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Sample records for thalamic projections requires

  1. Fornical and nonfornical projections from the rat hippocampal formation to the anterior thalamic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, Christopher M.; Erichsen, Jonathan T.; O'Mara, Shane M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hippocampal formation and anterior thalamic nuclei form part of an interconnected network thought to support memory. A central pathway in this mnemonic network comprises the direct projections from the hippocampal formation to the anterior thalamic nuclei, projections that, in the primate brain, originate in the subicular cortices to reach the anterior thalamic nuclei by way of the fornix. In the rat brain, additional pathways involving the internal capsule have been described, linking the dorsal subiculum to the anteromedial thalamic nucleus, as well as the postsubiculum to the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus. Confirming such pathways is essential in order to appreciate how information is transferred from the hippocampal formation to the anterior thalamus and how it may be disrupted by fornix pathology. Accordingly, in the present study, pathway tracers were injected into the anterior thalamic nuclei and the dorsal subiculum of rats with fornix lesions. Contrary to previous descriptions, projections from the subiculum to the anteromedial thalamic nucleus overwhelmingly relied on the fornix. Dorsal subiculum projections to the majority of the anteroventral nucleus also predominantly relied on the fornix, although postsubicular inputs to the lateral dorsal part of the anteroventral nucleus, as well as to the anterodorsal and laterodorsal thalamic nuclei, largely involved a nonfornical pathway, via the internal capsule. © 2015 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25616174

  2. Two distinct populations of projection neurons in the rat lateral parafascicular thalamic nucleus and their cholinergic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J A; Sylwestrak, E L; Cox, C L

    2009-08-04

    The lateral parafascicular nucleus (lPf) is a member of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, a collection of nuclei that characteristically provides widespread projections to the neocortex and basal ganglia and is associated with arousal, sensory, and motor functions. Recently, lPf neurons have been shown to possess different characteristics than other cortical-projecting thalamic relay neurons. We performed whole cell recordings from lPf neurons using an in vitro rat slice preparation and found two distinct neuronal subtypes that were differentiated by distinct morphological and physiological characteristics: diffuse and bushy. Diffuse neurons, which had been previously described, were the predominant neuronal subtype (66%). These neurons had few, poorly-branching, extended dendrites, and rarely displayed burst-like action potential discharge, a ubiquitous feature of thalamocortical relay neurons. Interestingly, we discovered a smaller population of bushy neurons (34%) that shared similar morphological and physiological characteristics with thalamocortical relay neurons of primary sensory thalamic nuclei. In contrast to other thalamocortical relay neurons, activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced a membrane hyperpolarization via activation of M(2) receptors in most lPf neurons (60%). In a minority of lPf neurons (33%), muscarinic agonists produced a membrane depolarization via activation of predominantly M(3) receptors. The muscarinic receptor-mediated actions were independent of lPf neuronal subtype (i.e. diffuse or bushy neurons); however the cholinergic actions were correlated with lPf neurons with different efferent targets. Retrogradely-labeled lPf neurons from frontal cortical fluorescent bead injections primarily consisted of bushy type lPf neurons (78%), but more importantly, all of these neurons were depolarized by muscarinic agonists. On the other hand, lPf neurons labeled by striatal injections were predominantly hyperpolarized by muscarinic

  3. Differential changes in thalamic and cortical excitatory synapses onto striatal spiny projection neurons in a Huntington disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Karolina; Raymond, Lynn A

    2016-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding huntingtin, predominantly affects the striatum, especially the spiny projection neurons (SPN). The striatum receives excitatory input from cortex and thalamus, and the role of the former has been well-studied in HD. Here, we report that mutated huntingtin alters function of thalamostriatal connections. We used a novel thalamostriatal (T-S) coculture and an established corticostriatal (C-S) coculture, generated from YAC128 HD and WT (FVB/NJ background strain) mice, to investigate excitatory neurotransmission onto striatal SPN. SPN in T-S coculture from WT mice showed similar mini-excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency and amplitude as in C-S coculture; however, both the frequency and amplitude were significantly reduced in YAC128 T-S coculture. Further investigation in T-S coculture showed similar excitatory synapse density in WT and YAC128 SPN dendrites by immunostaining, suggesting changes in total dendritic length or probability of release as possible explanations for mEPSC frequency changes. Synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) current was similar, but extrasynaptic current, associated with cell death signaling, was enhanced in YAC128 SPN in T-S coculture. Employing optical stimulation of cortical versus thalamic afferents and recording from striatal SPN in brain slice, we found increased glutamate release probability and reduced AMPAR/NMDAR current ratios in thalamostriatal synapses, most prominently in YAC128. Enhanced extrasynaptic NMDAR current in YAC128 SPN was apparent with both cortical and thalamic stimulation. We conclude that thalamic afferents to the striatum are affected early, prior to an overt HD phenotype; however, changes in NMDAR localization in SPN are independent of the source of glutamatergic input. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fear conditioning leads to alteration in specific genes expression in cortical and thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ira K; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    RNA transcription is needed for memory formation. However, the ability to identify genes whose expression is altered by learning is greatly impaired because of methodological difficulties in profiling gene expression in specific neurons involved in memory formation. Here, we report a novel approach to monitor the expression of genes after learning in neurons in specific brain pathways needed for memory formation. In this study, we aimed to monitor gene expression after fear learning. We retrogradely labeled discrete thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala (LA) of rats. The labeled neurons were dissected, using laser microdissection microscopy, after fear conditioning learning or unpaired training. The RNAs from the dissected neurons were subjected to microarray analysis. The levels of selected RNAs detected by the microarray analysis to be altered by fear conditioning were also assessed by nanostring analysis. We observed that the expression of genes involved in the regulation of translation, maturation and degradation of proteins was increased 6 h after fear conditioning compared to unpaired or naïve trained rats. These genes were not expressed 24 h after training or in cortical neurons that project to the LA. The expression of genes involved in transcription regulation and neuronal development was altered after fear conditioning learning in the cortical-LA pathway. The present study provides key information on the identity of genes expressed in discrete thalamic and cortical neurons that project to the LA after fear conditioning. Such an approach could also serve to identify gene products as targets for the development of a new generation of therapeutic agents that could be aimed to functionally identified brain circuits to treat memory-related disorders. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Differential Modification of Cortical and Thalamic Projections to Cat Primary Auditory Cortex Following Early- and Late-Onset Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Nicole; Butler, Blake E; Lomber, Stephen G

    2015-10-15

    Following sensory deprivation, primary somatosensory and visual cortices undergo crossmodal plasticity, which subserves the remaining modalities. However, controversy remains regarding the neuroplastic potential of primary auditory cortex (A1). To examine this, we identified cortical and thalamic projections to A1 in hearing cats and those with early- and late-onset deafness. Following early deafness, inputs from second auditory cortex (A2) are amplified, whereas the number originating in the dorsal zone (DZ) decreases. In addition, inputs from the dorsal medial geniculate nucleus (dMGN) increase, whereas those from the ventral division (vMGN) are reduced. In late-deaf cats, projections from the anterior auditory field (AAF) are amplified, whereas those from the DZ decrease. Additionally, in a subset of early- and late-deaf cats, area 17 and the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) of the visual thalamus project concurrently to A1. These results demonstrate that patterns of projections to A1 are modified following deafness, with statistically significant changes occurring within the auditory thalamus and some cortical areas. Moreover, we provide anatomical evidence for small-scale crossmodal changes in projections to A1 that differ between early- and late-onset deaf animals, suggesting that potential crossmodal activation of primary auditory cortex differs depending on the age of deafness onset. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  7. Different cortical projections from three subdivisions of the rat lateral posterior thalamic nucleus: a single-neuron tracing study with viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    The lateral posterior thalamic nucleus (LP) is one of the components of the extrageniculate pathway in the rat visual system, and is cytoarchitecturally divided into three subdivisions--lateral (LPl), rostromedial (LPrm), and caudomedial (LPcm) portions. To clarify the differences in the dendritic fields and axonal arborisations among the three subdivisions, we applied a single-neuron labeling technique with viral vectors to LP neurons. The proximal dendrites of LPl neurons were more numerous than those of LPrm and LPcm neurons, and LPrm neurons tended to have wider dendritic fields than LPl neurons. We then analysed the axonal arborisations of LP neurons by reconstructing the axon fibers in the cortex. The LPl, LPrm and LPcm were different from one another in terms of the projection targets--the main target cortical regions of LPl and LPrm neurons were the secondary and primary visual areas, whereas those of LPcm neurons were the postrhinal and temporal association areas. Furthermore, the principal target cortical layers of LPl neurons in the visual areas were middle layers, but that of LPrm neurons was layer 1. This indicates that LPl and LPrm neurons can be categorised into the core and matrix types of thalamic neurons, respectively, in the visual areas. In addition, LPl neurons formed multiple axonal clusters within the visual areas, whereas the fibers of LPrm neurons were widely and diffusely distributed. It is therefore presumed that these two types of neurons play different roles in visual information processing by dual thalamocortical innervation of the visual areas. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Individual mediodorsal thalamic neurons project to multiple areas of the rat prefrontal cortex: A single neuron-tracing study using virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Eriko; Pan, Shixiu; Furuta, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro R; Iwai, Haruki; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Ohno, Sachi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Goto, Tetsuya; Hioki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has an important role in a variety of cognitive and executive processes, and is generally defined by its reciprocal connections with the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD). The rat MD is mainly subdivided into three segments, the medial (MDm), central (MDc), and lateral (MDl) divisions, on the basis of the cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture. The MD segments are known to topographically project to multiple prefrontal areas at the population level: the MDm mainly to the prelimbic, infralimbic, and agranular insular areas; the MDc to the orbital and agranular insular areas; and the MDl to the prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas. However, it is unknown whether individual MD neurons project to single or multiple prefrontal cortical areas. In the present study, we visualized individual MD neurons with Sindbis virus vectors, and reconstructed whole structures of MD neurons. While the main cortical projection targets of MDm, MDc, and MDl neurons were generally consistent with those of previous results, it was found that individual MD neurons sent their axon fibers to multiple prefrontal areas, and displayed various projection patterns in the target areas. Furthermore, the axons of single MD neurons were not homogeneously spread, but were rather distributed to form patchy axon arbors approximately 1 mm in diameter. The multiple-area projections and patchy axon arbors of single MD neurons might be able to coactivate cortical neuron groups in distant prefrontal areas simultaneously. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity of the projection patterns is likely, to recruit the different sets of cortical neurons, and thus contributes to a variety of prefrontal functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:166-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-01-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis. (author)

  10. Dorsal-to-Ventral Shift in Midbrain Dopaminergic Projections and Increased Thalamic/Raphe Serotonergic Function in Early Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Seppänen, Marko; Noponen, Tommi; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2015-07-01

    Loss of nigrostriatal neurons leading to dopamine depletion in the dorsal striatum is the pathologic hallmark of Parkinson disease contributing to the primary motor symptoms of the disease. However, Parkinson pathology is more widespread in the brain, affecting also other dopaminergic pathways and neurotransmitter systems, but these changes are less well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the mesencephalic striatal and extrastriatal dopaminergic projections together with extrastriatal serotonin transporter binding in Parkinson disease. Two hundred sixteen patients with Parkinson disease and 204 control patients (patients without neurodegenerative parkinsonism syndromes and normal SPECT imaging) were investigated with SPECT using the dopamine/serotonin transporter ligand (123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) in the clinical setting. The group differences and midbrain correlations were analyzed voxel by voxel over the entire brain. We found that Parkinson patients had lower (123)I-FP-CIT uptake in the striatum and ventral midbrain but higher uptake in the thalamus and raphe nuclei than control patients. In patients with Parkinson disease, the correlation of the midbrain tracer uptake was shifted from the putamen to widespread corticolimbic areas. All findings were highly significant at the voxel level familywise error-corrected P value of less than 0.05. Our findings show that Parkinson disease is associated not only with the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission, but also with a parallel shift toward mesolimbic and mesocortical function. Furthermore, Parkinson disease patients seem to have upregulation of brain serotonin transporter function at the early phase of the disease. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. Thalamic pathways for active vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Robert H; McAlonan, Kerry; Cavanaugh, James; Berman, Rebecca A

    2011-04-01

    Active vision requires the integration of information coming from the retina with that generated internally within the brain, especially by saccadic eye movements. Just as visual information reaches cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, this internal information reaches the cerebral cortex through other higher-order nuclei of the thalamus. This review summarizes recent work on four of these thalamic nuclei. The first two pathways convey internal information about upcoming saccades (a corollary discharge) and probably contribute to the neuronal mechanisms that underlie stable visual perception. The second two pathways might contribute to the neuronal mechanisms underlying visual spatial attention in cortex and in the thalamus itself. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Thalamic Lesions: A Radiological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Dimitri; Campello, Chantal; Bouly, Stephane; Le Floch, Anne; Thouvenot, Eric; Waconge, Anne; Taieb, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Background. Thalamic lesions are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, trauma, tumours, and infections. In some diseases, thalamic involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases thalamic lesions are observed only occasionally (often in the presence of other typical extrathalamic lesions). Summary. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of thalamic lesions. Identification of the origin of the thalamic lesion depends on the exact localisation inside the thalamus, the presence of extrathalamic lesions, the signal changes on different MRI sequences, the evolution of the radiological abnormalities over time, the history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and nonradiological examinations. PMID:25100900

  13. Thalamic Lesions: A Radiological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Renard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thalamic lesions are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, trauma, tumours, and infections. In some diseases, thalamic involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases thalamic lesions are observed only occasionally (often in the presence of other typical extrathalamic lesions. Summary. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of thalamic lesions. Identification of the origin of the thalamic lesion depends on the exact localisation inside the thalamus, the presence of extrathalamic lesions, the signal changes on different MRI sequences, the evolution of the radiological abnormalities over time, the history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and nonradiological examinations.

  14. Project structure plan requirements for the deconstruction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasch, Peter; Schmitt, Christian; Stapf, Meike

    2011-01-01

    The deconstruction of nuclear facilities requires due to the particular conditions and the size of the project a special project planning. The authors analyze the possible requirements to be fulfilled by a project structure plan for nuclear facilities, including personnel resources, organization structure, budget questions, operation and project oriented measures, possibility of modifications and supplements. Further topics include controlling and project realization procedures, documentation, third party activities (authorities, consultants, surveyors), logistics and transport, and radiation protection issues. Several questions remain for plants-specific planning, including the integration of the plant personnel, administrative work, project management, economic and financial issues, radioactive waste management issues.

  15. 24 CFR 234.26 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioner for the purpose of constructing or converting the project in phases or stages, any special right..., the management company, the real estate broker, and the project developer, but the lender must ensure... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project requirements. 234.26...

  16. 24 CFR 92.612 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project requirements. 92.612 Section 92.612 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.612 Project...

  17. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  18. Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic Infarction Initially Presenting as a Convulsive Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bithalamic infarctions initially presenting as a convulsive seizure are rarely reported and, to our best knowledge, have never been reported in China. Here, we present a patient with convulsive seizure at the onset of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction. The diffusion-weighted imaging revealed that the infarct area is supplied by Percheron artery. Associated with the relationship between seizure and centrencephalic system and reticular formation as previously reported, we suggest that seizure could be the onset symptom of paramedian thalamic infarction. Physicians should recognize this condition, because both seizure control and early ischemic stroke management are required.

  19. International power projections and capital requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, H.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the international power projections and capital requirements of all kinds of energy and the share of electricity. It is also related to the so-called greenhouse effect carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. 42 CFR 65.4 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project requirements. 65.4 Section 65.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING... appropriate academic disciplines and talents. Joint applications must describe the cooperative arrangements...

  1. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  2. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  3. Thalamic transitory ischemic attacks presenting as Jacksonian sensory march.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Victoria; Lauxmann, Stephan; Bender, Benjamin; Lerche, Holger

    2017-10-01

    Spreading somatosensory symptoms appearing as Jacksonian sensory march are usually considered to be due to an epileptic seizure. We report on three cases in which these symptoms were caused by thalamic ischemia. Two patients presented with stereotypically recurring hemiparesthesias lasting 2-5 min that gradually spread from the face to the arm and leg on one side. A first cerebral magnetic resonance imaging including DWI was negative in both cases, whereas new thalamic infarctions appeared on repeated imaging when clinical symptoms remained. A third case with a thalamic ischemia did not show recurring events, but also presented with purely sensory spreading symptoms. In all three cases EEG and cardiovascular diagnostics revealed normal results. Pure sensory stroke has previously been described as a result of ischemia of the thalamus or the internal capsule presenting as a sudden onset hemisensory deficit, but spreading symptoms have rarely been reported. According to our observations, thalamic TIAs are an important differential diagnosis of somatosensory epileptic auras presenting with Jacksonian sensory march which require a different clinical management.

  4. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Motohiro; Chernov, Mikhail F.; Taira, Takaomi; Ochiai, Taku; Nakaya, Kotaro; Tamura, Noriko; Goto, Shinichi; Yomo, Shoji; Kouyama, Nobuo; Katayama, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoriko; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment

  5. Connectivity derived thalamic segmentation in deep brain stimulation for tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Harith; Dayal, Viswas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Georgiev, Dejan; Hyam, Jonathan; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; De Vita, Enrico; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Ashburner, John; Behrens, Tim; Hariz, Marwan; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2018-01-01

    The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is an established surgical target for stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). It is centrally placed on a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network connecting the primary motor cortex, to the dentate nucleus of the contralateral cerebellum through the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT). The VIM is not readily visible on conventional MR imaging, so identifying the surgical target traditionally involved indirect targeting that relies on atlas-defined coordinates. Unfortunately, this approach does not fully account for individual variability and requires surgery to be performed with the patient awake to allow for intraoperative targeting confirmation. The aim of this study is to identify the VIM and the DRT using probabilistic tractography in patients that will undergo thalamic DBS for tremor. Four male patients with tremor dominant PD and five patients (three female) with ET underwent high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) (128 diffusion directions, 1.5 mm isotropic voxels and b value = 1500) preoperatively. Patients received VIM-DBS using an MR image guided and MR image verified approach with indirect targeting. Postoperatively, using parallel Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) processing, thalamic areas with the highest diffusion connectivity to the primary motor area (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), primary sensory area (S1) and contralateral dentate nucleus were identified. Additionally, volume of tissue activation (VTA) corresponding to active DBS contacts were modelled. Response to treatment was defined as 40% reduction in the total Fahn-Tolosa-Martin Tremor Rating Score (FTMTRS) with DBS-ON, one year from surgery. Three out of nine patients had a suboptimal, long-term response to treatment. The segmented thalamic areas corresponded well to anatomically known counterparts in the ventrolateral (VL

  6. When Serious Project Management is a Critical Business Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.; Gibby, L.; Chambers, C.; Joines, J.; Egger, R.

    2000-01-01

    When serious project management is a critical business requirement, project managers need to integrate cost, schedule and technical scope of work across the project, and apply earned value management (EVM).

  7. Hypersexuality following bilateral thalamic infarction: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutarelli Eduardo G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersexuality is a rare but well recognized condition following brain injury. It has been described secondarily to dysfunction in the hypothalamus, the temporal and frontal lobes. We report a 63 year-old man that developed neuropsychological disturbances with hypersexuality as a prominent feature, disinhibition and moderate memory loss, hypersomnia and irritability after a bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction. A SPECT showed frontal hypoperfusion. We believe that these findings are expression of frontal-subcortical circuits dysfunction, particularly the orbitofrontal circuit, secondary to dorso medial thalamic infarction which probably plays a role in the determination of human sexual behavior. This case favors a thalamic modulation of frontal function.

  8. Convulsive Movements in Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic and Midbrain Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamashiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some previous reports have described convulsive movements in bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction, little is known about their nature. A 71-year-old man presented with impaired consciousness and clonic movements of both arms. Each series of movements lasted 10 to 20 s and occurred at 2- to 3-min intervals, which disappeared after intravenous administration of diazepam and phenytoin. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction. A review of the literature revealed that convulsive movements were observed mostly at the onset of infarction. Clonic movements appeared frequently in the limbs, particularly in both arms. Clinical observations and results of animal experiments suggest that these seizures might originate from the mesencephalic reticular formation. Physicians should recognize this condition, because not only seizure control but also early management of ischemic stroke is required.

  9. Language disturbances from mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarino, L.G.; Nicolai, A.; Valassi, F.; Biasizzo, E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the cases of two patients with CT-documented paramedian mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts, showing language disturbances. The first patient showed a non fluent, transcortical motor-like aphasia, the other had a fluent but severely paraphasic language disorder. The CT study disclosed that it was the dorso-median thalamic nucleus that was mostly involved in both cases. These findings agree with a few previous pathological studies suggesting that the paramedian thalamic nuclei, particlularly the dorso-median nucleus may play some role in language disturbances. However the anatomical basis for thalamic aphasia remains speculative, taking into account the importantce of cortical connections in the origin of subcortical neuropsychological disturbances. (orig.)

  10. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal funds will be used to provide professional training to any student as part of his education in pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex, religion..., attitudes, or knowledge) that prospective trainees in the area to be served need to improve their delivery...

  11. 24 CFR 511.11 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cooperative to maintain rents affordable to low-income families. (c) Privately owned real property—(1) General... families, or (B) The project has special costs to facilitate use by the elderly or handicapped; and (ii... regulating agreements, rent regulations, low income occupancy agreements extending beyond one year from the...

  12. Radiation Requirements for Uranium Mining Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Radiation impact can be complex and confusing; • Aim to be credible and competent; • Process can be straightforward; – Baseline monitoring; – Project emissions; – Impact of emission; – Management measures. • “Tell the story” (what does it all mean)

  13. Requirements: Towards an understanding on why software projects fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Requirement engineering is at the foundation of every successful software project. There are many reasons for software project failures; however, poorly engineered requirements process contributes immensely to the reason why software projects fail. Software project failure is usually costly and risky and could also be life threatening. Projects that undermine requirements engineering suffer or are likely to suffer from failures, challenges and other attending risks. The cost of project failures and overruns when estimated is very huge. Furthermore, software project failures or overruns pose a challenge in today's competitive market environment. It affects the company's image, goodwill, and revenue drive and decreases the perceived satisfaction of customers and clients. In this paper, requirements engineering was discussed. Its role in software projects success was elaborated. The place of software requirements process in relation to software project failure was explored and examined. Also, project success and failure factors were also discussed with emphasis placed on requirements factors as they play a major role in software projects' challenges, successes and failures. The paper relied on secondary data and empirical statistics to explore and examine factors responsible for the successes, challenges and failures of software projects in large, medium and small scaled software companies.

  14. Supplemental design requirements document, Project W026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document supplements and extends the Functional Design Criteria, SP-W026-FDC-001, for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), Module 1. It provides additional detailed requirements, summarizes key Westinghouse Hanford Company design guidance, and establishes baseline technical agreements to be used in definitive design of the WRAP-1 facility. Revision 3 of the Supplemental Design Requirements Document has been assigned an Impact Level of 3ESQ based on the content of the entire revision. The actual changes made from Revision 2 have an Impact Level of 3S and the basis for these changes was previously reviewed and approved per WHC correspondence No. 9355770

  15. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL; White, James D [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  16. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Smith, Cyrus M; DeNap, Frank A; White, James D; Gross, Ian G; Gorman, Bryan L; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  17. Projecting India's energy requirements for policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Karandikar, Vivek; Rana, Ashish; Dani, Prasanna

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy has to have a long-term perspective. To formulate it one needs to know the contours of energy requirements and options. Different approaches have been followed in literature, each with their own problems. A top down econometric approach provides little guidance on policies, while a bottom up approval requires too much knowledge and too many assumptions. Using top-down econometric approach for aggregate overall benchmarking and a detailed activity analysis model, Integrated Energy System Model, for a few large sectors, provides a unique combination for easing the difficulties of policy formulation. The model is described in this paper. Eleven alternate scenarios are built, designed to map out extreme points of feasible options. Results show that even after employing all domestic energy resource to their full potential, there will be a continued rise of fossil fuel use, continued importance of coal, and continued rise of import dependence. Energy efficiency emerges as a major option with a potential to reduce energy requirement by as much as 17%. Scenario results point towards pushing for development of alternative sources. (author)

  18. MORE: Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C.; Valkonen, J.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE (Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2005-47) project. This report also provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, and discusses possible application areas. The project has aimed at the industrial utilisation of the results from the TACO: (Traceability and Communication of Requirements in Digital I and C Systems Development) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2002-16, completed June, 2005) project, and practical application of improved approaches and methods for requirements engineering and change management. Finally, the report provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (au)

  19. MORE: Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C. (Inst. for energiteknikk (IFE) (Norway)); Valkonen, J. (Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland))

    2008-09-15

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE (Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2005-47) project. This report also provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, and discusses possible application areas. The project has aimed at the industrial utilisation of the results from the TACO: (Traceability and Communication of Requirements in Digital I and C Systems Development) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2002-16, completed June, 2005) project, and practical application of improved approaches and methods for requirements engineering and change management. Finally, the report provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (author)

  20. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  1. State-dependent architecture of thalamic reticular subnetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassa, Michael M; Chen, Zhe; Wimmer, Ralf D; Brunetti, Philip M; Zhao, Shengli; Zikopoulos, Basilis; Wang, Fan; Brown, Emery N; Wilson, Matthew A

    2014-08-14

    Behavioral state is known to influence interactions between thalamus and cortex, which are important for sensation, action, and cognition. The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is hypothesized to regulate thalamo-cortical interactions, but the underlying functional architecture of this process and its state dependence are unknown. By combining the first TRN ensemble recording with psychophysics and connectivity-based optogenetic tagging, we found reticular circuits to be composed of distinct subnetworks. While activity of limbic-projecting TRN neurons positively correlates with arousal, sensory-projecting neurons participate in spindles and show elevated synchrony by slow waves during sleep. Sensory-projecting neurons are suppressed by attentional states, demonstrating that their gating of thalamo-cortical interactions is matched to behavioral state. Bidirectional manipulation of attentional performance was achieved through subnetwork-specific optogenetic stimulation. Together, our findings provide evidence for differential inhibition of thalamic nuclei across brain states, where the TRN separately controls external sensory and internal limbic processing facilitating normal cognitive function. PAPERFLICK: Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Right thalamic infarction after closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Takashi; Doi, Terushige; Katsumata, Tsuguo; Kuwayama, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    We reported a case of right thalamic infarction after a closed head injury. A 12-year-old boy was hit by an autotruck. He was semi-comatose, with left temporal scalp swelling and excoriation in the left lower limb. Three days after the accident, he exhibited left hemiparesis. CT scans on the day of the accident showed no abnormality, but on the following day, right thalamic infarction appeared. Right carotid angiography showed only an irregular vascular shadow in the cisternal segment of the right internal carotid artery. Vascular obstruction after closed head injury is rare, especially in the intracranial vessels, and several pathogeneses may be postulated. The right thalamic infarction in this case was supposed to be due to the damage of the perforators from the right posterior communicating artery and the right posterior cerebral artery, which were struck as a contre-coup by the force from the left side. (author)

  3. Thalamic changes with mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, N.P.; Jarosz, J.M.; Cox, T.C.S. [Department of Neuroradiology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Elwes, R.C.D. [Department of Neurology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Polkey, C.E. [Department of Neurosurgery, King' s College and Maudsley Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    We reviewed the preoperative images of 28 patients with pathologically proven mesial temporal sclerosis, to assess thalamic asymmetry and signal change. A further 25 nonsurgical patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and unequivocal, unilateral changes of mesial temporal sclerosis, and 20 controls, were also reviewed. None of the control group had unequivocal asymmetry of the thalamus. There was an ipsilateral asymmetrically small thalamus in five (18 %) of the surgical group and in three (12 %) of the nonsurgical patients. In four cases there was thalamic signal change. In three patients with thalamic volume loss there was ipsilateral hemiatrophy. All patients with an asymmetrically small thalamus had an asymmetrically small fornix and all but one a small ipsilateral mamillary body. (orig.)

  4. Thalamic changes with mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, N.P.; Jarosz, J.M.; Cox, T.C.S.; Elwes, R.C.D.; Polkey, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    We reviewed the preoperative images of 28 patients with pathologically proven mesial temporal sclerosis, to assess thalamic asymmetry and signal change. A further 25 nonsurgical patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and unequivocal, unilateral changes of mesial temporal sclerosis, and 20 controls, were also reviewed. None of the control group had unequivocal asymmetry of the thalamus. There was an ipsilateral asymmetrically small thalamus in five (18 %) of the surgical group and in three (12 %) of the nonsurgical patients. In four cases there was thalamic signal change. In three patients with thalamic volume loss there was ipsilateral hemiatrophy. All patients with an asymmetrically small thalamus had an asymmetrically small fornix and all but one a small ipsilateral mamillary body. (orig.)

  5. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  6. Dissociable Contributions of Thalamic Nuclei to Recognition Memory: Novel Evidence from a Case of Medial Dorsal Thalamic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Rachel N.; Trelle, Alexandra N.; Fidalgo, Celia; Hong, Bryan; Smith, Victoria M.; Jacob, Alexander; Ryan, Jennifer D.; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Cowell, Rosemary A.; Barense, Morgan D.

    2018-01-01

    The thalamic nuclei are thought to play a critical role in recognition memory. Specifically, the anterior thalamic nuclei and medial dorsal nuclei may serve as critical output structures in distinct hippocampal and perirhinal cortex systems, respectively. Existing evidence indicates that damage to the anterior thalamic nuclei leads to impairments…

  7. Language disturbances from mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts. Identification of thalamic nuclei by CT-reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarino, L.G.; Nicolai, A.; Valassi, F. (Ospedale Civile di Gorizia (Italy). Div. di Neurologia); Biasizzo, E. (Ospedale di Udine (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradiologia)

    1991-08-01

    The authors report the cases of two patients with CT-documented paramedian mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts, showing language disturbances. The first patient showed a non fluent, transcortical motor-like aphasia, the other had a fluent but severely paraphasic language disorder. The CT study disclosed that it was the dorso-median thalamic nucleus that was mostly involved in both cases. These findings agree with a few previous pathological studies suggesting that the paramedian thalamic nuclei, particlularly the dorso-median nucleus may play some role in language disturbances. However the anatomical basis for thalamic aphasia remains speculative, taking into account the importantce of cortical connections in the origin of subcortical neuropsychological disturbances. (orig.).

  8. Enlargement of thalamic nuclei in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Ann M; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    : Morphological abnormalities in the thalamus, together with the disturbances reported in the sensorimotor cortex, striatum, and globus pallidus, support the hypothesis of a circuitwide disorder within motor pathways in TS. The connectivity and function of the numerous and diverse thalamic nuclei within cortical...... in motor circuits to attenuate the severity of tics....

  9. Thalamic or Central Pain States Poststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic or central pain states are generally regarded as rare in stroke, occurring in fewer than 2% of patients. However, a recent study suggests that they may be more common, occurring in up to 8% of unselected stroke patients. Cerebrovascular lesions leading to central pain states do not necessarily involve the thalamus, but can occur following lower brainstem and suprathalamic lesions. Damage to the spinothalamocortical tract appears to be a prerequisite to the development of central poststroke pain (CPSP. Development of CPSP is likely related to denervation hyperexcitability of third or fourth order, thalamic or cortical neurons. Central pain is often described as a 'burning' sensation in association with an unpleasant association of tingling, pins and needles, or numbness. Spontaneous or evoked dysesthesia and allodynia/hyperalgesia are common. Central or thalamic pain is generally intractable to most therapeutic interventions. One case is presented to illustrate the typical clinical presentation of thalamic pain states and the difficulties in treating this pain.

  10. 42 CFR 50.208 - Program or project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program or project requirements. 50.208 Section 50.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.208...

  11. 7 CFR 4280.149 - Requirements after project construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 4280.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.149 Requirements... future similar projects. (7) Actual jobs created or saved. (b) Energy efficiency improvement projects...

  12. Pharmacy students' perceptions of a required senior research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sylvia E; Whittington, Jalene I; Nguyen, Lynda M; Ambrose, Peter J; Corelli, Robin L

    2010-12-15

    To determine pharmacy students' perceptions of a required research project in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum. A survey instrument was administered to senior pharmacy students to determine their perceptions of the project advisor and overall project experience and their postgraduation employment plans. Two-hundred twenty-nine (81.5%) students completed a survey instrument. The majority agreed or strongly agreed that the project provided a valuable learning experience (88.2%), provided a competitive advantage for postgraduate job opportunities (73.2%), and should be a continued graduation requirement (74.2%). Respondents with plans for a residency or fellowship were more likely than those entering a community or hospital/institutional pharmacy to agree that completion of the project made them more qualified or marketable and should be continued as a graduation requirement (p research project was perceived by pharmacy students to be a beneficial experience. Students pursuing residency or fellowship were more likely to feel the project was beneficial than students entering the workforce.

  13. From Parkinsonian thalamic activity to restoring thalamic relay using deep brain stimulation: new insights from computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, H. G. E.; Krupa, M.; Cagnan, H.; Lourens, M. A. J.; Heida, T.; Martens, H. C. F.; Bour, L. J.; van Gils, S. A.

    2011-10-01

    We present a computational model of a thalamocortical relay neuron for exploring basal ganglia thalamocortical loop behavior in relation to Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Previous microelectrode, single-unit recording studies demonstrated that oscillatory interaction within and between basal ganglia nuclei is very often accompanied by synchronization at Parkinsonian rest tremor frequencies (3-10 Hz). These oscillations have a profound influence on thalamic projections and impair the thalamic relaying of cortical input by generating rebound action potentials. Our model describes convergent inhibitory input received from basal ganglia by the thalamocortical cells based on characteristics of normal activity, and/or low-frequency oscillations (activity associated with Parkinson's disease). In addition to simulated input, we also used microelectrode recordings as inputs for the model. In the resting state, and without additional sensorimotor input, pathological rebound activity is generated for even mild Parkinsonian input. We have found a specific stimulation window of amplitudes and frequencies for periodic input, which corresponds to high-frequency DBS, and which also suppresses rebound activity for mild and even more prominent Parkinsonian input. When low-frequency pathological rebound activity disables the thalamocortical cell's ability to relay excitatory cortical input, a stimulation signal with parameter settings corresponding to our stimulation window can restore the thalamocortical cell's relay functionality.

  14. Night terrors associated with thalamic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Autret, Alain; Mascia, Addolorata; Onorati, Paolo; Sebastiano, Fabio; Paolo Quarato, Pier

    2004-11-01

    To describe a case with night terrors (NT) symptomatic of a thalamic lesion. Videopolysomnography and brain MRI were used to study a 48 year old woman with a recent onset of brief episodes, occurring exclusively during nocturnal sleep, where she suddenly sat up in bed, screamed and appeared to be very frightened. Videopolysomnography recorded an episode suggestive of NT. Sleep fragmentation with frequent brief arousals or microarousals was also evident mainly during slow wave sleep. The brain MRI showed increased T2 signal from the right thalamus suggestive of a low-grade tumor. Our case suggests that NT starting in adulthood can, rarely, be symptomatic of neurological disease, and warrant further investigation with MRI. A thalamic dysfunction, disrupting at this level the arousal system, may play a role in provoking NT.

  15. MORE. Management of Requirements in NPP modernisation projects - Project report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Fredriksen, R.; Thunem, H.P.J.; Ventae, O.; Valkonen, J.; Holmberg, J.E.

    2006-04-01

    The overall objective of the project MORE is to improve the means for managing the large amounts of evolving requirements in Nordic NPP modernisation projects. In accordance to this objective, the activity will facilitate the industrial utilisation of the research results from the project TACO. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the overall aim of the TACO project has been to identify the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements. The project resulted in the development of a traceability model for handling requirements from their origins and through their final shapes. Particular emphasis for the MORE project in 2005 was put on utilising a prototype of a tool (TRACE) intended to support an adopted approach to dependable requirements engineering, suitable for modelling and handling large amounts of requirements related to all stages of the systems development process and not only those traditionally including requirements at high-level stages. (au)

  16. Thalamic transcriptome screening in three psychiatric states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tearina T; Liu, Yuexun; Kemether, Eileen

    2009-11-01

    The prefrontal cortex has been implicated in schizophrenia (SZ) and affective disorders by gene expression studies. Owing to reciprocal connectivity, the thalamic nuclei and their cortical fields act as functional units. Altered thalamic gene expression would be expected to occur in association with cortical dysfunction. We screened the expression of the entire human genome of neurons harvested by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) from the thalamic primary relay to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in three psychiatric disease states as compared with controls. Microarray analysis of gene expression showed the largest number of dysregulated genes was in SZ, followed by major depression (MD) and bipolar mood bipolar (BP) (1152, 385 and 288, respectively). Significantly, IGF1-mTOR-, AKT-, RAS-, VEGF-, Wnt- and immune-related signaling, eIF2- and proteasome-related genes were unique to SZ. Vitamin D receptor and calcium signaling pathway were unique to BP. AKAP95 pathway and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis were unique to MD. There are significant differences among the three psychiatric disorders in MDNp cells. These findings offer new insights into the transcriptional dysregulation in the thalamus of SZ/BP/MD subjects.

  17. Projection of US LWR spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Cole, B.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Rau, R.G.

    1982-11-01

    The spent fuel storage requirements projection is based on data supplied for each operating or planned nuclear power power plant by the operting utilities. The data supplied by the utilities encompassed details of plant operating history, past records of fuel discharges, current inventories in reactor spent fuel storage pools, and projections of future discharge patterns. Data on storage capacity of storage pools and on characterization of the discharged fuel are also included. The data supplied by the utilities, plus additional data from other appropriate sources, are maintained on a computerized data base by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The spent fuel requirements projection was based on utility data updated and verified as of December 31, 1981

  18. Student Performance Requirements: Minitary Service. Continuation Education System Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Puente Union High School District, CA.

    Funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the La Puente, California, continuation education project investigated (1) attitudes of former students concerning the success of the school in preparing them for entry into military service, (2) the minimal skills and knowledge required by each of the armed forces, (3)…

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the

  20. Distinct molecular components for thalamic- and cortical-dependent plasticity in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Brandalise, Federico; Bohacek, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to be a cellular substrate for the extinction of fear memory. The LA receives converging inputs from the sensory thalamus and neocortex that are weakened following fear extinction. Combining field and patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation can induce a robust LTD at thalamic and cortical inputs to LA, and we identify different underlying molecular components at these pathways. We show that while LTD depends on NMDARs and activation of the protein phosphatases PP2B and PP1 at both pathways, it requires NR2B-containing NMDARs at the thalamic pathway, but NR2C/D-containing NMDARs at the cortical pathway. LTD appears to be induced post-synaptically at the thalamic input but presynaptically at the cortical input, since post-synaptic calcium chelation and NMDAR blockade prevent thalamic but not cortical LTD. These results highlight distinct molecular features of LTD in LA that may be relevant for traumatic memory and its erasure, and for pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  1. Distinct molecular components for thalamic- and cortical-dependent plasticity in the lateral amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eMirante

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR-dependent long-term depression (LTD in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to be a cellular substrate for the extinction of fear memory. The LA receives converging inputs from the sensory thalamus and neocortex that are weakened following fear extinction. Combining field and patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that a paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation can induce a robust LTD at thalamic and cortical inputs to LA, and we identify different underlying molecular components at these pathways. We show that while LTD depends on NMDARs and activation of the protein phosphatases PP2B and PP1 at both pathways, it requires NR2B-containing NMDARs at the thalamic pathway, but NR2C/D-containing NMDARs at the cortical pathway. LTD appears to be induced postsynaptically at the thalamic input but presynaptically at the cortical input, since postsynaptic calcium chelation and NMDAR blockade prevent thalamic but not cortical LTD. These results highlight distinct molecular features of LTD in LA that may be relevant for traumatic memory and its erasure, and for pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

  2. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO 2 extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO 2 observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO 2 secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author)

  3. Database requirements for the Advanced Test Accelerator project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The database requirements for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) project are outlined. ATA is a state-of-the-art electron accelerator capable of producing energetic (50 million electron volt), high current (10,000 ampere), short pulse (70 billionths of a second) beams of electrons for a wide variety of applications. Databasing is required for two applications. First, the description of the configuration of facility itself requires an extended database. Second, experimental data gathered from the facility must be organized and managed to insure its full utilization. The two applications are intimately related since the acquisition and analysis of experimental data requires knowledge of the system configuration. This report reviews the needs of the ATA program and current implementation, intentions, and desires. These database applications have several unique aspects which are of interest and will be highlighted. The features desired in an ultimate database system are outlined. 3 references, 5 figures

  4. Project W-441 cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage

  5. Thalamic hemorrhage following carotid angioplasty and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Jonathan A.; Kallmes, David F.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative treatment of carotid stenosis for patients poorly suited for endarterectomy. Intracerebral hemorrhage following carotid revascularization is rare and thought to be related to hyperperfusion injury in most cases. Early experience suggests an increased incidence of hemorrhage following CAS as compared to endarterectomy. We describe a patient who suffered a thalamic hemorrhage following CAS. Because this hemorrhage occurred in a vascular territory unlikely to have been supplied by the treated artery, this case suggests that the mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage following CAS may in some cases be different from the hyperperfusion hemorrhage classically described following endarterectomy. (orig.)

  6. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. Methods We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Results Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Conclusions Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches. PMID:27171035

  7. Functional characterization and expression of thalamic GABA(B) receptors in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groote, C; Wullner, U; Loschmann, PA; Luiten, PGM; Klockgether, T

    1999-01-01

    Increased GABAergic neurotransmission of the basal ganglia output nuclei projecting to the motor thalamus is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. We investigated the functional role of thalamic GABA(B) receptors in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. First, we

  8. The effect of thalamic hemorrhage on the fornix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Seok; Jang, Sung Ho

    2011-07-01

    The fornix is indirectly connected to the anterior thalamus via the mamilothalamic tract. There has been no diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) study on the effect of thalamic hemorrhage on the fornix. Using DTT, we attempted to investigate the effect of thalamic hemorrhage on the fornix in patients with thalamic hemorrhage. Twenty-one consecutive patients with thalamic hemorrhage and 21 age-matched normal healthy control subjects were recruited. DTT data were acquired at an average of 21 days after onset. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the three parts of the fornix (column, body, and crus) respectively. FA values of the affected and unaffected hemispheres in the patient group were lower than those of the control group in all three parts of the fornix (p fornix, which appeared to be ascribed to secondary degeneration following thalamic hemorrhage.

  9. Preliminary Design Requirements Document for Project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document sets forth functional requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints for the tank farm systems elements identified in Section 3.1 of this document. These requirements shall be used to develop the Design Requirements Baseline for those system elements. System Overview--The tank farm system at Hanford Site currently consists of 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks with associated facilities and equipment, located in 18 separate groupings. Each grouping is known as a tank farm. They are located in the areas designated as 200 West and 200 East. Table 1-1 shows the number of tanks in each farm. The farms are connected together through a transfer system consisting of piping, diversion boxes, Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) and other miscellaneous facilities and elements. The tank farm system also connects to a series of processing plants which generate radioactive and hazardous wastes. The primary functions of the tank farm system are to store, transfer, concentrate, and characterize radioactive and hazardous waste generated at Hanford, until the waste can be safely retrieved, processed and dispositioned. The systems provided by Project W-314 support the store and transfer waste functions. The system elements to be upgraded by Project W-314 are identified in Section 3.1

  10. An Engineering Method of Civil Jet Requirements Validation Based on Requirements Project Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Dan; Mao, Xuming

    2018-03-01

    A method of requirements validation is developed and defined to meet the needs of civil jet requirements validation in product development. Based on requirements project principle, this method will not affect the conventional design elements, and can effectively connect the requirements with design. It realizes the modern civil jet development concept, which is “requirement is the origin, design is the basis”. So far, the method has been successfully applied in civil jet aircraft development in China. Taking takeoff field length as an example, the validation process and the validation method of the requirements are detailed introduced in the study, with the hope of providing the experiences to other civil jet product design.

