculaire Plantenfysiologie, Faculteit Wetenschappen, Departement Biologie, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); De Ranter, Camiel J. [Laboratorium voor Analytische Chemie en Medicinale Fysicochemie, Faculteit Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, KU Leuven, E. Van Evenstraat 4, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van Laere, André; Van den Ende, Wim [Laboratorium voor Moleculaire Plantenfysiologie, Faculteit Wetenschappen, Departement Biologie, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Rabijns, Anja, E-mail: anja.rabijns@pharm.kuleuven.ac.be [Laboratorium voor Analytische Chemie en Medicinale Fysicochemie, Faculteit Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, KU Leuven, E. Van Evenstraat 4, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-08-01

    Crystals suitable for structural analysis have been prepared from a cell-wall invertase from A. thaliana. Cell-wall invertase 1 (AtcwINV1), a plant protein from Arabidopsis thaliana which is involved in the breakdown of sucrose, has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. Crystal form I grows in space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}, whereas crystal form II grows in space group C222{sub 1}. Data sets were collected for crystal forms I and II to resolution limits of 2.40 and 2.15 Å, respectively.

  19. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum.

  20. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplatation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L.; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S.

    2014-01-01

    The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass differenti......The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass...... fluid and cellular components were isolated from 12 ovoid and three elongated embryos and using nano-high-performance liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomic analysis, a total of 9652 unique proteins were identified. We performed...

  1. N-cadherin regulates signaling mechanisms required for lens fiber cell elongation and lens morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Caitlin M; Rajakaruna, Suren; Bowen, Caitlin; Radice, Glenn L; Robinson, Michael L; Menko, A Sue

    2017-08-01

    Tissue development and regeneration involve high-ordered morphogenetic processes that are governed by elements of the cytoskeleton in conjunction with cell adhesion molecules. Such processes are particularly important in the lens whose structure dictates its function. Studies of our lens-specific N-cadherin conditional knockout mouse (N-cadcKO) revealed an essential role for N-cadherin in the migration of the apical tips of differentiating lens fiber cells along the apical surfaces of the epithelium, a region termed the Epithelial Fiber Interface (EFI), that is necessary for normal fiber cell elongation and the morphogenesis. Studies of the N-cadcKO lens suggest that N-cadherin function in fiber cell morphogenesis is linked to the activation of Rac1 and myosin II, both signaling pathways central to the regulation of cell motility including determining the directionality of cellular movement. The absence of N-cadherin did not disrupt lateral contacts between fiber cells during development, and the maintenance of Aquaporin-0 and increased expression of EphA2 at cell-cell interfaces suggests that these molecules may function in this role. E-cadherin was maintained in newly differentiating fiber cells without interfering with expression of lens-specific differentiation proteins but was not able to replace N-cadherin function in these cells. The dependence of migration of the fiber cell apical domains along the EFI for lens morphogenesis on N-cadherin provides new insight into the process of tissue development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  3. ROP GTPase-mediated auxin signaling regulates pavement cell interdigitation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deshu; Ren, Huibo; Fu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular plant organs, cell shape formation depends on molecular switches to transduce developmental or environmental signals and to coordinate cell-to-cell communication. Plants have a specific subfamily of the Rho GTPase family, usually called Rho of Plants (ROP), which serve as a critical signal transducer involved in many cellular processes. In the last decade, important advances in the ROP-mediated regulation of plant cell morphogenesis have been made by using Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and cotyledon pavement cells. Especially, the auxin-ROP signaling networks have been demonstrated to control interdigitated growth of pavement cells to form jigsaw-puzzle shapes. Here, we review findings related to the discovery of this novel auxin-signaling mechanism at the cell surface. This signaling pathway is to a large extent independent of the well-known Transport Inhibitor Response (TIR)-Auxin Signaling F-Box (AFB) pathway, and instead requires Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) interaction with the plasma membrane-localized, transmembrane kinase (TMK) receptor-like kinase to regulate ROP proteins. Once activated, ROP influences cytoskeletal organization and inhibits endocytosis of the auxin transporter PIN1. The present review focuses on ROP signaling and its self-organizing feature allowing ROP proteins to serve as a bustling signal decoder and integrator for plant cell morphogenesis. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Blue light-induced apoplastic acidification of Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells : Inhibition by ABA is mediated through protein phosphatases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, MRG; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits blue light-induced apoplastic acidification of guard cells. The signal transduction pathway of ABA, mediating this response, was studied using ABA-insensitive (abi) mutants of Arapidopsis thaliana. Apoplastic acidification was monitored with a flat

  5. An Interbacterial NAD(P)+ Glycohydrolase Toxin Requires Elongation Factor Tu for Delivery to Target Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, John C.; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin; LeRoux, Michele; Harding, Brittany N.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Tran, Bao Q.; Robinson, Howard; Goo, Young Ah; Goodlett, David R.; Raunser, Stefan; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2015-10-08

    Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD+ and NADP+. Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria.

  6. Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-06-01

    Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 microM) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death.

  7. Dynamics of vegetative cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes of pollen cytoplasm during generative cell formation and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. The pollen cytoplasm develops a complicated ultrastructure and changes dramatically during these stages. Lipid droplets increase after generative cell formation and their organization and distribution change with the developmental stage. Starch grains in amyloplasts increase in number and size during generative and sperm cell formation and decrease at pollen maturity. The shape and membrane system of mitochondria change only slightly. Dictyosomes become very prominent, and numerous associated vesicles are observed during and after sperm cell formation. Endoplasmic reticulum appears extensively as stacks during sperm cell formation. Free and polyribosomes are abundant in the cytoplasm at all developmental stages although they appear denser at certain stages and in some areas. In mature pollen, all organelles are randomly distributed throughout the vegetative cytoplasm and numerous small particles appear. Organization and distribution of storage substances and appearance of these small particles during generative and sperm cell formation and pollen maturation are discussed.

  8. Chloroplast behaviour and interactions with other organelles in Arabidopsis thaliana pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kiah A; Wozny, Michael R; Mathur, Neeta; Jaipargas, Erica-Ashley; Mathur, Jaideep

    2017-03-20

    Chloroplasts are a characteristic feature of green plants. Mesophyll cells possess the majority of chloroplasts and it is widely believed that, with the exception of guard cells, the epidermal layer in most higher plants does not contain chloroplasts. However, recent observations on Arabidopsis thaliana have shown a population of chloroplasts in pavement cells that are smaller than mesophyll chloroplasts and have a high stroma to grana ratio. Here, using stable transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins targeted to the plastid stroma, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes, F-actin and microtubules, we characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between the pavement cell chloroplasts (PCCs) and their subcellular environment. Observations on the PCCs suggest a source-sink relationship between the epidermal and the mesophyll layers, and experiments with the Arabidopsis mutants glabra2 (gl2) and immutans (im), which show altered epidermal plastid development, underscored their developmental plasticity. Our findings lay down the foundation for further investigations aimed at understanding the precise role and contributions of PCCs in plant interactions with the environment. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Identification of aminopyrimidine-sulfonamides as potent modulators of Wag31-mediated cell elongation in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinayak; Dhar, Neeraj; Pató, János; Kolly, Gaëlle S; Korduláková, Jana; Forbak, Martin; Evans, Joanna C; Székely, Rita; Rybniker, Jan; Palčeková, Zuzana; Zemanová, Júlia; Santi, Isabella; Signorino-Gelo, François; Rodrigues, Liliana; Vocat, Anthony; Covarrubias, Adrian S; Rengifo, Monica G; Johnsson, Kai; Mowbray, Sherry; Buechler, Joseph; Delorme, Vincent; Brodin, Priscille; Knott, Graham W; Aínsa, José A; Warner, Digby F; Kéri, György; Mikušová, Katarína; McKinney, John D; Cole, Stewart T; Mizrahi, Valerie; Hartkoorn, Ruben C

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to discover new anti-tubercular agents with novel mechanisms of action in order to tackle the scourge of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Here, we report the identification of such a molecule - an AminoPYrimidine-Sulfonamide (APYS1) that has potent, bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis. Mutations in APYS1-resistant M. tuberculosis mapped exclusively to wag31, a gene that encodes a scaffolding protein thought to orchestrate cell elongation. Recombineering confirmed that a Gln201Arg mutation in Wag31 was sufficient to cause resistance to APYS1, however, neither overexpression nor conditional depletion of wag31 impacted M. tuberculosis susceptibility to this compound. In contrast, expression of the wildtype allele of wag31 in APYS1-resistant M. tuberculosis was dominant and restored susceptibility to APYS1 to wildtype levels. Time-lapse imaging and scanning electron microscopy revealed that APYS1 caused gross malformation of the old pole of M. tuberculosis, with eventual lysis. These effects resembled the morphological changes observed following transcriptional silencing of wag31 in M. tuberculosis. These data show that Wag31 is likely not the direct target of APYS1, but the striking phenotypic similarity between APYS1 exposure and genetic depletion of Wag31 in M. tuberculosis suggests that APYS1 might indirectly affect Wag31 through an as yet unknown mechanism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genome instability and transcription elongation impairment in human cells depleted of THO/TREX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Sánchez, María S; Barroso, Sonia; Gómez-González, Belén; Luna, Rosa; Aguilera, Andrés

    2011-12-01

    THO/TREX connects transcription with genome integrity in yeast, but a role of mammalian THO in these processes is uncertain, which suggests a differential implication of mRNP biogenesis factors in genome integrity in yeast and humans. We show that human THO depletion impairs transcription elongation and mRNA export and increases instability associated with DNA breaks, leading to hyper-recombination and γH2AX and 53BP1 foci accumulation. This is accompanied by replication alteration as determined by DNA combing. Genome instability is R-loop-dependent, as deduced from the ability of the AID enzyme to increase DNA damage and of RNaseH to reduce it, or from the enhancement of R-loop-dependent class-switching caused by THOC1-depletion in CH12 murine cells. Therefore, mammalian THO prevents R-loop formation and has a role in genome dynamics and function consistent with an evolutionary conservation of the functional connection between these mRNP biogenesis factors and genome integrity that had not been anticipated.

  11. Genome instability and transcription elongation impairment in human cells depleted of THO/TREX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S Domínguez-Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available THO/TREX connects transcription with genome integrity in yeast, but a role of mammalian THO in these processes is uncertain, which suggests a differential implication of mRNP biogenesis factors in genome integrity in yeast and humans. We show that human THO depletion impairs transcription elongation and mRNA export and increases instability associated with DNA breaks, leading to hyper-recombination and γH2AX and 53BP1 foci accumulation. This is accompanied by replication alteration as determined by DNA combing. Genome instability is R-loop-dependent, as deduced from the ability of the AID enzyme to increase DNA damage and of RNaseH to reduce it, or from the enhancement of R-loop-dependent class-switching caused by THOC1-depletion in CH12 murine cells. Therefore, mammalian THO prevents R-loop formation and has a role in genome dynamics and function consistent with an evolutionary conservation of the functional connection between these mRNP biogenesis factors and genome integrity that had not been anticipated.

  12. Single-cell and coupled GRN models of cell patterning in the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Buylla Elena R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental work has uncovered some of the genetic components required to maintain the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche (SCN and its structure. Two main pathways are involved. One pathway depends on the genes SHORTROOT and SCARECROW and the other depends on the PLETHORA genes, which have been proposed to constitute the auxin readouts. Recent evidence suggests that a regulatory circuit, composed of WOX5 and CLE40, also contributes to the SCN maintenance. Yet, we still do not understand how the niche is dynamically maintained and patterned or if the uncovered molecular components are sufficient to recover the observed gene expression configurations that characterize the cell types within the root SCN. Mathematical and computational tools have proven useful in understanding the dynamics of cell differentiation. Hence, to further explore root SCN patterning, we integrated available experimental data into dynamic Gene Regulatory Network (GRN models and addressed if these are sufficient to attain observed gene expression configurations in the root SCN in a robust and autonomous manner. Results We found that an SCN GRN model based only on experimental data did not reproduce the configurations observed within the root SCN. We developed several alternative GRN models that recover these expected stable gene configurations. Such models incorporate a few additional components and interactions in addition to those that have been uncovered. The recovered configurations are stable to perturbations, and the models are able to recover the observed gene expression profiles of almost all the mutants described so far. However, the robustness of the postulated GRNs is not as high as that of other previously studied networks. Conclusions These models are the first published approximations for a dynamic mechanism of the A. thaliana root SCN cellular pattering. Our model is useful to formally show that the data now available are not

  13. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Narusaka

    Full Text Available Housaku Monogatari (HM is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

  14. Spatiotemporal relationships between growth and microtubule orientation as revealed in living root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with green-fluorescent-protein gene construct GFP-MBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants were transformed with GFP-MBD (J. Marc et al., Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939, 1998) under the control of a constitutive (35S) or copper-inducible promoter. GFP-specific fluorescence distributions, levels, and persistence were determined and found to vary with age, tissue type, transgenic line, and individual plant. With the exception of an increased frequency of abnormal roots of 35S GFP-MBD plants grown on kanamycin-containing media, expression of GFP-MBD does not appear to affect plant phenotype. The number of leaves, branches, bolts, and siliques as well as overall height, leaf size, and seed set are similar between wild-type and transgenic plants as is the rate of root growth. Thus, we conclude that the transgenic plants can serve as a living model system in which the dynamic behavior of microtubules can be visualized. Confocal microscopy was used to simultaneously monitor growth and microtubule behavior within individual cells as they passed through the elongation zone of the Arabidopsis root. Generally, microtubules reoriented from transverse to oblique or longitudinal orientations as growth declined. Microtubule reorientation initiated at the ends of the cell did not necessarily occur simultaneously in adjacent neighboring cells and did not involve complete disintegration and repolymerization of microtubule arrays. Although growth rates correlated with microtubule reorientation, the two processes were not tightly coupled in terms of their temporal relationships, suggesting that other factor(s) may be involved in regulating both events. Additionally, microtubule orientation was more defined in cells whose growth was accelerating and less stringent in cells whose growth was decelerating, indicating that microtubule-orienting factor(s) may be sensitive to growth acceleration, rather than growth per se.

  15. Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I.; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 μM) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death. PMID:20219776

  16. Cell Wall Proteome in the Maize Primary Root Elongation Zone. II. Region-Specific Changes in Water Soluble and Lightly Ionically Bound Proteins under Water Deficit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinming Zhu; Sophie Alvarez; Ellen L. Marsh; Mary E. LeNoble; In-Jeong Cho; Mayandi Sivaguru; Sixue Chen; Henry T. Nguyen; Yajun Wu; Daniel P. Schachtman; Robert E. Sharp

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on the adaptation of maize (Zea mays) primary roots to water deficit showed that cell elongation is maintained preferentially toward the apex, and that this response involves modification of cell wall extension properties...

  17. Molecular characterization of cotton GhTUA9 gene specifically expressed in fibre and involved in cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao

    2007-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton may play an important role in the polarized growth of fibre cells that are single-cell trichomes on the surface of cotton ovules. To investigate whether the high expression levels of alpha-tubulin genes are correlated with fibre elongation, nine GhTUA genes (cDNAs) encoding alpha-tubulins with 449-451 amino acid residues were isolated and characterized in cotton. The GhTUA genes share high sequence homology at the nucleotide level (62-93% identity) in the coding region and at the amino acid level (89-99% identity), and can be classified into two subgroups. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that seven out of the nine GhTUA genes are predominantly expressed in developing fibres. Among them, GhTUA9 displays the highest level of expression, revealing its fibre specificity. The GhTUA9 transcripts in fibres reached its peak value between 5-10 DPA, and dramatically declined to undetectable levels as the ovule matured further, suggesting that its expression is developmentally-regulated in fibres. The GhTUA9 gene including the promoter region was isolated from the cotton genome. To demonstrate the specificity of the GhTUA9 promoter, the 5'-flanking region, including the promoter and 5'-untranslated region, was fused with the GUS gene. Histochemical assays demonstrated that the GhTUA9:GUS gene was specifically expressed in elongating fibres. Overexpression of GhTUA9 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) promoted atypical longitudinal growth of the host cells by 1.4-1.7-fold, indicating that the GhTUA9 gene is involved in cell elongation. Given all the above results, it is proposed that the GhTUA9 gene may play an important role in fibre elongation.

  18. The indolic compound hypaphorine produced by ectomycorrhizal fungus interferes with auxin action and evokes early responses in nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboutier, David; Bianchi, Michele; Brault, Mathias; Roux, Camille; Dauphin, Aurélien; Rona, Jean-Pierre; Legué, Valérie; Lapeyrie, Frédéric; Bouteau, François

    2002-09-01

    Signals leading to mycorrhizal differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the sensitivity of the root system from plant model Arabidopsis thaliana to hypaphorine, the major indolic compound isolated from the basidiomycetous fungus Pisolithus tinctorius. This fungi establishes ectomycorrhizas with Eucalyptus globulus. Hypaphorine controls root hair elongation and counteracts the activity of indole-3-acetic acid on root elongation on A. thaliana, as previously reported for the host plant. In addition, we show that hypaphorine counteracts the rapid upregulation by indole-3-acetic acid and 1-naphthalenic-acetic acid of the primary auxin-responsive gene IAA1 and induces a rapid, transient membrane depolarization in root hairs and suspension cells, due to the modulation of anion and K+ currents. These early responses indicate that components necessary for symbiosis-related differentiation events are present in the nonhost plant A. thaliana and provide tools for the dissection of the hypaphorine-auxin interaction.

  19. Loss of Necrotic Spotted Lesions 1 associates with cell death and defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Kuromori, Takashi; Wada, Takuji; Hirayama, Takashi; Kamiya, Asako; Imura, Yuko; Yasuda, Michiko; Nakashita, Hideo; Shirasu, Ken; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    We isolated a lesion mimic mutant, necrotic spotted lesions 1 (nsl1), from Ds-tagged Arabidopsis thaliana accession No-0. The nsl1 mutant exhibits a growth retardation phenotype and develops spotted necrotic lesions on its rosette and cauline leaves. These phenotypes occur in the absence of pathogens indicating that nsl1 mutants may constitutively express defense responses. Consistent with this idea, nsl1 accumulates high levels of callose and autofluorescent phenolic compounds localized to the necrotic lesions. Furthermore RNA gel blot analysis revealed that genes associated with disease resistance activation are upregulated in the nsl1 mutants and these plants contain elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA). Crossing nsl1 with an SA deficient mutant, eds16-1, revealed that the nsl1 lesions and growth retardation are dependent upon SA. The nsl1 phenotypes are not suppressed under either the rar1-10 or sgt1b-1 genetic background. NSL1 encodes a novel 612aa protein which contains a membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain, which is conserved in bacteria, fungi, mammals and plants. The possible modes of action of NSL1 protein in negative regulation of cell death programs and defense responses are discussed.

  20. AMIODARONE INDUCES THE SYNTHESIS OF HSPS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatrikas D.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many biotic and abiotic stresses cause an increase of cytosolic Ca2+ level in cells. Calcium is one of the most important second messengers, regulating many various activities in the cell and was known to affect expression of stress activated genes. Mild heat shock induces the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps which protect cell from drastic heat shock exposure. There are some literature data permitting to suggest that transient elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ level in plant cells is important for activation of Hsps expression. On the other hand mitochondria are known to regulate the intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species signaling. It has been shown recently that mild heat shock induces hyperpolarization of inner mitochondrial membrane in plant and yeast cells and this event is critically important for activation of Hsps expression. To reveal the relationship between mitochondrial activity, intracellular calcium homeostasis and Hsps expression an antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone (AMD have been used. AMD is known to cause transient increase of cytosolic Ca2+ level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Obtained results have showed that AMD treatment induced the synthesis of Hsp104p in S. cerevisiae cells and Hsp101p in A. thaliana cell culture. Induction of Hsp104p synthesis leads to enhanced yeast capability to survive lethal heat shock exposure. Development of S. cerevisiae thermotolerance depended significantly on the presence of Hsp104p. Elevation of Hsp104p level in the result of AMD treatment was shown to be governed by activity of Msn2p and Msn4p transcription factors. Deletion of the MSN2 and MSN4 genes abrogated the AMD ability to induce Hsp104p synthesis. Mild heat shock and AMD treatment induced the hyperpolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane in yeast and Arabidopsis cells which accompanied by HSP synthesis and development of thermotolerance. It was suggested that increase of cytosolic Ca2+ level after AMD treatment

  1. Yeast Elongator protein Elp1p does not undergo proteolytic processing in exponentially growing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Bygdell, Joakim; Wingsle, Gunnar; Byström, Anders S

    2015-12-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, Elongator is a six-subunit protein complex required for the formation of 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm(5) ) and 5-methylcarboxymethyl (mcm(5) ) side chains on uridines present at the wobble position (U34 ) of tRNA. The open reading frame encoding the largest Elongator subunit Elp1p has two in-frame 5' AUG methionine codons separated by 48 nucleotides. Here, we show that the second AUG acts as the start codon of translation. Furthermore, Elp1p was previously shown to exist in two major forms of which one was generated by proteolysis of full-length Elp1p and this proteolytic cleavage was suggested to regulate Elongator complex activity. In this study, we found that the vacuolar protease Prb1p was responsible for the cleavage of Elp1p. The cleavage occurs between residues 203 (Lys) and 204 (Ala) as shown by amine reactive Tandem Mass Tag followed by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry) analysis. However, using a modified protein extraction procedure, including trichloroacetic acid, only full-length Elp1p was observed, showing that truncation of Elp1p is an artifact occurring during protein extraction. Consequently, our results indicate that N-terminal truncation of Elp1p is not likely to regulate Elongator complex activity. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Expression of a gene for mouse eucaryotic elongation factor Tu during murine erythroleukemic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, W W; Bragg, P W; Corrias, M V; Reddy, N S; Dholakia, J N; Wahba, A J

    1987-01-01

    The eucaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) is a single polypeptide with an approximate Mr of 53,000. During protein synthesis eEF-Tu promotes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome. To study the expression of the gene(s) for this factor, a genomic clone was isolated that contains a mouse eEF-Tu gene. We screened a phage genomic library with a synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to a region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Artemia sp. eEF-Tu genes which codes for an area that is highly conserved between both yeast and Artemia sp. eEF-Tu. From approximately 75,000 phage plaques we obtained five isolates with apparently identical inserts. All five clones contained a 3.8-kilobase EcoRI fragment that hybridized to additional oligonucleotide probes corresponding to different conserved regions of eEF-Tu. We sequenced the 5' end of one genomic clone and determined the length of the cloned fragment that was protected by eEF-Tu mRNA in S1 nuclease protection assays. A quantitative S1 nuclease protection assay was used to compare the relative steady-state levels of eEF-Tu mRNA in total mRNA in total RNA isolated from hexamethylene-bisacetamide-induced murine erythroleukemia cells. The results show a dramatic reduction in the steady-state level of eEF-Tu mRNA as differentiation proceeds. A similar reduction in transcription of eEF-Tu mRNA was observed in isolated nuclei. Finally, we examined the in vivo synthesis of eEF-Tu during differentiation and found that it declined in a manner parallel to the decline in the steady-state level of eEF-Tu mRNA. In addition, we have isolated and sequenced a cDNA clone for mouse eEF-Tu. The derived amino acid sequence is compared with sequences from other eucaryotes. Images PMID:3481036

  3. GhDET2, a steroid 5alpha-reductase, plays an important role in cotton fiber cell initiation and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yuehua; Li, Xianbi; Lu, Xiaofeng; Deng, Wei; Li, Demou; Hou, Lei; Hu, Mingyu; Li, Yi; Pei, Yan

    2007-08-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers, one of the most important natural raw materials for textile industry, are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules. DET2, an Arabidopsis steroid 5d-reductase, is considered to catalyze a major rate-limiting in brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. To understand the role of BRs in cotton fiber development, GhDET2, which putatively encodes a steroid 5alpha-reductase by sequence comparison, was cloned from developing fiber cells. In vitro assessment of GhDET2 protein activity confirmed that GhDET2 encodes a functional steroid 5alpha-redutase. High levels of GhDET2 transcript were detected during the fiber initiation stage and the fiber rapid elongation stage. Antisense-mediated suppression of GhDET2 inhibited both fiber initiation and fiber elongation. Similarly, treating cultured ovules with finasteride, a steroid 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, reduced fiber elongation. Inhibition of fiber cell elongation by expression of antisense GhDET2 or the finasteride treatment could be reversed by epibrassinolide, a biologically active BR. Furthermore, seed coat-specific expression of GhDET2 increased fiber number and length. Therefore, GhDET2 and BRs play a crucial role in the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells, suggesting that modulation of BR biosynthesis factors may improve fiber quality or yield.

  4. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-07-26

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing ('K-31'), and a dwarf cultivar ('Bonsai') of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of 'K-31' was 63% greater than that of 'Bonsai', which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue.

  5. Transcriptomic and hormone analyses reveal mechanisms underlying petal elongation in Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Haibin; Ding, Lian; Song, Aiping; Shen, Feng; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2017-04-01

    Auxin regulates chrysanthemum petal elongation by promoting cell elongation. Transcriptomic analysis shows that auxin signal transduction may connect with other transcription factors by TCPs to regulate chrysanthemum petal elongation. As an ornamental species, Chrysanthemum morifolium has high ornamental and economic value. Petal size is the primary factor that influences the ornamental value of chrysanthemum, but the mechanism underlying the development of C. morifolium petals remains unclear. In our study, we tracked the growth of petals and found that the basal region of 'Jinba' petals showed a higher elongation rate, exhibiting rapid cell elongation during petal growth. During petal elongation growth, auxin was demonstrated to promote cell elongation and an increase in cell numbers in the petal basal region. To further study the molecular mechanisms underlying petal growth, the RNA-seq (high-throughput cDNA sequencing) technique was employed. Four cDNA libraries were assembled from petals in the budding, bud breaking, early blooming and full blooming stages of 'Jinba' flower development. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that auxin was the most important regulator in controlling petal growth. The TEOSINTEBRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA and PCF transcription factor genes (TCPs), basic helix-loop-helix-encoding gene (bHLH), glutaredoxin-C (GRXC) and other zinc finger protein genes exhibited obvious up-regulation and might have significant effects on the growth of 'Jinba' petals. Given the interaction between these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, we speculated that auxin signal transduction might exhibit a close relationship with transcription factors through TCPs. In summary, we present the first comprehensive transcriptomic and hormone analyses of C. morifolium petals. The results offer direction in identifying the mechanism underlying the development of chrysanthemum petals in the elongated phase and have great significance in improving the

  6. Double overexpression of DREB and PIF transcription factors improves drought stress tolerance and cell elongation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Madoka; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takuya; Mizoi, Junya; Todaka, Daisuke; Fernie, Alisdair R; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2017-04-01

    Although a variety of transgenic plants that are tolerant to drought stress have been generated, many of these plants show growth retardation. To improve drought tolerance and plant growth, we applied a gene-stacking approach using two transcription factor genes: DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING 1A (DREB1A) and rice PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR-LIKE 1 (OsPIL1). The overexpression of DREB1A has been reported to improve drought stress tolerance in various crops, although it also causes a severe dwarf phenotype. OsPIL1 is a rice homologue of Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4), and it enhances cell elongation by activating cell wall-related gene expression. We found that the OsPIL1 protein was more stable than PIF4 under light conditions in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Transactivation analyses revealed that DREB1A and OsPIL1 did not negatively affect each other's transcriptional activities. The transgenic plants overexpressing both OsPIL1 and DREB1A showed the improved drought stress tolerance similar to that of DREB1A overexpressors. Furthermore, double overexpressors showed the enhanced hypocotyl elongation and floral induction compared with the DREB1A overexpressors. Metabolome analyses indicated that compatible solutes, such as sugars and amino acids, accumulated in the double overexpressors, which was similar to the observations of the DREB1A overexpressors. Transcriptome analyses showed an increased expression of abiotic stress-inducible DREB1A downstream genes and cell elongation-related OsPIL1 downstream genes in the double overexpressors, which suggests that these two transcription factors function independently in the transgenic plants despite the trade-offs required to balance plant growth and stress tolerance. Our study provides a basis for plant genetic engineering designed to overcome growth retardation in drought-tolerant transgenic plants. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology

  7. Regulation of the utilization of mRNA for eucaryotic elongation factor Tu in Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T R; Slobin, L I

    1987-02-01

    When Friend erythroleukemia cells were allowed to grow to stationary phase (2 X 10(6) to 3 X 10(6) cells per ml), approximately 60% of the mRNA for eucaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) sedimented at less than or equal to 80S, and most of the remaining factor mRNA was associated with small polysomes. Under the same growth conditions, greater than 90% of the mRNA for eucaryotic initiation factor 4A remained associated with polysomes. The association of eEF-Tu mRNA with polysomes changed dramatically when stationary-phase cells were treated with fresh medium. After 1 h in fresh medium, approximately 90% of eEF-Tu mRNA in Friend cells was found in heavy polysomes. Associated with the shift of eEF-Tu mRNA into heavy polysomes, we found at least a 2.6-fold increase in the synthesis of eEF-Tu in vivo as well as a remarkable 40% decrease in the total amount of eEF-Tu mRNA per cell. Our data raise the possibility that eEF-Tu mRNA that has accumulated in ribonucleoprotein particles in stationary-phase cells is degraded rather than reutilized for eEF-Tu synthesis.

  8. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Prevents Cell Cycle Arrest and Elongates Telomere Length in Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the molecular mechanisms of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF in preventing cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Primary culture of HDFs at various passages were incubated with 0.5 mg/mL TRF for 24 h. Telomere shortening with decreased telomerase activity was observed in senescent HDFs while the levels of damaged DNA and number of cells in G0/G1 phase were increased and S phase cells were decreased. Incubation with TRF reversed the morphology of senescent HDFs to resemble that of young cells with decreased activity of SA-β-gal, damaged DNA, and cells in G0/G1 phase while cells in the S phase were increased. Elongated telomere length and restoration of telomerase activity were observed in TRF-treated senescent HDFs. These findings confirmed the ability of tocotrienol-rich fraction in preventing HDFs cellular ageing by restoring telomere length and telomerase activity, reducing damaged DNA, and reversing cell cycle arrest associated with senescence.

  9. Limitation of Cell Elongation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves Through Mechanical and Tissue-Hydraulic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Mostefa; Knipfer, Thorsten; Visnovitz, Tamás; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Fricke, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanical and hydraulic limitation of growth in leaf epidermal cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to agents which affect cellular water (mercuric chloride, HgCl(2)) and potassium (cesium chloride, CsCl; tetraethylammonium, TEA) transport, pump activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and wall acidification (fusicoccin, FC). Cell turgor (P) was measured with the cell pressure probe, and cell osmotic pressure (π) was analyzed through picoliter osmometry of single-cell extracts. A wall extensibility coefficient (M) and tissue hydraulic conductance coefficient (L) were derived using the Lockhart equation. There was a significant positive linear relationship between relative elemental growth rate and P, which fit all treatments, with an overall apparent yield threshold of 0.368 MPa. Differences in growth between treatments could be explained through differences in P. A comparison of L and M showed that growth in all except the FC treatment was co-limited through hydraulic and mechanical properties, though to various extents. This was accompanied by significant (0.17-0.24 MPa) differences in water potential (ΔΨ) between xylem and epidermal cells in the leaf elongation zone. In contrast, FC-treated leaves showed ΔΨ close to zero and a 10-fold increase in L. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. iTRAQ Mitoproteome Analysis Reveals Mechanisms of Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis thaliana Induced by Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is one of the most common and dangerous mycotoxins in the world. Previous work indicated that OTA could elicit spontaneous HR-like lesions formation Arabidopsis thaliana, reactive oxygen species (ROS play an important role in OTA toxicity, and their major endogenous source is mitochondria. However, there has been no evidence as to whether OTA induces directly PCD in plants until now. In this study, the presence of OTA in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves triggered accelerated respiration, increased production of mitochondrial ROS, the opening of ROS-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pores and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. There were 42 and 43 significantly differentially expressed proteins identified in response to exposure to OTA for 8 and 24 h, respectively, according to iTRAQ analysis. These proteins were mainly involved in perturbation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, interfering with ATP synthesis and inducing PCD. Digital gene expression data at transcriptional level was consistent with the cell death induced by OTA being PCD. These results indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction was a prerequisite for OTA-induced PCD and the initiation and execution of PCD via a mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

  11. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 in polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrick, J.L.; Iglewski, W.J. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney (pyBHK) cells were cultured in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and 105 (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum. A {sup 32}P-labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (EF-2). The {sup 32}P labeling of the protein was enhanced by culturing cells in medium containing 2% serum instead of 10% serum. The {sup 32}P label was completely removed from the protein by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and the digestion product was identified as ({sup 32}P)AMP, indicating the protein was mono-ADP-ribosylated. HPLC analysis of tryptic peptides of the {sup 32}P-labeled 97-kDa protein and purified EF-2, which was ADP-ribosylated in vitro with diphtheria toxin fragment A and ({sup 32}P)NAD, demonstrated an identical labeled peptide in the two proteins. The data strongly suggest that EF-2 was endogenously ADP-ribosylated in pyBHK cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactivity in EF-2 occurred by 12 hr and remained constant over the subsequent 12 hr. It was estimated that 30-35% of the EF-2 was ADP-ribosylated in cells cultured in medium containing 2% serum. When {sup 32}P-labeled cultures were incubated in medium containing unlabeled phosphate, the {sup 32}P label was lost from the EF-2 within 30 min.

  12. The control of single-celled cotton fiber elongation by developmentally reversible gating of plasmodesmata and coordinated expression of sucrose and K+ transporters and expansin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Y L; Llewellyn, D J; Furbank, R T

    2001-01-01

    Each cotton fiber is a single cell that elongates to 2.5 to 3.0 cm from the seed coat epidermis within approximately 16 days after anthesis (DAA). To elucidate the mechanisms controlling this rapid elongation, we studied the gating of fiber plasmodesmata and the expression of the cell wall-loosening gene expansin and plasma membrane transporters for sucrose and K(+), the major osmotic solutes imported into fibers. Confocal imaging of the membrane-impermeant fluorescent solute carboxyfluorescein (CF) revealed that the fiber plasmodesmata were initially permeable to CF (0 to 9 DAA), but closed at approximately 10 DAA and re-opened at 16 DAA. A developmental switch from simple to branched plasmodesmata was also observed in fibers at 10 DAA. Coincident with the transient closure of the plasmodesmata, the sucrose and K(+) transporter genes were expressed maximally in fibers at 10 DAA with sucrose transporter proteins predominately localized at the fiber base. Consequently, fiber osmotic and turgor potentials were elevated, driving the rapid phase of elongation. The level of expansin mRNA, however, was high at the early phase of elongation (6 to 8 DAA) and decreased rapidly afterwards. The fiber turgor was similar to the underlying seed coat cells at 6 to 10 DAA and after 16 DAA. These results suggest that fiber elongation is initially achieved largely by cell wall loosening and finally terminated by increased wall rigidity and loss of higher turgor. To our knowledge, this study provides an unprecedented demonstration that the gating of plasmodesmata in a given cell is developmentally reversible and is coordinated with the expression of solute transporters and the cell wall-loosening gene. This integration of plasmodesmatal gating and gene expression appears to control fiber cell elongation.

  13. Evidence That High Activity of Vacuolar Invertase Is Required for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Elongation through Osmotic Dependent and Independent Pathways, Respectively1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively. PMID:20699399

  14. Evidence that high activity of vacuolar invertase is required for cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root elongation through osmotic dependent and independent pathways, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2010-10-01

    Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively.

  15. Glycan elongation beyond the mucin associated Tn antigen protects tumor cells from immune-mediated killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Lavrsen, Kirstine; Steentoft, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    Membrane bound mucins are up-regulated and aberrantly glycosylated during malignant transformation in many cancer cells. This results in a negatively charged glycoprotein coat which may protect cancer cells from immune surveillance. However, only limited data have so far demonstrated the critical...... mediated killing, and observed an inverse correlation between MUC16/MUC1 expression and the sensitivity to ADCC and CTL-mediated killing. Together, these data suggest that up-regulation of membrane bound mucins protects cells from immune mediated killing, and that particular glycosylation steps...

  16. Quantitative expression analysis of selected transcription factors in pavement, basal and trichome cells of mature leaves from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Martin; Ebert, Berit; Simon-Rosin, Ulrike; Zoeller, Daniela; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Gene expression levels of several transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that were described previously to be involved in leaf development and trichome formation were analysed in trichome, basal and pavement cells of mature leaves. Single cell samples of these three cells types were collected by glass micro-capillaries. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to analyse expression patterns of the following transcription factors: MYB23, MYB55, AtHB1, FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YABBY1 (YAB1), TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC). A difference in the expression patterns of TRY and CPC was revealed. Contrary to the CPC expression pattern, no transcripts of TRY could be detected in pavement cells. FIL/YAB1 was exclusively expressed in trichome cells. AtHB1 was highly expressed throughout all three cell types. MYB55 was higher expressed in basal cells than in trichome and pavement cells. MYB23 showed a pattern of low expression in pavement cells, medium in basal cells and high expression in trichomes. Expression patterns obtained by single cell sampling and real-time RT-PCR were compared to promoter GUS fusions of the selected transcription factors. Therefore, we regenerated two transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the GUS reporter gene under control of the promoters of MYB55 and YAB1. In conclusion, despite their function in leaf morphogenesis, all six transcription factors were detected in mature leaves. Furthermore, single cell sampling and promoter GUS staining patterns demonstrated the predominant presence of MYB55 in basal cells as compared to pavement cells and trichomes.

  17. Apical constriction drives tissue-scale hydrodynamic flow to mediate cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Doubrovinski, Konstantin; Polyakov, Oleg; Wieschaus, Eric

    2014-04-17

    Epithelial folding mediated by apical constriction converts flat epithelial sheets into multilayered, complex tissue structures and is used throughout development in most animals. Little is known, however, about how forces produced near the apical surface of the tissue are transmitted within individual cells to generate the global changes in cell shape that characterize tissue deformation. Here we apply particle tracking velocimetry in gastrulating Drosophila embryos to measure the movement of cytoplasm and plasma membrane during ventral furrow formation. We find that cytoplasmic redistribution during the lengthening phase of ventral furrow formation can be precisely described by viscous flows that quantitatively match the predictions of hydrodynamics. Cell membranes move with the ambient cytoplasm, with little resistance to, or driving force on, the flow. Strikingly, apical constriction produces similar flow patterns in mutant embryos that fail to form cells before gastrulation ('acellular' embryos), such that the global redistribution of cytoplasm mirrors the summed redistribution occurring in individual cells of wild-type embryos. Our results indicate that during the lengthening phase of ventral furrow formation, hydrodynamic behaviour of the cytoplasm provides the predominant mechanism transmitting apically generated forces deep into the tissue and that cell individualization is dispensable.

  18. Targeting elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed A; Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz H; Mansour, Ahmed M; Alpay, S Neslihan; Huo, Longfei; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is one of the most aggressive, apoptosis-resistant and currently incurable cancers with a poor survival rate. Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) is an atypical kinase, whose role in PaCa survival is not yet known. Here, we show that eEF-2K is overexpressed in PaCa cells and its down-regulation induces apoptotic cell death. Rottlerin (ROT), a polyphenolic compound initially identified as a PKC-δ inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy in a variety of cancer cells including PaCa cells. We demonstrated that ROT induces intrinsic apoptosis, with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and stimulates extrinsic apoptosis with concomitant induction of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, DR4 and DR5, with caspase-8 activation, in PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cells. Notably, while none of these effects were dependent on PKC-δ inhibition, ROT down-regulates eEF-2K at mRNA level, and induce eEF-2K protein degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Down-regulation of eEF-2K recapitulates the events observed after ROT treatment, while its over-expression suppressed the ROT-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, eEF-2K regulates the expression of tissue transglutaminase (TG2), an enzyme previously implicated in proliferation, drug resistance and survival of cancer cells. Inhibition of eEF-2K/TG2 axis leads to caspase-independent apoptosis which is associated with induction of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Collectively, these results indicate, for the first time, that the down-regulation of eEF-2K leads to induction of intrinsic, extrinsic as well as AIF-dependent apoptosis in PaCa cells, suggesting that eEF-2K may represent an attractive therapeutic target for the future anticancer agents in PaCa.

  19. Cell wall pectic arabinans influence the mechanical properties of Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems and their response to mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhertbruggen, Yves; Marcus, Susan E; Chen, Jianshe; Knox, J Paul

    2013-08-01

    Little is known of the dynamics of plant cell wall matrix polysaccharides in response to the impact of mechanical stress on plant organs. The capacity of the imposition of a mechanical stress (periodic brushing) to reduce the height of the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings has been used to study the role of pectic arabinans in the mechanical properties and stress responsiveness of a plant organ. The arabinan-deficient-1 (arad1) mutation that affects arabinan structures in epidermal cell walls of inflorescence stems is demonstrated to reduce the impact on inflorescence stem heights caused by mechanical stress. The arabinan-deficient-2 (arad2) mutation, that does not have detectable impact on arabinan structures, is also shown to reduce the impact on stem heights caused by mechanical stress. The LM13 linear arabinan epitope is specifically detected in epidermal cell walls of the younger, flexible regions of inflorescence stems and increases in abundance at the base of inflorescence stems in response to an imposed mechanical stress. The strain (percentage deformation) of stem epidermal cells in the double mutant arad1 × arad2 is lower in unbrushed plants than in wild-type plants, but rises to wild-type levels in response to brushing. The study demonstrates the complexity of arabinan structures within plant cell walls and also that their contribution to cell wall mechanical properties is a factor influencing responsiveness to mechanical stress.

  20. Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, a fluorescent probe for the visualisation of membrane microdomains in living Arabidopsis thaliana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Li, Ruili; Lu, Cunfu; Baluška, František; Wan, Yinglang

    2015-02-01

    Cholesterol-enriched microdomains, also called lipid rafts, are nanoscale membrane structures with a high degree of structural order. Since these microdomains play important roles in dynamic cytological events, such as cell signalling and membrane trafficking, the detection and tracking of microdomain behaviours are crucial to studies on modern membrane physiology. Currently, observation of microdomains is mostly based on the detection of specific raft-resident constituents using artificial cross-link fluorescent probes. However, only a few microdomain-specific fluorescent dyes are available for plant cell biology studies. In this study, the photophysical properties of di-4-ANEPPDHQ were analysed. The use of confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM)-based methods in the visualisation of microdomains in living cells of Arabidopsis thaliana was assessed. The results confirmed that the generalised polarisation (GP) method can be used to quantitatively visualise the membrane orders in live plant cells. This dye was found to have low cytotoxicity in plant root epidermal cells and root hairs. These findings suggest that di-4-ANEPPDHQ is an appropriate tool for the visualisation of microdomains in living plant cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cochlin induced TREK-1 co-expression and annexin A2 secretion: role in trabecular meshwork cell elongation and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manik; Sienkiewicz, Adam E; Picciani, Renata; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2011-01-01

    Fluid flow through large interstitial spaces is sensed at the cellular level, and mechanistic responses to flow changes enables expansion or contraction of the cells modulating the surrounding area and brings about changes in fluid flow. In the anterior eye chamber, aqueous humor, a clear fluid, flows through trabecular meshwork (TM), a filter like region. Cochlin, a secreted protein in the extracellular matrix, was identified in the TM of glaucomatous patients but not controls by mass spectrometry. Cochlin undergoes shear induced multimerization and plays a role in mechanosensing of fluid shear. Cytoskeletal changes in response to mechanosensing in the ECM by cochlin will necessitate transduction of mechanosensing. TREK-1, a stretch activated outward rectifying potassium channel protein known to act as mechanotransducer was found to be expressed in TM. Cochlin expression results in co-expression of TREK-1 and filopodia formation. Prolonged cochlin expression results in expression and subsequent secretion of annexin A2, a protein known to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling. Cochlin interacts with TREK-1 and annexin A2. Cochlin-TREK-1 interaction has functional consequences and results in changes in cell shape and motility. Annexin A2 expression and secretion follows cochlin-TREK-1 syn-expression and correlates with cell elongation. Thus cytoskeleton changes in response to fluid shear sensed by cochlin are further mediated by TREK-1 and annexin A2.

  2. GhCFE1A, a dynamic linker between the ER network and actin cytoskeleton, plays an important role in cotton fibre cell initiation and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fenni; Wang, Haihai; Wang, Xinyu; Han, Libo; Ma, Yinping; Wang, Sen; Feng, Zhidi; Niu, Xiaowei; Cai, Caiping; Kong, Zhaosheng; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-04-01

    Fibre cell initiation and elongation is critical for cotton fibre development. However, little is known about the regulation of initiation and elongation during fibre cell development. Here, the regulatory role of a novel protein GhCFE1A was uncovered. GhCFE1A is preferentially expressed at initiation and rapid elongation stages during fibre development; in addition, much higher expression of GhCFE1A was detected at the fibre initiation stage in fibreless cotton mutants than in the fibre-bearing TM-1 wild-type. Importantly, overexpression of GhCFE1A in cotton not only delayed fibre cell elongation but also significantly reduced the density of lint and fuzz fibre initials and stem trichomes. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that GhCFE1A interacted with several actin proteins, and the interaction was further confirmed by co-sedimentation assay. Interestingly, a subcellular localization assay showed that GhCFE1A resided on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and co-localized with actin cables. Moreover, the density of F-actin filaments was shown to be reduced in GhCFE1A-overexpressing fibres at the rapid elongation stage compared with the wild-type control. Taken together, the results demonstrate that GhCFE1A probably functions as a dynamic linker between the actin cytoskeleton and the ER network, and plays an important role in fibre cell initiation and elongation during cotton fibre development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cell wall elongation mode in Gram-negative bacteria is determined by peptidoglycan architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert D; Hurd, Alexander F; Cadby, Ashley; Hobbs, Jamie K; Foster, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Cellular integrity and morphology of most bacteria is maintained by cell wall peptidoglycan, the target of antibiotics essential in modern healthcare. It consists of glycan strands, cross-linked by peptides, whose arrangement determines cell shape, prevents lysis due to turgor pressure and yet remains dynamic to allow insertion of new material, and hence growth. The cellular architecture and insertion pattern of peptidoglycan have remained elusive. Here we determine the peptidoglycan architecture and dynamics during growth in rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria. Peptidoglycan is made up of circumferentially oriented bands of material interspersed with a more porous network. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy reveals an unexpected discontinuous, patchy synthesis pattern. We present a consolidated model of growth via architecture-regulated insertion, where we propose only the more porous regions of the peptidoglycan network that are permissive for synthesis.