  11. Thalamic structures and associated cognitive functions: Relations with age and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, with its cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar connections, is a critical node in networks supporting cognitive functions known to decline in normal aging, including component processes of memory and executive functions of attention and information processing. The macrostructure, microstructure, and neural connectivity of the thalamus changes across the adult lifespan. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated, regional thalamic volume shrinkage and microstructural degradation, with anterior regions generally more compromised than posterior regions. The integrity of selective thalamic nuclei and projections decline with advancing age, particularly those in thalamofrontal, thalamoparietal, and thalamolimbic networks. This review presents studies that assess the relations between age and aging and the structure, function, and connectivity of the thalamus and associated neural networks and focuses on their relations with processes of attention, speed of information processing, and working and episodic memory. PMID:25862940

  12. Stereological analysis of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in schizophrenia: volume, neuron number, and cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph N; Sun, Zhuoxin

    2004-01-01

    The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is the principal relay nucleus for the prefrontal cortex, a brain region thought to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Several, but not all, postmortem studies of the MD in schizophrenia have reported decreased volume and total neuronal number. However......, it is not clear whether the findings are specific for schizophrenia nor is it known which subtypes of thalamic neurons are affected. We studied the left MD in 11 subjects with schizophrenia, 9 control subjects, and 12 subjects with mood disorders. Based on morphological criteria, we divided the neurons into two...... subclasses, presumably corresponding to projection neurons and local circuit neurons. We estimated MD volume and the neuron number of each subclass using methods based on modern unbiased stereological principles. We also estimated the somal volumes of each subclass using a robust, but biased, approach...

  13. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging...... techniques in substantial patient populations are lacking. In the present study, we investigated changes of thalamic volume and shape in a large multicenter cohort of patients with migraine. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI data acquired at 3 tesla in 131 patients with migraine (38 with aura; 30.8 ± 9 years...... a fully automated multiatlas approach. Deformation-based shape analysis was performed to localize surface abnormalities. Differences between patients with migraine and healthy subjects were assessed using an ANCOVA model. After correction for multiple comparisons, performed using the false discovery rate...

  14. Projecting future solid waste management requirements on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Stiles, D.L.; Holter, G.M.; Anderson, B.C.

    1990-09-01

    The problem of treating and disposing of hazardous transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, and mixed waste has become a major concern of the public and the government. At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state, the problem is compounded by the need to characterize, retrieve, and treat the solid waste that was generated and stored for retrieval during the past 20 years. This paper discusses the development and application of a Solid Waste Projection Model that uses forecast volumes and characteristics of existing and future solid waste to address the treatment, storage, and disposal requirements at Hanford. The model uses a data-driven, object-oriented approach to assess the storage and treatment throughout requirements for each operation for each of the distinct waste classes and the accompanying cost of the storage and treatment operations. By defining the elements of each alternative for the total waste management system, the same database can be used for numerous analyses performed at different levels of detail. This approach also helps a variety of users with widely varying information requirements to use the model and helps achieve the high degree of flexibility needed to cope with changing regulations and evolving treatment and disposal technologies. 2 figs

  15. System requirements for the Los Alamos foil-implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.; Lindemuth, I.; Nickel, G.; Oliphant, T.; Weiss, D.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the Los Alamos imploding foil project is the development of an intense source of soft x rays and hot plasma produced from the thermalization of 1 to 10 MJ of plasma kinetic energy. The source will be used for material studies and fusion experiments. Specifically, thin, current-carrying cylindrical metallic plasmas are imploded via their self-magnetic forces. Features of this project are the use of high-explosive-driven flux-compression generators as the prime power source to achieve very high energies and fast opening switches to shorten the electrical pulses. To reach a load kinetic energy of 10 MJ, it is expected that the foil-plasma must carry about 50 MA of current and must implode in less than 1/2 μsec. This imposes the requirements that switch opening times must be less than 1/2 μsec and the transmission line must withstand voltages of about 1 MV. The system being pursued at Los Alamos is described, and model calculations are presented

  16. Cocaine dependence and thalamic functional connectivity: a multivariate pattern analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is associated with deficits in cognitive control. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic cocaine use affects the activity and functional connectivity of the thalamus, a subcortical structure critical for cognitive functioning. However, the thalamus contains nuclei heterogeneous in functions, and it is not known how thalamic subregions contribute to cognitive dysfunctions in cocaine dependence. To address this issue, we used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA to examine how functional connectivity of the thalamus distinguishes 100 cocaine-dependent participants (CD from 100 demographically matched healthy control individuals (HC. We characterized six task-related networks with independent component analysis of fMRI data of a stop signal task and employed MVPA to distinguish CD from HC on the basis of voxel-wise thalamic connectivity to the six independent components. In an unbiased model of distinct training and testing data, the analysis correctly classified 72% of subjects with leave-one-out cross-validation (p < 0.001, superior to comparison brain regions with similar voxel counts (p < 0.004, two-sample t test. Thalamic voxels that form the basis of classification aggregate in distinct subclusters, suggesting that connectivities of thalamic subnuclei distinguish CD from HC. Further, linear regressions provided suggestive evidence for a correlation of the thalamic connectivities with clinical variables and performance measures on the stop signal task. Together, these findings support thalamic circuit dysfunction in cognitive control as an important neural marker of cocaine dependence.

  17. Model-based iterative learning control of Parkinsonian state in thalamic relay neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Li, Huiyan; Xue, Zhiqin; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2014-09-01

    Although the beneficial effects of chronic deep brain stimulation on Parkinson's disease motor symptoms are now largely confirmed, the underlying mechanisms behind deep brain stimulation remain unclear and under debate. Hence, the selection of stimulation parameters is full of challenges. Additionally, due to the complexity of neural system, together with omnipresent noises, the accurate model of thalamic relay neuron is unknown. Thus, the iterative learning control of the thalamic relay neuron's Parkinsonian state based on various variables is presented. Combining the iterative learning control with typical proportional-integral control algorithm, a novel and efficient control strategy is proposed, which does not require any particular knowledge on the detailed physiological characteristics of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop and can automatically adjust the stimulation parameters. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed control strategy to restore the fidelity of thalamic relay in the Parkinsonian condition. Furthermore, through changing the important parameter—the maximum ionic conductance densities of low-threshold calcium current, the dominant characteristic of the proposed method which is independent of the accurate model can be further verified.

  18. MORE - Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Thunem, H.P.J. [IFE (Norway); Valkonen, J. [VTT (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of the report is to document the work and related activities in the period January 1 December 31 in 2006, including dissemination activities. The work in this period has been concentrated on further research for adopting an approach for dependable requirements engineering and its supporting tool. The majority of the efforts in 2006, however, was spent on making the researchers, developers, utilities and licensees more aware of the importance of the area of requirements engineering, and in that respect organising an international seminar on dependable requirements engineering. This seminar was defined as a deliverable in the Activity Plan for 2006 and became also the most important deliverable for 2006. Therefore, this report naturally features a detailed summary of the seminar, which proved to be a true success and at the same time a door opener for more initiatives within the topic, proposed by several participants. More efforts within dissemination of the background and objectives of the project MORE within the nuclear community and towards NPPs that do carry out modernisation projects continued to be one important focus. (au)

  19. MORE - Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Thunem, H.P.J.; Valkonen, J.

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of the report is to document the work and related activities in the period January 1 December 31 in 2006, including dissemination activities. The work in this period has been concentrated on further research for adopting an approach for dependable requirements engineering and its supporting tool. The majority of the efforts in 2006, however, was spent on making the researchers, developers, utilities and licensees more aware of the importance of the area of requirements engineering, and in that respect organising an international seminar on dependable requirements engineering. This seminar was defined as a deliverable in the Activity Plan for 2006 and became also the most important deliverable for 2006. Therefore, this report naturally features a detailed summary of the seminar, which proved to be a true success and at the same time a door opener for more initiatives within the topic, proposed by several participants. More efforts within dissemination of the background and objectives of the project MORE within the nuclear community and towards NPPs that do carry out modernisation projects continued to be one important focus. (au)

  20. Thalamic pain: anatomical and physiological indices of prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Nuutti; Perchet, Caroline; Magnin, Michel; Creac'h, Christelle; Convers, Philippe; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Mauguière, François; Peyron, Roland; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Thalamic pain is a severe and treatment-resistant type of central pain that may develop after thalamic stroke. Lesions within the ventrocaudal regions of the thalamus carry the highest risk to develop pain, but its emergence in individual patients remains impossible to predict. Because damage to the spino-thalamo-cortical system is a crucial factor in the development of central pain, in this study we combined detailed anatomical atlas-based mapping of thalamic lesions and assessment of spinothalamic integrity using quantitative sensory analysis and laser-evoked potentials in 42 thalamic stroke patients, of whom 31 had developed thalamic pain. More than 97% of lesions involved an area between 2 and 7 mm above the anterior-posterior commissural plane. Although most thalamic lesions affected several nuclei, patients with central pain showed maximal lesion convergence on the anterior pulvinar nucleus (a major spinothalamic target) while the convergence area lay within the ventral posterior lateral nucleus in pain-free patients. Both involvement of the anterior pulvinar nucleus and spinothalamic dysfunction (nociceptive thresholds, laser-evoked potentials) were significantly associated with the development of thalamic pain, whereas involvement of ventral posterior lateral nucleus and lemniscal dysfunction (position sense, graphaesthesia, pallaesthesia, stereognosis, standard somatosensory potentials) were similarly distributed in patients with or without pain. A logistic regression model combining spinothalamic dysfunction and anterior pulvinar nucleus involvement as regressors had 93% sensitivity and 87% positive predictive value for thalamic pain. Lesion of spinothalamic afferents to the posterior thalamus appears therefore determinant to the development of central pain after thalamic stroke. Sorting out of patients at different risks of developing thalamic pain may be achievable at the individual level by combining lesion localization and functional investigation of

  1. 24 CFR 884.122 - Separate project requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... separate ACC List and ACC Part I and shall be assigned a separate project number. All new construction... construction projects where: (1) The units are placed under ACC on the same date; and (2) Such consolidation is...

  2. Distinct recruitment of the hippocampal, thalamic, and amygdalar neurons projecting to the prelimbic cortex in male and female rats during context-mediated renewal of responding to food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lauren C; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2018-02-26

    Persistent responding to food cues may underlie the difficulty to resist palatable foods and to maintain healthy eating habits. Renewal of responding after extinction is a model of persistent food seeking that can be used to study the underlying neural mechanisms. In context-mediated renewal, a return to the context in which the initial cue-food learning occurred induces robust responding to the cues that were extinguished elsewhere. Previous work found sex differences in context-mediated renewal and in the recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during that behavior. Males exhibited renewal of responding to food cues and had higher Fos induction in the prelimbic area (PL) of the vmPFC, while females failed to exhibit renewal of responding and had lower Fos induction in the PL. The main aim of the current study was to determine key components of the PL circuitry mediating renewal. The focus was on inputs from three areas important in appetitive associative learning and contextual processing: the amygdala, ventral hippocampal formation, and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. The goal was to determine whether neurons from these areas that send direct projections to the PL (identified with a retrograde tracer) are selectively activated (Fos induction) during renewal and whether they are differently recruited in males and females. The Fos induction patterns demonstrated that the PL-projecting neurons in each of these areas were recruited in a sex-specific way that corresponded to the behavioral differences between males and females. These pathways were selectively activated in the male experimental group-the only group that showed renewal behavior. The findings suggest the pathways from the ventral hippocampal formation, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and basolateral amygdala to the PL mediate renewal in males. The lack of recruitment in females suggests that under activation of these pathways may underlie their lack of renewal

  3. Global suppression of electrocortical activity in unilateral perinatal thalamic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kharoshankaya, Liudmila

    2014-07-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression and right-sided clonic seizures in a male infant born at 40(+2) weeks\\' gestation, birthweight 3240g, with an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke. The EEG at 13 hours after birth showed a generalized very low amplitude background pattern, which progressed to frequent electrographic seizures over the left hemisphere. The interictal background EEG pattern remained grossly abnormal over the next 48 hours, showing very low background amplitudes (<10μV). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated acute left-sided thalamic infarction. This is the first description of severe global EEG suppression caused by an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke and supports the role of the thalamus as the control centre for cortical electrical activity.

  4. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What requirements must be met by a family planning... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.5 What requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported under this part must: (1...

  5. 34 CFR 350.10 - What are the general requirements for Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation Research Projects? 350.10 Section 350.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.10 What are the general requirements for Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects...

  6. Requirements for the project management in the client / engineering contractor relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Investment projects impose a multitude of requirements upon clients and engineering contractors to cope with the management of project inherent conflicts. The paper reviews certain aspects on why such conflicts develop, and how they may be resolved. (orig.)

  7. Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouchedi, M; Galanaud, D; Delmaire, C; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Messé, A; Mesmoudi, S; Oulebsir Boumghar, F; Pélégrini-Issac, M; Puybasset, L; Benali, H; Perlbarg, V

    2015-07-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized mainly by diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). The cortico-subcortical disconnections induced by such fiber disruption play a central role in consciousness recovery. We hypothesized that these cortico-subcortical deafferentations inferred from diffusion MRI data could differentiate between TBI patients with favorable or unfavorable (death, vegetative state, or minimally conscious state) outcome one year after injury. Cortico-subcortical fiber density maps were derived by using probabilistic tractography from diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in 24 severe TBI patients and 9 healthy controls. These maps were compared between patients and controls as well as between patients with favorable (FO) and unfavorable (UFO) 1-year outcome to identify the thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways involved in the maintenance of consciousness. Thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical fiber density was significantly lower in TBI patients than in healthy controls. Comparing FO and UFO TBI patients showed thalamo-cortical deafferentation associated with unfavorable outcome for projections from ventral posterior and intermediate thalamic nuclei to the associative frontal, sensorimotor and associative temporal cortices. Specific ponto-thalamic deafferentation in projections from the upper dorsal pons (including the reticular formation) was also associated with unfavorable outcome. Fiber density of cortico-subcortical pathways as measured from diffusion MRI tractography is a relevant candidate biomarker for early prediction of one-year favorable outcome in severe TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting Flu Season Requirements: An Undergraduate Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramlich, Gary R., II; Braunstein Fierson, Janet L.; Wright, J. Adam

    2010-01-01

    This project was designed to be used in a freshman calculus class whose students had already been introduced to logistic functions and basic data modeling techniques. It need not be limited to such an audience, however; it has also been implemented in a topics in mathematics class for college upperclassmen. Originally intended to be presented in…

  9. Fear extinction requires infralimbic cortex projections to the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodgood, Daniel W; Sugam, Jonathan A; Holmes, Andrew; Kash, Thomas L

    2018-03-06

    Fear extinction involves the formation of a new memory trace that attenuates fear responses to a conditioned aversive memory, and extinction impairments are implicated in trauma- and stress-related disorders. Previous studies in rodents have found that the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) and its glutamatergic projections to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and basomedial amygdala (BMA) instruct the formation of fear extinction memories. However, it is unclear whether these pathways are exclusively involved in extinction, or whether other major targets of the IL, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) also play a role. To address this outstanding issue, the current study employed a combination of electrophysiological and chemogenetic approaches in mice to interrogate the role of IL-BLA and IL-NAc pathways in extinction. Specifically, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology coupled with retrograde tracing to examine changes in neuronal activity of the IL and prelimbic cortex (PL) projections to both the BLA and NAc following fear extinction. We found that extinction produced a significant increase in the intrinsic excitability of IL-BLA projection neurons, while extinction appeared to reverse fear-induced changes in IL-NAc projection neurons. To establish a causal counterpart to these observations, we then used a pathway-specific Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD) strategy to selectively inhibit PFC-BLA projection neurons during extinction acquisition. Using this approach, we found that DREADD-mediated inhibition of PFC-BLA neurons during extinction acquisition impaired subsequent extinction retrieval. Taken together, our findings provide further evidence for a critical contribution of the IL-BLA neural circuit to fear extinction.

  10. Impact of Requirements Elicitation Processes on Success of Information System Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bormane Līga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements articulating user needs and corresponding to enterprise business processes are a key to successful implementation of information system development projects. However, the parties involved in projects frequently are not able to agree on a common development vision and have difficulties expressing their needs. Several industry experts have acknowledged that requirements elicitation is one of the most difficult tasks in development projects. This study investigates the impact of requirements elicitation processes on project outcomes depending on the applied project development methodology.

  11. NATO ENLARGEMENT: NATO's Requirements and Costs for Commonly Funded Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) regarding the enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). We also provided you with NATO'S schedule for preparing its own studies regarding the requirements and costs associated with the alliance's enlargement...

  12. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage. Clinical symptoms and outcomes in 40 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-12-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis.

  13. Neuroanatomical considerations of isolated hearing loss in thalamic hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Agarwal, M.D.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Presumably, this neurological deficit was caused by a hypertensive hemorrhage in the posterior right thalamus. The following case and discussion will review the potential neuroanatomical pathways that we suggest could make isolated hearing loss be part of a “thalamic syndrome.”

  14. Effects of Intralaminar Thalamic Stimulation on Language Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Subhash C.; Mandybur, George T.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen neurosurgical subjects, who were undergoing thalamic chronic electrode implants as a treatment for dyskinesia and chronic pain, were evaluated on a series of neurolinguistic functions to determine if the stimulation of the centromedianum nucleus of the thalamus affected language and cognitive processing. Analysis of the data revealed that…

  15. Communication skills and thalamic lesion: Strategies of rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaddii, Luisa; Centorrino, Santi; Cambi, Jacopo; Passali, Desiderio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the speech rehabilitation history of patients with thalamic lesions. Thalamic lesions can affect speech and language according to diverse thalamic nuclei involved. Because of the strategic functional position of the thalamus within the cognitive networks, its lesion can also interfere with other cognitive processes, such as attention, memory and executive functions. Alterations of these cognitive domains contribute significantly to language deficits, leading to communicative inefficacy. This fact must be considered in the rehabilitation efforts. Whereas evaluation of cognitive functions and communicative efficiency is different from that of aphasic disorder, treatment should also be different. The treatment must be focused on specific cognitive deficits with belief in the regaining of communicative ability, as well as it occurs in therapy of pragmatic disorder in traumatic brain injury: attention process training, mnemotechnics and prospective memory training. According to our experience: (a) there is a close correlation between cognitive processes and communication skills; (b) alterations of attention, memory and executive functions cause a loss of efficiency in the language use; and (c) appropriate cognitive treatment improves pragmatic competence and therefore the linguistic disorder. For planning a speech-therapy it is important to consider the relationship between cognitive functions and communication. The cognitive/behavioral treatment confirms its therapeutic efficiency for thalamic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Discordant infantile encephalopathy with symmetrical thalamic calcifications in identical twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, M. S.; Barth, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    Connatal thalamic calcifications in apparently uneventful pregnancies have been described in various case reports and in a single report in two sibs. On the other hand, this lesion is known to occur after a hypoxic-ischemic accident in the immature brain. In the present report infantile

  17. Visual Orientation and Directional Selectivity through Thalamic Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Garrett B.; Jin, Jianzhong; Wang, Yushi; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Wang, Qi; Black, Michael J.; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Thalamic neurons respond to visual scenes by generating synchronous spike trains on the timescale of 10 – 20 ms that are very effective at driving cortical targets. Here we demonstrate that this synchronous activity contains unexpectedly rich information about fundamental properties of visual stimuli. We report that the occurrence of synchronous firing of cat thalamic cells with highly overlapping receptive fields is strongly sensitive to the orientation and the direction of motion of the visual stimulus. We show that this stimulus selectivity is robust, remaining relatively unchanged under different contrasts and temporal frequencies (stimulus velocities). A computational analysis based on an integrate-and-fire model of the direct thalamic input to a layer 4 cortical cell reveals a strong correlation between the degree of thalamic synchrony and the nonlinear relationship between cortical membrane potential and the resultant firing rate. Together, these findings suggest a novel population code in the synchronous firing of neurons in the early visual pathway that could serve as the substrate for establishing cortical representations of the visual scene. PMID:22745507

  18. Thalamic abscess caused by a rare pathogen: streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptococcus constellatus is a microorganism that lives commensally in the oropharyngeal region, urogenital region, and intestinal tract. However, it can cause infection in patients with certain predisposing factors. Rarely, this microorganism can cause a brain abscess. Thalamic localization of brain abscesses is much rarer ...

  19. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment

  20. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-03-24

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment.

  1. Using Project Complexity Determinations to Establish Required Levels of Project Rigor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    This presentation discusses the project complexity determination process that was developed by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for implementation at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The complexity determination process was developed to address the diversity of NNSS project types, size, and complexity; to fill the need for one procedure but with provision for tailoring the level of rigor to the project type, size, and complexity; and to provide consistent, repeatable, effective application of project management processes across the enterprise; and to achieve higher levels of efficiency in project delivery. These needs are illustrated by the wide diversity of NNSS projects: Defense Experimentation, Global Security, weapons tests, military training areas, sensor development and testing, training in realistic environments, intelligence community support, sensor development, environmental restoration/waste management, and disposal of radioactive waste, among others.

  2. 78 FR 53712 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Program Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... NPRM does not address other aspects of the Program, such as the auditing and monitoring requirements..., participate, and budget for the auditing and monitoring process. Furthermore, it is more common for MARAD and... include those that cross State boundaries and those that cross or are at international boundaries. Federal...

  3. IT Requirements Integration in High-Rise Construction Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Anastasia; Ilin, Igor; Esedulaev, Rustam

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses the growing role of IT support for the operation of modern high-rise buildings, due to the complexity of managing engineering systems of buildings and the requirements of consumers for the IT infrastructure. The existing regulatory framework for the development of design documentation for construction, including high-rise buildings, is analyzed, and the lack of coherence in the development of this documentation with the requirements for the creation of an automated management system and the corresponding IT infrastructure is stated. The lack of integration between these areas is the cause of delays and inefficiencies both at the design stage and at the stage of putting the building into operation. The paper proposes an approach to coordinate the requirements of the IT infrastructure of high-rise buildings and design documentation for construction. The solution to this problem is possible within the framework of the enterprise architecture concept by coordinating the requirements of the IT and technological layers at the design stage of the construction.

  4. MORE: Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C.; Valkonen, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE project in the period January 1 - December 31 in 2007. The focus of this report is on improvements of the former project results, to identify and apply a couple of case studies from NPP projects, and activities in order to initiate and implement the industrial take-up and utilisation of the research results in real modernisation projects. The report also provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (au)

  5. MORE: Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C. [Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE) (Norway); Valkonen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)

    2008-03-15

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE project in the period January 1 - December 31 in 2007. The focus of this report is on improvements of the former project results, to identify and apply a couple of case studies from NPP projects, and activities in order to initiate and implement the industrial take-up and utilisation of the research results in real modernisation projects. The report also provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (au)

  6. Tolerancing requirements for remote handling at the Hanford vitrification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, R.M.; Bullis, R.E.; Van Katwijk, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant is being designed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. with WasteChem Corporation as Fluor Daniel's major subcontractor specializing in vitrification and remote system technologies. United Engineers and Constructors/Catalytic (UE ampersand C) will construct the plant. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Project Integration manager, manager and as the plant operator provides technical direction to the Architect/Engineer team (A/E) and constructor on behalf of the Department of Energy - Richland Field Office. The A/E has developed, in cooperation with UE ampersand C, WHC and DOE, a new and innovative approach to installations of the many remote nozzles and electrical connectors that must be installed to demanding tolerances. This paper summarizes the key elements of the HWVP approach

  7. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent open-quotes Murder Board.close quotes Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters' budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management

  8. Regional thalamic neuropathology in patients with hippocampal sclerosis and epilepsy: A postmortem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinjab, Barah; Martinian, Lillian; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Clinical, experimental, and neuroimaging data all indicate that the thalamus is involved in the network of changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in association with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), with potential roles in seizure initiation and propagation. Pathologic changes in the thalamus may be a result of an initial insult, ongoing seizures, or retrograde degeneration through reciprocal connections between thalamic and limbic regions. Our aim was to carry out a neuropathologic analysis of the thalamus in a postmortem (PM) epilepsy series, to assess the distribution, severity, and nature of pathologic changes and its association with HS. Methods Twenty-four epilepsy PM cases (age range 25–87 years) and eight controls (age range 38–85 years) were studied. HS was classified as unilateral (UHS, 11 cases), bilateral (BHS, 4 cases) or absent (No-HS, 9 cases). Samples from the left and right sides of the thalamus were stained with cresyl violet (CV), and for glial firbillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin. Using image analysis, neuronal densities (NDs) or field fraction staining values (GFAP, synaptophysin) were measured in four thalamic nuclei: anteroventral nucleus (AV), lateral dorsal nucleus (LD), mediodorsal nucleus (MD), and ventrolateral nucleus (VL). The results were compared within and between cases. Key Findings The severity, nature, and distribution of thalamic pathology varied between cases. A pattern that emerged was a preferential involvement of the MD in UHS cases with a reduction in mean ND ipsilateral to the side of HS (p = 0.05). In UHS cases, greater field fraction values for GFAP and lower values for synaptophysin and ND were seen in the majority of cases in the MD ipsilateral to the side of sclerosis compared to other thalamic nuclei. In addition, differences in the mean ND between classical HS, atypical HS, and No-HS cases were noted in the ipsilateral MD (p < 0.05), with lower values observed in

  9. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yeon Eom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections. This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8–Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS.

  10. Sleep onset uncovers thalamic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Bagshaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE, and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC. Inter-hemispheric thalamic FC differed between patients and controls in somatosensory regions during wakefulness, and occipital regions during sleep. Intra-hemispheric thalamic FC was significantly higher in patients than controls following sleep onset, and disorder-dependent alterations to FC were seen in several thalamic regions always involving somatomotor and occipital regions. As interactions between thalamic sub-regions are indirect and mediated by the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, the results suggest abnormal TRN function in patients with IGE, with a regional distribution which could suggest a link with the thalamocortical networks involved in the generation of alpha rhythms. Intra-thalamic FC could be a more widely applicable marker beyond patients with IGE.

  11. Using Risk Simulation to Reduce the Capital Cost Requirement for a Programme of Capital Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Joubert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines various concepts related to (i project risk management, (ii Monte Carlo simulation, (iii project contingency cost estimation, and (iv the relationship between project and programme risks, to illustrate that the contingency requirements are lower when simulating all the risks in the programme when comparing it with the individual project contingency requirement. A case study organisation provided 86 quantified risk registers related to port and rail capital projects. For each of these risk registers, the project contingency was estimated using a prescribed risk register template and Monte Carlo simulation software. The same 86 quantified risk registers were then used to simulate the programme contingency. The simulation results indicated that the programme contingency requirement was approximately 8% points lower than that of the sum of the individual projects. The first implication of this research result is that, should borrowed capital be used to fund the projects, the interest bill would be higher when calculating project contingency on a project-by-project basis. The second is that regularly appearing low probability, high impact risks, should be identified and these risks should be quantified not in the projects themselves, but in a centrally managed, programme cost contingency fund.

  12. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope

  13. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-20

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope.

  14. Private capital requirements for international biomass energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1995-01-01

    In developing countries, the use of biomass for energy production faces two contradictory pressures. On the one hand, biomass costs very little and it is used inefficiently for fuel or charcoal production, leading to widespread destruction of forested areas and environmental degradation; this problem is being attenuated by the promotion, through aid programmes, of more efficient cook stoves for poor people. On the other hand, the conversion of biomass into high-grade fuel such as ethanol from sugar cane or burning urban refuse or gasifying it to produce electricity is not economically competitive at this time and requires subsidies of approximately 30% to make it as attractive as conventional fuels. Only electricity production using residues from sawmills, crops and other biomass by-products is competitive, and a number of plants are in operation in some countries, particularly the United States. For such plants, the usual rates of return and long-term contract purchases that characterize investments of this kind are applied. Although technologies are available for the widespread efficient use of biomass, the financial hurdle of high initial costs has impeded their market penetration, which in turn precludes any decline in costs that might otherwise have come from production increases. Intervention by governments or by GEF, justified on grounds of environmental protection, is needed to accelerate the introduction of the new technologies. The only private flows that are taking place at the moment are those from enlightened investors wishing to guarantee themselves a strong position in the area for the future or to preempt command and control regulations, such as carbon taxes, imposed by governments. The joint implementation of biomass technologies between industrialized and developing countries might be one method of accelerating this flow. (author)

  15. Anterior Thalamic High Frequency Band Activity Is Coupled with Theta Oscillations at Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-frequency coupling (CFC between slow and fast brain rhythms, in the form of phase–amplitude coupling (PAC, is proposed to enable the coordination of neural oscillatory activity required for cognitive processing. PAC has been identified in the neocortex and mesial temporal regions, varying according to the cognitive task being performed and also at rest. PAC has also been observed in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN during memory processing. The thalamus is active during the resting state and has been proposed to be involved in switching between task-free cognitive states such as rest, in which attention is internally-focused, and externally-focused cognitive states, in which an individual engages with environmental stimuli. It is unknown whether PAC is an ongoing phenomenon during the resting state in the ATN, which is modulated during different cognitive states, or whether it only arises during the performance of specific tasks. We analyzed electrophysiological recordings of ATN activity during rest from seven patients who received thalamic electrodes implanted for treatment of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. PAC was identified between theta (4–6 Hz phase and high frequency band (80–150 Hz amplitude during rest in all seven patients, which diminished during engagement in tasks involving an external focus of attention. The findings are consistent with the proposal that theta–gamma coupling in the ATN is an ongoing phenomenon, which is modulated by task performance.

  16. Dopamine, fronto-striato-thalamic circuits and risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandash, Orwa; Pantelis, Christos; Fornito, Alex

    2017-02-01

    A series of parallel, integrated circuits link distinct regions of prefrontal cortex with specific nuclei of the striatum and thalamus. Dysfunction of these fronto-striato-thalamic systems is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of psychosis. In this review, we examine evidence from human and animal investigations that dysfunction of a specific dorsal fronto-striato-thalamic circuit, linking the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal (associative) striatum, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, is apparent across different stages of psychosis, including prior to the onset of a first episode, suggesting that it represents a candidate risk biomarker. We consider how abnormalities at distinct points in the circuit may give rise to the pattern of findings seen in patient populations, and how these changes relate to disruptions in dopamine, glutamate and GABA signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of fornix lesions in rats on spatial learning tasks sensitive to anterior thalamic and hippocampal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Wright, Nicholas F; Dillingham, Christopher M; Aggleton, John P

    2015-02-01

    The present study sought to understand how the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei are conjointly required for spatial learning by examining the impact of cutting a major tract (the fornix) that interconnects these two sites. The initial experiments examined the consequences of fornix lesions in rats on spatial biconditional discrimination learning. The rationale arose from previous findings showing that fornix lesions spare the learning of spatial biconditional tasks, despite the same task being highly sensitive to both hippocampal and anterior thalamic nuclei lesions. In the present study, fornix lesions only delayed acquisition of the spatial biconditional task, pointing to additional contributions from non-fornical routes linking the hippocampus with the anterior thalamic nuclei. The same fornix lesions spared the learning of an analogous nonspatial biconditional task that used local contextual cues. Subsequent tests, including T-maze place alternation, place learning in a cross-maze, and a go/no-go place discrimination, highlighted the impact of fornix lesions when distal spatial information is used flexibly to guide behaviour. The final experiment examined the ability to learn incidentally the spatial features of a square water-maze that had differently patterned walls. Fornix lesions disrupted performance but did not stop the rats from distinguishing the various corners of the maze. Overall, the results indicate that interconnections between the hippocampus and anterior thalamus, via the fornix, help to resolve problems with flexible spatial and temporal cues, but the results also signal the importance of additional, non-fornical contributions to hippocampal-anterior thalamic spatial processing, particularly for problems with more stable spatial solutions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital and I and C systems development - Project report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Frederiksen, R.; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.

    2004-03-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project is to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. In the year 2003, the TACO-project concentrated on four central issues: 1) Representation of requirements origins. 2) Traceability techniques. 3) Configuration management and the traceability of requirements. 4) Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models The work was presented at the first TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Stockholm on the 12th of December 2003. The seminar was hosted by SKI. (au)

  19. Effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation on spontaneous language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Vonberg, Isabelle; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2016-08-01

    The thalamus is thought to contribute to language-related processing, but specifications of this notion remain vague. An assessment of potential effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on spontaneous language may help to delineate respective functions. For this purpose, we analyzed spontaneous language samples from thirteen (six female / seven male) patients with essential tremor treated with DBS of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) in their respective ON vs. OFF conditions. Samples were obtained from semi-structured interviews and examined on multidimensional linguistic levels. In the VIM-DBS ON condition, participants used a significantly higher proportion of paratactic as opposed to hypotactic sentence structures. This increase correlated negatively with the change in the more global cognitive score, which in itself did not change significantly. In conclusion, VIM-DBS appears to induce the use of a simplified syntactic structure. The findings are discussed in relation to concepts of thalamic roles in language-related cognitive behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Presentation of bilateral thalamic infarction on CT, MRI and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewermeyer, H.; Dreesbach, H.A.; Rackl, A.; Neveling, M.; Heiss, W.D.; Staedtisches Krankenhaus Koeln-Merheim

    1985-01-01

    Paramedian thalamic structures and part of the upper midbrain are frequently supplied by posterior thalamoperforating arteries originating from one common trunk. Local impairment of flow entails a bilateral more or less symmetric thalamic infarction with varying involvement of the midbrain. Diagnosis usually can neither be firmly established on clinical grounds nor by angiography alone. In the present series of four patients the two cases observed before the CT era were diagnosed correctly only at autopsy. Only one patient presented the classical syndrome of hypersomnia, thalamic dementia, and occulomotor nerve paralysis, while in the others clinical signs probably were masked by serious impairment of consciousness. In two cases X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography (one case) afforded precise definition of infarct localization and size. Infarction in the described terminal vascular supply territory may be detected more often by these modern diagnostic techniques than anticipated from previous clinico-pathological experience as the underlying cause of coma in the elderly - a group of patients at particular risk for low-flow states. Positron emission tomography repeat studies with 18 F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (one case) revealed complex disturbances of brain energy metabolism; correlative analysis of clinical function and metabolic patterns during the course of the disease may not only advance individual prognostication but also contribute to the understanding and localization of brain function. (orig.)

  1. Hypertensive thalamic hematoma treated by CT stereotactic evacuation (with two cases reports)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongsheng; Zhu Fengqing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate new surgical method to treat hypertensive thalamic hematoma. Methods: Two medial-degree coma patients with hypertensive thalamic hematoma were treated by CT stereotactic evacuation. Results: One week after operation the two patients regained consciousness. The function of paraplegic appendage restored partly, and one patient could take care of himself. Conclusion: CT stereotactic evacuation to treat hypertensive thalamic hematoma has the advantages of small trauma, little complication and good clinical results. The authors suggest that it be selected firstly in treating hypertensive thalamic hematoma

  2. Evaluation of data requirements for computerized constructability analysis of pavement rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the data requirements for computer assisted construction planning : and staging methods that can be implemented in pavement rehabilitation projects in the state of : Georgia. Results showed that two main issues for the...

  3. Thalamic Spindles Promote Memory Formation during Sleep through Triple Phase-Locking of Cortical, Thalamic, and Hippocampal Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchoumane, Charles-Francois V; Ngo, Hong-Viet V; Born, Jan; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2017-07-19

    While the interaction of the cardinal rhythms of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-the thalamo-cortical spindles, hippocampal ripples, and the cortical slow oscillations-is thought to be critical for memory consolidation during sleep, the role spindles play in this interaction is elusive. Combining optogenetics with a closed-loop stimulation approach in mice, we show here that only thalamic spindles induced in-phase with cortical slow oscillation up-states, but not out-of-phase-induced spindles, improve consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory during sleep. Whereas optogenetically stimulated spindles were as efficient as spontaneous spindles in nesting hippocampal ripples within their excitable troughs, stimulation in-phase with the slow oscillation up-state increased spindle co-occurrence and frontal spindle-ripple co-occurrence, eventually resulting in increased triple coupling of slow oscillation-spindle-ripple events. In-phase optogenetic suppression of thalamic spindles impaired hippocampus-dependent memory. Our results suggest a causal role for thalamic sleep spindles in hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation, conveyed through triple coupling of slow oscillations, spindles, and ripples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities.

  5. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities

  6. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  7. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity

  8. Cortical and thalamic connectivity to the second auditory cortex of the cat is resilient to the onset of deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Blake E; de la Rua, Alexandra; Ward-Able, Taylor; Lomber, Stephen G

    2018-03-01

    It has been well established that following sensory loss, cortical areas that would normally be involved in perceiving stimuli in the absent modality are recruited to subserve the remaining senses. Despite this compensatory functional reorganization, there is little evidence to date for any substantial change in the patterns of anatomical connectivity between sensory cortices. However, while many auditory areas are contracted in the deaf, the second auditory cortex (A2) of the cat undergoes a volumetric expansion following hearing loss, suggesting this cortical area may demonstrate a region-specific pattern of structural reorganization. To address this hypothesis, and to complement existing literature on connectivity within auditory cortex, we injected a retrograde neuronal tracer across the breadth and cortical thickness of A2 to provide the first comprehensive quantification of projections from cortical and thalamic auditory and non-auditory regions to the second auditory cortex, and to determine how these patterns are affected by the onset of deafness. Neural projections arising from auditory, visual, somatomotor, and limbic cortices, as well as thalamic nuclei, were compared across normal hearing, early-deaf, and late-deaf animals. The results demonstrate that, despite previously identified changes in A2 volume, the pattern of projections into this cortical region are unaffected by the onset of hearing loss. These results fail to support the idea that crossmodal plasticity reflects changes in the pattern of projections between cortical regions and provides evidence that the pattern of connectivity that supports normal hearing is retained in the deaf brain.

  9. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project

  10. Salt Repository Project transportation system interface requirements: Transportation system/repository receiving facility interface requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Insalaco, J.W.; Trainer, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is a preliminary review of the interface between the transportation system and the repository receiving facility for a nuclear waste mined geologic disposal system in salt. Criteria for generic cask and facility designs are developed. These criteria are derived by examining the interfaces that occur as a result of the operations needed to receive nuclear waste at a repository. These criteria provide the basis for design of a safe, operable, practical nuclear waste receiving facility. The processing functions required to move the shipping unit from the gate into the unloading area and back to the gate for dispatch are described. Criteria for a generic receiving facility are discussed but no specific facility design is presented or evaluated. The criteria are stated in general terms to allow application to a wide variety of cask and facility designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Evaluation of a required senior research project in a doctor of pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Doris J; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Corelli, Robin L

    2011-02-10

    To characterize the dissemination of study findings and assess project preceptor attitudes towards a required senior research project in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. A survey was conducted to determine preceptors' perceptions of the value of a required pharmacy student research project and dissemination of research results. One hundred fifteen project preceptors (92.0%) responded. Most preceptors agreed that the projects provided a valuable learning experience to the students (87.5%) and were of value to them professionally (82.1%) and to their institution (78.2%). Study findings were disseminated primarily through institutional forums (47.3%). A smaller percentage of projects were disseminated externally through presentations at professional meetings (23.7%, poster presentations; 4.0%, platform presentations), and peer-reviewed publications (5.3%). Despite a modest level of dissemination of project results through presentations at professional meetings and a low level of dissemination via published manuscripts, the majority of preceptors perceived a required student research project to be of value.

  12. South African CSP projects under the REIPPP programme - Requirements, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relancio, Javier; Cuellar, Alberto; Walker, Gregg; Ettmayr, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Thus far seven Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) projects have been awarded under the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP), totalling 600MW: one project is in operation, four under construction and two on their way to financial close. This provides an excellent opportunity for analysis of key features of the projects that have contributed to or detracted from the programme's success. The paper draws from Mott MacDonald's involvement as Technical Advisor on the seven CSP projects that have been successful under the REIPPPP to date as well as other global CSP developments. It presents how various programme requirements have affected the implementation of projects, such as the technical requirements, time of day tariff structure, economic development requirements and the renewable energy grid code. The increasingly competitive tariffs offered have encouraged developers to investigate efficiency maximising project configurations and cost saving mechanisms, as well as featuring state of the art technology in their proposals. The paper assesses the role of the project participants (developers, lenders and government) with regards to these innovative technologies and solutions. In our paper we discuss the status of projects and the SA market, analysing the main challenges and opportunities that in turn have influenced various aspects such as technology choice, operational regimes and supply chain arrangements.

  13. Optimizing experimental parameters for the projection requirement in HAADF-STEM tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveyard, R., E-mail: r.a.aveyard@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Zhong, Z.; Batenburg, K.J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rieger, B., E-mail: b.rieger@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The extent to which HAADF-STEM meets the projection requirement has been studied. • Multislice simulations used to model beam propagation and study signal linearity. • Propagation in crystalline and amorphous materials considered. • Optimal experimental set-up for the projection requirement is discussed. - Abstract: Tomographic reconstruction algorithms offer a means by which a tilt-series of transmission images can be combined to yield a three dimensional model of the specimen. Conventional reconstruction algorithms assume that the measured signal is a linear projection of some property, typically the density, of the material. Here we report the use of multislice simulations to investigate the extent to which this assumption is met in HAADF-STEM imaging. The use of simulations allows for a systematic survey of a range of materials and microscope parameters to inform optimal experimental design. Using this approach it is demonstrated that the imaging of amorphous materials is in good agreement with the projection assumption in most cases. Images of crystalline specimens taken along zone-axes are found to be poorly suited for conventional linear reconstruction algorithms due to channelling effects which produce enhanced intensities compared with off-axis images, and poor compliance with the projection requirement. Off-axis images are found to be suitable for reconstruction, though they do not strictly meet the linearity requirement in most cases. It is demonstrated that microscope parameters can be selected to yield improved compliance with the projection requirement.