  4. Spatial Organization and Dynamics of Transcription Elongation and Pre-mRNA Processing in Live Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sánchez-Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, systematic biochemical and functional studies have significantly expanded our knowledge of the transcriptional molecular components and the pre-mRNA processing machinery of the cell. However, our current understanding of how these functions take place spatiotemporally within the highly compartmentalized eukaryotic nucleus remains limited. Moreover, it is increasingly clear that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts” and that an understanding of the dynamic coregulation of genes is essential for fully characterizing complex biological phenomena and underlying diseases. Recent technological advances in light microscopy in addition to novel cell and molecular biology approaches have led to the development of new tools, which are being used to address these questions and may contribute to achieving an integrated and global understanding of how the genome works at a cellular level. Here, we review major hallmarks and novel insights in RNA polymerase II activity and pre-mRNA processing in the context of nuclear organization, as well as new concepts and challenges arising from our ability to gather extensive dynamic information at the single-cell resolution.

  5. Elongated cells of Listeria monocytogenes in biofilms in the presence of sucrose and bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides A11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Priscilla Ratti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen which may survive in biofilms and persist in food processing plants. In this study, the ability of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (bac+ and bac- to inhibit biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was studied with stainless steel coupons immersed in BHI broth and BHI broth plus sucrose in combination with the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB. Adhered cells were collected with swabs and enumerated on selective agars (Oxford for listeria and MRS for leuconostoc. Leuconostoc mesenteroides bac+ in co-culture with L. monocytogenes was effective to inhibit biofilm formation by listeria for up to 3 hours of incubation, but at 24 hours, biofilm was present in all conditions tested, as confirmed by observations of stainless steel coupons under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. It was also observed that in the presence of L. mesenteroides bac+ in BHI plus sucrose, a high number of elongated cells of L. monocytogenes was present, which may indicate an adaptation response of the pathogen to stress conditions with important implications for food safety.

  6. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, M D; Matthews, M A

    1992-12-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of -0.20 and -0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with -0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes.

  7. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, Marcelo D.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of −0.20 and −0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with −0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes. PMID:16653208

  8. Depletion of elongation initiation factor 4E binding proteins by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing enhances antiviral response in porcine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type I interferons (IFN) are key mediators of the innate antiviral response in mammalian cells. Elongation initiation factor 4E binding proteins (4E-BPs) are translational controllers of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), the master regulator of IFN transcription. The role of 4EBPs in the negat...

  9. The stability of mRNA for eucaryotic elongation factor Tu in Friend erythroleukemia cells varies with growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T R; Slobin, L I

    1988-03-01

    The decay rates of eucaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) mRNA and eucaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF-4A) mRNA in Friend erythroleukemia (FEL) cells were determined under several different growth conditions. In FEL cells which were no longer actively dividing (stationary phase), eEF-Tu mRNA was found to be rather stable, with a t1/2 of about 24 h. In rapidly growing FEL cells eEF-Tu mRNA was considerably less stable, with a t1/2 of about 9 h. In both cases a single rate of mRNA decay was observed. However, when stationary-phase cells resumed growth after treatment with fresh medium, we observed that eEF-Tu mRNA decay followed a biphasic process. The faster of the two decay rates involved approximately 50% of the eEF-Tu mRNA and had a t1/2 of about 1 h. The decay rates for eIF-4A (t1/2 = 2 h) and total poly(A)+ RNA (t1/2 = 3 h) were unaffected by changes in growth conditions. The t1/2 for polysomal eEF-Tu mRNA was found to be about 8 h when stationary FEL cells were treated with fresh medium. Previous work in this laboratory has shown (T. R. Rao and L. I. Slobin, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:687-697, 1987) that when FEL cells are allowed to grow to stationary phase, approximately 60% of the mRNA for eEF-Tu is found in a nontranslating postpolysomal messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. eEF-Tu mRNP was rapidly cleared from stationary cells after treatment with fresh medium. The data presented in this report indicate that the stability of eEF-Tu mRNP is rapidly altered and the particle is targeted for degradation when stationary FEL cells resume growth.

  10. Mechanical properties of epidermal cells of whole living roots of Arabidopsis thaliana: An atomic force microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anwesha N.; Chen, Xinyong; Scotchford, Colin A.; Walker, James; Wells, Darren M.; Roberts, Clive J.; Everitt, Nicola M.

    2012-02-01

    The knowledge of mechanical properties of root cell walls is vital to understand how these properties interact with relevant genetic and physiological processes to bring about growth. Expansion of cell walls is an essential component of growth, and the regulation of cell wall expansion is one of the ways in which the mechanics of growth is controlled, managed and directed. In this study, the inherent surface mechanical properties of living Arabidopsis thaliana whole-root epidermal cells were studied at the nanoscale using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM). A novel methodology was successfully developed to adapt AFM to live plant roots. Force-Indentation (F-I) experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties along the length of the root. F-I curves for epidermal cells of roots were also generated by varying turgor pressure. The F-I curves displayed a variety of features due to the heterogeneity of the surface. Hysteresis is observed. Application of conventional models to living biological systems such as cell walls in nanometer regimes tends to increase error margins to a large extent. Hence information from the F-I curves were used in a preliminary semiquantitative analysis to infer material properties and calculate two parameters. The work done in the loading and unloading phases (hysteresis) of the force measurements were determined separately and were expressed in terms of “Index of Plasticity” (η), which characterized the elasticity properties of roots as a viscoelastic response. Scaling approaches were used to find the ratio of hardness to reduced modulus ((H)/(E*)).

  11. Interplay of the serine/threonine-kinase StkP and the paralogs DivIVA and GpsB in pneumococcal cell elongation and division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Fleurie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and GpsB with the ser/thr kinase StkP. We observed that the deletion of divIVA hindered cell elongation and resulted in cell shortening and rounding. By contrast, the absence of GpsB resulted in hampered cell division and triggered cell elongation. Remarkably, ΔgpsB elongated cells exhibited a helical FtsZ pattern instead of a Z-ring, accompanied by helical patterns for DivIVA and peptidoglycan synthesis. Strikingly, divIVA deletion suppressed the elongated phenotype of ΔgpsB cells. These data suggest that DivIVA promotes cell elongation and that GpsB counteracts it. Analysis of protein-protein interactions revealed that GpsB and DivIVA do not interact with FtsZ but with the cell division protein EzrA, which itself interacts with FtsZ. In addition, GpsB interacts directly with DivIVA. These results are consistent with DivIVA and GpsB acting as a molecular switch to orchestrate peripheral and septal PG synthesis and connecting them with the Z-ring via EzrA. The cellular co-localization of the transpeptidases PBP2x and PBP2b as well as the lipid-flippases FtsW and RodA in ΔgpsB cells further suggest the existence of a single large PG assembly complex. Finally, we show that GpsB is required for septal localization and kinase activity of StkP, and therefore for StkP-dependent phosphorylation of DivIVA. Altogether, we propose that the StkP/DivIVA/GpsB triad finely tunes the two modes of peptidoglycan (peripheral and septal synthesis responsible for the pneumococcal ellipsoid cell shape.

  12. The cotton ATP synthase δ1 subunit is required to maintain a higher ATP/ADP ratio that facilitates rapid fibre cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y; Wang, H; Song, W-Q; Zhu, Y-X

    2010-11-01

    The δ subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase serves as a linker between the F(0) and F(1) sectors. Here, through microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the δ1 subunit was significantly up-regulated during cotton fibre cell elongation. Both the relative level and duration of GhATPδ1 transcripts correlated positively with the final length of different cotton germplasms. Elongating fibre cells had a significantly elevated ATP/ADP ratio, suggesting that a higher energy input is probably required for primary fibre cell wall formation and elongation. We obtained a putative full-length GhATPδ1 cDNA that shows 37% sequence identity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP16 at the deduced amino acid level. An almost wild-type growth rate was restored in atp16Δ cells that expressed GhATPδ1, with a resultant ATP/ADP ratio similar to that found in wild-type cells, indicating that the cotton gene was functional in yeast. Mitochondria prepared from 10 dpa wild-type fibre cells showed significantly higher ATP synthase activity in comparison to ovule samples from wild type and leaf samples. Exogenous application of piceatannol (PA) or oligomycin (OM), inhibitors of ATP synthase F(1) or F(0) subunits, respectively, in ovule culture media resulted in much shorter fibre cells and a significantly lower ATP/ADP ratio. Our data suggest that GhATPδ1 is important for activity of mitochondrial ATP synthase and is probably related to cotton fibre elongation. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of The Netherlands.

  13. Elongation of confluent endothelial cells in culture: the importance of fields of force in the associated alterations of their cytoskeletal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoumine, O; Ziegler, T; Girard, P R; Nerem, R M

    1995-08-01

    Studies using either animal models or in vitro flow systems have shown that the shape of large-vessel endothelial cells (ECs) was sensitive to the amplitude of the flow imposed on them. In order to better understand the morphological changes experienced by ECs when exposed to physical forces such as shear stress, the mechanical integrity of confluent bovine aortic ECs (BAECs) was anisotropically perturbed using the five following types of experiments: (i) slicing and partial scraping of BAEC monolayers; (ii) culture of BAECs on narrow strips of adhesive plastic; (iii) incubation of confluent BAECs with media containing low Ca2+ concentrations; (iv) culture of ECs on top of rectangular collagen gels; and (v) exposure of BAECs to laminar steady shear stress. In all five experimental systems, BAECs exhibited an elongated morphology and aligned their major axes in specific directions. In addition, a preferential alignment of actin microfilaments, vimentin intermediate filaments, and streaks of vinculin with the major axes of the cells often occurred concomitantly with BAEC elongation. In all five systems, the elongation of ECs was analyzed in terms of a mechanical deformation borne by the cytoskeleton, and possibly caused by anisotropic distribution of the forces experienced by the cell structure. In addition, the strain-stress and stiffness-stress relationships characterizing the elongation of BAECs exposed to steady flow were qualitatively similar to those computed for the uniaxial deformation of a spherical geodesic. Our findings suggest that the cytoskeleton of ECs plays an important role in the transduction of those forces which cause an elongation of ECs.

  14. The development and geometry of shape change in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Halsey, Leah E; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2011-02-01

    The leaf epidermis is an important architectural control element that influences the growth properties of underlying tissues and the overall form of the organ. In dicots, interdigitated pavement cells are the building blocks of the tissue, and their morphogenesis includes the assembly of specialized cell walls that surround the apical, basal, and lateral (anticlinal) cell surfaces. The microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are highly polarized along the cortex of the anticlinal wall; however, the relationships between these arrays and cell morphogenesis are unclear. We developed new quantitative tools to compare population-level growth statistics with time-lapse imaging of cotyledon pavement cells in an intact tissue. The analysis revealed alternating waves of lobe initiation and a phase of lateral isotropic expansion that persisted for days. During lateral isotropic diffuse growth, microtubule organization varied greatly between cell surfaces. Parallel microtubule bundles were distributed unevenly along the anticlinal surface, with subsets marking stable cortical domains at cell indentations and others clearly populating the cortex within convex cell protrusions. Pavement cell morphogenesis is discontinuous, and includes punctuated phases of lobe initiation and lateral isotropic expansion. In the epidermis, lateral isotropic growth is independent of pavement cell size and shape. Cortical microtubules along the upper cell surface and stable cortical patches of anticlinal microtubules may coordinate the growth behaviors of orthogonal cell walls. This work illustrates the importance of directly linking protein localization data to the growth behavior of leaf epidermal cells.

  15. Effect of estrone on somatic and female gametophyte cell division and differentiation in Arabidospis thaliana cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Żabicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the mammalian female sex hormone estrone on differentiation of somatic tissues and on induction of autonomous endosperm in culture of female gametophyte cells of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0. In culture, estrone-stimulated development of autonomous endosperm (AE occurred in 14.7% of unpollinated pistils. The AE represented development stages similar to those of young endosperm after fertilization and AE of fis mutants in vivo. In the majority of ovules the AE was in a few-nucleate young stage. Some ovules showed more advanced stages of AE development, with nuclei and cytoplasm forming characteristic nuclear cytoplasmic domains (NCDs. Sporadically, AE was divided into regions characteristic for Arabidopsis endosperm formed after fertilization. Direct organogenesis (caulogenesis, rhizogenesis, callus proliferation and formation of trichome-like structures were observed during in vitro culture of hypocotyls and cotyledons of 3-day-old seedlings cultured on medium supplemented with estrone for 28 days. Histological analysis showed adventitious root formation and changes in explant anatomy caused by estrone.

  16. The influence of cytokinin-auxin cross-regulation on cell-fate determination in Arabidopsis thaliana root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Daniele; Byrne, Helen; King, John; Voss, Ute; Kieber, Joseph; Bennett, Malcolm

    2011-08-21

    Root growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana are sustained by a specialised zone termed the meristem, which contains a population of dividing and differentiating cells that are functionally analogous to a stem cell niche in animals. The hormones auxin and cytokinin control meristem size antagonistically. Local accumulation of auxin promotes cell division and the initiation of a lateral root primordium. By contrast, high cytokinin concentrations disrupt the regular pattern of divisions that characterises lateral root development, and promote differentiation. The way in which the hormones interact is controlled by a genetic regulatory network. In this paper, we propose a deterministic mathematical model to describe this network and present model simulations that reproduce the experimentally observed effects of cytokinin on the expression of auxin regulated genes. We show how auxin response genes and auxin efflux transporters may be affected by the presence of cytokinin. We also analyse and compare the responses of the hormones auxin and cytokinin to changes in their supply with the responses obtained by genetic mutations of SHY2, which encodes a protein that plays a key role in balancing cytokinin and auxin regulation of meristem size. We show that although shy2 mutations can qualitatively reproduce the effect of varying auxin and cytokinin supply on their response genes, some elements of the network respond differently to changes in hormonal supply and to genetic mutations, implying a different, general response of the network. We conclude that an analysis based on the ratio between these two hormones may be misleading and that a mathematical model can serve as a useful tool for stimulate further experimental work by predicting the response of the network to changes in hormone levels and to other genetic mutations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water-polysaccharide interactions in the primary cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana from polarization transfer solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul B; Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Hong, Mei

    2014-07-23

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are hydrated under functional conditions, but the molecular interactions between water and polysaccharides in the wall have not been investigated. In this work, we employ polarization transfer solid-state NMR techniques to study the hydration of primary-wall polysaccharides of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. By transferring water (1)H polarization to polysaccharides through distance- and mobility-dependent (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings and detecting it through polysaccharide (13)C signals, we obtain information about water proximity to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins as well as water mobility. Both intact and partially extracted cell wall samples are studied. Our results show that water-pectin polarization transfer is much faster than water-cellulose polarization transfer in all samples, but the extent of extraction has a profound impact on the water-polysaccharide spin diffusion. Removal of calcium ions and the consequent extraction of homogalacturonan (HG) significantly slowed down spin diffusion, while further extraction of matrix polysaccharides restored the spin diffusion rate. These trends are observed in cell walls with similar water content, thus they reflect inherent differences in the mobility and spatial distribution of water. Combined with quantitative analysis of the polysaccharide contents, our results indicate that calcium ions and HG gelation increase the amount of bound water, which facilitates spin diffusion, while calcium removal disrupts the gel and gives rise to highly dynamic water, which slows down spin diffusion. The recovery of spin diffusion rates after more extensive extraction is attributed to increased water-exposed surface areas of the polysaccharides. Water-pectin spin diffusion precedes water-cellulose spin diffusion, lending support to the single-network model of plant primary walls in which a substantial fraction of the cellulose surface is surrounded by pectins.

  18. Rapamycin Inhibits Expression of Elongation of Very-long-chain Fatty Acids 1 and Synthesis of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism and is sufficient to induce specific metabolic processes, including de novo lipid biosynthesis. Elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 1 (ELOVL1 is a ubiquitously expressed gene and the product of which was thought to be associated with elongation of carbon (C chain in fatty acids. In the present study, we examined the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTORC1, on ELOVL1 expression and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3 synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs. We found that rapamycin decreased the relative abundance of ELOVL1 mRNA, ELOVL1 expression and the level of DHA in a time-dependent manner. These data indicate that ELOVL1 expression and DHA synthesis are regulated by mTORC1 in BMECs.

  19. Conserved CDC20 cell cycle functions are carried out by two of the five isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Kevei

    Full Text Available The CDC20 and Cdh1/CCS52 proteins are substrate determinants and activators of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C E3 ubiquitin ligase and as such they control the mitotic cell cycle by targeting the degradation of various cell cycle regulators. In yeasts and animals the main CDC20 function is the destruction of securin and mitotic cyclins. Plants have multiple CDC20 gene copies whose functions have not been explored yet. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are five CDC20 isoforms and here we aimed at defining their contribution to cell cycle regulation, substrate selectivity and plant development.Studying the gene structure and phylogeny of plant CDC20s, the expression of the five AtCDC20 gene copies and their interactions with the APC/C subunit APC10, the CCS52 proteins, components of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC and mitotic cyclin substrates, conserved CDC20 functions could be assigned for AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2. The other three intron-less genes were silent and specific for Arabidopsis. We show that AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2 are components of the MCC and interact with mitotic cyclins with unexpected specificity. AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2 are expressed in meristems, organ primordia and AtCDC20.1 also in pollen grains and developing seeds. Knocking down both genes simultaneously by RNAi resulted in severe delay in plant development and male sterility. In these lines, the meristem size was reduced while the cell size and ploidy levels were unaffected indicating that the lower cell number and likely slowdown of the cell cycle are the cause of reduced plant growth.The intron-containing CDC20 gene copies provide conserved and redundant functions for cell cycle progression in plants and are required for meristem maintenance, plant growth and male gametophyte formation. The Arabidopsis-specific intron-less genes are possibly "retrogenes" and have hitherto undefined functions or are pseudogenes.

  20. The Dual Functions of WLIM1a in Cell Elongation and Secondary Wall Formation in Developing Cotton Fibers[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Bo; Li, Yuan-Bao; Wang, Hai-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Ming; Wu, Shen-Jie; Kong, Zhao-Sheng; Pei, Yan; Jiao, Gai-Li; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-01-01

    LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3 (LIM)-domain proteins play pivotal roles in a variety of cellular processes in animals, but plant LIM functions remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate dual roles of the WLIM1a gene in fiber development in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). WLIM1a is preferentially expressed during the elongation and secondary wall synthesis stages in developing fibers. Overexpression of WLIM1a in cotton led to significant changes in fiber length and secondary wall structure. Compared with the wild type, fibers of WLIM1a-overexpressing plants grew longer and formed a thinner and more compact secondary cell wall, which contributed to improved fiber strength and fineness. Functional studies demonstrated that (1) WLIM1a acts as an actin bundler to facilitate elongation of fiber cells and (2) WLIM1a also functions as a transcription factor to activate expression of Phe ammonia lyase–box genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to build up the secondary cell wall. WLIM1a localizes in the cytosol and nucleus and moves into the nucleus in response to hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate that WLIM1a has dual roles in cotton fiber development, elongation, and secondary wall formation. Moreover, our study shows that lignin/lignin-like phenolics may substantially affect cotton fiber quality; this finding may guide cotton breeding for improved fiber traits. PMID:24220634

  1. Cell edges accumulate gamma tubulin complex components and nucleate microtubules following cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Ambrose

    Full Text Available Microtubules emanate from distinct organizing centers in fungal and animal cells. In plant cells, by contrast, microtubules initiate from dispersed sites in the cell cortex, where they then self-organize into parallel arrays. Previous ultrastructural evidence suggested that cell edges participate in microtubule nucleation but so far there has been no direct evidence for this. Here we use live imaging to show that components of the gamma tubulin nucleation complex (GCP2 and GCP3 localize at distinct sites along the outer periclinal edge of newly formed crosswalls, and that microtubules grow predominantly away from these edges. These data confirm a role for cell edges in microtubule nucleation, and suggest that an asymmetric distribution of microtubule nucleation factors contributes to cortical microtubule organization in plants, in a manner more similar to other kingdoms than previously thought.

  2. Alterations in protein expression of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures during hyper- , simulated and sounding rocket micro-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Ruediger; Barjaktarović, Žarko; Babbick, Maren; Magel, Elisabeth; Nordheim, Alfred; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Hampp, Ruediger

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to hypergravity (8g), 2D clinorotation and random positioning exhibit changes in gene expression (Martzivanou et al., Protoplasma 229:155-162, 2003). In a recent investigation we could show that after 2 hrs of exposure also the protein complement shows treatment-related changes. These are indicative for reactive oxygen species being involved in the perception of / response to changes in the gravitational field. In the present study we have extended these investigations for a period of up to 16 hrs of exposure. We report on changes in abundance of 28 proteins which have been identified by nano HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, and which were altered in amount after 2 hrs of treatment. According to changes between 2 and 16 hrs we could distinguish four groups of proteins which either declined, increased from down-regulated to control levels, showed a transient decline or a transient increase. With regard to function, our data indicate stress relief or adaption to a new gravitational steady state under prolonged exposure. The latter assumption is supported by the appearance of a new set of 19 proteins which is changed in abundance after 8 hrs of hypergravity. A comparative analysis of the different treatments showed some similarities in response between 8g centrifugation and 2D clinorotation, while random positioning showed the least responses. In addition, we report on the impact of reduced gravitation on the phospho proteom. Cell cultures exposed to 12 min of microgravity as obtained on board of sounding rockets do not respond with alterations in total protein but in the degree of phosphorylation as demonstrated after 2D SDS PAGE separation and sequencing. On this basis we give evidence for signaling cascades involved in the transduction of gravitational signals.

  3. Glial Scar Borders Are Formed by Newly Proliferated, Elongated Astrocytes That Interact to Corral Inflammatory and Fibrotic Cells via STAT3-Dependent Mechanisms after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark A.; Song, Bingbing; Levine, Jaclynn; Fernandez, Ana; Gray-Thompson, Zachary; Ao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Astroglial scars surround damaged tissue after trauma, stroke, infection, or autoimmune inflammation in the CNS. They are essential for wound repair, but also interfere with axonal regrowth. A better understanding of the cellular mechanisms, regulation, and functions of astroglial scar formation is fundamental to developing safe interventions for many CNS disorders. We used wild-type and transgenic mice to quantify and dissect these parameters. Adjacent to crush spinal cord injury (SCI), reactive astrocytes exhibited heterogeneous phenotypes as regards proliferation, morphology, and chemistry, which all varied with distance from lesions. Mature scar borders at 14 d after SCI consisted primarily of newly proliferated astroglia with elongated cell processes that surrounded large and small clusters of inflammatory, fibrotic, and other cells. During scar formation from 5 to 14 d after SCI, cell processes deriving from different astroglia associated into overlapping bundles that quantifiably reoriented and organized into dense mesh-like arrangements. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astroglia quantifiably disrupted the organization of elongated astroglia into scar borders, and caused a failure of astroglia to surround inflammatory cells, resulting in increased spread of these cells and neuronal loss. In cocultures, wild-type astroglia spontaneously corralled inflammatory or fibromeningeal cells into segregated clusters, whereas STAT3-deficient astroglia failed to do so. These findings demonstrate heterogeneity of reactive astroglia and show that scar borders are formed by newly proliferated, elongated astroglia, which organize via STAT3-dependent mechanisms to corral inflammatory and fibrotic cells into discrete areas separated from adjacent tissue that contains viable neurons. PMID:23904622

  4. Pectins in the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen tube and pistil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Arnaud; Dardelle, Flavien; Soret-Morvan, Odile; Lerouge, Patrice; Driouich, Azeddine; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-01

    Plant sexual reproduction involves the growth of tip-polarized pollen tubes through the female tissues in order to deliver the sperm nuclei to the egg cells. Despite the importance of this crucial step, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this spatial and temporal control of the tube growth. In order to study this process and to characterize the structural composition of the extracellular matrix of the male gametophyte, immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses of Arabidopsis pollen tube wall have been carried out. Results showed a well defined localization of cell wall epitopes with highly esterified homogalacturonan and arabinogalactan-protein mainly in the tip region, weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan back from the tip and xyloglucan and (1→5)-α-L-arabinan all along the tube. Here, we present complementary data regarding 1) the ultrastructure of the pollen tube cell wall and 2) the immunolocalization of homogalacturonan and arabinan epitopes in 16 h-old pollen tubes and in the stigma and the transmitting tract of the female organ. Discussion regarding the pattern of the distribution of the cell wall epitopes and the possible mechanisms of cell adhesion between the pollen tubes and the female tissues is provided. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  5. Distinct palisade tissue development processes promoted by leaf autonomous signalling and long-distance signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Yuri Nakajima; Inoue, Shio; Yoneda, Yuki; Yokota, Akiho

    2015-06-01

    Plants develop palisade tissue consisting of cylindrical mesophyll cells located at the adaxial side of leaves in response to high light. To understand high light signalling in palisade tissue development, we investigated leaf autonomous and long-distance signal responses of palisade tissue development using Arabidopsis thaliana. Illumination of a developing leaf with high light induced cell height elongation, whereas illumination of mature leaves with high light increased cell density and suppressed cell width expansion in palisade tissue of new leaves. Examination using phototropin1 phototropin2 showed that blue light signalling mediated by phototropins was involved in cell height elongation of the leaf autonomous response rather than the cell density increase induced by long-distance signalling. Hydrogen peroxide treatment induced cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation in both a leaf autonomous and long-distance manner, suggesting involvement of oxidative signals. Although constitutive expression of transcription factors involved in systemic-acquired acclimation to excess light, ZAT10 and ZAT12, induced cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation, knockout of these genes did not affect cylindrical palisade tissue cell formation. We conclude that two distinct signalling pathways - leaf autonomous signalling mostly dependent on blue light signalling and long-distance signalling from mature leaves that sense high light and oxidative stress - control palisade tissue development in A. thaliana. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Calcium dynamics in root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana visualized with selective plane illumination microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Costa

    Full Text Available Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM is an imaging technique particularly suited for long term in-vivo analysis of transparent specimens, able to visualize small organs or entire organisms, at cellular and eventually even subcellular resolution. Here we report the application of SPIM in Calcium imaging based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the genetically encoded-FRET-based Ca(2+ probe Cameleon, in the cytosol or nucleus, were used to demonstrate that SPIM enables ratiometric fluorescence imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution, both at tissue and single cell level. The SPIM-FRET technique enabled us to follow nuclear and cytosolic Ca(2+ dynamics in Arabidopsis root tip cells, deep inside the organ, in response to different stimuli. A relevant physiological phenomenon, namely Ca(2+ signal percolation, predicted in previous studies, has been directly visualized.

  7. Pectins in the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen tube and pistil

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Arnaud; Dardelle, Flavien; Soret-Morvan, Odile; Lerouge, Patrice; Driouich, Azeddine; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Plant sexual reproduction involves the growth of tip-polarized pollen tubes through the female tissues in order to deliver the sperm nuclei to the egg cells. Despite the importance of this crucial step, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this spatial and temporal control of the tube growth. In order to study this process and to characterize the structural composition of the extracellular matrix of the male gametophyte, immunocytochemical and biochemical analyses of Ara...

  8. Loss of CDKC;2 increases both cell division and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Qi; Wu, Yaorong

    2017-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the abiotic stresses that limit plant growth and agricultural productivity. To further understand the mechanism of drought tolerance and identify the genes involved in this process, a genetic screen for altered drought response was conducted in Arabidopsis. One mutant with enhanced drought tolerance was isolated and named Arabidopsis drought tolerance mutant 1 (atdtm1), which has larger lateral organs, prolonged growth duration, increased relative water content and a reduced leaf stomatal density compared with the wild type. The loss of AtDTM1 increases cell division during leaf development. The phenotype is caused by the loss of a T-DNA tagged gene encoding CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE C;2 (CDKC;2), which functions in the regulation of transcription by influencing the phosphorylation status of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Here, we show that CDKC;2 affects the transcription of downstream genes such as cell cycle genes and genes involved in stomatal development, resulting in altered plant organ size as well as drought tolerance of the plant. These results reveal the crucial role of CDKC;2 in modulating both cell division and the drought response in Arabidopsis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Endogenous TasiRNAs mediate non-cell autonomous effects on gene regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different classes of small RNAs (sRNAs refine the expression of numerous genes in higher eukaryotes by directing protein partners to complementary nucleic acids, where they mediate gene silencing. Plants encode a unique class of sRNAs, called trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs, which post-transcriptionally regulate protein-coding transcripts, as do microRNAs (miRNAs, and both sRNA classes control development through their targets. TasiRNA biogenesis requires multiple components of the siRNA pathway and also miRNAs. But while 21mer siRNAs originating from transgenes can mediate silencing across several cell layers, miRNA action seems spatially restricted to the producing or closely surrounding cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have previously described the isolation of a genetrap reporter line for TAS3a, the major locus producing AUXIN RESPONS FACTOR (ARF-regulating tasiRNAs in the Arabidopsis shoot. Its activity is limited to the adaxial (upper side of leaf primordia, thus spatially isolated from ARF-activities, which are located in the abaxial (lower side. We show here by in situ hybridization and reporter fusions that the silencing activities of ARF-regulating tasiRNAs are indeed manifested non-cell autonomously to spatially control ARF activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Endogenous tasiRNAs are thus mediators of a mobile developmental signal and might provide effective gene silencing at a distance beyond the reach of most miRNAs.

  10. Gibberellic acid and dwarfism effects on the growth dynamics of B73 maize (Zea mays L.) leaf blades: a transient increase in apoplastic peroxidase activity precedes cessation of cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, I R; MacAdam, J W

    2001-08-01

    The relationship between apoplastic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity and cessation of growth in maize (Zea mays L.) leaf blades was investigated by altering elongation zone length. Apoplastic peroxidase activity in the elongation and secondary cell wall deposition zones of elongating leaf blades of the maize inbred line B73 was used as a control and compared to leaves of the dwarf mutant D8-81127, a near-isogenic line of B73 unresponsive to gibberellins, and to leaves of B73 plants to which gibberellic acid (GA(3)) had been applied via root uptake. Elongation zone length was increased by treatment with GA(3) through an increase in cell number as well as increased final cell length. The shorter elongation zone of dwarf leaves occurred primarily through reduced final cell length. Although elongation zone length differed among dwarf, control, and GA(3)-treated leaf blades, in all three treatments a transient increase in apoplastic peroxidase activity preceded a reduction in the segmental elongation rate in leaves. A peroxidase isoenzyme with pI 7.0 occurred in the leaf elongation zone during growth deceleration in all three treatments, and its activity decreased as growth displaced tissue into the region of secondary cell wall deposition. Growth cessation for all treatments coincided with the first appearance of peroxidase isozymes with pIs of 5.6 and 5.7. Based on the activity of particular isozymes relative to growth and differentiation, the pI 7.0 isoenzyme is most likely to be involved in cessation of cell elongation, while isozymes with pIs 5.6 and 5.7 are likely to be active in lignification.

  11. The transcription elongation factor ELL2 is specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-infected T-cells and is dependent on the viral oncoprotein Tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Melanie C., E-mail: melanie.mann@viro.med.uni-erlangen.de; Strobel, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.strobel@viro.med.uni-erlangen.de; Fleckenstein, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.fleckenstein@viro.med.uni-erlangen.de; Kress, Andrea K., E-mail: andrea.kress@viro.med.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-09-15

    The oncoprotein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a potent transactivator of viral and cellular transcription. Here, we identified ELL2 as the sole transcription elongation factor to be specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-/Tax-transformed T-cells. Tax contributes to regulation of ELL2, since transient transfection of Tax increases ELL2 mRNA, Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter, and repression of Tax results in decrease of ELL2 in transformed T-lymphocytes. However, we also measured upregulation of ELL2 in HTLV-1-transformed cells exhibiting undetectable amounts of Tax, suggesting that ELL2 can still be maintained independent of continuous Tax expression. We further show that Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter, indicating that ELL2 cooperates with Tax in viral transactivation. This is supported by our findings that Tax and ELL2 accumulate in nuclear fractions and that they co-precipitate upon co-expression in transiently-transfected cells. Thus, upregulation of ELL2 could contribute to HTLV-1 gene regulation. - Highlights: • ELL2, a transcription elongation factor, is upregulated in HTLV-1-positive T-cells. • Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter. • Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter. • Tax and ELL2 interact in vivo.

  12. Growth Media Induces Variation in Cell Wall Associated Gene Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana Pollen Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís da Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three different pollen germination media on the transcript profile of Arabidopsis pollen tubes has been assessed by real-time PCR on a selection of cell wall related genes, and by a statistical analysis of microarray Arabidopsis pollen tube data sets. The qPCR assays have shown remarkable differences on the transcript levels of specific genes depending upon the formulation of the germination medium used. With the aid of principal component analysis performed on existing microarray data, a subset of genes has been identified that is more prone to produce diverging transcript levels. A functional classification of those genes showed that the clusters with higher number of members were those for hydrolase activity (based in molecular function and for cell wall (based in cellular component. Taken together, these results may indicate that the nutrient composition of the pollen germination media influences pollen tube metabolism and that caution must be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data of pollen tubes.

  13. Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.

  14. Constitutive Expression of Arabidopsis SMALL AUXIN UP RNA19 (SAUR19) in Tomato Confers Auxin-Independent Hypocotyl Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartz, Angela K; Lor, Vai S; Ren, Hong; Olszewski, Neil E; Miller, Nathan D; Wu, Guosheng; Spalding, Edgar P; Gray, William M

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or auxin) mediates the elongation growth of shoot tissues by promoting cell expansion. According to the acid growth theory proposed in the 1970s, auxin activates plasma membrane H+-ATPases (PM H+-ATPases) to facilitate cell expansion by both loosening the cell wall through acidification and promoting solute uptake. Mechanistically, however, this process is poorly understood. Recent findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have demonstrated that auxin-induced SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) genes promote elongation growth and play a key role in PM H+-ATPase activation by inhibiting PP2C.D family protein phosphatases. Here, we extend these findings by demonstrating that SAUR proteins also inhibit tomato PP2C.D family phosphatases and that AtSAUR19 overexpression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers the same suite of phenotypes as previously reported for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we employ a custom image-based method for measuring hypocotyl segment elongation with high resolution and a method for measuring cell wall mechanical properties, to add mechanistic details to the emerging description of auxin-mediated cell expansion. We find that constitutive expression of GFP-AtSAUR19 bypasses the normal requirement of auxin for elongation growth by increasing the mechanical extensibility of excised hypocotyl segments. In contrast, hypocotyl segments overexpressing a PP2C.D phosphatase are specifically impaired in auxin-mediated elongation. The time courses of auxin-induced SAUR expression and auxin-dependent elongation growth were closely correlated. These findings indicate that induction of SAUR expression is sufficient to elicit auxin-mediated expansion growth by activating PM H+-ATPases to facilitate apoplast acidification and mechanical wall loosening. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Extraction and Characterization of Extracellular Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications from Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures and Seedlings: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Ghahremani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteins secreted by plant cells into the extracellular space, consisting of the cell wall, apoplastic fluid, and rhizosphere, play crucial roles during development, nutrient acquisition, and stress acclimation. However, isolating the full range of secreted proteins has proven difficult, and new strategies are constantly evolving to increase the number of proteins that can be detected and identified. In addition, the dynamic nature of the extracellular proteome presents the further challenge of identifying and characterizing the post-translational modifications (PTMs of secreted proteins, particularly glycosylation and phosphorylation. Such PTMs are common and important regulatory modifications of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes. This review explores the most recent methods in isolating and characterizing the plant extracellular proteome with a focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, highlighting the current challenges yet to be overcome. Moreover, the crucial role of protein PTMs in cell wall signalling, development, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress is discussed.

  16. Extraction and Characterization of Extracellular Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications from Arabidopsis thaliana Suspension Cell Cultures and Seedlings: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Mina; Stigter, Kyla A; Plaxton, William

    2016-09-01

    Proteins secreted by plant cells into the extracellular space, consisting of the cell wall, apoplastic fluid, and rhizosphere, play crucial roles during development, nutrient acquisition, and stress acclimation. However, isolating the full range of secreted proteins has proven difficult, and new strategies are constantly evolving to increase the number of proteins that can be detected and identified. In addition, the dynamic nature of the extracellular proteome presents the further challenge of identifying and characterizing the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of secreted proteins, particularly glycosylation and phosphorylation. Such PTMs are common and important regulatory modifications of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes. This review explores the most recent methods in isolating and characterizing the plant extracellular proteome with a focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, highlighting the current challenges yet to be overcome. Moreover, the crucial role of protein PTMs in cell wall signalling, development, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress is discussed.

  17. Depletion of elongation initiation factor 4E binding proteins by CRISPR/Cas9 enhances the antiviral response in porcine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Singh, Neetu; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodríguez, Luis L; Long, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are key mediators of the innate antiviral response in mammalian cells. Elongation initiation factor 4E binding proteins (4E-BPs) are translational controllers of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7), the "master regulator" of IFN transcription. Previous studies have suggested that mouse cells depleted of 4E-BPs are more sensitive to IFNβ treatment and had lower viral loads as compared to wild type (WT) cells. However, such approach has not been tested as an antiviral strategy in livestock species. In this study, we tested the antiviral activity of porcine cells depleted of 4E-BP1 by a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) genome engineering system. We found that 4E-BP1 knockout (KO) porcine cells had increased expression of IFNα and β, IFN stimulated genes, and significant reduction in vesicular stomatitis virus titer as compare to WT cells. No phenotypical changes associated with CRISPR/Cas9 manipulation were observed in 4E-BP1 KO cells. This work highlights the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to enhance the antiviral response in porcine cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

  19. The transcription elongation factor ELL2 is specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-infected T-cells and is dependent on the viral oncoprotein Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Melanie C; Strobel, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Kress, Andrea K

    2014-09-01

    The oncoprotein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a potent transactivator of viral and cellular transcription. Here, we identified ELL2 as the sole transcription elongation factor to be specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-/Tax-transformed T-cells. Tax contributes to regulation of ELL2, since transient transfection of Tax increases ELL2 mRNA, Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter, and repression of Tax results in decrease of ELL2 in transformed T-lymphocytes. However, we also measured upregulation of ELL2 in HTLV-1-transformed cells exhibiting undetectable amounts of Tax, suggesting that ELL2 can still be maintained independent of continuous Tax expression. We further show that Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter, indicating that ELL2 cooperates with Tax in viral transactivation. This is supported by our findings that Tax and ELL2 accumulate in nuclear fractions and that they co-precipitate upon co-expression in transiently-transfected cells. Thus, upregulation of ELL2 could contribute to HTLV-1 gene regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deterministic control of mean alignment and elongation of neuron-like cells by grating geometry: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, Pier Nicola; Marino, Attilio; Ciofani, Gianni

    2015-10-01

    Neuron-like cells are driven by their surrounding environment through local topography. A causal mechanotransductive web of topography-force relationships influences and controls complex cellular phenomena such as growth and alignment. This work aimed to provide a computational framework able to model the behaviour of neuron-like (PC12) cells on gratings, accounting for the twofold ability of topographical cues to simultaneously align and enhance the growth of cells. In particular, starting from the mechanical behaviour of the growth cone and filopodia, the effect of grating geometry (e.g., the periodicity and the size of grooves and ridges) on the neuritic mean alignment angle and on the outgrowth rate of cells was explored through theoretical tools and combinatorial simulations, which were able to predict (R(2) > 0.9) experimental data in a time range of 72-120 hours.

  1. Autocrine fibronectin from differentiating mesenchymal stem cells induces the neurite elongation in vitro and promotes nerve fiber regeneration in transected spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Ma, Yuan-Huan; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Qiu, Xue-Cheng; Wu, Jin-Lang; Ling, Eng-Ang; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) expression is temporally and spatially regulated during the development of stem cells. We reported previously that fibronectin (FN) secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was deposited on the surface of gelatin sponge (GS) soon after culture. In this study, we aimed to assess the function of accumulated FN on neuronal differentiating MSCs as induced by Schwann cells (SCs) in three dimensional transwell co-culture system. The expression pattern and amount of FN of differentiating MSCs was examined by immunofluorescence, Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy. The results showed that FN accumulated inside GS scaffold, although its mRNA expression in MSCs was progressively decreased during neural induction. MSC-derived neuron-like cells showed spindle-shaped cell body and long extending processes on FN-decorated scaffold surface. However, after blocking of FN function by application of monoclonal antibodies, neuron-like cells showed flattened cell body with short and thick neurites, together with decreased expression of integrin β1. In vivo transplantation study revealed that autocrine FN significantly facilitated endogenous nerve fiber regeneration in spinal cord transection model. Taken together, the present results showed that FN secreted by MSCs in the early stage accumulated on the GS scaffold and promoted the neurite elongation of neuronal differentiating MSCs as well as nerve fiber regeneration after spinal cord injury. This suggests that autocrine FN has a dynamic influence on MSCs in a three dimensional culture system and its potential application for treatment of traumatic spinal cord injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1902-1911, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A multi-scale model of the interplay between cell signalling and hormone transport in specifying the root meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, D; Larrieu, A; Lucas, M; Chopard, J; Byrne, H; Godin, C; King, J

    2016-09-07

    The growth of the root of Arabidopsis thaliana is sustained by the meristem, a region of cell proliferation and differentiation which is located in the root apex and generates cells which move shootwards, expanding rapidly to cause root growth. The balance between cell division and differentiation is maintained via a signalling network, primarily coordinated by the hormones auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin. Since these hormones interact at different levels of spatial organisation, we develop a multi-scale computational model which enables us to study the interplay between these signalling networks and cell-cell communication during the specification of the root meristem. We investigate the responses of our model to hormonal perturbations, validating the results of our simulations against experimental data. Our simulations suggest that one or more additional components are needed to explain the observed expression patterns of a regulator of cytokinin signalling, ARR1, in roots not producing gibberellin. By searching for novel network components, we identify two mutant lines that affect significantly both root length and meristem size, one of which also differentially expresses a central component of the interaction network (SHY2). More generally, our study demonstrates how a multi-scale investigation can provide valuable insight into the spatio-temporal dynamics of signalling networks in biological tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  4. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  5. Overexpression of the Mg-chelatase H subunit in guard cells confers drought tolerance via promotion of stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo eTsuzuki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-chelatase H subunit (CHLH has been shown to mediate chlorophyll biosynthesis, as well as plastid-to-nucleus and abscisic acid (ABA-mediated signaling. A recent study using a novel CHLH mutant, rtl1, indicated that CHLH specifically affects ABA-induced stomatal closure, but also that CHLH did not serve as an ABA receptor in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the molecular mechanism by which CHLH engages in ABA-mediated signaling in guard cells remains largely unknown. In the present study, we examined CHLH function in guard cells and explored whether CHLH expression might influence stomatal aperture. Incubation of rtl1 guard cell protoplasts with ABA induced expression of the ABA-responsive genes RAB18 and RD29B, as also observed in wild-type (WT cells, indicating that CHLH did not affect the expression of ABA-responsive genes. Earlier, ABA was reported to inhibit blue light (BL-mediated stomatal opening, at least in part through dephosphorylating/inhibiting guard cell H+-ATPase (which drives opening. Therefore, we immunohistochemically examined the phosphorylation status of guard cell H+-ATPase. Notably, ABA inhibition of BL-induced phosphorylation of H+-ATPase was impaired in rtl1 cells, suggesting that CHLH influences not only ABA-induced stomatal closure but also inhibition of BL-mediated stomatal opening by ABA. Next, we generated CHLH-GFP-overexpressing plants using CER6 promoter, which induces gene expression in the epidermis including guard cells. CHLH-transgenic plants exhibited a closed stomata phenotype even when brightly illuminated. Moreover, plant growth experiments conducted under water-deficient conditions showed that CHLH transgenic plants were more tolerant of drought than WT plants. In summary, we show that CHLH is involved in the regulation of stomatal aperture in response to ABA, but not in ABA-induced gene expression, and that manipulation of stomatal aperture via overexpression of CHLH in guard cells improves plant

  6. Brassinosteroid-regulated GSK3/Shaggy-like Kinases Phosphorylate Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Kinases, Which Control Stomata Development in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mamoona; Rozhon, Wilfried; Bigeard, Jean; Pflieger, Delphine; Husar, Sigrid; Pitzschke, Andrea; Teige, Markus; Jonak, Claudia; Hirt, Heribert; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that coordinate fundamental developmental programs in plants. In this study we show that in addition to the well established roles of BRs in regulating cell elongation and cell division events, BRs also govern cell fate decisions during stomata development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In wild-type A. thaliana, stomatal distribution follows the one-cell spacing rule; that is, adjacent stomata are spaced by at least one intervening pavement cell. This rule is interrupted in BR-deficient and BR signaling-deficient A. thaliana mutants, resulting in clustered stomata. We demonstrate that BIN2 and its homologues, GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases involved in BR signaling, can phosphorylate the MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK5, which are members of the MAPK module YODA-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 that controls stomata development and patterning. BIN2 phosphorylates a GSK3/Shaggy-like kinase recognition motif in MKK4, which reduces MKK4 activity against its substrate MPK6 in vitro. In vivo we show that MKK4 and MKK5 act downstream of BR signaling because their overexpression rescued stomata patterning defects in BR-deficient plants. A model is proposed in which GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of MKK4 and MKK5 enables for a dynamic integration of endogenous or environmental cues signaled by BRs into cell fate decisions governed by the YODA-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 module. PMID:23341468

  7. Lack of RsmA-mediated control results in constant hypervirulence, cell elongation, and hyperflagellation in Pectobacterium wasabiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viia Kõiv

    Full Text Available The posttranscriptional regulator RsmA controls the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE and cell motility in the Pectobacterium genus of plant pathogens. In this study the physiological role of gene regulation by RsmA is under investigation. Disruption of rsmA gene of the Pectobacterium wasabiae strain, SCC3193 resulted in 3-fold decrease in growth rate and increased virulence. The comparison of mRNA levels of the rsmA(- mutant and wild-type using a genome-wide microarray showed, that genes responsible for successful infection, i.e. virulence factors, motility, butanediol fermentation, various secretion systems etc. were up-regulated in the rsmA(- strain. The rsmA(- strain exhibited a higher propensity to swarm and produce PCWDE compared to the wild-type strain. Virulence experiments in potato tubers demonstrated that in spite of its more efficient tissue maceration, the rsmA(- strain's ability to survive within the host is reduced and the infection site is taken over by resident bacteria. Taken together, in the absence of RsmA, cells revert to a constitutively infective phenotype characterized by expression of virulence factors and swarming. We hypothesize that lack of control over these costly energetic processes results in decreased growth rate and fitness. In addition, our findings suggest a relationship between swarming and virulence in plant pathogens.

  8. Regulation of Transcript Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belogurov, Georgiy A.; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria lack subcellular compartments and harbor a single RNA polymerase that synthesizes both structural and protein-coding RNAs, which are cotranscriptionally processed by distinct pathways. Nascent rRNAs fold into elaborate secondary structures and associate with ribosomal proteins, whereas nascent mRNAs are translated by ribosomes. During elongation, nucleic acid signals and regulatory proteins modulate concurrent RNA-processing events, instruct RNA polymerase where to pause and terminate transcription, or act as roadblocks to the moving enzyme. Communications among complexes that carry out transcription, translation, repair, and other cellular processes ensure timely execution of the gene expression program and survival under conditions of stress. This network is maintained by auxiliary proteins that act as bridges between RNA polymerase, ribosome, and repair enzymes, blurring boundaries between separate information-processing steps and making assignments of unique regulatory functions meaningless. Understanding the regulation of transcript elongation thus requires genome-wide approaches, which confirm known and reveal new regulatory connections. PMID:26132790

  9. Thermoperiodic control of hypocotyl elongation depends on auxin-induced ethylene signaling that controls downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Ralph; Kohlen, Wouter; Bouwmeester, Harro J; van der Krol, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    We show that antiphase light-temperature cycles (negative day-night temperature difference [-DIF]) inhibit hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This is caused by reduced cell elongation during the cold photoperiod. Cell elongation in the basal part of the hypocotyl under -DIF was restored by both 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; ethylene precursor) and auxin, indicating limited auxin and ethylene signaling under -DIF. Both auxin biosynthesis and auxin signaling were reduced during -DIF. In addition, expression of several ACC Synthase was reduced under -DIF but could be restored by auxin application. In contrast, the reduced hypocotyl elongation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling mutants could not be complemented by auxin, indicating that auxin functions upstream of ethylene. The PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 were previously shown to be important regulators of hypocotyl elongation. We now show that, in contrast to pif4 and pif5 mutants, the reduced hypocotyl length in pif3 cannot be rescued by either ACC or auxin. In line with this, treatment with ethylene or auxin inhibitors reduced hypocotyl elongation in PIF4 overexpressor (PIF4ox) and PIF5ox but not PIF3ox plants. PIF3 promoter activity was strongly reduced under -DIF but could be restored by auxin application in an ACC Synthase-dependent manner. Combined, these results show that PIF3 regulates hypocotyl length downstream, whereas PIF4 and PIF5 regulate hypocotyl length upstream of an auxin and ethylene cascade. We show that, under -DIF, lower auxin biosynthesis activity limits the signaling in this pathway, resulting in low activity of PIF3 and short hypocotyls. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu; Wong, Nicholas; Guan, Yinghui; Salamanca, Clara M.; Cheng, Jung Chien; Lee, Jonathan M.; Gray, Joe W.; Auersperg, Nelly

    2008-04-25

    Ovarian epithelial carcinomas (OEC) frequently exhibit amplifications at the 20q13 locus which is the site of several oncogenes, including the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 and the transcription factor ZNF217. We reported previously that overexpressed ZNF217 induces neoplastic characteristics in precursor cells of OEC. Unexpectedly, ZNF217, which is a transcriptional repressor, enhanced expression of eEF1A2. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism and Affymetrix analysis of ZNF217-overexpressing cell lines confirmed consistently increased expression of eEF1A2 but not of other oncogenes, and revealed early changes in EEF1A2 gene copy numbers and increased expression at crisis during immortalization. We defined the influence of eEF1A2 overexpression on immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells, and investigated interrelationships between effects of ZNF217 and eEF1A2 on cellular phenotypes. Lentivirally induced eEF1A2 overexpression caused delayed crisis, apoptosis resistance and increases in serum-independence, saturation densities, and anchorage independence. siRNA to eEF1A2 reversed apoptosis resistance and reduced anchorage independence in eEF1A2-overexpressing lines. Remarkably, siRNA to eEF1A2 was equally efficient in inhibiting both anchorage independence and resistance to apoptosis conferred by ZNF217 overexpression. Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression.

  11. Dissecting the role of the elongation factor 1A isoforms in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by liposome-mediated delivery of siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Rossella; Scaggiante, Bruna; Guerra, Chiara; Pozzato, Gabriele; Grassi, Mario; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Perrone, Francesca; Ferrari, Cinzia; Trotta, Francesco; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara

    2017-06-20

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), a protein involved in protein synthesis, has two major isoforms, eEF1A1 and eEF1A2. Despite the evidences of their involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the quantitative contribution of each of the two isoforms to the disease is unknown. We depleted the two isoforms by means of siRNAs and studied the effects in three different HCC cell lines. Particular care was dedicated to select siRNAs able to target each of the two isoform without affecting the other one. This is not a trivial aspect due to the high sequence homology between eEF1A1 and eEF1A2. The selected siRNAs can specifically deplete either eEF1A1 or eEF1A2. This, in turn, results in an impairment of cell vitality, growth and arrest in the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. Notably, these effects are quantitatively superior following eEF1A1 than eEF1A2 depletion. Moreover, functional tests revealed that the G1/G0 block induced by eEF1A1 depletion depends on the down-regulation of the transcription factor E2F1, a known player in HCC. In conclusion, our data indicate that the independent targeting of the two eEF1A isoforms is effective in reducing HCC cell growth and that eEF1A1 depletion may result in a more evident effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microinjection of biotin-tubulin into anaphase cells induces transient elongation of kinetochore microtubules and reversal of chromosome-to-pole motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, E; Wadsworth, P

    1992-03-01

    detected in cells injected during anaphase A, but not during anaphase B. Analysis of video records of microinjection experiments reveals that kinetochore proximal incorporation of biotin-tubulin is accompanied by a transient reversal of chromosome-to-pole motion. Chromosome motion is not altered after injection of 0.3 mg/ml biotin-tubulin or 5 mg/ml BSA. These results demonstrate that kinetochore microtubules in anaphase cells can elongate in response to the elevation of the tubulin concentration and that kinetochores retain the ability to mediate plus-end-dependent assembly of KMTs and plus-end-directed chromosome motion after anaphase onset.

  13. Elongated Microcapsules and Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan N. (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Perusich, Stephen A. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Elongated microcapsules, such as elongated hydrophobic-core and hydrophilic-core microcapsules, may be formed by pulse stirring an emulsion or shearing an emulsion between two surfaces moving at different velocities. The elongated microcapsules may be dispersed in a coating formulation, such as paint.

  14. A Whole-Genome Microarray Study of Arabidopis Thaliana Cell Cultures Exposed to Real and Simulated Partial-G Forces: A Comparison of Parabolic Flight and Clinostat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, S.; Spirer, I.; Neef, M.; Ecke, M.; Hauslage, J.; Hampp, R.

    2015-09-01

    Cell cultures of the plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to partial-g forces during parabolic flight and clinostat experiments (0.38 g, 0. 16 g and 0.5 g). To investigate gravity-dependent alterations in gene expression, samples were metabolically quenched and used for microarray analysis. An attempt to identify the potential threshold acceleration showed that the smaller the experienced g-force, the greater was the susceptibility of the cell cultures. Compared to short-term ~sg during a regular parabolic flight, the number of differentially expressed genes under partial-g was lower. In addition, the effect on the alteration of amounts of transcripts decreased during partial-g parabolic flight due to the sequence of the different parabolas (0.38 g, 0.16 g and ~sg). A time-dependent analysis under simulated 0.5 g indicates that adaptation occurs within minutes. Differentially expressed genes (at least 2-fold altered in expression) under real flight conditions were to some extent identical with those affected by clinorotation. The highest number of identical genes was detected within seconds of exposure to 0.38 g.

  15. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity (2-D/3-D clinorotation, magnetic levitation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbick, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Larkin, O. J.; Anthony, P.; Davey, M. R.; Power, J. B.; Lowe, K. C.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Hampp, R.

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Studies have shown that the perception of gravity is not only a property of specialized cells, but can also be performed by undifferentiated cultured cells. In this investigation, callus of Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia was used to investigate the initial steps of gravity-related signalling cascades, through altered expression of transcription factors (TFs). TFs are families of small proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific promoter sequences. Based on microarray studies, members of the gene families WRKY, MADS-box, MYB, and AP2/EREBP were selected for investigation, as well as members of signalling chains, namely IAA 19 and phosphoinositol-4-kinase. Using qRT-PCR, transcripts were quantified within a period of 30 min in response to hypergravity (8 g), clinorotation [2-D clinostat and 3-D random positioning machine (RPM)] and magnetic levitation (ML). The data indicated that (1) changes in gravity induced stress-related signalling, and (2) exposure in the RPM induced changes in gene expression which resemble those of magnetic levitation. Two dimensional clinorotation resulted in responses similar to those caused by hypergravity. It is suggested that RPM and ML are preferable to simulate microgravity than clinorotation.

  16. Auxin and Cellular Elongation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Barbez, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is a crucial growth regulator in plants. However, a comprehensive understanding of how auxin induces cell expansion is perplexing, because auxin acts in a concentration- and cell type-dependent manner. Consequently, it is desirable to focus on certain cell types to exemplify the underlying growth mechanisms. On the other hand, plant tissues display supracellular growth (beyond the level of single cells); hence, other cell types might compromise the growth of a certain tissue. Tip-growing cells do not display neighbor-induced growth constraints and, therefore, are a valuable source of information for growth-controlling mechanisms. Here, we focus on auxin-induced cellular elongation in root hairs, exposing a mechanistic view of plant growth regulation. We highlight a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and transport, steering root hair development in response to internal and external triggers. Auxin signaling modules and downstream cascades of transcription factors define a developmental program that appears rate limiting for cellular growth. With this knowledge in mind, the root hair cell is a very suitable model system in which to dissect cellular effectors required for cellular expansion. PMID:26787325

  17. An ARID domain-containing protein within nuclear bodies is required for sperm cell formation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, each male meiotic product undergoes mitosis, and then one of the resulting cells divides again, yielding a three-celled pollen grain comprised of a vegetative cell and two sperm cells. Several genes have been found to act in this process, and DUO1 (DUO POLLEN 1), a transcription factor, p...

  18. Investigation of roles for LRR-RLKs PNL1 and PNL2 in asymmetric cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Maiti Celina

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is a vital component of plant development. It enables cell differentiation and cell diversity. A key component of asymmetric cell division is cell signaling. Signals are believed to control polarization and orientation of asymmetric divisions during stomatal development. The findings of this report suggest that PNL1 and PNL2, two LRR-RLKs found in Arabidopsis and closely related to maize PAN1 LRR-RLK, are possibly involved in the signaling events occurring during the ...

  19. An established Arabidopsis thaliana var. Landsberg erecta cell suspension culture accumulates chlorophyll and exhibits a stay-green phenotype in response to high external sucrose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Avery; Chung, Michelle; Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Inman, Michael; Maxwell, Denis P; Hüner, Norman P A

    2016-07-20

    An established cell suspension culture of Arabidopsis thaliana var. Landsberg erecta was grown in liquid media containing 0-15%(w/v) sucrose. Exponential growth rates of about 0.40d-1 were maintained between 1.5-6%(w/v) sucrose, which decreased to about 0.30d-1 between 6 and 15%(w/v) sucrose. Despite the presence of external sucrose, cells maintained a stay-green phenotype at 0-15% (w/v) sucrose. Sucrose stimulated transcript levels of genes involved in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway (ChlH, ChlI2, DVR). Although most of the genes associated with photosystem II and photosystem I reaction centers and light harvesting complexes as well as genes associated with the cytochrome b6f and the ATP synthase complexes were downregulated or remained unaffected by high sucrose, immunoblotting indicated that protein levels of PsaA, Lhcb2 and Rubisco per gram fresh weight changed minimallyon a Chl basis as a function of external sucrose concentration. The green cell culture was photosynthetically competent based on light-dependent, CO2-saturated rates of O2 evolution as well as Fv/Fm and P700 oxidation. Similar to Arabidopsis WT seedlings, the suspension cells etiolated in the dark and but remained green in the light. However, the exponential growth rate of the cell suspension cultures in the dark (0.45±0.07d-1) was comparable to that in the light (0.42±0.02d-1). High external sucrose levels induced feedback inhibition of photosynthesis as indicated by the increase in excitation pressure measured as a function of external sucrose concentration. Regardless, the cell suspension culture still maintained a stay-green phenotype in the light at sucrose concentrations from 0 to 15%(w/v) due, in part, to a stimulation of photoprotection through nonphotochemical quenching. The stay-green, sugar-insensitive phenotype of the cell suspension contrasted with the sugar-dependent, non-green phenotype of Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta WT seedlings grown at comparable external sucrose

  20. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd{sup 2+} concentration and rescued Cd{sup 2+}-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd{sup 2+} stress conditions, NAA increased Cd{sup 2+} retention in the roots and most Cd{sup 2+} in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd{sup 2+}, whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd{sup 2+} or NAA + Cd{sup 2+} treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd{sup 2+} in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd{sup 2+} toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd{sup 2+} fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd{sup 2+} from roots to shoots.

  1. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hyper-g, and to simulated and sounding rocket micro-g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, R.; Babbick, M.

    Previous microarray studies with cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cv Columbia have shown responses in gene expression which were partly specific to exposure to microgravity sounding rocket experiment TEXUS In order to get access to early responses upon changes in gravitational fields we used exposure times as short as 2 min For this purpose we selected a range of genes which code for different groups of transcription factors WRKY ERF MYB MADS Samples were taken in 5-min clinorotation 2- and 3-dimensional hypergravity 8g and 2-min intervals sounding rocket experiment Amounts of transcripts were determined by quantitative RT PCR Most transcripts showed a significant transient change in content within a time frame of up to 30 min after changing the external gravitational field strength They could be grouped into 1 basic stress responses which occurred under all conditions 2 clinorotation-related effects which were either identical or opposite between 2D 60 rpm 4x10 -2 g and 3D clinorotation random positioning machine and 3 alterations specific to the microgravity exposure under sounding rocket conditions MAXUS The data are discussed in relation to gravitation-dependent signalling chains and with regard to the simulation of microgravity by means of clinorotation Supported by a grant from the Deutsches Zentrum f u r Luft- und Raumfahrt e V grant no 50 WB 0143

  2. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  3. Automated motion estimation of root responses to sucrose in two Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes using confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Nathalie; Bengough, A Glyn; Roberts, Timothy J; Du, Chengjin; Bransby, M Fraser; McKenna, Stephen J; Valentine, Tracy A

    2011-10-01

    Root growth is a highly dynamic process influenced by genetic background and environment. This paper reports the development of R scripts that enable root growth kinematic analysis that complements a new motion analysis tool: PlantVis. Root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a plasma membrane targeted GFP (C24 and Columbia 35S:LTI6b-EGFP) was imaged using time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy. Displacement of individual pixels in the time-lapse sequences was estimated automatically by PlantVis, producing dense motion vector fields. R scripts were developed to extract kinematic growth parameters and report displacement to ± 0.1 pixel. In contrast to other currently available tools, Plantvis-R delivered root velocity profiles without interpolation or averaging across the root surface and also estimated the uncertainty associated with tracking each pixel. The PlantVis-R analysis tool has a range of potential applications in root physiology and gene expression studies, including linking motion to specific cell boundaries and analysis of curvature. The potential for quantifying genotype × environment interactions was examined by applying PlantVis-R in a kinematic analysis of root growth of C24 and Columbia, under contrasting carbon supply. Large genotype-dependent effects of sucrose were recorded. C24 exhibited negligible differences in elongation zone length and elongation rate but doubled the density of lateral roots in the presence of sucrose. Columbia, in contrast, increased its elongation zone length and doubled its elongation rate and the density of lateral roots.

  4. Cytosolic calcium, hydrogen peroxide and related gene expression and protein modulation in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures respond immediately to altered gravitation: parabolic flight data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, N; Fengler, S; Hennig, A; Franz-Wachtel, M; Hampp, R; Neef, M

    2014-01-01

    Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) were exposed to parabolic flights in order to assess molecular, short-term responses to altered gravity fields. Using transgenic cell lines, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and cytosolic Ca(2+) were continuously monitored. In parallel, the metabolism of samples was chemically quenched (RNAlater, Ambion for RNA; acid/base for NADPH, NADP) at typical stages of a parabola [1 g before pull up; end of pull up (1.8 g), end of microgravity (20 s) and end of pull out (1.8 g)]. Cells exhibited an increase in both Ca(2+) and H2 O2 with the onset of microgravity, and a decline thereafter. This behaviour was accompanied by a decrease of the NADPH/NADP redox ratio, indicating Ca(2+) -dependent activation of a NADPH oxidase. Microarray analyses revealed concomitant expression profiles. At the end of the microgravity phase, 396 transcripts were specifically up-, while 485 were down-regulated. Up-regulation was dominated by Ca(2+) - and ROS-related gene products. The same material was also used for analysis of phosphopeptides with 2-D SDS PAGE. Relevant spots were identified by liquid chromatography-MS. With the exception of a chaperone (HSP 70-3), hypergravity (1.8 g) and microgravity modified different sets of proteins. These are partly involved in primary metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle) and detoxification of ROS. Taken together, these data show that both gene expression and protein modulation jointly respond within seconds to alterations in the gravity field, with a focus on metabolic adaptation, signalling and control of ROS. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. An ARID domain-containing protein within nuclear bodies is required for sperm cell formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglian Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants, each male meiotic product undergoes mitosis, and then one of the resulting cells divides again, yielding a three-celled pollen grain comprised of a vegetative cell and two sperm cells. Several genes have been found to act in this process, and DUO1 (DUO POLLEN 1, a transcription factor, plays a key role in sperm cell formation by activating expression of several germline genes. But how DUO1 itself is activated and how sperm cell formation is initiated remain unknown. To expand our understanding of sperm cell formation, we characterized an ARID (AT-Rich Interacting Domain-containing protein, ARID1, that is specifically required for sperm cell formation in Arabidopsis. ARID1 localizes within nuclear bodies that are transiently present in the generative cell from which sperm cells arise, coincident with the timing of DUO1 activation. An arid1 mutant and antisense arid1 plants had an increased incidence of pollen with only a single sperm-like cell and exhibited reduced fertility as well as reduced expression of DUO1. In vitro and in vivo evidence showed that ARID1 binds to the DUO1 promoter. Lastly, we found that ARID1 physically associates with histone deacetylase 8 and that histone acetylation, which in wild type is evident only in sperm, expanded to the vegetative cell nucleus in the arid1 mutant. This study identifies a novel component required for sperm cell formation in plants and uncovers a direct positive regulatory role of ARID1 on DUO1 through association with histone acetylation.

  6. Expression and developmental function of the 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakozaki, Hirokazu; Park, Jong-In; Endo, Makoto; Takada, Yoshinobu; Kazama, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoshimitsu; Suzuki, Go; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Watanabe, Masao

    2008-04-01

    The 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS) II is a fatty-acid-related enzyme which catalyzes the elongation of 16:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 18:0-ACP in plastids. The fatty acid biosynthesis 1-1 (fab1-1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is partially deficient in its activity of Arabidopsis thaliana 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase 2 (AtKAS2), and its phenotype has been intensively studied in connection with the chilling resistance and fatty acid composition. In this study, we used the T-DNA insertion mutant of AtKAS2 to examine its possible role in plant development. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR showed that the AtKAS2 gene was expressed in various plant organs, except for roots, and was highly expressed in siliques. The fusion of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) to the AtKAS2 promoter demonstrated that the promoter was active in various tissues such as embryos, stomatal guard cells, inflorescences and pollen grains. We were not able to identify atkas2 homozygous mutant adult plants in heterozygous mutant progeny. Phenotypic and genetic analyses showed that disruption of the AtKAS2 by T-DNA insertion caused embryo lethality, and the development of the embryos was arrested at the globular stage. Taken together, our results suggest that AtKAS2 is required for embryo development in Arabidopsis during the transition from the globular to the heart stage.

  7. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia

    2008-01-01

    with a molecular weight of 145 kg/ mol was subjected to the oscillative flow. The onset of the steady periodic regime is reached at the same Hencky strain as the onset of the steady elongational viscosity ( Lambda = 0). The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept......A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...... + Lambda[1 - cos( 2 pi Omega(epsilon) over dot(0)t)] where epsilon is the Hencky strain, (epsilon) over dot(0) is a constant elongational rate for the base elongational flow, Lambda the strain amplitude ( Lambda >= 0), and Omega the strain frequency. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene...

  8. Identification of GhMYB109 encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor that expressed specifically in fiber initials and elongating fibers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Jinfeng; Liang, Xiaoe; Pu, Li; Zhang, Yansheng; Xue, Yongbiao

    2003-10-20

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are derived from ovule epidermis, which are developmentally similar to Arabidopsis trichome where several MYB transcription factors have been shown to control their formation. However, little is known about the molecular control of cotton fiber initiation. Here we isolated 55 cotton MYB domain-containing sequences expressed in ovules during fiber initiation. Among them, GhMYB109, encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor of 234 amino acids, was found to be structurally related to AtMYBGL1 and AtWER controlling the trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Southern blot hybridization revealed that GhMYB109 is present as a unique-copy gene in cotton genome. RNA expression analysis showed that it is specifically expressed in cotton fiber initial cells as well as elongating fibers. These results suggested that GhMYB109 likely plays a direct role in the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells.

  9. Increased root hair density by loss of WRKY6 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G. Stetter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are unicellular elongations of certain rhizodermal cells that improve the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile soil nutrients. Among different Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, root hair density, length and the local acclimation to low inorganic phosphate (Pi differs considerably, when analyzed on split agar plates. Here, genome-wide association fine mapping identified significant single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the increased root hair density in the absence of local phosphate on chromosome 1. A loss-of-functionmutant of the candidate transcription factor gene WRKY6, which is involved in the acclimation of plants to low phosphorus, had increased root hair density. This is partially explained by a reduced cortical cell diameter in wrky6-3, reducing the rhizodermal cell numbers adjacent to the cortical cells. As a consequence, rhizodermal cells in positions that are in contact with two cortical cells are found more often, leading to higher hair density. Distinct cortical cell diameters and epidermal cell lengths distinguish other Arabidopsis accessions with distinct root hair density and −Pi response from diploid Col-0, while tetraploid Col-0 had generally larger root cell sizes, which explain longer hairs. A distinct radial root morphology within Arabidopsis accessions and wrky6-3explains some, but not all, differences in the root hair acclimation to –Pi.

  10. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1 mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  11. The role of auxin and cytokinin signalling in specifying the root architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Daniele; Byrne, Helen; King, John; Bennett, Malcolm

    2013-01-21

    Auxin and cytokinin are key hormonal signals that control the cellular architecture of the primary root and the initiation of new lateral root organs in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both developmental processes are regulated by cross-talk between these hormones and their signalling pathways. In this paper, sub-cellular and multi-cellular mathematical models are developed to investigate how interactions between auxin and cytokinin influence the size and location of regions of division and differentiation within the primary root, and describe how their cross-regulation may cause periodic branching of lateral roots. We show how their joint activity may influence tissue-specific oscillations in gene expression, as shown in Moreno-Risueno et al. (2010) and commented upon in Traas and Vernoux (2010), and we propose mechanisms that may generate synchronisation of such periodic behaviours inside a cell and with its neighbours. Using a multi-cellular model, we also analyse the roles of cytokinin and auxin in specifying the three main regions of the primary root (elongation, transition and division zones), our simulation results being in good agreement with independent experimental observations. We then use our model to generate testable predictions concerning the effect of varying the concentrations of the auxin efflux transporters on the sizes of the different root regions. In particular, we predict that over-expression of the transporters will generate a longer root with a longer elongation zone and a smaller division zone than that of a wild type root. This root will contain fewer cells than its wild type counterpart. We conclude that our model can provide a useful tool for investigating the response of cell division and elongation to perturbations in hormonal signalling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of auxin and cytokinin signalling in specifying the root architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Auxin and cytokinin are key hormonal signals that control the cellular architecture of the primary root and the initiation of new lateral root organs in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both developmental processes are regulated by cross-talk between these hormones and their signalling pathways. In this paper, sub-cellular and multi-cellular mathematical models are developed to investigate how interactions between auxin and cytokinin influence the size and location of regions of division and differentiation within the primary root, and describe how their cross-regulation may cause periodic branching of lateral roots. We show how their joint activity may influence tissue-specific oscillations in gene expression, as shown in Moreno-Risueno et al. (2010) and commented upon in Traas and Vernoux (2010), and we propose mechanisms that may generate synchronisation of such periodic behaviours inside a cell and with its neighbours. Using a multi-cellular model, we also analyse the roles of cytokinin and auxin in specifying the three main regions of the primary root (elongation, transition and division zones), our simulation results being in good agreement with independent experimental observations. We then use our model to generate testable predictions concerning the effect of varying the concentrations of the auxin efflux transporters on the sizes of the different root regions. In particular, we predict that over-expression of the transporters will generate a longer root with a longer elongation zone and a smaller division zone than that of a wild type root. This root will contain fewer cells than its wild type counterpart. We conclude that our model can provide a useful tool for investigating the response of cell division and elongation to perturbations in hormonal signalling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The cell wall-localized atypical β-1,3 glucanase ZERZAUST controls tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddepalli, Prasad; Fulton, Lynette; Wieland, Jennifer; Wassmer, Katrin; Schaeffer, Milena; Ranf, Stefanie; Schneitz, Kay

    2017-06-15

    Orchestration of cellular behavior in plant organogenesis requires integration of intercellular communication and cell wall dynamics. The underlying signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. Tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis depends on the receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG. Mutations in ZERZAUST were previously shown to result in a strubbelig-like mutant phenotype. Here, we report on the molecular identification and functional characterization of ZERZAUST We show that ZERZAUST encodes a putative GPI-anchored β-1,3 glucanase suggested to degrade the cell wall polymer callose. However, a combination of in vitro, cell biological and genetic experiments indicate that ZERZAUST is not involved in the regulation of callose accumulation. Nonetheless, Fourier-transformed infrared-spectroscopy revealed that zerzaust mutants show defects in cell wall composition. Furthermore, the results indicate that ZERZAUST represents a mobile apoplastic protein, and that its carbohydrate-binding module family 43 domain is required for proper subcellular localization and function whereas its GPI anchor is dispensable. Our collective data reveal that the atypical β-1,3 glucanase ZERZAUST acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner and is required for cell wall organization during tissue morphogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  15. 3D Plant cell architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawana; Miller, Joyce L; Cahoon, A Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. • Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. • Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. • The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  16. Katanin Effects on Dynamics of Cortical Microtubules and Mitotic Arrays in Arabidopsis thaliana Revealed by Advanced Live-Cell Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Komis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Katanin is the only microtubule severing protein identified in plants so far. Previous studies have documented its role in regulating cortical microtubule organization during cell growth and morphogenesis. Although, some cell division defects are reported in KATANIN mutants, it is not clear whether or how katanin activity may affect microtubule dynamics in interphase cells, as well as the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis and the orientation of cell division plane (CDP. For this reason, we characterized microtubule organization and dynamics in growing and dividing cotyledon cells of Arabidopsis ktn1-2 mutant devoid of KATANIN 1 activity. In interphase epidermal cells of ktn1-2 cortical microtubules exhibited aberrant and largely isotropic organization, reduced bundling and showed excessive branched microtubule formation. End-wise microtubule dynamics were not much affected, although a significantly slower rate of microtubule growth was measured in the ktn1-2 mutant where microtubule severing was completely abolished. KATANIN 1 depletion also brought about significant changes in preprophase microtubule band (PPB organization and dynamics. In this case, many PPBs exhibited unisided organization and splayed appearance while in most cases they were broader than those of wild type cells. By recording PPB maturation, it was observed that PPBs in the mutant narrowed at a much slower pace compared to those in Col-0. The form of the mitotic spindle and the phragmoplast was not much affected in ktn1-2, however, the dynamics of both processes showed significant differences compared to wild type. In general, both mitosis and cytokinesis were considerably delayed in the mutant. Additionally, the mitotic spindle and the phragmoplast exhibited extensive rotational motions with the equatorial plane of the spindle being essentially uncoupled from the division plane set by the PPB. However, at the onset of its formation the phragmoplast undergoes rotational

  17. Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Harrison, B.; Stanga, J.; Young, L.-S.; Neal, C.; Sabat, G.; Murthy, N.; Harms, A.; Sedbrook, J.; Masson, P.

    The primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings respond to gravity stimulation by developing a tip curvature that results from differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the elongation zone. This curvature appears modulated by a lateral gradient of auxin that originates in the gravity-perceiving cells (statocytes) of the root cap through an apparent lateral repositioning of a component the auxin efflux carrier complex within these cells (Friml et al, 2002, Nature 415: 806-809). Unfortunately, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern early phases of gravity perception and signal transduction within the root-cap statocytes. We have used a molecular genetic approach to uncover some of these mechanisms. Mutations in the Arabidopsis ARG1 and ARL2 genes, which encode J-domain proteins, resulted in specific alterations in root and hypocotyl gravitropism, without pleiotropic phenotypes. Interestingly, ARG1 and ARL2 appear to function in the same genetic pathway. A combination of molecular genetic, biochemical and cell-biological approaches were used to demonstrate that ARG1 functions in early phases of gravity signal transduction within the root and hypocotyl statocytes, and is needed for efficient lateral auxin transport within the cap. The ARG1 protein is associated with components of the secretory and/or endosomal pathways, suggesting its role in the recycling of components of the auxin efflux carrier complex between plasma membrane and endosome (Boonsirichai et al, 2003, Plant Cell 15:2612-2625). Genetic modifiers of arg1-2 were isolated and shown to enhance the gravitropic defect of arg1-2, while resulting in little or no gravitropic defects in a wild type ARG1 background. A slight tendency for arg1-2;mar1-1 and arg1-2;mar2-1 double-mutant organs to display an opposite gravitropic response compared to wild type suggests that all three genes contribute to the interpretation of the gravity-vector information by seedling organs. The

  18. Texture of cellulose microfibrils of root hair cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula, and Vicia sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Franssen-Verheijen, M.A.W.; Immerzeel, P.; Hollander, den L.; Schel, J.H.N.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth, and has qualities that make it suitable for biofuel. There are new tools for the visualisation of the cellulose synthase complexes in living cells, but those do not show their product, the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs). In this study we report the

  19. SRPP, a Cell Wall Protein is Involved in Development and Protection of Seeds and Root Hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Natsuki; Uno, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shohei; Gunji, Shizuka; Ferjani, Ali; Aoyama, Takashi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2017-04-01

    Enhancement of root hair development in response to phosphate (Pi) deficit has been reported extensively. Root hairs are involved in major root functions such as the absorption of water, acquisition of nutrients and secretion of organic acids and enzymes. Individual root hair cells maintain these functions and appropriate structure under various physiological conditions. We carried out a study to identify protein(s) which maintain the structure and function of root hairs, and identified a protein (SEED AND ROOT HAIR PROTECTIVE PROTEIN, SRPP) that was induced in root hairs under Pi-deficient conditions. Promoter assay and mRNA quantification revealed that SRPP was expressed in root hairs and seeds. A knockout mutant, srpp-1, consistently displayed defects in root hairs and seeds. Root hairs in srpp-1 were short and the phenotypes observed under Pi-deficient conditions were also detected in ethylene-treated srpp-1 plants. Propidium iodide stained most root hairs of srpp-1 grown under Pi-deficient conditions, suggesting cell death. In addition to root hairs, most srpp-1 seeds were withered and their embryos were dead. SRPP tagged with green fluorescent protein was detected in the cell wall. Electron microscopy showed abnormal morphology of the cell wall. Wild-type phenotypes were restored when the SRPP gene was expressed in srpp-1. These data strongly suggest that SRPP contributes to the construction of robust cell walls, whereby it plays a key role in the development of root hairs and seeds. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A proteomic approach to analyzing responses of Arabidopsis thaliana root cells to different gravitational conditions using an agravitropic mutant, pin2 and its wild type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root gravitropsim has been proposed to require the coordinated, redistribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin within the root meristem, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. PIN proteins are membrane transporters that mediate the efflux of auxin from cells. The PIN2 is important for the basipetal transport of auxin in roots and plays a critical role in the transmission of gravity signals perceived in the root cap to the root elongation zone. The loss of function pin2 mutant exhibits a gravity-insensitive root growth phenotype. By comparing the proteomes of wild type and the pin2 mutant root tips under different gravitational conditions, we hope to identify proteins involved in the gravity-related signal transduction. Results To identify novel proteins involved in the gravity signal transduction pathway we have carried out a comparative proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis pin2 mutant and wild type (WT roots subjected to different gravitational conditions. These conditions included horizontal (H and vertical (V clinorotation, hypergravity (G and the stationary control (S. Analysis of silver-stained two-dimensional SDS-PAGE gels revealed 28 protein spots that showed significant expression changes in altered gravity (H or G compared to control roots (V and S. Whereas the majority of these proteins exhibited similar expression patterns in WT and pin2 roots, a significant number displayed different patterns of response between WT and pin2 roots. The latter group included 11 protein spots in the H samples and two protein spots in the G samples that exhibited an altered expression exclusively in WT but not in pin2 roots. One of these proteins was identified as annexin2, which was induced in the root cap columella cells under altered gravitational conditions. Conclusions The most interesting observation in this study is that distinctly different patterns of protein expression were found in WT and pin2 mutant

  1. Double fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana involves a polyspermy block on the egg but not the central cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rod J; Armstrong, Susan J; Doughty, James; Spielman, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    In animal reproduction, thousands of sperm may compete to fertilize a single egg, but polyspermy blocks prevent multiple fertilization that would otherwise lead to death of the embryo. In flowering plants, successful seed development requires that only two sperm are delivered to the embryo sac, where each must fertilize a female gamete (egg or central cell) to produce the embryo and endosperm. Therefore, polyspermy must be avoided, not only to prevent abnormalities in offspring, but to ensure double fertilization. It is not understood how each sperm fertilizes only one female gamete, nor has the existence of polyspermy barriers been directly tested in vivo. Here, we sought evidence for polyspermy blocks in angiosperms using the polyspermic tetraspore (tes) mutant of Arabidopsis, which allows in-vivo challenge of egg and central cell with multiple male gametes. We show that tes mutant pollen tubes can transmit more than one sperm pair to an embryo sac, and that sperm from more than one pair can participate in fertilization. We detected endosperms but not embryos with ploidies that could only result from multiple fertilization. Our results therefore demonstrate an in-vivo polyspermy block on the egg, but not the central cell of a flowering plant.

  2. Responses to Iron-Deficiency in Arabidopsis-Thaliana - The Turbo Iron Reductase does not depend on the Formation of Root Hairs and Transfer Cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moog, P.R.; Van der Kooij, T.A.W.; Bruggemann, W.; Schiefelbein, J.W.; Kuiper, P.J.C.

    Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Columbia wild type and a root hair-less mutant RM57 were grown on iron-containing and iron-deficient nutrient solutions. In both genotypes, ferric chelate reductase (FCR) of intact roots was induced upon iron deficiency and followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic with a

  3. Misguided transcriptional elongation causes mixed lineage leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Mueller

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusion proteins composed of the histone methyltransferase mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL and a variety of unrelated fusion partners are highly leukemogenic. Despite their prevalence, particularly in pediatric acute leukemia, many molecular details of their transforming mechanism are unknown. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the function of MLL fusions, demonstrating that they capture a transcriptional elongation complex that has been previously found associated with the eleven-nineteen leukemia protein (ENL. We show that this complex consists of a tight core stabilized by recursive protein-protein interactions. This central part integrates histone H3 lysine 79 methylation, RNA Polymerase II (RNA Pol II phosphorylation, and MLL fusion partners to stimulate transcriptional elongation as evidenced by RNA tethering assays. Coimmunoprecipitations indicated that MLL fusions are incorporated into this complex, causing a constitutive recruitment of elongation activity to MLL target loci. Chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP of the homeobox gene A cluster confirmed a close relationship between binding of MLL fusions and transcript levels. A time-resolved ChIP utilizing a conditional MLL fusion singled out H3K79 methylation as the primary parameter correlated with target expression. The presence of MLL fusion proteins also kept RNA Pol II in an actively elongating state and prevented accumulation of inhibitory histone methylation on target chromatin. Hox loci remained open and productive in the presence of MLL fusion activity even under conditions of forced differentiation. Finally, MLL-transformed cells were particularly sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of RNA Pol II phosphorylation, pointing to a potential treatment for MLL. In summary, we show aberrant transcriptional elongation as a novel mechanism for oncogenic transformation.

  4. Infection of human B lymphoma cells by Mycoplasma fermentans induces interaction of its elongation factor with the intracytoplasmic domain of Epstein-Barr virus receptor (gp140, EBV/C3dR, CR2, CD21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Michelle; Barel, Monique; Lottin-Divoux, Séverine; Jean, Didier; Frade, Raymond

    2005-08-15

    Human cell lines are often infected by mycoplama strains. We have demonstrated that when infected by Mycoplasma fermentans, human B lymphoma cell proliferation increased strongly. These infected B cells expressed a p45 kDa protein which interacted with the intracellular domain of CD21, the EBV/C3d receptor. p45 analysis demonstrated that this is a new gene which encodes an elongation factor originating from Mycoplasma fermentans. p45 interaction with CD21 was specific, there being no interaction with CD19. This is the first demonstration that Mycoplasma fermentans, in infecting human B cells, generates a p45 Mycoplasma component that interacts with CD21, which is involved in B cell proliferation.

  5. Biochemical quantitation of the eIF5A hypusination in Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers ABA-dependent regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Nohales, María A.; Rambla, José L.; Aceña, José L.; Delgado, Oscar; Fustero, Santos; Martínez, M. Carmen; Granell, Antonio; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eIF5A is the only protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine which is essential for its biological activity. This post-translational modification is achieved by the sequential action of the enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The crucial molecular function of eIF5A during translation has been recently elucidated in yeast and it is expected to be fully conserved in every eukaryotic cell, however the functional description of this pathway in plants is still sparse. The genetic approaches with transgenic plants for either eIF5A overexpression or antisense have revealed some activities related to the control of cell death processes but the molecular details remain to be characterized. One important aspect of fully understanding this pathway is the biochemical description of the hypusine modification system. Here we have used recombinant eIF5A proteins either modified by hypusination or non-modified to establish a bi-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) profile for the three eIF5A protein isoforms and their hypusinated or unmodified proteoforms present in Arabidopsis thaliana. The combined use of the recombinant 2D-E profile together with 2D-E/western blot analysis from whole plant extracts has provided a quantitative approach to measure the hypusination status of eIF5A. We have used this information to demonstrate that treatment with the hormone abscisic acid produces an alteration of the hypusine modification system in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overall this study presents the first biochemical description of the post-translational modification of eIF5A by hypusination which will be functionally relevant for future studies related to the characterization of this pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24904603

  6. Indole-3-butyric acid promotes adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana thin cell layers by conversion into indole-3-acetic acid and stimulation of anthranilate synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, L; Veloccia, A; Della Rovere, F; D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Altamura, M M

    2017-07-11

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), control adventitious root (AR) formation in planta. Adventitious roots are also crucial for propagation via cuttings. However, IBA role(s) is/are still far to be elucidated. In Arabidopsis thaliana stem cuttings, 10 μM IBA is more AR-inductive than 10 μM IAA, and, in thin cell layers (TCLs), IBA induces ARs when combined with 0.1 μM kinetin (Kin). It is unknown whether arabidopsis TCLs produce ARs under IBA alone (10 μM) or IAA alone (10 μM), and whether they contain endogenous IAA/IBA at culture onset, possibly interfering with the exogenous IBA/IAA input. Moreover, it is unknown whether an IBA-to-IAA conversion is active in TCLs, and positively affects AR formation, possibly through the activity of the nitric oxide (NO) deriving from the conversion process. Revealed undetectable levels of both auxins at culture onset, showing that arabidopsis TCLs were optimal for investigating AR-formation under the total control of exogenous auxins. The AR-response of TCLs from various ecotypes, transgenic lines and knockout mutants was analyzed under different treatments. It was shown that ARs are better induced by IBA than IAA and IBA + Kin. IBA induced IAA-efflux (PIN1) and IAA-influx (AUX1/LAX3) genes, IAA-influx carriers activities, and expression of ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -alpha1 (ASA1), a gene involved in IAA-biosynthesis. ASA1 and ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE -beta1 (ASB1), the other subunit of the same enzyme, positively affected AR-formation in the presence of exogenous IBA, because the AR-response in the TCLs of their mutant wei2wei7 was highly reduced. The AR-response of IBA-treated TCLs from ech2ibr10 mutant, blocked into IBA-to-IAA-conversion, was also strongly reduced. Nitric oxide, an IAA downstream signal and a by-product of IBA-to-IAA conversion, was early detected in IAA- and IBA-treated TCLs, but at higher levels in the latter explants. Altogether, results showed that IBA induced

  7. Myosin XIK of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates at the root hair tip and is required for fast root hair growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsook Park

    Full Text Available Myosin motor proteins are thought to carry out important functions in the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity by moving cellular components such as organelles, vesicles, or protein complexes along the actin cytoskeleton. In Arabidopsis thaliana, disruption of the myosin XIK gene leads to reduced elongation of the highly polar root hairs, suggesting that the encoded motor protein is involved in this cell growth. Detailed live-cell observations in this study revealed that xik root hairs elongated more slowly and stopped growth sooner than those in wild type. Overall cellular organization including the actin cytoskeleton appeared normal, but actin filament dynamics were reduced in the mutant. Accumulation of RabA4b-containing vesicles, on the other hand, was not significantly different from wild type. A functional YFP-XIK fusion protein that could complement the mutant phenotype accumulated at the tip of growing root hairs in an actin-dependent manner. The distribution of YFP-XIK at the tip, however, did not match that of the ER or several tip-enriched markers including CFP-RabA4b. We conclude that the myosin XIK is required for normal actin dynamics and plays a role in the subapical region of growing root hairs to facilitate optimal growth.

  8. Detection and analysis of Lactobacillus paracasei penicillin-binding proteins revealed the presence of cholate-sensitive penicillin-binding protein 3 and an elongated cell shape in a cholate-sensitive strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Masahiro; Torres, Glaezel Angelique; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae; Endo, Akihito; Nakagawa, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are responsible for peptidoglycan synthesis. By using biotinylated ampicillin, we detected PBPs of Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Ten PBPs were identified, 7 of which had apparent molecular sizes similar to those of Escherichia coli. In the presence of cholate, strain NRIC 0625 showed an elongated shape, and its putative PBP3 showed cholate-sensitive penicillin-binding activity. Furthermore, this strain was highly sensitive to cefalexin, which is known to inhibit cell division by inactivating PBP3. These results suggest that the septum synthetase PBP3 of lactic acid bacteria can be one of the targets of intestinal bile acid.

  9. The Composition of the Arabidopsis RNA Polymerase II Transcript Elongation Complex Reveals the Interplay between Elongation and mRNA Processing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosz, Wojciech; Pfab, Alexander; Ehrnsberger, Hans F; Holzinger, Philipp; Köllen, Karin; Mortensen, Simon A; Bruckmann, Astrid; Schubert, Thomas; Längst, Gernot; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Schubert, Veit; Grasser, Marion; Grasser, Klaus D

    2017-04-01

    Transcript elongation factors (TEFs) are a heterogeneous group of proteins that control the efficiency of transcript elongation of subsets of genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in the chromatin context. Using reciprocal tagging in combination with affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana , the TEFs SPT4/SPT5, SPT6, FACT, PAF1-C, and TFIIS copurified with each other and with elongating RNAPII, while P-TEFb was not among the interactors. Additionally, NAP1 histone chaperones, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, and some histone-modifying enzymes including Elongator were repeatedly found associated with TEFs. Analysis of double mutant plants defective in different combinations of TEFs revealed genetic interactions between genes encoding subunits of PAF1-C, FACT, and TFIIS, resulting in synergistic/epistatic effects on plant growth/development. Analysis of subnuclear localization, gene expression, and chromatin association did not provide evidence for an involvement of the TEFs in transcription by RNAPI (or RNAPIII). Proteomics analyses also revealed multiple interactions between the transcript elongation complex and factors involved in mRNA splicing and polyadenylation, including an association of PAF1-C with the polyadenylation factor CstF. Therefore, the RNAPII transcript elongation complex represents a platform for interactions among different TEFs, as well as for coordinating ongoing transcription with mRNA processing. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of chlorophyll (Chl involves many enzymatic reactions that share several first steps for biosynthesis of other tetrapyrroles such as heme, siroheme and phycobilins. Chl allows photosynthetic organisms to capture light energy for photosynthesis but with simultaneous threat of photooxidative damage to cells. To prevent photodamage by Chl and its highly photoreactive intermediates, photosynthetic organisms have developed multiple levels of regulatory mechanisms to coordinate tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TPB with the formation of photosynthetic and photoprotective systems and to fine-tune the metabolic flow with the varying needs of Chl and other tetrapyrroles under various developmental and environmental conditions. Among a wide range of regulatory mechanisms of TPB, this review summarizes transcriptional regulation of TPB genes during plant development,with focusing on several transcription factors characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana.Key TPB genes are tightly coexpressed with other photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes and are induced by light, oscillate in a diurnal and circadian manner, are coordinated with developmental and nutritional status, and are strongly downregulated in response to arrested chloroplast biogenesis. LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs, which are positive and negative transcription factors with a wide range of light signaling, respectively, target many TPB genes for light and circadian regulation. GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors directly regulate key TPB genes to fine-tune the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus with chloroplast functionality. Some transcription factors such as FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3, REVEILLE1, and scarecrow-like transcription factors may directly regulate some specific TPB genes, whereas other factors such as GATA transcription factors are likely to regulate TPB genes in an indirect manner. Comprehensive transcriptional analyses of TPB genes and detailed

  11. Brd4 bridges the transcriptional regulators, Aire and P-TEFb, to promote elongation of peripheral-tissue antigen transcripts in thymic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideyuki; Bansal, Kushagra; Schaefer, Uwe; Chapman, Trevor; Rioja, Inmaculada; Proekt, Irina; Anderson, Mark S; Prinjha, Rab K; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2015-08-11

    Aire controls immunologic tolerance by inducing a battery of thymic transcripts encoding proteins characteristic of peripheral tissues. Its unusually broad effect is achieved by releasing RNA polymerase II paused just downstream of transcriptional start sites. We explored Aire's collaboration with the bromodomain-containing protein, Brd4, uncovering an astonishing correspondence between those genes induced by Aire and those inhibited by a small-molecule bromodomain blocker. Aire:Brd4 binding depended on an orchestrated series of posttranslational modifications within Aire's caspase activation and recruitment domain. This interaction attracted P-TEFb, thereby mobilizing downstream transcriptional elongation and splicing machineries. Aire:Brd4 association was critical for tolerance induction, and its disruption could account for certain point mutations that provoke human autoimmune disease. Our findings evoke the possibility of unanticipated immunologic mechanisms subtending the potent antitumor effects of bromodomain blockers.

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ostergaard, L

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the neutral peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATP N) has been determined to a resolution of 1.9 A and a free R value of 20.5%. ATP N has the expected characteristic fold of the class III peroxidases, with a C(alpha) r.m.s.d. of 0.82 A when compared with horseradish peroxidase C...... (HRP C). HRP C is 54% identical to ATP N in sequence. When the structures of four class III plant peroxidases are superimposed, the regions with structural differences are non-randomly distributed; all are located in one half of the molecule. The architecture of the haem pocket of ATP N is very similar...... to that of HRP C, in agreement with the low small-molecule substrate specificity of all class III peroxidases. The structure of ATP N suggests that the pH dependence of the substrate turnover will differ from that of HRP C owing to differences in polarity of the residues in the substrate-access channel. Since...