  14. Integrating MBSE into Ongoing Projects: Requirements Validation and Test Planning for the ISS SAFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Herbert A.; Williams, Antony; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Simplified Aid for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) is the spacewalking astronaut's final safety measure against separating from the ISS and being unable to return safely. Since the late 1990s, the SAFER has been a standard element of the spacewalking astronaut's equipment. The ISS SAFER project was chartered to develop a new block of SAFER units using a highly similar design to the legacy SAFER (known as the USA SAFER). An on-orbit test module was also included in the project to enable periodic maintenance/propulsion system checkout on the ISS SAFER. On the ISS SAFER project, model-based systems engineering (MBSE) was not the initial systems engineering (SE) approach, given the volume of heritage systems engineering and integration (SE&I) products. The initial emphasis was ensuring traceability to ISS program standards as well as to legacy USA SAFER requirements. The requirements management capabilities of the Cradle systems engineering tool were to be utilized to that end. During development, however, MBSE approaches were applied selectively to address specific challenges in requirements validation and test and verification (T&V) planning, which provided measurable efficiencies to the project. From an MBSE perspective, ISS SAFER development presented a challenge and an opportunity. Addressing the challenge first, the project was tasked to use the original USA SAFER operational and design requirements baseline, with a number of additional ISS program requirements to address evolving certification expectations for systems operating on the ISS. Additionally, a need to redesign the ISS SAFER avionics architecture resulted in a set of changes to the design requirements baseline. Finally, the project added an entirely new functionality for on-orbit maintenance. After initial requirements integration, the system requirements count was approaching 1000, which represented a growth of 4x over the original USA SAFER system

  15. Robust interactions between the effects of auditory and cutaneous electrical stimulations on cell activities in the thalamic reticular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akihisa

    2017-04-15

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a cluster of GABAergic cells, is thought to regulate bottom-up and top-down streams of sensory processing in the loop circuitry between the thalamus and cortex. Provided that sensory inputs of different modalities interact in the TRN, the TRN could contribute to fast and flexible cross-modal modulation of attention and perception that incessantly takes place in our everyday life. Indeed, diverse subthreshold interactions of auditory and visual inputs have been revealed in TRN cells (Kimura, 2014). To determine whether such sensory interaction could extend across modalities as a universal neural mechanism, the present study examined TRN cell activities elicited by auditory and cutaneous electrical stimulations in anesthetized rats. Juxta-cellular recording and labeling techniques were used. Recordings were obtained from 129 cells. Auditory or somatosensory responses were modulated by subthreshold electrical stimulation or sound (noise burst) in the majority of recordings (77 of 85 auditory and 13 of 15 somatosensory cells). Additionally, 22 bimodal cells and seven cells that responded only to combined stimulation were recognized. Suppression was predominant in modulation that was observed in both early and repeatedly evoked late responses. Combined stimulation also induced de novo cell activities. Further, response latency and burst spiking were modulated. Axonal projections of cells showing modulation terminated in first- or higher-order thalamic nuclei. Nine auditory cells projected to somatosensory thalamic nuclei. These results suggest that the TRN could regulate sensory processing in the loop circuitry between the thalamus and cortex through the sensory interaction pervasive across modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A structural MRI study of motor conversion disorder: evidence of reduction in thalamic volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T R; Aybek, S; Kempton, M J; Daly, E M; Murphy, D G; David, A S; Kanaan, R A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate potential abnormalities in subcortical brain structures in conversion disorder (CD) compared with controls using a region of interest (ROI) approach. Fourteen patients with motor CD were compared with 31 healthy controls using high-resolution MRI scans with an ROI approach focusing on the basal ganglia, thalamus and amygdala. Brain volumes were measured using Freesurfer, a validated segmentation algorithm. Significantly smaller left thalamic volumes were found in patients compared with controls when corrected for intracranial volume. These reductions did not vary with handedness, laterality, duration or severity of symptoms. These differences may reflect a primary disease process in this area or be secondary effects of the disorder, for example, resulting from limb disuse. Larger, longitudinal structural imaging studies will be required to confirm the findings and explore whether they are primary or secondary to CD.

  17. Application and project portfolio valuation using enterprise architecture and business requirements modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartel, Dick; Steen, Maarten W. A.; Lankhorst, Marc M.

    2012-05-01

    This article describes an architecture-based approach to IT valuation. This approach offers organisations an instrument to valuate their application and project portfolios and to make well-balanced decisions about IT investments. The value of a software application is assessed in terms of its contribution to a selection of business goals. Based on such assessments, the value of different applications can be compared, and requirements for innovation, development, maintenance and phasing out can be identified. IT projects are proposed to realise the requirements. The value of each project is assessed in terms of the value it adds to one or more applications. This value can be obtained by relating the 'as-is' application portfolio to the 'to-be' portfolio that is being proposed by the project portfolio. In this way, projects can be ranked according to their added value, given a certain selection of business goals. The approach uses ArchiMate to model the relationship between software applications, business processes, services and products. In addition, two language extensions are used to model the relationship of these elements to business goals and requirements and to projects and project portfolios. The approach is illustrated using the portfolio method of Bedell and has been implemented in BiZZdesign Architect.

  18. Thalamic sensitization transforms localized pain into widespread allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Rami; Jakubowski, Moshe; Garcia-Nicas, Esther; Kainz, Vanessa; Bajwa, Zahid; Hargreaves, Richard; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2010-07-01

    Focal somatic pain can evolve into widespread hypersensitivity to nonpainful and painful skin stimuli (allodynia and hyperalgesia, respectively). We hypothesized that transformation of headache into whole-body allodynia/hyperalgesia during a migraine attack is mediated by sensitization of thalamic neurons that process converging sensory impulses from the cranial meninges and extracephalic skin. Extracephalic allodynia was assessed using single unit recording of thalamic trigeminovascular neurons in rats and contrast analysis of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals registered in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of patients exhibiting extracephalic allodynia. Sensory neurons in the rat posterior thalamus that were activated and sensitized by chemical stimulation of the cranial dura exhibited long-lasting hyperexcitability to innocuous (brush, pressure) and noxious (pinch, heat) stimulation of the paws. Innocuous, extracephalic skin stimuli that did not produce neuronal firing at baseline (eg, brush) became as effective as noxious stimuli (eg, pinch) in eliciting large bouts of neuronal firing after sensitization was established. In migraine patients, fMRI assessment of BOLD signals showed that brush and heat stimulation at the skin of the dorsum of the hand produced larger BOLD responses in the posterior thalamus of subjects undergoing a migraine attack with extracephalic allodynia than the corresponding responses registered when the same patients were free of migraine and allodynia. We propose that the spreading of multimodal allodynia and hyperalgesia beyond the locus of migraine headache is mediated by sensitized thalamic neurons that process nociceptive information from the cranial meninges together with sensory information from the skin of the scalp, face, body, and limbs.

  19. Astrocytes potentiate GABAergic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus via endozepine signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Catherine A.; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) mediates an endogenous benzodiazepine-mimicking (endozepine) effect on synaptic inhibition in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT). Here we demonstrate that DBI peptide colocalizes with both astrocytic and neuronal markers in mouse nRT, and investigate the role of astrocytic function in endozepine modulation in this nucleus by testing the effects of the gliotoxin fluorocitrate (FC) on synaptic inhibition and endozepine signaling in the nRT using patch-clamp recordings. FC treatment reduced the effective inhibitory charge of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in WT mice, indicating that astrocytes enhance GABAAR responses in the nRT. This effect was abolished by both a point mutation that inhibits classical benzodiazepine binding to GABAARs containing the α3 subunit (predominant in the nRT) and a chromosomal deletion that removes the Dbi gene. Thus, astrocytes are required for positive allosteric modulation via the α3 subunit benzodiazepine-binding site by DBI peptide family endozepines. Outside-out sniffer patches pulled from neurons in the adjacent ventrobasal nucleus, which does not contain endozepines, show a potentiated response to laser photostimulation of caged GABA when placed in the nRT. FC treatment blocked the nRT-dependent potentiation of this response, as did the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil. When sniffer patches were placed in the ventrobasal nucleus, however, subsequent treatment with FC led to potentiation of the uncaged GABA response, suggesting nucleus-specific roles for thalamic astrocytes in regulating inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that astrocytes are required for endozepine actions in the nRT, and as such can be positive modulators of synaptic inhibition. PMID:24262146

  20. Functions and requirements for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford Site tank waste supernatants will be pretreated to separate the low-level and high-level fractions. The low-level waste fraction, containing the bulk of the chemical constituents, must be processed into a vitrified waste product which will be disposed of onsite, in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost effective manner. The high-level waste fraction separated during supernatant pretreatment (primarily cesium) will be recombined with an additional high-level waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-level waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository. The purpose of this document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module, by defining the level 5 and 6 functions and requirements for the project. A functional analysis approach has been used to break down the program functions and associated physical requirements that each function must meet. As the systems engineering process evolves, the design requirements document will replace this preliminary functions and requirements document. The design requirements document (DRD) will identify key decisions and associated uncertainties that impact the project. A revision of this document to a DRD is not expected to change the performance requirements or open issues. However, additional requirements and issues may be identified

  1. Structural requirements of research tissue banks derived from standardized project surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpel, E; Koleganova, N; Schreiber, B; Walter, B; Kalle, C V; Schirmacher, P

    2012-07-01

    Tissue banks constitute decisive and rate-limiting resource and technology platforms for basic and translational biomedical research, notably in the area of cancer. Thus, it is essential to plan and structure tissue banking and allocate resources according to research needs, but essential requirements are still incompletely defined. The tissue bank of the National Center of Tumor Diseases Heidelberg (NCT) was founded with the intention to provide tissues of optimal quality and to prioritize the realization of research projects. We analysed its structure and prospective project management registration as well as tracking records for all projects of the NCT tissue bank as of its start in 2005 in order to obtain information that may be relevant for tissue bank planning. All project proposals submitted to the NCT tissue bank (n = 681) were included in the study. For a detailed evaluation of provided services, only projects that were completed until July 2011 (n = 605) were analysed. For these 605 projects, NCT tissue bank provided 769 specific services. In all projects/services, we recorded project leader, type and amount of material provided, type of research (basic/translational), work load of project and project completion. Furthermore, all completed projects were tracked after 90 days according to a standard protocol to determine principal investigators' (PI) satisfaction and quality of the provided material. Until July 2011, 605 projects had been successfully completed as documented by material transfer agreement. Of the projects, 72.7 % addressed basic research, 22.3 % were translational research projects and 3 % concerned epidemiological research; 91 % (n = 546) concerned a single PI and the NTC tissue bank. For these projects, 769 specific services were provided. Of these services, 288 concerned providing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue (extracts, full size sections), 126 providing fresh frozen materials (including fresh frozen

  2. Synesthetic art through 3-D projection: The requirements of a computer-based supermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallary, Robert

    1989-01-01

    A computer-based form of multimedia art is proposed that uses the computer to fuse aspects of painting, sculpture, dance, music, film, and other media into a one-to-one synthesia of image and sound for spatially synchronous 3-D projection. Called synesthetic art, this conversion of many varied media into an aesthetically unitary experience determines the character and requirements of the system and its software. During the start-up phase, computer stereographic systems are unsuitable for software development. Eventually, a new type of illusory-projective supermedium will be required to achieve the needed combination of large-format projection and convincing real life presence, and to handle the vast amount of 3-D visual and acoustic information required. The influence of the concept on the author's research and creative work is illustrated through two examples.

  3. AN APPROACH TO REDUCE THE STORAGE REQUIREMENT FOR BIOMETRIC DATA IN AADHAR PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AADHAR is an Indian Government Project to provide unique identification to each Citizen of India. The objective of the project is to collect all the personal details and the biometric traits from each individual. Biometric traits such as iris, face and fingerprint are being collected for authentication. All the information will be stored in a centralized data repository. Considering about the storage requirement for the biometric data of the entire population of India, approximately 20,218 TB of storage space will be required. Since 10 fingerprint data are stored, fingerprint details will take most of the space. In this paper, the storage requirement for the biometric data in the AADHAR project is analyzed and a method is proposed to reduce the storage by cropping the original biometric image before storing. This method can reduce the storage space of the biometric data drastically. All the measurements given in this paper are approximate only.

  4. How to scope configuration projects and manage the knowledge they require

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to explore the use of the knowledge management (KM) perspective for configuration projects. Configuration projects implement configurators as information technology systems that help companies manage the specification process of customised products. An effective method...... of retrieving and formalising knowledge for configurators is essential, because it can reduce the risk of unsuccessful implementation and the time and effort required for development. Unfortunately, no standard KM frameworks are available specifically for configuration projects. This study identifies...... the knowledge necessary for different phases of a configuration project (which knowledge, for what purpose and from what sources), examines how it is transformed during a configuration project (what KM activities and tools are used) and establishes how the knowledge can be documented for future maintenance...

  5. Requirement Volatility, Standardization and Knowledge Integration in Software Projects: An Empirical Analysis on Outsourced IS Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesri Govindaraju

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information systems development (ISD projects are highly complex, with different groups of people having  to collaborate and exchange their knowledge. Considering the intensity of knowledge exchange that takes place in outsourced ISD projects, in this study a conceptual model was developed, aiming to examine the influence of four antecedents, i.e. standardization, requirement volatility, internal integration, and external integration, on two dependent variables, i.e. process performance and product performance. Data  were collected from 46 software companies in four big cities in Indonesia. The collected data were examined to verify the proposed theoretical model using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM technique. The results show that process performance is significantly influenced by internal integration and standardization, while product performance is  significantly influenced by external integration and  requirement volatility. This study contributes  to a better understanding of how knowledge integration can be managed in outsourced ISD projects in view of increasing their success.

  6. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  7. Chemical anatomy of the human paraventricular thalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, Victoria; Prensa, Lucía; Giménez-Amaya, José Manuel

    2004-03-01

    The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (Pa) lies in the most medial aspect of the thalamus and is considered one of the midline thalamic nuclei. In the present study, we carried out histochemical and immunohistochemical procedures in the Pa of normal individuals to visualize the pattern of distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin D-28k (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP), substance P (SP), and enkephalin (ENK). Other cytoarchitectural and myeloarchitectural techniques, such as Nissl and Gallyas, were also employed to delineate the boundaries of the Pa. The main findings of this study are: 1) AChE staining in the Pa was heterogeneously distributed along its anteroposterior and mediolateral axes; 2) the Pa harbored numerous CB- and CR-immunoreactive (ir) cells and neuropil, but this nucleus was largely devoid of PV; 3) the Pa was highly enriched in LAMP and this protein appeared uniformly distributed through its whole extent; and, 4) the SP and ENK immunoreactivities in the Pa revealed numerous highly varicose fibers scattered throughout this nucleus, but no stained cells. This morphological study demonstrates that the Pa is a heterogeneous chemical structure in humans. The functional significance of these results is discussed in the light of similar data gathered in several mammalian species. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism in thalamic hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Ken

    1987-12-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were studied in 20 cases of thalamic hemorrhage using positron CT and /sup 15/O labeled gas steady-state inhalation method. CBF reduction was limited around the thalamus in the small sized hematoma. CBF were significantly diminished in the mean cortical, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and thalamic area ipsilateral and cerebellar cortex contralateral to the medium sized hematoma. There was bilateral and diffuse CBF reduction in the large sized hematoma which was caused by increased intracranial pressure. CMRO/sub 2/ value were similary changed as CBF. OEF change showed within normal limit. Diffuse CBV reduction was observed in the large sized hematoma. This reduction was the result of decreased vascular bed caused by mass effect of the hematoma and hydrocephalus. Effect of surgical treatment such as ventricular drainage and hematoma evacuation were also discussed in correlation to CBF in some case using positron and single photon ECT.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel project multi-canister overpack, additional NRC requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), established in the K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Regulatory Policy, dated August 4, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the Policy), the requirement for new Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities to achieve nuclear safety equivalency to comparable US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facilities. For activities other than during transport, when the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) is used and resides in the Canister Storage Building (CSB), Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility or Hot Conditioning System, additional NRC requirements will also apply to the MCO based on the safety functions it performs and its interfaces with the SNF Project facilities. An evaluation was performed in consideration of the MCO safety functions to identify any additional NRC requirements needed, in combination with the existing and applicable DOE requirements, to establish nuclear safety equivalency for the MCO. The background, basic safety issues and general comparison of NRC and DOE requirements for the SNF Project are presented in WHC-SD-SNF-DB-002

  10. Preliminary design requirements document (DRD) for Project W-236B, ''Initial Pretreatment Module''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to separate Hanford Site tank waste supernatants into low-level and high-level fractions. This documents sets forth function requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). System and physical interfaces between the IPM project and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. Supplemental DRDs will be prepared to provide more detailed requirements specific to systems described in the DRD

  11. Structuring Requirements in a Multi-Project Environment in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Being in control of requirements in building projects is vital, since it helps securing the often small profit margins and the reputation of the responsible company. Hence this research aims to introduce requirements management to the construction industry. By means of case study and action...... research conducted at a Danish construction syndicate producing sandwich elements made from High Performance Concrete and insulation materials it is demonstrated that requirements management successfully can be used in construction. Since requirements management as of today has not found its use...... that the application of requirements management with gain can be extended to cover entire life cycles as e.g. the life cycle of a building. This is done by proposing a requirements structure that attempts to consider future events. The proposed structure is divided into the areas: company, technology, product platform...

  12. 75 FR 41875 - Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... is used to determine if key principals are acceptable and have the ability to manage the development... principals are acceptable and have the ability to manage the development, construction, completion, and... Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD...

  13. Agile requirements prioritization in large-scale outsourced system projects: an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; van der Veen, Egbert; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Ghaisas, Smita; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Kumar, Ramesh; Ajmen, Nirav; Ramteerthkar, Uday; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    The application of agile practices for requirements prioritization in distributed and outsourced projects is a relatively recent trend. Hence, not all of its facets are well-understood. This exploratory study sets out to uncover the concepts that practitioners in a large software organization use in

  14. Projected irrigation requirements for upland crops using soil moisture model under climate change in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in abnormal climate change patterns and unsustainable irrigation in uplands cause drought and affect agricultural water security, crop productivity, and price fluctuations. In this study, we developed a soil moisture model to project irrigation requirements (IR) for upland crops under cl...

  15. A Quantitative Study of Global Software Development Teams, Requirements, and Software Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Linda L.

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between global software development teams, effective software requirements, and stakeholders' perception of successful software development projects within the field of information technology management. It examined the critical relationship between Global Software Development (GSD) teams creating effective…

  16. Effects of donepezil on behavioural manifestations of thalamic infarction: a single case observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eRiveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of donepezil for the treatment of cognitive and behavioural disorders associated with thalamic lesions in a 45 years old male who suffered an infarct in the left thalamus. Background: Recent studies suggest that donepezil may improve executive functions impairments due to subcortical ischemic lesionsMethod: The crossover effects of donepezil were analyzed in a single case of thalamic infarction with cognitive and behavioural alterations. Results: Significant behavioural modifications related to improved performances in executive functions were observed with the treatment. Conclusions: The results suggest that donepezil may have significant effect on executive functions that can alter behavioural outcomes after thalamic infarctions

  17. Mobile health systems for bipolar disorder: the relevance of non-functional requirements in MONARCA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayora, Oscar; Frost, Mads; Arnrich, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a series of challenges for developing mobile health solutions for mental health as a result of MONARCA project three-year activities. The lessons learnt on the design, development and evaluation of a mobile health system for supporting the treatment of bipolar disorder....... The findings presented here are the result of over 3 years of activity within the MONARCA EU project. The challenges listed and detailed in this paper may be used in future research as a starting point for identifying important non-functional requirements involved in mobile health provisioning...... that are fundamental for the successful implementation of mobile health services in real life contexts....

  18. Thalamic Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Orthostatic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Lehn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT was first described in 1977. It is characterized by rapid tremor of 13–18 Hz and can be recorded in the lower limbs and trunk muscles. OT remains difficult to treat, although some success has been reported with deep brain stimulation (DBS.Case Report: We report a 68-year-old male with OT who did not improve significantly after bilateral thalamic stimulation.Discussion: Although some patients were described who improved after DBS surgery, more information is needed about the effect of these treatment modalities on OT, ideally in the form of randomized trial data. 

  19. Severe personality changes after unilateral left paramedian thalamic infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Toshio; Akada, Koichi; Ito, Shoichi; Okuda, Tomoko; Ueki, Yoshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Personality changes are not uncommon after paramedian thalamic infarction, but usually bilateral or relatively large lesions, often complicated by other neurological or neuropsychological deficits, are present. 'Pure' cases of unilateral lesions are extremely rare. We report that a right-handed, 48-year-old man, who was hypertensive and diabetic but had no prior psychiatric history, developed severe personality changes and a frontal-like syndrome after recovery from acute-onset impairment of consciousness at the age of 43. Other neurological and neuropsychological disturbances, especially verbal and visual amnesia, were unremarkable. MRI showed a very small infarct in the left paramedian area of the thalamus, mainly involving the dorsomedial nucleus. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Accuracy of MRI-guided stereotactic thalamic functional neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, G.; Magnin, M.; Morel, A.; Jeanmonod, D.; Sartoretti, S.; Huisman, T.; Tuncdogan, E.; Meier, D.

    1999-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy of stereotactic technique using MRI in thalamic functional neurosurgery. A phantom study was designed to estimate errors due to MRI distortion. Stereotactic mechanical accuracy was assessed with the Suetens-Gybels-Vandermeulen (SGV) angiographic localiser. Three-dimensional MRI reconstructions of 86 therapeutic lesions were performed. Their co-ordinates were corrected from adjustments based on peroperative electrophysiological data and compared to those planned. MR image distortion (maximum: 1 mm) and chemical shift of petroleum oil-filled localiser rods (2.2 mm) induced an anterior target displacement of 2.6 mm (at a field strength of 1.5 T, frequency encoding bandwidth of 187.7 kHz, on T1-weighted images). The average absolute error of the stereotactic material was 0.7 mm for anteroposterior (AP), 0.5 mm for mediolateral (ML) and 0.8 mm for dorsoventral (DV) co-ordinates (maximal absolute errors: 1.6 mm, 2.2 mm and 1.7 mm, respectively; mean euclidean error: 1 mm). Three-dimensional MRI reconstructions showed an average absolute error of 0.8 mm, 0.9 mm and 1.9 mm in AP, ML and DV co-ordinates, respectively (maximal absolute errors: 2.4 mm, 2.7 mm and 5.7 mm, respectively; mean euclidean error: 2.3 mm). MRI distortion and chemical-shift errors must be determined by a phantom study and then compensated for. The most likely explanation for an average absolute error of 1.9 mm in the DV plane is displacement of the brain under the pressure of the penetrating electrode. When this displacement is corrected for by microelectrode recordings and stimulation data, MRI offers a high degree of accuracy and reliability for thalamic stereotaxy. (orig.)

  1. Accuracy of MRI-guided stereotactic thalamic functional neurosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, G.; Magnin, M.; Morel, A.; Jeanmonod, D. [Laboratory for Functional Neurosurgery, Neurosurgical Clinic, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Sartoretti, S.; Huisman, T.; Tuncdogan, E. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Meier, D. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Informatics, University and ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-09-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy of stereotactic technique using MRI in thalamic functional neurosurgery. A phantom study was designed to estimate errors due to MRI distortion. Stereotactic mechanical accuracy was assessed with the Suetens-Gybels-Vandermeulen (SGV) angiographic localiser. Three-dimensional MRI reconstructions of 86 therapeutic lesions were performed. Their co-ordinates were corrected from adjustments based on peroperative electrophysiological data and compared to those planned. MR image distortion (maximum: 1 mm) and chemical shift of petroleum oil-filled localiser rods (2.2 mm) induced an anterior target displacement of 2.6 mm (at a field strength of 1.5 T, frequency encoding bandwidth of 187.7 kHz, on T1-weighted images). The average absolute error of the stereotactic material was 0.7 mm for anteroposterior (AP), 0.5 mm for mediolateral (ML) and 0.8 mm for dorsoventral (DV) co-ordinates (maximal absolute errors: 1.6 mm, 2.2 mm and 1.7 mm, respectively; mean euclidean error: 1 mm). Three-dimensional MRI reconstructions showed an average absolute error of 0.8 mm, 0.9 mm and 1.9 mm in AP, ML and DV co-ordinates, respectively (maximal absolute errors: 2.4 mm, 2.7 mm and 5.7 mm, respectively; mean euclidean error: 2.3 mm). MRI distortion and chemical-shift errors must be determined by a phantom study and then compensated for. The most likely explanation for an average absolute error of 1.9 mm in the DV plane is displacement of the brain under the pressure of the penetrating electrode. When this displacement is corrected for by microelectrode recordings and stimulation data, MRI offers a high degree of accuracy and reliability for thalamic stereotaxy. (orig.)

  2. Accuracy of MRI-guided stereotactic thalamic functional neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, G; Magnin, M; Morel, A; Sartoretti, S; Huisman, T; Tuncdogan, E; Meier, D; Jeanmonod, D

    1999-09-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy of stereotactic technique using MRI in thalamic functional neurosurgery. A phantom study was designed to estimate errors due to MRI distortion. Stereotactic mechanical accuracy was assessed with the Suetens-Gybels-Vandermeulen (SGV) angiographic localiser. Three-dimensional MRI reconstructions of 86 therapeutic lesions were performed. Their co-ordinates were corrected from adjustments based on peroperative electrophysiological data and compared to those planned. MR image distortion (maximum: 1 mm) and chemical shift of petroleum oil-filled localiser rods (2.2 mm) induced an anterior target displacement of 2.6 mm (at a field strength of 1.5 T, frequency encoding bandwidth of 187.7 kHz, on T1-weighted images). The average absolute error of the stereotactic material was 0.7 mm for anteroposterior (AP), 0.5 mm for mediolateral (ML) and 0.8 mm for dorsoventral (DV) co-ordinates (maximal absolute errors: 1.6 mm, 2.2 mm and 1.7 mm, respectively; mean euclidean error: 1 mm). Three-dimensional MRI reconstructions showed an average absolute error of 0.8 mm, 0.9 mm and 1.9 mm in AP, ML and DV co-ordinates, respectively (maximal absolute errors: 2.4 mm, 2.7 mm and 5.7 mm, respectively; mean euclidean error: 2.3 mm). MRI distortion and chemical-shift errors must be determined by a phantom study and then compensated for. The most likely explanation for an average absolute error of 1.9 mm in the DV plane is displacement of the brain under the pressure of the penetrating electrode. When this displacement is corrected for by microelectrode recordings and stimulation data, MRI offers a high degree of accuracy and reliability for thalamic stereotaxy.

  3. Oscillatory synchrony between head direction cells recorded bilaterally in the anterodorsal thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William N; Taube, Jeffrey S

    2017-05-01

    The head direction (HD) circuit is a complex interconnected network of brain regions ranging from the brain stem to the cortex. Recent work found that HD cells corecorded ipsilaterally in the anterodorsal nucleus (ADN) of the thalamus displayed coordinated firing patterns. A high-frequency oscillation pattern (130-160 Hz) was visible in the cross-correlograms of these HD cell pairs. Spectral analysis further found that the power of this oscillation was greatest at 0 ms and decreased at greater lags, and demonstrated that there was greater synchrony between HD cells with similar preferred firing directions. Here, we demonstrate that the same high-frequency synchrony exists in HD cell pairs recorded contralaterally from one another in the bilateral ADN. When we examined the cross-correlograms of HD cells that were corecorded bilaterally, we observed the same high-frequency (~150- to 200-Hz) oscillatory relationship. The strength of this synchrony was similar to the synchrony seen in ipsilateral HD cell pairs, and the degree of synchrony in each cross-correlogram was dependent on the difference in tuning between the two cells. Additionally, the frequency rate of this oscillation appeared to be independent of the firing rates of the two cross-correlated cells. Taken together, these results imply that the left and right thalamic HD network are functionally related despite an absence of direct anatomical projections. However, anatomical tracing has found that each of the lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) project bilaterally to both of the ADN, suggesting the LMN may be responsible for the functional connectivity observed between the two ADN. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study used bilateral recording electrodes to examine whether head direction cells recorded simultaneously in both the left and right thalamus show coordinated firing. Cross-correlations of the cells' spike trains revealed a high-frequency oscillatory pattern similar to that seen in cross-correlations between pairs

  4. TA-55 facility control system upgrade project - human-system interface functional requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.H.; Pope, N.G.; Turner, W.J.; Brown, R.E.

    1995-11-01

    The functional requirements for that part of the Technical Area (TA)-55 Operations Center Upgrade Project that involves the human-system interface (HSI) are described in this document. The upgrade project seeks to replace completely the center's existing computerized data acquisition and display system, which consists of the field multiplexer units, Data General computer systems, and associated peripherals and software. The upgrade project has two parts-the Facility Data Acquisition Interface System (FDAIS) and the HSI. The HSI comprises software and hardware to provide a high-level graphical operator interface to the data acquisition system, as well as data archiving, alarm annunciation, and logging. The new system will be built with modern, commercially available components; it will improve reliability and maintainability, and it can be expanded for future needs

  5. Meeting the requirements for a DOE environmental restoration project. The Fernald strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanoss, R.L.; Risenhoover, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) of five Operable Units (OU) at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) includes compliance with the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE Orders. Each regulatory driver has differing procedural requirements for documenting calculations, decisions, and actions involved in site cleanup. Integration of documentation and avoidance of duplication can save time and money. Such savings are being achieved by OU specific application of supporting studies, revised procedures, and guidance documents. Each OU is seeking appropriate opportunities to produce single documents that simultaneously fulfill the important requirements of the other regulations and DOE orders. These opportunities are evaluated at all phases of decision making, remedial design, and remedial action. Three essential processes precede environmental restoration/remedial action at a DOE site/project: 1. Completion of decision-making documents required by governing or applicable statutes. 2. Completion of important scientific and engineering analyses of remedial alternatives, and design and implementation of the remedial solution established in the CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD). 3. Preparation of DOE-mandated documentation to record engineering evaluations and cost estimates required for budgeting, decision making, and project management. Methodology and requirements for each process have developed from long, successful practice, but independently of each other. FERMCO, as new DOE contractor at Fernald and first Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC), is committed to a process of Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI). A major reevaluation of documentation and processes for support of environmental decision-making and design of cleanup activities to remediate the five OUs at the FEMP is being undertaken

  6. [ACCOMPANY THE LEARNING OF INTERPROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION: A REQUIRED REFLEXIVE GOVERNANCE OF THE TRAINING PROJECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiguier, Grégory; Poirette, Sabine; Pélissier, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive care for patients in hospital requires a collective practice of care. Interprofessional collaboration becomes a major issue for organizations of care but also for health schools. This text questions the pedagogical practices that promote an effective interprofessional collaboration of actors in caregiving situation. Theoretical reflection will lead to consider interprofessionality education as a collective learning process actors and organizations. Therefore, this learning must necessarily supported by an inter-institutional project (the care and training institutions) making this a common learning problems and requiring a reflective governance. The presentation of an inter-institutional learning project currently experienced and dedicated to interprofessional collaboration in the geriatric field will illustrate the point. It will present the activities of educational intervention and research-intervention performed by a group of actors (caregivers, health trainers and researchers in health ethics and pedagogy) responsible for ensuring the reflective control.

  7. Resting-state thalamic dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and relationships with symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, J; Ford, J M; Roach, B J; Turner, J A; van Erp, T G; Voyvodic, J; Preda, A; Belger, A; Bustillo, J; O'Leary, D; Mueller, B A; Lim, K O; McEwen, S C; Calhoun, V D; Diaz, M; Glover, G; Greve, D; Wible, C G; Vaidya, J G; Potkin, S G; Mathalon, D H

    2018-02-15

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted connectivity within the thalamic-cortico-cerebellar network. Resting-state functional connectivity studies have reported thalamic hypoconnectivity with the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex as well as thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory cortical regions in SZ patients compared with healthy comparison participants (HCs). However, fundamental questions remain regarding the clinical significance of these connectivity abnormalities. Resting state seed-based functional connectivity was used to investigate thalamus to whole brain connectivity using multi-site data including 183 SZ patients and 178 matched HCs. Statistical significance was based on a voxel-level FWE-corrected height threshold of p hyperconnectivity with sensory regions and hypoconnectivity with cerebellar regions in combination with their relationship to clinical features of SZ suggest that thalamic dysconnectivity may be a core neurobiological feature of SZ that underpins positive symptoms.

  8. A Systematic Mapping on Supporting Approaches for Requirements Traceability in the Context of Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCHER, P R.C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Requirements Traceability is seen as a quality factor with regard to software development, being present in standards and quality models. In this context, several techniques, models, frameworks and tools have been used to support it. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a systematic mapping carried out in order to find in the literature approaches to support the requirements traceability in the context of software projects and make the categorization of the data found in order to demonstrate, by means of a reliable, accurate and auditable method, how this area has developed and what are the main approaches are used to implement it.

  9. Derivation of nutrient requirements for disaster-affected populations: Sphere Project 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Andrew; Thurstans, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional requirements have been previously calculated for emergency-affected populations and are widely used for planning and assessing the nutritional adequacy of humanitarian food assistance. The Sphere Project is an interagency collaboration that defines minimum standards and indicators for humanitarian responses, including food and nutrition. It last published population nutritional requirements in 2004, but a revision was required due to the release of new Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO). To review and revise the list of specified nutrients and recalculate population requirements using RNIs published by WHO/FAO. Review of published normative documents, consultation with experts and participants in the Sphere revision process, construction of a reference demographic profile, and calculation of population nutrient requirements for use in designing emergency general rations. Twenty-one nutrients and energy were selected for inclusion, and a demographic profile was constructed to represent a typical beneficiary population. Compared with the previous version of the Sphere Handbook, population requirements for nine vitamins and minerals were found to have increased as a result of the new WHO/FAO RNIs. The calculated requirements were adopted and published as part of the Sphere 2011 Handbook. The incorporation of these requirements into planning, monitoring, and evaluation practices for food assistance will help to ensure that populations receive appropriate nutritional support during crises.

  10. Application of Total Quality Management (TQM Requirements in Risk Management in Construction Projects in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entisar K. Al-Geelawee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total quality management considers one of the modern scientific entrances which practiced by productivity service organizations alike to provide appropriate quality required outputs according to the needs and desires of customers manage , enable the organization seeking to continue and grow in light of the increasing competition from the satisfy and provide the appropriate total quality management requirements whenever led to face risks that they may have in a manner in which they can be addressed and find ways to avoid them in the future when repeated. The research has consist of two main parts firstly have included a review of the most important concepts of total quality management in addition to the concept of risk analysis and management in construction projects and how to apply the concept of total quality management in the risk analysis and management. Second part included the practical part of the research, which was open and closed questionnaire for experts in the construction industry to obtain required informations for the application of total quality management requirements in risk management in construction projects in Iraq. One of the main findings of the research is that top management support has a high impact on risk management in addition to continuous improvement, training and education, while the participation of all employees in the organization and constant stimulation and focusing on the customer as one of the total quality management requirements had a moderate impact on risk management.

  11. Supplmental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage: Phase 5, Project W-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    This Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) is used to communicate Project W-113 specific plant design information from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the cognizant Architect Engineer (A/E). The SDRD is prepared after the completion of the project Conceptual Design report (CDR) and prior to the initiation of definitive design. Information in the SDRD serves two purposes: to convey design requirements that are too detailed for inclusion in the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) report and to serve as a means of change control for design commitments in the Title I and Title II design. The Solid Waste Retrieval Project (W-113) SDRD has been restructured from the equipment based outline used in previous SDRDs to a functional systems outline. This was done to facilitate identification of deficiencies in the information provided in the initial draft SDRD and aid design confirmation. The format and content of this SDRD adhere as closely as practicable to the requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices for Functional Design Criteria

  12. Thalamic stimulation to improve level of consciousness after seizures: evaluation of electrophysiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Motelow, Joshua E; Smith, Nicholas; Zhan, Qiong; Schiff, Nicholas D; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms that support human consciousness is an important frontier in neuroscience and medicine. We previously developed a rodent model of temporal lobe seizures that recapitulates the human electroencephalography (EEG) signature of ictal and postictal neocortical slow waves associated with behavioral impairments in level of consciousness. The mechanism of slow-wave production in epilepsy may involve suppression of the subcortical arousal systems including the brainstem and intralaminar thalamic nuclei. We hypothesized that intralaminar thalamic stimulation may lead to electrophysiologic and functional rescue from postictal slow waves and behavioral arrest. We electrically stimulated the central lateral thalamic nucleus (a member of the intralaminar nuclei) under anesthesia and after electrically induced hippocampal seizures in anesthetized and in awake-behaving animal model preparations. We demonstrated a proof-of-principle restoration of electrophysiologic and behavioral measures of consciousness by stimulating the intralaminar thalamic nuclei after seizures. We measured decreased cortical slow waves and increased desynchronization and multiunit activity in the cortex with thalamic stimulation following seizures. Functionally, thalamic stimulation produced resumption of exploratory behaviors in the postictal state. Targeting of nodes in the neural circuitry of consciousness has important medical implications. Impaired consciousness with epilepsy has dangerous consequences including decreased school/work performance, social stigmatization, and impaired airway protection. These data suggest a novel therapeutic approach for restoring consciousness after seizures. If paired with responsive neurostimulation, this may allow rapid implementation to improve level of consciousness in patients with epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Pathways for Emotions: Specializations in the Amygdalar, Mediodorsal Thalamic, and Posterior Orbitofrontal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Clare; Barbas, Helen

    2015-08-26

    The primate amygdala projects to posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) directly and possibly indirectly through a pathway to the magnocellular mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDmc), which may convey signals about the significance of stimuli. However, because MDmc receives input from structures in addition to the amygdala and MDmc projects to areas in addition to pOFC, it is unknown whether amygdalar pathways in MDmc innervate pOFC-bound neurons. We addressed this issue using double- or triple-labeling approaches to identify pathways and key cellular and molecular features in rhesus monkeys. We found that amygdalar terminations innervated labeled neurons in MDmc that project to pOFC. Projection neurons in MDmc directed to pOFC included comparatively fewer "core" parvalbumin neurons that project focally to the middle cortical layers and more "matrix" calbindin neurons that project expansively to the upper cortical layers. In addition, a small and hitherto unknown pathway originated from MDmc calretinin neurons and projected to pOFC. Further, whereas projection neurons directed to MDmc and to pOFC were intermingled in the amygdala, none projected to both structures. Larger amygdalar neurons projected to MDmc and expressed the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), which is found in highly efficient "driver" pathways. In contrast, smaller amygdalar neurons directed to pOFC expressed VGLUT1 found in modulatory pathways. The indirect pathway from the amygdala to pOFC via MDmc may provide information about the emotional significance of events and, along with a parallel direct pathway, ensures transfer of signals to all layers of pOFC. The amygdala-the brain's center for emotions-is strongly linked with the orbital cortex, a region associated with social interactions. This study provides evidence that a robust pathway from the amygdala reaches neurons in the thalamus that link directly with the orbital cortex, forming a tight tripartite network. The dual pathways from

  14. 75 FR 67966 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... crane rail, according to the project specifications, must be designed by a qualified supplier. The... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9220-4] Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy... Region 6 is hereby granting a project waiver of the Buy American requirements of ARRA Section 1605 under...

  15. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 570 - Guidelines and Objectives for Evaluating Project Costs and Financial Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... processing loans, many private financial lenders do not finance commercial projects that are less than $100... market share and revenue projections and has downplayed its profits. ii. In addition to the financial... Evaluating Project Costs and Financial Requirements A Appendix A to Part 570 Housing and Urban Development...

  16. Understanding quality requirements engineering in contract-based projects from the perspective of software architects: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maya; Herrmann, Andrea; Buglione, Luigi; Mistrik, Ivan; Bahsoon, Rami; Eeles, Peter; Roshandel, Roshanak; Stal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses how software architects from 21 European project organizations cope with quality requirements (QRs) in large, contract-based systems delivery projects. It reports on the roles that architects played in QRs engineering, their interactions with other project roles, the specific

  17. RGMDV: An approach to requirements gathering and the management of data virtualization projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ayad Hameed; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada; Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu

    2015-12-01

    Data virtualization (DV) refers to a set of data stores that enable users to query, access, and manipulate data in a unified, abstracted, and encapsulated manner regardless of data location. Apart from reducing data movement, this system provides a unified, abstracted, real-time, and encapsulated view of information for query purposes. Through its provision of live, virtual data in a timely manner, the DV technique can overcome the obstacles faced by organizations and companies as a result of using other data integration techniques. The systematic planning for the period that precedes DV deployment enables organizations to avoid many challenges related to manageability, usability, data quality, and performance. DV requirements are among the most significant and challenging aspects of a DV project. In this study, an approach has been developed to gather and manage the requirements of a DV design model as an initial step in developing such projects. Expert methods are reviewed to validate and evaluate the proposed approach in terms of usability and related components; the results of this review demonstrate that the applied approaches benefit DV development projects.

  18. Age at First Exposure to Repetitive Head Impacts Is Associated with Smaller Thalamic Volumes in Former Professional American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Vivian; Stern, Robert A; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie; Wrobel, Pawel; Lepage, Christian; Weir, Isabelle; Guenette, Jeffrey P; Chua, Alicia; Alosco, Michael L; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine E; Coleman, Michael J; Lin, Alexander P; Pasternak, Ofer; Shenton, Martha E; Koerte, Inga K

    2018-01-15

    Thalamic atrophy has been associated with exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI) in professional fighters. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not age at first exposure (AFE) to RHI is associated with thalamic volume in symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Eighty-six symptomatic former NFL players (mean age = 54.9 ± 7.9 years) were included. T1-weighted data were acquired on a 3T magnetic resonance imager, and thalamic volumes were derived using FreeSurfer. Mood and behavior, psychomotor speed, and visual and verbal memory were assessed. The association between thalamic volume and AFE to playing football and to number of years playing was calculated. Decreased thalamic volume was associated with more years of play (left: p = 0.03; right: p = 0.03). Younger AFE was associated with decreased right thalamic volume (p = 0.014). This association remained significant after adjusting for total years of play. Decreased left thalamic volume was associated with worse visual memory (p = 0.014), whereas increased right thalamic volume was associated with fewer mood and behavior symptoms (p = 0.003). In our sample of symptomatic former NFL players at risk for CTE, total years of play and AFE were associated with decreased thalamic volume. The effect of AFE on right thalamic volume was almost twice as strong as the effect of total years of play. Our findings confirm previous reports of an association between thalamic volume and exposure to RHI. They suggest further that younger AFE may result in smaller thalamic volume later in life.

  19. The thalamic reticular nucleus: structure, function and concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Didier

    2004-08-01

    On the basis of theoretical, anatomical, psychological and physiological considerations, Francis Crick (1984) proposed that, during selective attention, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls the internal attentional searchlight that simultaneously highlights all the neural circuits called on by the object of attention. In other words, he submitted that during either perception, or the preparation and execution of any cognitive and/or motor task, the TRN sets all the corresponding thalamocortical (TC) circuits in motion. Over the last two decades, behavioural, electrophysiological, anatomical and neurochemical findings have been accumulating, supporting the complex nature of the TRN and raising questions about the validity of this speculative hypothesis. Indeed, our knowledge of the actual functioning of the TRN is still sprinkled with unresolved questions. Therefore, the time has come to join forces and discuss some recent cellular and network findings concerning this diencephalic GABAergic structure, which plays important roles during various states of consciousness. On the whole, the present critical survey emphasizes the TRN's complexity, and provides arguments combining anatomy, physiology and cognitive psychology.

  20. Reduced thalamic and pontine connectivity in Kleine-Levin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eEngström

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare sleep disorder, characterized by exceptionally long sleep episodes. The neuropathology of the syndrome is unknown and treatment is often inadequate. The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the underlying neuropathology, related to cerebral networks, in Kleine-Levin syndrome during sleep episodes. One patient with Kleine-Levin syndrome and congenital nystagmus, was investigated by resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during both asymptomatic and hypersomnic periods. Fourteen healthy subjects were also investigated as control samples. Functional connectivity was assessed from seed regions of interest in the thalamus and the dorsal pons. Thalamic connectivity was normal in the asymptomatic patient whereas the connectivity between the brain stem, including dorsal pons, and the thalamus was diminished during hypersomnia. These results suggest that the patient’s nystagmus and hypersomnia might have their pathological origin in adjacent dorsal pontine regions. This finding provides additional knowledge of the cerebral networks involved in the neuropathology of this disabling disorder. Furthermore, these findings regarding a rare syndrome have broad implications and results could be of interest to researchers and clinicians in the whole field of sleep medicine.

  1. Thalamic and extrathalamic mechanisms of consciousness after severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkenhoff, Evan S; Chiang, Jeffrey; Tshibanda, Luaba; Kamau, Evelyn; Kirsch, Murielle; Pickard, John D; Laureys, Steven; Owen, Adrian M; Monti, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    What mechanisms underlie the loss and recovery of consciousness after severe brain injury? We sought to establish, in the largest cohort of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) to date, the link between gold standard clinical measures of awareness and wakefulness, and specific patterns of local brain pathology-thereby possibly providing a mechanistic framework for patient diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment development. Structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected, in a continuous sample of 143 severely brain-injured patients with DOC (and 96 volunteers), across 2 tertiary expert centers. Brain atrophy in subcortical regions (bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, hippocampus, basal forebrain, and brainstem) was assessed across (1) healthy volunteers and patients, (2) clinical entities (eg, vegetative state, minimally conscious state), (3) clinical measures of consciousness (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised), and (4) injury etiology. Compared to volunteers, patients exhibited significant atrophy across all structures (p consciousness, and reframe our current models of DOC by stressing the different links tying thalamic mechanisms to willful behavior and extrathalamic mechanisms to behavioral (and electrocortical) arousal. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  2. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Prefrontal-Thalamic Anatomical Connectivity and Executive Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Chica, Monica; Rogers, Baxter P; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Woodward, Neil D

    2018-03-15

    Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses. Forty-five healthy subjects and 62 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed a battery of tests of executive function and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Probabilistic tractography was used to quantify anatomical connectivity between six cortical regions, including PFC, and the thalamus. Thalamocortical anatomical connectivity was compared between healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia using region-of-interest and voxelwise approaches, and the association between PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity and severity of executive function impairment was examined in patients. Anatomical connectivity between the thalamus and PFC was reduced in schizophrenia. Voxelwise analysis localized the reduction to areas of the mediodorsal thalamus connected to lateral PFC. Reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity in schizophrenia correlated with impaired working memory but not cognitive flexibility and inhibition. In contrast to reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity, thalamic connectivity with somatosensory and occipital cortices was increased in schizophrenia. The results are consistent with models implicating disrupted PFC-thalamic connectivity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity may be an important target for procognitive interventions. Further work is needed to determine the implications of increased thalamic connectivity with sensory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Society of

  4. The tail wags the dog: managing large telescope construction projects with lagging requirements and creeping scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In a perfect world, large telescopes would be developed and built in logical, sequential order. First, scientific requirements would be agreed upon, vetted, and fully developed. From these, instrument designers would define their own subsystem requirements and specifications, and then flesh out preliminary designs. This in turn would then allow optic designers to specify lens and mirror requirements, which would permit telescope mounts and drives to be designed. Finally, software and safety systems, enclosures and domes, buildings, foundations, and infrastructures would be specified and developed. Unfortunately, the order of most large telescope projects is the opposite of this sequence. We don't live in a perfect world. Scientists usually don't want to commit to operational requirements until late in the design process, instrument designers frequently change and update their designs due to improving filter and camera technologies, and mount and optics engineers seem to live by the words "more" and "better" throughout their own design processes. Amplifying this is the fact that site construction of buildings and domes are usually the earliest critical path items on the schedule, and are often subject to lengthy permitting and environmental processes. These facility and support items therefore must quickly get underway, often before operational requirements are fully considered. Mirrors and mounts also have very long lead times for fabrication, which in turn necessitates that they are specified and purchased early. All of these factors can result in expensive and time-consuming change orders when requirements are finalized and/or shift late in the process. This paper discusses some of these issues encountered on large, multi-year construction projects. It also presents some techniques and ideas to minimize these effects on schedule and cost. Included is a discussion on the role of Interface Control Documents (ICDs), the importance (and danger) of making big

  5. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital and I and C systems development - Project report 2003[TACO. Reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Frederiksen, R.; Thunem, A.P.J. [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Kjeller (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project is to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. In the year 2003, the TACO-project concentrated on four central issues: 1) Representation of requirements origins. 2) Traceability techniques. 3) Configuration management and the traceability of requirements. 4) Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models The work was presented at the first TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Stockholm on the 12th of December 2003. The seminar was hosted by SKI. (au)

  6. Effect of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Gait in a Patient with Thalamic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arito Yozu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic pain is a central neuropathic pain disorder which occurs after stroke. Its severe chronic pain is often intractable to pharmacotherapies and affects the patients’ activities of daily living (ADL and quality of life (QOL. Recently, spinal cord stimulation (SCS has been reported to be effective in relieving the pain of thalamic pain; however, the effect of SCS on gait performance in patients is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the gait performance before and after SCS in a case with thalamic pain. A 73-year-old male with thalamic pain participated in this study. We evaluated the gait of the patient two times: before SCS insertion and after 6 days of SCS. At the second evaluation, we measured the gait in three conditions: stimulation off, comfortable stimulation, and strong stimulation. SCS succeeded in improving the pain from 7 to 2 on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Step frequency and the velocity of gait tended to increase between pre- and poststimulation periods. There were no apparent differences in gait among the three stimulation conditions (off, comfortable, and strong at the poststimulation period. SCS may be effective on gait in patients with thalamic pain.

  7. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of striatal-thalamic circuit in bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Teng

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is characterized by internally affective fluctuations. The abnormality of inherently mental state can be assessed using resting-state fMRI data without producing task-induced biases. In this study, we hypothesized that the resting-state connectivity related to the frontal, striatal, and thalamic regions, which were associated with mood regulations and cognitive functions, can be altered for bipolar disorder. We used the Pearson's correlation coefficients to estimate functional connectivity followed by the hierarchical modular analysis to categorize the resting-state functional regions of interest (ROIs. The selected functional connectivities associated with the striatal-thalamic circuit and default mode network (DMN were compared between bipolar patients and healthy controls. Significantly decreased connectivity in the striatal-thalamic circuit and between the striatal regions and the middle and posterior cingulate cortex was observed in the bipolar patients. We also observed that the bipolar patients exhibited significantly increased connectivity between the thalamic regions and the parahippocampus. No significant changes of connectivity related to the frontal regions in the DMN were observed. The changed resting-state connectivity related to the striatal-thalamic circuit might be an inherent basis for the altered emotional and cognitive processing in the bipolar patients.

  8. Characterization of in vivo MRI detectable thalamic amyloid plaques from APP/PS1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenain, M. [URA CEA CNRS 2210, I2BM, SHFJ, 4 Place du General Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [U759 INSERM, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guegan, M.; Delatour, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid-CSIC, 8, Isaac Newton, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Amyloid deposits are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies, in transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease showed that, using in vivo, contrast agent-free, MRI, thalamic amyloid plaques are more easily detected than other plaques of the brain. Our study evaluated the characteristics of these thalamic plaques in a large population of APP/PS1, PS1 and C57BL/6 mice. Thalamic spots were detected in all mice but with different frequency and magnitude. Hence, the prevalence and size of the lesions were higher in APP/PS1 mice. However, even in APP/PS1 mice, thalamic spots did not occur in all the old animals. In APP/PS1 mice, spots detection was related to high iron and calcium load within amyloid plaques and thus reflects the ability of such plaque to capture large amounts of minerals. Interestingly, calcium and iron was also detected in extra-thalamic plaques but with a lower intensity. Hypointense lesions in the thalamus were not associated with the iron load in the tissue surrounding the plaques, nor with micro-hemorrhages, inflammation, or a neuro-degenerative context. (authors)

  9. Intralaminar and medial thalamic influence on cortical synchrony, information transmission and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B Saalmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The intralaminar and medial thalamic nuclei are part of the higher-order thalamus, which receives little sensory input, and instead forms extensive cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. The large mediodorsal thalamic nucleus predominantly connects with the prefrontal cortex, the adjacent intralaminar nuclei connect with fronto-parietal cortex, and the midline thalamic nuclei connect with medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Taking into account this connectivity pattern, it is not surprising that the intralaminar and medial thalamus has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions, including memory processing, attention and orienting, as well as reward-based behavior. This review addresses how the intralaminar and medial thalamus may regulate information transmission in cortical circuits. A key neural mechanism may involve intralaminar and medial thalamic neurons modulating the degree of synchrony between different groups of cortical neurons according to behavioral demands. Such a thalamic-mediated synchronization mechanism may give rise to large-scale integration of information across multiple cortical circuits, consequently influencing the level of arousal and consciousness. Overall, the growing evidence supports a general role for the higher-order thalamus in the control of cortical information transmission and cognitive processing.

  10. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  11. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  13. Frontotemporal dementia with severe thalamic involvement : a clinical and neuropathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanovic Márcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is the third-leading cause of cortical dementia after Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia, and is characterized by a dementia where behavioral disturbances are prominent and appear early in the course of the disease. We report the case of a 58 year-old man affected by dementia with behavioral disturbances, in addition to rigid-hypokinetic and a lower motor neuron syndrome that were present at later stages of the illness. Neuroimaging studies showed frontotemporal atrophy. Neuropathological studies revealed intense thalamic neuronal loss and astrocytic gliosis, as well as moderate frontotemporal neuronal loss, astrocytosis and spongiform degeneration. Thalamic degeneration has previously been described among the wide group of neuropathological features of FTD. The aim of the present study is to show the clinical and neuropathological aspects of thalamic degeneration in FTD, along with its role in behavioral disturbances, a common finding in this condition.

  14. Control of Somatosensory Cortical Processing by Thalamic Posterior Medial Nucleus: A New Role of Thalamus in Cortical Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castejon

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of thalamocortical interaction comes mainly from studying lemniscal thalamic systems. Less is known about paralemniscal thalamic nuclei function. In the vibrissae system, the posterior medial nucleus (POm is the corresponding paralemniscal nucleus. POm neurons project to L1 and L5A of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 in the rat brain. It is known that L1 modifies sensory-evoked responses through control of intracortical excitability suggesting that L1 exerts an influence on whisker responses. Therefore, thalamocortical pathways targeting L1 could modulate cortical firing. Here, using a combination of electrophysiology and pharmacology in vivo, we have sought to determine how POm influences cortical processing. In our experiments, single unit recordings performed in urethane-anesthetized rats showed that POm imposes precise control on the magnitude and duration of supra- and infragranular barrel cortex whisker responses. Our findings demonstrated that L1 inputs from POm imposed a time and intensity dependent regulation on cortical sensory processing. Moreover, we found that blocking L1 GABAergic inhibition or blocking P/Q-type Ca2+ channels in L1 prevents POm adjustment of whisker responses in the barrel cortex. Additionally, we found that POm was also controlling the sensory processing in S2 and this regulation was modulated by corticofugal activity from L5 in S1. Taken together, our data demonstrate the determinant role exerted by the POm in the adjustment of somatosensory cortical processing and in the regulation of cortical processing between S1 and S2. We propose that this adjustment could be a thalamocortical gain regulation mechanism also present in the processing of information between cortical areas.

  15. 42 CFR 137.351 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reports semiannually or, at the option of the Self-Governance Tribe, on a more frequent basis. Self... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports for construction project agreements? 137.351 Section 137...

  16. 41 CFR 102-72.65 - What are the requirements for obtaining a delegation of individual repair and alteration project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for other individual alteration projects when they demonstrate the ability to perform the delegated... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for obtaining a delegation of individual repair and alteration project authority from GSA? 102-72...

  17. Impairments of thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Yu-Chen [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Feng, Xu [Department of Otolaryngology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Yang, Ming; Liu, Bin; Qian, Cheng [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Jian [Department of Physiology, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Salvi, Richard [Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Teng, Gao-Jun, E-mail: gjteng@vip.sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Tinnitus patients have aberrant thalamic connectivity to many brain regions. • Decreased thalamic connectivity is linked with tinnitus characteristics. • Thalamocortical connectivity disturbances can reflect tinnitus-related networks. - Abstract: Purpose: The phantom sound of tinnitus is believed to arise from abnormal functional coupling between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the degree of thalamocortical functional connectivity in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Materials and methods: Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 31 chronic tinnitus patients and 33 well-matched healthy controls. Thalamocortical functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The resulting thalamic functional connectivity measures were correlated with other clinical data. Results: We found decreased functional connectivity between the seed region in left thalamus and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right middle orbitofrontal cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and bilateral calcarine cortex. Decreased functional connectivity was detected between the seed in the right thalamus and the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), left amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus. Tinnitus distress correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in right MTG; tinnitus duration correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in left STG. Increased functional connectivity between the bilateral thalamus and a set of regions were also observed. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted thalamocortical functional connectivity to selected brain regions which is associated with specific tinnitus characteristics. Resting-state thalamic functional connectivity disturbances may play an important role in

  18. Impairments of thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yu-Chen; Feng, Xu; Yang, Ming; Liu, Bin; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Jian; Salvi, Richard; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tinnitus patients have aberrant thalamic connectivity to many brain regions. • Decreased thalamic connectivity is linked with tinnitus characteristics. • Thalamocortical connectivity disturbances can reflect tinnitus-related networks. - Abstract: Purpose: The phantom sound of tinnitus is believed to arise from abnormal functional coupling between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the degree of thalamocortical functional connectivity in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Materials and methods: Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 31 chronic tinnitus patients and 33 well-matched healthy controls. Thalamocortical functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The resulting thalamic functional connectivity measures were correlated with other clinical data. Results: We found decreased functional connectivity between the seed region in left thalamus and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right middle orbitofrontal cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and bilateral calcarine cortex. Decreased functional connectivity was detected between the seed in the right thalamus and the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), left amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus. Tinnitus distress correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in right MTG; tinnitus duration correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in left STG. Increased functional connectivity between the bilateral thalamus and a set of regions were also observed. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted thalamocortical functional connectivity to selected brain regions which is associated with specific tinnitus characteristics. Resting-state thalamic functional connectivity disturbances may play an important role in

  19. Neonatal thalamic hemorrhage is strongly associated with electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; de Vries, Linda S; Leijten, Frans S S; Braun, Kees P J; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; Jansen, Floor E

    2013-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhage has been associated with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), especially when the straight sinus is involved, and often presents with neonatal seizures. Early thalamic injury has previously been shown to predispose to epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-induced epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and postneonatal epilepsy after neonatal thalamic hemorrhage associated with CSVT, in the absence of more widespread cerebral damage. Between 2003 and 2008 15 neonates were diagnosed with a thalamic hemorrhage due to suspected or proven CSVT. Neurodevelopment and the history of seizures were assessed at follow-up in the outpatient clinic in all 14 survivors (age 2-9 years). Whole-night or sleep-deprived EEG recordings were obtained to assess the prevalence of interictal epileptiform activity (EA) and calculate a sleep-induced spike and wave index (SWI). Three children were diagnosed with classic ESES (SWI >85%). Two children had ESES spectrum disorder (SWI between 50% and 85%), and in two children significant sleep-induced epileptiform activity (SIEA) was noted (SWI between 25% and 50%). Two other children were diagnosed with focal epilepsy, in the absence of sleep-induced epileptiform EEG abnormalities. Five children (age 2-7 years) had normal EEG recordings at follow-up. Deficits in neurodevelopment were seen significantly more often in children with ESES, ESES spectrum, or SIEA. Neonates with thalamic hemorrhage associated with straight sinus thrombosis, without evidence of more widespread cerebral damage, are at high risk of developing ESES (spectrum) disorder (35%), SIEA (14%), or focal epilepsy (14%). Electrographic abnormalities may already be present prior to recognition of cognitive deficits. Early diagnosis may guide parents and caregivers, and subsequent treatment may improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Routine

  20. Lucid dreams, an atypical sleep disturbance in anterior and mediodorsal thalamic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnier, S; Coulon, P; Chaufton, C; Poli, M; Debruxelles, S; Renou, P; Rouanet, F; Olindo, S; Sibon, I

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive, affective, and behavioural disturbances are commonly reported following thalamic strokes. Conversely, sleep disorders are rarely reported in this context. Herein, we report the cases of two young patients admitted for an ischemic stroke located in the territories of the left pre-mammillary and paramedian arteries. Together with aphasia, memory complaint, impaired attention and executive functions, they reported lucid dreams with catastrophic content or conflicting situations. Lucid dreams are an atypical presentation in thalamic strokes. These cases enlarge the clinical spectrum of sleep-wake disturbances potentially observed after an acute cerebrovascular event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation status of NWPA requirements and relevant activities of the repository projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, W.M.; Friedman, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    To date, the Department of Energy (DOE) has focussed considerable effort on implementing the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) for screening, nominating, and recommending sites for geologic repositories and for preparation of documents reflecting DOE's repository strategy. In February 1983, nine potentially acceptable sites in three different geologic media (salt, tuff, basalt) were identified. DOE has prepared Siting Guidelines and submitted them to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for concurrence. Preparation of draft environmental assessments (EAs) based on the guidelines to support site nominations is underway; the EAs are expected to be issued for public comment in August 1984. The final EAs which are scheduled to be issued in December 1984 will provide the basis for the recommendation of three sites to the President for site characterization by January 1985, the date mandated by the NWPA. In April 1984, the draft Mission Plan was issued for public comment. The plan discusses repository program objectives and overall strategy and presents the detailed information required by Section 301 of the NWPA. The DOE is also developing a Project Decision Schedule which will reflect the Mission Plan schedules as well as provide a sequence of deadlines for all Federal agency actions required by the NWPA and identify the critical path for repository development

  2. Software use cases to elicit the software requirements analysis within the ASTRI project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Vito; Antolini, Elisa; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Bruno, Pietro; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Capalbi, Milvia; Fioretti, Valentina; Fugazza, Dino; Gardiol, Daniele; Grillo, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Saverio; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Pareschi, Giovanni; Russo, Federico; Sangiorgi, Pierluca; Schwarz, Joseph; Scuderi, Salvatore; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Trifoglio, Massimo; Vercellone, Stefano; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    The Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) is leading the Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana (ASTRI) project whose main purpose is the realization of small size telescopes (SST) for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The first goal of the ASTRI project has been the development and operation of an innovative end-to-end telescope prototype using a dual-mirror optical configuration (SST-2M) equipped with a camera based on silicon photo-multipliers and very fast read-out electronics. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype has been installed in Italy at the INAF "M.G. Fracastoro" Astronomical Station located at Serra La Nave, on Mount Etna, Sicily. This prototype will be used to test several mechanical, optical, control hardware and software solutions which will be used in the ASTRI mini-array, comprising nine telescopes proposed to be placed at the CTA southern site. The ASTRI mini-array is a collaborative and international effort led by INAF and carried out by Italy, Brazil and South-Africa. We present here the use cases, through UML (Unified Modeling Language) diagrams and text details, that describe the functional requirements of the software that will manage the ASTRI SST-2M prototype, and the lessons learned thanks to these activities. We intend to adopt the same approach for the Mini Array Software System that will manage the ASTRI miniarray operations. Use cases are of importance for the whole software life cycle; in particular they provide valuable support to the validation and verification activities. Following the iterative development approach, which breaks down the software development into smaller chunks, we have analysed the requirements, developed, and then tested the code in repeated cycles. The use case technique allowed us to formalize the problem through user stories that describe how the user procedurally interacts with the software system. Through the use cases we improved the communication among team members, fostered

  3. Southwest Project: resource/institutional requirements analysis. Volume II. Technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsby, L. S.; Sawyer, T. G.; Brown, Dr., M. L.; Daviet, II, L. L.; Weber, E. R.; Brown, J. E.; Arlidge, J. W.; Novak, H. R.; Sanesi, Norman; Klaiman, H. C.; Spangenberg, Jr., D. T.; Groves, D. J.; Maddox, J. D.; Hayslip, R. M.; Ijams, G.; Lacy, R. G.; Montgomery, J.; Carito, J. A.; Ballance, J. W.; Bluemle, C. F.; Smith, D. N.; Wehrey, M. C.; Ladd, K. L.; Evans, Dr., S. K.; Guild, D. H.; Brodfeld, B.; Cleveland, J. A.; Hicks, K. L.; Noga, M. W.; Ross, A. M.

    1979-12-01

    The project provides information which could be used to accelerate the commercialization and market penetration of solar electric generation plants in the southwestern region of the United States. The area of concern includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The project evaluated the potential integration of solar electric generating facilities into the existing electric grids of the region through the year 2000. The technologies included wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric, solar photovoltaic conversion, and hybrid solar electric systems. Each of the technologies considered, except hybrid solar electric, was paired with a compatible energy storage system to improve plant performance and enhance applicability to a utility grid system. The hybrid concept utilizes a conventionally-fueled steam generator as well as a solar steam generator so it is not as dependent upon the availability of solar energy as are the other concepts. Operation of solar electric generating plants in conjunction with existing hydroelectric power facilities was also studied. The participants included 12 electric utility companies and a state power authority in the southwestern US, as well as a major consulting engineering firm. An assessment of the state-of-the-art of solar electric generating plants from an electric utility standpoint; identification of the electric utility industry's technical requirements and considerations for solar electric generating plants; estimation of the capital investment, operation, and maintenance costs for solar electric generating plants; and determination of the capital investment of conventional fossil and nuclear electric generating plants are presented. (MCW)

  4. Projections of cost and on-site manual-labor requirements for constructing electric-generating plants, 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report represents part of a continuing effort by the Federal Government to forecast the capital and labor required for constructing electric generating capacity additions necessary to accommodate projected economic and population growth in the US and its regions. Information is included on anticipated additions to electric generating capacity, labor requirements for these additions, capital cost requirements, and forecasting models. Coal-fired, nuclear, hydro, and pumped storage power plants are considered in these forecasts

  5. Metrology for hydrogen energy applications: a project to address normative requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloua, Frédérique; Bacquart, Thomas; Arrhenius, Karine; Delobelle, Benoît; Ent, Hugo

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a clean and storable energy solution that could meet worldwide energy demands and reduce greenhouse gases emission. The joint research project (JRP) ‘Metrology for sustainable hydrogen energy applications’ addresses standardisation needs through pre- and co-normative metrology research in the fast emerging sector of hydrogen fuel that meet the requirements of the European Directive 2014/94/EU by supplementing the revision of two ISO standards that are currently too generic to enable a sustainable implementation of hydrogen. The hydrogen purity dispensed at refueling points should comply with the technical specifications of ISO 14687-2 for fuel cell electric vehicles. The rapid progress of fuel cell technology now requires revising this standard towards less constraining limits for the 13 gaseous impurities. In parallel, optimized validated analytical methods are proposed to reduce the number of analyses. The study aims also at developing and validating traceable methods to assess accurately the hydrogen mass absorbed and stored in metal hydride tanks; this is a research axis for the revision of the ISO 16111 standard to develop this safe storage technique for hydrogen. The probability of hydrogen impurity presence affecting fuel cells and analytical techniques for traceable measurements of hydrogen impurities will be assessed and new data of maximum concentrations of impurities based on degradation studies will be proposed. Novel validated methods for measuring the hydrogen mass absorbed in hydrides tanks AB, AB2 and AB5 types referenced to ISO 16111 will be determined, as the methods currently available do not provide accurate results. The outputs here will have a direct impact on the standardisation works for ISO 16111 and ISO 14687-2 revisions in the relevant working groups of ISO/TC 197 ‘Hydrogen technologies’.

  6. Effects of Using Requirements Catalogs on Effectiveness and Productivity of Requirements Specification in a Software Project Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Meca, Joaquín Vidal; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two educational experiments carried out to determine whether the process of specifying requirements (catalog-based reuse as opposed to conventional specification) has an impact on effectiveness and productivity in co-located and distributed software development environments. The participants in the experiments…

  7. Aphasia and unilateral spatial neglect due to acute thalamic hemorrhage: clinical correlations and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Aiko; Maeshima, Shinichiro

    2016-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhages are associated with a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is well known that such cognitive changes constitute a limiting factor of recovery of the activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and hematomas is unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aphasia/neglect and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. One hundred fifteen patients with thalamic hemorrhage (70 men and 45 women) were studied. Their mean age was 68.9 ± 10.3 years, and patients with both left and right lesions were included. We calculated hematoma volume and examined the presence or absence of aphasia/neglect and the relationships between these dysfunctions and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. Fifty-nine patients were found to have aphasia and 35 were found to have neglect. Although there was no relationship between hematoma type and cognitive dysfunction, hematoma volume showed a correlation with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The ADL score and ratio of patient discharge for patients with aphasia/neglect were lower than those for patients without aphasia/neglect. We observed a correlation between the hematoma volume in thalamic hemorrhage and cognitive dysfunction. Aphasia/neglect is found frequently in patients with acute thalamic hemorrhage and may influence the ADL.

  8. Discovering frequency sensitive thalamic nuclei from EEG microstate informed resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Simon; Koenig, Thomas; Morishima, Yosuke; Dierks, Thomas; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2015-09-01

    Microstates (MS), the fingerprints of the momentarily and time-varying states of the brain derived from electroencephalography (EEG), are associated with the resting state networks (RSNs). However, using MS fluctuations along different EEG frequency bands to model the functional MRI (fMRI) signal has not been investigated so far, or elucidated the role of the thalamus as a fundamental gateway and a putative key structure in cortical functional networks. Therefore, in the current study, we used MS predictors in standard frequency bands to predict blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. We discovered that multivariate modeling of BOLD-fMRI using six EEG-MS classes in eight frequency bands strongly correlated with thalamic areas and large-scale cortical networks. Thalamic nuclei exhibited distinct patterns of correlations for individual MS that were associated with specific EEG frequency bands. Anterior and ventral thalamic nuclei were sensitive to the beta frequency band, medial nuclei were sensitive to both alpha and beta frequency bands, and posterior nuclei such as the pulvinar were sensitive to delta and theta frequency bands. These results demonstrate that EEG-MS informed fMRI can elucidate thalamic activity not directly observable by EEG, which may be highly relevant to understand the rapid formation of thalamocortical networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impairment of Syntax and Lexical Semantics in a Patient with Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Lieve; Wilssens, Ineke; Engelborghs, Sebastian; De Deyn, Peter P.; Marien, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral vascular thalamic lesions are rare. Although a variety of neurobehavioral manifestations have been described, the literature is less documented with regard to accompanying linguistic disturbances. This article presents an in-depth neurolinguistic analysis of the language symptoms of a patient who incurred bilateral paramedian ischemic…

  10. Silent diabetes mellitus, periodontitis and a new case of thalamic abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgiou, Ioannis; Chandler, Christopher; Whyte, Martin Brunel

    2014-07-21

    Brain abscess is an unusual complication of uncontrolled diabetes. A solitary thalamic abscess is an uncommon type of brain abscess. We report a case of thalamic abscess, whereupon diabetes mellitus and periodontitis were diagnosed. The diagnosis and management of thalamic abscess, and the interplay of type 2 diabetes and periodontitis are discussed. A 56-year-old, Caucasian, man with no medical or travel history, presented with 5-day symptoms of meningeal irritation. Body mass index 30.6 kg/m(2). CT demonstrated a solitary midline lesion with neoplasia as a differential diagnosis. It was biopsied and cultures grew Streptococcus milleri. He was treated by stereotactic puncture, external drainage and targeted intrathecal and systemic antibiotic therapy. HIV negative but glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 10.7% (93 mmol/mol). Dental examination revealed a small molar abscess. Radiological resolution of the thalamic abscess occurred within 2 months. Diabetes improved with 7 weeks of insulin, and maintained on metformin, HbA1c 6.9% (51 mmol/mol). There was no residual neurological disability. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Case of thalamic hemorrhage presenting high density on CT in a long time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Takeda, Yoshio; Sugai, Yukio; Umetsu, Akemi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1988-05-01

    We presented a thalamic hemorrhage in a 29-year-old woman with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy showing a high density lesion at least for 50 days on CT. From beginning of the illness, this condition was considered to continue for 3 months by chronic bleeding or recurrent hemorrhage.

  12. Central neurogenic hyperventilation related to post-hypoxic thalamic lesion in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Gençpinar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Central neurogenic hyperventilation (CNH is a rare clinical condition, whose mechanism is still unclear. Here, we report a 3-year-old male patient, who had bilateral thalamic, putaminal and globus pallideal infarction resulted in CNH without brainstem involvement. This case may illustrate a possible role for the thalamus in regulating ventilation.

  13. A stereological study of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, A S; Korbo, S; Uylings, H B M

    2014-01-01

    The total number of neurons and glial cells in the mediodorsal thalamic (MDT) nucleus of four aged females with Down syndrome (DS; mean age 69years) was estimated and compared to six age- and sex-matched controls. The MDT nucleus was delineated on coronal sections, and cell numbers (large and small...

  14. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation for parkinsonian tremor: a 6 year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hariz, M. I.; Krack, P.; Alesch, F.; Augustinsson, L.-E.; Bosch, A.; Ekberg, R.; Johansson, F.; Johnels, B.; Meyerson, B. A.; N'Guyen, J.-P.; Pinter, M.; Pollak, P.; von Raison, F.; Rehncrona, S.; Speelman, J. D.; Sydow, O.; Benabid, A.-L.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the results of ventral intermediate (Vim) thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with tremor predominant Parkinson's disease (PD) at 6 years post surgery. This was a prolonged follow-up study of 38 patients from eight centres who participated in a multicentre study, the 1 year

  15. Thalamic microinfusion of antibody to a voltage-gated potassium channel restores consciousness during anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Michael T; Asher, Christopher D; Franciscus, Amanda M; Hahn, Emily L

    2009-04-01

    The Drosophila Shaker mutant fruit-fly, with its malfunctioning voltage-gated potassium channel, exhibits anesthetic requirements that are more than twice normal. Shaker mutants with an abnormal Kv1.2 channel also demonstrate significantly reduced sleep. Given the important role the thalamus plays in both sleep and arousal, the authors investigated whether localized central medial thalamic (CMT) microinfusion of an antibody designed to block the pore of the Kv1.2 channel might awaken anesthetized rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with a cannula aimed at the CMT or lateral thalamus. One week later, unconsciousness was induced with either desflurane (3.6 +/- 0.2%; n = 55) or sevoflurane (1.2 +/- 0.1%; n = 51). Arousal effects of a single 0.5-microl infusion of Kv1.2 potassium channel blocking antibody (0.1- 0.2 mg/ml) or a control infusion of Arc-protein antibody (0.2 mg/ml) were then determined. The Kv1.2 antibody, but not the control antibody, temporarily restored consciousness in 17% of all animals and in 75% of those animals where infusions occurred within the CMT (P Consciousness returned on average (+/- SD) 170 +/- 99 s after infusion and lasted a median time of 398 s (interquartile range: 279-510 s). Temporary seizures, without apparent consciousness, predominated in 33% of all animals. These findings support the idea that the CMT plays a role in modulating levels of arousal during anesthesia and further suggest that voltage-gated potassium channels in the CMT may contribute to regulating arousal or may even be relevant targets of anesthetic action.

  16. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate

  17. A Requirements-Based Exploration of Open-Source Software Development Projects--Towards a Natural Language Processing Software Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlas, Radu Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Open source projects do have requirements; they are, however, mostly informal, text descriptions found in requests, forums, and other correspondence. Understanding such requirements provides insight into the nature of open source projects. Unfortunately, manual analysis of natural language requirements is time-consuming, and for large projects,…

  18. The effects of DBS patterns on basal ganglia activity and thalamic relay : a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2012-08-01

    Thalamic neurons receive inputs from cortex and their responses are modulated by the basal ganglia (BG). This modulation is necessary to properly relay cortical inputs back to cortex and downstream to the brain stem when movements are planned. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the BG input to thalamus becomes pathological and relay of motor-related cortical inputs is compromised, thereby impairing movements. However, high frequency (HF) deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be used to restore relay reliability, thereby restoring movements in PD patients. Although therapeutic, HF stimulation consumes significant power forcing surgical battery replacements, and may cause adverse side effects. Here, we used a biophysical-based model of the BG-Thalamus motor loop in both healthy and PD conditions to assess whether low frequency stimulation can suppress pathological activity in PD and enable the thalamus to reliably relay movement-related cortical inputs. We administered periodic pulse train DBS waveforms to the sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) with frequencies ranging from 0-140 Hz, and computed statistics that quantified pathological bursting, oscillations, and synchronization in the BG as well as thalamic relay of cortical inputs. We found that none of the frequencies suppressed all pathological activity in BG, though the HF waveforms recovered thalamic reliability. Our rigorous study, however, led us to a novel DBS strategy involving low frequency multi-input phase-shifted DBS, which successfully suppressed pathological symptoms in all BG nuclei and enabled reliable thalamic relay. The neural restoration remained robust to changes in the model parameters characterizing early to late PD stages.

  19. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rongfeng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  20. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  1. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT and M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RYAN GW

    2008-01-01

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized

  2. Basal ganglia and thalamic input from neurons located within the ventral tier cell cluster region of the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Carolina; Prensa, Lucía

    2010-04-15

    The most caudally located dopaminergic (DA) ventral tier neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) form typical cell clusters that are deeply embedded in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Here we examine the efferent projections of 35 neurons located in the SNr region where these SNc cell clusters reside. The neuronal cell body was injected with biotinylated dextran amine so as to trace each complete axon in the sagittal or the coronal plane. Electrophysiological guidance guaranteed that the tracer was ejected among neurons displaying a typical SNc discharge pattern. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical labeling ensured that the tracer deposits were placed within the DA cell clusters. Three types of projection neurons occurred in the SNc ventral tier cell cluster region: type I neurons, projecting to basal ganglia; type II neurons, targeting both the basal ganglia and thalamus; and type III neurons, projecting only to the thalamus. The striatum was targeted by most of the type I and II neurons and the innervation reached both the striosome/subcallosal streak and matrix compartments. Many nigrostriatal fibers provided collaterals to the globus pallidus and, less frequently, to the subthalamic nucleus. At a thalamic level, type II and III neurons preferentially targeted the reticular, ventral posterolateral, and ventral medial nuclei. Our results reveal that the SNr region where DA ventral tier cell clusters reside harbors neurons projecting to the basal ganglia and/or the thalamus, thus suggesting that neurodegeneration of nigral neurons in Parkinson's disease might affect various extrastriatal basal ganglia structures and multiple thalamic nuclei. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE → TC → Cortex . Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 → TC 1 → Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 → Cortex 2

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-33 - Notice of Requirement for Project Labor Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resulting construction contract. (c) Consistent with applicable law, the project labor agreement reached... agreement with one or more labor organizations for the term of the resulting construction contract. (e) The... applicable law, if awarded the contract, the offeror shall negotiate a project labor agreement with one or...

  5. THE PLANNING OF A CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT PROJECT: REQUIREMENTS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana OLARU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the aspects regarding the planning of a customer relationship management (CRM project, we emphasize the factors that assure the success of such an approach. In order to obtain the attended results, an organization needs the best selection of the project manager and the most efficient teamwork, which implies employees from the company’s departments and also IT specialists. In the final part, we made appreciations concerning the efficiency of a CRM project and the opportunities created by its implementation.

  6. Development of Occupational Safety and Health Requirement Management System (OSHREMS Software Using Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 for Building Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Nor Haslinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry sector is considered as being risky with frequent and high accident rate. According to Social Security Organization (SOCSO, the construction accidents has arisen from time to time. Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB has developed the Safety and Health Assessment System in Construction (SHASSIC for evaluating the performance of a contractor in construction project by setting out the safety and health management and practices, however the requirement checklist provided is not comprehensive. Therefore, this study aims to develop a software system for facilitating OSH in building construction project, namely OSH requirements management system (OSHREMS, using Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 and Sublime Text as PHP editor. The results from a preliminary study which was conducted through interviews showed that, the respondents were only implementing the basic requirements that comply with legislations, with the absence of appropriate and specific guideline in ensuring occupational safety and health (OSH at the workplace. The tool will be benefits for contractors and other parties to effectively manage the OSH requirements for their projects based on project details.

  7. Estimating Required Contingency Funds for Construction Projects using Multiple Linear Regression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Jason J

    2006-01-01

    Cost overruns are a critical problem for construction projects. The common practice for dealing with cost overruns is the assignment of an arbitrary flat percentage of the construction budget as a contingency fund...

  8. The extended hippocampal-diencephalic memory system: enriched housing promotes recovery of the flexible use of spatial representations after anterior thalamic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mathieu; Loukavenko, Elena A; Will, Bruno E; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2008-01-01

    The anterior thalamic (AT) nuclei constitute an important component of an extended hippocampal-diencephalic system, and severe persisting memory deficits are normally found after AT damage. This study examined whether postoperative enrichment promotes the recovery of the flexible use of spatial representations in rats with AT lesions. After training to swim from a single constant start position to a submerged platform in a Morris water maze, rats with AT lesions that were housed in standard cages (AT-Std) performed poorly when required to swim to the platform from novel start positions during probe trials. By contrast, rats with AT lesions but housed in enriched environments (AT-Enr), like sham-lesion rats, showed relatively little disruption when tested with novel start positions. AT-Std rats also initially showed impaired acquisition of the task, whereas AT-Enr rats learned at a similar rate to that of the Sham-Std group. Beneficial effects of enrichment were replicated in the subsequent standard water maze procedure that used varying start positions throughout training to acquire a new platform location. Although it is clear that AT damage can severely disrupt episodic-like memory processes, and appear to be a core part of the interlinked neural systems subserving episodic memory, the current findings strongly encourage study on the adaptive response of the brain to thalamic lesions and prospects for the development of rehabilitation programs in cases of anterograde amnesia associated with diencephalic injury.

  9. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  10. A Case of Midbrain and Thalamic Infarction Involving Artery of Percheron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Almamun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood supply to the thalamus and brainstem have frequent anatomic variations. One of these is where all the perforators to the above areas arise from a single branch of the posterior cerebral artery commonly known as the artery of Percheron. Infarction involving this artery leading to bilateral thalamic and midbrain lesions is not uncommon, but can cause diagnostic difficulties due to the varying clinical presentations possible and the wide differentials. Early brain imaging and diagnosis is important for initiating appropriate treatment. In this case report, we discuss a patient who presented with an artery of Percheron related stroke affecting the mid brain and paramedian thalamic areas. We also discuss the differentials of presentations with similar symptoms.

  11. The olfactory thalamus: unanswered questions about the role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eCourtiol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDT is a higher order thalamic nucleus and its role in cognition is increasingly well established. Interestingly, components of the MDT also have a somewhat unique sensory function as they link primary olfactory cortex to orbitofrontal associative cortex. In fact, anatomical evidence firmly demonstrates that the MDT receives direct input from primary olfactory areas including the piriform cortex and has dense reciprocal connections with the orbitofrontal cortex. The functions of this olfactory pathway have been poorly explored but lesion, imaging, and electrophysiological studies suggest that these connections may be involved in olfactory processing including odor perception, discrimination, learning, and attention. However, many important questions regarding the MDT and olfaction remain unanswered. Our goal here is not only to briefly review the existing literature but also to highlight some of the remaining questions that need to be answered to better define the role(s of the MDT in olfactory processing.

  12. Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis

  13. Southwest Project: resource/institutional requirements analysis. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This project provides information which could be used by DOE in formulating their plans for commercialization and market penetration of central station solar electric generating plants in the southwestern region of the United States. The area of interest includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The project evaluated the potential integration of central station solar electric generating facilities into the existing electric grids of the region through the year 2000 by making use of system planning methodology which is commonly used throughout the electric utility industry. The technologies included: wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric, solar photovoltaic conversion, and hybrid (solar thermal repowering) solar electric systems. The participants in this project included 12 electric utility companies and a state power authority in the southwestern United States as well as a major consulting engineering firm. A broad synopsis of information found in Volumes II, III, and IV is presented. (MCW)

  14. Surgical management of thalamic gliomas: case selection, technical considerations, and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Thakar, Sumit; Dadlani, Ravi; Mohan, Dilip; Furtado, Sunil Valentine; Ghosal, Nandita; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify (1) the thalamic gliomas suitable for surgical resection and (2) the appropriate surgical approach based on their location and the displacement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC). A retrospective study over a 5-year period (from 2006 to 2010) was performed in 41 patients with thalamic gliomas. The mean age of these patients was 20.4 years (range, 2-65 years). Twenty (49 %) tumors were thalamic, 19 (46 %) were thalamopeduncular, and 2 (5 %) were bilateral. The PLIC, based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance axial sections, was displaced anterolaterally in 23 (56 %) cases and laterally in 6 (14 %) cases. It was involved by lesion in eight (20 %) cases and could not be identified in four (10 %) cases. Resection, favored in patients with well-defined, contrast-enhancing lesions, was performed in 34 (83 %) cases, while a biopsy was resorted to in 7 (17 %) cases. A gross total resection or near total resection (>90 %) could be achieved in 26 (63 %) cases. The middle temporal gyrus approach, used when the PLIC was displaced anterolaterally, was the commonly used approach (63.5 %). Common pathologies were pilocytic astrocytoma (58 %) in children and grade III/IV astrocytomas (86 %) in adults. Preoperative motor deficits improved in 64 % of the patients with pilocytic lesions as compared to 0 % in patients with grade III/IV lesions (P value, 0.001). Postoperatively, two patients (5 %) had marginal worsening of motor power, two patients developed visual field defects, and one patient developed a third nerve paresis. Radical resection of thalamic gliomas is a useful treatment modality in a select subset of patients and is the treatment of choice for pilocytic astrocytomas. Tailoring the surgical approach, depending on the relative position of the PLIC, has an important bearing on outcome.

  15. Surgical resection of unilateral thalamic tumors in adults: approaches and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo; Gui, Songbai

    2015-11-07

    The thalamic tumors were less common in adults and this study aimed to determine the clinical features, surgical approaches, and outcomes of adult thalamic tumors, which have not been well-described in the literature. We reviewed the clinical presentation, surgical approach, perioperative mortality and morbidity, and outcomes of 111 operated patients (71 males, 40 females; mean age at presentation, 33.4 ± 13.2 years) with unilateral thalamic tumor. The most common clinical presentations were increased intracranial pressure (65%) and motor deficits (40%). Five surgical approaches were used depending on tumor location; the most common was the transparieto-occipital approach (47.7%). According to peri- and post-operative magnetic resonance imaging findings, the tumors were totally resected in 29 cases (26.1%), subtotally resected in 54 cases (48.6%), and partially resected in 21 cases (18.9%). Five patients died during the perioperative period (4.5%, 5/111). The most common morbidity was motor deficits (21.7%, 23/106). According to histological findings, there were 50 high-grade and 61 low-grade tumors. Median survival of patients with low- and high-grade tumors were 40 and 12 months, respectively (mean follow-up, 37.3 months). Survival was significantly longer in cases of total or subtotal resection (median, 28 months) compared to partial resection or biopsy (median, 12 months). Survival was poorer in adults than in previous reported pediatrics. Surgical treatment of adult thalamic tumors must be individualized according to tumor location. Low-grade tumors and total/subtotal resection seem to be predictors of better surgical outcomes. Nevertheless, the outcome of adult patients were still worse than pediatric patients.