  13. Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Inge; Beeckman, Tom; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity

  14. Nuclear and cellular expression data from the whole 16-cell stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and a cell type-specific expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palovaara, J.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    SuperSeries contain expression data from the nuclei of cell types involved in patterning events, with focus on root apical stem cell formation, at 16-cell stage, early globular stage and late globular stage in the early Arabidopsis embryo (atlas). Expression data comparing nuclear and cellular RNA

  15. Grain Size Dependence of Uniform Elongation in Single-Phase FCC/BCC Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiting; Shen, Yao; Ma, Jiawei; Zheng, Pengfei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We studied the dependence of uniform elongation on grain size in the range of submicron to millimeter for single-phase FCC/BCC metals by reviewing recent experimental results and applying crystal plasticity finite element method simulation. In the order of increasing grain size, uniform elongation can be divided into three stages, namely low elongation stage, nearly constant elongation stage, and decreased elongation with large scatters stage. Low elongation stage features a dramatic increase near the critical grain size at the end of the stage, which is primarily attributed to the emergence of dislocation cell size transition from ultrafine to mid-size grain. Other factors can be neglected due to their negligible influence on overall variation trend. In nearly constant elongation stage, uniform elongation remains unchanged at a high level in general. As grain size keeps growing, uniform elongation starts decreasing and becomes scattered upon a certain grain size, indicating the initiation of decreased elongation with large scatters stage. It is shown that the increase is not linear or smooth but rather sharp at the end of low elongation stage, leading to a wider range in nearly constant elongation stage. The grain size dependence of uniform elongation can serve as a guiding principle for designing small uniaxial tensile specimens for mechanical testing, where size effect matters in most cases.

  16. Characterization of a small auxin-up RNA (SAUR-like gene involved in Arabidopsis thaliana development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Nektarios Markakis

    Full Text Available The root of Arabidopsis thaliana is used as a model system to unravel the molecular nature of cell elongation and its arrest. From a micro-array performed on roots that were treated with aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, the precursor of ethylene, a Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR-like gene was found to be up regulated. As it appeared as the 76th gene in the family, it was named SAUR76. Root and leaf growth of overexpression lines ectopically expressing SAUR76 indicated the possible involvement of the gene in the division process. Using promoter::GUS and GFP lines strong expression was seen in endodermal and pericycle cells at the end of the elongation zone and during several stages of lateral root primordia development. ACC and IAA/NAA were able to induce a strong up regulation of the gene and changed the expression towards cortical and even epidermal cells at the beginning of the elongation zone. Confirmation of this up regulation of expression was delivered using qPCR, which also indicated that the expression quickly returned to normal levels when the inducing IAA-stimulus was removed, a behaviour also seen in other SAUR genes. Furthermore, confocal analysis of protein-GFP fusions localized the protein in the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. SAUR76 expression was quantified in several mutants in ethylene and auxin-related pathways, which led to the conclusion that the expression of SAUR76 is mainly regulated by the increase in auxin that results from the addition of ACC, rather than by ACC itself.

  17. Percolation thresholds on elongated lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, S.J.; Knackstedt, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the percolation thresholds of both random and invasion percolation in two and three dimensions on elongated lattices; lattices with a geometry of L^(d−1) × nL in d dimensions, where n denotes the aspect ratio of the lattice. Scaling laws for the threshold and spanning cluster density

  18. Elongation Cutoff Technique: Parallel Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Korchowiec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the elongation cutoff technique (ECT substantially speeds up thequantum-chemical calculation at Hartree-Fock (HF level of theory and is especially wellsuited for parallel performance. A comparison of ECT timings for water chains with thereference HF calculations is given. The analysis includes the overall CPU (central processingunit time and its most time consuming steps.

  19. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesh Panoli

    Full Text Available The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2 are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development.

  20. The influences of Hygromycin B on growth of Arabidopsis thaliana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling cotyledon and leaf were evidently affected by Hygromycin B. As compared to the control, cotyledon of seedling on Murashige and Skoog (MS) with Hygromycin B was very small and its leaf was not formed. Along with increase in culture time, cells in the ...

  1. Experimental and genetic analysis of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.; McKhann, H.; Berg, C. van den; Willemsen, V.; Wolkenfelt, H.; Vrieze, G. de; Weisbeek, P.

    1996-01-01

    The cellular organisation of the Arabidopsis thaliana root is remarkably regular. A fate map of the primary root and root meristem that predicts the developmental destinies of cells within the embryonic root primordium has been constructed. Nevertheless, laser ablation experiments demonstrate that

  2. Elongation Transducer For Tensile Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Stokes, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Extensometer transducer measures elongation of tensile-test specimen with negligible distortion of test results. Used in stress-versus-strain tests of small specimens of composite materials. Clamping stress distributed more evenly. Specimen clamped gently between jaw and facing surface of housing. Friction force of load points on conical tips onto specimen depends on compression of spring, adjusted by turning cover on housing. Limp, light nylon-insulated electrical leads impose minimal extraneous loads on measuring elements.

  3. Inhibition of primary roots and stimulation of lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by the rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens 90-166 is through both auxin-dependent and -independent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-Lin; Park, Hyo-Bee; Lee, Jong Suk; Ryu, Sangryeol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2010-03-01

    The rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens strain 90-166 was previously reported to promote plant growth and induce resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the influence of strain 90-166 on root development was studied in vitro. We observed inhibition of primary root elongation, enhanced lateral root emergence, and early emergence of second order lateral roots after inoculation with strain 90-166 at a certain distance from the root. Using the DR5::GUS transgenic A. thaliana plant and an auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, the altered root development was still elicited by strain 90-166, indicating that this was not a result of changes in plant auxin levels. Intriguingly, indole-3-acetic acid, a major auxin chemical, was only identified just above the detection limit in liquid culture of strain 90-166 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Focusing on bacterial determinants of the root alterations, we found that primary root elongation was inhibited in seedlings treated with cell supernatant (secreted compounds), while lateral root formation was induced in seedlings treated with lysate supernatant (intracellular compounds). Further study revealed that the alteration of root development elicited by strain 90-166 involved the jasmonate, ethylene, and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Collectively, our results suggest that strain 90-166 can contribute to plant root development via multiple signaling pathways.

  4. Promising markers for the detection of premature senescence tumor cells induced by ionizing radiation: Cathepsin D and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Han, Na-Kyung; Lee, Jae-Seon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Recently, it has been proved that induction of senescence could be a promising way of tumor treatment. Senescence was originally described in normal human cells undergoing a finite number of divisions before permanent growth arrest. It has now become regarded more broadly as a general biological program of terminal growth arrest. A variety of stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), oxidative stress, oncogenic transformation, DNA damaging agents triggers stress-induced premature senescence, i.e. rapid and permanent cell growth arrest. Therefore, premature senescence is bona fide barrier to tumorigenesis and hallmark of premalignant tumors. However, there is lack of obvious markers for senescent tumor cells. To identify useful premature senescence markers for tumor cells, we monitored the changes of protein expression profile in IR-induced premature senescence MCF7 human breast cancer cells. We identified biomarkers which evidently changed their expression levels in ionizing radiation-induced senescenct tumor cells.

  5. (R)-β-lysine-modified elongation factor P functions in translation elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Zou, S Betty; Rajkovic, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modification of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) with (R)-β-lysine at a conserved lysine residue activates the protein in vivo and increases puromycin reactivity of the ribosome in vitro. The additional hydroxylation of EF-P at the same lysine residue by the YfcM protein has...... also recently been described. The roles of modified and unmodified EF-P during different steps in translation, and how this correlates to its physiological role in the cell, have recently been linked to the synthesis of polyproline stretches in proteins. Polysome analysis indicated that EF-P functions...... in translation elongation, rather than initiation as proposed previously. This was further supported by the inability of EF-P to enhance the rate of formation of fMet-Lys or fMet-Phe, indicating that the role of EF-P is not to specifically stimulate formation of the first peptide bond. Investigation of hydroxyl...

  6. Two WD-repeat genes from cotton are functional homologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, John A; Walker, Amanda R; Timmis, Jeremy N; Orford, Sharon J

    2005-01-01

    Cotton fibres are single, highly elongated cells derived from the outer epidermis of ovules, and are developmentally similar to the trichomes of Arabidopsis thaliana. To identify genes involved in the molecular control of cotton fibre initiation, we isolated four putative homologues of the Arabidopsis trichome-associated gene TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1). All four WD-repeat genes are derived from the ancestral D diploid genome of tetraploid cotton and are expressed in many tissues throughout the plant, including ovules and growing fibres. Two of the cotton genes were able to restore trichome formation in ttg1 mutant Arabidopsis plants. Both these genes also complemented the anthocyanin defect in a white-flowered Matthiola incana ttg1 mutant. These results demonstrate parallels in differentiation between trichomes in cotton and Arabidopsis, and indicate that these cotton genes may be functional homologues of AtTTG1.

  7. Elongator: An Ancestral Complex Driving Transcription and Migration through Protein Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Creppe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elongator is an evolutionary highly conserved complex. At least two of its cellular functions rely on the intrinsic lysine acetyl-transferase activity of the Elongator complex. Its two known substrates—Histone H3 and α-Tubulin—reflect the different roles of Elongator in the cytosol and the nucleus. A picture seems to emerge in which nuclear Elongator could regulate the transcriptional elongation of a subset of stress-inducible genes through acetylation of Histone H3 in the promoter-distal gene body. In the cytosol, Elongator-mediated acetylation of α-Tubulin contributes to intracellular trafficking and cell migration. Defects in both functions of Elongator have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Reversed planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2011-01-01

    The newly developed planar elongation fixture, designed as an add-on to the filament stretch rheometer, is used to measure reversible large amplitude planar elongation on soft elastomers. The concept of this new fixture is to elongate an annulus, by keeping the perimeter constant. The deformation...

  9. Elongational dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Nielsen, Jens Kromann

    2009-01-01

    The startup of uni-axial elongational flow followed by stress relaxation and reversed bi-axial flow has been measured for a branched polystyrene melt with narrow molar mass distribution using the filament stretching rheometer. The branched polystyrene melt was a multiarm A(q)-C-C-A(q) pom......-pom polystyrene with an estimated average number of arms of q=2.5. The molar mass of each arm is about 28 kg/mole with an overall molar mass of M-w=280 kg/mole. An integral molecular stress function constitutive formulation within the "interchain pressure" concept agrees reasonably well with the experiments....

  10. Yeast Methylotrophy and Autophagy in a Methanol-Oscillating Environment on Growing Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuke Kawaguchi; Hiroya Yurimoto; Masahide Oku; Yasuyoshi Sakai

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Candida boidinii capable of growth on methanol proliferates and survives on the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The local methanol concentration at the phyllosphere of growing A. thaliana exhibited daily periodicity, and yeast cells responded by altering both the expression of methanol-inducible genes and peroxisome proliferation. Even under these dynamically changing environmental conditions, yeast cells proliferated 3 to 4 times in 11 days. Among the C1-metabolic enzymes, enzymes ...

  11. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Critical study of coleoptile elongation controlled by IAA and ABA II. Epidermal surfaces analysed by SEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Rose-Marie; Schlienger, Claude; Pilet, Paul-Emile

    2017-01-01

    Cell wall surfaces of wheat coleoptiles treated with IAA and ABA were observed using SEM. On in situ and in vitro cultured material, formation of some "cracks” was observed after stimulated elongation. Sizes and distribution of these "cracks” were related to longitudinal stress, which increased with increased cell wall elongation

  13. Arabidopsis COP1 and SPA Genes Are Essential for Plant Elongation But Not for Acceleration of Flowering Time in Response to a Low Red Light to Far-Red Light Ratio1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolauffs, Sebastian; Fackendahl, Petra; Sahm, Jan; Fiene, Gabriele; Hoecker, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants sense vegetative shade as a reduction in the ratio of red light to far-red light (R:FR). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) responds to a reduced R:FR with increased elongation of the hypocotyl and the leaf petioles as well as with an acceleration of flowering time. The repressor of light signaling, CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), has been shown previously to be essential for the shade-avoidance response in seedlings. Here, we have investigated the roles of COP1 and the COP1-interacting SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins in seedling and adult facets of the shade-avoidance response. We show that COP1 and the four SPA genes are essential for hypocotyl and leaf petiole elongation in response to low R:FR, in a fashion that involves the COP1/SPA ubiquitination target LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1 but not ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5. In contrast, the acceleration of flowering in response to a low R:FR was normal in cop1 and spa mutants, thus demonstrating that the COP1/SPA complex is only required for elongation responses to vegetative shade and not for shade-induced early flowering. We further show that spa mutant seedlings fail to exhibit an increase in the transcript levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes YUCCA2 (YUC2), YUC8, and YUC9 in response to low R:FR, suggesting that an increase in auxin biosynthesis in vegetative shade requires SPA function. Consistent with this finding, expression of the auxin-response marker gene DR5::GUS did not increase in spa mutant seedlings exposed to low R:FR. We propose that COP1/SPA activity, via LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1, is required for shade-induced modulation of the auxin biosynthesis pathway and thereby enhances cell elongation in low R:FR. PMID:23093358

  14. Arabidopsis COP1 and SPA genes are essential for plant elongation but not for acceleration of flowering time in response to a low red light to far-red light ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolauffs, Sebastian; Fackendahl, Petra; Sahm, Jan; Fiene, Gabriele; Hoecker, Ute

    2012-12-01

    Plants sense vegetative shade as a reduction in the ratio of red light to far-red light (R:FR). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) responds to a reduced R:FR with increased elongation of the hypocotyl and the leaf petioles as well as with an acceleration of flowering time. The repressor of light signaling, CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), has been shown previously to be essential for the shade-avoidance response in seedlings. Here, we have investigated the roles of COP1 and the COP1-interacting SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins in seedling and adult facets of the shade-avoidance response. We show that COP1 and the four SPA genes are essential for hypocotyl and leaf petiole elongation in response to low R:FR, in a fashion that involves the COP1/SPA ubiquitination target LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1 but not ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5. In contrast, the acceleration of flowering in response to a low R:FR was normal in cop1 and spa mutants, thus demonstrating that the COP1/SPA complex is only required for elongation responses to vegetative shade and not for shade-induced early flowering. We further show that spa mutant seedlings fail to exhibit an increase in the transcript levels of the auxin biosynthesis genes YUCCA2 (YUC2), YUC8, and YUC9 in response to low R:FR, suggesting that an increase in auxin biosynthesis in vegetative shade requires SPA function. Consistent with this finding, expression of the auxin-response marker gene DR5::GUS did not increase in spa mutant seedlings exposed to low R:FR. We propose that COP1/SPA activity, via LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FR LIGHT1, is required for shade-induced modulation of the auxin biosynthesis pathway and thereby enhances cell elongation in low R:FR.

  15. Axonal elongation through long acellular nerve segments depends on recruitment of phagocytic cells from the near-nerve environment. Electrophysiological and morphological studies in the cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J; Fugleholm, K; Moldovan, M

    2001-01-01

    or tissue ingrowth, respectively. In a second set of experiments, tibial nerves were crushed and either frozen for 20+20 mm, leaving a 10 mm segment with viable cells in the center (stepping-stone segment) or frozen for 50 mm. These nerves were enclosed in cuffs with 2.0 mm holes corresponding to the viable...... not exert any independent beneficial effect on the outgrowing axons. However, phagocytic cells entering the acellular segment from the near-nerve environment were crucial for axonal outgrowth in long ANS....

  16. Transposon diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quang Hien; Wright, Stephen; Yu, Zhihui; Bureau, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Recent availability of extensive genome sequence information offers new opportunities to analyze genome organization, including transposon diversity and accumulation, at a level of resolution that was previously unattainable. In this report, we used sequence similarity search and analysis protocols to perform a fine-scale analysis of a large sample (≈17.2 Mb) of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia) genome for transposons. Consistent with previous studies, we report that the A. thaliana genome harbors diverse representatives of most known superfamilies of transposons. However, our survey reveals a higher density of transposons of which over one-fourth could be classified into a single novel transposon family designated as Basho, which appears unrelated to any previously known superfamily. We have also identified putative transposase-coding ORFs for miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), providing clues into the mechanism of mobility and origins of the most abundant transposons associated with plant genes. In addition, we provide evidence that most mined transposons have a clear distribution preference for A + T-rich sequences and show that structural variation for many mined transposons is partly due to interelement recombination. Taken together, these findings further underscore the complexity of transposons within the compact genome of A. thaliana. PMID:10861007

  17. Hemimandibular hyperplasia--hemimandibular elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obwegeser, H L; Makek, M S

    1986-08-01

    Clinical and radiographic experience as well as histological findings leave no doubt that the term "condylar hyperplasia" refers only to hyperplasia of the condyle alone and should therefore not be used to mean the two hemimandibular anomalies as is the case in the literature today. There are two basically different malformations of one side of the mandible which we call hemimandibular hyperplasia and hemimandibular elongation respectively. We are convinced that there exist pure and mixed forms of both growth anomalies because we have observed several such clinical cases. The stimulus for the abnormal growth either lies within the fibrocartilaginous layer or is produced by it. Different histological patterns within the condylar growth zone were seen in the two anomalies. The pathophysiological bases of the abnormal growth are discussed. They seem to contribute to the understanding of the normal and abnormal mandibular growth and consequently also of many of the mandibular anomalies. The explanations are demonstrated by the illustrations of some cases.

  18. Functional detection of chemopreventive glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross; Dalebout; Grubb; Abel

    2000-11-06

    Natural isothiocyanates, derived from glucosinolates by myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis, are potent chemopreventive agents that favorably modify carcinogen metabolism in mammals by inhibiting metabolic activation of carcinogens and/or by inducing carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Methylsulfinylalkyl isothiocyanates are potent selective inducers of mammalian Phase 2 detoxification enzymes such as quinone reductase [NADP(H):quinone-acceptor oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2]. Members of the Cruciferae family, including the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heyhn, synthesize methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. We have adapted a colorimetric bioassay for quinone reductase activity in Hepa 1c1c7 murine hepatoma cells as a versatile tool to rapidly monitor methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolate content in A. thaliana leaf extracts. Using wild type plants and mutant plants defective in the synthesis of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), we have demonstrated that A. thaliana (ecotype Columbia) is a rich source of Phase 2 enzyme inducers and that methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, predominantly glucoraphanin, account for about 80% of the quinone reductase inducer potency of Columbia leaf extracts. We have optimized leaf extraction conditions and the quinone reductase bioassay to allow for screening of large numbers of plant extracts in a molecular genetic approach to dissecting glucosinolate biosynthesis in A. thaliana.

  19. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Rattner, Jerome B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Hoorn, Frans A. van der, E-mail: fvdhoorn@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  20. Light responses in Photoperiodism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Cashmore

    2006-08-01

    domains. It is this cysteine residue that forms a covalent adduct with the bound flavin in the photocycle of PHOT1 and FKF1. In the mutant ADO1 this cysteine is replaced by an alanine. We argue that if ADO1 functions as a photoreceptor in a similar fashion to PHOT1, then this mutant ADO1 should not be able to rescue the altered circadian phenotype of ado1 mutant plants. We find under white light, that indeed this is the case. Experiments underway are aimed at determining if the altered circadian phenotype under blue and red light are similarly unable to be rescued by the mutant gene, and we are performing similar experiments under red light with respect to the defect in hypocotyl elongation. The results from these experiments will likely support the hypothesis that ADO1 functions as a blue light photoreceptor, and they will address the question concerning whether or not the altered properties of the ado1 mutant under red light are also a reflection of this photoreceptor function. References. Briggs, W. R., Beck, C. F., Cashmore, A. R., Christie, J. M., Hughes, J., Jarillo, J. A., Kagawa, T., Kanegae, H., Liscum, E., Nagatani, A., et al. (2001). The phototropin family of photoreceptors. Plant Cell 13, 993-997. Christie, J. M., Reymond, P., Powell, G. K., Bernasconi, P., Raibekas, A. A., Liscum, E., and Briggs, W. R. (1998). Arabidopsis NPH1: A flavoprotein with the properties of a photoreceptor for phototropism. Science 282, 1698-1701. Froehlich, A. C., Liu, Y., Loros, J. J., and Dunlap, J. C. (2002). White Collar-1, a circadian blue light photoreceptor, binding to the frequency promoter. Science 297, 815-819. Imaizumi, T., Tran, H. G., Swartz, T. E., Briggs, W. R., and Kay, S. A. (2003). FKF1 is essential for photoperiodic-specific light signalling in Arabidopsis. Nature 426, 302-306. Jarillo, J. A., Capel, J., Tang, R.-H., Yang, H.-Q., Alonso, J. M., Ecker, J. R., and Cashmore, A. R. (2001a). An Arabidopsis circadian clock component interacts with both CRY1 and phy

  1. Collection of apoplastic fluids from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    The leaf apoplast comprises the extracellular continuum outside cell membranes. A broad range of processes take place in the apoplast, including intercellular signaling, metabolite transport, and plant-microbe interactions. To study these processes, it is essential to analyze the metabolite conte...... in apoplastic fluids. Due to the fragile nature of leaf tissues, it is a challenge to obtain apoplastic fluids from leaves. Here, methods to collect apoplastic washing fluid and guttation fluid from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves are described....

  2. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  3. Analysis of changes in relative elemental growth rate patterns in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots upon gravistimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Although Arabidopsis is an important system for studying root physiology, the localized growth patterns of its roots have not been well defined, particularly during tropic responses. In order to characterize growth rate profiles along the apex of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Columbia) we applied small charcoal particles to the root surface and analyzed their displacement during growth using an automated video digitizer system with custom software for tracking the markers. When growing vertically, the maximum elongation rate occurred 481 +/- 50 microns back from the extreme tip of the root (tip of root cap), and the elongation zone extended back to 912 +/- 137 microns. The distal elongation zone (DEZ) has previously been described as the apical region of the elongation zone in which the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) is rate in the central elongation zone. By this definition, our data indicate that the basal limit of the DEZ was located 248 +/- 30 microns from the root tip. However, after gravistimulation, the growth patterns of the root changed. Within the first hour of graviresponse, the basal limit of the DEZ and the position of peak REGR shifted apically on the upper flank of the root. This was due to a combination of increased growth in the DEZ and growth inhibition in the central elongation zone. On the lower flank, the basal limit of the DEZ shifted basipetally as the REGR decreased. These factors set up the gradient of growth rate across the root, which drives curvature.

  4. Elevated levels of N-lauroylethanolamine, an endogenous constituent of desiccated seeds, disrupt normal root development in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.; Hou, Guichuan; Chapman, Kent D.

    2003-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are prevalent in desiccated seeds of various plant species, and their levels decline substantially during seed imbibition and germination. Here, seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. were germinated in, and seedlings maintained on, micromolar concentrations of N-lauroylethanolamine (NAE 12:0). NAE 12:0 inhibited root elongation, increased radial swelling of root tips, and reduced root hair numbers in a highly selective and concentration-dependent manner. These effects were reversible when seedlings were transferred to NAE-free medium. Older seedlings (14 days old) acclimated to exogenous NAE by increased formation of lateral roots, and generally, these lateral roots did not exhibit the severe symptoms observed in primary roots. Cells of NAE-treated primary roots were swollen and irregular in shape, and in many cases showed evidence, at the light- and electron-microscope levels, of improper cell wall formation. Microtubule arrangement was disrupted in severely distorted cells close to the root tip, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized green fluorescent protein (mGFP5-ER) was more abundant, aggregated and distributed differently in NAE-treated root cells, suggesting disruption of proper cell division, endomembrane organization and vesicle trafficking. These results suggest that NAE 12:0 likely influences normal cell expansion in roots by interfering with intracellular membrane trafficking to and/or from the cell surface. The rapid metabolism of NAEs during seed imbibition/germination may be a mechanism to remove this endogenous class of lipid mediators to allow for synchronized membrane reorganization associated with cell expansion.

  5. Movement of endogenous calcium in the elongating zone of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Smith, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    Endogenous calcium (Ca) accumulates along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent. This accumulation of Ca correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature, and occurs in the cytoplasm, cell walls and mucilage of epidermal cells. Corresponding changes in endogenous Ca do not occur in cortical cells of the elongating zone of intact roots. These results indicate that the calcium asymmetries associated with root gravicurvature occur in the outermost layers of the root.

  6. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Two Nucleolar Proteins, GDP1 and OLI2, Function As Ribosome Biogenesis Factors and Are Preferentially Involved in Promotion of Leaf Cell Proliferation without Strongly Affecting Leaf Adaxial–Abaxial Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kojima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf abaxial–adaxial patterning is dependent on the mutual repression of leaf polarity genes expressed either adaxially or abaxially. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this process is strongly affected by mutations in ribosomal protein genes and in ribosome biogenesis genes in a sensitized genetic background, such as asymmetric leaves2 (as2. Most ribosome-related mutants by themselves do not show leaf abaxialization, and one of their typical phenotypes is the formation of pointed rather than rounded leaves. In this study, we characterized two ribosome-related mutants to understand how ribosome biogenesis is linked to several aspects of leaf development. Previously, we isolated oligocellula2 (oli2 which exhibits the pointed-leaf phenotype and has a cell proliferation defect. OLI2 encodes a homolog of Nop2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a ribosome biogenesis factor involved in pre-60S subunit maturation. In this study, we found another pointed-leaf mutant that carries a mutation in a gene encoding an uncharacterized protein with a G-patch domain. Similar to oli2, this mutant, named g-patch domain protein1 (gdp1, has a reduced number of leaf cells. In addition, gdp1 oli2 double mutants showed a strong genetic interaction such that they synergistically impaired cell proliferation in leaves and produced markedly larger cells. On the other hand, they showed additive phenotypes when combined with several known ribosomal protein mutants. Furthermore, these mutants have a defect in pre-rRNA processing. GDP1 and OLI2 are strongly expressed in tissues with high cell proliferation activity, and GDP1-GFP and GFP-OLI2 are localized in the nucleolus. These results suggest that OLI2 and GDP1 are involved in ribosome biogenesis. We then examined the effects of gdp1 and oli2 on adaxial–abaxial patterning by crossing them with as2. Interestingly, neither gdp1 nor oli2 strongly enhanced the leaf polarity defect of as2. Similar results were obtained with as2 gdp1 oli2

  8. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  9. A review of penile elongation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Penile elongation surgery is less commonly performed in the public sector, but involves a collaborative approach between urology and plastic surgery. Congenital and acquired micropenis are the classic surgical indications for penile elongation surgery. The goal of intervention in these patients is to restore a functional penis size in order to allow normal standing micturition, enable satisfying sexual intercourse and improve patient quality of life. Many men seeking elongation actually have normal length penises, but perceive themselves to be small, a psychologic condition termed ‘penile dysmorphophobia’. This paper will review the anatomy and embryology of congenital micropenis and discuss both conservative and surgical management options for men seeking penile elongation therapy. PMID:28217452

  10. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....

  11. Polyamines and Anaerobic Elongation of Rice Coleoptile

    OpenAIRE

    Remo, Reggiani; Alejandro, Hochkoeppler; Alcide, Bertani; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The role of polyamines in the anaerobic elongation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) coleoptiles was studied. The reduced growth of rice coleoptiles under anoxic conditions was accompanied by a massive accumulation of free putrescine. Putrescine was synthesized from arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC). The anoxic titer of putrescine was closely correlated with elongation of coleoptiles. In experiments in which putrescine and inhibitors [a-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and...

  12. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  13. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.; Suge, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

  14. N,N-dimethyl hexadecylamine and related amines regulate root morphogenesis via jasmonic acid signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya-González, Javier; Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto; Barrera-Ortiz, Salvador; López-Bucio, José; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are natural inhabitants of roots, colonize diverse monocot and dicot species, and affect several functional traits such as root architecture, adaptation to adverse environments, and protect plants from pathogens. N,N-dimethyl-hexadecylamine (C16-DMA) is a rhizobacterial amino lipid that modulates the postembryonic development of several plants, likely as part of volatile blends. In this work, we evaluated the bioactivity of C16-DMA and other related N,N-dimethyl-amines with varied length and found that inhibition of primary root growth was related to the length of the acyl chain. C16-DMA inhibited primary root growth affecting cell division and elongation, while promoting lateral root formation and root hair growth and density in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) wild-type (WT) seedlings. Interestingly, C16-DMA induced the expression of the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive gene marker pLOX2:uidA, while JA-related mutants jar1, coi1-1, and myc2 affected on JA biosynthesis and perception, respectively, are compromised in C16-DMA responses. Comparison of auxin-regulated gene expression, root architectural changes in WT, and auxin-related mutants aux1-7, tir1/afb2/afb3, and arf7-1/arf19-1 to C16-DMA shows that the C16-DMA effects occur independently of auxin signaling. Together, these results reveal a novel class of aminolipids modulating root organogenesis via crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway.

  15. NIMA-related kinases 6, 4, and 5 interact with each other to regulate microtubule organization during epidermal cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motose, Hiroyasu; Hamada, Takahiro; Yoshimoto, Kaori; Murata, Takashi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Takashi; Sakai, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Taku

    2011-09-01

    NimA-related kinase 6 (NEK6) has been implicated in microtubule regulation to suppress the ectopic outgrowth of epidermal cells; however, its molecular functions remain to be elucidated. Here, we analyze the function of NEK6 and other members of the NEK family with regard to epidermal cell expansion and cortical microtubule organization. The functional NEK6-green fluorescent protein fusion localizes to cortical microtubules, predominantly in particles that exhibit dynamic movement along microtubules. The kinase-dead mutant of NEK6 (ibo1-1) exhibits a disturbance of the cortical microtubule array at the site of ectopic protrusions in epidermal cells. Pharmacological studies with microtubule inhibitors and quantitative analysis of microtubule dynamics indicate excessive stabilization of cortical microtubules in ibo1/nek6 mutants. In addition, NEK6 directly binds to microtubules in vitro and phosphorylates β-tubulin. NEK6 interacts and co-localizes with NEK4 and NEK5 in a transient expression assay. The ibo1-3 mutation markedly reduces the interaction between NEK6 and NEK4 and increases the interaction between NEK6 and NEK5. NEK4 and NEK5 are required for the ibo1/nek6 ectopic outgrowth phenotype in epidermal cells. These results demonstrate that NEK6 homodimerizes and forms heterodimers with NEK4 and NEK5 to regulate cortical microtubule organization possibly through the phosphorylation of β-tubulins. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Red Light-inhibited Mesocotyl Elongation in Maize Seedlings: I. The Auxin Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoef, L N; Briggs, W R

    1978-04-01

    Red light-inhibited mesocotyl elongation, which occurs in intact Zea mays L. seedlings, was studied in excised segments which included the coleoptile (or parts therefrom) and apical centimeter of the mesocotyl. Experiments took into account, first, the ability of the segments to regenerate auxin supply sites, and, second, that auxin uptake can be greatly reduced if there is no cut surface, apical to the elongating cells, to act as a port of entry. In all cases, auxin completely reversed the inhibition of elongation by light. The results support the hypothesis that light regulates mesocotyl elongation by controlling auxin supply from the coleoptile. Sucrose concentration had no effect on auxin reversal of light-inhibited elongation, but relatively high concentrations of gibberellic acid (10 mum) could substitute for auxin in this system.

  17. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-02-29

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  18. AtPME3, a ubiquitous cell wall pectin methylesterase of Arabidopsis thaliana, alters the metabolism of cruciferin seed storage proteins during post-germinative growth of seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénin, Stéphanie; Hardouin, Julie; Paynel, Florence; Müller, Kerstin; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Kermode, Allison R; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Pelloux, Jérôme; Gutierrez, Laurent; Mareck, Alain

    2017-02-01

    AtPME3 (At3g14310) is a ubiquitous cell wall pectin methylesterase. Atpme3-1 loss-of-function mutants exhibited distinct phenotypes from the wild type (WT), and were characterized by earlier germination and reduction of root hair production. These phenotypical traits were correlated with the accumulation of a 21.5-kDa protein in the different organs of 4-day-old Atpme3-1 seedlings grown in the dark, as well as in 6-week-old mutant plants. Microarray analysis showed significant down-regulation of the genes encoding several pectin-degrading enzymes and enzymes involved in lipid and protein metabolism in the hypocotyl of 4-day-old dark grown mutant seedlings. Accordingly, there was a decrease in proteolytic activity of the mutant as compared with the WT. Among the genes specifying seed storage proteins, two encoding CRUCIFERINS were up-regulated. Additional analysis by RT-qPCR showed an overexpression of four CRUCIFERIN genes in the mutant Atpme3-1, in which precursors of the α- and β-subunits of CRUCIFERIN accumulated. Together, these results provide evidence for a link between AtPME3, present in the cell wall, and CRUCIFERIN metabolism that occurs in vacuoles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Signalling requirements for Erwinia amylovora-induced disease resistance, callose deposition and cell growth in the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdoun, Safae; Gao, Min; Gill, Manroop; Kwon, Ashley; Norelli, John L; Lu, Hua

    2017-07-29

    Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight disease in some plants of the Rosaceae family. The non-host plant Arabidopsis serves as a powerful system for the dissection of mechanisms of resistance to E. amylovora. Although not yet known to mount gene-for-gene resistance to E. amylovora, we found that Arabidopsis activated strong defence signalling mediated by salicylic acid (SA), with kinetics and amplitude similar to that induced by the recognition of the bacterial effector avrRpm1 by the resistance protein RPM1. Genetic analysis further revealed that SA signalling, but not signalling mediated by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA), is required for E. amylovora resistance. Erwinia amylovora induces massive callose deposition on infected leaves, which is independent of SA, ET and JA signalling and is necessary for E. amylovora resistance in Arabidopsis. We also observed tumour-like growths on E. amylovora-infected Arabidopsis leaves, which contain enlarged mesophyll cells with increased DNA content and are probably a result of endoreplication. The formation of such growths is largely independent of SA signalling and some E. amylovora effectors. Together, our data reveal signalling requirements for E. amylovora-induced disease resistance, callose deposition and cell fate change in the non-host plant Arabidopsis. Knowledge from this study could facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms of host defence against E. amylovora and eventually improve host resistance to the pathogen. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Long intronic GAA repeats causing Friedreich ataxia impede transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punga, Tanel; Bühler, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Friedreich ataxia is a degenerative disease caused by deficiency of the protein frataxin (FXN). An intronic expansion of GAA triplets in the FXN-encoding gene, FXN, causes gene silencing and thus reduced FXN protein levels. Although it is widely assumed that GAA repeats block transcription via the assembly of an inaccessible chromatin structure marked by methylated H3K9, direct proof for this is lacking. In this study, we analysed different histone modification patterns along the human FXN gene in FRDA patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines. We show that FXN mRNA synthesis, but not turnover rates are affected by an expanded GAA repeat tract. Importantly, rather than preventing transcription initiation, long GAA repeat tracts affect transcription at the elongation step and this can occur independently of H3K9 methylation. Our data demonstrate that finding novel strategies to overcome the transcription elongation problem may develop into promising new treatments for FRDA.

  1. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments.

  2. Analysis of the role of the atypical cadherin Fat2 during tissue elongation in the developing ovary of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Aurich, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Tissue elongation is an important requirement for proper tissue morphogenesis during animal development. The Drosophila egg chamber is an excellent model to study the molecular processes underlying tissue elongation. An egg chamber is composed of germline cells that are enveloped by a somatic follicle epithelium. While the egg chamber matures, the drastic increase of the egg chamber’s volume is accompanied by a shape change from round to oval. Egg chamber elongation coincides with a circumfer...

  3. A root penetration model of Arabidopsis thaliana in phytagel medium with different strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Wang, Bochu; Zhou, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Phytagel media were evaluated as systems to mechanically impede roots of A. thaliana. Studying mechanical properties of Phytagel and exploring the root response to mechanical stimulation can facilitate plant culture and plant development. Breaking strengths of 0.5-2.0% phytagel media were tested by uniaxial compression test. Different phytagel concentrations were set to alter the strength of layers in growth medium. Negative correlations were observed between root length, straightness and medium strength. When roots elongated through soft upper-layer (0.6%), penetration ratio decreased with the increase of lower-layer strength (0.6-1.2%) and all roots couldn't penetrate into lower-layer with concentration ≥1.2%. Roots could grow into soft lower-layer (0.6%) from hard upper-layer (0.6-1.2%), with decreased penetration ratio. When roots grew in soft lower-layer, the growth rate linked with upper-layer strength increased to peak. Roots penetration capability into 1.2% lower-layer was improved by growing plants through moderate layer inserted between soft and hard layer, and roots in 0.8% moderate medium have a significant higher penetration ratio than that in 1.0%. It was concluded that the Phytagel systems studied were suitable for studying the effect of mechanical impedance on the elongation of A. thaliana roots. The medium strength affected root penetration significantly and acclimation can improve root penetration capability.

  4. Novel features of radiation-induced bystander signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated using root micro-grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ting; Li, Fanghua; Xu, Wei; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been well demonstrated in whole organisms, as well as in single-cell culture models in vitro and multi-cellular tissues models in vitro, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, including the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling. The RIBE in vivo has been shown to exist in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Importantly, the unique plant grafting provides a delicate approach for studying the temporal and s...

  5. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  6. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly......Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... with molar mass at fixed elongation rate....

  7. Neuroprotective copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato complexes promote neurite elongation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bica

    Full Text Available Abnormal biometal homeostasis is a central feature of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD, and motor neuron disease. Recent studies have shown that metal complexing compounds behaving as ionophores such as clioquinol and PBT2 have robust therapeutic activity in animal models of neurodegenerative disease; however, the mechanism of neuroprotective action remains unclear. These neuroprotective or neurogenerative processes may be related to the delivery or redistribution of biometals, such as copper and zinc, by metal ionophores. To investigate this further, we examined the effect of the bis(thiosemicarbazonato-copper complex, Cu(II(gtsm on neuritogenesis and neurite elongation (neurogenerative outcomes in PC12 neuronal-related cultures. We found that Cu(II(gtsm induced robust neurite elongation in PC12 cells when delivered at concentrations of 25 or 50 nM overnight. Analogous effects were observed with an alternative copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato complex, Cu(II(atsm, but at a higher concentration. Induction of neurite elongation by Cu(II(gtsm was restricted to neurites within the length range of 75-99 µm with a 2.3-fold increase in numbers of neurites in this length range with 50 nM Cu(II(gtsm treatment. The mechanism of neurogenerative action was investigated and revealed that Cu(II(gtsm inhibited cellular phosphatase activity. Treatment of cultures with 5 nM FK506 (calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor resulted in analogous elongation of neurites compared to 50 nM Cu(II(gtsm, suggesting a potential link between Cu(II(gtsm-mediated phosphatase inhibition and neurogenerative outcomes.

  8. Rhizome elongation and seagrass clonal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Duarte, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    A compilation of published and original data on rhizome morphometry, horizontal and vertical elongation rates and branching patterns for 27 seagrass species developing in 192 seagrass stands allowed an examination of the variability of seagrass rhizome and clonal growth programmes across and within

  9. Redox Impact on Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skryhan, Katsiaryna

    Summary The thesis provides new insight into the influence of the plant cell redox state on the transient starch metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana with a focus on starch biosynthetic enzymes. Two main hypotheses forms the basis of this thesis: 1) photosynthesis and starch metabolism are coordina......Summary The thesis provides new insight into the influence of the plant cell redox state on the transient starch metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana with a focus on starch biosynthetic enzymes. Two main hypotheses forms the basis of this thesis: 1) photosynthesis and starch metabolism...... are coordinated by the redox state of the cell via post-translational modification of the starch metabolic enzymes containing redox active cysteine residues and these cysteine residues became cross-linked upon oxidation providing a conformational change leading to activity loss; 2) cysteine residues...... of chloroplast enzymes can play a role not only in enzyme activity and redox sensitivity but also in protein folding and stability upon oxidation. Several redox sensitive enzymes identified in this study can serve as potential targets to control the carbon flux to and from starch during the day and night...

  10. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koji; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a major regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) auxin receptor family, has recently been demonstrated to be critical for auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. Early-phase auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, on the other hand, has long been explained by the acid-growth theory, for which proton extrusion by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a functional prerequisite. However, the mechanism by which auxin mediates H(+)-ATPase activation has yet to be elucidated. Here, we present direct evidence for H(+)-ATPase activation in etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by auxin through phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine during early-phase hypocotyl elongation. Application of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to endogenous auxin-depleted hypocotyl sections induced phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the H(+)-ATPase and increased H(+)-ATPase activity without altering the amount of the enzyme. Changes in both the phosphorylation level of H(+)-ATPase and IAA-induced elongation were similarly concentration dependent. Furthermore, IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation occurred in a tir1-1 afb2-3 double mutant, which is severely defective in auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. In addition, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, the auxin antagonist specific for the nuclear auxin receptor TIR1/AFBs, had no effect on IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. These results suggest that the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family is not involved in auxin-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. Our results define the activation mechanism of H(+)-ATPase by auxin during early-phase hypocotyl elongation; this is the long-sought-after mechanism that is central to the acid-growth theory.

  11. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  12. Ethylene regulates fast apoplastic acidification and expansin A transcription during submergence-induced petiole elongation in Rumex palustris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, RAM; Benschop, JJ; Peeters, AJM; Colmer, TD; Ammerlaan, AHM; Staal, M; Elzenga, TM; Staals, RHJ; Darley, CP; McQueen-Mason, SJ; Voesenek, LACJ

    The semi-aquatic dicot Rumex palustris responds to complete submergence by enhanced elongation of young petioles. This elongation of petiole cells brings leaf blades above the water surface, thus reinstating gas exchange with the atmosphere and increasing survival in flood-prone environments. We

  13. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-11

    YPD medium and the plates were incubated at 26 oC, 30 oC, 33oC or 37oC for 3 days prior to photographing. Figure 5. In vitro elongase activities...defective in de novo FA synthesis (e.g., fas2! mutants) would be incapable of growing on medium supplemented with myristate (C14) if they were also...defective in fatty acid elongation. Thus, fas2! cells, which are able to grow in medium supplemented with myristate, were mutagenized and plated on

  14. Fruiting branch K+ level affects cotton fibre elongation through osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashuo eYang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fibre length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fibre elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fibre length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1 on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibres were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax is the parameter that best reflects the change in fibre elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analysed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fibre length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibres, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fibre length in late season bolls.

  15. Cadmium-induced changes in vacuolar aspects of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shanti S; Yamamoto, Kotaro; Hamaji, Kohei; Ohnishi, Miwa; Anegawa, Aya; Sharma, Shashi; Thakur, Sveta; Kumar, Vijay; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2017-05-01

    We have examined the changes due to Cd treatment in the vacuolar form in root tip cortical cells in Arabidopsis thaliana employing a transformant with GFP fused to a tonoplast protein. A Cd-induced enhancement in complexity with general expansion of vacuolar system within 24 h was evident. The changes in the vacuolar form were dependent on the applied Cd concentrations. Concomitantly, as revealed through dithizone staining, Cd accumulated in the seedling roots exhibiting abundance of Cd-dithizone complexes in root tip, root hairs and vasculature. To get insight into the involvement of SNARE protein-mediated vesicle fusion in Cd detoxification, the magnitude of Cd toxicity in a couple of knock out mutants of the vacuolar Qa-SNARE protein VAM3/SYP22 was compared with that in the wild type. The Cd toxicity appeared to be comparable in the mutants and the wild type. In order to analyze the Cd effects at cellular level, we treated the Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells with Cd. Cd, however, did not induce a change in the vacuolar form in suspension-cultured cells although Cd measured with ICP-MS was obviously taken up into the cell. The V-ATPase activity in the microsomal fractions from vacuoles isolated from A. thaliana suspension cultured cells remained unaffected by Cd. Changes in the levels of certain metabolites of Cd-treated cells were also not so distinct except for those of glutathione. The significance of findings is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Elongation and migration of sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoar, Haim; Blumberg, Dan G.; Stoler, Yoav

    2004-02-01

    Two distinct processes are known to act on dynamic dunes, the process of migration by erosion on the windward side and deposition on the lee side, typical for transverse dunes, and the process of elongation typical for linear dunes. These two processes are determined by wind direction relative to the dune alignment. This article reviews the assertion that linear dunes experience lateral displacement in addition to elongation. Fieldwork on vegetated linear dunes (VLDs) and GIS work on seif dunes indicates no lateral migration for these dunes. Linear dunes can shift laterally only when a slip face, formed on the lee side, reaches the plinth of the dune. The winds from both sides of the seif dune are never symmetric; usually winds from one direction are more dominant and effective. The outcome is the formation of peaks and saddles along the dune. The strongest winds create a slip face on the lee side of the peak segments of the dune, oblique to the dune alignment, which reaches the base of the dune and displaces the peak downwind along the dune alignment. The internal structure of the seif dune is formed mostly by this dominant wind direction and gives the impression that the dune has shifted laterally. On the other hand, there are cases in which the wind directions relative to dune alignment fall between those of transverse and seif dunes. In such cases, both processes act on the dune, which subsequently experiences migration as well as elongation.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana glucuronosyltransferase in family GT14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins are abundant cell-surface proteoglycans in plants and are involved in many cellular processes including somatic embryogenesis, cell-cell interactions, and cell elongation. We reported a glucuronosyltransferase encoded by Arabidopsis AtGlcAT14A, which catalyzes an addition...... of glucuronic acid residues to β-1,3- and β-1,6-linked galactans of arabinogalactan (Knoch et al. 2013). The knockout mutant of this gene resulted in the enhanced growth rate of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings, suggesting an involvement of AtGlcAT 14A in cell elongation. AtGlcAt14A belongs to the family GT14...