  16. Bulk Fuel Storage Requirements for Maintenance, Repair, and Environmental Projects at Fort Hood, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carros, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, environmental, and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  17. Reduced thalamic volume in Parkinson disease with REM sleep behavior disorder: volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, M; Cerasa, A; Arabia, G; Morelli, M; Gambardella, A; Mumoli, L; Nisticò, R; Vescio, B; Quattrone, A

    2014-09-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common non motor feature of Parkinson's Disease (PD) affecting about half the patients with this disease. Distinct structural brain tissue abnormalities have been reported in several regions modulating REM sleep of the patients with idiopathic RBD. At the present time, there are no conventional MRI studies investigating patients with PD associated with RBD. Herein, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect the neuroanatomical profile of PD patients with and without RBD. Optimized VBM was applied to the MRI brain images in 11 PD patients with RBD (PD-RBD), 11 PD patients without RBD (PD) and 18 age-and sex-matched controls. To corroborate VBM findings we used automated volumetric method (FreeSurfer) to quantify subcortical brain regions volumes. Patients and controls also underwent DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies. The VBM analysis showed markedly reduced gray matter volume in the right thalamus of PD-RBD patients in comparison with PD patients and controls. Automatic thalamic segmentation in PD-RBD patients showed a bilaterally reduced thalamic volume as compared with PD patients or controls. All PD patients (with and without RBD) showed a reduced tracer uptake on DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies as compared to controls. Our findings suggest that the presence of RBD symptoms in PD patients is associated with a reduced thalamic volume suggesting a pathophysiologic role of the thalamus in the complex circuit causing RBD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [A case of dural arteriovenous fistula associated with bilateral thalamic lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masaki; Miura, Akiko; Hirahara, Tomoo; Hirano, Teruyuki; Uchino, Makoto

    2010-10-01

    We report a 51-year-old man with a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) associated with bilateral thalamic lesions. He was admitted to our hospital because of cognitive disorder. T2-weighted MRI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence of the brain revealed symmetric hyperintense lesions of bilateral thalamus and abnormal flow void that represents the enlarged veins. Cerebral angiography demonstrated DAVF in the superior petrosal sinus (SPS). It was mainly supplied by the internal carotid arteries. The strait sinus was not revealed, and the venous drainage was retrograde into the internal cerebral vein. Therefore the mechanism of cognitive disorder in this case was considered to be vasogenic edema of the bilateral thalamus due to DAVF of SPS. We decided to treat the DAVF by embolization via the feeding arteries approach, because strait sinus was not revealed and venous approach was difficult. After embolization, the size of DAVF was remarkably reduced. His cognitive disorder was markedly improved and the hyperintense area on T2-weighted MRI and FLAIR sequence had disappeared. Cognitive disorder due to DAVF of SPS is very rare. It is also difficult to diagnose bilateral thalamic lesions as DAVF, but it may be reversible by DAVF treatment. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment is important. Like this case, abnormal flow void that represents the enlarged veins could help to diagnose bilateral thalamic lesions due to DAVF.

  19. Bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of head tremor. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Caglar; Honey, Christopher R

    2002-03-01

    Isolated head tremor is rare, but can be disabling. The authors' experience with the treatment of limb tremor due to essential tremor led them to consider using bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in two patients presenting only with disabling head tremor. One patient exhibited no peripheral tremor and the other displayed only a slight upper-limb tremor. Both patients underwent placement of units that apply simultaneous bilateral thalamic DBS. Surgical targets were verified by using intraoperative macrostimulation, and the stimulators were implanted during the same surgery. Patients were videotaped preoperatively and at 2, 4, 6, and 9 months postoperatively during periods in which the stimulators were turned on and off. Videotapes were randomized and rated for resting, postural, and action tremors according to the Fahn clinical rating scale for tremor. Because this scale is not designed for head tremor, the patients were also evaluated on the basis of a functional scale that reflected their quality of life and the amount of disability caused by head tremor. Both patients experienced no tremor after their stimulators were turned on and properly adjusted at the 6th postoperative week. The patients were followed for a total of 9 months and results remained stable throughout this period. No complications were encountered. Bilateral thalamic DBS appears to be an effective and safe treatment for isolated head tremor in patients with essential tremor. The authors present a scale for the functional assessment of head tremor.

  20. Cognitive consequences of thalamic, basal ganglia, and deep white matter lacunes in brain aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gabriel; Kövari, Enikö; Herrmann, François R; Canuto, Alessandra; Hof, Patrick R; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Bouras, Constantin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2005-06-01

    Most previous studies addressed the cognitive impact of lacunar infarcts using radiologic correlations that are known to correlate poorly with neuropathological data. Moreover, absence of systematic bilateral assessment of vascular lesions and masking effects of Alzheimer disease pathology and macrovascular lesions may explain discrepancies among previous reports. To define the relative contribution of silent lacunes to cognitive decline, we performed a detailed analysis of lacunar and microvascular pathology in both cortical and subcortical areas of 72 elderly individuals without significant neurofibrillary tangle pathology or macrovascular lesions. Cognitive status was assessed prospectively using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale; neuropathological evaluation included Abeta-protein deposition staging and bilateral assessment of microvascular ischemic pathology and lacunes; statistical analysis included multivariate models controlling for age, amyloid deposits, and microvascular pathology. Thalamic and basal ganglia lacunes were negatively associated with CDR scores; cortical microinfarcts, periventricular and diffuse white matter demyelination also significantly affected cognition. In a multivariate model, cortical microinfarcts and thalamic and basal ganglia lacunes explained 22% of CDR variability; amyloid deposits and microvascular pathology explained 12%, and the assessment of thalamic and basal ganglia lacunes added an extra 17%. Deep white matter lacunes were not related to cognitive status in univariate and multivariate models. In agreement with the recently proposed concept of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, our autopsy series provides important evidence that gray matter lacunes are independent predictors of cognitive decline in elderly individuals without concomitant dementing processes such as Alzheimer disease.

  1. Assessment of paramedian thalamic infarcts: MR imaging, clinical features and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidauer, Stefan; Zanella, Friedhelm E.; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Nichtweiss, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Considering the highly variable vascular supply of the thalamic nuclei, MRI and clinical syndromes can be heterogeneous in ischemic diseases. We attempt to determine MRI pattern and to analyse neurological features and prognosis of paramedian infarcts. In a prospective case series within 5 years from 1999 to 2003, MRI, MRA and clinical symptoms of 38 consecutive patients were analysed. The inferomedial (posterior thalamoperforating artery) territory was affected in 89%, and lesions in the anterolateral (tuberothalamic artery) territory occurred in 42%. However, definite attribution to anterolateral or inferomedial territories was not possible in 13%. Neurological manifestations were somnolence (87%), hemisyndromes (79%), cognitive deficits (58%), oculomotor nerve palsies (53%) and vertical gaze palsies (39%). The most common aetiologies were cardiac embolism (42%), intraarterial embolism (16%), small vessel disease (13%) and large artery arteriosclerosis (13%). Pathological MRA findings were encountered in 55%, and in 18%, lesions were only visible on diffusion-weighted imaging. Correlation of MRI pattern and neurological symptoms points out anterolateral thalamic lesions as the cause of amnestic deficits. Intracranial MRA allows a non-invasive prediction of basilar tip occlusion. Our results underline the necessity of additional diffusion-weighted imaging in detecting small thalamic and midbrain lesions. (orig.)

  2. Disrupted Auto-Activation, Dysexecutive and Confabulating Syndrome Following Bilateral Thalamic and Right Putaminal Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve De Witte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical, neuropsychological, structural and functional neuroimaging results are reported in a patient who developed a unique combination of symptoms after a bi-thalamic and right putaminal stroke. The symptoms consisted of dysexecutive disturbances associated with confabulating behavior and auto-activation deficits. Background: Basal ganglia and thalamic lesions may result in a variety of motor, sensory, neuropsychological and behavioral syndromes. However, the combination of a dysexecutive syndrome complicated at the behavioral level with an auto-activation and confabulatory syndrome has never been reported. Methods: Besides clinical and neuroradiological investigations, an extensive set of standardized neuropsychological tests was carried out. Results: In the post-acute phase of the stroke, a dysexecutive syndrome was found in association with confabulating behavior and auto-activation deficits. MRI showed focal destruction of both thalami and the right putamen. Quantified ECD SPECT revealed bilateral hypoperfusions in the basal ganglia and thalamus but no perfusion deficits were found at the cortical level. Conclusion: The combination of disrupted auto-activation, dysexecutive and confabulating syndrome in a single patient following isolated subcortical damage renders this case exceptional. Although these findings do not reveal a functional disruption of the striato-ventral pallidal-thalamic-frontomesial limbic circuitry, they add to the understanding of the functional role of the basal ganglia in cognitive and behavioral syndromes.

  3. OCCLUSION OF ARTERY OF PERCHERON: A RARE AETIOLOGY OF BILATERAL THALAMIC INFARCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane Makarand, Mane Priyanka, Mohite Rajsinh , Bhattad Prashant, Bangar Kushal, Mahajani Anup

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Artery of Percheron, a rare anatomical variant of brain vascularisation, arises from the posterior cerebral artery. Occlusion of this artery leads to bilateral paramedian thalamic infarct leads to dysfunction of central nervous system. Incidence of bilateral thalamic infarct secondary to occlusion of artery of Percheron is unknown because of its rarity. Here we report a case of 35 year old female presented with altered state of consciousness and the underlying cause was occlusion of Artery of Percheron which leads to bilateral thalamic infarct detected on MRI scanning. It showed hyperintensities on T2W1 and FLAIR, and hypointensity on T1W1, restricted to bilateral ventromedial thalami showing corresponding area of high signal intensity on diffusion weighted images and hypointensity on apparent diffusion coefficient images indicating diffusion restriction, suggestive of infarct. On further investigation magnetic resonance arteriogram (MRA of the brain demonstrated a single common artery arising from the left P1 segment which divided into two branches distally supplying bilateral thalami. Patient became alright after 2 weeks of medical line of treatment.

  4. Increased thalamic resting-state connectivity as a core driver of LSD-induced hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P; Lang, U; Schmidt, A; Liechti, M; Borgwardt, S

    2017-12-01

    It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches. Correlation analyses were used to explore relationships between thalamic connectivity to regions involved in auditory and visual hallucinations and subjective ratings on auditory and visual drug effects. LSD caused significant alterations in all dimensions of the 5D-ASC scale and significantly increased thalamic functional connectivity to various cortical regions. Furthermore, LSD-induced functional connectivity measures between the thalamus and the right fusiform gyrus and insula correlated significantly with subjective auditory and visual drug effects. Hallucinogenic drug effects might be provoked by facilitations of cortical excitability via thalamocortical interactions. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs and provide further insight into the role of the 5-HT 2A -receptor in altered states of consciousness. © 2017 The Authors Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. An approach to estimation of degree of customization for ERP projects using prioritized requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parthasarathy, Sudhaman; Daneva, Maia

    2016-01-01

    Customization in ERP projects is a risky, but unavoidable undertaking that companies need to initiate in order to achieve alignment between their acquired ERP solution and their organizational goals and business processes. Conscious about the risks, many companies commit to leveraging the

  6. Project innovation through exploration and exploitation: requirements practice in large-scale IS development environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, S.; Lyytinen, K.; Avital, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of new opportunities and the exploitation of existing competencies represent two competing logics for innovation and change within organizations. IS projects seeking to foster innovation need to balance these forces, and recognize the distinct role that each plays. Through its

  7. A UML Profile Oriented to the Requirements Modeling in Intelligent Tutoring Systems Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes , Gilleanes Thorwald Araujo; Vicari , Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes a proposal for the creation of a UML profile oriented to the intelligent tutoring systems project. In this paper we shall describe the proposed profile as well as its application into the modeling of the AMEA intelligent tutoring system.

  8. 76 FR 34962 - Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirements) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... meet the County's design and performance specifications is manufactured only by Daikin of Japan and... Daikin of Japan for the Haywood County Department of Social Services Adaptive Reuse, Renovation Project... individual's income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all...

  9. Do we Know Enough about Requirements Prioritization in Agile Projects: Insights from a Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racheva, Z.; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Herrmann, Andrea; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements prioritization is an essential mechanism of agile software development approaches. It maximizes the value delivered to the clients and accommodates changing requirements. This paper presents results of an exploratory cross-case study on agile prioritization and business value delivery

  10. Handling requirements dependencies in agile projects: A focus group with agile software development practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martakis, Aias; Daneva, Maia; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Jean-Louis Cavarero, S.; Rolland, C; Cavarero, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Agile practices on requirements dependencies are a relatively unexplored topic in literature. Empirical studies on it are scarce. This research sets out to uncover concepts that practitioners in companies of various sizes across the globe and in various industries, use for dealing with requirements

  11. Required doses for projection methods in X-ray diagnosis. Dosisbedarf fuer die Projektionsverfahren der Roentgendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, G. (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Zentrum Radiologie)

    1992-05-01

    The ideal dose requirement has been stated by Cohen et al. (1981) by a formula basing on parallel beam, maximum quantum yield and Bucky grid effect depending on the signal to noise ratio and object contrast. This was checked by means of contrast detail diagrams measured at the hole phantom, and was additionally compared with measurement results obtained with acrylic glass phantoms. The optimal dose requirement is obtained by the maximum technically possible approach to the ideal requirement level. Examples are given, besides for x-ray equipment with Gd[sub 2]O[sub 2]S screen film systems for grid screen mammography, and new thoracic examination systems for mass screenings. Finally, a few values concerning the dose requirement or the analogous time required for fluorscent screening in angiography and interventional radiology, are stated, as well as for dentistry and paediatric x-ray diagnostics. (orig./HP).

  12. 0-6686 : improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Limestone rock asphalt (LRA) mixtures have : been produced and placed for several decades : using specification requirements currently listed : under DMS 9210, Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA). : Several Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) distr...

  13. Thalamic involvement in the regulation of alpha EEG activity in psychiatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, S.P.; Pakula, J.; Young, I.J.; Crayton, J.W.; Konopka, L.M.; Rybak, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The thalamus is considered to be an important sub-cortical system involved in modulation of cortical activities. A relationship between thalamic activity and surface EEG was recently reported. In this study we evaluated a group of patients with psychiatric disorders who presented with asymmetric perfusion of the thalamus based on brain SPECT HMPAO studies. We predicted that asymmetrical activity of the thalamus would have asymmetrically distributed surface qEEG activity patterns. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three male psychiatric patients (age 54±14) with a primary diagnosis of depression and co-morbid substance abuse (83%) were studied with qEEG and HMPAO brain SPECT. The HMPAO ligand was administered while the EEG activity was being recorded. The SPECT analysis was conducted by means of ROI and SPM. ROI regions were determined based on the Talairach atlas coordinate system. ROI locations were verified by the automated utility, Talairach Demon. QEEG data was analyzed by a standardized protocol involving the NxLink database. Correlations between SPECT findings and qEEG absolute power were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups based on thalamic perfusion patterns. Group 1 (Gr 1) had decreased perfusion to the right thalamus whereas Group 2 (Gr 2) had decreased perfusion to the left thalamus. SPM comparison of the patient groups to normal control subjects indicated significant findings. Comparison of Gr 1 to controls showed increased activity in the left temporal lobe and vermis. Decreased activity was observed in the left and right medial frontal lobes (right Brodmann 9;left Brodmann 6) as well as the left (Brodmann 30) and right (Brodmann 24) cingulate. Gr 2 comparison showed increased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann 10) and left inferior parietal lobe. Decreased activity was found in the left inferior frontal lobe (Brodmann 47). A positive correlation between alpha power and thalamic perfusion was identified in Gr

  14. Thalamic cholinergic innervation and postural sensory integration function in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martijn L T M; Albin, Roger L; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J H; Frey, Kirk A; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2013-11-01

    The pathophysiology of postural instability in Parkinson's disease remains poorly understood. Normal postural function depends in part on the ability of the postural control system to integrate visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular sensory information. Degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine nucleus complex and their thalamic efferent terminals has been implicated in postural control deficits in Parkinson's disease. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of cholinergic terminal loss in thalamus and cortex, and nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation, on postural sensory integration function in Parkinson's disease. We studied 124 subjects with Parkinson's disease (32 female/92 male; 65.5 ± 7.4 years old; 6.0 ± 4.2 years motor disease duration; modified Hoehn and Yahr mean stage 2.4 ± 0.5) and 25 control subjects (10 female/15 male, 66.8 ± 10.1 years old). All subjects underwent (11)C-dihydrotetrabenazine vesicular monoaminergic transporter type 2 and (11)C-methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate acetylcholinesterase positron emission tomography and the sensory organization test balance platform protocol. Measures of dopaminergic and cholinergic terminal integrity were obtained, i.e. striatal vesicular monoaminergic transporter type 2 binding (distribution volume ratio) and thalamic and cortical acetylcholinesterase hydrolysis rate per minute (k3), respectively. Total centre of pressure excursion (speed), a measure of total sway, and sway variability were determined for individual sensory organization test conditions. Based on normative data, principal component analysis was performed to reduce postural sensory organization functions to robust factors for regression analysis with the dopaminergic and cholinergic terminal data. Factor analysis demonstrated two factors with eigenvalues >2 that explained 52.2% of the variance, mainly reflecting postural sway during sensory organization test Conditions 1-3 and 5, respectively. Regression

  15. Development of Occupational Safety and Health Requirement Management System (OSHREMS) Software Using Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 for Building Construction Project

    OpenAIRE

    Abas Nor Haslinda; Adman Nurjeha; Deraman Rafikullah

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry sector is considered as being risky with frequent and high accident rate. According to Social Security Organization (SOCSO), the construction accidents has arisen from time to time. Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) has developed the Safety and Health Assessment System in Construction (SHASSIC) for evaluating the performance of a contractor in construction project by setting out the safety and health management and practices, however the requirement chec...

  16. Cortically-controlled population stochastic facilitation as a plausible substrate for guiding sensory transfer across the thalamic gateway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Béhuret

    Full Text Available The thalamus is the primary gateway that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex. While a single recipient cortical cell receives the convergence of many principal relay cells of the thalamus, each thalamic cell in turn integrates a dense and distributed synaptic feedback from the cortex. During sensory processing, the influence of this functional loop remains largely ignored. Using dynamic-clamp techniques in thalamic slices in vitro, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to implement a realistic hybrid retino-thalamo-cortical pathway mixing biological cells and simulated circuits. The synaptic bombardment of cortical origin was mimicked through the injection of a stochastic mixture of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, resulting in a gradable correlation level of afferent activity shared by thalamic cells. The study of the impact of the simulated cortical input on the global retinocortical signal transfer efficiency revealed a novel control mechanism resulting from the collective resonance of all thalamic relay neurons. We show here that the transfer efficiency of sensory input transmission depends on three key features: i the number of thalamocortical cells involved in the many-to-one convergence from thalamus to cortex, ii the statistics of the corticothalamic synaptic bombardment and iii the level of correlation imposed between converging thalamic relay cells. In particular, our results demonstrate counterintuitively that the retinocortical signal transfer efficiency increases when the level of correlation across thalamic cells decreases. This suggests that the transfer efficiency of relay cells could be selectively amplified when they become simultaneously desynchronized by the cortical feedback. When applied to the intact brain, this network regulation mechanism could direct an attentional focus to specific thalamic subassemblies and select the appropriate input lines to the cortex according to the descending

  17. Thalamic haemorrhage vs internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage: clinical profile and predictors of in-hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Eroles Luis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of clinical studies focused specifically on intracerebral haemorrhages of subcortical topography, a subject matter of interest to clinicians involved in stroke management. This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a to describe the aetiological, clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with thalamic haemorrhage as compared with that of patients with internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage, and b to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with thalamic haemorrhage. Methods Forty-seven patients with thalamic haemorrhage were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 17 years. Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The region of the intracranial haemorrhage was identified on computerized tomographic (CT scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. Results Thalamic haemorrhage accounted for 1.4% of all cases of stroke (n = 3420 and 13% of intracerebral haemorrhage (n = 364. Hypertension (53.2%, vascular malformations (6.4%, haematological conditions (4.3% and anticoagulation (2.1% were the main causes of thalamic haemorrhage. In-hospital mortality was 19% (n = 9. Sensory deficit, speech disturbances and lacunar syndrome were significantly associated with thalamic haemorrhage, whereas altered consciousness (odds ratio [OR] = 39.56, intraventricular involvement (OR = 24.74 and age (OR = 1.23, were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion One in 8 patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage had a thalamic hematoma. Altered consciousness, intraventricular extension of the hematoma and advanced age were determinants of a poor early outcome.

  18. argos Is required for projection of photoreceptor axons during optic lobe development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, K; Okabe, M; Tanimura, T; Hayashi, S; Mikoshiba, K; Okano, H

    1996-02-01

    The Drosophila argos gene encodes a secreted protein with an epidermal growth factor (EGF) motif, which acts as an inhibitor of cell recruitment in the developing eye and wing. Here, we have analyzed the role of argos during optic lobe development. argos expression was observed in the optic lobes throughout the developmental stages. In argos mutants, neuropiles failed to develop normally during embryonic and larval stages, and photoreceptor axons did not project properly into the lamina. Ubiquitous expression of argos, under control of the hsp70 promoter, rescued the defects in optic lobes. We have found that glial cells failed to differentiate in the larval optic lobes of argos mutants. Correspondingly, in loss-of-function repo mutants, whose glial cells also fail to differentiate, photoreceptor axons showed the impaired projection pattern similar to the argos phenotype. These results suggest that glial cells play a role for guidance of photoreceptor axons. The loss-of-function Star mutation (StarX155) dominantly suppressed the defects in the argos optic lobes, suggesting that these two genes act in an antagonistic fashion during optic lobe development.

  19. A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Pankaj Kumar; Mazumdar, Asis [Jadavpur Univ. (India). School of Water Resources Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

  20. Quality requirements in large-scale distributed agile projects - A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsaqaf, W.; Daneva, M.; Wieringa, R.; Grünbacher, Paul; Perini, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Context and Motivation: Agile development methods have become increasingly popular in the last years. However, these methods hardly pay attention to quality requirements (QRs), which could undermine the profits of fast delivery by introducing high rework efforts later on. This risk is high

  1. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development - Project report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredrikson, R.; Thunem, A.P.J. [Institute for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    In 2004, the work has focused on providing a unified exposition on the issues studied and thereby facilitating a common approach to requirements handling, from their origins and through the different development phases. Emphasis has been put on the development of the TACO Traceability Model. The model supports understandability, communication and traceability by providing a common basis, in the form of a requirements change history, for different kinds of analysis and presentation of different requirements perspectives. Traceability is facilitated through the representation of requirements changes in terms of a change history tree built up by composition of instances of a number of change types, and by providing analysis on the basis of this representation. Much of the strength of the TACO Traceability Model is that it aims at forming the logic needed for formalising the activities related to change management and hence their further automation. The work was presented at the second TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Helsinki on the 8th of December 2004. Minutes of the seminar are included in appendix B. (au)

  2. An Ultrastructural Study of the Thalamic Input to Layer 4 of Primary Motor and Primary Somatosensory Cortex in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Rita; Holler-Rickauer, Simone; Martin, Kevan A C; Schuhknecht, Gregor F P

    2017-03-01

    The traditional classification of primary motor cortex (M1) as an agranular area has been challenged recently when a functional layer 4 (L4) was reported in M1. L4 is the principal target for thalamic input in sensory areas, which raises the question of how thalamocortical synapses formed in M1 in the mouse compare with those in neighboring sensory cortex (S1). We identified thalamic boutons by their immunoreactivity for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) and performed unbiased disector counts from electron micrographs. We discovered that the thalamus contributed proportionately only half as many synapses to the local circuitry of L4 in M1 compared with S1. Furthermore, thalamic boutons in M1 targeted spiny dendrites exclusively, whereas ∼9% of synapses were formed with dendrites of smooth neurons in S1. VGluT2 + boutons in M1 were smaller and formed fewer synapses per bouton on average (1.3 vs 2.1) than those in S1, but VGluT2 + synapses in M1 were larger than in S1 (median postsynaptic density areas of 0.064 μm 2 vs 0.042 μm 2 ). In M1 and S1, thalamic synapses formed only a small fraction (12.1% and 17.2%, respectively) of all of the asymmetric synapses in L4. The functional role of the thalamic input to L4 in M1 has largely been neglected, but our data suggest that, as in S1, the thalamic input is amplified by the recurrent excitatory connections of the L4 circuits. The lack of direct thalamic input to inhibitory neurons in M1 may indicate temporal differences in the inhibitory gating in L4 of M1 versus S1. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Classical interpretations of the function of primary motor cortex (M1) emphasize its lack of the granular layer 4 (L4) typical of sensory cortices. However, we show here that, like sensory cortex (S1), mouse M1 also has the canonical circuit motif of a core thalamic input to the middle cortical layer and that thalamocortical synapses form a small fraction (M1: 12%; S1: 17%) of all asymmetric synapses in L4 of both areas

  3. MINERVE flood warning and management project. What is computed, what is required and what is visualized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Hernandez, J.; Boillat, J.-L.; Schleiss, A.

    2010-09-01

    During last decades several flood events caused important inundations in the Upper Rhone River basin in Switzerland. As a response to such disasters, the MINERVE project aims to improve the security by reducing damages in this basin. The main goal of this project is to predict floods in advance in order to obtain a better flow control during flood peaks taking advantage from the multireservoir system of the existing hydropower schemes. The MINERVE system evaluates the hydro-meteorological situation on the watershed and provides hydrological forecasts with a horizon from three to five days. It exploits flow measurements, data from reservoirs and hydropower plants as well as deterministic (COSMO-7 and COSMO-2) and ensemble (COSMO-LEPS) meteorological forecast from MeteoSwiss. The hydrological model is based on a semi-distributed concept, dividing the watershed in 239 sub-catchments, themselves decomposed in elevation bands in order to describe the temperature-driven processes related to snow and glacier melt. The model is completed by rivers and hydraulic works such as water intakes, reservoirs, turbines and pumps. Once the hydrological forecasts are calculated, a report provides the warning level at selected control points according to time, being a support to decision-making for preventive actions. A Notice, Alert or Alarm is then activated depending on the discharge thresholds defined by the Valais Canton. Preventive operation scenarios are then generated based on observed discharge at control points, meteorological forecasts from MeteoSwiss, hydrological forecasts from MINERVE and retention possibilities in the reservoirs. An update of the situation is done every time new data or new forecasts are provided, keeping last observations and last forecasts in the warning report. The forecasts can also be used for the evaluation of priority decisions concerning the management of hydropower plants for security purposes. Considering future inflows and reservoir levels

  4. Distributed project scheduling at NASA: Requirements for manual protocols and computer-based support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephen F.

    1992-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of Space Shuttle mission planning.

  5. Supplemental design requirements document, Multifunction Waste Tank Facility, Project W-236A. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) consists of four, nominal 1 million gallon, underground double-shell tanks, located in the 200-East area, and two tanks of the same capacity in the 200-West area. MWTF will provide environmentally safe storage capacity for wastes generated during remediation/retrieval activities of existing waste storage tanks. This document delineates in detail the information to be used for effective implementation of the Functional Design Criteria requirements

  6. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors based on projections in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonovsky, G.M.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Kurachenkov, A.V.; Novikov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering (OKBM) specializes in the development of small and medium power reactors having different purposes. They include reactor plants for NPHPP, nuclear district heating power plants and propulsion plants. Small and medium power plants have simpler processes of electricity and heat production, less systems, simpler control algorithms and considerably enhanced inherent safety properties. These plants are mainly equipped with passive safety systems. These properties are especially characteristic for reactor plants of nuclear district heating power plants and HTG reactor plants. The designs of small and medium power plants actually provide a high degree of control automation which considerably reduces workload on the personnel in both normal and abnormal operation conditions. All this allows the reduction in personnel for small and medium power reactors if compared to high capacity reactor plants. But due to objective reasons the specific number of personnel (man/MW) for average and especially small capacity reactors considerably exceeds the value for high capacity reactor plants. At the same time one can propose a set of organization - technical measures allowing the increase in this value in future. Safety requirements imposed for small and average capacity reactors are the same or more strict than those for high capacity reactors. That's why the requirements to the training of personnel for such reactor plants are not allowed to be lowered if compared to the requirements imposed to the personnel of high capacity reactors. (author)

  7. Mediodorsal Thalamic Neurons Mirror the Activity of Medial Prefrontal Neurons Responding to Movement and Reinforcement during a Dynamic DNMTP Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rikki L A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Gibson, Brett M; Mair, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al., 2016). Criterion event-related responses were observed for 22% (254/1179) of neurons recorded in MD, 237 (93%) of which exhibited activity consistent with mPFC response types. More MD than mPFC neurons exhibited responses related to movement (45% vs. 29%) and reinforcement (51% vs. 27%). MD had few responses related to lever presses, and none related to preparation or memory delay, which constituted 43% of event-related activity in mPFC. Comparison of averaged normalized population activity and population response times confirmed the broad similarity of common response types in MD and mPFC and revealed differences in the onset and offset of some response types. Our results show that MD represents information about actions and outcomes essential for decision-making during dDNMTP, consistent with evidence from lesion studies that MD supports reward-based learning and action-selection. These findings support the hypothesis that MD reinforces task-relevant neural activity in PFC that gives rise to adaptive behavior.

  8. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  9. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors (SMRs) based on operating experience and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the time of this study there were about 160 small and medium sized nuclear power reactors (referred to as SMRs) in operation worldwide, and about 25 more under construction. Operation and maintenance costs for operating SMRs represent a substantial portion of the cost of electricity produced. Of these costs, the direct and indirect cost of staff represents the major cost component. In recent years, particularly since 1990, there has been increased interest in SMRs by many developing countries wishing to take advantage of nuclear power and several small and medium reactor designs are in various stages of development. To enhance the economic competitive position of SMRs relative to alternative methods of electricity generation, it is essential to ensure that new SMRs can be operated reliably and efficiently using the optimum number of staff. This publication reviews the lessons learned from the reactor operation, and the insights gained through the design of new SMRs, with a view to optimizing staffing in order to improve overall plant economics without compromising safety.This publication is intended to evaluate the estimated staffing size of various SMRs, the staff qualification and training required for the operation of future SMRs. and the key issues which impact the staffing requirements that should be considered in the development and deployment of future SMRs

  10. Hippocampal-thalamic wiring in medial temporal lobe epilepsy: Enhanced connectivity per hippocampal voxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelacker, Vera; Valabregue, Romain; Thivard, Lionel; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Baulac, Michel; Samson, Séverine; Dupont, Sophie

    2015-08-01

    Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis is often accompanied by widespread changes in ipsilateral and contralateral white matter connectivity. Recent studies have proposed that patients may show pathologically enhanced wiring of the limbic circuits. To better address this issue, we specifically probed connection patterns between hippocampus and thalamus and examined their impact on cognitive function. A group of 44 patients with TLE (22 with right and 22 with left hippocampal sclerosis) and 24 healthy control participants were examined with high-resolution T1 imaging, memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and probabilistic diffusion tractography. Thirty-four patients had further extensive neuropsychological testing. After whole brain segmentation with FreeSurfer, tractography streamline samples were drawn with hippocampus as the seed and thalamus as the target region. Two tractography strategies were applied: The first targeted the anatomic thalamic volume segmented in FreeSurfer and the second a functional region of interest in the mediodorsal thalamus derived from the activation during delayed recognition memory. We found a pronounced enhancement of connectivity between the sclerotic hippocampus and the ipsilateral thalamus both in the right and left TLE as compared to healthy control participants. This finding held for both the anatomically and the functionally defined thalamic target. Although differences were apparent in the number of absolute fibers, they were most pronounced when correcting for hippocampal volume. In terms of cognitive function, the number of hippocampal-thalamic connections was negatively correlated with performance in a variety of executive tasks, notably in the Trail Making Test, thus suggesting that the pathologic wiring did not compensate cognitive curtailing. We suggest that TLE is accompanied by an abnormal and dysfunctional enhancement of connectivity between the hippocampus and the thalamus

  11. Abnormal functional integration of thalamic low frequency oscillation in the BOLD signal after acute heroin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Niklaus; Schmidt, André; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin. Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction. Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Thalamic functional connectivity predicts seizure laterality in individual TLE patients: application of a biomarker development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel S; Fox, Peter T; Pardoe, Heath; Lancaster, Jack; Price, Larry R; Blackmon, Karen; Berry, Kristen; Cavazos, Jose E; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive markers of brain function could yield biomarkers in many neurological disorders. Disease models constrained by coordinate-based meta-analysis are likely to increase this yield. Here, we evaluate a thalamic model of temporal lobe epilepsy that we proposed in a coordinate-based meta-analysis and extended in a diffusion tractography study of an independent patient population. Specifically, we evaluated whether thalamic functional connectivity (resting-state fMRI-BOLD) with temporal lobe areas can predict seizure onset laterality, as established with intracranial EEG. Twenty-four lesional and non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. No significant differences in functional connection strength in patient and control groups were observed with Mann-Whitney Tests (corrected for multiple comparisons). Notwithstanding the lack of group differences, individual patient difference scores (from control mean connection strength) successfully predicted seizure onset zone as shown in ROC curves: discriminant analysis (two-dimensional) predicted seizure onset zone with 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity; logistic regression (four-dimensional) achieved 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The strongest markers in both analyses were left thalamo-hippocampal and right thalamo-entorhinal cortex functional connection strength. Thus, this study shows that thalamic functional connections are sensitive and specific markers of seizure onset laterality in individual temporal lobe epilepsy patients. This study also advances an overall strategy for the programmatic development of neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical and genetic populations: a disease model informed by coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to anatomically constrain individual patient analyses.

  13. Visual Acuity of Simulated Thalamic Visual Prostheses in Normally Sighted Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Ailsa; Pezaris, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Simulation in normally sighted individuals is a crucial tool to evaluate the performance of potential visual prosthesis designs prior to human implantation of a device. Here, we investigated the effects of electrode count on visual acuity, learning rate and response time in 16 normally sighted subjects using a simulated thalamic visual prosthesis, providing the first performance reports for thalamic designs. A new letter recognition paradigm using a multiple-optotype two-alternative forced choice task was adapted from the Snellen eye chart, and specifically devised to be readily communicated to both human and non-human primate subjects. Validation of the method against a standard Snellen acuity test in 21 human subjects showed no significant differences between the two tests. The novel task was then used to address three questions about simulations of the center-weighted phosphene patterns typical of thalamic designs: What are the expected Snellen acuities for devices with varying numbers of contacts, do subjects display rapid adaptation to the new visual modality, and can response time in the task provide clues to the mechanisms of perception in low-resolution artificial vision? Population performance (hit rate) was significantly above chance when viewing Snellen 20/200 optotypes (Log MAR 1.0) with 370 phosphenes in the central 10 degrees of vision, ranging to Snellen 20/800 (Log MAR 1.6) with 25 central phosphenes. Furthermore, subjects demonstrated learning within the 1–2 hours of task experience indicating the potential for an effective rehabilitation and possibly better visual performance after a longer period of training. Response time differences suggest that direct letter perception occurred when hit rate was above 75%, whereas a slower strategy like feature-based pattern matching was used in conditions of lower relative resolution. As pattern matching can substantially boost effective acuity, these results suggest post-implant therapy should specifically

  14. Visual acuity of simulated thalamic visual prostheses in normally sighted humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béchir Bourkiza

    Full Text Available Simulation in normally sighted individuals is a crucial tool to evaluate the performance of potential visual prosthesis designs prior to human implantation of a device. Here, we investigated the effects of electrode count on visual acuity, learning rate and response time in 16 normally sighted subjects using a simulated thalamic visual prosthesis, providing the first performance reports for thalamic designs. A new letter recognition paradigm using a multiple-optotype two-alternative forced choice task was adapted from the Snellen eye chart, and specifically devised to be readily communicated to both human and non-human primate subjects. Validation of the method against a standard Snellen acuity test in 21 human subjects showed no significant differences between the two tests. The novel task was then used to address three questions about simulations of the center-weighted phosphene patterns typical of thalamic designs: What are the expected Snellen acuities for devices with varying numbers of contacts, do subjects display rapid adaptation to the new visual modality, and can response time in the task provide clues to the mechanisms of perception in low-resolution artificial vision? Population performance (hit rate was significantly above chance when viewing Snellen 20/200 optotypes (Log MAR 1.0 with 370 phosphenes in the central 10 degrees of vision, ranging to Snellen 20/800 (Log MAR 1.6 with 25 central phosphenes. Furthermore, subjects demonstrated learning within the 1-2 hours of task experience indicating the potential for an effective rehabilitation and possibly better visual performance after a longer period of training. Response time differences suggest that direct letter perception occurred when hit rate was above 75%, whereas a slower strategy like feature-based pattern matching was used in conditions of lower relative resolution. As pattern matching can substantially boost effective acuity, these results suggest post-implant therapy

  15. Thalamic metabolic alterations with cognitive dysfunction in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: a multivoxel spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Faxiu; Ma, Shaohui; Guo, Chenguang; Jin, Chenwang; Zhang, Ming [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Li, Dan [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-08-15

    Although abnormalities in metabolite compositions in the thalamus are well described in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN), differences in distinct thalamic subregions have not been measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), and whether there are correlations between thalamic metabolites and cognitive function still remain unknown. Multivoxel MRS was recorded to investigate the metabolic alterations in the thalamic subregions of patients with ITN. The regions of interest were localized in the anterior thalamus (A-Th), intralaminar portion of the thalamus (IL-Th), posterior lateral thalamus (PL-Th), posterior medial thalamus (PM-Th), and medial and lateral pulvinar of the thalamus (PuM-Th and PuL-Th). The N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline to creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were measured in the ITN and control groups. Scores of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were analyzed to correlate with the neuroradiological findings. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected side of PM-Th and PL-Th in ITN patients was statistically lower than that in the corresponding regions of the thalamus in controls. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected PM-Th was negatively associated with VAS and disease duration. Furthermore, decreases of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were detected in the affected side of IL-Th, and lower Cho/Cr was positively correlated with MoCA values in the ITN group. Our result of low level of NAA/Cr in the affected PM-Th probably serves as a marker of the pain-rating index, and decreased Cho/Cr in IL-Th may be an indicator of cognitive disorder in patients with ITN. (orig.)

  16. Sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity in early thalamic injuries: Study in a large series (60 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Emma; Battaglia, Domenica; Chieffo, Daniela; Raponi, Matteo; Ranalli, Domiziana; Contaldo, Ilaria; Giansanti, Cristina; De Clemente, Valentina; Quintiliani, Michela; Antichi, Eleonora; Verdolotti, Tommaso; de Waure, Chiara; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Mercuri, Eugenio; Guzzetta, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at a better definition of continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) with an early thalamic lesion, focusing on various grades of sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity (SPEA). Their possible relationship with different clinical features was studied to try to define prognostic factors of the epileptic disorder, especially relating to behavior/cognitive outcome, in order to improve prevention and treatment strategies. Sixty patients with early thalamic injury were followed since the first registration of SPEA with serial neurological, long term EEG monitoring and neuropsychological examinations, as well as neuroimaging and a detailed clinical history. They were classified in three different groups according to the sleep spike-waves (SW) quantification: electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES), more than 85% of slow sleep; overactivation between 50% and 85% and simple activation between 10 and 50%). Results were then examined also with a statistical analysis. In our series of CSWS occurring in early brain injured children with unilateral thalamic involvement there is a common neuropathologic origin but with various grades of SPEA severity. Statistical analysis showed that patients evolving toward ESES presented more commonly the involvement of the mediodorsal part of thalamus nuclei and a bilateral cortico-subcortical brain injury, epilepsy was more severe with a delayed onset; moreover, in the acute stage .ESES patients presented the worst behavior/cognitive performances. As to cognitive and behavior outcome, longer SPEA duration as well as bilateral brain injury and cognitive/behavior impairment in acute phase appear linked to a poor outcome; some particular neuropathology (ischemic stroke and haemorrhagic infarction) as well as hydrocephalus shunting are associated with behavior disorders. Discrete features seem to support different underlying mechanisms in ESES patients in comparison with less severe SPEA; they represent negative

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical perfusion in response to thalamic deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Sohail; Murari, Kartikeya; McCracken, Clinton B; Kiss, Zelma H T

    2016-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has revolutionized the treatment of movement disorders. The parameters of electrical stimulation are important to its therapeutic effect and remain a source of clinical controversy. DBS exerts its actions not only locally at the site of stimulation but also remotely through afferent and efferent connections, which are vital to its clinical effects. Yet, only a few studies have examined how cortical activity changes in response to various electrical parameters. Here, we investigated how the parameters of thalamic DBS alter cortical perfusion in rats using intrinsic optical imaging. We hypothesized that thalamic DBS will increase perfusion in primary motor cortex (M1), proportional to amplitude, pulse width, or frequency of the stimulation applied. We applied 45 different combinations of amplitude, pulse width and frequency in the ventro-lateral (VL) nucleus of the thalamus in anesthetized rats while measuring perfusion in M1. VL thalamic DBS reduced cortical reflectance, which corresponds to an increase in cortical perfusion. We computed the maximum change in reflectance (MCR) as well as the spatial spread of MCR in each trial. Both MCR and spatial spread increased linearly with increases in current amplitude or pulse width of stimulation; however, the effect of frequency was non-linear. Stimulation at 20 Hz was significantly different from that at higher frequencies while stimulation at higher frequencies did not differ significantly from each other. Moreover, the effect of pulse width on MCR was larger than the effect of amplitude. The proportional increase in M1 perfusion due to increase in amplitude or pulse width suggests that both activate more neural elements and increase the volume of tissue activated. These results should help clinicians set parameters of DBS. The use of optical imaging to monitor effects of DBS on M1 may not only help understand DBS mechanisms, but may also provide feedback for closed loop DBS devices

  18. The treatment of brain stem and thalamic gliomas with 78 Gy of hyperfractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prados, Michael D.; Wara, William M.; Edwards, Michael S. B.; Larson, David A.; Lamborn, Kathleen; Levin, Victor A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To see whether increasing the dose of hyperfractionated radiation therapy from 72 to 78 Gy would increase survival time in patients with gliomas, particularly those with brain stem or thalamic tumors. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of a brain stem or thalamic glioma were enrolled in a trial to receive 78 Gy (1.0 Gy twice a day). Six patients with disease in other sites were also treated. The initial response to therapy was determined by comparing pretreatment magnetic resonance images and neurological examinations with those obtained within 2 weeks of completing therapy; subsequent responses were determined from bimonthly follow-up images. Time-to-tumor progression was measured from the date radiation therapy began until the date of documented radiographic or clinical progression. Survival time was measured from the date radiation therapy began until the date of death. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate the effects of specific variables on survival. Results: Of 81 evaluable patients, 68 received ≥ 76 Gy, 10 received between 70 and 75 Gy, and 3 received between 60 and 68 Gy. The overall response or stabilization rate was 70.4%. Tumor size decreased in 30.8% of patients; 39.5% had stable disease, and 29.6% had immediate progression. The median survival time was 12.7 months (16.1 months for adults and 10.8 months for children). The median time to tumor progression was 9.0 months (11.4 months for adults and 8.4 months for children). A duration of symptoms ≤ 2 months and a diffuse lesion were each associated with shorter survival and progression times. Conclusions: For patients with brain stem or thalamic gliomas, increasing the dose of radiation therapy from 72 to 78 Gy did not significantly improve survival. Different treatment strategies are clearly needed

  19. Thalamic hemorrhage in a 4-year-old child induced by nephro-vascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, E.; Savasta, S.; Torcetta, F.; Solmi, M.; Beluffi, G.; Gajno, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    A child affected by cardiomyopathy from the age of 12 months suddenly manifested right hemiparesis and dysarthria at the age of 48/12 years. Emergency brain CT showed a hemorrhage in progress in the left thalamic area. A serve from of hypertension was concomitant and resisted all pharmacological treatment. Retrograde transfemural aortography pointed out an atrophy of the right renal artery. This finding, together with the high renin and aldosterone values, indicated a nephrogenic hypertension causing both the cardiomyopathy found at 12 months of age and the endocranial hermorrhage. Right nephrectomy led to the normalization of blood pressure. (orig.)