  18. Characterization and functional analysis of four HYH splicing variants in Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zheng, Lanlan; Zhang, Jingxuan; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Jianping; Wang, Xuanbin; Palfalvi, Gergo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yonghong

    2017-07-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) is a positive regulator of the light signaling pathway. The hy5 mutant has an elongated hypocotyl in all light conditions, whereas the hy5 homolog (hyh) mutant has a very weak phenotype, but only in blue light. However, overexpression of HYH rescues the elongated hypocotyl phenotype in the hy5 null mutant. Here, we report the identification of four HYH splicing variants in Arabidopsis. Alternative splicing in the 5' region of the HYH gene occurred such that the proteins encoded by all four HYH variants retained their bZIP domain. In hypocotyl tissue, transcript levels of HYH.2, HYH.3, and HYH.4 were higher than those of HYH.1. Like HY5, all HYH variants were induced by light. Functional analysis of the four HYH variants, based on their abilities to complement the hy5 mutant, indicated that they have similar roles in hypocotyl development, and may function redundantly with HY5. Our results indicate that the bZIP domain in HYH is critical for the function of four variants in the compensation of hy5 mutant in hypocotyl development. Additionally, while HY5/HYH is found in plant species ranging from green algae to flowering plants, the potential alternative splicing events are distinct in different species, with certain HYH variants found with greater frequency in some species than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. CDK9 inhibitors define elongation checkpoints at both ends of RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitem, Clélia; Zaborowska, Justyna; Isa, Nur F; Kufs, Johann; Dienstbier, Martin; Murphy, Shona

    2015-05-01

    Transcription through early-elongation checkpoints requires phosphorylation of negative transcription elongation factors (NTEFs) by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 9. Using CDK9 inhibitors and global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq), we have mapped CDK9 inhibitor-sensitive checkpoints genome wide in human cells. Our data indicate that early-elongation checkpoints are a general feature of RNA polymerase (pol) II-transcribed human genes and occur independently of polymerase stalling. Pol II that has negotiated the early-elongation checkpoint can elongate in the presence of inhibitors but, remarkably, terminates transcription prematurely close to the terminal polyadenylation (poly(A)) site. Our analysis has revealed an unexpected poly(A)-associated elongation checkpoint, which has major implications for the regulation of gene expression. Interestingly, the pattern of modification of the C-terminal domain of pol II terminated at this new checkpoint largely mirrors the pattern normally found downstream of the poly(A) site, thus suggesting common mechanisms of termination.

  20. Novel Ribonuclease Activity Differs between Fibrillarins from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Rodriguez-Corona

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillarin is one of the most important nucleolar proteins that have been shown as essential for life. Fibrillarin localizes primarily at the periphery between fibrillar center and dense fibrillar component as well as in Cajal bodies. In most plants there are at least two different genes for fibrillarin. In Arabidopsis thaliana both genes show high level of expression in transcriptionally active cells. Here, we focus on two important differences between A. thaliana fibrillarins. First and most relevant is the enzymatic activity by AtFib2. The AtFib2 shows a novel ribonuclease activity that is not seen with AtFib1. Second is a difference in the ability to interact with phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid between both proteins. We also show that the novel ribonuclease activity as well as the phospholipid binding region of fibrillarin is confine to the GAR domain. The ribonuclease activity of fibrillarin reveals in this study represents a new role for this protein in rRNA processing.

  1. Characterization Of Laccase T-DNA Mutants In Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Asp, Torben; Mansfield, Shawn

    Laccases (P-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2), also termed laccase-like multicopper oxidases, are blue copper-containing oxidases which comprise multigene families in plants. In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 17 laccase genes (LAC1 to LAC17) have been annotated. To identify laccases...... involved in cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis primary stems we have developed homozygous T-DNA mutants for 14 individual laccases. Six laccases are highly expressed in the wild type primary stem, four of which (LAC2, LAC4, LAC12, and LAC17) show correlated gene expression with one to several genes (e...... different and distinct biochemical pathways and that laccases might be involved in polymerization of both polysaccharides and monolignols in the Arabidopsis cell wall....

  2. Strigolactones Stimulate Internode Elongation Independently of Gibberellins1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A.; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Rameau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

  3. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongational...

  4. Blastocyst elongation, trophoblastic differentiation, and embryonic pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Leann; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Viebahn, Christoph

    2008-02-01

    The molecular basis of ungulate and non-rodent conceptus elongation and gastrulation remains poorly understood; however, use of state-of-the-art genomic technologies is beginning to elucidate the mechanisms regulating these complicated processes. For instance, transcriptome analysis of elongating porcine concepti indicates that protein synthesis and trafficking, cell growth and proliferation, and cellular morphology are major regulated processes. Furthermore, potential autocrine roles of estrogen and interleukin-1-beta in regulating porcine conceptus growth and remodeling and metabolism have become evident. The importance of estrogen in pig is emphasized by the altered expression of essential steroidogenic and trophoblast factors in lagging ovoid concepti. In ruminants, the characteristic mononucleate trophoblast cells differentiate into a second lineage important for implantation, the binucleate trophoblast, and transcriptome profiling of bovine concepti has revealed a gene cluster associated with rapid trophoblast proliferation and differentiation. Gene cluster analysis has also provided evidence of correlated spatiotemporal expression and emphasized the significance of the bovine trophoblast cell lineage and the regulatory mechanism of trophoblast function. As a part of the gastrulation process in the mammalian conceptus, specification of the germ layers and hence definitive body axes occur in advance of primitive streak formation. Processing of the transforming growth factor-beta-signaling molecules nodal and BMP4 by specific proteases is emerging as a decisive step in the initial patterning of the pre-gastrulation embryo. The topography of expression of these and other secreted molecules with reference to embryonic and extraembryonic tissues determines their local interaction potential. Their ensuing signaling leads to the specification of axial epiblast and hypoblast compartments through cellular migration and differentiation and, in particular, the

  5. Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2006-01-01

    -Pom was estimated to have 2.5 arms on average, while the estimate is 3.3 for the asymmetric star. The molar mass of each arm is about 27 kg/mol. The melts were characterized in the linear viscoelastic regime and in non-linear elongational rheometry. The transient elongational viscosity for the Pom-Pom molecule...... it corresponds well with an estimate of the maximum stretchability of the backbone. Time-strain separability was not observed for the 'Asymmetric star' molecule at the elongation rates investigated. The transient elongational viscosity for the 'Pom-Pom' molecule went through a reproducible maximum...... in the viscosity at the highest elongational rate....

  6. Transcription elongation factor GreA has functional chaperone activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial GreA is an indispensable factor in the RNA polymerase elongation complex. It plays multiple roles in transcriptional elongation, and may be implicated in resistance to various stresses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we show that Escherichia coli GreA inhibits aggregation of several substrate proteins under heat shock condition. GreA can also effectively promote the refolding of denatured proteins. These facts reveal that GreA has chaperone activity. Distinct from many molecular chaperones, GreA does not form stable complexes with unfolded substrates. GreA overexpression confers the host cells with enhanced resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, GreA expression in the greA/greB double mutant could suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and dramatically alleviate the in vivo protein aggregation. The results suggest that bacterial GreA may act as chaperone in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that GreA, in addition to its function as a transcription factor, is involved in protection of cellular proteins against aggregation.

  7. The pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We resequenced 876 short fragments in a sample of 96 individuals of Arabidopsis thaliana that included stock center accessions as well as a hierarchical sample from natural populations. Although A. thaliana is a selfing weed, the pattern of polymorphism in general agrees with what is expected for a widely distributed, sexually reproducing species. Linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, within 50 kb. Variation is shared worldwide, although population structure and isolation by distance are evident. The data fail to fit standard neutral models in several ways. There is a genome-wide excess of rare alleles, at least partially due to selection. There is too much variation between genomic regions in the level of polymorphism. The local level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with gene density and positively correlated with segmental duplications. Because the data do not fit theoretical null distributions, attempts to infer natural selection from polymorphism data will require genome-wide surveys of polymorphism in order to identify anomalous regions. Despite this, our data support the utility of A. thaliana as a model for evolutionary functional genomics.

  8. Control of transcription elongation by GreA determines rate of gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzenkova, Yulia; Gamba, Pamela; Herber, Martijn; Attaiech, Laetitia; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P; Klumpp, Stefan; Zenkin, Nikolay; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase may be interrupted by pauses caused by backtracking or misincorporation that can be resolved by the conserved bacterial Gre-factors. However, the consequences of such pausing in the living cell remain obscure. Here, we developed molecular biology and transcriptome sequencing tools in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and provide evidence that transcription elongation is rate-limiting on highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that transcription elongation may be a highly regulated step of gene expression in S. pneumoniae. Regulation is accomplished via long-living elongation pauses and their resolution by elongation factor GreA. Interestingly, mathematical modeling indicates that long-living pauses cause queuing of RNA polymerases, which results in 'transcription traffic jams' on the gene and thus blocks its expression. Together, our results suggest that long-living pauses and RNA polymerase queues caused by them are a major problem on highly expressed genes and are detrimental for cell viability. The major and possibly sole function of GreA in S. pneumoniae is to prevent formation of backtracked elongation complexes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 controls TNF-α translation in LPS-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Terán, Bárbara; Cortés, José R.; Manieri, Elisa; Matesanz, Nuria; Verdugo, ρngeles; Rodríguez, María E.; González-Rodríguez, ρgueda; Valverde, ρngela; Martín, Pilar; Davis, Roger J.; Sabio, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial LPS (endotoxin) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute liver disease through its induction of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. TNF-α is a key determinant of the outcome in a well-established mouse model of acute liver failure during septic shock. One possible mechanism for regulating TNF-α expression is through the control of protein elongation during translation, which would allow rapid cell adaptation to physiological changes. However, the regulation of translational elongation is poorly understood. We found that expression of p38γ/δ MAPK proteins is required for the elongation of nascent TNF-α protein in macrophages. The MKK3/6-p38γ/δ pathway mediated an inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, which in turn promoted eEF2 activation (dephosphorylation) and subsequent TNF-α elongation. These results identify a new signaling pathway that regulates TNF-α production in LPS-induced liver damage and suggest potential cell-specific therapeutic targets for liver diseases in which TNF-α production is involved. PMID:23202732

  10. Characterisation of the first enzymes committed to lysine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D W Griffin

    Full Text Available In plants, the lysine biosynthetic pathway is an attractive target for both the development of herbicides and increasing the nutritional value of crops given that lysine is a limiting amino acid in cereals. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS and dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR catalyse the first two committed steps of lysine biosynthesis. Here, we carry out for the first time a comprehensive characterisation of the structure and activity of both DHDPS and DHDPR from Arabidopsis thaliana. The A. thaliana DHDPS enzyme (At-DHDPS2 has similar activity to the bacterial form of the enzyme, but is more strongly allosterically inhibited by (S-lysine. Structural studies of At-DHDPS2 show (S-lysine bound at a cleft between two monomers, highlighting the allosteric site; however, unlike previous studies, binding is not accompanied by conformational changes, suggesting that binding may cause changes in protein dynamics rather than large conformation changes. DHDPR from A. thaliana (At-DHDPR2 has similar specificity for both NADH and NADPH during catalysis, and has tighter binding of substrate than has previously been reported. While all known bacterial DHDPR enzymes have a tetrameric structure, analytical ultracentrifugation, and scattering data unequivocally show that At-DHDPR2 exists as a dimer in solution. The exact arrangement of the dimeric protein is as yet unknown, but ab initio modelling of x-ray scattering data is consistent with an elongated structure in solution, which does not correspond to any of the possible dimeric pairings observed in the X-ray crystal structure of DHDPR from other organisms. This increased knowledge of the structure and function of plant lysine biosynthetic enzymes will aid future work aimed at improving primary production.

  11. ECERIFERUM2-LIKE Proteins Have Unique Biochemical and Physiological Functions in Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acid Elongation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Tegan M.; Haslam, Richard; Thoraval, Didier; Pascal, Stéphanie; Delude, Camille; Domergue, Frédéric; Fernández, Aurora Mañas; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Napier, Johnathan A.; Kunst, Ljerka; Joubès, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The extension of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) for the synthesis of specialized apoplastic lipids requires unique biochemical machinery. Condensing enzymes catalyze the first reaction in fatty acid elongation and determine the chain length of fatty acids accepted and produced by the fatty acid elongation complex. Although necessary for the elongation of all VLCFAs, known condensing enzymes cannot efficiently synthesize VLCFAs longer than 28 carbons, despite the prevalence of C28 to C34 acyl lipids in cuticular wax and the pollen coat. The eceriferum2 (cer2) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously shown to have a specific deficiency in cuticular waxes longer than 28 carbons, and heterologous expression of CER2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) demonstrated that it can modify the acyl chain length produced by a condensing enzyme from 28 to 30 carbon atoms. Here, we report the physiological functions and biochemical specificities of the CER2 homologs CER2-LIKE1 and CER2-LIKE2 by mutant analysis and heterologous expression in yeast. We demonstrate that all three CER2-LIKEs function with the same small subset of condensing enzymes, and that they have different effects on the substrate specificity of the same condensing enzyme. Finally, we show that the changes in acyl chain length caused by each CER2-LIKE protein are of substantial importance for cuticle formation and pollen coat function. PMID:25596184

  12. Facial pain due to elongated styloid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Bhusan Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most frequent cause of suffering and disability. The etiology of orofacial pain is still elusive. However, the etiology has to be ascertained for definitive treatment. Only after a systematic and careful evaluation can a treating surgeon be aware of the underlying cause. Though dental causes predominate in the diagnosis of orofacial pain, the rare cause of facial pain have to be excluded, which would prevent unnecessary and fruitless dental treatment. The present case is an example of a rare condition that may be overlooked during examination. This paper will describe a case of vague unilateral orofacial pain, the diagnosis of which zeroed down to an elongated styloid process.

  13. Cotton fiber elongation network revealed by expression profiling of longer fiber lines introgressed with different Gossypium barbadense chromosome segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Tian, Ruiping; Li, Xinghe; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-10-02

    Cotton fiber, a highly elongated, thickened single cell of the seed epidermis, is a powerful cell wall research model. Fiber length, largely determined during the elongation stage, is a key property of fiber quality. Several studies using expressed sequence tags and microarray analysis have identified transcripts that accumulate preferentially during fiber elongation. To further show the mechanism of fiber elongation, we used Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling to compare transcriptome data from longer fiber chromosome introgressed lines (CSILs) containing segments of various Gossypium barbadense chromosomes with data from its recurrent parent TM-1 during fiber elongation (from 5 DPA to 20 DPA). A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in carbohydrate, fatty acid and secondary metabolism, particularly cell wall biosynthesis, were highly upregulated during the fiber elongation stage, as determined by functional enrichment and pathway analysis. Furthermore, DEGs related to hormone responses and transcription factors showed upregulated expression levels in the CSILs. Moreover, metabolic and regulatory network analysis indicated that the same pathways were differentially altered, and distinct pathways exhibited altered gene expression, in the CSILs. Interestingly, mining of upregulated DEGs in the introgressed segments of these CSILs based on D-genome sequence data showed that these lines were enriched in glucuronosyltransferase, inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate 3-kinase and desulfoglucosinolate sulfotransferase activity. These results were similar to the results of transcriptome analysis. This report provides an integrative network about the molecular mechanisms controlling fiber length, which are mainly tied to carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, secondary metabolism, hormone responses and Transcription factors. The results of this study provide new insights into the critical factors associated with cell

  14. The Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermis

    KAUST Repository

    Staff, Lee

    2012-09-11

    The quest for the discovery of mathematical principles that underlie biological phenomena is ancient and ongoing. We present a geometric analysis of the complex interdigitated pavement cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) adaxial epidermis with a view to discovering some geometric characteristics that may govern the formation of this tissue. More than 2,400 pavement cells from 10, 17 and 24 day old leaves were analyzed. These interdigitated cells revealed a number of geometric properties that remained constant across the three age groups. In particular, the number of digits per cell rarely exceeded 15, irrespective of cell area. Digit numbers per 100 ?m2 cell area reduce with age and as cell area increases, suggesting early developmental programming of digits. Cell shape proportions as defined by length:width ratios were highly conserved over time independent of the size and, interestingly, both the mean and the medians were close to the golden ratio 1.618034. With maturity, the cell area:perimeter ratios increased from a mean of 2.0 to 2.4. Shape properties as defined by the medial axis transform (MAT) were calculated and revealed that branch points along the MAT typically comprise one large and two small angles. These showed consistency across the developmental stages considered here at 140° (± 5°) for the largest angles and 110° (± 5°) for the smaller angles. Voronoi diagram analyses of stomatal center coordinates revealed that giant pavement cells (?500 ?m2) tend to be arranged along Voronoi boundaries suggesting that they could function as a scaffold of the epidermis. In addition, we propose that pavement cells have a role in spacing and positioning of the stomata in the growing leaf and that they do so by growing within the limits of a set of \\'geometrical rules\\'. © 2012 Staff et al.

  15. Elongation factor Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassembly of the Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu·GTP·aminoacyl-tRNA ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin J; Altman, Roger B; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C

    2013-05-10

    Aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) enters the ribosome in a ternary complex with the G-protein elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. EF-Tu·GTP·aa-tRNA ternary complex formation and decay rates are accelerated in the presence of the nucleotide exchange factor elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts). EF-Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassociation of ternary complex. This system demonstrates a novel function of EF-Ts. Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis.

  16. Yeast methylotrophy and autophagy in a methanol-oscillating environment on growing Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida boidinii capable of growth on methanol proliferates and survives on the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The local methanol concentration at the phyllosphere of growing A. thaliana exhibited daily periodicity, and yeast cells responded by altering both the expression of methanol-inducible genes and peroxisome proliferation. Even under these dynamically changing environmental conditions, yeast cells proliferated 3 to 4 times in 11 days. Among the C1-metabolic enzymes, enzymes in the methanol assimilation pathway, but not formaldehyde dissimilation or anti-oxidizing enzymes, were necessary for yeast proliferation at the phyllosphere. Furthermore, both peroxisome assembly and pexophagy, a selective autophagy pathway that degrades peroxisomes, were necessary for phyllospheric proliferation. Thus, the present study sheds light on the life cycle and physiology of yeast in the natural environment at both the molecular and cellular levels.

  17. Yeast Methylotrophy and Autophagy in a Methanol-Oscillating Environment on Growing Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Candida boidinii capable of growth on methanol proliferates and survives on the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The local methanol concentration at the phyllosphere of growing A. thaliana exhibited daily periodicity, and yeast cells responded by altering both the expression of methanol-inducible genes and peroxisome proliferation. Even under these dynamically changing environmental conditions, yeast cells proliferated 3 to 4 times in 11 days. Among the C1-metabolic enzymes, enzymes in the methanol assimilation pathway, but not formaldehyde dissimilation or anti-oxidizing enzymes, were necessary for yeast proliferation at the phyllosphere. Furthermore, both peroxisome assembly and pexophagy, a selective autophagy pathway that degrades peroxisomes, were necessary for phyllospheric proliferation. Thus, the present study sheds light on the life cycle and physiology of yeast in the natural environment at both the molecular and cellular levels. PMID:21966472

  18. Structural rationale for the cross-resistance of tumor cells bearing the A399V variant of elongation factor eEF1A1 to the structurally unrelated didemnin B, ternatin, nannocystin A and ansatrienin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.; Cortés-Cabrera, Álvaro; Gago, Federico

    2017-10-01

    At least four classes of structurally distinct natural products with potent antiproliferative activities target the translation elongation factor eEF1A1, which is best known as the G-protein that delivers amino acyl transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) to ribosomes during mRNA translation. We present molecular models in atomic detail that provide a common structural basis for the high-affinity binding of didemnin B, ternatin, ansatrienin B and nannocystin A to eEF1A1, as well as a rationale based on molecular dynamics results that accounts for the deleterious effect of replacing alanine 399 with valine. The proposed binding site, at the interface between domains I and III, is eminently hydrophobic and exists only in the GTP-bound conformation. Drug binding at this site is expected to disrupt neither loading of aa-tRNAs nor GTP hydrolysis but would give rise to stabilization of this particular conformational state, in consonance with reported experimental findings. The experimental solution of the three-dimensional structure of mammalian eEF1A1 has proved elusive so far and the highly homologous eEF1A2 from rabbit muscle has been crystallized and solved only as a homodimer in a GDP-bound conformation. Interestingly, in this dimeric structure the large interdomain cavity where the drugs studied are proposed to bind is occupied by a mostly hydrophobic α-helix from domain I of the same monomer. Since binding of this α-helix and any of these drugs to domain III of eEF1A(1/2) is, therefore, mutually exclusive and involves two distinct protein conformations, one intriguing possibility that emerges from our study is that the potent antiproliferative effect of these natural products may arise not only from inhibition of protein synthesis, which is the current dogma, but also from interference with some other non-canonical functions. From this standpoint, this type of drugs could be considered antagonists of eEF1A1/2 oligomerization, a hypothesis that opens up novel areas of research.

  19. Structural rationale for the cross-resistance of tumor cells bearing the A399V variant of elongation factor eEF1A1 to the structurally unrelated didemnin B, ternatin, nannocystin A and ansatrienin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.; Cortés-Cabrera, Álvaro; Gago, Federico

    2017-09-01

    At least four classes of structurally distinct natural products with potent antiproliferative activities target the translation elongation factor eEF1A1, which is best known as the G-protein that delivers amino acyl transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) to ribosomes during mRNA translation. We present molecular models in atomic detail that provide a common structural basis for the high-affinity binding of didemnin B, ternatin, ansatrienin B and nannocystin A to eEF1A1, as well as a rationale based on molecular dynamics results that accounts for the deleterious effect of replacing alanine 399 with valine. The proposed binding site, at the interface between domains I and III, is eminently hydrophobic and exists only in the GTP-bound conformation. Drug binding at this site is expected to disrupt neither loading of aa-tRNAs nor GTP hydrolysis but would give rise to stabilization of this particular conformational state, in consonance with reported experimental findings. The experimental solution of the three-dimensional structure of mammalian eEF1A1 has proved elusive so far and the highly homologous eEF1A2 from rabbit muscle has been crystallized and solved only as a homodimer in a GDP-bound conformation. Interestingly, in this dimeric structure the large interdomain cavity where the drugs studied are proposed to bind is occupied by a mostly hydrophobic α-helix from domain I of the same monomer. Since binding of this α-helix and any of these drugs to domain III of eEF1A(1/2) is, therefore, mutually exclusive and involves two distinct protein conformations, one intriguing possibility that emerges from our study is that the potent antiproliferative effect of these natural products may arise not only from inhibition of protein synthesis, which is the current dogma, but also from interference with some other non-canonical functions. From this standpoint, this type of drugs could be considered antagonists of eEF1A1/2 oligomerization, a hypothesis that opens up novel areas of research.

  20. Ethylene Inhibits Cell Proliferation of the Arabidopsis Root Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Ian H; Aman, Sitwat; Zubo, Yan; Ramzan, Aleena; Wang, Xiaomin; Shakeel, Samina N; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2015-09-01

    The root system of plants plays a critical role in plant growth and survival, with root growth being dependent on both cell proliferation and cell elongation. Multiple phytohormones interact to control root growth, including ethylene, which is primarily known for its role in controlling root cell elongation. We find that ethylene also negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root meristem of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic analysis indicates that the inhibition of cell proliferation involves two pathways operating downstream of the ethylene receptors. The major pathway is the canonical ethylene signal transduction pathway that incorporates CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2, and the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 family of transcription factors. The secondary pathway is a phosphorelay based on genetic analysis of receptor histidine kinase activity and mutants involving the type B response regulators. Analysis of ethylene-dependent gene expression and genetic analysis supports SHORT HYPOCOTYL2, a repressor of auxin signaling, as one mediator of the ethylene response and furthermore, indicates that SHORT HYPOCOTYL2 is a point of convergence for both ethylene and cytokinin in negatively regulating cell proliferation. Additional analysis indicates that ethylene signaling contributes but is not required for cytokinin to inhibit activity of the root meristem. These results identify key elements, along with points of cross talk with cytokinin and auxin, by which ethylene negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root apical meristem. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Structural organization of actin in the sea urchin egg cortex: microvillar elongation in the absence of actin filament bundle formation

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, DA; Rebhun, LI; Hyatt, H

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the formation of actin filament bundles and the elongation of microvilli (MV) after fertilization in sea urchin eggs. In a previous study (1979, J Cell Biol. 83:241-248) we demonstrated that increased pH induced the formation of actin filaments in isolated sea urchin egg cortices with the concomitant elongation of MV. On the basis of these results we suggested that increased cytoplasmic pH after fertilization causes a reorganization of cortical ac...

  2. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  3. The Mitochondrial Phosphate Transporters Modulate Plant Responses to Salt Stress via Affecting ATP and Gibberellin Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guodong; Wu, Changai; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT) plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana. PMID:22937061

  4. Regulation of Transcription Elongation by the XPG-TFIIH Complex Is Implicated in Cockayne Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Takashi; Narita, Keiko; Takedachi, Arato; Saijo, Masafumi; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2015-09-01

    XPG is a causative gene underlying the photosensitive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) and is involved in nucleotide excision repair. Here, we show that XPG knockdown represses epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced FOS transcription at the level of transcription elongation with little effect on EGF signal transduction. XPG interacted with transcription elongation factors in concert with TFIIH, suggesting that the XPG-TFIIH complex serves as a transcription elongation factor. The XPG-TFIIH complex was recruited to promoter and coding regions of both EGF-induced (FOS) and housekeeping (EEF1A1) genes. Further, EGF-induced recruitment of RNA polymerase II and TFIIH to FOS was reduced by XPG knockdown. Importantly, EGF-induced FOS transcription was markedly lower in XP-G/Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells expressing truncated XPG than in control cells expressing wild-type (WT) XPG, with less significant decreases in XP-G cells with XPG nuclease domain mutations. In corroboration of this finding, both WT XPG and a missense XPG mutant from an XP-G patient were recruited to FOS upon EGF stimulation, but an XPG mutant mimicking a C-terminal truncation from an XP-G/CS patient was not. These results suggest that the XPG-TFIIH complex is involved in transcription elongation and that defects in this association may partly account for Cockayne syndrome in XP-G/CS patients. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Spatial-specific regulation of root development by phytochromes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2011-12-01

    Distinct tissues and organs of plants exhibit dissimilar responses to light exposure--cotyledon growth is promoted by light, whereas hypocotyl growth is inhibited by light. Light can have different impacts on root development, including impacting root elongation, morphology, lateral root proliferation and root tropisms. In many cases, light inhibits root elongation. There has been much attention given to whether roots themselves are the sites of photoperception for light that impacts light-dependent growth and development of roots. A number of approaches including photoreceptor localization in planta, localized irradiation and exposure of dissected roots to light have been used to explore the site(s) of light perception for the photoregulation of root development. Such approaches have led to the observation that photoreceptors are localized to roots in many plant species, and that roots are capable of light absorption that can alter morphology and/or gene expression. Our recent results show that localized depletion of phytochrome photoreceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana disrupts root development and root responsiveness to the plant hormone jasmonic acid. Thus, root-localized light perception appears central to organ-specific, photoregulation of growth and development in roots. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  6. A topological map of the compartmentalized Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Krueger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extensive subcellular compartmentalization of metabolites and metabolism in eukaryotic cells is widely acknowledged and represents a key factor of metabolic activity and functionality. In striking contrast, the knowledge of actual compartmental distribution of metabolites from experimental studies is surprisingly low. However, a precise knowledge of, possibly all, metabolites and their subcellular distributions remains a key prerequisite for the understanding of any cellular function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe results for the subcellular distribution of 1,117 polar and 2,804 lipophilic mass spectrometric features associated to known and unknown compounds from leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using an optimized non-aqueous fractionation protocol in conjunction with GC/MS- and LC/MS-based metabolite profiling, 81.5% of the metabolic data could be associated to one of three subcellular compartments: the cytosol (including the mitochondria, vacuole, or plastids. Statistical analysis using a marker-'free' approach revealed that 18.5% of these metabolites show intermediate distributions, which can either be explained by transport processes or by additional subcellular compartments. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Next to a functional and conceptual workflow for the efficient, highly resolved metabolite analysis of the fractionated Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolome, a detailed survey of the subcellular distribution of several compounds, in the graphical format of a topological map, is provided. This complex data set therefore does not only contain a rich repository of metabolic information, but due to thorough validation and testing by statistical methods, represents an initial step in the analysis of metabolite dynamics and fluxes within and between subcellular compartments.

  7. Subcellular Distribution of Glutathione Precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Barbara Eva; Maier, Romana; Zechmann, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Glutathione is an important antioxidant and has many important functions in plant development, growth and defense. Glutathione synthesis and degradation is highly compartment-specific and relies on the subcellular availability of its precursors, cysteine, glutamate, glycine and γ-glutamylcysteine especially in plastids and the cytosol which are considered as the main centers for glutathione synthesis. The availability of glutathione precursors within these cell compartments is therefore of great importance for successful plant development and defense. The aim of this study was to investigate the compartment-specific importance of glutathione precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana. The subcellular distribution was compared between wild type plants (Col-0), plants with impaired glutathione synthesis (glutathione deficient pad2-1 mutant, wild type plants treated with buthionine sulfoximine), and one complemented line (OE3) with restored glutathione synthesis. Immunocytohistochemistry revealed that the inhibition of glutathione synthesis induced the accumulation of the glutathione precursors cysteine, glutamate and glycine in most cell compartments including plastids and the cytosol. A strong decrease could be observed in γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-EC) contents in these cell compartments. These experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) – the first enzyme of glutathione synthesis – causes a reduction of γ-EC levels and an accumulation of all other glutathione precursors within the cells. PMID:22050910

  8. Studies of elongation factor Tu in Streptococcus faecium (ATCC 9790)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourbeau, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    It has been known for over twenty years that elongation factor Tu (Ef-Tu) is one of the proteins involved in protein synthesis in bacteria. Several years ago, it was proposed that Ef-Tu may, in addition, have other structural functions in bacterial. The author's research has examined the function of Ef-Tu in Streptococcus faecium. Using an antibiotic kirromycin, which specifically inhibits Ef-Tu function, the effects upon a number of cellular parameters were determined. Inhibition of both protein and RNA synthesis was found to be similar to the effect of chloramphenicol. Using the residual division technique for the determination of cell cycle events with both heterogeneous and sucrose gradient fractionated cell populations, a kirromycin sensitive event was detected between 8 min. (Td = 30 min.) and 19 min. (Td = 175 min.) later in the cell cycle than the chloramphenical sensitive event. This suggests that kirromycin is inhibiting a terminal cell cycle event which is in addition to the inhibition of protein synthesis. Purification of Ef-Tu was performed using two different methods: ion exchange and molecular exclusion chromatography; and GDP affinity chromatography. Various schemes were employed to try and obtain optimum cellular fractionation, allowing for both proper separation of ribosomes from the other cellular fractions and retention of enzymatic activity by Ef-Tu as determined by a /sup 3/H-GDP binding assay. Analysis of the cell cycle of S. faecium using the residual division technique was also performed. In addition, certain cell wall antibiotics were used to determine if other cell cycle events could be determined using the residual division technique.

  9. Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.M.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Zhang, Y.; Gadella, Th.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed

  10. Human p53 interacts with the elongating RNAPII complex and is required for the release of actinomycin D induced transcription blockage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsos, B.N. (Barbara N.); Huliák, I. (Ildikó); Majoros, H. (Hajnalka); Ujfaludi, Z. (Zsuzsanna); Gyenis, A. (Ákos); Pukler, P. (Peter); Boros, I.M. (Imre M.); Pankotai, T. (Tibor)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe p53 tumour suppressor regulates the transcription initiation of selected genes by binding to specific DNA sequences at their promoters. Here we report a novel role of p53 in transcription elongation in human cells. Our data demonstrate that upon transcription elongation blockage, p53

  11. APOBEC3G inhibits elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate N Bishop

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available APOBEC3G (A3G is a host cytidine deaminase that, in the absence of Vif, restricts HIV-1 replication and reduces the amount of viral DNA that accumulates in cells. Initial studies determined that A3G induces extensive mutation of nascent HIV-1 cDNA during reverse transcription. It has been proposed that this triggers the degradation of the viral DNA, but there is now mounting evidence that this mechanism may not be correct. Here, we use a natural endogenous reverse transcriptase assay to show that, in cell-free virus particles, A3G is able to inhibit HIV-1 cDNA accumulation not only in the absence of hypermutation but also without the apparent need for any target cell factors. We find that although reverse transcription initiates in the presence of A3G, elongation of the cDNA product is impeded. These data support the model that A3G reduces HIV-1 cDNA levels by inhibiting synthesis rather than by inducing degradation.

  12. Electrostatics control actin filament nucleation and elongation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L; Lamb, Don C; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-04-26

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment.

  13. Electrostatics Control Actin Filament Nucleation and Elongation Kinetics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H.; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L.; Lamb, Don C.; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment. PMID:23486468

  14. Mass composition analysis using elongation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochilo, Livingstone; Risse, Markus; Yushkov, Alexey [University of Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum has been observed to flatten at around 5.2 x 10{sup 18} eV where the spectral index changes from γ = 3.2 to γ = 2.6, a feature called the ''ankle'' of the spectrum. Cosmic rays with energy around the ankle and beyond, known as ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), have a very low flux and reconstruction of their properties from extensive air shower measurements is subject to uncertainties for instance from hadronic interaction models. Since the year 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has recorded a considerable number of UHECR events beyond the ankle. With the greatly improved statistics, the mass composition of the extreme end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum is now being investigated with improved accuracy. The measured composition of UHECR is an important parameter in validating the models used to explain their sources and acceleration mechanisms. In this study, we perform a mass composition analysis using elongation rate (the rate of change of the depth of shower maximum with energy), measured by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The advantage of this approach is a weak dependence of the results on the choice of the hadronic interaction models.

  15. Galactosyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana in the biosynthesis of type II arabinogalactan:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Poulsen, Christian Peter; Vereb, György

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arabinogalactan proteins are abundant proteoglycans present on cell surfaces of plants and involved in many cellular processes, including somatic embryogenesis, cell-cell communication and cell elongation. Arabinogalactan proteins consist mainly of glycan, which is synthesized by post......- translational modification of proteins in the secretory pathway. Importance of the variations in the glycan moiety of arabinogalactan proteins for their functions has been implicated, but its biosynthetic process is poorly understood.\

  16. Halogenated imidazole derivatives block RNA polymerase II elongation along mitogen inducible genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel Tymon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant activation of protein kinases is one of the essential oncogenic driving forces inherent to the process of tumorigenesis. The protein kinase CK2 plays an important role in diverse biological processes, including cell growth and proliferation as well as in the governing and transduction of prosurvival signals. Increased expression of CK2 is a hallmark of some cancers, hence its antiapoptotic properties may be relevant to cancer onset. Thus, the designing and synthesis of the CK2 inhibitors has become an important pursuit in the search for cancer therapies. Results Using a high-throughput microarray approach, we demonstrate that two potent inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-benzimidazole (TBBz and 2-Dimethyloamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT, blocked mitogen induced mRNA expression of immediate early genes. Given the impact of these inhibitors on the process of transcription, we investigated their effects on RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII elongation along the mitogen inducible gene, EGR1 (early growth response 1, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. ChIP analysis demonstrated that both drugs arrest RNAPII elongation. Finally, we show that CDK9 kinase activity, essential for the triggering of RNAPII elongation, was blocked by TBBz and to lesser degree by DMAT. Conclusions Our approach revealed that small molecules derived from halogenated imidazole compounds may decrease cell proliferation, in part, by inhibiting pathways that regulate transcription elongation.

  17. Granular sludge formation and characterization in a chain elongation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roghair, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Bruins, M.E.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Chain elongation is an open-culture biotechnological process which converts short chain fatty acids andan electron donor to medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). With this letter we present the first observation ofgranular sludge formation in a chain elongation process. This discovery was made in a

  18. Metabolic profiling of laser microdissected vascular bundles of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiehn Oliver

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser microdissection is a useful tool for collecting tissue-specific samples or even single cells from animal and plant tissue sections. This technique has been successfully employed to study cell type-specific expression at the RNA, and more recently also at the protein level. However, metabolites were not amenable to analysis after laser microdissection, due to the procedures routinely applied for sample preparation. Using standard tissue fixation and embedding protocols to prepare histological sections, metabolites are either efficiently extracted by dehydrating solvents, or washed out by embedding agents. Results In this study, we used cryosectioning as an alternative method that preserves sufficient cellular structure while minimizing metabolite loss by excluding any solute exchange steps. Using this pre-treatment procedure, Arabidopsis thaliana stem sections were prepared for laser microdissection of vascular bundles. Collected samples were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to obtain metabolite profiles. From 100 collected vascular bundles (~5,000 cells, 68 metabolites could be identified. More than half of the identified metabolites could be shown to be enriched or depleted in vascular bundles as compared to the surrounding tissues. Conclusion This study uses the example of vascular bundles to demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to analyze a comprehensive set of metabolites from laser microdissected samples at a tissue-specific level, given that a suitable sample preparation procedure is used.

  19. A CMP-sialic acid transporter cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Hans; Routier, Françoise; Ashikov, Angel; Neumann, Detlef; Bosch, Dirk; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita

    2008-08-11

    Sialylation of glycans is ubiquitous in vertebrates, but was believed to be absent in plants, arthropods, and fungi. However, recently evidence has been provided for the presence of sialic acid in these evolutionary clades. In addition, homologs of mammalian genes involved in sialylation can be found in the genomes of these taxa and for some Drosophila enzymes, involvement in sialic acid metabolism has been documented. In plant genomes, homologs of sialyltransferase genes have been identified, but there activity could not be confirmed. Several mammalian cell lines exist with defects in the sialylation pathway. One of these is the Chinese hamster ovary cell line Lec2, deficient in CMP-sialic acid transport to the Golgi lumen. These mutants provide the possibility to clone genes by functional complementation. Using expression cloning, we have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana nucleotide sugar transporter that is able to complement the CMP-sialic acid transport deficiency of Lec2 cells. The isolated gene (At5g41760) is a member of the triose-phosphate/nucleotide sugar transporter gene family. Recombinant expression of the gene in yeast and testing in vitro confirmed its ability to transport CMP-sialic acid.

  20. Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM2 Is a Component of the Fatty Acid Elongation Machinery Required for Fatty Acid Extension to Exceptional Lengths1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Tegan M.; Mañas-Fernández, Aurora; Zhao, Lifang; Kunst, Ljerka

    2012-01-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of land plants are coated by a lipidic cuticle, which forms a barrier against transpirational water loss and protects the plant from diverse stresses. Four enzymes of a fatty acid elongase complex are required for the synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) precursors of cuticular waxes. Fatty acid elongase substrate specificity is determined by a condensing enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction carried out by the complex. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), characterized condensing enzymes involved in wax synthesis can only elongate VLCFAs up to 28 carbons (C28) in length, despite the predominance of C29 to C31 monomers in Arabidopsis stem wax. This suggests additional proteins are required for elongation beyond C28. The wax-deficient mutant eceriferum2 (cer2) lacks waxes longer than C28, implying that CER2, a putative BAHD acyltransferase, is required for C28 elongation. Here, we characterize the cer2 mutant and demonstrate that green fluorescent protein-tagged CER2 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of VLCFA biosynthesis. We use site-directed mutagenesis to show that the classification of CER2 as a BAHD acyltransferase based on sequence homology does not fit with CER2 catalytic activity. Finally, we provide evidence for the function of CER2 in C28 elongation by an assay in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PMID:22930748

  1. The outer epidermis of Avena and maize coleoptiles is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A controversy exists as to whether or not the outer epidermis in coleoptiles is a unique target for auxin in elongation growth. The following evidence indicates that the outer epidermis is not the only auxin-responsive cell layer in either Avena sativa L. or Zea mays L. coleoptiles. Coleoptile sections from which the epidermis has been removed by peeling elongate in response to auxin. The magnitude of the response is similar to that of intact sections provided the incubation solution contains both auxin and sucrose. The amount of elongation is independent of the amount of epidermis removed. Sections of oat coleoptiles from which the epidermis has been removed from one side are nearly straight after 22 h in auxin and sucrose, despite extensive growth of the sections. These data indicate that the outer epidermis is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth, at least in Avena and maize coleoptiles.

  2. Identification of Polyadenylation Sites within Arabidopsis Thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal

    2011-09-01

    Machine Learning (ML) is a field of artificial intelligence focused on the design and implementation of algorithms that enable creation of models for clustering, classification, prediction, ranking and similar inference tasks based on information contained in data. Many ML algorithms have been successfully utilized in a variety of applications. The problem addressed in this thesis is from the field of bioinformatics and deals with the recognition of polyadenylation (poly(A)) sites in the genomic sequence of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. During the RNA processing, a tail consisting of a number of consecutive adenine (A) nucleotides is added to the terminal nucleotide of the 3’- untranslated region (3’UTR) of the primary RNA. The process in which these A nucleotides are added is called polyadenylation. The location in the genomic DNA sequence that corresponds to the start of terminal A nucleotides (i.e. to the end of 3’UTR) is known as a poly(A) site. Recognition of the poly(A) sites in DNA sequence is important for better gene annotation and understanding of gene regulation. In this study, we built an artificial neural network (ANN) for the recognition of poly(A) sites in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Our study demonstrates that this model achieves improved accuracy compared to the existing predictive models for this purpose. The key factor contributing to the enhanced predictive performance of our ANN model is a distinguishing set of features used in creation of the model. These features include a number of physico-chemical characteristics of relevance, such as dinucleotide thermodynamic characteristics, electron-ion interaction potential, etc., but also many of the statistical properties of the DNA sequences from the region surrounding poly(A) site, such as nucleotide and polynucleotide properties, common motifs, etc. Our ANN model was compared in performance with several other ML models, as well as with the PAC tool that is specifically developed for

  3. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Katrin; Bhide, Amey S; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Becker, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  4. Elongation Factor Ts Directly Facilitates the Formation and Disassembly of the Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu·GTP·Aminoacyl-tRNA Ternary Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin J.; Altman, Roger B.; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L.; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis. PMID:23539628

  5. Uropod elongation is a common final step in leukocyte extravasation through inflamed vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young-Min; Sumagin, Ronen; Sarangi, Pranita P.; Lomakina, Elena; Overstreet, Michael G.; Baker, Christina M.; Fowell, Deborah J.; Waugh, Richard E.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient trafficking of immune cells into peripheral nonlymphoid tissues is key to enact their protective functions. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of cell migration in secondary lymphoid organs, real-time leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues is not well characterized. The conventional multistep paradigm of leukocyte extravasation depends on CD18 integrin–mediated events such as rapid arrest and crawling on the surface of the endothelium and transmigration through the endothelial layer. Using enhanced three-dimensional detection of fluorescent CD18 fusion proteins in a newly developed knockin mouse, we report that extravasating leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells) show delayed uropod detachment and become extremely elongated before complete transmigration across the endothelium. Additionally, these cells deposit CD18+ microparticles at the subendothelial layer before retracting the stretched uropod. Experiments with knockout mice and blocking antibodies reveal that the uropod elongation and microparticle formation are the result of LFA-1–mediated adhesion and VLA-3–mediated cell migration through the vascular basement membrane. These findings suggest that uropod elongation is a final step in the leukocyte extravasation cascade, which may be important for precise regulation of leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues. PMID:22711877

  6. Control of cotton fibre elongation by a homeodomain transcription factor GhHOX3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chun-Min; Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Xiu-Fang; Chao, Lu-Men; Yang, Chang-Qing; Wang, Ling-Jian; Zhu, Hua-Yu; Zeng, Yan-Da; Guo, Wang-Zhen; Zhou, Bao-Liang; Hu, Guan-Jing; Guan, Xue-Ying; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Wendel, Jonathan F; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2014-11-21

    Cotton fibres are unusually long, single-celled epidermal seed trichomes and a model for plant cell growth, but little is known about the regulation of fibre cell elongation. Here we report that a homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factor, GhHOX3, controls cotton fibre elongation. GhHOX3 genes are localized to the 12th homoeologous chromosome set of allotetraploid cotton cultivars, associated with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fibre length. Silencing of GhHOX3 greatly reduces (>80%) fibre length, whereas its overexpression leads to longer fibre. Combined transcriptomic and biochemical analyses identify target genes of GhHOX3 that also contain the L1-box cis-element, including two cell wall loosening protein genes GhRDL1 and GhEXPA1. GhHOX3 interacts with GhHD1, another homeodomain protein, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity, and with cotton DELLA, GhSLR1, repressor of the growth hormone gibberellin (GA). GhSLR1 interferes with the GhHOX3-GhHD1 interaction and represses target gene transcription. Our results uncover a novel mechanism whereby a homeodomain protein transduces GA signal to promote fibre cell elongation.

  7. The alphabet of galactolipids in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina eIbrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Galactolipids constitute the major lipid class in plants. In recent years oxygenated derivatives of galactolipids have been detected. They are discussed as signal molecules during leaf damage, since they accumulate in wounded leaves in high levels. Using different analytical methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infra-red spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS earlier reports focused on the analysis of either oxidized or non-oxidized species and needed high levels of analytes. Here, we report on the analysis of the galactolipid subfraction of the Arabidopsis leaf lipidome by an improved HPLC/MS2-based method that is fast, robust and comparatively simple in its performance. Due to a combination of phase partitioning, solid phase fractionation, liquid chromatography and MS2 experiments this method has high detection sensitivity and requires only low amounts of plant material. With this method 167 galactolipid species were detected in leaves of A. thaliana. Out of these 79 being newly described species. From all species the head group and acyl side chains were identified via MS2 experiments. Moreover, the structural identification was supported by HPLC/time-of-flight (TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC/MS analysis. The quantification of different galactolipid species that accumulated 30 min after a mechanical wounding in A. thaliana leaves showed that the oxidized acyl side chains in galactolipids are divided into 65 % cyclopentenones, 27 % methyl-branched ketols, 3.8 % hydroperoxides/straight-chain ketols, 2.0 % hydroxides and 2.6 % phytoprostanes. In comparison to the free cyclopentenon derivatives, the esterifed forms occur in a 149-fold excess supporting the hypothesis that galactolipids might function as storage compounds for cyclopentenones. Additional analysis of the ratio of non-oxidized to oxidized galactolipid species in leaves of wounded plants was performed resulting in a ratio of 2.0 in

  8. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2016-07-11

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses.

  9. The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein FBL17 is essential for progression through the second mitosis during pollen development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Gusti

    Full Text Available In fungi and metazoans, the SCF-type Ubiquitin protein ligases (E3s play a critical role in cell cycle regulation by degrading negative regulators, such as cell cycle-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs at the G1-to-S-phase checkpoint. Here we report that FBL17, an Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein, is involved in cell cycle regulation during male gametogenesis. FBL17 expression is strongly enhanced in plants co-expressing E2Fa and DPa, transcription factors that promote S-phase entry. FBL17 loss-of-function mutants fail to undergo pollen mitosis II, which generates the two sperm cells in mature A. thaliana pollen. Nonetheless, the single sperm cell-like cell in fbl17 mutants is functional but will exclusively fertilize the egg cell of the female gametophyte, giving rise to an embryo that will later abort, most likely due to the lack of functional endosperm. Seed abortion can, however, be overcome by mutations in FIE, a component of the Polycomb group complex, overall resembling loss-of-function mutations in the A. thaliana cyclin-dependent kinase CDKA;1. Finally we identified ASK11, as an SKP1-like partner protein of FBL17 and discuss a possible mechanism how SCF(FBL17 may regulate cell division during male gametogenesis.