  20. No specific thalamic influence on cell composition, sugar or electrolytes of peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernesniemi, J; Laitinen, L

    Cellular components, blood sugar, and serum electrolyte concentrations of chloride, sodium and potassium were analyzed serially in 20 patients who underwent either stereotactic thalamotomy, frontal internal capsulotomy or subcaudate tractotomy. No significant changes were seen during the interventions either after electrical stimulation or coagulation of the target area, but 3 h after the operation the neutrophile granulocyte count was significantly raised. This reaction reached a peak by the morning of the first posoperative day. Other cellular elements, blood sugar, and serum electrolytes remained unchanged. We believe that the leukocytosis is not a specific effect of the thalamic lesions, but a nonspecific stress reaction, similar to that seen after air encephalography.

  1. Capsular and thalamic infarction caused by tentorial herniation subsequent to head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Ichikawa, F.; Miyasaka, Y.; Yada, K.; Ohwada, T.

    1991-01-01

    Five patients (4 male and 1 female) were observed to have capsular and thalamic infarction ascribed to descending transtentorial herniation (DTH) caused by head injury. A lucid interval immediately after the trauma and the presence of an epidural hematoma (EDH) characterized all five case. The low attenuation implicated the perforating arteries, that is the anterior thalamoperforating and anterior choroidal arteries, suggesting infarcted regions caused by occlusion of these arteries. Findings in the present study suggest that arterial occlusion in closed head injury may result from DTH. Moreover, infarction may be attributed to the delayed effects of injury. (orig./GDG)

  2. Thalamic hemorrhage in a 4-year-old child induced by nephro-vascular hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, E.; Savasta, S.; Torcetta, F.; Solmi, M.; Beluffi, G.; Gajno, T.M.

    1989-08-01

    A child affected by cardiomyopathy from the age of 12 months suddenly manifested right hemiparesis and dysarthria at the age of 48/12 years. Emergency brain CT showed a hemorrhage in progress in the left thalamic area. A serve from of hypertension was concomitant and resisted all pharmacological treatment. Retrograde transfemural aortography pointed out an atrophy of the right renal artery. This finding, together with the high renin and aldosterone values, indicated a nephrogenic hypertension causing both the cardiomyopathy found at 12 months of age and the endocranial hermorrhage. Right nephrectomy led to the normalization of blood pressure. (orig.).

  3. Combined thalamic and subthalamic deep brain stimulation for tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Markus F; Schüpbach, W Michael M; Ghika, Joseph-André; Stieglitz, Lennart H; Fiechter, Michael; Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Raabe, Andreas; Pollo, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the thalamic ventral intermediate (Vim) or the subthalamic nucleus (STN) reportedly improves medication-refractory Parkinson's disease (PD) tremor. However, little is known about the potential synergic effects of combined Vim and STN DBS. We describe a 79-year-old man with medication-refractory tremor-dominant PD. Bilateral Vim DBS electrode implantation produced insufficient improvement. Therefore, the patient underwent additional unilateral left-sided STN DBS. Whereas Vim or STN stimulation alone led to partial improvement, persisting tremor resolution occurred after simultaneous stimulation. The combination of both targets may have a synergic effect and is an alternative option in suitable cases.

  4. Projected Irrigation Requirement Under Climate Change in Korean Peninsula by Apply Global Hydrologic Model to Local Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Lee, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding spatial distribution of irrigation requirement is critically important for agricultural water management. However, many studies considering future agricultural water management in Korea assessed irrigation requirement on watershed or administrative district scale, but have not accounted the spatial distribution. Lumped hydrologic model has typically used in Korea for simulating watershed scale irrigation requirement, while distribution hydrologic model can simulate the spatial distribution grid by grid. To overcome this shortcoming, here we applied a grid base global hydrologic model (H08) into local scale to estimate spatial distribution under future irrigation requirement of Korean Peninsula. Korea is one of the world's most densely populated countries, with also high produce and demand of rice which requires higher soil moisture than other crops. Although, most of the precipitation concentrate in particular season and disagree with crop growth season. This precipitation character makes management of agricultural water which is approximately 60% of total water usage critical issue in Korea. Furthermore, under future climate change, the precipitation predicted to be more concentrated and necessary need change of future water management plan. In order to apply global hydrological model into local scale, we selected appropriate major crops under social and local climate condition in Korea to estimate cropping area and yield, and revised the cropping area map more accurately. As a result, future irrigation requirement estimation varies under each projection, however, slightly decreased in most case. The simulation reveals, evapotranspiration increase slightly while effective precipitation also increase to balance the irrigation requirement. This finding suggest practical guideline to decision makers for further agricultural water management plan including future development of water supply plan to resolve water scarcity.

  5. Continuing professional development systems and requirements for graduate dentists in the EU: survey results from the DentCPD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, A; Bailey, S; Cowpe, J; Barnes, E; Thomas, H; Thomas, R; Phillips, S; Kavadella, A; Kossioni, A; Tsiklakis, K; Karaharju-Suvanto, T; Suomalainen, K; Kersten, H; Povel, E; Giles, M; Walmsley, A D; Soboleva, U; Liepa, A; Akota, I

    2013-05-01

    By maintaining skills and keeping dentists up-to-date, continuing professional development (CPD) supports safe clinical practice. However, CPD for dentists across Europe is not harmonised. One aim of the 'DentCPD' project (www.dentcpd.org) was to identify and agree essential CPD requirements for EU dentists. As part of the process, data were collected on existing approaches to CPD for EU dentists. This paper reports those findings. Informed by a review of the literature and internet search, the CPD for Graduate Dentists questionnaire gathered data from dental educators on CPD systems, requirements, provision and accreditation in Europe. It sought opinion on mandatory CPD and e-learning. Responses were received from 143 individuals from 30 EU countries. About half the countries had a compulsory CPD system which typically included mandatory core topics. Elsewhere CPD was optional or based on recommended hours. University dental schools and professional dental associations were the most common CPD providers. National regulatory bodies were the most common accrediting body. Only 41% of respondents thought they knew the criteria for successful accreditation of CPD. Eighty-one percent agreed that 'CPD should be obligatory for all dentists'. These results present an overview of the status of CPD for EU dentists. Despite a notable trend towards regulated CPD systems, current requirements for dentists to engage in CPD show variation. The harmonisation of requirements would enhance both dentist mobility and safe clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Shh/Boc signaling is required for sustained generation of ipsilateral projecting ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Nieto-Lopez, Francisco; Sánchez-Camacho, Cristina; Carreres, M Isabel; Herrera, Eloisa; Okada, Ami; Bovolenta, Paola

    2013-05-15

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is an important determinant of vertebrate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) development. In mice, there are two major RGC populations: (1) the Islet2-expressing contralateral projecting (c)RGCs, which both produce and respond to Shh; and (2) the Zic2-expressing ipsilateral projecting RGCs (iRGCs), which lack Shh expression. In contrast to cRGCs, iRGCs, which are generated in the ventrotemporal crescent (VTC) of the retina, specifically express Boc, a cell adhesion molecule that acts as a high-affinity receptor for Shh. In Boc(-/-) mutant mice, the ipsilateral projection is significantly decreased. Here, we demonstrate that this phenotype results, at least in part, from the misspecification of a proportion of iRGCs. In Boc(-/-) VTC, the number of Zic2-positive RGCs is reduced, whereas more Islet2/Shh-positive RGCs are observed, a phenotype also detected in Zic2 and Foxd1 null embryos. Consistent with this observation, organization of retinal projections at the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus is altered in Boc(-/-) mice. Analyses of the molecular and cellular consequences of introducing Shh into the developing VTC and Zic2 and Boc into the central retina indicate that Boc expression alone is insufficient to fully activate the ipsilateral program and that Zic2 regulates Shh expression. Taking these data together, we propose that expression of Boc in cells from the VTC is required to sustain Zic2 expression, likely by regulating the levels of Shh signaling from the nearby cRGCs. Zic2, in turn, directly or indirectly, counteracts Shh and Islet2 expression in the VTC and activates the ipsilateral program.

  7. A case of herpes simplex encephalitis(HSE) with a thalamic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Katsuya; Koike, Ryoko; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Miyatake, Tadashi; Ito, Jusuke.

    1987-01-01

    A case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) with thalamic involvement was reported. The patient, a 27-year-old man, was admitted because of abnormal behavior and fever. He exhibited a disturbance of consciousness, meningial signs, and hyperreflexia. A CT scan of the head revealed diffuse brain edema. Acute encephalitis, especially HSE, was suspected, and so the intravenous administration of acyclovir and steroid therapy were started. The titer of herpes simplex Type 1 virus, as measured by CF and ELISA, was found to have increased amounts of serum and cerebrospinal fluid. 5 days after the onset, his consciousness worsened. He could not tell his name and scarely opened his eyes upon pain stimulation. A CT scan at this time showed low-density lesions in the left thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and the posterior portion of the putamen. About 5 days later, his consciousness level was increased, but he was mute. This symptom was thought to be thalamic aphasia, which might be correlative with the low-density lesions shown in the left thalamus by the CT scan. About 30 days after the onset of the disease, his speech became normal, and a CT scan at 51 hospital days showed no abnormality. The etiology of low-density lesions of the left thalamus in the CT scan is speculated to be as follows: firstly, vascular damage of circulation disturbance, and secondly a special affinity of herpes simplex Type 1 virus to the thalamus. (author)

  8. Clinical appraisal of stereotactic hematoma aspiration surgery for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koji; Matsumoto, Keizo

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage were managed by medical treatment, ventricular drainage, or CT-controlled stereotactic aspiration surgery (AS). The therapeutic results of the 6-month outcome were analyzed and correlated with the volume of the hematoma. A hematoma volume of 20 ml was thought to be the critical size in determining whether the outcome would be favorable or unfavorable. Indications for AS are suggested as follows. In patients with a small-sized hematoma having a volume of less than 10 ml use of AS should be restricted to patients with severe paralysis or other neurological complications and the elderly (aged 70 years or older). For patients with a medium-sized hematoma having a volume between 10 ml and 20 ml, AS is indicated for patients having severe paralysis and disturbances of consciousness. For patients with a large-sized hematoma having a volume of 20 ml or more, AS increases not only the survival rate of patients but also reduces the number of bedridden patients. We conclude that AS opens up a new avenue of surgical treatment for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage, which has been no indication for hematoma evacuation by conventional craniotomy. (author)

  9. Dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fabián; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold.

  10. Sleep spindles are related to schizotypal personality traits and thalamic glutamine/glutamate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Pugin, Fiona; Tüshaus, Laura; Wehrle, Flavia; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether sleep spindles and Glx levels are related to schizotypal personality traits in healthy subjects. Twenty young male subjects underwent 2 all-night sleep electroencephalography recordings (128 electrodes). Sleep spindles were detected automatically. After those 2 nights, thalamic Glx levels were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects completed a magical ideation scale to assess schizotypy. Sleep spindle density was negatively correlated with magical ideation (r = -.64, P .1). The common relationship of sleep spindle density with schizotypy and thalamic Glx levels indicates a neurobiological overlap between nonclinical schizotypy and schizophrenia. Thus, sleep spindle density and magical ideation may reflect the anatomy and efficiency of the thalamo-cortical system that shows pronounced impairment in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. T-type calcium channels consolidate tonic action potential output of thalamic neurons to neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, Charlotte; David, François; Béhuret, Sébastien; Sadoc, Gérard; Shin, Hee-Sup; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lambert, Régis C; Leresche, Nathalie; Bal, Thierry

    2012-08-29

    The thalamic output during different behavioral states is strictly controlled by the firing modes of thalamocortical neurons. During sleep, their hyperpolarized membrane potential allows activation of the T-type calcium channels, promoting rhythmic high-frequency burst firing that reduces sensory information transfer. In contrast, in the waking state thalamic neurons mostly exhibit action potentials at low frequency (i.e., tonic firing), enabling the reliable transfer of incoming sensory inputs to cortex. Because of their nearly complete inactivation at the depolarized potentials that are experienced during the wake state, T-channels are not believed to modulate tonic action potential discharges. Here, we demonstrate using mice brain slices that activation of T-channels in thalamocortical neurons maintained in the depolarized/wake-like state is critical for the reliable expression of tonic firing, securing their excitability over changes in membrane potential that occur in the depolarized state. Our results establish a novel mechanism for the integration of sensory information by thalamocortical neurons and point to an unexpected role for T-channels in the early stage of information processing.

  12. Human Thalamic-Prefrontal Peduncle Connectivity Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Fiber Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The thalamic-prefrontal peduncle (TPP is a large bundle connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. The definitive structure and function of the TPP are still controversial. To investigate the connectivity and segmentation patterns of the TPP, we employed diffusion spectrum imaging with generalized q-sampling reconstruction to perform both subject-specific and template-based analyses. Our results confirmed the trajectory and spatial relationship of the TPP in the human brain and identified the connection areas in the prefrontal cortex. The TPP-connecting areas identified based on Brodmann areas (BAs were BAs 8–11 and 45–47. Based on the automated anatomical atlas, these areas were the medial superior frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, pars triangularis, pars orbitalis, anterior orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. In addition, we identified the TPP connection areas in the thalamus, including the anterior and medial nuclei, and the lateral dorsal/lateral posterior nuclei. TPP fibers connected the thalamus with the ipsilateral prefrontal BAs 11, 47, 10, 46, 45, 9, and 8 seriatim from medial to lateral, layer by layer. Our results provide further details of the thalamic-prefrontal peduncle structure, and may aid future studies and a better understanding of the functional roles of the TPP in the human brain.

  13. Early life stress predicts thalamic hyperconnectivity: A transdiagnostic study of global connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noah S; Tyrka, Audrey R; Albright, Sarah E; Sweet, Lawrence H; Almeida, Jorge; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2016-08-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is an established risk factor for psychiatric illness and is associated with altered functional connectivity within- and between intrinsic neural networks. The widespread nature of these disruptions suggests that broad imaging measures of neural connectivity, such as global based connectivity (GBC), may be particularly appropriate for studies of this population. GBC is designed to identify brain regions having maximal functional connectedness with the rest of the brain, and alterations in GBC may reflect a restriction or broadening of network synchronization. We evaluated whether ELS severity predicted GBC in a sample (N = 46) with a spectrum of ELS exposure. Participants included healthy controls without ELS, those with at least moderate ELS but without psychiatric disorders, and a group of patients with ELS- related psychiatric disorders. The spatial distribution of GBC peaked in regions of the salience and default mode networks, and ELS severity predicted increased GBC of the left thalamus (corrected p < 0.005, r = 0.498). Thalamic connectivity was subsequently evaluated and revealed reduced connectivity with the salience network, particularly the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (corrected p < 0.005), only in the patient group. These findings support a model of disrupted thalamic connectivity in ELS and trauma-related negative affect states, and underscore the importance of a transdiagnostic, dimensional neuroimaging approach to understanding the sequelae of trauma exposure. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 34 CFR 350.12 - What are the general requirements for an Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation Research Training Project? 350.12 Section 350.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the... Training Project? An Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project must— (a) Provide research training...

  15. Thalamic glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy measured with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N; Leenders, KL; Hajek, M; Maguire, P; Missimer, J; Wieser, HG

    1997-01-01

    Thalamic glucose metabolism has been studied in 24 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using interictal F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). A total of 17 patients had a unilateral TL seizure onset, 11 of these patients had a mesial temporal lobe

  16. Modification of electrophysiological activity pattern after anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation for intractable epilepsy: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Yu; Hur, Yun Jung; Kim, Heung-Dong; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Sung Eun; Hwang, Tae Gyu

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Thalamic stimulation can provoke electroencephalography (EEG) synchronization or desynchronization, which can help to reduce the occurrence of seizures in intractable epilepsy, though the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, the authors investigated changes in EEG electrical activity to better understand the seizure-reducing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with intractable epilepsy. METHODS Electrical activation patterns in the epileptogenic brains of 3 patients were analyzed using classical low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis recursively applied (CLARA). Electrical activity recorded during thalamic stimulation was compared with that recorded during the preoperative and postoperative off-stimulation states in patients who underwent anterior thalamic nucleus DBS for intractable epilepsy. RESULTS Interictal EEG was fully synchronized to the β frequency in the postoperative on-stimulation period. The CLARA showed that electrical activity during preoperative and postoperative off-stimulation states was localized in cortical and subcortical areas, including the insular, middle frontal, mesial temporal, and precentral areas. No electrical activity was localized in deep nucleus structures. However, with CLARA, electrical activity in the postoperative on-stimulation period was localized in the anterior cingulate area, basal ganglia, and midbrain. CONCLUSIONS Anterior thalamic stimulation could spread electrical current to the underlying neuronal networks that connect with the thalamus, which functions as a cortical pacemaker. Consequently, the thalamus could modify electrical activity within these neuronal networks and influence cortical EEG activity by inducing neuronal synchronization between the thalamus and cortical structures.

  17. MM2-thalamic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: neuropathological, biochemical and transmission studies identify a distinctive prion strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Suardi, Silvia; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Indaco, Antonio; Limido, Lucia; Vimercati, Chiara; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Langeveld, Jan; Terruzzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Antonio; Zerbi, Pietro; Fociani, Paolo; Bishop, Matthew T; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-09-01

    In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrP(Sc) are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrP(Sc) . Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrP(Sc) , a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. Report: EPA’s Allowing States to Use Bonds to Meet Revolving Fund Match Requirements Reduces Funds Available for Water Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2007-P-00012, March 29, 2007. EPA regulations and policies allowing States to use bonds repaid from SRF interest to meet SRF match requirements are resulting in fewer dollars being available for water projects.

  19. SNF project's MCO compliance assessment with DOE ''general design criteria,'' order 6430.1A and ''SNF project MCO additional NRC requirements,'' HNF-SD-SNF-DB-005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOLDMANN, L.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is presented to demonstrate the MCOs compliance to the major design criteria invoked on the MCO. This document is broken down into a section for the MCO's evaluation against DOE Order 6430.1A General Design Criteria sixteen divisions and then the evaluation of the MCO against HNF-SD-SNF-DB-005 ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Multi-Canister Overpack Additional NRC Requirements.'' The compliance assessment is presented as a matrix in tabular form. The MCO is the primary container for the K-basin's spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the basin pools and through to the 40 year interim storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The MCO and its components interface with; the K basins, shipping cask and transportation system, Cold Vacuum Drying facility individual process bays and equipment, and CSB facility including the MCO handling machine (MHM), the storage tubes, and the MCO work stations where sampling, welding, and inspection of the MCO is performed. As the MCO is the primary boundary for handling, process, and storage, its main goals are to minimize the spread of its radiological contents to the outside of the MCO and provide for nuclear criticality control. The MCO contains personnel radiation shielding only on its upper end, in the form of a shield plug, where the process interfaces are located. Shielding beyond the shield plug is the responsibility of the using facilities. The design of the MCO and its components is depicted in drawings H-2-828040 through H-2-828075. Not every drawing number in the sequence is used. The first drawing number, H-2-828040, is the drawing index for the MCO. The design performance specification for the MCO is HW-S-0426, and was reviewed and approved by the interfacing design authorities, the safety, regulatory, and operations groups, and the local DOE office. The current revision for the design performance specification is revision 5. The designs of the MCO have been reviewed and approved in a similar way and the reports

  20. Technical safety requirements for the South Tank Farm remediation project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW) System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Although the last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, they have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program, which includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excess liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. A technique known as confined sluicing, which uses a high-pressure, low-volume water jet integrated with a jet pump, will be used to remove the sludge. The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) are those operational requirements that specify the operating limits and surveillance requirements, the basis thereof, safety boundaries, and the management of administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of the STF remediation project. Effective implementation of TSRs will limit to acceptable levels the risks to the public and workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous material

  1. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirrione,M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-12-06

    The learned helplessness paradigm has been repeatedly shown to correlate with neurobiological aspects of depression in humans. In this model, rodents are exposed inescapable foot-shock in order to reveal susceptibility to escape deficit, defined as 'learned helplessness' (LH). Few methods are available to probe the neurobiological aspects underlying the differences in susceptibility in the living animal, thus far being limited to studies examining regional neurochemical changes with microdialysis. With the widespread implementation of small animal neuroimaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to explore the living brain on a systems level to define regional changes that may correlate with vulnerability to stress. In this study, 12 wild type Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 minutes of inescapable foot-shock followed by metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) 1 hour later. The escape test was performed on these rats 48 hours later (to accommodate radiotracer decay), where they were given the opportunity to press a lever to shut off the shock. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to investigate potential correlations (Pearson Regression Coefficients) between regional 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock and subsequent learned helpless behavior (time to finish the test; number of successful lever presses within 20 seconds of shock onset). ROI analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between time to finish and 18-FDG uptake, and a negative correlation between lever presses and uptake, in the medial thalamic area (p=0.033, p=0.036). This ROI included the paraventricular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and the habenula. In an effort to account for possible spillover artifact, the posterior thalamic area (including ventral medial and lateral portions) was also evaluated but did not reveal significant correlations (p=0.870, p=0.897). No other significant

  2. Altered cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity in relation to spatial working memory capacity in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD captures a heterogeneous group of children, who are characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Previous resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI studies have sought to understand the neural correlates of ADHD by comparing connectivity measurements between those with and without the disorder, focusing primarily on cortical-striatal circuits mediated by the thalamus. To integrate the multiple phenotypic features associated with ADHD and help resolve its heterogeneity, it is helpful to determine how specific circuits relate to unique cognitive domains of the ADHD syndrome. Spatial working memory has been proposed as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Methods: We correlated the rs-fcMRI of five thalamic regions of interest with spatial span working memory scores in a sample of 67 children aged 7-11 years (ADHD and typically developing children; TDC. In an independent dataset, we then examined group differences in thalamo-striatal functional connectivity between 70 ADHD and 89 TDC (7-11 years from the ADHD-200 dataset. Thalamic regions of interest were created based on previous methods that utilize known thalamo-cortical loops and rs-fcMRI to identify functional boundaries in the thalamus.Results/Conclusions: Using these thalamic regions, we found atypical rs-fcMRI between specific thalamic groupings with the basal ganglia. To identify the thalamic connections that relate to spatial working memory in ADHD, only connections identified in both the correlational and comparative analyses were considered. Multiple connections between the thalamus and basal ganglia, particularly between medial and anterior dorsal thalamus and the putamen, were related to spatial working memory and also altered in ADHD. These thalamo-striatal disruptions may be one of multiple atypical neural and cognitive mechanisms that relate to the ADHD clinical phenotype.

  3. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract

  4. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  5. Medical emergency aid through telematics: design, implementation guidelines and analysis of user requirements for the MERMAID project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A; Bountzioukas, S; Beltrame, F; Orsi, G

    1998-01-01

    MERMAID is an EU financed telemedicine project with global reach and 24-h, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model will not be limited to medical diagnostics but it will encompass all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications (audio and video conferencing, multimedia communications, flat file and image transfer with low, medium and high bandwidth data requirements) are considered while the full range of network choices (digital land lines, cellular/wireless, satellite and broadband) are being tested in terms of cost/performance tradeoffs that are inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in their in its life cycle. Finally, out that MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialist care that is best suited in the particular case.

  6. [Thalamic Stroke and Associated Behavior Disorders. Possibilities for Integral Management: Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Loida Camargo; Sánchez, Katherine Parra

    2012-06-01

    Since ancient Greece, cerebrovascular accidents have been described with no variation. Even today, they are still a catastrophic event in the lives of patients with a high risk of disabling sequelae. Case report of a 56-year male patient with thalamic ischemia. The intervention with integral strategies involving pharmacological management and cognitive interventions was decisive for the satisfactory evolution of the patient. The management of patients with cerebrovascular accidents cannot be limited to the emergency room. Pharmacological advances in programs and cognitive intervention methods provide intervention tools from the very beginning of the stroke thus reducing the impact of long-term sequelae, and consequently enabling a better reintegration of the patient to his family. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Yannes, Michael Paul; Nardone, Raffaele; Bailey, Ariel; Goldstein, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. CT classification of small thalamic hemorrhages. Topographic localization and clinical manifestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Nobutaka; Kaneko, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Keisei; Muraki, Masaaki; Sato, Kengo (Hamamatsu Medical Center Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1984-06-01

    The thalamus is located deep in the cerebral hemispheres, and most of its nuclei have reciprocal fiber connections with specific areas over the cerebral cortex. Localized lesions in the thalamus, therefore, can cause specific neurological deficits, depending on their locations. From this point of view, we reviewed 110 cases, admitted over the past 7 years, with thalamic hemorrhages 37 (34%) of which were small hematomas less than 2 cm in diameter. These small hematomas could be divided into 4 types depending on their locations as follows: antero-lateral type, postero-lateral type, medial type, and dorsal type. Each type had the peculiar clinical features described below: 1) Postero-lateral Type (PL type, 28 cases, 76%): The original symptom was a sudden onset of moderate to severe sensori-motor deficits in most cases. The patients were mostly alert or only slightly confused. 2) Antero-lateral Type (AL type, 4 cases, 11%): The patients of this type first presented with sensori-motor disturbance and prefrontal signs. Both were generally mild and often disappeared early. 3) Medial Type (M type, 3 cases, 8%): The main symptom at onset was either a disturbance of consciousness or dementia. 4) Dorsal Type (D type, 2 cases, 5%): One patient with a right thalamic hematoma of this type showed geographical agnosia and visuo-constructive apraxia. The other patient, with a left-sided hematoma, exhibited transient clumsiness of the right hand and mild dysphasia. In our experience, the above classification of small hematomas clearly delineated the clinical symptoms and neurological signs of the different types; therefore, the symptoms and signs in larger hematoma could be explained by a combination of those of each type.

  10. Thalamic metabolic abnormalities in patients with Huntington's disease measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casseb, R.F.; Castellano, G., E-mail: gabriela@ifi.unicamp.br [Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Raios Cosmicos e Cronologia; D' Abreu, A.; Cendes, F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia. Lab. de Neuroimagem; Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruocco, H.H. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia. Lab. de Neuroimagem; Lopes-Cendes, I., E-mail: seixas.fk@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Genetica Medica; Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurologic disorder that is not completely understood; its fundamental physiological mechanisms and chemical effects remain somewhat unclear. Among these uncertainties, we can highlight information about the concentrations of brain metabolites, which have been widely discussed. Concentration differences in affected, compared to healthy, individuals could lead to the development of useful tools for evaluating the progression of disease, or to the advance of investigations of different/alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the thalamic concentration of metabolites in HD patients and healthy individuals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We used a 2.0-Tesla magnetic field, repetition time of 1500 ms, and echo time of 135 ms. Spectra from 40 adult HD patients and 26 control subjects were compared. Quantitative analysis was performed using the LCModel method. There were statistically significant differences between HD patients and controls in the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAA+NAAG; t-test, P,0.001), and glycerophosphocholine+phosphocholine (GPC+PCh; t-test, P=0.001) relative to creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr). The NAA+NAAG/Cr+PCr ratio was decreased by 9% and GPC+PCh/Cr+PCr increased by 17% in patients compared with controls. There were no correlations between the concentration ratios and clinical features. Although these results could be caused by T1 and T2 changes, rather than variations in metabolite concentrations given the short repetition time and long echo time values used, our findings point to thalamic dysfunction, corroborating prior evidence. (author)

  11. [The thalamic syndrome of Déjérine-Roussy. Prolegomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Y

    1986-01-01

    Predicted by Dejerine and Long in 1898 and formally described by Dejerine and Roussy in 1906, the "thalamic syndrome" corrected the wrong hypothesis of a capsular "sensory cross roads" suggested by Charcot after 1873 and supported in France during 25 years. Both established the "persistent frank organic hemianesthesia" (sensory-sensitive for Charcot, pure sensitive for Dejerine), namely that a sensory deficit, still severe after regression of the early hemiplegia, could be due to focal brain damage. At that time such a clinical concept was hardly acceptable because it opposed the classic greek philosophical idea that sensation and movement should not be separated. Moreover, intelligence was at that time looked as a four-stage process including sensation, imagination, intellect and memory. The very first step began with the "sensus communis", an anteroom-like where all the sensations simultaneously perceived were coordinated to ensure mind unity. This "sensus communis" was given many subcortical seats during the following centuries, such as the trigone (Herophilus), the ventricles (Founders of the Church, Soemmering), the pineal body (Descartes), the striate bodies (Willis) and, finally, the thalamus (Todd and Carpenter's "English theory"). The description by Meynert in 1871 of a transcapsular direct "sensory bundle" and the cases reported by Türck in 1859 of a sensory-sensitive hemianesthesia after a posterior capsular lesion (in fact, thalamo-capsulostriate) led Charcot to develop his theory after 1873. Owing to the new staining methods of Weigert and Marchi introduced around 1885, Dejerine showed in 1895 the route of the medial lemniscus and his arrival in the thalamus, which led him to postulate in 1898 a "thalamic syndrome" and later to demonstrate it.

  12. Right Forceps Minor and Anterior Thalamic Radiation Predict Executive Function Skills in Young Bilingual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2018-01-01

    Executive function (EF) skills enhance learning across domains, and are particularly linked to the acquisition of a second language. Previous studies have shown that bilingual individuals show enhanced EF skills in cognitive tasks where they attended a targeted dimension of a stimulus while inhibiting other competing cues. Brain imaging revealed that bilingual young adults' performances in the Stroop color-naming task were related to the volume of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal lobe. Subjects who had greater white-matter in the frontal cortex showed enhanced performances in the same task, suggesting that brain fiber pathways connecting ACC to the frontal region may be related to the Stroop color-naming task. No studies to date have examined the tissue properties of brain fiber pathways connecting these brain regions and their association with subjects' EF performances. Importantly, there are no data establishing whether bilingual subjects exhibit different reaction times when words are presented in their first versus second language. To study these questions, we used behavioral and unbiased whole-brain analyses, recruiting 21 Chinese students. Using the Stroop color-naming task, we measured subjects' reaction times (RTs) in which color names were displayed using fonts that matched the named color (congruent task) or mismatched the color (incongruent task). Students performed the task twice, first in English, the subjects' second language, then in Chinese, the subjects' primary language. Results from whole-brain analysis showed that students' RTs in both the English and Chinese tasks were significantly correlated with the mode of anisotropy (MO) in a brain cluster containing the forceps minor and anterior thalamic radiation in the right hemisphere. We also found that fractional anisotropy (FA) significantly predicted students' RTs, with higher FA predicting shorter RT. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that right forceps minor and

  13. Enhanced synchronization of thalamic theta band local field potentials in patients with essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Abdoul; Hutchison, William D; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O

    2009-05-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded in 13 patients from pairs of microelectrodes driven through thalamus during functional localization prior to implantation of a thalamic deep brain stimulation electrode for treatment of tremor or pain. Six patients had a history of essential tremor (ET), 3 of multiple sclerosis, and the remaining 4 had symptoms of chronic pain. Specific to the ET group was the observation that oscillatory field potentials recorded from the two microelectrodes in the motor thalamus (ventralis intermedius--Vim, ventralis oralis posterior--Vop) were highly coherent at frequencies characteristic of pathological tremor (4-7 Hz). This stands in contrast to the significantly more desynchronized state observed in the somatosensory thalamus (ventralis caudalis--Vc) for that frequency band. In addition, higher frequency coherent oscillations typically associated with physiological tremor (8-12 Hz) were observed in the ET patients in motor thalamus and Vc and in motor thalamus of pain patients. An examination of the inter-frequency correlation of the LFPs in Vim and Vop showed that the low frequency theta waves correlated with high frequency oscillations in the beta and gamma ranges. These findings are consistent with and extend those of other studies suggesting that alterations in thalamic oscillatory activity are involved in the pathophysiology of ET and furthermore suggest that increased synchronization in the 4-7 Hz range is related to the occurrence of tremor in the ET patient group. Furthermore, they support the idea that therapies such as lesions and high frequency stimulation of the motor thalamus are effective in reducing tremor symptoms since they destroy the abnormal low frequency synchronization in motor thalamus.

  14. Calcium-binding proteins in the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus during development of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakowski, Witold; Bogus-Nowakowska, Krystyna; Wasilewska, Barbara; Hermanowicz, Beata; Robak, Anna

    2014-11-01

    The laterodorsal thalamic nucleus (LD) is often treated as a part of the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) because of its location and similar connectivity. Our previous studies have shown that distribution of three calcium-binding proteins, i.e. calbindin D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV), changes within the ATN during development of the guinea pig. The aim of this study is to examine the immunoreactivity pattern of these proteins in the LD in the guinea pig ontogeny. Brains from animals ranging from 40th embryonic day to 80th postnatal day were used in the study. Two methods were applied: a single-labelling immunoenzymatic method and double-labelling immunofluorescence. No changes of the distribution pattern of the substances were observed throughout the examined developmental stages. CB and CR were the most abundantly expressed proteins in perikarya of the LD. Numerous CB- and CR-immunoreactive cell bodies were found throughout the whole extent of the nucleus. In most of these cell bodies both proteins colocalized vastly. The highest immunoreactivity of the perikarya containing CB and CR was observed in the mediodorsal part of the LD and in its rostral portion. In regard to PV, single cell bodies were observed mostly in the dorsal part of the nucleus. PV did not colocalize with the other proteins. In summary, all the studied calcium-binding proteins were already present in the LD at prenatal developmental stages and the pattern of distribution remained virtually constant until adulthood. Thus, the LD differs considerably from the ATN in an aspect of neurochemical cell differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic lesions in the anterior thalamic radiation and apathy in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torso

    Full Text Available Behavioural disorders and psychological symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and strongly contribute to increasing patients' disability. Using voxel-lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM, we investigated the impact of white matter lesions (WMLs on the severity of BPSD in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI.Thirty-one a-MCI patients (with a conversion rate to AD of 32% at 2 year follow-up and 26 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination at 3T, including T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery images, and T1-weighted volumes. In the patient group, BPSD was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12. After quantitative definition of WMLs, their distribution was investigated, without an a priori anatomical hypothesis, against patients' behavioural symptoms. Unbiased regional grey matter volumetrics was also used to assess the contribution of grey matter atrophy to BPSD.Apathy, irritability, depression/dysphoria, anxiety and agitation were shown to be the most common symptoms in the patient sample. Despite a more widespread anatomical distribution, a-MCI patients did not differ from controls in WML volumes. VLSM revealed a strict association between the presence of lesions in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs and the severity of apathy. Regional grey matter atrophy did not account for any BPSD.This study indicates that damage to the ATRs is strategic for the occurrence of apathy in patients with a-MCI. Disconnection between the prefrontal cortex and the mediodorsal and anterior thalamic nuclei might represent the pathophysiological substrate for apathy, which is one of the most common psychopathological symptoms observed in dementia.

  16. Attention and processing speed performance in multiple sclerosis is mostly related to thalamic volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisecco, Alvino; Stamenova, Svetlana; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; d'Ambrosio, Alessandro; Sacco, Rosaria; Docimo, Renato; Esposito, Sabrina; Cirillo, Mario; Esposito, Fabrizio; Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Gallo, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI), mainly involving attention and processing speed (A-PS), is a common and disabling symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is one of the more sensitive and reliable tests to assess A-PS deficits in MS. Structural MRI correlates of A-PS in MS still need to be clarified. This study aimed to investigate, in a large group of MS patients, the relationship between regional gray matter (GM) atrophy and SDMT performance. 125 relapsing remitting MS patients and 52 healthy controls (HC) underwent a 3 T-MRI protocol including high-resolution 3D-T1 imaging. All subjects underwent a neurological evaluation and SDMT. A Voxel Based Morphometry analysis was performed to assess: 1) correlations between regional GM volume and SDMT performance in MS patients; 2) regional differences in GM volume between MS patients and HC. Thalamic, putamen and cerebellar volumes were also calculated using FIRST tool from the FMRIB Software Library. A linear regression analysis was performed to assess the contribution of each one of these structures to A-PS performance. A significant negative correlation was found between regional GM volume and SDMT score at the level of the thalamus, cerebellum, putamen, and occipital cortex in MS patients. Thalamus, cerebellum and putamen also showed significant GM atrophy in MS patients compared to HC. Thalamic atrophy is also an independent and additional contributor to A-PS deficits in MS patients. These findings support the role of thalamus as the most relevant GM structure subtending A-PS performance in MS, as measured by SDMT.

  17. Anatomic Targeting of the Optimal Location for Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Essential Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicolas K K; Krishna, Vibhor; Sammartino, Francesco; Bari, Ausaf; Reddy, Gaddum Duemani; Hodaie, Mojgan; Kalia, Suneil K; Fasano, Alfonso; Munhoz, Renato P; Lozano, Andres M; Hamani, Clement

    2017-11-01

    Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective strategy for treatment of essential tremor (ET). With limitations of imaging modalities, targeting largely relies on indirect methods. This study was designed to determine the optimal target for DBS in ET and construct a targeting method based on probabilistic maps. Patients with ET who had sustained tremor reduction at 1 year and optimal microelectrode recordings were selected. Stimulation volume was individually modeled in standard space, and a final optimal region was derived for the whole population. A fornix (FX) targeting method was developed to determine the location of the optimal stimulation site relative to the FX and posterior commissure (PC) in the anteroposterior plane, the border between the thalamus and internal capsule in the mediolateral plane, and the anterior commissure (AC)-PC (AC-PC) plane in the dorsoventral axis. Following comparative analyses with other standard indirect methods (25% of AC-PC and PC + 6 mm), the FX method was studied in relation to diffusion tensor imaging. Using the FX method, the optimal stimulation site was at the intersection of two thirds and one third of the PC-FX distance (mean of 28% ± 1.5 AC-PC length) and 4 mm medial to the lateral border of the thalamus. Compared with previously used methods, there was a significant reduction in variability of the optimal stimulation site with the FX method. The target defined using this strategy was found to be within the boundaries of the dentatorubrothalamic tract. The FX method may be an additional targeting strategy in patients undergoing thalamic DBS surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Daniel; Barbas, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective ‘framing’ effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26828203

  19. Requirements for effective technology transfer for engineering and project management. The views of the recipient country and the technology supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, K.W.

    1986-04-01

    Technology transfer in the area of engineering and project management for nuclear power plant projects is considered a rather complex and sophisticated matter. Therefore only within a long-term nuclear co-operation a meaningful transfer of such a multifaceted technology can reasonably be achieved. A long-term nuclear co-operation anticipates a nuclear power plant program consisting of a few nuclear power plants of a certain type and size in order to achieve the indispensable effect ''learning by doing''. The objectives of nuclear technology transfer may be in general or in particular; absorption of a foreign nuclear technology and its adaptation to the conditions and needs of the receiver's country; built-up of industrial infrastructure for planning, construction and operation of nuclear power plants; raising of the general industrial level and achieve a spin-off effect; creation of a basis for independent development of nuclear technology. The technology transfer on one side and the construction program of nuclear power plants on the other side cannot be practiced by two parallel but separated event, however, they form one unit. Contrary to the import of industrial equipment in terms of ''black box'', by means of a nuclear technology transfer the introduction of new dependencies will be prevented. The technology transfer can remarkably be facilitated by forming a joint venture engineering company in the recipient country. The required know-how potential within a certain time period determines the intensity of the technology transfer and consequently the man power to be involved. The realization of such technology transfer is demonstrated by means of practical examples. (author). 12 figs

  20. Contemporary hygienic and engineering requirements to the projecting and exploitation of the positron-emission tomography in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekmarev, O.; Paltseva, A.

    2004-01-01

    The positron-emission tomography (PET) centres, attached to a large medical establishment as a rule include except PET a compact cyclotron for producing positron-radiant ultra-temporary product radionuclides (carbon-11, Nitrogen-14, oxygen-15, fluorine-18 and etc.) based on water and gaseous targets. At present there are no information about regulating and setting up such medical centres, moreover, requirements which must be presented to the Sanitary Inspection Agency at the documents examination are incompletely represented. During 2001-2003 years specialists of the Moscow Medical Centre (MMC) have been reviewing the hygienic expert examination of the 5 versions of the PET's cabinets installation in therapeutic and prophylactic offices. One of the projects for operating ultra-temporary products is submitted in this report. It foresees the usage of proton beam of the self-protected cyclotron RDS/111 (CTJ PET System (USA)). Its energy of irradiation (proton beam) is 11 MeV. The cyclotron is placed in the additional building of the radiological trunk on the territory of the Moscow Clinical hospital. The technological process of producing the ultra-temporary radionuclides is presented. The block of the radiodiagnostic research include: a treatment room for PET; an operating room; an area for information handling; a treatment room for intake of the radio-pharm-preparations; a filling room; a laboratory for express-analysis of blood before and after research; a WC for patients (with radio-pharm-preparations); and at last - an area for transient (30 - 40 min.) staying for the patients in the lay position before the research. All probable accidents, which can happen in the case of any technology violation, are discussed. There were worked out special requirements to the clarification tanks equipment for liquid radioactive waste and to the time of being a patient in the department after diagnostic researches using fluorine-18

  1. 75 FR 67718 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605: (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

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    2010-11-03

    ... pipe suppliers that domestically manufactured well casing material would be available for the project... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9220-3] Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605: (Buy..., CA; Project 4910017-033 Funded by the California DWSRF ARRA Loan AR09FP45 AGENCY: Environmental...

  2. The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project: sample preparation guidelines for reliable reporting of glycomics datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwe, Weston B; Agravat, Sanjay; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Campbell, Matthew P; Costello, Catherine E; Dell, Anne; Ten Feizi; Haslam, Stuart M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kolarich, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Novotny, Milos V; Packer, Nicolle H; Paulson, James C; Rapp, Erdmann; Ranzinger, Rene; Rudd, Pauline M; Smith, David F; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; York, William S; Zaia, Joseph; Kettner, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project was established in 2011 to provide guidelines to aid in data reporting from all types of experiments in glycomics research including mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography, glycan arrays, data handling and sample preparation. MIRAGE is a concerted effort of the wider glycomics community that considers the adaptation of reporting guidelines as an important step towards critical evaluation and dissemination of datasets as well as broadening of experimental techniques worldwide. The MIRAGE Commission published reporting guidelines for MS data and here we outline guidelines for sample preparation. The sample preparation guidelines include all aspects of sample generation, purification and modification from biological and/or synthetic carbohydrate material. The application of MIRAGE sample preparation guidelines will lead to improved recording of experimental protocols and reporting of understandable and reproducible glycomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin modulates the firing 1 properties of the reticular thalamic nucleus bursting neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albéri, Lavinia; Lintas, Alessandra; Kretz, Robert; Schwaller, Beat; Villa, Alessandro E P

    2013-06-01

    The reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) of the mouse is characterized by an overwhelming majority of GABAergic neurons receiving afferences from both the thalamus and the cerebral cortex and sending projections mainly on thalamocortical neurons. The RTN neurons express high levels of the "slow Ca(2+) buffer" parvalbumin (PV) and are characterized by low-threshold Ca(2+) currents, I(T). We performed extracellular recordings in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice in the rostromedial portion of the RTN. In the RTN of wild-type and PV knockout (PVKO) mice we distinguished four types of neurons characterized on the basis of their firing pattern: irregular firing (type I), medium bursting (type II), long bursting (type III), and tonically firing (type IV). Compared with wild-type mice, we observed in the PVKOs the medium bursting (type II) more frequently than the long bursting type and longer interspike intervals within the burst without affecting the number of spikes. This suggests that PV may affect the firing properties of RTN neurons via a mechanism associated with the kinetics of burst discharges. Ca(v)3.2 channels, which mediate the I(T) currents, were more localized to the somatic plasma membrane of RTN neurons in PVKO mice, whereas Ca(v)3.3 expression was similar in both genotypes. The immunoelectron microscopy analysis showed that Ca(v)3.2 channels were localized at active axosomatic synapses, thus suggesting that the differential localization of Ca(v)3.2 in the PVKOs may affect bursting dynamics. Cross-correlation analysis of simultaneously recorded neurons from the same electrode tip showed that about one-third of the cell pairs tended to fire synchronously in both genotypes, independent of PV expression. In summary, PV deficiency does not affect the functional connectivity between RTN neurons but affects the distribution of Ca(v)3.2 channels and the dynamics of burst discharges of RTN cells, which in turn regulate the activity in the thalamocortical circuit.

  4. Holmes’ Tremor with Shoulder Pain Treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of Unilateral Ventral Intermediate Thalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Internus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Aydın

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male was admitted with severe right arm and hand tremors after a thalamic hemorrhage caused by a traffic accident. He was also suffering from agonizing pain in his right shoulder that manifested after the tremor. Neurologic examination revealed a disabling, severe, and irregular kinetic and postural tremor in the right arm during target-directed movements. There was also an irregular ipsilateral rest tremor and dystonic movements in the distal part of the right arm. The amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements. The patient underwent left globus pallidum internus and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The patient improved by more than 80% as rated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale and Visual Analog Scale six months after surgery.

  5. A retrospective review of required projects in systems-based practice in a single anesthesiology residency: a 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tetsuro; Emerick, Trent D; Patel, Rita M

    2015-09-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has emphasized in its core competencies and more recently, in its Milestones Project, that residents understand the importance of systems-based practice (SBP). The objectives of the study are to evaluate the quality of residents' SBP projects and to determine the degrees that were subsequently implemented. A retrospective educational observational study. A university-based anesthesiology training institution. One hundred forty-nine anesthesiology residents in their final (postgraduate year 4) year of training who completed SBP projects for the last 10 years (2004-2013). A structured SBP course was provided for postgraduate year 4 anesthesiology residents with deadlines set such as project identification, data collection, and proposal draft. Each resident's written SBP proposal received inputs by 2 members of the department executive steering committee. The SBP projects concluded with oral presentations by each resident to the department executive steering committee, who provided overall scores. All SBP projects were categorized into 7 categories: safety initiatives, economic analysis, process analysis, policy change recommendations, education initiatives, teamwork/communication, and operating room efficiency. Evaluation scores using a Likert scale (1-9, where 9 is the best) were analyzed. The rate of implementation of project ideas within the department based on the presentations to the executive committee was examined. Of 149 projects, policy change recommendations was the most frequently chosen category (46 projects; 30.9%), followed by process analysis (36 projects; 24.2%). The overall evaluation score was 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± SD). A total of 53 projects (35.6%) were implemented in the department. There was no statistical difference between SBPs with implementation vs SBPs without implementation in terms of evaluation scores, year of the presentation, or categories. This SBP project has given residents the

  6. Usefulness of visual evaluation of the anterior thalamic radiation by diffusion tensor tractography for differentiating between Alzheimer’s disease and elderly major depressive disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Kazumasa Kuniyoshi,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi51Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Department of Neuropathic Internal Medicine, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami Country, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, JapanBackground and objective: Many surveys of neural integrity of the cerebral white matter with psychiatric diseases on diffusion tensor imaging have recently been performed, but these mainly utilize fractional anisotropy (FA and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values, and the results were inconsistent and not fully applied clinically. In this study, we investigated the possibility of differentiating between Alzheimer’s disease (AD and elderly major depressive disorder (MDD patients in whom early-stage symptoms are difficult to diagnose, by visually evaluating cerebral nerve fascicles utilizing diffusion tensor tractography. We also measured and evaluated FA and ADC values at the same time.Subjects and methods: The subjects included 13 AD patients (age: 69.5 ± 5.1 years, 19 MDD patients (65.8 ± 5.7 years, and 22 healthy control (HC subjects (67.4 ± 4.8 years. Images were acquired using a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging device and analyzed by diffusion tensor tractography analysis software.Results: Depiction of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR tended to be poor in AD patients unlike in MDD patients and HC subjects. The FA values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and fornix (FX in AD patients were significantly different from those in MDD patients and HC subjects. The ADC values in the bilateral ATR and left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and FX in AD patients were

  7. High field FMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C D; Eckert, U; Steiner, J; Sartorius, A; Buchmann, J E; Stadler, J; Tempelmann, C; Speck, O; Bogerts, B; Abler, B; Walter, M

    2010-01-01

    Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions, and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non-invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla. Using an event-related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behavior such as sexual processing.

  8. Timing of caloric intake during weight loss differentially affects striatal dopamine transporter and thalamic serotonin transporter binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Ruth I; Schrantee, Anouk; Adriaanse, Sofie M; Unmehopa, Unga A; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that meal timing throughout the day contributes to maintaining or regaining weight after hypocaloric diets. Although brain serotonin and dopamine are well known to be involved in regulating feeding, it is unknown whether meal timing during energy restriction affects these neurotransmitter systems. We studied the effect of a 4 wk hypocaloric diet with either 50% of daily calories consumed at breakfast (BF group) or at dinner (D group) on hypothalamic and thalamic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding and on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding. The BF and D groups lost a similar amount of weight. Striatal DAT and thalamic SERT binding increased in the BF group, while decreasing in the D group after the diet (ΔDAT 0.37 ± 0.63 vs. -0.53 ± 0.77, respectively; P = 0.005; ΔSERT 0.12 ± 0.25 vs. -0.13 ± 0.26 respectively, P = 0.032). Additional voxel-based analysis showed an increase in DAT binding in the ventral striatum in the BF group and a decrease in the dorsal striatum in the D group. During weight loss, striatal DAT and thalamic SERT binding increased weight independently when 50% of daily calories were consumed at breakfast, whereas it decreased when caloric intake was highest at dinner. These findings may contribute to the earlier reported favorable effect of meal timing on weight maintenance after hypocaloric diets.-Versteeg, R. I., Schrantee, A., Adriaanse, S. M., Unmehopa, U. A., Booij, J., Reneman, L., Fliers, E., la Fleur, S. E., Serlie, M. J. Timing of caloric intake during weight loss differentially affects striatal dopamine transporter and thalamic serotonin transporter binding. © FASEB.

  9. 75 FR 5586 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... project specific circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the... conventional pollutants and an anticipated, stringent Total Phosphorus effluent limit resulting from a Total...

  10. Neuronal responses to tactile stimuli and tactile sensations evoked by microstimulation in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus (ventral caudal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Anne-Christine; Chien, Jui-Hong; Greenspan, Joel D; Garonzik, Ira; Weiss, Nirit; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick Arthur

    2016-06-01

    The normal organization and plasticity of the cutaneous core of the thalamic principal somatosensory nucleus (ventral caudal, Vc) have been studied by single-neuron recordings and microstimulation in patients undergoing awake stereotactic operations for essential tremor (ET) without apparent somatic sensory abnormality and in patients with dystonia or chronic pain secondary to major nervous system injury. In patients with ET, most Vc neurons responded to one of the four stimuli, each of which optimally activates one mechanoreceptor type. Sensations evoked by microstimulation were similar to those evoked by the optimal stimulus only among rapidly adapting neurons. In patients with ET, Vc was highly segmented somatotopically, and vibration, movement, pressure, and sharp sensations were usually evoked by microstimulation at separate sites in Vc. In patients with conditions including spinal cord transection, amputation, or dystonia, RFs were mismatched with projected fields more commonly than in patients with ET. The representation of the border of the anesthetic area (e.g., stump) or of the dystonic limb was much larger than that of the same part of the body in patients with ET. This review describes the organization and reorganization of human Vc neuronal activity in nervous system injury and dystonia and then proposes basic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Evidence for thalamic involvement in the thermal grill illusion: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold. The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. AIM: To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. METHODS: We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41°C, cold(18°C and interleaved(41°C+18°C = TGI temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational ("unpleasantness" and sensory-disciminatory ("pain-intensity" dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected α-level <0.05. RESULTS: The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness (rho = 0.31. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity

  12. Posterior Thalamic Nucleus Modulation of Tactile Stimuli Processing in Rat Motor and Primary Somatosensory Cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Casas-Torremocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF and motor (M1wk cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM. Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po. However, Po axons may convey, in addition to direct sensory signals, the dynamic output of computations between whisker signals and descending motor commands. It has been proposed that this input may be relevant for adjusting cortical responses to predicted vs. unpredicted whisker signals, but the effects of Po input on M1wk and S1BF function have not been directly tested or compared in vivo. Here, using electrophysiology, optogenetics and pharmacological tools, we compared in adult rats M1wk and S1BF in vivo responses in the whisker areas of the motor and primary somatosensory cortices to passive multi-whisker deflection, their dependence on Po activity, and their changes after a brief intense activation of Po axons. We report that the latencies of the first component of tactile-evoked local field potentials in M1wk and S1BF are similar. The evoked potentials decrease markedly in M1wk, but not in S1BF, by injection in Po of the GABAA agonist muscimol. A brief high-frequency electrical stimulation of Po decreases the responsivity of M1wk and S1BF cells to subsequent whisker stimulation. This effect is prevented by the local application of omega-agatoxin, suggesting that it may in part depend on GABA release by fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV-expressing cortical interneurons. Local optogenetic activation of Po synapses in different

  13. 76 FR 32200 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... the Skillman Village Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) upgrade project. The ZeeWeed[supreg] 500D... proposed Skillman Village WWTP upgrade project were based on the recommendations provided by an engineering study and pilot testing conducted in 2005, which concluded that the WWTP facility be upgraded with a MBR...

  14. Site specific statutory compliance planning for the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Requirements, strategy, and status: Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This document and the requirements and actions it presents are addressed to the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. The proposed actions upon which the plan is based are those described in Chapters 4 and 5 of the final EA for the site. Similarly, the environmental and health and safety requirements covered in the plan are those identified in the EA as being potentially applicable to the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith site. 12 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Functional connectivity between the thalamus and postsubiculum: analysis of evoked responses elicited by stimulation of the laterodorsal thalamic nucleus in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shires, Kate L; Hawthorne, James P; Hope, Alexander M J; Dudchenko, Paul A; Wood, Emma R; Martin, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    The laterodorsal nucleus (LDN) of the thalamus provides a prominent afferent projection to the postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum). To characterize synaptic transmission in this pathway, we placed stimulating electrodes in the LDN and recorded fEPSPs elicited in the postsubiculum of urethane-anesthetized rats. LDN stimulation elicited a source-sink dipole between the deep and superficial layers of the postsubiculum, respectively, consistent with anatomical evidence for the termination of thalamic afferents in the superficial layers of the structure, and the existence of deep layer neurons with apical dendrites extending into these layers. Postsubicular fEPSPs were typically 0.5-1.0 mV in amplitude, with a peak latency of approximately 6 ms. Consistent with anatomical observations, the short onset latency of fEPSPs elicited by LDN stimulation, and their ability to follow a 60-Hz train of stimulation, indicate that the projection is monosynaptic. Paired-pulse stimulation revealed pronounced paired-pulse depression that was maximal at 100 ms, suggesting that initial release probabilities are high at LDN-postsubiculum synapses, in common with many neocortical pathways. A conventional tetanus protocol that yields LTP in hippocampal pathways had no effect on postsubicular fEPSPs, but long-term depression could be induced by 60-Hz stimulation. Drug infusion studies revealed that synaptic transmission in the LDN-postsubiculum projection is predominantly AMPA-receptor mediated. Rats were implanted with indwelling infusion cannulae targeting the postsubiculum, and, after a recovery period, were anaesthetized withurethane, and implanted with stimulating and recording electrodes. Infusion of CNQX almost completely abolished postsubicular fEPSPs, whereas D-AP5 had little effect. However, 60-Hz LTD was blocked by D-AP5 infusion, revealing that this form of synaptic plasticity is NMDA-receptor dependent. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Projected Cropping Patterns, Livestock Enterprises, Processing Activities, Capital Requirements, Employment, Income, and Training Needs for Alternative Farm Organizational Structures for the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. A Special Report to the Four Corners Regional Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, William D.; And Others

    Information on the expected cropping patterns, livestock enterprises, processing and related activities, income and employment opportunities, capital needs, and training requirements for alternative farm organizational structures that could be selected for development of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is presented in this report. The major…

  17. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT thalamic blood flow study in migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijian; Steiner, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The changes of blood flow in the thalamic of migraineurs by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging are investigated. 60 cases with migraine were performed by Novo 810 high-resolution SPECT 30 minutes after injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO. The quantitative analysis of SPECT data was based on the irregular ROI% uptake normalized to total slice method. There were significantly increased mean % uptake values in migraine with aura (259.1 +-17.1), and more significantly in those who experienced hemisensory symptoms and hemiparesis during aura (263.8 +- 17.2), compared to that of migraine without aura (249.1 +- 14.9), but there were not statistically significant difference between migraine with only visual disturbance during aura (255.1 +- 16.4) and without aura. The possible explanations for the increased mean % uptake values in migraineurs who experienced hemisensory symptoms and hemiparesis during aura are: (1) the reactive postischemic hyperemia. (2) excepting thalamus, the regional blood flow was decreased. (3) the secondary phenomenon to the various neurogenic and chemical stimuli

  18. Ophthalmoplegic migraine with reversible thalamic ischemia by Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Dong Jin; Kang, Sung Soo

    1999-01-01

    Two patients presented with ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) underwent EEG, Brain-MRI, cerebral angiography, and Tc-99m ECD SPECT during an attack. Follow-up SPECT was performed after neurologic symptoms resolved. In both cases, SPECT during an attack of ophthalmoplegia and headache demonstrated a significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus to the side of ophthalmoplegia, which was normalized on the follow-up SPECT during a symptom free recovery phase (Lesion to Non-lesion thalamic ratio=1.19 to 0.96 and 1.16 to 0.98, respectively). The other roentgenographic and laboratory findings were normal. These findings are suggestive the ischemia in the perforators of PCA results in third nerve palsy because the portion of oculomotor nerve behind the cavernous sinus derives its blood supply from small perforating branches of the basilar and PCA. Matched ictal hypoperfusion of the thalamus to the site of ophthalmoplegic migraine is suggestive of the ischemic neuropathy as an etiology of OM

  19. Bilateral thalamic infarction that is secondary thrombosis to the deep venous structures: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Oruc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep cerebral venous thrombosis cases are the %6 of the cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT cases. The recognition of these patients is difficult since this disease is rarely observed and its clinical presentation is nonspecific and variable. In its etiology, the most frequently observed reasons are hypercoagulopathy, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, puerperium, dehydration, and head trauma. Less frequently observed reasons are vasculitis, inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, anemia, and tumor invasion through venous sinuses. In this report, were presented two cases who were admitted to the hospital with headache complaint and cognitive changes.According to the advanced magnetic resonance imaging, acute infarction was detected in bilateral thalamus. We observed CVT with adversely affected deep cerebral venous system structures. CVT development was associated with the use of oral contraceptives in the first case and it was associated with anemia in the second case. Both patients were discharged from the hospital upon healing with anticoagulant therapy. In this study, it has been emphasized by representing these two patients that CVT should be thought in the etiology of bilateral thalamic ischemia. Furthermore, it is also crucial to known that these patients can be fully improved clinically and radiologically in case appropriate medical treatment is applied.

  20. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhuret, Sébastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Bal, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-)correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus. PMID:26733818

  1. The slow oscillation in cortical and thalamic networks: mechanisms and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During even the most quiescent behavioral periods, the cortex and thalamus express rich spontaneous activity in the form of slow (<1 Hz, synchronous network state transitions. Throughout this so-called slow oscillation, cortical and thalamic neurons fluctuate between periods of intense synaptic activity (Up states and almost complete silence (Down states. The two decades since the original characterization of the slow oscillation in the cortex and thalamus have seen considerable advances in deciphering the cellular and network mechanisms associated with this pervasive phenomenon. There are, nevertheless, many questions regarding the slow oscillation that await more thorough illumination, particularly the mechanisms by which Up states initiate and terminate, the functional role of the rhythmic activity cycles in unconscious or minimally conscious states, and the precise relation between Up states and the activated states associated with waking behavior. Given the substantial advances in multineuronal recording and imaging methods in both in vivo and in vitro preparations, the time is ripe to take stock of our current understanding of the slow oscillation and pave the way for future investigations of its mechanisms and functions. My aim in this Review is to provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms and functions of the slow oscillation, and to suggest avenues for further exploration.

  2. mGluR-mediated calcium signalling in the thalamic reticular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, Christina; Herr, David; Kohmann, Denise; Budde, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian; Coulon, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) plays a major role in modulating the transfer of information from the thalamus to the cortex. GABAergic inhibition via the TRN is differentially regulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and the effect of mGluRs on the membrane potential, on ion channels, and on the plasticity of electrical coupling of TRN neurons has been studied previously. Although mGluRs are generally known to trigger Ca(2+) transients, mGluR-mediated Ca(2+)-transients in TRN neurons have not yet been investigated. In this study, we show that mGluRs can trigger Ca(2+)-transients in TRN neurons, that these transients depend on intracellular Ca(2+)-stores, and are mediated by IP3 receptors. Ca(2+) transients caused by the group I mGluR agonist DHPG elicit a current that is sensitive to flufenamic acid and has a reversal potential around -40mV. Our results add mGluR-mediated Ca(2+)-signalling in the TRN to the state-dependent modulators of the thalamocortical system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distinct Thalamic Reticular Cell Types Differentially Modulate Normal and Pathological Cortical Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Clemente-Perez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers. We dissociated the connectivity, physiology, and circuit functions of neurons within rodent nRT, based on parvalbumin (PV and somatostatin (SOM expression, and validated the existence of such populations in human nRT. We found that PV, but not SOM, cells are rhythmogenic, and that PV and SOM neurons are connected to and modulate distinct thalamocortical circuits. Notably, PV, but not SOM, neurons modulate somatosensory behavior and disrupt seizures. These results provide a conceptual framework for how nRT may gate incoming information to modulate brain-wide rhythms.

  4. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage. A study by Western Aphasia Battery and single photon emission CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro

    1984-07-01

    A report is given of 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months) in which language disorders were examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and cerebral blood flow was measured by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in the left temporooccipital region and low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similar to the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia there was a wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. In all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus.

  5. Distinct Thalamic Reticular Cell Types Differentially Modulate Normal and Pathological Cortical Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Perez, Alexandra; Makinson, Stefanie Ritter; Higashikubo, Bryan; Brovarney, Scott; Cho, Frances S; Urry, Alexander; Holden, Stephanie S; Wimer, Matthew; Dávid, Csaba; Fenno, Lief E; Acsády, László; Deisseroth, Karl; Paz, Jeanne T

    2017-06-06

    Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT) gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers. We dissociated the connectivity, physiology, and circuit functions of neurons within rodent nRT, based on parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) expression, and validated the existence of such populations in human nRT. We found that PV, but not SOM, cells are rhythmogenic, and that PV and SOM neurons are connected to and modulate distinct thalamocortical circuits. Notably, PV, but not SOM, neurons modulate somatosensory behavior and disrupt seizures. These results provide a conceptual framework for how nRT may gate incoming information to modulate brain-wide rhythms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhuret, Sébastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Bal, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-)correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus.

  7. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eBéhuret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus.

  8. Simple cortical and thalamic neuron models for digital arithmetic circuit implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya eNanami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade-off between reproducibility of neuronal activities and computational efficiency is one ofcrucial subjects in computational neuroscience and neuromorphic engineering. A wide variety ofneuronal models have been studied from different viewpoints. The digital spiking silicon neuron(DSSN model is a qualitative model that focuses on efficient implementation by digital arithmeticcircuits. We expanded the DSSN model and found appropriate parameter sets with which itreproduces the dynamical behaviors of the ionic-conductance models of four classes of corticaland thalamic neurons. We first developed a 4-variable model by reducing the number of variablesin the ionic-conductance models and elucidated its mathematical structures using bifurcationanalysis. Then, expanded DSSN models were constructed that reproduce these mathematicalstructures and capture the characteristic behavior of each neuron class. We confirmed thatstatistics of the neuronal spike sequences are similar in the DSSN and the ionic-conductancemodels. Computational cost of the DSSN model is larger than that of the recent sophisticatedIntegrate-and-Fire-based models, but smaller than the ionic-conductance models. This modelis intended to provide another meeting point for above trade-off that satisfies the demand forlarge-scale neuronal network simulation with closer-to-biology models.

  9. Gait Balance Disorder by Thalamic Infarction with the Disorder of Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Wada, K.; Nagaoka, M.

    2011-01-01

    The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients. PMID:21769260

  10. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus ventralis intermedius: a thalamic site of graviceptive modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Vogt, Thomas; Rohde, Franziska; Cuvenhaus, Hannah; Conrad, Julian; Dieterich, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Based on animal studies, it has been shown that the nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM) of the thalamus plays an important role within the vestibular system. A few human studies support the vestibular role of the VIM. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis whether changing the stimulation status in patients with unilateral deep brain stimulation in the VIM causally modulates the vestibular system, i.e., the graviceptive vertical perception. We tested six tremor patients for tilt of subjective visual vertical (SVV) with unilateral DBS in the VIM (mean age 67 years; mean time since electrode implantation 55 months). The mean tilt of the patients during the stimulator "on" condition was 1.4° to the contraversive side [standard deviation (SD) ± 0.4°] whereas during the "off" period a mean contraversive tilt of 4.4° (SD ± 3.0°) was obtained (p = 0.02). Thus, we were able to show that otolith-dominated graviceptive vertical perception can be directly modulated by changing the status of DBS VIM stimulation, indicating that the VIM is directly involved in (contraversive) vertical perception and its thalamic pathways.

  11. Ophthalmoplegic migraine with reversible thalamic ischemia by Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Dong Jin; Kang, Sung Soo [Gachon Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Two patients presented with ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) underwent EEG, Brain-MRI, cerebral angiography, and Tc-99m ECD SPECT during an attack. Follow-up SPECT was performed after neurologic symptoms resolved. In both cases, SPECT during an attack of ophthalmoplegia and headache demonstrated a significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus to the side of ophthalmoplegia, which was normalized on the follow-up SPECT during a symptom free recovery phase (Lesion to Non-lesion thalamic ratio=1.19 to 0.96 and 1.16 to 0.98, respectively). The other roentgenographic and laboratory findings were normal. These findings are suggestive the ischemia in the perforators of PCA results in third nerve palsy because the portion of oculomotor nerve behind the cavernous sinus derives its blood supply from small perforating branches of the basilar and PCA. Matched ictal hypoperfusion of the thalamus to the site of ophthalmoplegic migraine is suggestive of the ischemic neuropathy as an etiology of OM.

  12. Parallel thalamic pathways for whisking and touch signals in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Yu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In active sensation, sensory information is acquired via movements of sensory organs; rats move their whiskers repetitively to scan the environment, thus detecting, localizing, and identifying objects. Sensory information, in turn, affects future motor movements. How this motor-sensory-motor functional loop is implemented across anatomical loops of the whisker system is not yet known. While inducing artificial whisking in anesthetized rats, we recorded the activity of individual neurons from three thalamic nuclei of the whisker system, each belonging to a different major afferent pathway: paralemniscal, extralemniscal (a recently discovered pathway, or lemniscal. We found that different sensory signals related to active touch are conveyed separately via the thalamus by these three parallel afferent pathways. The paralemniscal pathway conveys sensor motion (whisking signals, the extralemniscal conveys contact (touch signals, and the lemniscal pathway conveys combined whisking-touch signals. This functional segregation of anatomical pathways raises the possibility that different sensory-motor processes, such as those related to motion control, object localization, and object identification, are implemented along different motor-sensory-motor loops.

  13. 76 FR 80373 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... projects in these Alaska communities: City of Angoon for water treatment plant media filters, City of... Bay for Toyotomi Fuel Lift pumps for its existing Toyotomi fuel oil fired hotwater heaters. DATES...

  14. 75 FR 9207 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Creek Watersheds to stop soil erosion, improve riparian habitat, and stabilize eroding stream channels... basis for choosing the type of technology it chose for this project in environmental objectives and...

  15. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Requirements Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE requirements definition is to assess the activities that results in the specification, documentation, and review of the requirements that the software product must satisfy, including functionality, performance, design constraints, attributes and external interfaces. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production. IV&V reviewed the requirements specified in the NRC Form 189s to verify these requirements were included in SAPHIRE’s Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP).

  16. Bilateral thalamic stroke due to occlusion of the artery of Percheron in a patient with patent foramen ovale: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Serna Raúl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral thalamic infarcts are rare presentations of stroke. They are the result of a complex combination of risk factors and a predisposing vessel distribution. The artery of Percheron, characterized by a single arterial trunk that irrigates both paramedian thalamic regions, can be occluded as a result of embolic diseases leading to bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts. Clinical and image findings of this uncommon form of posterior circulation infarct are presented along with their anatomic and pathophysiologic correlates. Case presentation A 27-year-old Mexican man with no relevant medical history was admitted to hospital after he was found deeply stuporous. On admission, an urgent neuroimaging protocol for stroke, including magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging angiography, was performed. The scans revealed symmetric bilateral hyperintense paramedian thalamic lesions consistent with acute ischemic events. The posterior circulation was patent including the tip of the basilar artery and both posterior cerebral arteries, making the case compatible with occlusion of the artery of Percheron. Further evaluation with an aim to define the etiology revealed a patent foramen ovale as the cause of embolism. Conclusion Bilateral thalamic infarcts are unusual presentations of posterior circulation stroke; once they are diagnosed by an adequate neuroimaging protocol, a further evaluation to define the cause is necessary. Cardioembolism should always be considered in relatively young patients. A complete evaluation should be conducted by an interdisciplinary team including neurologists, cardiologists and neurosurgeons.

  17. Requirements for future control room and visualisation features in the Web-of-Cells framework defined in the ELECTRA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinell, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    project, that proposes a new Web-of-Cell (WoC) power system control architecture. Dedicated visualisation features are proposed, aimed to support the control room operators activities in a WoC-oriented approach. Furthermore, the work takes into account the point of view of network operators about future...

  18. 78 FR 11644 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

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    2013-02-19

    ... national contractor prepared a technical assessment report based on the waiver request submittal, which... Environmental Quality and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Oklahoma State University identified 12 sites that... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9780-1] Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy...

  19. 75 FR 66373 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

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    2010-10-28

    ... David McAdams, Environmental Engineer, (215) 814-5764, Office of Infrastructure & Assistance (OIA.... EPA's national contractor prepared a technical assessment report dated August 18, 2010 based on the... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9218-5] Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy...

  20. 76 FR 2684 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

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    2011-01-14

    ... V625 non-slam check valves for this purpose. This waiver applies only to this project. Other ARRA... acquisition of V625 non- slam check valves by foreign manufacturer, Noreva. Section 1605(a) of the ARRA... location, an operator will not be present at all times, thus increasing the need for high quality, reliable...

  1. 76 FR 18218 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... to Salt Lake City for the purchase of three vertical linear motion mixers which have a drive head... vertical linear motion mixers to be installed in the City's Water Reclamation Facility anaerobic digesters... for a separate waiver based on project-specific circumstances. Vertical linear motion mixers are a...

  2. Lesions of reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei impair radial maze win-shift performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrook, Jacqueline R; Mair, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei are major sources of thalamic input to hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. We compared effects of lesions in ReRh and other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex on tasks affected by lesions in terminal fields innervated by these nuclei, including: visuospatial reaction time (VSRT), a measure of sensory guided responding; serial VSRT, a measure of action sequence learning; and win/shift radial arm maze (RAM) measures of spatial memory. ReRh lesions affected RAM, but not VSRT or serial VSRT performance. The effects of caudal intralaminar lesions were doubly dissociated from ReRh lesions, affecting VSRT, but not RAM or serial VSRT performance. Rostral intralaminar lesions did not produce significant impairments, other than a subgroup with larger lesions that were impaired performing a delayed RAM task. Combined lesions damaging all three sites produced RAM deficits comparable to ReRh lesions and VSRT deficits comparable to caudal intralaminar lesions. Thus there was no indication that deficits produced by lesions in one site were exacerbated significantly by the cumulative effect of damage in other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex. The effects of ReRh lesions provide evidence that these nuclei affect memory functions of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The double dissociation observed between the effects of ReRh and caudal intralaminar nuclei provides evidence that different nuclei within the midline-intralaminar complex affect distinct aspects of cognition consistent with the effects of lesions in the terminal fields they innervate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. NEURON AND GLIAL CELL NUMBERS IN THE MEDIODORSAL THALAMIC NUCLEUS IN BRAINS OF SCHIZOPHRENIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Damgaard Nielsen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several stereological studies of schizophrenic subjects have shown reduction in both the total number of neurons and in the total volume of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD. This is in contrast to other studies in that no differences have been found. Using systematic random sampling and an optical fractionator design, the total number of neuron and glial cells in the MD subdivisions: parvocellular (MDPC, magnocellular (MDMC, and densocellular (MDDC were counted in brains from 9 schizophrenic and 8 control subjects. The control subjects were age, height and body-weight matched to the schizophrenic subjects. We found the neuronal numbers in the schizophrenic subjects to range more than a factor of two, from 3.68 to 9.22 x 106. This is in contrast to the control subjects, who ranged from 5.24 to 7.10 x 106 in neuronal cell numbers. Within our inhomogeneous sample, some schizophrenic subjects thus exhibited relative high total neuron numbers in MD, while others exhibited relative low neuron numbers. The result is in line with the heterogeneity of this severe mental disease and may help to explain why different research groups get different results. The major limitation in this study is the small number of brains of schizophrenic subjects with a high degree of inhomogeneity in length of disease and age of onset. The debates of the comparison of the neurons in the MD in brains of schizophrenic subjects and control subjects and the possible impact of this variance on the disease are still not complete.

  4. Active action potential propagation but not initiation in thalamic interneuron dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Amanda E.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus modulate the activity of thalamocortical cells in response to excitatory input through the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter from both axons and dendrites. The exact mechanisms by which release can occur from dendrites are, however, not well understood. Recent experiments using calcium imaging have suggested that Na/K based action potentials can evoke calcium transients in dendrites via local active conductances, making the back-propagating action potential a candidate for dendritic neurotransmitter release. In this study, we employed high temporal and spatial resolution voltage-sensitive dye imaging to assess the characteristics of dendritic voltage deflections in response to Na/K action potentials in interneurons of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. We found that trains or single action potentials elicited by somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation led to action potentials that rapidly and actively back-propagated throughout the entire dendritic arbor and into the fine filiform dendritic appendages known to release GABAergic vesicles. Action potentials always appeared first in the soma or proximal dendrite in response to somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation, and the rapid back-propagation into the dendritic arbor depended upon voltage-gated sodium and TEA-sensitive potassium channels. Our results indicate that thalamic interneuron dendrites integrate synaptic inputs that initiate action potentials, most likely in the axon initial segment, that then back-propagate with high-fidelity into the dendrites, resulting in a nearly synchronous release of GABA from both axonal and dendritic compartments. PMID:22171033

  5. Lateral Thalamic Eminence: A Novel Origin for mGluR1/Lot Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Reig, Nuria; Andrés, Belén; Huilgol, Dhananjay; Grove, Elizabeth A; Tissir, Fadel; Tole, Shubha; Theil, Thomas; Herrera, Eloisa; Fairén, Alfonso

    2017-05-01

    A unique population of cells, called "lot cells," circumscribes the path of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) in the rodent brain and acts to restrict its position at the lateral margin of the telencephalon. Lot cells were believed to originate in the dorsal pallium (DP). We show that Lhx2 null mice that lack a DP show a significant increase in the number of mGluR1/lot cells in the piriform cortex, indicating a non-DP origin of these cells. Since lot cells present common developmental features with Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells, we analyzed Wnt3a- and Dbx1-reporter mouse lines and found that mGluR1/lot cells are not generated in the cortical hem, ventral pallium, or septum, the best characterized sources of CR cells. Finally, we identified a novel origin for the lot cells by combining in utero electroporation assays and histochemical characterization. We show that mGluR1/lot cells are specifically generated in the lateral thalamic eminence and that they express mitral cell markers, although a minority of them express ΔNp73 instead. We conclude that most mGluR1/lot cells are prospective mitral cells migrating to the accessory olfactory bulb (OB), whereas mGluR1+, ΔNp73+ cells are CR cells that migrate through the LOT to the piriform cortex and the OB. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for neuropathic pain after amputation or brachial plexus avulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Boccard, Sandra G; Linhares, Paulo; Chamadoira, Clara; Rosas, Maria José; Abreu, Pedro; Rebelo, Virgínia; Vaz, Rui; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2013-09-01

    Fifteen hundred patients have received deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacotherapy over the last half-century, but few during the last decade. Deep brain stimulation for neuropathic pain has shown variable outcomes and gained consensus approval in Europe but not the US. This study prospectively evaluated the efficacy at 1 year of DBS for phantom limb pain after amputation, and deafferentation pain after brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), in a single-center case series. Patient-reported outcome measures were collated before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) score, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and University of Washington Neuropathic Pain Score (UWNPS). Twelve patients were treated over 29 months, receiving contralateral, ventroposterolateral sensory thalamic DBS. Five patients were amputees and 7 had BPAs, all from traumas. A postoperative trial of externalized DBS failed in 1 patient with BPA. Eleven patients proceeded to implantation and gained improvement in pain scores at 12 months. No surgical complications or stimulation side effects were noted. In the amputation group, after 12 months the mean VAS score improved by 90.0% ± 10.0% (p = 0.001), SF-36 by 57.5% ± 97.9% (p = 0.127), UWNPS by 80.4% ± 12.7% (p stimulation demonstrated efficacy at 1 year for chronic neuropathic pain after traumatic amputation and BPA. Clinical trials that retain patients in long-term follow-up are desirable to confirm findings from prospectively assessed case series.

  7. Neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus are selective for diverse and complex visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaingankar, Vishal; Soto-Sanchez, Cristina; Wang, Xin; Sommer, Friedrich T; Hirsch, Judith A

    2012-01-01

    All visual signals the cortex receives are influenced by the perigeniculate sector (PGN) of the thalamic reticular nucleus, which receives input from relay cells in the lateral geniculate and provides feedback inhibition in return. Relay cells have been studied in quantitative depth; they behave in a roughly linear fashion and have receptive fields with a stereotyped center-surround structure. We know far less about reticular neurons. Qualitative studies indicate they simply pool ascending input to generate non-selective gain control. Yet the perigeniculate is complicated; local cells are densely interconnected and fire lengthy bursts. Thus, we employed quantitative methods to explore the perigeniculate using relay cells as controls. By adapting methods of spike-triggered averaging and covariance analysis for bursts, we identified both first and second order features that build reticular receptive fields. The shapes of these spatiotemporal subunits varied widely; no stereotyped pattern emerged. Companion experiments showed that the shape of the first but not second order features could be explained by the overlap of On and Off inputs to a given cell. Moreover, we assessed the predictive power of the receptive field and how much information each component subunit conveyed. Linear-non-linear (LN) models including multiple subunits performed better than those made with just one; further each subunit encoded different visual information. Model performance for reticular cells was always lesser than for relay cells, however, indicating that reticular cells process inputs non-linearly. All told, our results suggest that the perigeniculate encodes diverse visual features to selectively modulate activity transmitted downstream.

  8. Functional interactions between dentate gyrus, striatum and anterior thalamic nuclei on spatial memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, M; Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Arias, J L

    2015-04-24

    The standard model of memory system consolidation supports the temporal reorganization of brain circuits underlying long-term memory storage, including interactions between the dorsal hippocampus and extra-hippocampal structures. In addition, several brain regions have been suggested to be involved in the retrieval of spatial memory. In particular, several authors reported a possible role of the ventral portion of the hippocampus together with the thalamus or the striatum in the persistence of this type of memory. Accordingly, the present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of different cortical and subcortical brain regions, and neural networks involved in spatial memory retrieval. For this purpose, we used cytochrome c oxidase quantitative histochemistry as a reliable method to measure brain oxidative metabolism. Animals were trained in a hidden platform task and tested for memory retention immediately after the last training session; one week after completing the task, they were also tested in a memory retrieval probe. Results showed that retrieval of the previously learned task was associated with increased levels of oxidative metabolism in the prefrontal cortex, the dorsal and ventral striatum, the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus and the dentate gyrus of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The analysis of functional interactions between brain regions suggest that the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus could be involved in spatial memory retrieval. In addition, the results highlight the key role of the extended hippocampal system, thalamus and striatum in this process. Our study agrees with previous ones reporting interactions between the dorsal hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex during spatial memory retrieval. Furthermore, novel activation patterns of brain networks involving the aforementioned regions were found. These functional brain networks could underlie spatial memory retrieval evaluated in the Morris water maze task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  9. Outcome based definition of the anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation target in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, K; Möttönen, T; Järventausta, K; Katisko, J; Tähtinen, T; Haapasalo, J; Niskakangas, T; Kiekara, T; Öhman, J; Peltola, J

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is an emerging therapy for refractory focal epilepsy. However, the most optimal target for stimulation has not been unambiguously described. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between the stimulation site and outcome in order to define the optimal target for deep brain stimulation in refractory epilepsy. The locations of 62 contacts used in 30 treatment attempts in 15 prospectively followed patients during a 5 year period were assessed. Treatment attempts were classified into responding and non-responding trials using seizure reduction and side effect profile as criteria. The locations of active contacts were calculated with respect to mid-commissural point and visible borders of ANT in 3T MRI (ANT-normalized coordinate system) aiming to minimize the confounding effect of individual variation in the location and size of the ANT. Contacts in successful treatment trials were located significantly more anterior and superior both in AC-PC and ANT-normalized coordinate systems. Favourable outcome was observed at 3T MRI based location of ANT but not at location predicted by Schaltenbrandt atlas sagittal data. Contacts used in successful trials were at anterior aspect of the ANT complex evidenced by the ANT-normalized coordinate system. The anti-epileptic effect of anterior thalamic DBS may be dependent on stimulation site especially in the anterior to posterior axis. Extensive anatomical variation confounds severely the targeting of ANT. Therefore, direct visualization of the desired target for stimulation is essential for favourable outcome in refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Localization of Basal Ganglia and Thalamic Damage in Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R; Waugh, Jeff L

    2016-01-01

    Dyskinetic cerebral palsy affects 15%-20% of patients with cerebral palsy. Basal ganglia injury is associated with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, but the patterns of injury within the basal ganglia predisposing to dyskinetic cerebral palsy are unknown, making treatment difficult. For example, deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna improves dystonia in only 40% of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Basal ganglia injury heterogeneity may explain this variability. To investigate this, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of basal ganglia and thalamic damage in dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Reviews and articles primarily addressing genetic or toxic causes of cerebral palsy were excluded yielding 22 studies (304 subjects). Thirteen studies specified the involved basal ganglia nuclei (subthalamic nucleus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, or lentiform nuclei, comprised by the putamen and globus pallidus). Studies investigating the lentiform nuclei (without distinguishing between the putamen and globus pallidus) showed that all subjects (19 of 19) had lentiform nuclei damage. Studies simultaneously but independently investigating the putamen and globus pallidus also showed that all subjects (35 of 35) had lentiform nuclei damage (i.e., putamen or globus pallidus damage); this was followed in frequency by damage to the putamen alone (70 of 101, 69%), the subthalamic nucleus (17 of 25, 68%), the thalamus (88 of 142, 62%), the globus pallidus (7/35, 20%), and the caudate (6 of 47, 13%). Globus pallidus damage was almost always coincident with putaminal damage. Noting consistent involvement of the lentiform nuclei in dyskinetic cerebral palsy, these results could suggest two groups of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy: those with putamen-predominant damage and those with panlenticular damage involving both the putamen and the globus pallidus. Differentiating between these groups could help predict response to therapies such as deep brain

  11. Thalamic connections of architectonic subdivisions of temporal cortex in grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peiyan; Gharbawie, Omar A; Luethke, Lynn E; Kaas, Jon H

    2008-10-01

    The temporal cortex of grey squirrels contains three architectonically distinct regions. One of these regions, the temporal anterior (Ta) region has been identified in previous physiological and anatomical studies as containing several areas that are largely auditory in function. Consistent with this evidence, Ta has architectonic features that are internally somewhat variable, but overall sensory in nature. In contrast, the caudally adjoining temporal intermediate region (Ti) has architectonic features that suggest higher order and possibly multisensory processing. Finally, the most caudal region, composed of previously defined temporal medial (Tm) and temporal posterior (Tp) fields, again has more of the appearance of sensory cortex. To understand their functional roles better, we injected anatomical tracers into these regions to reveal their thalamic connections. As expected, the dorsal portion of Ta, containing two primary or primary-like auditory areas, received inputs from the ventral and magnocellular divisions of the auditory medial geniculate complex (MGv and MGm). The most caudal region, Tm plus Tp, received inputs from the large visual pulvinar of squirrels, possibly accounting for the sensory architectonic characteristics of this region. However, Tp additionally receives inputs from the magnocellular (MGm) and dorsal (MGd) divisions of the medial geniculate complex, implicating Tp in multisensory processing. Finally, the middle region, Ti, had auditory inputs from MGd and MGm, but not from the visual pulvinar, providing evidence that Ti has higher order auditory functions. The results indicate that the architectonically distinct regions of temporal cortex of squirrels are also functionally distinct. Understanding how temporal cortex is functionally organized in squirrels can guide interpretations of temporal cortex organization in other rodents in which architectonic subdivisions are not as obvious.