  10. Leptin Elongates Hypothalamic Neuronal Cilia via Transcriptional Regulation and Actin Destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gil Myoung; Han, Yu Mi; Ko, Hyuk Whan; Kim, Joon; Oh, Byung Chul; Kwon, Ijoo; Kim, Min-Seon

    2015-07-17

    Terminally differentiated neurons have a single, primary cilium. The primary cilia of hypothalamic neurons play a critical role in sensing metabolic signals. We recently showed that mice with leptin deficiency or resistance have shorter cilia in the hypothalamic neurons, and leptin treatment elongates cilia in hypothalamic neurons. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which leptin controls ciliary length in hypothalamic neurons. In N1 hypothalamic neuronal cells, leptin treatment increased the expression of intraflagellar transport proteins. These effects occurred via phosphatase and tensin homolog/glycogen synthase kinase-3β-mediated inhibition of the transcriptional factor RFX1. Actin filament dynamics were also involved in leptin-promoted ciliary elongation. Both leptin and cytochalasin-D treatment induced F-actin disruption and cilium elongation in hypothalamic neurons that was completely abrogated by co-treatment with the F-actin polymerizer phalloidin. Our findings suggest that leptin elongates hypothalamic neuronal cilia by stimulating the production of intraflagellar transport proteins and destabilizing actin filaments. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. KGF Enhances Oral Epithelial Adhesion and Rete Peg Elongation via Integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, G L; Xiong, X P; Ren, J G; Wang, J Y; Xia, H F; Liu, Z K; He, S G; Zhao, Y F

    2017-12-01

    Oral epithelial adhesion to the lamina propria underlies the physiologic function of the oral mucosa and contributes to resisting bacterial invasion, preventing body fluid loss, and maintaining routine chewing; thus, understanding the factors that positively influence oral epithelial adhesion is a research topic of great interest. Rete pegs contribute to oral epithelial adhesion by enlarging the contact areas, whereas integrins are the major molecules that mediate epithelial cell adhesion to the basement membrane. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) can promote both rete peg elongation in the skin and the expression of integrins in various cell types. Herein, we tested the effects of submucosal injection of KGF in the ventral surfaces of rat tongues on oral epithelial adhesion. The data confirmed that topical injection of KGF elevated the adhesive forces, elongated the rete pegs, and increased the abundance of integrins, KGF, and KGF receptor on the rat tongue ventral surface. However, HYD-1 (Lys-Ile-Lys-Met-Val-Ile-Ser-Trp-Lys-Gly), an integrin antagonist, inhibited the KGF-enhanced epithelial adhesion and rete peg elongation. Moreover, KGF promoted the expression of integrin subunits α6, β4, α3, and β1 in human immortalized oral epithelial cells in 2- and 3-dimensional culture systems. In vitro cell attachment assays demonstrated that HYD-1 inhibited the adhesion of human immortalized oral epithelial cells on Matrigel. Strikingly, the expression of integrins, KGF, and KGFR in human masticatory mucosae with longer rete pegs was more abundant than that in the lining mucosae with shorter rete pegs. In addition, rete peg lengths were positively correlated with the expression levels of integrins, KGF, and KGF receptor. These findings indicate that KGF strengthens oral epithelial adhesion and rete peg elongation via integrins.

  12. Resin Elongation Phenomenon of Polystyrene Nanopillars in Nanoimprint Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Kosuke; Miyauchi, Akihiro; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the elongation of polystyrene nanopillars formed by thermal nanoimprint lithography. Silicone and perfluoropolyether were used as mold release agents to obtain molds with different adhesion forces against polystyrene to be imprinted. The adhesion force between the resin and release layers was evaluated as a force curve by atomic force microscope with a polystyrene colloid probe. Elongation depended on the aspect ratio of the corresponding microholes on the mold and the adhesion force against the release layer. The conditions under which the elongation occurred exhibited a clear threshold on the stress loaded on the foot area of the nanopillars.

  13. Ultrasonic backscatter from elongated grains using line focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, Christopher M; Arguelles, Andrea P; Turner, Joseph A

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonic backscattering from polycrystalline materials with elongated grains is investigated. A normal incident line-focus transducer is employed such that refracted longitudinal and transverse waves are focused within the polycrystal and scatter at grain boundaries back to the transducer. A ray-based scattering model is developed to explain the dependence of the statistics of scattering measurements on grain elongation. The spatial variance of measured scattered signals from Al alloy (7475-T7) is compared to the model. This work promotes the ultrasonic backscatter technique for monitoring grain elongation of metals using one transducer with access to a single sample face. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Altered invertase activities of symptomatic tissues on Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) infected Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungan; Kim, Soyeon; Choi, Eunseok; Auh, Chung-Kyun; Park, Jong-Bum; Kim, Dong-Giun; Chung, Young-Jae; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Lee, Sukchan

    2013-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana infected with Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) exhibits systemic symptoms such as stunting of plant growth, callus induction on shoot tips, and curling of leaves and shoot tips. The regulation of sucrose metabolism is essential for obtaining the energy required for viral replication and the development of symptoms in BSCTV-infected A. thaliana. We evaluated the changed transcript level and enzyme activity of invertases in the inflorescence stems of BSCTV-infected A. thaliana. These results were consistent with the increased pattern of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and photosynthetic pigment concentration in virus-infected plants to supply more energy for BSCTV multiplication. The altered gene expression of invertases during symptom development was functionally correlated with the differential expression patterns of D-type cyclins, E2F isoforms, and invertase-related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that sucrose sensing by BSCTV infection may regulate the expression of sucrose metabolism and result in the subsequent development of viral symptoms in relation with activation of cell cycle regulation.

  15. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  16. A Brief Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medical Elongated Needle Therapy on Acute Spinal Cord Injury and Its Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxuan Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute spinal cord injury is one of the most common and complicated diseases among human spinal injury. We aimed to explore the effect of point-through-point acupuncture therapy with elongated needles on acute spinal cord injury in rabbits and its possible mechanism. Adult rabbits were randomly divided into a model group, elongated needle therapy group, and blank group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the protein levels of Fas and caspase-3 in the model group were significantly higher than those in the blank group at each time point (P<0.05 and significantly lower than those in the elongated needle therapy group on the 3rd and 5th days after operation (P<0.05. RT-PCR showed that Fas and caspase-3 mRNA levels in the model group and elongated needle therapy group were significantly higher than those in the blank group (P<0.05, 0.01. The mRNA levels of Fas and caspase-3 in the elongated needle therapy group were significantly lower than those in model group on the 3rd day (P<0.05, 0.01. Therefore, we confirmed that elongated needle therapy has an obvious effect on acute spinal cord injury in rabbits. Its mechanism is made possible by inhibiting the expression of the Fas→caspase-3 cascade, thereby inhibiting cell apoptosis after spinal cord injury.

  17. Ethylene Inhibits Cell Proliferation of the Arabidopsis Root Meristem1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Ian H.; Aman, Sitwat; Zubo, Yan; Ramzan, Aleena; Wang, Xiaomin; Shakeel, Samina N.; Kieber, Joseph J.; Schaller, G. Eric

    2015-01-01

    The root system of plants plays a critical role in plant growth and survival, with root growth being dependent on both cell proliferation and cell elongation. Multiple phytohormones interact to control root growth, including ethylene, which is primarily known for its role in controlling root cell elongation. We find that ethylene also negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root meristem of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic analysis indicates that the inhibition of cell proliferation involves two pathways operating downstream of the ethylene receptors. The major pathway is the canonical ethylene signal transduction pathway that incorporates CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2, and the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 family of transcription factors. The secondary pathway is a phosphorelay based on genetic analysis of receptor histidine kinase activity and mutants involving the type B response regulators. Analysis of ethylene-dependent gene expression and genetic analysis supports SHORT HYPOCOTYL2, a repressor of auxin signaling, as one mediator of the ethylene response and furthermore, indicates that SHORT HYPOCOTYL2 is a point of convergence for both ethylene and cytokinin in negatively regulating cell proliferation. Additional analysis indicates that ethylene signaling contributes but is not required for cytokinin to inhibit activity of the root meristem. These results identify key elements, along with points of cross talk with cytokinin and auxin, by which ethylene negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root apical meristem. PMID:26149574

  18. Structural organization of actin in the sea urchin egg cortex: microvillar elongation in the absence of actin filament bundle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, D A; Rebhun, L I; Hyatt, H

    1982-04-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the formation of actin filament bundles and the elongation of microvilli (MV) after fertilization in sea urchin eggs. In a previous study (1979, J Cell Biol. 83:241-248) we demonstrated that increased pH induced the formation of actin filaments in isolated sea urchin egg cortices with the concomitant elongation of MV. On the basis of these results we suggested that increased cytoplasmic pH after fertilization causes a reorganization of cortical actin, which in turn provides the force for MV elongation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the morphology of microvilli in eggs activated with and without the release of fertilization acid. Activation of eggs in normal sea water with the calcium ionophore A23187 causes the release of fertilization acid and the elongation of MV containing core bundles of actin filaments. Eggs activated with A23187 in NA(+)-free water do not undergo normal fertilization acid release but develop elongated, flaccid MV. These MV contain an irregular network of actin filaments rather than the parallel bundles of filaments found in normal MV. The addition of 40 mM NaCl to these eggs results in the release of H(+) and the concomitant conversion of flaccid MV to erect MV containing typical core bundles of actin filaments. Identical results are obtained when 10 mM NH(4)Cl is substituted for NaCl. The induction of cytoplasmic alkalinization in unactivated eggs with NH(4)Cl does not cause either MV elongation or the formation of actin filament bundles . These results suggest that: (a) the elongation of MV is stimulated by a rise in intracellular free Ca(++) concentration; (b) actin filament bundle formation is triggered by an increase in cytoplasmic pH; and (c) the formation of actin filament bundles is not necessary for MV elongation but is required to provide rigid support for MV.

  19. Modeling of the redox state dynamics in photosystem II of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick cells and leaves of spinach and Arabidopsis thaliana from single flash-induced fluorescence quantum yield changes on the 100 ns-10 s time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B

    2015-08-01

    The time courses of the photosystem II (PSII) redox states were analyzed with a model scheme supposing a fraction of 11-25 % semiquinone (with reduced [Formula: see text]) RCs in the dark. Patterns of single flash-induced transient fluorescence yield (SFITFY) measured for leaves (spinach and Arabidopsis (A.) thaliana) and the thermophilic alga Chlorella (C.) pyrenoidosa Chick (Steffen et al. Biochemistry 44:3123-3132, 2005; Belyaeva et al. Photosynth Res 98:105-119, 2008, Plant Physiol Biochem 77:49-59, 2014) were fitted with the PSII model. The simulations show that at high-light conditions the flash generated triplet carotenoid (3)Car(t) population is the main NPQ regulator decaying in the time interval of 6-8 μs. So the SFITFY increase up to the maximum level [Formula: see text]/F 0 (at ~50 μs) depends mainly on the flash energy. Transient electron redistributions on the RC redox cofactors were displayed to explain the SFITFY measured by weak light pulses during the PSII relaxation by electron transfer (ET) steps and coupled proton transfer on both the donor and the acceptor side of the PSII. The contribution of non-radiative charge recombination was taken into account. Analytical expressions for the laser flash, the (3)Car(t) decay and the work of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) were used to improve the modeled P680(+) reduction by YZ in the state S 1 of the WOC. All parameter values were compared between spinach, A. thaliana leaves and C. pyrenoidosa alga cells and at different laser flash energies. ET from [Formula: see text] slower in alga as compared to leaf samples was elucidated by the dynamics of [Formula: see text] fractions to fit SFITFY data. Low membrane energization after the 10 ns single turnover flash was modeled: the ∆Ψ(t) amplitude (20 mV) is found to be about 5-fold smaller than under the continuous light induction; the time-independent lumen pHL, stroma pHS are fitted close to dark estimates. Depending on the flash energy used at 1

  20. DHODH modulates transcriptional elongation in the neural crest and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard Mark; Cech, Jennifer; Ratanasirintrawoot, Sutheera; Lin, Charles Y; Rahl, Peter B; Burke, Christopher J; Langdon, Erin; Tomlinson, Matthew L; Mosher, Jack; Kaufman, Charles; Chen, Frank; Long, Hannah K; Kramer, Martin; Datta, Sumon; Neuberg, Donna; Granter, Scott; Young, Richard A; Morrison, Sean; Wheeler, Grant N; Zon, Leonard I

    2011-03-24

    Melanoma is a tumour of transformed melanocytes, which are originally derived from the embryonic neural crest. It is unknown to what extent the programs that regulate neural crest development interact with mutations in the BRAF oncogene, which is the most commonly mutated gene in human melanoma. We have used zebrafish embryos to identify the initiating transcriptional events that occur on activation of human BRAF(V600E) (which encodes an amino acid substitution mutant of BRAF) in the neural crest lineage. Zebrafish embryos that are transgenic for mitfa:BRAF(V600E) and lack p53 (also known as tp53) have a gene signature that is enriched for markers of multipotent neural crest cells, and neural crest progenitors from these embryos fail to terminally differentiate. To determine whether these early transcriptional events are important for melanoma pathogenesis, we performed a chemical genetic screen to identify small-molecule suppressors of the neural crest lineage, which were then tested for their effects on melanoma. One class of compound, inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), for example leflunomide, led to an almost complete abrogation of neural crest development in zebrafish and to a reduction in the self-renewal of mammalian neural crest stem cells. Leflunomide exerts these effects by inhibiting the transcriptional elongation of genes that are required for neural crest development and melanoma growth. When used alone or in combination with a specific inhibitor of the BRAF(V600E) oncogene, DHODH inhibition led to a marked decrease in melanoma growth both in vitro and in mouse xenograft studies. Taken together, these studies highlight developmental pathways in neural crest cells that have a direct bearing on melanoma formation.

  1. Genetic Regulation of Transcriptional Variation in Natural Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    OpenAIRE

    Yanjun Zan; Xia Shen; Forsberg, Simon K. G.; Örjan Carlborg

    2016-01-01

    An increased knowledge of the genetic regulation of expression in Arabidopsis thaliana is likely to provide important insights about the basis of the plant’s extensive phenotypic variation. Here, we reanalyzed two publicly available datasets with genome-wide data on genetic and transcript variation in large collections of natural A. thaliana accessions. Transcripts from more than half of all genes were detected in the leaves of all accessions, and from nearly all annotated genes in at least o...

  2. Chromatin structural changes precede replication in initiated replicons during inhibition of DNA elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Anna, J.A.; Grady, D.L.; Tobey, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Partial inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea or other agents produces changes in the composition and structure of bulk chromatin. We have begun to investigate the structural changes in specific regions of the genome using synchronized cells and cloned genomic probes. Current results indicate changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in initiated replicons and can precede the replication fork during inhibition of DNA elongation. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Synthetic transcription elongation factors license transcription across repressive chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Graham S; Grieshop, Matthew P; Ali, Asfa; Qi, Jun; Lawlor, Matthew; Kumar, Deepak; Ahmad, Istaq; McNally, Anna; Teider, Natalia; Worringer, Katie; Sivasankaran, Rajeev; Syed, Deeba N; Eguchi, Asuka; Ashraf, Md; Jeffery, Justin; Xu, Mousheng; Park, Paul M C; Mukhtar, Hasan; Srivastava, Achal K; Faruq, Mohammed; Bradner, James E; Ansari, Aseem Z

    2017-11-30

    Releasing a paused RNA polymerase II into productive elongation is tightly-regulated, especially at genes that impact human development and disease. To exert control over this rate-limiting step, we designed sequence-specific synthetic transcription elongation factors (Syn-TEFs). These molecules are composed of programmable DNA-binding ligands flexibly tethered to a small molecule that engages the transcription elongation machinery. By limiting activity to targeted loci, Syn-TEFs convert constituent modules from broad-spectrum inhibitors of transcription into gene-specific stimulators. We present Syn-TEF1, a molecule that actively enables transcription across repressive GAA repeats that silence frataxin expression in Friedreich's ataxia, a terminal neurodegenerative disease with no effective therapy. Furthermore, the modular design of Syn-TEF1 defines a general framework for developing a class of molecules that license transcription elongation at targeted genomic loci. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Acetylation on histone H3 lysine 9 mediates a switch from transcription initiation to elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Leah A; Shi, Jiejun; Rohira, Aarti D; Feng, Qin; Zhu, Bokai; Bedford, Mark T; Sagum, Cari A; Jung, Sung Yun; Qin, Jun; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y; Li, Wei; Foulds, Charles E; O'Malley, Bert W

    2017-09-01

    The transition from transcription initiation to elongation is a key regulatory step in gene expression, which requires RNA polymerase II (pol II) to escape promoter proximal pausing on chromatin. Although elongation factors promote pause release leading to transcription elongation, the role of epigenetic modifications during this critical transition step is poorly understood. Two histone marks on histone H3, lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac), co-localize on active gene promoters and are associated with active transcription. H3K4me3 can promote transcription initiation, yet the functional role of H3K9ac is much less understood. We hypothesized that H3K9ac may function downstream of transcription initiation by recruiting proteins important for the next step of transcription. Here, we describe a functional role for H3K9ac in promoting pol II pause release by directly recruiting the super elongation complex (SEC) to chromatin. H3K9ac serves as a substrate for direct binding of the SEC, as does acetylation of histone H4 lysine 5 to a lesser extent. Furthermore, lysine 9 on histone H3 is necessary for maximal pol II pause release through SEC action, and loss of H3K9ac increases the pol II pausing index on a subset of genes in HeLa cells. At select gene promoters, H3K9ac loss or SEC depletion reduces gene expression and increases paused pol II occupancy. We therefore propose that an ordered histone code can promote progression through the transcription cycle, providing new mechanistic insight indicating that SEC recruitment to certain acetylated histones on a subset of genes stimulates the subsequent release of paused pol II needed for transcription elongation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The In Vivo Kinetics of RNA Polymerase II Elongation during Co-Transcriptional Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Yehuda; Neufeld, Noa; Bieberstein, Nicole; Causse, Sebastien Z.; Böhnlein, Eva-Maria; Neugebauer, Karla M.; Darzacq, Xavier; Shav-Tal, Yaron

    2011-01-01

    RNA processing events that take place on the transcribed pre-mRNA include capping, splicing, editing, 3′ processing, and polyadenylation. Most of these processes occur co-transcriptionally while the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme is engaged in transcriptional elongation. How Pol II elongation rates are influenced by splicing is not well understood. We generated a family of inducible gene constructs containing increasing numbers of introns and exons, which were stably integrated in human cells to serve as actively transcribing gene loci. By monitoring the association of the transcription and splicing machineries on these genes in vivo, we showed that only U1 snRNP localized to the intronless gene, consistent with a splicing-independent role for U1 snRNP in transcription. In contrast, all snRNPs accumulated on intron-containing genes, and increasing the number of introns increased the amount of spliceosome components recruited. This indicates that nascent RNA can assemble multiple spliceosomes simultaneously. Kinetic measurements of Pol II elongation in vivo, Pol II ChIP, as well as use of Spliceostatin and Meayamycin splicing inhibitors showed that polymerase elongation rates were uncoupled from ongoing splicing. This study shows that transcription elongation kinetics proceed independently of splicing at the model genes studied here. Surprisingly, retention of polyadenylated mRNA was detected at the transcription site after transcription termination. This suggests that the polymerase is released from chromatin prior to the completion of splicing, and the pre-mRNA is post-transcriptionally processed while still tethered to chromatin near the gene end. PMID:21264352

  6. Epicuticular Wax Accumulation and Fatty Acid Elongation Activities Are Induced during Leaf Development of Leeks1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yoon; Hlousek-Radojcic, Alenka; Ponsamuel, Jayakumar; Liu, Dehua; Post-Beittenmiller, Dusty

    1998-01-01

    Epicuticular wax production was evaluated along the length of expanding leek (Allium porrum L.) leaves to gain insight into the regulation of wax production. Leaf segments from the bottom to the top were analyzed for (a) wax composition and load; (b) microsomal fatty acid elongase, plastidial fatty acid synthase, and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase activities; and (c) tissue and cellular morphological changes. The level of total wax, which was low at the bottom, increased 23-fold along the length of the leaf, whereas accumulation of the hentriacontan-16-one increased more than 1000-fold. The onset of wax accumulation was not linked to cell elongation but, rather, occurred several centimeters above the leaf base. Peak microsomal fatty acid elongation activity preceded the onset of wax accumulation, and the maximum fatty acid synthase activity was coincident with the onset. The C16:0- and C18:0-ACP-hydrolyzing activities changed relatively little along the leaf, whereas C18:1-ACP-hydrolyzing activity increased slightly prior to the peak elongase activity. Electron micrographic analyses revealed that wax crystal formation was asynchronous among cells in the initial stages of wax deposition, and morphological changes in the cuticle and cell wall preceded the appearance of wax crystals. These studies demonstrated that wax production and microsomal fatty acid elongation activities were induced within a defined and identifiable region of the expanding leek leaf and provide the foundation for future molecular studies. PMID:9501123

  7. Characterization of stipe elongation of the mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Yajun; Liu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Wen; Niu, Xin; Zhao, Yan; Pei, Siyu; Zhao, Yang; Yuan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Previously, we observed an acid-induced short-term wall extension in Flammulina velutipes apical stipes during a 15 min period after a change from a neutral to an acidic pH. This acid-induced stipe wall extension was eliminated by heating and reconstituted by a snail expansin-like protein, although we failed to isolate any endogenous expansin-like protein from F. velutipes because of its limited 1 mm fast elongation region. In this study, we report that Coprinopsis cinerea stipes possess a 9 mm fast elongation apical region, which is suitable as a model material for wall extension studies. The elongating apical stipe showed two phases of acid-induced wall extension, an initial quick short-term wall extension during the first 15 min and a slower, gradually decaying long-term wall extension over the subsequent 2 h. After heating or protein inactivation pretreatment, apical stipes lost the long-term wall extension, retaining a slower short-term wall extension, which was reconstituted by an expansin-like snail protein. In contrast, the non-elongating basal stipes showed only a weaker short-term wall extension. We propose that the long-term wall extension is a protein-mediated process involved in stipe elongation, whereas the short-term wall extension is a non-protein mediated process not involved in stipe elongation. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 and 3 genes have a post-meristematic effect on Arabidopsis thaliana phyllotaxis

    KAUST Repository

    Burian, Agata

    2015-02-12

    Background and Aims: The arrangement of flowers in inflorescence shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a regular spiral Fibonacci phyllotaxis. However, in the cuc2 cuc3 double mutant, flower pedicels are fused to the inflorescence stem, and phyllotaxis is aberrant in the mature shoot regions. This study examined the causes of this altered development, and in particular whether the mutant phenotype is a consequence of defects at the shoot apex, or whether post-meristematic events are involved. Methods: The distribution of flower pedicels and vascular traces was examined in cross-sections of mature shoots; sequential replicas were used to investigate the phyllotaxis and geometry of shoot apices, and growth of the young stem surface. The expression pattern of CUC3 was analysed by examining its promoter activity. Key Results: Phyllotaxis irregularity in the cuc2 cuc3 double mutant arises during the post-meristematic phase of shoot development. In particular, growth and cell divisions in nodes of the elongating stem are not restricted in the mutant, resulting in pedicel-stem fusion. On the other hand, phyllotaxis in the mutant shoot apex is nearly as regular as that of the wild type. Vascular phyllotaxis, generated almost simultaneously with the phyllotaxis at the apex, is also much more regular than pedicel phyllotaxis. The most apparent phenotype of the mutant apices is a higher number of contact parastichies. This phenotype is associated with increased meristem size, decreased angular width of primordia and a shorter plastochron. In addition, the appearance of a sharp and deep crease, a characteristic shape of the adaxial primordium boundary, is slightly delayed and reduced in the mutant shoot apices. Conclusions: The cuc2 cuc3 double mutant displays irregular phyllotaxis in the mature shoot but not in the shoot apex, thus showing a post-meristematic effect of the mutations on phyllotaxis. The main cause of this effect is the formation of pedicel-stem fusions

  9. Regulation of floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Ki; Larue, Clayton T; Chevalier, David; Wang, Huachun; Jinn, Tsung-Luo; Zhang, Shuqun; Walker, John C

    2008-10-07

    Abscission is a developmental program that results in the active shedding of infected or nonfunctional organs from a plant body. Here, we establish a signaling pathway that controls abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana from ligand, to receptors, to downstream effectors. Loss of function mutations in Inflorescence Deficient in Abscission (IDA), which encodes a predicted secreted small protein, the receptor-like protein kinases HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-like 2 (HSL2), the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4 (MKK4) and MKK5, and a dominant-negative form of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6) in a mpk3 mutant background all have abscission-defective phenotypes. Conversely, expression of constitutively active MKKs rescues the abscission-defective phenotype of hae hsl2 and ida plants. Additionally, in hae hsl2 and ida plants, MAP kinase activity is reduced in the receptacle, the part of the stem that holds the floral organs. Plants overexpressing IDA in a hae hsl2 background have abscission defects, indicating HAE and HSL2 are epistatic to IDA. Taken together, these results suggest that the sequential action of IDA, HAE and HSL2, and a MAP kinase cascade regulates the programmed separation of cells in the abscission zone.

  10. Ultrastructural study of maturing pollen in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Zając

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural changes in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen, between late microspore stage and mature pollen stage were described. When the generative cell was peeled off from the intine, it was of spherical shape and had all usual organelles with the exception of plastids. The cytoplasm transformation of the vegetative cell included an increase in the number of mitochondria and changes in the accumulation of starch and lipid bodies. The starch plastids were observed at the bicellular and early tricellular pollen stages and next starch was utilized during the maturation procces. The lipid bodies of the vegetative cell form a very regular sheath around the generative cell and then, around the sperm cells. Before anthesis the lipid bodies were dispersed within the whole vegetative cell cytoplasm.

  11. Perturbations in the Primary Metabolism of Tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Infected with the Soil-Borne Fungus Verticillium dahliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Buhtz

    Full Text Available The hemibiotrophic soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae is a major pathogen of a number of economically important crop species. Here, the metabolic response of both tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana to V. dahliae infection was analysed by first using non-targeted GC-MS profiling. The leaf content of both major cell wall components glucuronic acid and xylose was reduced in the presence of the pathogen in tomato but enhanced in A. thaliana. The leaf content of the two tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates fumaric acid and succinic acid was increased in the leaf of both species, reflecting a likely higher demand for reducing equivalents required for defence responses. A prominent group of affected compounds was amino acids and based on the targeted analysis in the root, it was shown that the level of 12 and four free amino acids was enhanced by the infection in, respectively, tomato and A. thaliana, with leucine and histidine being represented in both host species. The leaf content of six free amino acids was reduced in the leaf tissue of diseased A. thaliana plants, while that of two free amino acids was raised in the tomato plants. This study emphasizes the role of primary plant metabolites in adaptive responses when the fungus has colonized the plant.

  12. Gene networks controlling Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid Seosamh; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The formation of flowers is one of the main models for studying the regulatory mechanisms that underlie plant development and evolution. Over the past three decades, extensive genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification of a large number of key floral regulators and to detailed insights into how they control flower morphogenesis. In recent years, genome-wide approaches have been applied to obtaining a global view of the gene regulatory networks underlying flower formation. Furthermore, mathematical models have been developed that can simulate certain aspects of this process and drive further experimentation. Here, we review some of the main findings made in the field of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, with an emphasis on recent advances. In particular, we discuss the activities of the floral organ identity factors, which are pivotal for the specification of the different types of floral organs, and explore the experimental avenues that may elucidate the molecular mechanisms and gene expression programs through which these master regulators of flower development act. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Telomere-binding proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, U

    1995-02-01

    The nucleoprotein structure of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres was investigated. A protein specifically binding to telomeric sequences was characterized by gel mobility shift assays with synthetic oligonucleotides consisting of four 7 bp telomeric repeats of Arabidopsis (TTTAGGG) and crude nuclear protein extracts of Arabidopsis leaves. These DNA-protein binding studies revealed that the binding affinity of this telomere-binding protein to the G-rich single-strand as well as to the double-stranded telomeric DNA is much higher than to the C-rich single-strand. The molecular mass of the protein was identified by SDS-PAGE to be 67 kDa. The isoelectric points were determined to be 5.0, 4.85 and 4.7, respectively, indicating that either one protein with different modifications or three slightly different proteins have been isolated. An RNA component, possibly serving as a template for reverse transcription of a plant telomerase, does not mediate the DNA-protein contact because the DNA-protein interactions were not RNAse-sensitive.

  14. Copper-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, C; Anderson, C R; Cobbett, C S

    1995-11-01

    A Cu-sensitive mutant, cup1-1, of Arabidopsis thaliana has a pattern of heavy-metal sensitivity different from that of the cad1 and cad2 mutants, which are deficient in phytochelatin biosynthesis. The latter are significantly sensitive to Cd and Hg and only slightly sensitive to Cu, whereas the cup1-1 mutant is significantly sensitive to Cu, slightly sensitive to Cd, and not more sensitive to Hg, compared to the wild type. Genetic analysis has shown that the sensitive phenotype is recessive to the wild type and segregates as a single Mendelian locus, which has been mapped to chromosome 1. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that the cup1-1 mutant is not affected in phytochelatin biosynthesis or function. The sensitive phenotype of the cup1-1 mutant is associated with, and probably due to, increased accumulation of higher levels of Cd and Cu compared with the wild type. Consistent with this, a Cu-inducible, root-specific metallothionein gene, MT2a, is expressed in cup1-1 roots under conditions in which it is not expressed in the wild type. Undifferentiated cup1-1 callus tissue did not show the Cu-sensitive phenotype, suggesting that the mutant phenotype, in contrast to cad1 and cad2, is not expressed at the cellular level.

  15. Cadmium-Sensitive Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, R; Cobbett, C S

    1992-09-01

    A screening procedure for identifying Cd-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana is described. With this procedure, two Cd-sensitive mutants were isolated. These represent independent mutations in the same locus, referred to as CAD1. Genetic analysis has shown that the sensitive phenotype is recessive to the wild type and segregates as a single Mendelian locus. Crosses of the mutant to marker strains showed that the mutation is closely linked to the tt3 locus on chromosome 5. In addition to Cd, the mutants are also significantly more sensitive to mercuric ions and only slightly more sensitive to Cu and Zn, while being no more sensitive than the wild type to Mn, thus indicating a degree of specificity in the mechanism affected by the mutation. Undifferentiated callus tissue is also Cd sensitive, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is expressed at the cellular level. Both wild-type and mutant plants showed increased sensitivity to Cd in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the cadmium-binding (gamma-glutamylcysteine)(n)-glycine peptides, suggesting that the mutant is still able to synthesize these peptides. However, the effects of a cad1 mutation and buthionine sulfoximine together on cadmium sensitivity are essentially nonadditive, indicating that they may affect different aspects of the same detoxification mechanism. Assays of Cd uptake by intact plants indicate that the mutant is deficient in its ability to sequester Cd.

  16. Spontaneous deleterious mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, S T; Lynch, M; Willis, J H

    1999-09-28

    The frequency and selective impact of deleterious mutations are fundamental parameters in evolutionary theory, yet they have not been directly measured in a plant species. To estimate these quantities, we allowed spontaneous mutations to accumulate for 10 generations in 1,000 inbred lines of the annual, self-fertilizing plant Arabidopsis thaliana and assayed fitness differences between generations 0 and 10 in a common garden. Germination rate, fruit set, and number of seeds per fruit each declined by less than 1% per generation in the mutation lines, and total fitness declined by 0.9% per generation. Among-line variances increased in the mutation lines for all traits. Application of an equal-effects model suggests a downwardly biased genomic deleterious mutation rate of 0.1 and a upwardly biased effect of individual mutations on total fitness of 20%. This genomic deleterious mutation rate is consistent with estimates of nucleotide substitution rates in flowering plants, the genome size of Arabidopsis, and the equilibrium inbreeding depression observed in this highly selfing plant species.

  17. Autophagy, programmed cell death and reactive oxygen species in sexual reproduction in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Autophagy is one of the major cellular processes of recycling of proteins, metabolites and intracellular organelles, and plays crucial roles in the regulation of innate immunity, stress responses and programmed cell death (PCD) in many eukaryotes. It is also essential in development and sexual reproduction in many animals. In plants, although autophagy-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana show phenotypes in abiotic and biotic stress responses, their life cycle seems normal and thus little had been known until recently about the roles of autophagy in development and reproduction. Rice mutants defective in autophagy show sporophytic male sterility and immature pollens, indicating crucial roles of autophagy during pollen maturation. Enzymatic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by respiratory burst oxidase homologues (Rbohs) play multiple roles in regulating anther development, pollen tube elongation and fertilization. Significance of autophagy and ROS in the regulation of PCD of transient cells during plant sexual reproduction is discussed in comparison with animals.

  18. Evolution of Body Elongation in Gymnophthalmid Lizards: Relationships with Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizante, Mariana B.; Brandt, Renata; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of elongated body shapes in vertebrates has intrigued biologists for decades and is particularly recurrent among squamates. Several aspects might explain how the environment influences the evolution of body elongation, but climate needs to be incorporated in this scenario to evaluate how it contributes to morphological evolution. Climatic parameters include temperature and precipitation, two variables that likely influence environmental characteristics, including soil texture and substrate coverage, which may define the selective pressures acting during the evolution of morphology. Due to development of geographic information system (GIS) techniques, these variables can now be included in evolutionary biology studies and were used in the present study to test for associations between variation in body shape and climate in the tropical lizard family Gymnophthalmidae. We first investigated how the morphological traits that define body shape are correlated in these lizards and then tested for associations between a descriptor of body elongation and climate. Our analyses revealed that the evolution of body elongation in Gymnophthalmidae involved concomitant changes in different morphological traits: trunk elongation was coupled with limb shortening and a reduction in body diameter, and the gradual variation along this axis was illustrated by less-elongated morphologies exhibiting shorter trunks and longer limbs. The variation identified in Gymnophthalmidae body shape was associated with climate, with the species from more arid environments usually being more elongated. Aridity is associated with high temperatures and low precipitation, which affect additional environmental features, including the habitat structure. This feature may influence the evolution of body shape because contrasting environments likely impose distinct demands for organismal performance in several activities, such as locomotion and thermoregulation. The present study establishes a

  19. Suppression of GhAGP4 gene expression repressed the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunjing; Liu, Diqiu; Tu, Lili; Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin

    2010-02-01

    Cotton fibers, important natural raw materials for the textile industry, are trichomes elongated from epidermal cells of cotton ovules. To date, a number of genes have been shown to be critical for fiber development. In this study, the roles of genes encoding fasciclin-like arabinoglactan proteins (FLAs) in cotton fiber were examined by transforming RNA interfering (RNAi) construct. The RNAi according to the sequence of GhAGP4 caused a significant reduction of its mRNA level, and the expression of other three FLAs (GhAGP2, GhAGP3, GhFLA1) were also partially suppressed. The fiber initiation and fiber elongation were inhibited in the transgenic plants. As for the mature fibers of transgenic cotton, the fiber length became significantly shorter and the fiber quality became worse. In addition, the RNAi of GhAGP4 also affected the cytoskeleton network and the cellulose deposition of fiber cells. Through ovule culture, it was found that the expression of cotton FLA genes were upregulated by GA(3), especially for GhAGP2 and GhAGP4. These results indicate that the FLAs are essential for the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber development.

  20. BRD4 assists elongation of both coding and enhancer RNAs guided by histone acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Tomohiko; Kanno, Yuka; LeRoy, Gary; Campos, Eric; Sun, Hong-Wei; Brooks, Stephen R; Vahedi, Golnaz; Heightman, Tom D; Garcia, Benjamin A; Reinberg, Danny; Siebenlist, Ulrich; O’Shea, John J; Ozato, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule BET inhibitors interfere with the epigenetic interactions between acetylated histones and the bromodomains of the BET family proteins, including BRD4, and they potently inhibit growth of malignant cells by targeting cancer-promoting genes. BRD4 interacts with the pause-release factor P-TEFb, and has been proposed to release Pol II from promoter-proximal pausing. We show that BRD4 occupied widespread genomic regions in mouse cells, and directly stimulated elongation of both protein-coding transcripts and non-coding enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), dependent on the function of bromodomains. BRD4 interacted physically with elongating Pol II complexes, and assisted Pol II progression through hyper-acetylated nucleosomes by interacting with acetylated histones via bromodomains. On active enhancers, the BET inhibitor JQ1 antagonized BRD4-associated eRNA synthesis. Thus, BRD4 is involved in multiple steps of the transcription hierarchy, primarily by assisting transcript elongation both at enhancers and on gene bodies. PMID:25383670

  1. The actin Cytoskeleton in Root Hairs: a cell elongation device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in root hair development. It is involved in both the delivery of growth materials to the expanding tip of root hairs and the regulation of the area of tip growth. This review starts with a discussion of the techniques that are available to visualize the

  2. A synthetic auxin (NAA) suppresses secondary wall cellulose synthesis and enhances elongation in cultured cotton fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bir; Cheek, Hannah D; Haigler, Candace H

    2009-07-01

    Use of a synthetic auxin (naphthalene-1-acetic acid, NAA) to start (Gossypium hirsutum) ovule/fiber cultures hindered fiber secondary wall cellulose synthesis compared with natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). In contrast, NAA promoted fiber elongation and ovule weight gain, which resulted in larger ovule/fiber units. To reach these conclusions, fiber and ovule growth parameters were measured and cell wall characteristics were examined microscopically. The differences in fiber from NAA and IAA culture were underpinned by changes in the expression patterns of marker genes for three fiber developmental stages (elongation, the transition stage, and secondary wall deposition), and these gene expression patterns were also analyzed quantitatively in plant-grown fiber. The results demonstrate that secondary wall cellulose synthesis: (1) is under strong transcriptional control that is influenced by auxin; and (2) must be specifically characterized in the cotton ovule/fiber culture system given the many protocol variables employed in different laboratories.

  3. Growth-limiting Proteins in Relation to Auxin-induced Elongation in Lupin Hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Pauline

    1971-01-01

    The role of protein synthesis in auxin-induced cell elongation in lupin hypocotyl segments was studied using cycloheximide. Cycloheximide inhibited protein synthesis by 9 minutes. Experiments adding cycloheximide at various times before and after indolyl-3-acetic acid are reported. Estimates of the relative amounts of growth-limiting protein(s), and a first order rate constant for the apparent turnover of the growth-limiting protein(s) were made. It was shown that there is a sizeable growth promotion by auxin after protein synthesis has essentially ceased. It is concluded that the initial phases of auxin action do not require protein synthesis but that its action depends on the existing pool of growth-limiting proteins which is rapidly depleted, and protein synthesis is then required for continued elongation. PMID:16657867

  4. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reduces damages to freezing temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eSU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are known to improve plant tolerance to multiple stresses, including low temperatures. However, mechanisms underlying this protection are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the endophytic PGPR, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN (Bp PsJN, on Arabidopsis thaliana cold tolerance using photosynthesis parameters as physiological markers.Under standard conditions, our results indicated that Bp PsJN inoculation led to growth promotion of Arabidopsis plants without significant modification on photosynthesis parameters and chloroplast organization. However, bacterial colonization induced a cell wall strengthening in the mesophyllImpact of inoculation modes (either on seeds or by soil irrigation and their effects overnight at 0, -1 or -3°C, were investigated by following photosystem II (PSII activity and gas exchanges. Following low temperatures stress, a decrease of photosynthesis parameters was observed. In addition, during three consecutive nights or days at -1°C, PSII activity was monitored. Pigment contents, RuBisCO protein abundance, expression of several genes including RbcS, RbcL, CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ICE1, COR15a, and COR78 were evaluated at the end of exposure. To assess the impact of the bacteria on cell ultrastructure under low temperatures, microscopic observations were achieved. Results indicated that freezing treatment induced significant changes in PSII activity as early as the first cold day, whereas the same impact on PSII activity was observed only during the third cold night. The significant effects conferred by PsJN were differential accumulation of pigments, and reduced expression of RbcL and COR78. Microscopical observations showed an alteration/disorganization in A. thaliana leaf mesophyll cells independently of the freezing treatments. The presence of bacteria during the three successive nights or days did not significantly improved A

  5. Affinity Purification of O-Acetylserine(thiollyase from Chlorella sorokiniana by Recombinant Proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Salbitani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the unicellular green alga Chlorella sorokiniana (211/8 k, the protein O-acetylserine(thiollyase (OASTL, representing the key-enzyme in the biosynthetic cysteine pathway, was isolated and purified to apparent homogeneity. The purification was carried out in cells grown in the presence of all nutrients or in sulphate (S deprived cells. After 24 h of S-starvation, a 17-fold increase in the specific activity of OASTL was measured. In order to enable the identification of OASTL proteins from non-model organisms such as C. sorokiniana, the recombinant his-tagged SAT5 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was immobilized by metal chelate chromatography. OASTL proteins from C. sorokiniana were affinity purified in one step and activities were enhanced 29- and 41-fold, from S-sufficient and S-starved (24 h cells, respectively. The successful application of SAT/OASTL interaction for purification confirms for the first time the existence of the cysteine synthase complexes in microalgae. The purified proteins have apparent molecular masses between 32–34 kDa and are thus slightly larger compared to those found in Arabidopsis thaliana and other vascular plants. The enhanced OASTL activity in S-starved cells can be attributed to increased amounts of plastidic and the emergence of cytosolic OASTL isoforms. The results provide proof-of-concept for the biochemical analysis of the cysteine synthase complex in diverse microalgal species.

  6. Proteomic alterations in root tips of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under altered gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H. Q.; Wang, H.

    Gravity has a profound influence on plant growth and development Removed the influence of gravitational acceleration by spaceflight caused a wide range of cellular changes in plant Whole seedling that germinated and grown on clinostats showed the absent of gravitropism At the cellular level clinostat treatment has specific effects on plant cells such as induce alterations in cell wall composition increase production of heat-soluble proteins impact on the cellular energy metabolism facilitate a uniform distribution of plastids amyloplasts and increase number and volume of nucleoli A number of recent studies have shown that the exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings and callus cells to gravity stimulation hyper g-forces or clinostat rotation induces alterations in gene expression In our previous study the proteome of the Arabidopsis thaliana callus cells were separated by high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis 2-DE Image analysis revealed that 80 protein spots showed quantitative and qualitative variations after exposure to clinostat rotation treatment We report here a systematic proteomic approach to investigate the altered gravity responsive proteins in root tip of Arabidopsis thaliana cv Landsberg erecta Three-day-old seedlings were exposed for 12h to a horizontal clinostat rotation H simulated weightlessness altered g-forces by centrifugation 7g hypergravity a vertical clinostat rotation V clinostat control or a stationary control grown conditions Total proteins of roots were extracted

  7. Functional interactome of Aquaporin 1 sub-family reveals new physiological functions in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins found in plasma membranes and intercellular membranes of different cellular compartments, facilitate the water flux, solutes and gases across the cellular plasma membranes. The present study highlights the sub-family plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP predicting the 3-D structure and analyzing the functional interactome of it homologs. PIP1 homologs integrate with many proteins with different plant physiological roles in Arabidopsis thaliana including; PIP1A and PIP1B: facilitate the transport of water, diffusion of amino acids and/or peptides from the vacuolar compartment to the cytoplasm, play a role in the control of cell turgor and cell expansion and involved in root water uptake respectively. In addition we found that PIP1B plays a defensive role against Pseudomonas syringae infection through the interaction with the plasma membrane Rps2 protein. Another substantial function of PIP1C via the interaction with PIP2E is the response to nematode infection. Generally, PIP1 sub-family interactome controlling many physiological processes in plant cell like; osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt, response to nematode, facilitate the transport of water across cell membrane and regulation of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. Protein Synthesis in E. coli: Dependence of Codon-Specific Elongation on tRNA Concentration and Codon Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorf, Sophia; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    To synthesize a protein, a ribosome moves along a messenger RNA (mRNA), reads it codon by codon, and takes up the corresponding ternary complexes which consist of aminoacylated transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs), elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), and GTP. During this process of translation elongation, the ribosome proceeds with a codon-specific rate. Here, we present a general theoretical framework to calculate codon-specific elongation rates and error frequencies based on tRNA concentrations and codon usages. Our theory takes three important aspects of in-vivo translation elongation into account. First, non-cognate, near-cognate and cognate ternary complexes compete for the binding sites on the ribosomes. Second, the corresponding binding rates are determined by the concentrations of free ternary complexes, which must be distinguished from the total tRNA concentrations as measured in vivo. Third, for each tRNA species, the difference between total tRNA and ternary complex concentration depends on the codon usages of the corresponding cognate and near-cognate codons. Furthermore, we apply our theory to two alternative pathways for tRNA release from the ribosomal E site and show how the mechanism of tRNA release influences the concentrations of free ternary complexes and thus the codon-specific elongation rates. Using a recently introduced method to determine kinetic rates of in-vivo translation from in-vitro data, we compute elongation rates for all codons in Escherichia coli. We show that for some tRNA species only a few tRNA molecules are part of ternary complexes and, thus, available for the translating ribosomes. In addition, we find that codon-specific elongation rates strongly depend on the overall codon usage in the cell, which could be altered experimentally by overexpression of individual genes.

  9. Multiple DNA Interactions Contribute to the Initiation of Telomerase Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir Andersson, Ahu; Gustafsson, Cecilia; Krishnankutty, Roopesh; Cohn, Marita

    2017-07-07

    Telomerase maintains telomere length and chromosome integrity by adding short tandem repeats of single-stranded DNA to the 3' ends, via reverse transcription of a defined template region of its RNA subunit. To further understand the telomerase elongation mechanism, we studied the primer utilization and extension activity of the telomerase from the budding yeast Naumovozyma castellii (Saccharomyces castellii), which displays a processive nucleotide and repeat addition polymerization. For the efficient initiation of canonical elongation, telomerase required 4-nt primer 3' end complementarity to the template RNA. This DNA-RNA hybrid formation was highly important for the stabilization of an initiation-competent telomerase-DNA complex. Anchor site interactions with the DNA provided additional stabilization to the complex. Our studies indicate three additional separate interactions along the length of the DNA primer, each providing different and distinct contributions to the initiation event. A sequence-independent anchor site interaction acts immediately adjacent to the base-pairing 3' end, indicating a protein anchor site positioned very close to the catalytic site. Two additional anchor regions further 5' on the DNA provide sequence-specific contributions to the initiation of elongation. Remarkably, a non-telomeric sequence in the distal 25- to 32-nt region negatively influences the initiation of telomerase elongation, suggesting an anchor site with a regulatory role in the telomerase elongation decision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Amphiregulin Antibody and Reduction of Axial Elongation in Experimental Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2–3 weeks which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1 or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2 received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15 μg three times in intervals of 9 days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 ng, respectively. In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1 ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.

  11. ATFL elongation after Brostrom procedure: a biomechanical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kevin L; Campbell, John T; Guyton, Gregory P; Parks, Brent G; Schon, Lew C

    2008-11-01

    Elongation of ligaments during early mobilization after reconstruction may be associated with decreased stability. We evaluated elongation of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) before and after lateral ligament reconstruction within a physiologic range of motion with protected and unprotected, isolated dorsiflexion/plantarflexion range of motion. Six fresh frozen cadaver legs were used with the ATFL meticulously dissected. A differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) was spaced to span the course of the ATFL using consistent placement points based on previous reports. Elongation was measured in a load frame with protected motion of 30 degrees plantarflexion and 10 degrees dorsiflexion for the intact and sectioned ATFL and for the repaired specimen with and without protected motion. The proximal DVRT anchor point was detached for sectioning and repair of the ATFL and replaced at the same position. Testing was 1000 cycles at 1 Hz for the repaired protected specimen and 10 cycles at 1 Hz for all other stages. Initial elongation in the unprotected, repaired group was significantly higher than initial elongation in the intact (p dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The study provides biomechanical support for the safety of early protected dorsiflexion/plantarflexion range of motion after Broström reconstruction.

  12. A New Anti-Aging Lysophosphatidic Acid from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujuan; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Guangfa; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

    2017-02-09

    Aging is a risk factor of age-related diseases. With the increasing number of patients, serious consequences, and heavy economic burden, demands for drugs used to treat age-related diseases have increased. As such, anti-aging substances should be isolated to develop drugs for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. In this study, a methanol extract of immature Arabidopsis thaliana seeds with coat was separated by using a K6001 yeast bioassay system. In order to investigate the action mechanism, four mutants, namely, Δuth1, Δskn7, Δsod1, and Δsod2 with K6001 background were employed and the anti-oxidative stress assay was performed. One new anti-aging lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was obtained, and its structural and stereochemical characteristics were elucidated through spectroscopy and chemical derivatization. LPA can extend the replicative lifespan of K6001 at 10 and 30 µM (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). This finding was comparable to the effect of resveratrol, a well-known anti-aging substance. However, the anti-aging activity of the compound on the four mutants was diminished. In the anti-oxidative stress assay, LPA improved the oxidative resistance of yeast cells. The new LPA may exert its anti-aging effect by improving the anti-oxidative ability of yeast cells. The genes of UTH1, SKN7, and SOD may also be involved in the action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Role of xyloglucan in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation of the short fiber mutant Ligon lintless-2 (Li2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoumkina, Marina; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Fang, David D; Florane, Christopher B; Thyssen, Gregory N

    2017-08-30

    Xyloglucan is a matrix polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all land plants. In growing cells, xyloglucan is thought to connect cellulose microfibrils and regulate their separation during wall extension. Ligon lintless-2 (Li 2 ) is a monogenic dominant cotton fiber mutation that causes extreme reduction in lint fiber length with no pleiotropic effects on vegetative growth. Li 2 represents an excellent model system to study fiber elongation. To understand the role of xyloglucan in cotton fiber elongation we used the short fiber mutant Li 2 and its near isogenic wild type for analysis of xyloglucan content and expression of xyloglucan-related genes in developing fibers. Accumulation of xyloglucan was significantly higher in Li 2 developing fibers than in wild type. Genes encoding enzymes for nine family members of xyloglucan biosynthesis were identified in the draft Gossypium hirsutum genome. RNAseq analysis revealed that most differentially expressed xyloglucan-related genes were down-regulated in Li 2 fiber cells. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the peak of expression for the majority of xyloglucan-related genes in wild type developing fibers was 5-16days post anthesis (DPA) compared to 1-3 DPA in Li 2 fibers. Thus, our results suggest that early activation of xyloglucan-related genes and down regulation of xyloglucan degradation genes during the elongation phase lead to elevated accumulation of xyloglucan that restricts elongation of fiber cells in Li 2 . Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Stiff mutant genes of Phycomyces target turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties to regulate elongation growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. E. Ortega

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses. Stiff mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least four genes; madD, madE, madF and madG. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the growth zone. Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type. A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (- and C216 geo- (-. Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible deformation rates of the wall within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to wild type. These findings explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores and suggest that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner

  15. Yielding and Flow of Soft-Jammed Systems in Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Fadoul, O.; Lorenceau, E.; Coussot, P.

    2018-01-01

    So far, yielding and flow properties of soft-jammed systems have only been studied from simple shear and then extrapolated to other flow situations. In particular, simple flows such as elongations have barely been investigated experimentally or only in a nonconstant, partial volume of material. We show that using smooth tool surfaces makes it possible to obtain a prolonged elongational flow over a large range of aspect ratios in the whole volume of material. The normal force measured for various soft-jammed systems with different microstructures shows that the ratio of the elongation yield stress to the shear yield stress is larger (by a factor of around 1.5) than expected from the standard theory which assumes that the stress tensor is a function of the second invariant of the strain rate tensor. This suggests that the constitutive tensor of the materials cannot be determined solely from macroscopic shear measurements.

  16. Ubiquitylation and degradation of elongating RNA polymerase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Marcus D; Harreman, Michelle; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

    2013-01-01

    evolved to ensure that transcription stalling or arrest does not occur. If, however, the polymerase cannot be restarted, it becomes poly-ubiquitylated and degraded by the proteasome. This process is highly regulated, ensuring that only RNAPII molecules that cannot otherwise be salvaged are degraded....... In this review, we describe the mechanisms and factors responsible for the last resort mechanism of transcriptional elongation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA polymerase II Transcript Elongation.......During its journey across a gene, RNA polymerase II has to contend with a number of obstacles to its progression, including nucleosomes, DNA-binding proteins, DNA damage, and sequences that are intrinsically difficult to transcribe. Not surprisingly, a large number of elongation factors have...

  17. Statistical modeling of nitrogen-dependent modulation of root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Takao; Kubo, Takuya; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Plant root development is strongly affected by nutrient availability. Despite the importance of structure and function of roots in nutrient acquisition, statistical modeling approaches to evaluate dynamic and temporal modulations of root system architecture in response to nutrient availability have remained as widely open and exploratory areas in root biology. In this study, we developed a statistical modeling approach to investigate modulations of root system architecture in response to nitrogen availability. Mathematical models were designed for quantitative assessment of root growth and root branching phenotypes and their dynamic relationships based on hierarchical configuration of primary and lateral roots formulating the fishbone-shaped root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana. Time-series datasets reporting dynamic changes in root developmental traits on different nitrate or ammonium concentrations were generated for statistical analyses. Regression analyses unraveled key parameters associated with: (i) inhibition of primary root growth under nitrogen limitation or on ammonium; (ii) rapid progression of lateral root emergence in response to ammonium; and (iii) inhibition of lateral root elongation in the presence of excess nitrate or ammonium. This study provides a statistical framework for interpreting dynamic modulation of root system architecture, supported by meta-analysis of datasets displaying morphological responses of roots to diverse nitrogen supplies. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Analysis of the transgenerational iron deficiency stress memory in Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Irene; Giacometti, Sonia; Balestrazzi, Alma; Paparella, Stefania; Pagliano, Cristina; Morandini, Piero

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the existence of the transgenerational memory of iron (Fe) deficiency stress, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were grown under Fe deficiency/sufficiency, and so were their offspring. The frequency of somatic homologous recombination (SHR) events, of DNA strand breaks as well as the expression of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS-like gene increase when plants are grown under Fe deficiency. However, SHR frequency, DNA strand break events, and TFIIS-like gene expression do not increase further when plants are grown for more than one generation under the same stress, and furthermore, they decrease back to control values within two succeeding generations grown under control conditions, regardless of the Fe deficiency stress history of the mother plants. Seedlings produced from plants grown under Fe deficiency evolve more oxygen than control seedlings, when grown under Fe sufficiency: however, this trait is not associated with any change in the protein profile of the photosynthetic apparatus and is not transmitted to more than one generation. Lastly, plants grown for multiple generations under Fe deficiency produce seeds with greater longevity: however, this trait is not inherited in offspring generations unexposed to stress. These findings suggest the existence of multiple-step control of mechanisms to prevent a genuine and stable transgenerational transmission of Fe deficiency stress memory, with the tightest control on DNA integrity. PMID:26442058

  19. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  20. The PAF complex and Prf1/Rtf1 delineate distinct Cdk9-dependent pathways regulating transcription elongation in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogning, Jean; Nagy, Stephen; Pagé, Viviane; Schwer, Beate; Shuman, Stewart; Fisher, Robert P; Tanny, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) promotes elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), mRNA processing, and co-transcriptional histone modification. Cdk9 phosphorylates multiple targets, including the conserved RNAPII elongation factor Spt5 and RNAPII itself, but how these different modifications mediate Cdk9 functions is not known. Here we describe two Cdk9-dependent pathways in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that involve distinct targets and elicit distinct biological outcomes. Phosphorylation of Spt5 by Cdk9 creates a direct binding site for Prf1/Rtf1, a transcription regulator with functional and physical links to the Polymerase Associated Factor (PAF) complex. PAF association with chromatin is also dependent on Cdk9 but involves alternate phosphoacceptor targets. Prf1 and PAF are biochemically separate in cell extracts, and genetic analyses show that Prf1 and PAF are functionally distinct and exert opposing effects on the RNAPII elongation complex. We propose that this opposition constitutes a Cdk9 auto-regulatory mechanism, such that a positive effect on elongation, driven by the PAF pathway, is kept in check by a negative effect of Prf1/Rtf1 and downstream mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B. Thus, optimal RNAPII elongation may require balanced action of functionally distinct Cdk9 pathways.

  1. The PAF complex and Prf1/Rtf1 delineate distinct Cdk9-dependent pathways regulating transcription elongation in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mbogning

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9 promotes elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII, mRNA processing, and co-transcriptional histone modification. Cdk9 phosphorylates multiple targets, including the conserved RNAPII elongation factor Spt5 and RNAPII itself, but how these different modifications mediate Cdk9 functions is not known. Here we describe two Cdk9-dependent pathways in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that involve distinct targets and elicit distinct biological outcomes. Phosphorylation of Spt5 by Cdk9 creates a direct binding site for Prf1/Rtf1, a transcription regulator with functional and physical links to the Polymerase Associated Factor (PAF complex. PAF association with chromatin is also dependent on Cdk9 but involves alternate phosphoacceptor targets. Prf1 and PAF are biochemically separate in cell extracts, and genetic analyses show that Prf1 and PAF are functionally distinct and exert opposing effects on the RNAPII elongation complex. We propose that this opposition constitutes a Cdk9 auto-regulatory mechanism, such that a positive effect on elongation, driven by the PAF pathway, is kept in check by a negative effect of Prf1/Rtf1 and downstream mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B. Thus, optimal RNAPII elongation may require balanced action of functionally distinct Cdk9 pathways.

  2. Ethylene-Inhibited Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis Promotes Mesocotyl/Coleoptile Elongation of Etiolated Rice Seedlings[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Ma, Biao; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Yi-Hua; He, Si-Jie; Yang, Chao; Yin, Cui-Cui; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Li, Zhi-Kang; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Elongation of the mesocotyl and coleoptile facilitates the emergence of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings from soil and is affected by various genetic and environment factors. The regulatory mechanism underlying this process remains largely unclear. Here, we examined the regulation of mesocotyl and coleoptile growth by characterizing a gaoyao1 (gy1) mutant that exhibits a longer mesocotyl and longer coleoptile than its original variety of rice. GY1 was identified through map-based cloning and encodes a PLA1-type phospholipase that localizes in chloroplasts. GY1 functions at the initial step of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis to repress mesocotyl and coleoptile elongation in etiolated rice seedlings. Ethylene inhibits the expression of GY1 and other genes in the JA biosynthesis pathway to reduce JA levels and enhance mesocotyl and coleoptile growth by promoting cell elongation. Genetically, GY1 acts downstream of the OsEIN2-mediated ethylene signaling pathway to regulate mesocotyl/coleoptile growth. Through analysis of the resequencing data from 3000 rice accessions, we identified a single natural variation of the GY1 gene, GY1376T, which contributes to mesocotyl elongation in rice varieties. Our study reveals novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of mesocotyl/coleoptile elongation and should have practical applications in rice breeding programs. PMID:28465411

  3. In Vitro Root Development in Arabidopsis Thaliana Wild-Type and scr Mutants under Clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.; Sarnatska, V. V.; Talalaiev, A. S.; Ovcharenko, Y. V.

    2008-06-01

    A task of our experiments was to study in vitro rhizogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and scr mutants under slow horizontal clinorotation as a convenient model to clear up a question, whether root morphogenesis de novo will occur normally in simulated microgravity. Two methods for obtaining A. thaliana roots in vitro were used: 1) from the primary callus of leaf origin and 2) directly from leaf explants. Light and electron microscopy and RT-PCR were used for an analysis of the experimental materials. Graviperceptive cells differentiated in roots formed de novo from callus and leaf explants of wild type and scr mutants but did not function under clinorotation. Tissue and cell type patterning in a root proper as well as gene expression in all variants in the control and under clinorotation were similar that gives new evidence on normal morphogenesis in altered gravity. We proposed such model for performing the experiments on board the ISS to study morphogenesis in vitro, including differentiation of graviperceptive cells.

  4. Demographic history of european populations of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier François

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana is successful at colonizing land that has recently undergone human-mediated disturbance. To investigate the prehistoric spread of A. thaliana, we applied approximate Bayesian computation and explicit spatial modeling to 76 European accessions sequenced at 876 nuclear loci. We find evidence that a major migration wave occurred from east to west, affecting most of the sampled individuals. The longitudinal gradient appears to result from the plant having spread in Europe from the east approximately 10,000 years ago, with a rate of westward spread of approximately 0.9 km/year. This wave-of-advance model is consistent with a natural colonization from an eastern glacial refugium that overwhelmed ancient western lineages. However, the speed and time frame of the model also suggest that the migration of A. thaliana into Europe may have accompanied the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic transition.

  5. Cleaning the GenBank Arabidopsis thaliana data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korning, Peter G.; Hebsgaard, Stefan M.; Rouze, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Data driven computational biology relies on the large quantities of genomic data stored in international sequence data banks. However, the possibilities are drastically impaired if the stored data is unreliable. During a project aiming to predict splice sites in the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, we...... extracted a data set from the A. thaliana entries in GenBank. A number of simple `sanity' checks, based on the nature of the data, revealed an alarmingly high error rate. More than 15% of the most important entries extracted did contain erroneous information. In addition, a number of entries had directly...... common. It is proposed that the level of error correction should be increased and that gene structure sanity checks should be incorporated - also at the submitter level - to avoid or reduce the problem in the future. A non-redundant and error corrected subset of the data for A. thaliana is made available...

  6. Identification of novel motif patterns to decipher the promoter architecture of co-expressed genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yosvany; Patil, Ashwini; Nakai, Kenta

    2013-10-16

    The understanding of the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation remains a challenge for molecular biologists in the post-genome era. It is hypothesized that the regulatory regions of genes expressed in the same tissue or cell type share a similar structure. Though several studies have analyzed the promoters of genes expressed in specific metazoan tissues or cells, little research has been done in plants. Hence finding specific patterns of motifs to explain the promoter architecture of co-expressed genes in plants could shed light on their transcription mechanism. We identified novel patterns of sets of motifs in promoters of genes co-expressed in four different plant structures (PSs) and in the entire plant in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sets of genes expressed in four PSs (flower, seed, root, shoot) and housekeeping genes expressed in the entire plant were taken from a database of co-expressed genes in A. thaliana. PS-specific motifs were predicted using three motif-discovery algorithms, 8 of which are novel, to the best of our knowledge. A support vector machine was trained using the average upstream distance of the identified motifs from the translation start site on both strands of binding sites. The correctly classified promoters per PS were used to construct specific patterns of sets of motifs to describe the promoter architecture of those co-expressed genes. The discovered PS-specific patterns were tested in the entire A. thaliana genome, correctly identifying 77.8%, 81.2%, 70.8% and 53.7% genes expressed in petal differentiation, synergid cells, root hair and trichome, as well as 88.4% housekeeping genes. We present five patterns of sets of motifs which describe the promoter architecture of co-expressed genes in five PSs with the ability to predict them from the entire A. thaliana genome. Based on these findings, we conclude that the positioning and orientation of transcription factor binding sites at specific distances from the translation start site is a

  7. Variation of five major glucosinolate genes in Brassica rapa in relation to Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Qiu, D.; Quiros, F.

    2010-07-01

    Glucosinolates and their derivatives isothiocyanates are important secondary metabolites in the Brassica cea that has biological activity, such as cancer protecting and bio fumigant properties. The putative ortho logs of five major genes in the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, Bra.GSELONG.a, Bra.GSALK.a, Bra.CYP83B1, Bra.SUR1.a and Bra.ST5.a, were cloned from both cDNA and genomic DNA from different subspecies of Brassica rapa. Inter species comparative analysis disclosed high conservation of exon number and size for GS-Elong, GS-Alk, GS-CYP83B1 and GS-ST5a among B. rapa, B. oleracea and A. thaliana. Splice site mutations caused the differences observed for exon numbers and sizes in GS-SUR1 among the three species. However, the exonic sequences were highly conserved for this gene. There were not major differences of intronic sizes among the three species for these genes, except for intron 1 for GS-Elong in two subspecies of B. rapa. The cloning of the putative ortho logs of all these major genes involved in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway of B. rapa and sequence analysis provide a useful base for their genetic manipulation and functional analysis. (Author) 31 refs.

  8. Viscosity overshoot in the start-up of uniaxial elongation of low density polyethylene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Bach, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The transient uniaxial elongational viscosity of BASF Lupolen 1840D and 3020D melts has been measured on a filament stretch rheometer up to Hencky strains of 6-7. The elongational viscosity of both melts was measured at 130 degrees C within a broad range of elongational rates. At high elongation ...

  9. WHSC1 links transcription elongation to HIRA-mediated histone H3.3 deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarai, Naoyuki; Nimura, Keisuke; Tamura, Tomohiko; Kanno, Tomohiko; Patel, Mira C; Heightman, Tom D; Ura, Kiyoe; Ozato, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    Actively transcribed genes are enriched with the histone variant H3.3. Although H3.3 deposition has been linked to transcription, mechanisms controlling this process remain elusive. We investigated the role of the histone methyltransferase Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1 (WHSC1) (NSD2/MMSET) in H3.3 deposition into interferon (IFN) response genes. IFN treatment triggered robust H3.3 incorporation into activated genes, which continued even after cessation of transcription. Likewise, UV radiation caused H3.3 deposition in UV-activated genes. However, in Whsc1−/− cells IFN- or UV-triggered H3.3 deposition was absent, along with a marked reduction in IFN- or UV-induced transcription. We found that WHSC1 interacted with the bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) and the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and facilitated transcriptional elongation. WHSC1 also associated with HIRA, the H3.3-specific histone chaperone, independent of BRD4 and P-TEFb. WHSC1 and HIRA co-occupied IFN-stimulated genes and supported prolonged H3.3 incorporation, leaving a lasting transcriptional mark. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role of WHSC1, which links transcriptional elongation and H3.3 deposition into activated genes through two molecularly distinct pathways. PMID:23921552

  10. A peptide hormone gene, GhPSK promotes fibre elongation and contributes to longer and finer cotton fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Tan, Jiafu; Tu, Lili; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-09-01

    Cotton fibres, the single-celled trichomes derived from the ovule epidermis, provide the most important natural material for the global textile industry. A number of studies have demonstrated that regulating endogenous hormone levels through transgenic approaches can improve cotton fibre qualities. Phytosulfokine-α (PSK-α) is a novel peptide hormone in plants that is involved in regulating cell proliferation and elongation. However, its potential applications in crop genetic improvement have not been evaluated. In this study, we describe how exogenous PSK-α application promotes cotton fibre cell elongation in vitro. Chlorate, an effective inhibitor of peptide sulfation, suppressed fibre elongation in ovule culture. Exogenously applied PSK-α partly restored the chlorate-induced suppression. A putative PSK gene (GhPSK) was cloned from Gossypium hirsutum. Expression pattern analysis revealed that GhPSK is preferentially expressed in rapidly elongating fibre cells (5-20 days postanthesis). Overexpression of GhPSK in cotton increased the endogenous PSK-α level and promoted cotton fibre cell elongation, resulting in longer and finer fibres. Further results from electrophysiological and physiological analyses suggest that GhPSK affects fibre development through regulation of K(+) efflux. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile analysis of GhPSK overexpression lines indicates that PSK signalling may regulate the respiratory electron-transport chain and reactive oxygen species to affect cotton fibre development. These results imply that peptide hormones are involved in cotton fibre growth and suggest a new strategy for the biotechnological improvement of cotton fibre quality. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Structures of coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and poliovirus polymerase elongation complexes solved by engineering RNA mediated crystal contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gong

    Full Text Available RNA-dependent RNA polymerases play a vital role in the growth of RNA viruses where they are responsible for genome replication, but do so with rather low fidelity that allows for the rapid adaptation to different host cell environments. These polymerases are also a target for antiviral drug development. However, both drug discovery efforts and our understanding of fidelity determinants have been hampered by a lack of detailed structural information about functional polymerase-RNA complexes and the structural changes that take place during the elongation cycle. Many of the molecular details associated with nucleotide selection and catalysis were revealed in our recent structure of the poliovirus polymerase-RNA complex solved by first purifying and then crystallizing stalled elongation complexes. In the work presented here we extend that basic methodology to determine nine new structures of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus elongation complexes at 2.2-2.9 Å resolution. The structures highlight conserved features of picornaviral polymerases and the interactions they make with the template and product RNA strands, including a tight grip on eight basepairs of the nascent duplex, a fully pre-positioned templating nucleotide, and a conserved binding pocket for the +2 position template strand base. At the active site we see a pre-bound magnesium ion and there is conservation of a non-standard backbone conformation of the template strand in an interaction that may aid in triggering RNA translocation via contact with the conserved polymerase motif B. Moreover, by engineering plasticity into RNA-RNA contacts, we obtain crystal forms that are capable of multiple rounds of in-crystal catalysis and RNA translocation. Together, the data demonstrate that engineering flexible RNA contacts to promote crystal lattice formation is a versatile platform that can be used to solve the structures of viral RdRP elongation complexes and their catalytic cycle

  12. GFP Loss-of-Function Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jason L; Kanno, Tatsuo; Liang, Shih-Chieh; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2015-07-06

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related fluorescent proteins are widely used in biological research to monitor gene expression and protein localization in living cells. The GFP chromophore is generated spontaneously in the presence of oxygen by a multi-step reaction involving cyclization of the internal tripeptide Ser65 (or Thr65)-Tyr66-Gly67, which is embedded in the center of an 11-stranded β-barrel structure. Random and site-specific mutagenesis has been used to optimize GFP fluorescence and create derivatives with novel properties. However, loss-of-function mutations that would aid in understanding GFP protein folding and chromophore formation have not been fully cataloged. Here we report a collection of ethyl methansulfonate-induced GFP loss-of-function mutations in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations that alter residues important for chromophore maturation, such as Arg96 and Ser205, greatly reduce or extinguish fluorescence without dramatically altering GFP protein accumulation. By contrast, other loss-of-fluorescence mutations substantially diminish the amount of GFP protein, suggesting that they compromise protein stability. Many mutations in this category generate substitutions of highly conserved glycine residues, including the following: Gly67 in the chromogenic tripeptide; Gly31, Gly33, and Gly35 in the second β-strand; and Gly20, Gly91, and Gly127 in the lids of the β-barrel scaffold. Our genetic analysis supports conclusions from structural and biochemical studies and demonstrates a critical role for multiple, highly conserved glycine residues in GFP protein stability. Copyright © 2015 Fu et al.

  13. Determinants of Elongation of the Labia Minora in Tete Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Sousa C. Trabalhadoras do sexo respondem ao. HIV/SIDA: Segunda avaliação de intervenção da organização da mulher educadora do SIDA. (OMES). Maputo, Mozambique: Burnet Institute,. 2005. 29. Larsen J. The social vagina: Labia elongation and social capital among women in Rwanda. Culture, Health. & Sexuality ...

  14. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  15. Tandem Oligonucleotide Probe Annealing and Elongation To Discriminate Viral Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Maria; Uhd, Jesper; Miotke, Laura

    2017-01-01

    opportunities in transcriptome analysis, virology, and other fields. Herein, we report for the first time a "click" chemistry approach to oligonucleotide probe elongation as a novel approach to specifically detect a viral sequence. We hybridized a library of short, terminally labeled probes to Ebola virus RNA...

  16. Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100-400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microsco...

  17. The role of abscisic acid in ethylene-induced elongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Rumex palustris responds to submergence with an upward bending of the petioles (hyponastic growth) followed by a strong enhancement of elongation of the entire petiole. These two growth responses together help the plant to regain contact with the water surface, so that gas exchange to the submerged

  18. Identification of elongation factor G as the conserved cellular target of argyrin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Nyfeler

    Full Text Available Argyrins, produced by myxobacteria and actinomycetes, are cyclic octapeptides with antibacterial and antitumor activity. Here, we identify elongation factor G (EF-G as the cellular target of argyrin B in bacteria, via resistant mutant selection and whole genome sequencing, biophysical binding studies and crystallography. Argyrin B binds a novel allosteric pocket in EF-G, distinct from the known EF-G inhibitor antibiotic fusidic acid, revealing a new mode of protein synthesis inhibition. In eukaryotic cells, argyrin B was found to target mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1, the closest homologue of bacterial EF-G. By blocking mitochondrial translation, argyrin B depletes electron transport components and inhibits the growth of yeast and tumor cells. Further supporting direct inhibition of EF-G1, expression of an argyrin B-binding deficient EF-G1 L693Q variant partially rescued argyrin B-sensitivity in tumor cells. In summary, we show that argyrin B is an antibacterial and cytotoxic agent that inhibits the evolutionarily conserved target EF-G, blocking protein synthesis in bacteria and mitochondrial translation in yeast and mammalian cells.

  19. Leaf-Induced Gibberellin Signaling Is Essential for Internode Elongation, Cambial Activity, and Fiber Differentiation in Tobacco Stems[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Jonathan; Voronin, Nickolay; Gong, Fan; Sun, Tai-ping; Hedden, Peter; Fromm, Hillel; Aloni, Roni

    2012-01-01

    The gibberellins (GAs) are a group of endogenous compounds that promote the growth of most plant organs, including stem internodes. We show that in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the presence of leaves is essential for the accumulation of bioactive GAs and their immediate precursors in the stem and consequently for normal stem elongation, cambial proliferation, and xylem fiber differentiation. These processes do not occur in the absence of maturing leaves but can be restored by application of C19-GAs, identifying the presence of leaves as a requirement for GA signaling in stems and revealing the fundamental role of GAs in secondary growth regulation. The use of reporter genes for GA activity and GA-directed DELLA protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana confirms the presence of a mobile signal from leaves to the stem that induces GA signaling. PMID:22253226

  20. DGAT2 revealed by the immunogold technique in Arabidopsis thaliana lipid bodies associated with microtubules DGAT2 revealed by the immunogold technique in Arabidopsis thaliana lipid bodies associated with microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The immunogold technique with anti-diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 antibody revealed in
    A. thaliana embryo and root meristematic cells gold particles manifesting the presence of DGAT2 in ER as well
    as in lipid bodies. This being so, lipid synthesis could take place both in ER and in the lipid bodies. The presence
    of microtubules around the lipid bodies was evidenced under transmission EM. Detection of tubulin around the
    lipid bodies using the immunogold technique with anti-a-tubulin is in agreement with the above observations.
    Connection of lipid bodies with microtubules was also detected by us in other plants where they probably participated
    in lipid synthesis. A similar phenomenon may take place in A. thaliana.The immunogold technique with anti-diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 antibody revealed in
    A. thaliana embryo and root meristematic cells gold particles manifesting the presence of DGAT2 in ER as well
    as in lipid bodies. This being so, lipid synthesis could take place both in ER and in the lipid bodies. The presence
    of microtubules around the lipid bodies was evidenced under transmission EM. Detection of tubulin around the
    lipid bodies using the immunogold technique with anti-a-tubulin is in agreement with the above observations.
    Connection of lipid bodies with microtubules was also detected by us in other plants where they probably participated
    in lipid synthesis. A similar phenomenon may take place in A. thaliana.

  1. Metabolic changes in Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing chalcone synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dao, Thi Thanh Hien

    2010-01-01

    The study has shown that it is possible to introduce the heterologous CHS gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and common multicopies of transgenes containing plants were obtained. Analysis of the change in metabolome of CHS transgenic plants, high expression transgenic lines can be identified by markers

  2. Multi-element bioimaging of Arabidopsis thaliana roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; Chen, Anle; Aarts, Mark G.M.; Salt, David E.; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of root function is central for the development of plants with more efficient nutrient uptake and translocation. We here present a method for multielement bioimaging at the cellular level in roots of the genetic model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using

  3. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    and contamination by other B12 binders. We tested the use of recombinant plants for large-scale production of pathogen-free human recombinant IF. Human IF was successfully expressed in the recombinant plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Extract from fresh plants possessed high B12-binding capacity corresponding to 70 mg...

  4. Genetic Regulation of Transcriptional Variation in Natural Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An increased knowledge of the genetic regulation of expression in Arabidopsis thaliana is likely to provide important insights about the basis of the plant’s extensive phenotypic variation. Here, we reanalyzed two publicly available datasets with genome-wide data on genetic and transcript variation in large collections of natural A. thaliana accessions. Transcripts from more than half of all genes were detected in the leaves of all accessions, and from nearly all annotated genes in at least one accession. Thousands of genes had high transcript levels in some accessions, but no transcripts at all in others, and this pattern was correlated with the genome-wide genotype. In total, 2669 eQTL were mapped in the largest population, and 717 of them were replicated in the other population. A total of 646 cis-eQTL-regulated genes that lacked detectable transcripts in some accessions was found, and for 159 of these we identified one, or several, common structural variants in the populations that were shown to be likely contributors to the lack of detectable RNA transcripts for these genes. This study thus provides new insights into the overall genetic regulation of global gene expression diversity in the leaf of natural A. thaliana accessions. Further, it also shows that strong cis-acting polymorphisms, many of which are likely to be structural variations, make important contributions to the transcriptional variation in the worldwide A. thaliana population.

  5. Highlights of meiotic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana | Consiglio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meiosis is a fascinating and complex phenomenon and, despite its central role in sexual plant reproduction, little is known on the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We review the progress made in recent years using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for isolating meiotic genes. In particular, emphasis is given on ...

  6. Transcriptional regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana chalcone synthase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinbaum, R.L.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1988-05-01

    The authors cloned an Arabiodpsis thaliana chalcone synthase (CHS) gene on the basis of cross-hybridization with a Petroselinum hortense CHS cDNA clone. The protein sequence deduced from the A. thaliana CHS DNA sequence is at least 85% homologous to the CHS sequences from P. hortense, Antirrhinum majus, and Petunia hybrida. Southern blot analysis indicated that CHS is a single-copy gene in A. thaliana. High-intensity light treatment of A. thaliana plants for 24 h caused a 50-fold increase in CHS enzyme activity and an accumulation of visibly detectable levels of anthocyanin pigments in the vegetative structures of these plants. A corresponding increase in the steady-state level of CHS mRNA was detected after high-intensity light treatment for the same period of time. The accumulation of CHS mRNA in response to high-intensity light was due, at least in part, to an increased rate of transcription of the CHS gene as demonstrated by nuclear runoff experiment.

  7. Gravity-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederoff, Heike; Brown, Christopher S.; Heber, Steffen; Kajla, Jyoti D.; Kumar, Sandeep; Lomax, Terri L.; Wheeler, Benjamin; Yalamanchili, Roopa

    Plant growth and development is regulated by changes in environmental signals. Plants sense environmental changes and respond to them by modifying gene expression programs to ad-just cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. Functional expression of genes comprises many different processes including transcription, translation, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications, as well as the degradation of RNA and proteins. Recently, it was discovered that small RNAs (sRNA, 18-24 nucleotides long), which are heritable and systemic, are key elements in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic changes. Sev-eral different classes of sRNAs have been identified that are part of a non-cell autonomous and phloem-mobile network of regulators affecting transcript stability, translational kinetics, and DNA methylation patterns responsible for heritable transcriptional silencing (epigenetics). Our research has focused on gene expression changes in response to gravistimulation of Arabidopsis roots. Using high-throughput technologies including microarrays and 454 sequencing, we iden-tified rapid changes in transcript abundance of genes as well as differential expression of small RNA in Arabidopsis root apices after minutes of reorientation. Some of the differentially regu-lated transcripts are encoded by genes that are important for the bending response. Functional mutants of those genes respond faster to reorientation than the respective wild type plants, indicating that these proteins are repressors of differential cell elongation. We compared the gravity responsive sRNAs to the changes in transcript abundances of their putative targets and identified several potential miRNA: target pairs. Currently, we are using mutant and transgenic Arabidopsis plants to characterize the function of those miRNAs and their putative targets in gravitropic and phototropic responses in Arabidopsis.

  8. A Geometrically-Constrained Mathematical Model of Mammary Gland Ductal Elongation Reveals Novel Cellular Dynamics within the Terminal End Bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Paine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is often used to model biological systems. In mammary gland development, mathematical modeling has been limited to acinar and branching morphogenesis and breast cancer, without reference to normal duct formation. We present a model of ductal elongation that exploits the geometrically-constrained shape of the terminal end bud (TEB, the growing tip of the duct, and incorporates morphometrics, region-specific proliferation and apoptosis rates. Iterative model refinement and behavior analysis, compared with biological data, indicated that the traditional metric of nipple to the ductal front distance, or percent fat pad filled to evaluate ductal elongation rate can be misleading, as it disregards branching events that can reduce its magnitude. Further, model driven investigations of the fates of specific TEB cell types confirmed migration of cap cells into the body cell layer, but showed their subsequent preferential elimination by apoptosis, thus minimizing their contribution to the luminal lineage and the mature duct.

  9. A Geometrically-Constrained Mathematical Model of Mammary Gland Ductal Elongation Reveals Novel Cellular Dynamics within the Terminal End Bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Ingrid; Chauviere, Arnaud; Landua, John; Sreekumar, Amulya; Cristini, Vittorio; Rosen, Jeffrey; Lewis, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Mathematics is often used to model biological systems. In mammary gland development, mathematical modeling has been limited to acinar and branching morphogenesis and breast cancer, without reference to normal duct formation. We present a model of ductal elongation that exploits the geometrically-constrained shape of the terminal end bud (TEB), the growing tip of the duct, and incorporates morphometrics, region-specific proliferation and apoptosis rates. Iterative model refinement and behavior analysis, compared with biological data, indicated that the traditional metric of nipple to the ductal front distance, or percent fat pad filled to evaluate ductal elongation rate can be misleading, as it disregards branching events that can reduce its magnitude. Further, model driven investigations of the fates of specific TEB cell types confirmed migration of cap cells into the body cell layer, but showed their subsequent preferential elimination by apoptosis, thus minimizing their contribution to the luminal lineage and the mature duct.

  10. Cellular organisation of the Arabidopsis thaliana root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, L.; Janmaat, K.; Willemsen, V.; Linstead, P.; Poethig, S.; Roberts, R.; Scheres, B.J.G.

    1993-01-01

    The anatomy of the developing root of Arabidopsis is described using conventional histological techniques, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The root meristem is derived from cells of the hypophysis and adjacent cells of the embryo proper. The postembryonic organization of the root is

  11. Paracrine effects of embryo-derived FGF4 and BMP4 during pig trophoblast elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Magaña, Griselda; Rodríguez, Aida; Zhang, Haixin; Webb, Robert; Alberio, Ramiro

    2014-03-01

    The crosstalk between the epiblast and the trophoblast is critical in supporting the early stages of conceptus development. FGF4 and BMP4 are inductive signals that participate in the communication between the epiblast and the extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) of the developing mouse embryo. Importantly, however, it is unknown whether a similar crosstalk operates in species that lack a discernible ExE and develop a mammotypical embryonic disc (ED). Here we investigated the crosstalk between the epiblast and the trophectoderm (TE) during pig embryo elongation. FGF4 ligand and FGFR2 were detected primarily on the plasma membrane of TE cells of peri-elongation embryos. The binding of this growth factor to its receptor triggered a signal transduction response evidenced by an increase in phosphorylated MAPK/ERK. Particular enrichment was detected in the periphery of the ED in early ovoid embryos, indicating that active FGF signalling was operating during this stage. Gene expression analysis shows that CDX2 and ELF5, two genes expressed in the mouse ExE, are only co-expressed in the Rauber's layer, but not in the pig mural TE. Interestingly, these genes were detected in the nascent mesoderm of early gastrulating embryos. Analysis of BMP4 expression by in situ hybridisation shows that this growth factor is produced by nascent mesoderm cells. A functional test in differentiating epiblast shows that CDX2 and ELF5 are activated in response to BMP4. Furthermore, the effects of BMP4 were also demonstrated in the neighbouring TE cells, as demonstrated by an increase in phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8. These results show that BMP4 produced in the extraembryonic mesoderm is directly influencing the SMAD response in the TE of elongating embryos. These results demonstrate that paracrine signals from the embryo, represented by FGF4 and BMP4, induce a response in the TE prior to the extensive elongation. The study also confirms that expression of CDX2 and ELF5 is not conserved in the mural TE

  12. QUANTIFYING ELONGATION RHYTHM DURING FULL-LENGTH PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gabriel; Chen, Chunlai; Kaur, Jaskiran; Cui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Haibo; Asahara, Haruichi; Chong, Shaorong; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E.; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Pauses regulate the rhythm of ribosomal protein synthesis. Mutations disrupting even minor pauses can give rise to improperly formed proteins and human disease. Such minor pauses are difficult to characterize by ensemble methods, but can be readily examined by single-molecule (sm) approaches. Here we use smFRET to carry out real-time monitoring of the expression of a full-length protein, the green fluorescent protein variant Emerald GFP. We demonstrate significant correlations between measured elongation rates and codon and isoacceptor tRNA usage, and provide a quantitative estimate of the effect on elongation rate of replacing a codon recognizing an abundant tRNA with a synonymous codon cognate to a rarer tRNA. Our results suggest that tRNA selection plays an important general role in modulating the rates and rhythms of protein synthesis, potentially influencing simultaneous co-translational processes such as folding and chemical modification. PMID:23822614

  13. Codon usage and gene function are related in sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapello, H; Lisacek, F; Caboche, M; Hénaut, A

    1998-03-16

    In this paper, the relationship between codon usage and the physiological pattern of expression of a gene is investigated while considering a dataset of 815 nuclear genes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Factorial Correspondence Analysis, a commonly used multivariate statistical approach in codon usage analysis, was used in order to analyse codon usage bias gene by gene. The analysis reveals a single major trend in codon usage among genes in Arabidopsis. At one end of the trend lie genes with a highly G/C biased codon usage. This group contains mainly photosynthetic and housekeeping genes which are known to encode the most abundant proteins of the vegetal cell. At the other extreme lie genes with a weaker A/T-biased codon usage. This group contain genes with various functions which exhibits most of the time a strong tissue-specific pattern of expression in relation, for example, to stress conditions. These observations were confirmed by the detailed analysis of codon usage in the multigene family of tubulins and appear to be general in plant species, even as distant from Arabidopsis thaliana as a monocotyledonous plant such as maize. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana IRX10 and two related proteins from psyllium and Physcomitrella patens are xylan xylosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Johnson, Nathan Robert; Wilkerson, Curtis Gene

    2014-10-01

    The enzymatic mechanism that governs the synthesis of the xylan backbone polymer, a linear chain of xylose residues connected by β-1,4 glycosidic linkages, has remained elusive. Xylan is a major constituent of many kinds of plant cell walls, and genetic studies have identified multiple genes that affect xylan formation. In this study, we investigate several homologs of one of these previously identified xylan-related genes, IRX10 from Arabidopsis thaliana, by heterologous expression and in vitro xylan xylosyltransferase assay. We find that an IRX10 homolog from the moss Physcomitrella patens displays robust activity, and we show that the xylosidic linkage formed is a β-1,4 linkage, establishing this protein as a xylan β-1,4-xylosyltransferase. We also find lower but reproducible xylan xylosyltransferase activity with A. thaliana IRX10 and with a homolog from the dicot plant Plantago ovata, showing that xylan xylosyltransferase activity is conserved over large evolutionary distance for these proteins. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Enhancer sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana obtained by library transformation of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, R W; Chua, N H

    1990-09-01

    In this paper we report on the use of a bidirectional enhancer cloning vehicle to isolate and characterize new enhancer sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. A library of A. thaliana genomic Sau3A segments was constructed in Escherichia coli in the binary plasmid enhancer cloning vehicle pROA97. The T-DNA based vector carries abbreviated TATA regions from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S transcription unit upstream of two genes. The library was transferred via triparental mating into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The neomycin phosphotransferase II gene was used for selection of kanamycin-resistant transformed tobacco callus cells. Approximately 1100 transgenic plants were regenerated and assayed for expression of the E. coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in leaves, stems, roots, or seeds. Plasmids carrying putative enhancer sequences were rescued from the genomes of transgenic plants and the cloned sequences were assayed for enhancer function in genetic selection experiments. Plants were regenerated from the kanamycin-resistant calli obtained in the secondary transformation experiments. Histochemical analysis of GUS activity in the leaf, stem, and root tissues of transgenic plants showed a variety of expression patterns. The DNA sequences are presented of five Arabidopsis segments which confer enhancer function.

  16. Characterization and enzymatic properties of protein kinase ACR4 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xuehe; Xu, Ziyan; Yang, Hui; Li, Jixi

    2017-07-22

    Serine/threonine-protein kinase-like protein ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 (ACR4), a transmembrane protein of Arabidopsis thaliana, plays important roles in cell division and differentiation. Although accumulating studies shed light on the function of ACR4, the structure and catalytic mechanism of ACR4 remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the purification and enzymatic properties of the intracellular kinase domain (residues 464-799) of ACR4 (ACR4IKD). Through Ni-affinity chromatography and gel filter chromatography methods, we successfully obtain high-purity ACR4IKD protein from Escherichia coli. Dynamic light scattering and gel-filtration methods reveal that ACR4IKD distributes with high homogeneity and exists as a monomer in solution. In addition, the ACR4IKD protein has typical kinase activity with myelin basic protein (MBP) as the substrate. Our study may lay the foundation for structure determination of ACR4IKD and further functional research, for example, screening significant substrates of ACR4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. "Rhizoponics": a novel hydroponic rhizotron for root system analyses on mature Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Laura; Lobet, Guillaume; Tocquin, Pierre; Périlleux, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Well-developed and functional roots are critical to support plant life and reach high crop yields. Their study however, is hampered by their underground growth and characterizing complex root system architecture (RSA) therefore remains a challenge. In the last few years, several phenotyping methods, including rhizotrons and x-ray computed tomography, have been developed for relatively thick roots. But in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in vitro culture remains the easiest and preferred method to study root development, which technically limits the analyses to young seedlings. We present here an innovative design of hydroponic rhizotrons (rhizoponics) adapted to Arabidopsis thaliana. The setup allows to simultaneously characterize the RSA and shoot development from seedling to adult stages, i.e. from seed to seed. This system offers the advantages of hydroponics such as control of root environment and easy access to the roots for measurements or sampling. Being completely movable and low cost, it can be used in controlled cabinets. We chose the case of cadmium treatment to illustrate potential applications, from cell to organ levels. Rhizoponics makes possible, on the same plants of Arabidopsis, RSA measurements, root sampling and characterization of aerial development up to adult size. It therefore provides a valuable tool for addressing fundamental questions in whole plant physiology.

  18. A workflow for mathematical modeling of subcellular metabolic pathways in leaf metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eNägele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade genome sequencing has experienced a rapid technological development resulting in numerous sequencing projects and applications in life science. In plant molecular biology, the availability of sequence data on whole genomes has enabled the reconstruction of metabolic networks. Enzymatic reactions are predicted by the sequence information. Pathways arise due to the participation of chemical compounds as substrates and products in these reactions. Although several of these comprehensive networks have been reconstructed for the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the integration of experimental data is still challenging. Particularly the analysis of subcellular organization of plant cells limits the understanding of regulatory instances in these metabolic networks in vivo. In this study, we develop an approach for the functional integration of experimental high-throughput data into such large-scale networks. We present a subcellular metabolic network model comprising 524 metabolic intermediates and 548 metabolic interactions derived from a total of 2769 reactions. We demonstrate how to link the metabolite covariance matrix of different Arabidopsis thaliana accessions with the subcellular metabolic network model for the inverse calculation of the biochemical Jacobian, finally resulting in the calculation of a matrix which satisfies a Lyaponov equation involving a covariance matrix. In this way, differential strategies of metabolite compartmentation and involved reactions were identified in the accessions when exposed to low temperature.

  19. Expression of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseyko, N.; Feldman, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    This is the first report on using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a pH reporter in plants. Proton fluxes and pH regulation play important roles in plant cellular activity and therefore, it would be extremely helpful to have a plant gene reporter system for rapid, non-invasive visualization of intracellular pH changes. In order to develop such a system, we constructed three vectors for transient and stable transformation of plant cells with a pH-sensitive derivative of green fluorescent protein. Using these vectors, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco plants were produced. Here the application of pH-sensitive GFP technology in plants is described and, for the first time, the visualization of pH gradients between different developmental compartments in intact whole-root tissues of A. thaliana is reported. The utility of pH-sensitive GFP in revealing rapid, environmentally induced changes in cytoplasmic pH in roots is also demonstrated.

  20. The life and death of translation elongation factor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rene; Merrill, A.R.; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyses the translocation of the two tRNAs and the mRNA after peptidyl transfer on the 80S ribosome. Recent crystal structures of eEF2 and the cryo-EM reconstruction of its 80S complex now provide...... diphthamide residue, which is ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa....

  1. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huchen

    2017-08-31

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors.

  2. Conformational flexibility of RNA polymerase III during transcriptional elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Böttcher, Bettina; Rashid, Umar Jan; Steuerwald, Ulrich; Flörchinger, Beate; Devos, Damien P; Lindner, Doris; Müller, Christoph W

    2010-01-01

    RNA polymerase (Pol) III is responsible for the transcription of genes encoding small RNAs, including tRNA, 5S rRNA and U6 RNA. Here, we report the electron cryomicroscopy structures of yeast Pol III at 9.9 Å resolution and its elongation complex at 16.5 Å resolution. Particle sub-classification reveals prominent EM densities for the two Pol III-specific subcomplexes, C31/C82/C34 and C37/C53, that can be interpreted using homology models. While the winged-helix-containing C31/C82/C34 subcomplex initiates transcription from one side of the DNA-binding cleft, the C37/C53 subcomplex accesses the transcription bubble from the opposite side of this cleft. The transcribing Pol III enzyme structure not only shows the complete incoming DNA duplex, but also reveals the exit path of newly synthesized RNA. During transcriptional elongation, the Pol III-specific subcomplexes tightly enclose the incoming DNA duplex, which likely increases processivity and provides structural insights into the conformational switch between Pol III-mediated initiation and elongation. PMID:20967027

  3. Significant enhancement by biochar of caproate production via chain elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biochar was introduced into a chain elongation system to enhance the bioproduction of caproate and caprylate. The concentration of caproate increased to 21.1 g/L upon the addition of biochar, which is the highest level of caproate reported for such a system to date when ethanol was used as electron donor. The addition of biochar created a tougher system with more stable microorganism community structure for chain elongation, in which no obvious inhibition by products or substrates was observed, moreover, the lag phase was reduced 2.3-fold compared to the system without biochar. These reinforcement effect of biochar are attributed to the enhanced conductivity due to the significant enrichment of functional microorganisms via the microbial network surrounding smaller biochar particles, and via the adsorption on the rough surfaces or pores of larger particles, which facilitated electron transfer. Higher amounts of extracellular polymer substances and higher conductivity induced by biochar could contribute to the reinforcement effect in chain elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of cracking potential and micro-elongation of linerboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supattra Panthai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Folding cracks of linerboards in relation to their micro-elongation and the forming conditions were studied using an industrial linerboard machine with a top former. The experiments consisted of the study of various forming conditions by manipulating the jet/wire speed ratio to produce linerboard with differences in fiber structures that were related to the cracked and uncracked products. The results showed that changes to the jet/wire speed ratio of about 0.01–0.02 to improve the tested folding endurance in the machine direction potentially produced folding cracks in the linerboard, which indicated an ambiguous interpretation of the foldability tests. The delaminated cracked layers were found to have a high folding endurance and tensile strength, while the decrease in the micro-elongation formulated in this study was found to be related to cracking. A lower micro-elongation of about 350–500 μm/N·g was found in a range of products with folding cracks.

  5. Identification of Elongated Primary Cilia with Impaired Mechanotransduction in Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliazadeh, Niaz; Gorman, Kristen F; Eveleigh, Robert; Bourque, Guillaume; Moreau, Alain

    2017-03-14

    The primary cilium is an outward projecting antenna-like organelle with an important role in bone mechanotransduction. The capacity to sense mechanical stimuli can affect important cellular and molecular aspects of bone tissue. Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a complex pediatric disease of unknown cause, defined by abnormal spinal curvatures. We demonstrate significant elongation of primary cilia in IS patient bone cells. In response to mechanical stimulation, these IS cells differentially express osteogenic factors, mechanosensitive genes, and signaling genes. Considering that numerous ciliary genes are associated with a scoliosis phenotype, among ciliopathies and knockout animal models, we expected IS patients to have an accumulation of rare variants in ciliary genes. Instead, our SKAT-O analysis of whole exomes showed an enrichment among IS patients for rare variants in genes with a role in cellular mechanotransduction. Our data indicates defective cilia in IS bone cells, which may be linked to heterogeneous gene variants pertaining to cellular mechanotransduction.

  6. Structural and functional characterization of the protein kinase Mps1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alves Gamosa de Oliveira

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, protein kinases catalyze the transfer of a gamma-phosphate from ATP (or GTP to specific amino acids in protein targets. In plants, protein kinases have been shown to participate in signaling cascades driving responses to environmental stimuli and developmental processes. Plant meristems are undifferentiated tissues that provide the major source of cells that will form organs throughout development. However, non-dividing specialized cells can also dedifferentiate and re-initiate cell division if exposed to appropriate conditions. Mps1 (Monopolar spindle is a dual-specificity protein kinase that plays a critical role in monitoring the accuracy of chromosome segregation in the mitotic checkpoint mechanism. Although Mps1 functions have been clearly demonstrated in animals and fungi, its role in plants is so far unclear. Here, using structural and biochemical analyses here we show that Mps1 has highly similar homologs in many plant genomes across distinct lineages (e.g. AtMps1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several structural features (i.e. catalytic site, DFG motif and threonine triad are clearly conserved in plant Mps1 kinases. Structural and sequence analysis also suggest that AtMps1 interact with other cell cycle proteins, such as Mad2 and MAPK1. By using a very specific Mps1 inhibitor (SP600125 we show that compromised AtMps1 activity hampers the development of A. thaliana seedlings in a dose-dependent manner, especially in secondary roots. Moreover, concomitant administration of the auxin IAA neutralizes the AtMps1 inhibition phenotype, allowing secondary root development. These observations let us to hypothesize that AtMps1 might be a downstream regulator of IAA signaling in the formation of secondary roots. Our results indicate that Mps1 might be a universal component of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint machinery across very distant lineages of eukaryotes.

  7. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuyu; Cui, Xuefei; Su, Liang; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Gong, Qingqiu; Yang, Jianping; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2017-06-01

    A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark. We also find that JA stabilizes several COP1-targeted transcription factors in a COP1-dependent manner. RNA-seq analysis further defines a JA-light co-modulated and cop1-dependent transcriptome, which is enriched for auxin-responsive genes and genes participating in cell wall modification. JA suppresses COP1 activity through at least two distinct mechanisms: decreasing COP1 protein accumulation in the nucleus; and reducing the physical interaction between COP1 and its activator, SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 1 (SPA1). Our work reveals that JA suppresses COP1 activity to stabilize COP1 targets, thereby inhibiting hypocotyl elongation and stimulating cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modification of tRNA(Lys UUU by elongator is essential for efficient translation of stress mRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernández-Vázquez

    Full Text Available The Elongator complex, including the histone acetyl transferase Sin3/Elp3, was isolated as an RNA polymerase II-interacting complex, and cells deficient in Elongator subunits display transcriptional defects. However, it has also been shown that Elongator mediates the modification of some tRNAs, modulating translation efficiency. We show here that the fission yeast Sin3/Elp3 is important for oxidative stress survival. The stress transcriptional program, governed by the Sty1-Atf1-Pcr1 pathway, is affected in mutant cells, but not severely. On the contrary, cells lacking Sin3/Elp3 cannot modify the uridine wobble nucleoside of certain tRNAs, and other tRNA modifying activities such as Ctu1-Ctu2 are also essential for normal tolerance to H2O2. In particular, a plasmid over-expressing the tRNA(Lys UUU complements the stress-related phenotypes of Sin3/Elp3 mutant cells. We have determined that the main H2O2-dependent genes, including those coding for the transcription factors Atf1 and Pcr1, are highly expressed mRNAs containing a biased number of lysine-coding codons AAA versus AAG. Thus, their mRNAs are poorly translated after stress in cells lacking Sin3/Elp3 or Ctu2, whereas a mutated atf1 transcript with AAA-to-AAG lysine codons is efficiently translated in all strain backgrounds. Our study demonstrates that the lack of a functional Elongator complex results in stress phenotypes due to its contribution to tRNA modification and subsequent translation inefficiency of certain stress-induced, highly expressed mRNAs. These results suggest that the transcriptional defects of these strain backgrounds may be a secondary consequence of the deficient expression of a transcription factor, Atf1-Pcr1, and other components of the transcriptional machinery.

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 regulates the budding site and elongation of the mouse ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoichi; Oshima, Keisuke; Fogo, Agnes; Hogan, Brigid L.M.; Ichikawa, Iekuni

    2000-01-01

    In the normal mouse embryo, Bmp4 is expressed in mesenchymal cells surrounding the Wolffian duct (WD) and ureter stalk, whereas bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor genes are transcribed either ubiquitously (Alk3) or exclusively in the WD and ureter epithelium (Alk6). Bmp4 heterozygous null mutant mice display, with high penetrance, abnormalities that mimic human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), including hypo/dysplastic kidneys, hydroureter, ectopic ureterovesical (UV) junction, and double collecting system. Analysis of mutant embryos suggests that the kidney hypo/dysplasia results from reduced branching of the ureter, whereas the ectopic UV junction and double collecting system are due to ectopic ureteral budding from the WD and accessory budding from the main ureter, respectively. In the cultured metanephros deprived of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs), BMP4-loaded beads partially rescue growth and elongation of the ureter. By contrast, when S-GAGs synthesis is not inhibited, BMP4 beads inhibit ureter branching and expression of Wnt 11, a target of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. Thus, Bmp4 has 2 functions in the early morphogenesis of the kidney and urinary tract. One is to inhibit ectopic budding from the WD or the ureter stalk by antagonizing inductive signals from the metanephric mesenchyme to the illegitimate sites on the WD. The other is to promote the elongation of the branching ureter within the metanephros, thereby promoting kidney morphogenesis. PMID:10749566

  10. The WRKY transcription factor OsWRKY78 regulates stem elongation and seed development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Quan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Yan; Yu, Heng-Xiu; Gu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2011-09-01

    WRKY proteins are a large super family of transcriptional regulators primarily involved in various plant physiological programs. In present study, the expression profile and putative function of the WRKY transcriptional factor, WRKY78, in rice were identified. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that OsWRKY78 transcript was most abundant in elongating stems though its expression was detected in all the tested organs. The expression profiles were further confirmed by using promoter-GUS analysis in transgenic rice. OsWRKY78::GFP fusion gene transient expression analysis demonstrated that OsWRKY78 targeted to the nuclei of onion epidermal cell. Furthermore, OsWRKY78 RNAi and overexpression transgenic rice lines were generated. Transgenic plants with OsWRKY78 overexpression exhibited a phenotype identical to the wild type, whereas inhibition of OsWRKY78 expression resulted in a semi-dwarf and small kernel phenotype due to reduced cell length in transgenic plants. In addition, a T-DNA insertion mutant line oswrky78 was identified and a phenotype similar to that of RNAi plants was also observed. Grain quality analysis data showed no significant differences, with the exception of minor changes in endosperm starch crystal structure in RNAi plants. Taken together, these results suggest that OsWRKY78 may acts as a stem elongation and seed development regulator in rice.

  11. Characteristics of elongated and ruptured anterior cruciate ligament grafts: An analysis of 21 consecutive revision cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Iio

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The location of the original femoral tunnel was more proximal in patients with elongated grafts than in those with ruptured grafts. Different bone tunnel position from native ACL might lead to graft elongation.

  12. Relative Mesothelioma Potencies for Unregulated Respirable Elongated Mineral and Synthetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades uncertainties and contradictions have surrounded the issue of whether exposures to respirable elongated mineral and synthetic particles (REMPs and RESPs) present health risks such as those recognized for exposures to elongated asbestiform mineral particles from the fi...

  13. Transgenic hybrid aspen trees with increased gibberellin (GA) concentrations suggest that GA acts in parallel with FLOWERING LOCUS T2 to control shoot elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Maria E; Hoffman, Daniel; Kaduk, Mateusz; Mauriat, Mélanie; Moritz, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) have been implicated in short day (SD)-induced growth cessation in Populus, because exogenous applications of bioactive GAs to hybrid aspens (Populus tremula × tremuloides) under SD conditions delay growth cessation. However, this effect diminishes with time, suggesting that plants may cease growth following exposure to SDs due to a reduction in sensitivity to GAs. In order to validate and further explore the role of GAs in growth cessation, we perturbed GA biosynthesis or signalling in hybrid aspen plants by overexpressing AtGA20ox1, AtGA2ox2 and PttGID1.3 (encoding GA biosynthesis enzymes and a GA receptor). We found trees with elevated concentrations of bioactive GA, due to overexpression of AtGA20ox1, continued to grow in SD conditions and were insensitive to the level of FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2) expression. As transgenic plants overexpressing the PttGID1.3 GA receptor responded in a wild-type (WT) manner to SD conditions, this insensitivity did not result from limited receptor availability. As high concentrations of bioactive GA during SD conditions were sufficient to sustain shoot elongation growth in hybrid aspen trees, independent of FT2 expression levels, we conclude elongation growth in trees is regulated by both GA- and long day-responsive pathways, similar to the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. A Mini Zinc-Finger Protein (MIF from Gerbera hybrida Activates the GASA Protein Family Gene, GEG, to Inhibit Ray Petal Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixiang Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petal appearance is an important horticultural trail that is generally used to evaluate the ornamental value of plants. However, knowledge of the molecular regulation of petal growth is mostly derived from analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana, and relatively little is known about this process in ornamental plants. Previously, GEG (Gerbera hybrida homolog of the gibberellin [GA]–stimulated transcript 1 [GAST1] from tomato, a gene from the GA stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA family, was reported to be an inhibitor of ray petal growth in the ornamental species, G. hybrida. To explore the molecular regulatory mechanism of GEG in petal growth inhibition, a mini zinc-finger protein (MIF was identified using yeast one-hybrid (Y1H screen. The direct binding of GhMIF to the GEG promoter was verified by using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a dual-luciferase assay. A yeast two-hybrid (Y2H revealed that GhMIF acts as a transcriptional activator. Transient transformation assay indicated that GhMIF is involved in inhibiting ray petal elongation by activating the expression of GEG. Spatiotemporal expression analyses and hormone treatment assay showed that the expression of GhMIF and GEG is coordinated during petal development. Taken together, these results suggest that GhMIF acts as a direct transcriptional activator of GEG, a gene from the GASA protein family to regulate the petal elongation.

  15. Differential regulation of cellulose orientation at the inner and outer face of epidermal cells in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Elizabeth Faris; Timpano, Hélène; Desprez, Thierry; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne-Mie; Höfte, Herman; Vernhettes, Samantha

    2011-07-01

    It is generally believed that cell elongation is regulated by cortical microtubules, which guide the movement of cellulose synthase complexes as they secrete cellulose microfibrils into the periplasmic space. Transversely oriented microtubules are predicted to direct the deposition of a parallel array of microfibrils, thus generating a mechanically anisotropic cell wall that will favor elongation and prevent radial swelling. Thus far, support for this model has been most convincingly demonstrated in filamentous algae. We found that in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, microtubules and cellulose synthase trajectories are transversely oriented on the outer surface of the epidermis for only a short period during growth and that anisotropic growth continues after this transverse organization is lost. Our data support previous findings that the outer epidermal wall is polylamellate in structure, with little or no anisotropy. By contrast, we observed perfectly transverse microtubules and microfibrils at the inner face of the epidermis during all stages of cell expansion. Experimental perturbation of cortical microtubule organization preferentially at the inner face led to increased radial swelling. Our study highlights the previously underestimated complexity of cortical microtubule organization in the shoot epidermis and underscores a role for the inner tissues in the regulation of growth anisotropy.

  16. Evolutionary origins of Brassicaceae specific genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background All sequenced genomes contain a proportion of lineage-specific genes, which exhibit no sequence similarity to any genes outside the lineage. Despite their prevalence, the origins and functions of most lineage-specific genes remain largely unknown. As more genomes are sequenced opportunities for understanding evolutionary origins and functions of lineage-specific genes are increasing. Results This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origins of lineage-specific genes (LSGs) in Arabidopsis thaliana that are restricted to the Brassicaceae family. In this study, lineage-specific genes within the nuclear (1761 genes) and mitochondrial (28 genes) genomes are identified. The evolutionary origins of two thirds of the lineage-specific genes within the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are also identified. Almost a quarter of lineage-specific genes originate from non-lineage-specific paralogs, while the origins of ~10% of lineage-specific genes are partly derived from DNA exapted from transposable elements (twice the proportion observed for non-lineage-specific genes). Lineage-specific genes are also enriched in genes that have overlapping CDS, which is consistent with such novel genes arising from overprinting. Over half of the subset of the 958 lineage-specific genes found only in Arabidopsis thaliana have alignments to intergenic regions in Arabidopsis lyrata, consistent with either de novo origination or differential gene loss and retention, with both evolutionary scenarios explaining the lineage-specific status of these genes. A smaller number of lineage-specific genes with an incomplete open reading frame across different Arabidopsis thaliana accessions are further identified as accession-specific genes, most likely of recent origin in Arabidopsis thaliana. Putative de novo origination for two of the Arabidopsis thaliana-only genes is identified via additional sequencing across accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and closely related sister species

  17. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice

    OpenAIRE

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberell...

  18. The structure of the major anthocyanin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Stephen J; Abrahams, Sharon

    2002-02-01

    The major anthocyanin in the leaves and stems of Arabidopsis thaliana has been isolated and shown to be cyanidin 3-O-[2-O(2-O-(sinapoyl)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-p-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside] 5-O-[6-O-(malonyl) beta-D-glucopyranoside]. This anthocyanin is a glucosylated version of one of the anthocyanins found in the flowers of the closely related Matthiola incana.

  19. β-catenin regulates Pax3 and Cdx2 for caudal neural tube closure and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyu; Gan, Qini; Stokes, Arjun; Lassiter, Rhonda N T; Wang, Yongping; Chan, Jason; Han, Jane X; Pleasure, David E; Epstein, Jonathan A; Zhou, Chengji J

    2014-01-01

    Non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling plays a primary role in the convergent extension that drives neural tube closure and body axis elongation. PCP signaling gene mutations cause severe neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the role of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in neural tube closure and NTDs remains poorly understood. This study shows that conditional gene targeting of β-catenin in the dorsal neural folds of mouse embryos represses the expression of the homeobox-containing genes Pax3 and Cdx2 at the dorsal posterior neuropore (PNP), and subsequently diminishes the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling target genes T, Tbx6 and Fgf8 at the tail bud, leading to spina bifida aperta, caudal axis bending and tail truncation. We demonstrate that Pax3 and Cdx2 are novel downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Transgenic activation of Pax3 cDNA can rescue the closure defect in the β-catenin mutants, suggesting that Pax3 is a key downstream effector of β-catenin signaling in the PNP closure process. Cdx2 is known to be crucial in posterior axis elongation and in neural tube closure. We found that Cdx2 expression is also repressed in the dorsal PNPs of Pax3-null embryos. However, the ectopically activated Pax3 in the β-catenin mutants cannot restore Cdx2 mRNA in the dorsal PNP, suggesting that the presence of both β-catenin and Pax3 is required for regional Cdx2 expression. Thus, β-catenin signaling is required for caudal neural tube closure and elongation, acting through the transcriptional regulation of key target genes in the PNP.

  20. Vps factors are required for efficient transcription elongation in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Naseem A; Hasek, Jiri; Brickner, Donna Garvey; Qiu, Hongfang; Zhang, Fan; Wong, Chi-Ming; Malcova, Ivana; Vasicova, Pavla; Brickner, Jason H; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that certain Vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins, factors that mediate vesicular protein trafficking, have additional roles in regulating transcription factors at the endosome. We found that yeast mutants lacking the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] kinase Vps34 or its associated protein kinase Vps15 display multiple phenotypes indicating impaired transcription elongation. These phenotypes include reduced mRNA production from long or G+C-rich coding sequences (CDS) without affecting the associated GAL1 promoter activity, and a reduced rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) progression through lacZ CDS in vivo. Consistent with reported genetic interactions with mutations affecting the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, vps15Δ and vps34Δ mutations reduce NuA4 occupancy in certain transcribed CDS. vps15Δ and vps34Δ mutants also exhibit impaired localization of the induced GAL1 gene to the nuclear periphery. We found unexpectedly that, similar to known transcription elongation factors, these and several other Vps factors can be cross-linked to the CDS of genes induced by Gcn4 or Gal4 in a manner dependent on transcriptional induction and stimulated by Cdk7/Kin28-dependent phosphorylation of the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We also observed colocalization of a fraction of Vps15-GFP and Vps34-GFP with nuclear pores at nucleus-vacuole (NV) junctions in live cells. These findings suggest that Vps factors enhance the efficiency of transcription elongation in a manner involving their physical proximity to nuclear pores and transcribed chromatin.

  1. Role of kinesin heavy chain in Crumbs localization along the rhabdomere elongation in Drosophila photoreceptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett P League

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crumbs (Crb, a cell polarity gene, has been shown to provide a positional cue for the extension of the apical membrane domain, adherens junction (AJ, and rhabdomere along the growing proximal-distal axis during Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. In developing Drosophila photoreceptors, a stabilized microtubule structure was discovered and its presence was linked to polarity protein localization. It was therefore hypothesized that the microtubules may provide trafficking routes for the polarity proteins during photoreceptor morphogenesis. This study has examined whether Kinesin heavy chain (Khc, a subunit of the microtubule-based motor Kinesin-1, is essential in polarity protein localization in developing photoreceptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because a genetic interaction was found between crb and khc, Crb localization was examined in the developing photoreceptors of khc mutants. khc was dispensable during early eye differentiation and development. However, khc mutant photoreceptors showed a range of abnormalities in the apical membrane domain depending on the position along the proximal-distal axis in pupal photoreceptors. The khc mutant showed a progressive mislocalization in the apical domain along the distal-proximal axis during rhabdomere elongation. The khc mutation also led to a similar progressive defect in the stabilized microtubule structures, strongly suggesting that Khc is essential for microtubule structure and Crb localization during distal to proximal rhabdomere elongation in pupal morphogenesis. This role of Khc in apical domain control was further supported by khc's gain-of-function phenotype. Khc overexpression in photoreceptors caused disruption of the apical membrane domain and the stabilized microtubules in the developing photoreceptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we examined the role of khc in the regulation of the apical Crb domain in developing photoreceptors. Since the rhabdomeres in

  2. Rates of gyrase supercoiling and transcription elongation control supercoil density in a bacterial chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Rovinskiy

    Full Text Available Gyrase catalyzes negative supercoiling of DNA in an ATP-dependent reaction that helps condense bacterial chromosomes into a compact interwound "nucleoid." The supercoil density (σ of prokaryotic DNA occurs in two forms. Diffusible supercoil density (σ(D moves freely around the chromosome in 10 kb domains, and constrained supercoil density (σ(C results from binding abundant proteins that bend, loop, or unwind DNA at many sites. Diffusible and constrained supercoils contribute roughly equally to the total in vivo negative supercoil density of WT cells, so σ = σ(C+σ(D. Unexpectedly, Escherichia coli chromosomes have a 15% higher level of σ compared to Salmonella enterica. To decipher critical mechanisms that can change diffusible supercoil density of chromosomes, we analyzed strains of Salmonella using a 9 kb "supercoil sensor" inserted at ten positions around the genome. The sensor contains a complete Lac operon flanked by directly repeated resolvase binding sites, and the sensor can monitor both supercoil density and transcription elongation rates in WT and mutant strains. RNA transcription caused (- supercoiling to increase upstream and decrease downstream of highly expressed genes. Excess upstream supercoiling was relaxed by Topo I, and gyrase replenished downstream supercoil losses to maintain an equilibrium state. Strains with TS gyrase mutations growing at permissive temperature exhibited significant supercoil losses varying from 30% of WT levels to a total loss of σ(D at most chromosome locations. Supercoil losses were influenced by transcription because addition of rifampicin (Rif caused supercoil density to rebound throughout the chromosome. Gyrase mutants that caused dramatic supercoil losses also reduced the transcription elongation rates throughout the genome. The observed link between RNA polymerase elongation speed and gyrase turnover suggests that bacteria with fast growth rates may generate higher supercoil densities

  3. GhLTPG1, a cotton GPI-anchored lipid transfer protein, regulates the transport of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates and cotton fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ting; Yao, Hongyan; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jun; Xue, Hongwei; Zuo, Kaijing

    2016-06-17

    The cotton fibers are seed trichomes that elongate from the ovule epidermis. Polar lipids are required for the quick enlargement of cell membrane and fiber cell growth, however, how lipids are transported from the ovules into the developing fibers remains less known. Here, we reported the functional characterization of GhLTPG1, a GPI-anchored lipid transport protein, during cotton fiber elongation. GhLTPG1 was abundantly expressed in elongating cotton fibers and outer integument of the ovules, and GhLTPG1 protein was located on cell membrane. Biochemical analysis showed that GhLTPG1 specifically bound to phosphatidylinositol mono-phosphates (PtdIns3P, PtdIns4P and PtdIns5P) in vitro and transported PtdInsPs from the synthesis places to the plasma membranes in vivo. Expression of GhLTPG1 in Arabidopsis caused an increased number of trichomes, and fibers in GhLTPG1-knockdown cotton plants exhibited significantly reduced length, decreased polar lipid content, and repression of fiber elongation-related genes expression. These results suggested that GhLTPG1 protein regulates the cotton fiber elongation through mediating the transport of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates.

  4. Multiple reference genomes and transcriptomes for Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Xiangchao

    2011-08-28

    Genetic differences between Arabidopsis thaliana accessions underlie the plants extensive phenotypic variation, and until now these have been interpreted largely in the context of the annotated reference accession Col-0. Here we report the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the genomes of 18 natural A. thaliana accessions, and their transcriptomes. When assessed on the basis of the reference annotation, one-third of protein-coding genes are predicted to be disrupted in at least one accession. However, re-annotation of each genome revealed that alternative gene models often restore coding potential. Gene expression in seedlings differed for nearly half of expressed genes and was frequently associated with cis variants within 5 kilobases, as were intron retention alternative splicing events. Sequence and expression variation is most pronounced in genes that respond to the biotic environment. Our data further promote evolutionary and functional studies in A. thaliana, especially the MAGIC genetic reference population descended from these accessions. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. The fate of retrotransposed processed genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkarim, Basma T M; Maranda, Vincent; Drouin, Guy

    2017-04-20

    Processed genes are functional genes that have arisen as a result of the retrotransposition of mRNA molecules. We found 6 genes that generated processed genes in the common ancestor of five Brassicaceae species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, Capsella rubella, Brassica rapa and Thellungiella parvula). These processed genes have therefore been kept for at least 30millionyears. Analyses of the Ka/Ks ratio of these genes, and of those having given rise to them, show that they evolve relatively slowly and suggest that the processed genes maintained the same function as that of their parental gene. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of ESTs and transcripts produced and the Ka/Ks ratios of the parental genes but not of the processed genes. This suggests that selection has not yet adapted the selective pressure the processed genes experience to their expression level. However, the A. thaliana processed genes tend to be expressed in the same tissues as that of their parental genes. Furthermore, most have a CAATT-box, a TATA-box and are located about 1kb from another protein-coding gene. Altogether, our results suggest that the processed genes found in the A. thaliana genome have been kept to produce more of the same product, and in the same tissues, as that encoded by their parental gene. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome response analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana to leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sufang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants have evolved a complicated resistance system and exhibit a variety of defense patterns in response to different attackers. Previous studies have shown that responses of plants to chewing insects and phloem-feeding insects are significantly different. Less is known, however, regarding molecular responses to leafminer insects. To investigate plant transcriptome response to leafminers, we selected the leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, which has a special feeding pattern more similar to pathogen damage than that of chewing insects, as a model insect, and Arabidopsis thaliana as a response plant. Results We first investigated local and systemic responses of A. thaliana to leafminer feeding using an Affymetrix ATH1 genome array. Genes related to metabolic processes and stimulus responses were highly regulated. Most systemically-induced genes formed a subset of the local response genes. We then downloaded gene expression data from online databases and used hierarchical clustering to explore relationships among gene expression patterns in A. thaliana damaged by different attackers. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that plant response patterns are strongly coupled to damage patterns of attackers.

  7. Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I Is Linked to Efficient rRNA Processing and Ribosome Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, David A.; Michel, Antje; Sikes, Martha L.; Vu, Loan; Dodd, Jonathan A.; Salgia, Shilpa; Osheim, Yvonne N.; Beyer, Ann L.; Nomura, Masayasu

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of ribosomes in eukaryotic cells is a complex process involving many nonribosomal protein factors and snoRNAs. In general, the processes of rRNA transcription and ribosome assembly are treated as temporally or spatially distinct. Here, we describe the identification of a point mutation in the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase I near the active center of the enzyme that results in an elongation-defective enzyme in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vivo, this mutant sh...

  8. A vacuolar carboxypeptidase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is degraded by the ERAD pathway independently of its N-glycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Kawanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoko; Endo, Toshiya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi, E-mail: shuh@biochem.chem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Misfolded proteins produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by a mechanism, the ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report establishment of the experimental system to analyze the ERAD in plant cells. Carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is a vacuolar enzyme and its mutant CPY* is degraded by the ERAD in yeast. Since Arabidopsis thaliana has AtCPY, an ortholog of yeast CPY, we constructed and expressed fusion proteins consisting of AtCPY and GFP and of AtCPY*, which carries a mutation homologous to yeast CPY*, and GFP in A. thaliana cells. While AtCPY-GFP was efficiently transported to the vacuole, AtCPY*-GFP was retained in the ER to be degraded in proteasome- and Cdc48-dependent manners. We also found that AtCPY*-GFP was degraded by the ERAD in yeast cells, but that its single N-glycan did not function as a degradation signal in yeast or plant cells. Therefore, AtCPY*-GFP can be used as a marker protein to analyze the ERAD pathway, likely for nonglycosylated substrates, in plant cells.

  9. Hypocrea/Trichoderma: species with conidiophore elongations and green conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Priscila; Castlebury, Lisa A; Overton, Barrie E; Samuels, Gary J

    2003-01-01

    Species of Trichoderma and Hypocrea that have green conidia and sterile or fertile elongations of their conidiophores are described or redescribed and their phylogenetic position explored. The described species include T. crassum, T. fasciculatum, T. fertile, T. hamatum, T. longipile, T. oblongisporum, T. pubescens, T. spirale, T. strictipile, T. strigosum, T. stromaticum, T. tomentosum, Hypocrea aureoviridis f. macrospora, H. ceramica. and H. semiorbis. Trichoderma fasciculatum originally was described from cultures from ascospores of an unidentified Hypocrea specimen; it is considered to be a synonym of T. strictipile. The remaining species of Trichoderma considered here have not been linked to teleomorphs, and the Trichoderma anamorphs of H. aureoviridis f. macrospora and H. semiorbis have not been named. Five new species of Hypocrea are described, viz. H. cremea, H. cuneispora, H. estonica, H. strictipilosa and H. surrotunda. The phylogenetic relationships of these species were inferred based on partial RPB2 and EF-1α DNA sequence data and phenotypic characteristics, including teleomorph, anamorph, colony and growth rates. Trichoderma crassum was found to be a sister species to T. virens, based on molecular sequences and phenotypic data. Hypocrea surrotunda and H. cremea, H. cuneispora and T. longipile, T. fertile and T. oblongisporum, T. tomentosum and H. atrogelatinosa, and T. hamatum and T. pubescens, respectively, were found to be closely related phylogenetically, based on RPB2 and EF-1α gene genealogies. Anamorph and teleomorph phenotype, including conidiophore elongations, phialide morphology, conidial morphology, stroma anatomy and ascospore morphology are not useful predictors of relationships. Despite the shared phenotypic characters of these Trichoderma and Hypocrea species, they are distributed between two major clades of Trichoderma/Hypocrea. Redescriptions and a key to species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma with green conidia and conidiophore

  10. Elongation factor-2: a useful gene for arthropod phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, J C; Shultz, J W

    2001-07-01

    Robust resolution of controversial higher-level groupings within Arthropoda requires additional sources of characters. Toward this end, elongation factor-2 sequences (1899 nucleotides) were generated from 17 arthropod taxa (5 chelicerates, 6 crustaceans, 3 hexapods, 3 myriapods) plus an onychophoran and a tardigrade as outgroups. Likelihood and parsimony analyses of nucleotide and amino acid data sets consistently recovered Myriapoda and major chelicerate groups with high bootstrap support. Crustacea + Hexapoda (= Pancrustacea) was recovered with moderate support, whereas the conflicting group Myriapoda + Hexapoda (= Atelocerata) was never recovered and bootstrap values were always Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda relative to molluscan, annelidan, and mammalian outgroups. New and previously published sequences from RNA polymerase II (1038 nucleotides) and elongation factor-1alpha (1092 nucleotides) were analyzed for the same taxa. A comparison of bootstrap values from the three genes analyzed separately revealed widely varying values for some clades, although there was never strong support for conflicting groups. In combined analyses, there was strong bootstrap support for the generally accepted clades Arachnida, Arthropoda, Euchelicerata, Hexapoda, and Pycnogonida, and for Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Pancrustacea, whose monophyly is more controversial. Recovery of some additional groups was fairly robust to method of analysis but bootstrap values were not high; these included Pancrustacea + Chelicerata, Hexapoda + Cephalocarida + Remipedia, Cephalocarida + Remipedia, and Malaocostraca + Cirripedia. Atelocerata (= Myriapoda + Hexapoda) was never recovered. Elongation factor-2 is now the second protein-encoding, nuclear gene (in addition to RNA polymerase II) to support Pancrustacea over Atelocerata. Atelocerata is widely cited in morphology-based analyses, and the discrepancy between results derived from molecular and morphological data deserves greater

  11. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....

  13. High fat feeding induces hepatic fatty acid elongation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike H Oosterveer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-fat diets promote hepatic lipid accumulation. Paradoxically, these diets also induce lipogenic gene expression in rodent liver. Whether high expression of these genes actually results in an increased flux through the de novo lipogenic pathway in vivo has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To interrogate this apparent paradox, we have quantified de novo lipogenesis in C57Bl/6J mice fed either chow, a high-fat or a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched high-fat diet. A novel approach based on mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA following 1-(13C acetate infusion was applied to simultaneously determine de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid elongation as well as cholesterol synthesis. Furthermore, we measured very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG production rates. High-fat feeding promoted hepatic lipid accumulation and induced the expression of lipogenic and cholesterogenic genes compared to chow-fed mice: induction of gene expression was found to translate into increased oleate synthesis. Interestingly, this higher lipogenic flux (+74 microg/g/h for oleic acid in mice fed the high-fat diet was mainly due to an increased hepatic elongation of unlabeled palmitate (+66 microg/g/h rather than to elongation of de novo synthesized palmitate. In addition, fractional cholesterol synthesis was increased, i.e. 5.8+/-0.4% vs. 8.1+/-0.6% for control and high fat-fed animals, respectively. Hepatic VLDL-TG production was not affected by high-fat feeding. Partial replacement of saturated fat by fish oil completely reversed the lipogenic effects of high-fat feeding: hepatic lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene expression levels as well as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis rates were normalized. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High-fat feeding induces hepatic fatty acid synthesis in mice, by chain elongation and subsequent desaturation rather than de novo synthesis, while VLDL-TG output remains unaffected

  14. Loss of elongation factor P disrupts bacterial outer membrane integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S Betty; Hersch, Steven J; Roy, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is posttranslationally modified at a conserved lysyl residue by the coordinated action of two enzymes, PoxA and YjeK. We have previously established the importance of this modification in Salmonella stress resistance. Here we report that, like poxA and yjeK mutants......, Salmonella strains lacking EF-P display increased susceptibility to hypoosmotic conditions, antibiotics, and detergents and enhanced resistance to the compound S-nitrosoglutathione. The susceptibility phenotypes are largely explained by the enhanced membrane permeability of the efp mutant, which exhibits...

  15. Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks Paulo Shakarian1*, J. Kenneth Wickiser2 1 Paulo Shakarian...significantly attacked. Citation: Shakarian P, Wickiser JK (2012) Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks...to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  16. EFFECTS OF KANAMYCIN ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING AND ITS ROOT

    OpenAIRE

    Guan Hongying; Ding Xiaosheng; Da Hong; Chune Zhou; Longdou LU

    2008-01-01

    In this article, it was found that growth and development of main root and lateral root of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling were evidently affected by kanamycin, and etiolation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling was very serious. Compared to the controls, main root of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling on MS with kanamycin was very short, lateral root was not formed, and meristematic zone of root tip diminished and exhibited large intercellular space. Furthermore, effect of kanamycin on roo...

  17. Gravity regulated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (GENARA experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron-Dubuisson, Elodie; Carnero-D&íaz, Eugénie; Medina, Francisco Javier; Gasset, Gilbert; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Graziana, Annick; Mazars, Christian; Le Disquet, Isabelle; Eche, Brigitte; Grat, Sabine; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette

    2012-07-01

    In higher plants, post-embryonic development is possible through the expression of a set of genes constituting the morphogenetic program that contribute to the production of tissues and organs during the whole plant life cycle. Plant development is mainly controlled by internal factors such as phytohormones, as well as by environmental factors, among which gravity plays a key role (gravi-morphogenetic program). The GENARA space experiment has been designed with the goal of contributing to a better understanding of this gravi-morphogenetic program through the identification and characterization of some gravity regulated proteins (GR proteins) by using quantitative proteomic methods, and through the study of the impact of plant hormones on the expression of this program. Among plant hormones, auxin is the major regulator of organogenesis. In fact, it affects numerous plant developmental processes, e.g. cell division and elongation, autumnal loss of leaves, and the formation of buds, roots, flowers and fruits. Furthermore, it also plays a key role in the mechanisms of different tropisms (including gravitropism) that modulate fundamental features of plant growth. The expression of significant genes involved in auxin transport and in auxin signal perception in root cells is being studied in space-grown seedlings and compared with the corresponding ground controls. This experiment was scheduled to be performed in The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), a new facility for plant cultivation and Plant Molecular Biology studies, at ISS. However only one aspect of this experiment was flown and concerns the qualitative and quantitative changes in membrane proteins supposed to be mainly associated with cell signaling and has been called GENARA A. The second part dealing with the function of auxin in the gravi-morphogenetic program and the alterations induced by microgravity will be studied through mutants affected on biosynthesis, transport or perception of auxin in a

  18. Expression of HPV-11 L1 protein in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Neil D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have investigated the possibility and feasibility of producing the HPV-11 L1 major capsid protein in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia and Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi as potential sources for an inexpensive subunit vaccine. Results Transformation of plants was only achieved with the HPV-11 L1 gene with the C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS- encoding region removed, and not with the full-length gene. The HPV-11 L1 NLS- gene was stably integrated and inherited through several generations of transgenic plants. Plant-derived HPV-11 L1 protein was capable of assembling into virus-like particles (VLPs, although resulting particles displayed a pleomorphic phenotype. Neutralising monoclonal antibodies binding both surface-linear and conformation-specific epitopes bound the A. thaliana-derived particles and – to a lesser degree – the N. tabacum-derived particles, suggesting that plant-derived and insect cell-derived VLPs displayed similar antigenic properties. Yields of up to 12 μg/g of HPV-11 L1 NLS- protein were harvested from transgenic A. thaliana plants, and 2 μg/g from N. tabacum plants – a significant increase over previous efforts. Immunization of New Zealand white rabbits with ~50 μg of plant-derived HPV-11 L1 NLS- protein induced an antibody response that predominantly recognized insect cell-produced HPV-11 L1 NLS- and not NLS+ VLPs. Evaluation of the same sera concluded that none of them were able to neutralise pseudovirion in vitro. Conclusion We expressed the wild-type HPV-11 L1 NLS- gene in two different plant species and increased yields of HPV-11 L1 protein by between 500 and 1000-fold compared to previous reports. Inoculation of rabbits with extracts from both plant types resulted in a weak immune response, and antisera neither reacted with native HPV-11 L1 VLPs, nor did they neutralise HPV-11 pseudovirion infectivity. This has important and potentially negative implications for

  19. Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yanming; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

  20. Light influences how the fungal toxin deoxynivalenol affects plant cell death and defense responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ansari, Khairul I; Doyle, Siamsa M; Kacprzyk, Joanna; Khan, Mojibur R; Walter, Stephanie; Brennan, Josephine M; Arunachalam, Chanemouga Soundharam; McCabe, Paul F; Doohan, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    ... (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell cultures. We show that 10 μg mL(-1) DON does not cause cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures, and its ability to retard heat-induced cell death is light dependent...

  1. Phytotoxic effects of trichothecenes on the growth and morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daisuke Masuda; Mamoru Ishida; Kazuo Yamaguchi; Isamu Yamaguchi; Makoto Kimura; Takumi Nishiuchi

    2007-01-01

    .... To perform a comparative analysis of the phytotoxic action of representative trichothecenes, the growth and morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana growing on media containing these compounds was investigated...

  2. Class II DNA photolyase from Arabidopsis thaliana contains FAD as a cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, O; Butenandt, J; Carell, T; Batschauer, A

    1999-08-01

    The major UV-B photoproduct in DNA is the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD). CPD-photolyases repair this DNA damage by a light-driven electron transfer. The chromophores of the class II CPD-photolyase from Arabidopsis thaliana, which was cloned recently [Taylor, R., Tobin, A. & Bray, C. (1996) Plant Physiol. 112, 862; Ahmad, M., Jarillo, J.A., Klimczak, L.J., Landry, L.G., Peng, T., Last, R.L. & Cashmore, A.R. (1997) Plant Cell 9, 199-207], have not been characterized so far. Here we report on the overexpression of the Arabidopsis CPD photolyase in Escherichia coli as a 6 x His-tag fusion protein, its purification and the analysis of the chromophore composition and enzymatic activity. Like class I photolyase, the Arabidopsis enzyme contains FAD but a second chromophore was not detectable. Despite the lack of a second chromophore the purified enzyme has photoreactivating activity.

  3. Recombinant ACHT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana: crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weimin; Wang, Junchao; Yang, Ye; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Min

    2017-07-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) play important roles in chloroplasts by linking photosynthetic light reactions to a series of plastid functions. They execute their function by regulating the oxidation and reduction of disulfide bonds. ACHT1 (atypical cysteine/histidine-rich Trx1) is a thylakoid-associated thioredoxin-type protein found in the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast. Recombinant ACHT1 protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracted to 1.7 Å resolution and a complete X-ray data set was collected. Preliminary crystallographic analysis suggested that the crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.7, b = 100.6, c = 92.8 Å.

  4. The phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana det1 mutants suggest a role for cytokinins in greening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, J.; Aguilar, N.; Peto, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    When grown in the absence of light, the det1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana develop characteristics of light-grown plants by morphological, cellular, and molecular criteria. Further, in light-grown plants, mutations in the DET1 gene affect cell-type-specific expression of light-regulated genes and the chloroplast developmental program. Here we show that the addition of exogenously added cytokinins (either 2-isopentenyl adenine, kinetin, or benzyladenine) to the growth medium of dark-germinated wild-type seedlings results in seedlings that resemble det1 mutants, instead of having the normal etiolated morphology. Like det1 mutants, these dark-grown seedlings now contain chloroplasts and have high levels of expression of genes that are normally light''-regulated. These results suggest an important role for cytokinins during greening of Arabidopsis, and may implicate cytokinin levels or an increased sensitivity to cytokinins as explanations for some of the observed phenotypes of det1 mutants.

  5. IGF-1 Induces GHRH Neuronal Axon Elongation during Early Postnatal Life in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvianne Decourtye

    Full Text Available Nutrition during the perinatal period programs body growth. Growth hormone (GH secretion from the pituitary regulates body growth and is controlled by Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. We observed that dietary restriction during the early postnatal period (i.e. lactation in mice influences postnatal growth by permanently altering the development of the somatotropic axis in the pituitary gland. This alteration may be due to a lack of GHRH signaling during this critical developmental period. Indeed, underfed pups showed decreased insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I plasma levels, which are associated with lower innervation of the median eminence by GHRH axons at 10 days of age relative to normally fed pups. IGF-I preferentially stimulated axon elongation of GHRH neurons in in vitro arcuate explant cultures from 7 day-old normally fed pups. This IGF-I stimulating effect was selective since other arcuate neurons visualized concomitantly by neurofilament labeling, or AgRP immunochemistry, did not significantly respond to IGF-I stimulation. Moreover, GHRH neurons in explants from age-matched underfed pups lost the capacity to respond to IGF-I stimulation. Molecular analyses indicated that nutritional restriction was associated with impaired activation of AKT. These results highlight a role for IGF-I in axon elongation that appears to be cell selective and participates in the complex cellular mechanisms that link underfeeding during the early postnatal period with programming of the growth trajectory.

  6. BRCA2 Regulates Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase II to Prevent R-Loop Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud K.K. Shivji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The controlled release of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII from promoter-proximal pausing (PPP sites is critical for transcription elongation in metazoans. We show that the human tumor suppressor BRCA2 interacts with RNAPII to regulate PPP release, thereby preventing unscheduled RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops implicated in genomic instability and carcinogenesis. BRCA2 inactivation by depletion or cancer-causing mutations instigates RNAPII accumulation and R-loop accrual at PPP sites in actively transcribed genes, accompanied by γH2AX formation marking DNA breakage, which is reduced by ERCC4 endonuclease depletion. BRCA2 inactivation decreases RNAPII-associated factor 1 (PAF1 recruitment (which normally promotes RNAPII release and diminishes H2B Lys120 ubiquitination, impeding nascent RNA synthesis. PAF1 depletion phenocopies, while its overexpression ameliorates, R-loop accumulation after BRCA2 inactivation. Thus, an unrecognized role for BRCA2 in the transition from promoter-proximal pausing to productive elongation via augmented PAF1 recruitment to RNAPII is subverted by disease-causing mutations, provoking R-loop-mediated DNA breakage in BRCA2-deficient cells.

  7. Wntless Regulates Dentin Apposition and Root Elongation in the Mandibular Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, C.H.; Kim, T.H.; Ko, S.O.; Lee, J.C.; Yang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if Wnt ligands, produced from dental mesenchyme, are necessary for odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. Here, we show that odontoblast-specific disruption of Wntless (Wls), a chaperon protein that regulates Wnt sorting and secretion, leads to severe defects in dentin formation and root elongation. Dentin thickness decreased remarkably and pulp chambers enlarged in the mandibular molars of OC-Cre;WlsCO/CO mice. Although the initial odontoblast differentiation was normal in the mutant crown, odontoblasts became cuboidal and dentin thickness was reduced. In immunohistochemistry, Wnt10a, β-catenin, type I collagen, and dentin sialoprotein were significantly down-regulated in the odontoblasts of mutant crown. In addition, roots were short and root canals were widened. Cell proliferation was reduced in the developing root apex of mutant molars. Furthermore, Wnt10a and Axin2 expression was remarkably decreased in the odontoblasts of mutant roots. Deletion of the Wls gene in odontoblasts appears to reduce canonical Wnt activity, leading to inhibition of odontoblast maturation and root elongation. PMID:25595365

  8. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  9. Polyamine sharing between tubulin dimers favours microtubule nucleation and elongation via facilitated diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mechulam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest for the first time that the action of multivalent cations on microtubule dynamics can result from facilitated diffusion of GTP-tubulin to the microtubule ends. Facilitated diffusion can promote microtubule assembly, because, upon encountering a growing nucleus or the microtubule wall, random GTP-tubulin sliding on their surfaces will increase the probability of association to the target sites (nucleation sites or MT ends. This is an original explanation for understanding the apparent discrepancy between the high rate of microtubule elongation and the low rate of tubulin association at the microtubule ends in the viscous cytoplasm. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion requires an attraction force between two tubulins, which can result from the sharing of multivalent counterions. Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are present in all living cells and are potent agents to trigger tubulin self-attraction. By using an analytical model, we analyze the implication of facilitated diffusion mediated by polyamines on nucleation and elongation of microtubules. In vitro experiments using pure tubulin indicate that the promotion of microtubule assembly by polyamines is typical of facilitated diffusion. The results presented here show that polyamines can be of particular importance for the regulation of the microtubule network in vivo and provide the basis for further investigations into the effects of facilitated diffusion on cytoskeleton dynamics.

  10. Mcm10 regulates DNA replication elongation by stimulating the CMG replicative helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõoke, Marko; Malo