  12. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor Also Reduces Voice Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Schrock, Lauren; Davis, Tyler; House, Paul A

    2017-12-12

    Voice tremor is a common feature of essential tremor (ET) that is difficult to treat medically and significantly affects quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) of the thalamus is effective in improving contralateral distal limb tremor and has been shown in limited studies to affect voice tremor. Our objective was to retrospectively evaluate whether Vim-DBS used to treat patients with essential motor tremor also effectively treated underlying concurrent voice tremor and assess whether particular lead locations were favorable for treating vocal tremor. In this retrospective cohort study, patients had unilateral or bilateral lead placement and were monitored for up to 12 months. We used the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM) subscore to assess vocal tremor. Changes in vocal tremor before and after stimulation and over several sessions were assessed. Of the 77 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were treated for essential tremor, 20 (26%) patients had vocal tremor prior to stimulation. Active Vim-DBS decreased the amplitude of voice tremor by 80% (p centroid of stimulation showed that Vim thalamic stimulation that is more anterior on average yielded better voice tremor control, significantly so on the left side (p < 0.05). Additionally, there was improvement in head, tongue, and face tremor scores (p < 0.05). Unilateral and bilateral Vim-DBS targeted to treat the motor component of essential tremor also dramatically decreased the amplitude of voice tremor in this group of patients, suggesting a potential benefit of this treatment for affected patients. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  14. Connectivity-based parcellation of the thalamus explains specific cognitive and behavioural symptoms in patients with bilateral thalamic infarct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Serra

    Full Text Available A novel approach based on diffusion tractography was used here to characterise the cortico-thalamic connectivity in two patients, both presenting with an isolated bilateral infarct in the thalamus, but exhibiting partially different cognitive and behavioural profiles. Both patients (G.P. and R.F. had a pervasive deficit in episodic memory, but only one of them (R.F. suffered also from a dysexecutive syndrome. Both patients had an MRI scan at 3T, including a T1-weighted volume. Their lesions were manually segmented. T1-volumes were normalised to standard space, and the same transformations were applied to the lesion masks. Nineteen healthy controls underwent a diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI scan. Their DTI data were normalised to standard space and averaged. An atlas of Brodmann areas was used to parcellate the prefrontal cortex. Probabilistic tractography was used to assess the probability of connection between each voxel of the thalamus and a set of prefrontal areas. The resulting map of corticothalamic connections was superimposed onto the patients' lesion masks, to assess whether the location of the thalamic lesions in R.F. (but not in G. P. implied connections with prefrontal areas involved in dysexecutive syndromes. In G.P., the lesion fell within areas of the thalamus poorly connected with prefrontal areas, showing only a modest probability of connection with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Conversely, R.F.'s lesion fell within thalamic areas extensively connected with the ACC bilaterally, with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and with the left supplementary motor area. Despite a similar, bilateral involvement of the thalamus, the use of connectivity-based segmentation clarified that R.F.'s lesions only were located within nuclei highly connected with the prefrontal cortical areas, thus explaining the patient's frontal syndrome. This study confirms that DTI tractography is a useful tool to examine in vivo the effect of focal

  15. Low thalamic NAA-concentration corresponds to strong neural activation in working memory in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Vigren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kleine Levin Syndrome (KLS is a rare disorder of periodic hypersomnia and behavioural disturbances in young individuals. It has previously been shown to be associated with disturbances of working memory (WM, which, in turn, was associated with higher activation of the thalamus with increasing WM load, demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In this study we aimed to further elucidate how these findings are related to the metabolism of the thalamus. METHODS: fMRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied while performing a WM task. Standard metabolites were examined: n-acetylaspartate (NAA, myo-inositol, choline, creatine and glutamate-glutamine. Fourteen KLS-patients and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. The patients with active disease were examined in asymptomatic periods. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant negative correlation between thalamic fMRI-activation and thalamic NAA, i.e., high fMRI-activation corresponded to low NAA-levels. This correlation was not seen in healthy controls. Thalamic levels of NAA in patients and controls showed no significant differences between the groups. None of the other metabolites showed any co-variation with fMRI-activation. CONCLUSION: This study shows negative correlation between NAA-levels and fMRI-activity in the left thalamus of KLS-patients while performing a WM task. This correlation could not be found in healthy control subjects, primarily interpreted as an effect of increased effort in the patient group upon performing the task. It might indicate a disturbance in the neuronal networks responsible for WM in KLS patients, resulting in higher effort at lower WM load, compared with healthy subjects. The general relationship between NAA and BOLD-signal is also discussed in the article.

  16. Prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage with special reference to the level of consciousness and CT findings on admission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tanahashi, Norio; Nara, Masaharu; Takenaka, Nobuo

    1991-01-01

    The prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage was studied on the basis of neurological gradings on admission, mode of extension and hematoma size on brain CT. The subjects were 126 patients with thalamic hemorrhage who were admitted to Ashikaga Red Cross Hospital during the past ten years. Among the subjects, 120 patients (ages 64±10 yr; mean ±SD) were treated with conservative therapy, and 6 patients (ages 59±10 yr) with surgical therapy (ventricular drainage). Brain CT scans were done within 48 hours after onset in all patients. Neurological gradings, brain CT classification and prognosis were investigated according to the criteria of the Japanese Conference on Surgery for Cerebral Stroke. The results of conservative therapy were as follows: (1) In the grade I group on the neurological gradings, 29 of the 39 patients (74%) recovered to full work or an independent life, and none of them died. In the grade IV and V groups, mortality rate was 86%. (2) The prognosis was more unfavorable in type III than in types I and II on the CT classification. Twenty-six of the 36 patients (73%) with type I-a recovered to full work or an independent life. Twenty-five of the 34 patients (74%) with the type III-b died. (3) Only 4 of the 75 patients (5%) with less than 10 ml of hematoma volume died. In contrast, all 14 patients with more than 25 ml of hematoma volume died. (4) The mortality rate among patients with ventricular rupture (47%) was significantly higher than that among patients without ventricular rupture (2%) (p<0.001). (5) The mortality rate of patients with acute hydrocephalus (83%) was significantly higher than that of patients without acute hydrocephalus (20%) (p<0.001). From the above results, it is suggested that neurological grading, brain CT classification, hematoma volume, ventricular rupture and acute hydrocephalus are important prognostic factors for thalamic hemorrhage. (author)

  17. Association of Thalamic Dysconnectivity and Conversion to Psychosis in Youth and Young Adults at Elevated Clinical Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Haut, Kristen; Murray, John D.; Repovs, Grega; Yang, Genevieve J.; Diehl, Caroline; McEwen, Sarah C.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Addington, Jean; Goodyear, Bradley; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Olvet, Doreen; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Belger, Aysenil; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Walker, Elaine F; Hamann, Stephan; Woods, Scott W; Qiu, Maolin; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, affect distributed neural computations. One candidate system profoundly altered in chronic schizophrenia involves the thalamocortical networks. It is widely acknowledged that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that likely affects the brain before onset of clinical symptoms. However, no investigation has tested whether thalamocortical connectivity is altered in individuals at risk for psychosis or whether this pattern is more severe in individuals who later develop full-blown illness. OBJECTIVES To determine whether baseline thalamocortical connectivity differs between individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and healthy controls, whether this pattern is more severe in those who later convert to full-blown illness, and whether magnitude of thalamocortical dysconnectivity is associated with baseline prodromal symptom severity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this multicenter, 2-year follow-up, case-control study, we examined 397 participants aged 12–35 years of age (243 individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis, of whom 21 converted to full-blown illness, and 154 healthy controls). The baseline scan dates were January 15, 2010, to April 30, 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Whole-brain thalamic functional connectivity maps were generated using individuals’ anatomically defined thalamic seeds, measured using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS Using baseline magnetic resonance images, we identified thalamocortical dysconnectivity in the 243 individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis, which was particularly pronounced in the 21 participants who converted to full-blown illness. The pattern involved widespread hypoconnectivity between the thalamus and prefrontal and cerebellar areas, which was more prominent in those who converted to full-blown illness (t173 = 3.77, P hyperconnectivity with sensory motor areas, again most

  18. Impaired visual short-term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm-born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaux, Aurore; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Bäuml, Josef G; Müller, Hermann J; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Finke, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired. We hypothesized distinct associations between vSTM capacity and the structural integrity of cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connections, respectively, in preterm-born adults. A whole-report paradigm of briefly presented letter arrays based on the computationally formalized Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) was used to quantify parameter vSTM capacity in 26 preterm- and 21 full-term-born adults. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of posterior thalamic radiations and the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained by diffusion tensor imaging were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics and used as proxies for cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical structural connectivity. The relationship between vSTM capacity and cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connectivity, respectively, was significantly modified by prematurity. In full-term-born adults, the higher FA in the right posterior thalamic radiation the higher vSTM capacity; in preterm-born adults this FA-vSTM-relationship was inversed. In the splenium, higher FA was correlated with higher vSTM capacity in preterm-born adults, whereas no significant relationship was evident in full-term-born adults. These results indicate distinct associations between cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical integrity and vSTM capacity in preterm-and full-term-born adults. Data suggest compensatory cortico-cortical fiber re-organization for attention deficits after preterm delivery

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented

  20. 75 FR 25241 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... aeration for Coldwater's activated sludge treatment process, allowing the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP... excursions, it was determined the WWTP's current organic treatment process was not capable of handling the... average aeration requirements on the WWTP. These blowers also have insufficient capacity to meet the peak...

  1. 75 FR 10866 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... reasonably available quantities and of a satisfactory quality; or, (3) the inclusion of the goods produced in... commercial quantities of a satisfactory quality. Expansion of the recirculation system requires adding a... drum filter. The existing recirculation facility is equipped with a variety of automated sensors that...

  2. Knowledge Base for an Intelligent System in order to Identify Security Requirements for Government Agencies Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Beltrán G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been evidenced that one of the most common causes in the failure of software security is the lack of identification and specification of requirements for information security, it is an activity with an insufficient importance in the software development or software acquisition We propose the knowledge base of CIBERREQ. CIBERREQ is an intelligent knowledge-based system used for the identification and specification of security requirements in the software development cycle or in the software acquisition. CIBERREQ receives functional software requirements written in natural language and produces non-functional security requirements through a semi-automatic process of risk management. The knowledge base built is formed by an ontology developed collaboratively by experts in information security. In this process has been identified six types of assets: electronic data, physical data, hardware, software, person and service; as well as six types of risk: competitive disadvantage, loss of credibility, economic risks, strategic risks, operational risks and legal sanctions. In addition there are defined 95 vulnerabilities, 24 threats, 230 controls, and 515 associations between concepts. Additionally, automatic expansion was used with Wikipedia for the asset types Software and Hardware, obtaining 7125 and 5894 software and hardware subtypes respectively, achieving thereby an improvement of 10% in the identification of the information assets candidates, one of the most important phases of the proposed system.

  3. Leukotriene synthesis is required for hedgehog-dependent neurite projection in neuralized embryoid bodies but not for motor neuron differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold; Roelink, Henk

    The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is required for many developmental processes,. as well as for adult homeostasis. Although all known effects of Hh signaling affecting patterning and differentiation are mediated by members of the Gli family of zinc ringer transcription factors, we demonstrate that the

  4. 75 FR 25246 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ..., Inc., and no United States manufacturer produces an alternative that meets the ABCWUA's technical... ABCWUA for the acquisition of three hundred loggers and one radio transceiver (Model: Gutermann Zonescan... requirements of cross correlation functionality for pinpointing leaks throughout its water distribution system...

  5. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  6. 18 CFR 401.39 - Form of submission of projects not requiring prior approval by State or Federal agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Executive Director may reasonably require for the administration of the provisions of the Compact... language of a standard or policy in the case of a non-structural proposal; (3) Section of the United States..., specifications and profiles of any proposed structures, or a description of the specific effects of a non...

  7. Improved dexterity after chronic electrical stimulation of the motor cortex for central pain: a special relevance for thalamic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Christophe; Vassal, François; Mertens, Patrick; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Magnin, Michel; Peyron, Roland

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate that motor cortex stimulation (MCS) could improve motor function in patients with neuropathic pain. In this prospective clinical study of 38 patients referred for MCS as treatment for their neuropathic pain, we collected any declaration of improvement in motor performance that could be attributed to MCS. Ten patients (26%) declared a benefit in their motor function. Eight presented objective evidence of recovered dexterity for rapid alternating movements. A minor proportion had improvement in dystonic posture (n = 2), but none had detectable increased motor strength or tonus changes. Overall, 73% of the patients with limb ataxia declared a benefit after MCS. In 6 out of 10 patients (60%), the anatomic lesion responsible for pain was restricted to the lateral aspect of the thalamus. All of them had either clinical or electrophysiological evidence of lemniscal dysfunction (proprioceptive ataxia). No correlation was found between the scores of pain relief and the modification of motor status. The correlation between thalamic lesions and benefits in motor performance was significant (Fisher's exact test, two-tailed, p = 0.0017). Up to 26% of patients estimated that MCS improved their motor outcome through recovered dexterity and in cases of lateral thalamic lesions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The effects of Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on speech dynamics in patients with Essential Tremor: An articulographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Anne; Roettger, Timo B.; Becker, Johannes; Niemann, Henrik; Dembek, Till A.; Timmermann, Lars; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Fink, Gereon R.; Grice, Martine; Barbe, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    Acoustic studies have revealed that patients with Essential Tremor treated with thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may suffer from speech deterioration in terms of imprecise oral articulation and reduced voicing control. Based on the acoustic signal one cannot infer, however, whether this deterioration is due to a general slowing down of the speech motor system (e.g., a target undershoot of a desired articulatory goal resulting from being too slow) or disturbed coordination (e.g., a target undershoot caused by problems with the relative phasing of articulatory movements). To elucidate this issue further, we here investigated both acoustics and articulatory patterns of the labial and lingual system using Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) in twelve Essential Tremor patients treated with thalamic DBS and twelve age- and sex-matched controls. By comparing patients with activated (DBS-ON) and inactivated stimulation (DBS-OFF) with control speakers, we show that critical changes in speech dynamics occur on two levels: With inactivated stimulation (DBS-OFF), patients showed coordination problems of the labial and lingual system in terms of articulatory imprecision and slowness. These effects of articulatory discoordination worsened under activated stimulation, accompanied by an additional overall slowing down of the speech motor system. This leads to a poor performance of syllables on the acoustic surface, reflecting an aggravation either of pre-existing cerebellar deficits and/or the affection of the upper motor fibers of the internal capsule. PMID:29360867

  9. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  10. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving population density functions of cortical pyramidal and thalamic neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Hsu; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-02-01

    Compared with the Monte Carlo method, the population density method is efficient for modeling collective dynamics of neuronal populations in human brain. In this method, a population density function describes the probabilistic distribution of states of all neurons in the population and it is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation. In the past, the problem was mainly solved by using the finite difference method. In a previous study, a continuous Galerkin finite element method was found better than the finite difference method for solving the hyperbolic partial differential equation; however, the population density function often has discontinuity and both methods suffer from a numerical stability problem. The goal of this study is to improve the numerical stability of the solution using discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. To test the performance of the new approach, interaction of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons and a population of thalamic neurons was simulated. The numerical results showed good agreement between results of discontinuous Galerkin finite element and Monte Carlo methods. The convergence and accuracy of the solutions are excellent. The numerical stability problem could be resolved using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which has total-variation-diminishing property. The efficient approach will be employed to simulate the electroencephalogram or dynamics of thalamocortical network which involves three populations, namely, thalamic reticular neurons, thalamocortical neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical appraisal of stereotactic hematoma aspiration surgery for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage; With respect to volume of the hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Koji; Matsumoto, Keizo (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Three hundred and four patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage were managed by medical treatment, ventricular drainage, or CT-controlled stereotactic aspiration surgery (AS). The therapeutic results of the 6-month outcome were analyzed and correlated with the volume of the hematoma. A hematoma volume of 20 ml was thought to be the critical size in determining whether the outcome would be favorable or unfavorable. Indications for AS are suggested as follows. In patients with a small-sized hematoma having a volume of less than 10 ml use of AS should be restricted to patients with severe paralysis or other neurological complications and the elderly (aged 70 years or older). For patients with a medium-sized hematoma having a volume between 10 ml and 20 ml, AS is indicated for patients having severe paralysis and disturbances of consciousness. For patients with a large-sized hematoma having a volume of 20 ml or more, AS increases not only the survival rate of patients but also reduces the number of bedridden patients. We conclude that AS opens up a new avenue of surgical treatment for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage, which has been no indication for hematoma evacuation by conventional craniotomy. (author).

  12. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    -frontal cortex, inferior frontal, temporo-parietal junction, medial temporal and frontal pole also had enhanced structural connectivity with the striatum and thalamus in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In addition, the cortico-striatal pathways were characterized by elevated fractional anisotropy and diminished radial diffusivity, suggesting microstructural axonal abnormalities of white matter in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. These changes were more prominent in females with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to males and were not related to the current medication status. Taken together, our data showed widespread structural abnormalities in cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic white matter pathways in patients with Gilles de la Tourette, which likely result from abnormal brain development in this syndrome. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  13. Astrocytes modulate thalamic sensory processing via mGlu2 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C S; Wall, T M; Sims, R E; Neale, S A; Nisenbaum, E; Parri, H R; Salt, T E

    2017-07-15

    Astrocytes possess many of the same signalling molecules as neurons. However, the role of astrocytes in information processing, if any, is unknown. Using electrophysiological and imaging methods, we report the first evidence that astrocytes modulate neuronal sensory inhibition in the rodent thalamus. We found that mGlu2 receptor activity reduces inhibitory transmission from the thalamic reticular nucleus to the somatosensory ventrobasal thalamus (VB): mIPSC frequencies in VB slices were reduced by the Group II mGlu receptor agonist LY354740, an effect potentiated by mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) LY487379 co-application (30 nM LY354740: 10.0 ± 1.6% reduction; 30 nM LY354740 & 30 μM LY487379: 34.6 ± 5.2% reduction). We then showed activation of mGlu2 receptors on astrocytes: astrocytic intracellular calcium levels were elevated by the Group II agonist, which were further potentiated upon mGlu2 PAM co-application (300 nM LY354740: ratio amplitude 0.016 ± 0.002; 300 nM LY354740 & 30 μM LY487379: ratio amplitude 0.035 ± 0.003). We then demonstrated mGlu2-dependent astrocytic disinhibition of VB neurons in vivo: VB neuronal responses to vibrissae stimulation trains were disinhibited by the Group II agonist and the mGlu2 PAM (LY354740: 156 ± 12% of control; LY487379: 144 ± 10% of control). Presence of the glial inhibitor fluorocitrate abolished the mGlu2 PAM effect (91 ± 5% of control), suggesting the mGlu2 component to the Group II effect can be attributed to activation of mGlu2 receptors localised on astrocytic processes within the VB. Gating of thalamocortical function via astrocyte activation represents a novel sensory processing mechanism. As this thalamocortical circuitry is important in discriminative processes, this demonstrates the importance of astrocytes in synaptic processes underlying attention and cognition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Social cognitive and neurocognitive deficits in inpatients with unilateral thalamic lesions — pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkos E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Wilkos,2 Timothy JB Brown,3 Ksenia Slawinska,1 Katarzyna A Kucharska2,3 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroses, Personality and Eating Disorders Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Medical Education, Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK Background: The essential role of the thalamus in neurocognitive processes has been well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about its involvement in social cognitive processes such as recognition of emotion, mentalizing, or empathy. The aim of the study: This study was designed to compare the performance of eight patients (five males, three females, mean age ± SD: 63.7±7.9 years at early stage of unilateral thalamic lesions and eleven healthy controls (six males, five females, 49.6±12.2 years in neurocognitive tests (CogState Battery: Groton Maze Learning Test, GML; Groton Maze Learning Test-Delayed Recall, GML-DR; Detection Task, DT; Identification Task, IT; One Card Learning Task, OCLT; One Back Task, OBT; Two Back Task, TBT; Set-Shifting Task, S-ST and other well-known tests (Benton Visual Retention Test, BVRT; California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT; The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCF; Trail Making Test, TMT part A and B; Color – Word Stroop Task, CWST; Verbal Fluency Test, VFT, and social cognitive tasks (The Penn Emotion Recognition Test, ER40; Penn Emotion Discrimination Task, EmoDiff40; The Penn Emotional Acuity Test, PEAT40; Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version II; Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20. Methods: Thalamic-damaged subjects were included if they experienced a single-episode ischemic stroke localized in right or left thalamus. The patients were examined at 3 weeks after the stroke onset. All were right handed. In addition, the following clinical scales were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II. An inclusion

  15. NUMO-RMS: a practical requirements management system for the long-term management of the deep geological disposal project - 16304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Satoru; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Oyamada, Kiyoshi; Yashio, Shoko; White, Matt; Wilmot, Roger

    2009-01-01

    NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) has the responsibility for implementing deep geological disposal of high-level (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the Japanese nuclear programme. A formal Requirements Management System (RMS) is planned to efficiently and effectively support the computerised implementation of the management strategy and the methodology required to drive the step-wise siting processes, and the following repository operational phase,. The RMS will help in the comprehensive management of the decision-making processes in the geological disposal project, in change management as the disposal system is optimised, in driving projects such as the R and D programme efficiently, and in maintaining structured records regarding past decisions, all of which lead to soundness of the project in terms of long-term continuity. The system is planned to have information handling and management functions using a database that includes the decisions/requirements in the programme under consideration, the way in which these are structured in terms of the decision-making process and other associated information. A two-year development programme is underway to develop and enhance an existing trial RMS to a practical system. Functions for change management, history management and association with the external timeline management system are being implemented in the system development work. The database format is being improved to accommodate the requirements management data relating to the facility design and to safety assessment of the deep geological repository. This paper will present an outline of the development work with examples to demonstrate the system's practicality. In parallel with the system/database developments, a case research of the use of requirements management in radioactive waste disposal projects was undertaken to identify key issues in the development of an RMS for radioactive waste disposal and specify a number of

  16. The Paradox of "Structured" Methods for Software Requirements Management: A Case Study of an e-Government Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Kieran; Lang, Michael

    This chapter outlines the alternative perspectives of "rationalism" and "improvisation" within information systems development and describes the major shortcomings of each. It then discusses how these shortcomings manifested themselves within an e-government case study where a "structured" requirements management method was employed. Although this method was very prescriptive and firmly rooted in the "rational" paradigm, it was observed that users often resorted to improvised behaviour, such as privately making decisions on how certain aspects of the method should or should not be implemented.

  17. Distonia virtual por infarto talâmico posterolateral ventral: relato de caso Virtual dystonia due to a posteroventrolateral thalamic infarct: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo De Oliveira-Souza

    1996-09-01

    dystonia not outwardly expressed through the motor system. There was severe proprioceptive loss in the same toes that harbored the cramp. MRI showed the appropriate lesion in the posteroventrolateral thalamus (VPL and wallerian degeneration of thalamo-cortical projections. SPECT showed hypoperfusion of the overlying ipsilateral parietal cortex as well as of the basal nuclei bilaterally, besides the expected image of thalamic exclusion. We hypothesize that the infarct disconnected the somatic sensory cortex (S-I from critical proprioceptive input with relative sparing of superficial sensibility. Lifting the foot deprived S-I of tonic inputs conveyed by undamaged contact-pressure pathways, a functional effect promptly reversed by placing the foot back against the ground. The case illustrates how a capricious deafferentation of S-I by a discrete VPL thalamic infarct might facilitate the emergence of autochthonous activity in the primary somesthetic cortex and give rise to a purely mental abnormal involuntary movement akin to the unimodal hallucinoses of which the syndrome of Bonnet is the best-known example. Virtual abnormal involuntary movements may be concealed more often than appreciated by complaints such as pains or cramps in patients with nervous system lesions.

  18. The Medial Dorsal Thalamic Nucleus and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of the Rat Function Together to Support Associative Recognition and Recency but Not Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Laura; Brown, Malcolm W.; Aggleton, John P.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2013-01-01

    In humans recognition memory deficits, a typical feature of diencephalic amnesia, have been tentatively linked to mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) damage. Animal studies have occasionally investigated the role of the MD in single-item recognition, but have not systematically analyzed its involvement in other recognition memory processes. In…

  19. Measurement of frontal lobe volume and thalamic volume in fetuses with congenital heart disease at different gestational weeks using three dimensional ultra sonography and its clinical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Fei, Zhu; Hong-Xiong, Liu; Ying, H E

    2016-11-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the measurement of frontal lobe volume and thalamic volume in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) at different gestational weeks using three dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography and its clinical value. Then, 238 pregnant women who received obstetric ultrasonography in ultrasound department of Internal Medicine of our hospital were enrolled between March 2013 to April 2014. In this study, 85 fetuses were diagnosed to develop CHD by prenatal fetal echocardiography, and the other 153 fetuses were normal. Frontal lobe volume, thalamic volume and cerebral blood flow was determined by color Doppler ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus (type: GE Voluson E8). The level of MCA-PI and CPR in CHD fetus group performed significantly lower than that in normal fetus group (Pfrontal lobe volume between the two groups (Pfrontal lobe volume than that in normal fetus group (Pfrontal lobe volume and thalamic volume; if gestational age frontal lobe volume and thalamic volume in fetuses with CHD performed significantly lower than that in normal fetuses.

  20. Different expressions of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel types in the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus of the absence epileptic WAG/Rij rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkamp-Janssen, M.C. van de; Scheenen, W.J.J.M.; Kuijpers-Kwant, F.J.; Kozicz, L.T.; Veening, J.G.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; McEnery, M.W.; Roubos, E.W.

    2004-01-01

    In the WAG/Rij rat, a model for human absence epilepsy, spike-wave discharges (SWD) and absence epileptic behavior develop after the age of 3 months. The rostral part of the reticular thalamic nucleus (rRTN) is involved in SWD. Ca(2+) channels play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of

  1. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  2. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  3. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  4. Abnormal Ocular Movement With Executive Dysfunction and Personality Change in Subject With Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ee Jin; Kim, Myeong Ok; Kim, Chang Hwan; Joa, Kyung Lim; Jung, Han Young

    2015-12-01

    The thalamus, located between the cerebrum and midbrain, is a nuclear complex connected to the cerebral cortex that influences motor skills, cognition, and mood. The thalamus is composed of 50-60 nuclei and can be divided into four areas according to vascular supply. In addition, it can be divided into five areas according to function. Many studies have reported on a thalamic infarction causing motor or sensory changes, but few have reported on behavioral and executive aspects of the ophthalmoplegia of the thalamus. This study reports a rare case of a paramedian thalamus infarction affecting the dorsomedial area of the thalamus, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy, an abnormal behavioral change, and executive dysfunction. This special case is presented with a review of the anatomical basis and function of the thalamus.

  5. On the genesis of spike-wave oscillations in a mean-field model of human thalamic and corticothalamic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Serafim; Terry, John R.; Breakspear, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the genesis of spike-wave activity-a hallmark of many generalized epileptic seizures-is investigated in a reduced mean-field model of human neural activity. Drawing upon brain modelling and dynamical systems theory, we demonstrate that the thalamic circuitry of the system is crucial for the generation of these abnormal rhythms, observing that the combination of inhibition from reticular nuclei and excitation from the cortical signal, interplay to generate the spike-wave oscillation. The mechanism revealed provides an explanation of why approaches based on linear stability and Heaviside approximations to the activation function have failed to explain the phenomena of spike-wave behaviour in mean-field models. A mathematical understanding of this transition is a crucial step towards relating spiking network models and mean-field approaches to human brain modelling

  6. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lieshout, P.; Renier, W.; Eling, P.; de Bot, K.; Slis, I.

    1990-01-01

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area

  7. Unique combination of anatomy and physiology in cells of the rat paralaminar thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip H; Bartlett, Edward L; Kowalkowski, Anna

    2006-05-20

    The medial geniculate body (MGB) has three major subdivisions, ventral (MGV), dorsal (MGD), and medial (MGM). MGM is linked with paralaminar nuclei that are situated medial and ventral to MGV/MGD. Paralaminar nuclei have unique inputs and outputs compared with MGV and MGD and have been linked to circuitry underlying some important functional roles. We recorded intracellularly from cells in the paralaminar nuclei in vitro. We found that they possess an unusual combination of anatomical and physiological features compared with those reported for "standard" thalamic neurons seen in the MGV/MGD and elsewhere in the thalamus. Compared with MGV/MGD neurons, anatomically, 1) paralaminar cell dendrites can be long, branch sparingly, and encompass a much larger area; 2) their dendrites may be smooth but can have well defined spines; and 3) their axons can have collaterals that branch locally within the same or nearby paralaminar nuclei. When compared with MGV/MGD neurons, physiologically, 1) their spikes are larger in amplitude and can be shorter in duration; 2) their spikes can have dual afterhyperpolarizations with fast and slow components; and 3) they can have a reduction or complete absence of the low-threshold, voltage-sensitive calcium conductance that reduces or eliminates the voltage-dependent burst response. We also recorded from cells in the parafascicular nucleus, a nucleus of the posterior intralaminar nuclear group, because they have unusual anatomical features that are similar to those of some of our paralaminar cells. As with the labeled paralaminar cells, parafascicular cells had physiological features distinguishing them from typical thalamic neurons. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Robust modulation of arousal regulation, performance, and frontostriatal activity through central thalamic deep brain stimulation in healthy nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Jae-Wook; Wei, Xuefeng F.; Butson, Christopher R.; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Purpura, Keith P.

    2016-01-01

    The central thalamus (CT) is a key component of the brain-wide network underlying arousal regulation and sensory-motor integration during wakefulness in the mammalian brain. Dysfunction of the CT, typically a result of severe brain injury (SBI), leads to long-lasting impairments in arousal regulation and subsequent deficits in cognition. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) is proposed as a therapy to reestablish and maintain arousal regulation to improve cognition in select SBI patients. However, a mechanistic understanding of CT-DBS and an optimal method of implementing this promising therapy are unknown. Here we demonstrate in two healthy nonhuman primates (NHPs), Macaca mulatta, that location-specific CT-DBS improves performance in visuomotor tasks and is associated with physiological effects consistent with enhancement of endogenous arousal. Specifically, CT-DBS within the lateral wing of the central lateral nucleus and the surrounding medial dorsal thalamic tegmental tract (DTTm) produces a rapid and robust modulation of performance and arousal, as measured by neuronal activity in the frontal cortex and striatum. Notably, the most robust and reliable behavioral and physiological responses resulted when we implemented a novel method of CT-DBS that orients and shapes the electric field within the DTTm using spatially separated DBS leads. Collectively, our results demonstrate that selective activation within the DTTm of the CT robustly regulates endogenous arousal and enhances cognitive performance in the intact NHP; these findings provide insights into the mechanism of CT-DBS and further support the development of CT-DBS as a therapy for reestablishing arousal regulation to support cognition in SBI patients. PMID:27582298

  9. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  10. Revising REACH guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment for engineered nanomaterials for aquatic ecotoxicity endpoints: recommendations from the EnvNano project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2017-01-01

    The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) is in the process of revising its guidance documents on how to address the challenges of ecotoxicological testing of nanomaterials. In these revisions, outset is taken in the hypothesis that ecotoxicological test methods, developed for soluble chemicals, can...... be made applicable to nanomaterials. European Research Council project EnvNano—Environmental Effects and Risk Evaluation of Engineered, which ran from 2011 to 2016, took another outset by assuming that: “The behaviour of nanoparticles in suspension is fundamentally different from that of chemicals...... further suggest that the importance of considering the impact of shading in algal tests is made more detailed in the guidance and that it is specified that determination of uptake, depuration and trophic transfer of nanomaterials for each commercialized functionalization of the nanomaterials is required...

  11. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...

  12. Seizures and Sleep in the Thalamus: Focal Limbic Seizures Show Divergent Activity Patterns in Different Thalamic Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Motelow, Joshua E; Ma, Chanthia; Biche, William; McCafferty, Cian; Smith, Nicholas; Liu, Mengran; Zhan, Qiong; Jia, Ruonan; Xiao, Bo; Duque, Alvaro; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2017-11-22

    The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow-wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT), and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that population firing of neurons in CL decreased during seizures while the cortex exhibited slow waves. In contrast, ANT showed a trend toward increased neuronal firing compatible with polyspike seizure discharges seen in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, VPM exhibited a remarkable increase in sleep spindles during focal seizures. Single-unit juxtacellular recordings from CL demonstrated reduced overall firing rates, but a switch in firing pattern from single spikes to burst firing during seizures. These findings suggest that different thalamic nuclei play very different roles in focal limbic seizures. While limbic nuclei, such as ANT, appear to participate directly in seizure propagation, arousal nuclei, such as CL, may contribute to depressed cortical function, whereas sleep spindles in relay nuclei, such as VPM, may interrupt thalamocortical information flow. These combined effects could be critical for controlling both seizure severity and impairment of consciousness. Further understanding of differential effects of seizures on different thalamocortical networks may lead to improved treatments directly targeting these modes of impaired function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal lobe epilepsy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Previous work suggests that the thalamus plays a critical role in thalamocortical network modulation and subcortical arousal

  13. Efficacy of T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo MRI in Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unilateral Thalamic Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Mitaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an uncommon cause of stroke with diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Because of variability in clinical presentation and neuroimaging, CVT remains a diagnostic challenge. Recently, some studies have highlighted the value of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI (T2*WI in the diagnosis of CVT. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with CVT due to a hypercoagulable state associated with cancer. On the initial T2-weighted image (T2WI, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the right thalamus, extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule and midbrain. T2*WI showed diminished signal and enlargement of the right basilar vein and the vein of Galen. Even though there is a wide range of differential diagnoses in unilateral thalamic lesions, and a single thalamus lesion is a rare entity of CVT, based on T2*WI findings we could make an early diagnosis and perform treatment. Our case report suggests that T2*WI could detect thrombosed veins and be a useful method of early diagnosis in CVT.

  14. Crossed Aphasia and Visuo-Spatial Neglect Following a Right Thalamic Stroke: A Case Study and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve De Witte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD following pure subcortical lesions is rare. This study describes a right-handed patient with an ischemic lesion in the right thalamus. In the post-acute phase of the stroke, a unique combination of ‘crossed thalamic aphasia’ was found with left visuo-spatial neglect and constructional apraxia. On the basis of the criteria used in Mariën et al. [67], this case-report is the first reliable representative of vascular CAD following an isolated lesion in the right thalamus. Furthermore, this paper presents a detailed analysis of linguistic and cognitive impairments of ‘possible’ and 'reliable' subcortical CAD-cases published since 1975. Out of 25 patients with a pure subcortical lesion, nine cases were considered as ‘possibly reliable or reliable’. A review of these cases reveals that: (1 demographic data are consistent with the general findings for the entire group of vascular CAD, (2 the neurolinguistic findings do not support the data in the general CAD-population with regard to (a the high prevalence of transcortical aphasia and (b the tendency towards a copresence of an oral versus written language dissociation and a ‘mirror-image’ lesion-aphasia profile, (3 subcortical CAD is not a transient phenomenon, (4 the lesion-aphasia correlations are not congruent with the high incidence of anomalous cases in the general CAD-population, (5 neuropsychological impairments may accompany subcortical CAD.

  15. GABAA receptor in the thalamic specific relay system contributes to the propofol-induced somatosensory cortical suppression in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chaoping; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Interaction with the gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-A (GABAA) receptors is recognized as an important component of the mechanism of propofol, a sedative-hypnotic drug commonly used as anesthetic. However the contribution of GABAA receptors to the central nervous system suppression is still not well understood, especially in the thalamocortical network. In the present study, we investigated if intracerebral injection of bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) into the thalamus ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM, a thalamus specific relay nuclei that innervated S1 mostly) could reverse propofol-induced cortical suppression, through recording the changes of both spontaneous and somatosensory neural activities in rat's somatosensory cortex (S1). We found that after injection of bicuculline into VPM, significant increase of neural activities were observed in all bands of local field potentials (total band, 182±6%), while the amplitude of all components in somatosensory evoked potentials were also increased (negative, 121±9% and positive, 124±6%).These data support that the potentiation of GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition in a thalamic specific relay system seems to play a crucial role in propofol-induced cortical suppression in the somatosensory cortex of rats.

  16. Wisteria Floribunda Agglutinin-Labeled Perineuronal Nets in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus, Thalamic Reticular Nucleus and Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Fader

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs are specialized extracellular matrix molecules that are associated with the closing of the critical period, among other functions. In the adult brain, PNNs surround specific types of neurons, however the expression of PNNs in the auditory system of the mouse, particularly at the level of the midbrain and forebrain, has not been fully described. In addition, the association of PNNs with excitatory and inhibitory cell types in these structures remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression of PNNs in the inferior colliculus (IC, thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN and primary auditory cortex (A1 of the mouse brain by labeling with wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA. To aid in the identification of inhibitory neurons in these structures, we employed the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT-Venus transgenic mouse strain, which robustly expresses an enhanced yellow-fluorescent protein (Venus natively in nearly all gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA-ergic inhibitory neurons, thus enabling a rapid and unambiguous assessment of inhibitory neurons throughout the nervous system. Our results demonstrate that PNNs are expressed throughout the auditory midbrain and forebrain, but vary in their local distribution. PNNs are most dense in the TRN and least dense in A1. Furthermore, PNNs are preferentially associated with inhibitory neurons in A1 and the TRN, but not in the IC of the mouse. These data suggest regionally specific roles for PNNs in auditory information processing.

  17. The short- and long-term proteomic effects of sleep deprivation on the cortical and thalamic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Attila; Györffy, Balázs András; Gulyássy, Péter; Völgyi, Katalin; Tóth, Vilmos; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kis, Viktor; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Szabó, Zoltán; Janáky, Tamás; Drahos, László; Juhász, Gábor; Kékesi, Katalin Adrienna

    2017-03-01

    Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8h of total SD by gentle handling and 16h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively. The SD efficiency was verified by electrophysiology. Protein abundance alterations of the synaptosomes were analyzed by fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and by tandem mass spectrometry. As several altered proteins were found to be involved in synaptic strength regulation, our data can support the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis function of sleep and highlight the long-term influence of SD after the recovery sleep period, mostly on cortical synapses. Furthermore, the large-scale and brain area-specific protein network change in the synapses may support both ideas of sleep-related synaptogenesis and molecular maintenance and reorganization in normal rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The correlation of the thalamic lesions on MRI with cerebral cortical blood flow in patients with lacunar infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabatame, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsuda, Minoru; Fujimoto, Naoki [Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Fukuyama, Hidenao

    1995-07-01

    We performed MRI and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) using {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT microsphere model in twenty three right-handed patients with lacunar infarction. Twelve of 23 patients showed chronic deterioration of dysarthria and gait disturbance. The mental function of the patients was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State (MMS) examination. The area of high intensity on T2-weighted images was quantitatively analyzed in the cerebral white matter (WM), lenticular nucleus (LN) and thalamus (THA). The score of MMS was positively correlated with the local CBF in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.05). Also, the area of high intensity in the left THA showed a significant negative correlation with local CBF of the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.001). The high intensity areas of the bilateral LN, right WM and right THA had a significant but weaker negative correlation with local CBF of some cortices. These findings suggest that thalamic lesions on the dominant side play an important role in the reduction of cortical blood flow and the deterioration of mental functions in patients with lacunar infarction. (author).

  19. Role of participants in nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polliart, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    In this article staffing requirements for nuclear projects (Turnkey Contract) and the owner's staff requirements, project planning, project implementation, and plant construction and commissioning are treated. (HK) [de

  20. Auditory thalamic circuits and GABAA receptor function: Putative mechanisms in tinnitus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, Donald M; Llano, Daniel A

    2017-06-01

    Tinnitus is defined as a phantom sound (ringing in the ears), and can significantly reduce the quality of life for those who suffer its effects. Ten to fifteen percent of the general adult population report symptoms of tinnitus with 1-2% reporting that tinnitus negatively impacts their quality of life. Noise exposure is the most common cause of tinnitus and the military environment presents many challenging high-noise situations. Military noise levels can be so intense that standard hearing protection is not adequate. Recent studies suggest a role for inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction in response to noise-induced peripheral deafferentation as a key element in the pathology of tinnitus. The auditory thalamus, or medial geniculate body (MGB), is an obligate auditory brain center in a unique position to gate the percept of sound as it projects to auditory cortex and to limbic structures. Both areas are thought to be involved in those individuals most impacted by tinnitus. For MGB, opposing hypotheses have posited either a tinnitus-related pathologic decrease or pathologic increase in GABAergic inhibition. In sensory thalamus, GABA mediates fast synaptic inhibition via synaptic GABA A receptors (GABA A Rs) as well as a persistent tonic inhibition via high-affinity extrasynaptic GABA A Rs and slow synaptic inhibition via GABA B Rs. Down-regulation of inhibitory neurotransmission, related to partial peripheral deafferentation, is consistently presented as partially underpinning neuronal hyperactivity seen in animal models of tinnitus. This maladaptive plasticity/Gain Control Theory of tinnitus pathology (see Auerbach et al., 2014; Richardson et al., 2012) is characterized by reduced inhibition associated with increased spontaneous and abnormal neuronal activity, including bursting and increased synchrony throughout much of the central auditory pathway. A competing hypothesis suggests that maladaptive oscillations between the MGB and auditory cortex

  1. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  2. Comprehensive in vivo mapping of the human basal ganglia and thalamic connectome in individuals using 7T MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Lenglet

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia circuits are affected in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD, essential tremor, dystonia and Tourette syndrome. Understanding the structural and functional connectivity of these circuits is critical for elucidating the mechanisms of the movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and is vital for developing new therapeutic strategies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS. Knowledge about the connectivity of the human basal ganglia and thalamus has rapidly evolved over recent years through non-invasive imaging techniques, but has remained incomplete because of insufficient resolution and sensitivity of these techniques. Here, we present an imaging and computational protocol designed to generate a comprehensive in vivo and subject-specific, three-dimensional model of the structure and connections of the human basal ganglia. High-resolution structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired with a 7-Tesla magnet. Capitalizing on the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and enriched contrast obtained at high-field MRI, detailed structural and connectivity representations of the human basal ganglia and thalamus were achieved. This unique combination of multiple imaging modalities enabled the in-vivo visualization of the individual human basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei, the reconstruction of seven white-matter pathways and their connectivity probability that, to date, have only been reported in animal studies, histologically, or group-averaged MRI population studies. Also described are subject-specific parcellations of the basal ganglia and thalamus into sub-territories based on their distinct connectivity patterns. These anatomical connectivity findings are supported by functional connectivity data derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI. This work demonstrates new capabilities for studying basal ganglia circuitry, and opens new avenues of investigation into the movement and neuropsychiatric

  3. Thalamic Volume Deficit Contributes to Procedural and Explicit Memory Impairment in HIV Infection with Primary Alcoholism Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2014-01-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes. PMID:24421067

  4. Role of the thalamic nucleus reuniens in mediating interactions between the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex during spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the neural mechanisms of spatial working memory remain poorly understood. Although the dorsal hippocampus is known to be critical for memory-guided behavior, experimental evidence suggests that spatial working memory depends not only on the hippocampus itself, but also on the circuit comprised of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Disruption of hippocampal-mPFC interactions may result in failed transfer of spatial and contextual information processed by the hippocampus to the circuitry in mPFC responsible for decision making and goal-directed behavior. Oscillatory synchrony between the hippocampus and mPFC has been shown to increase in tasks with high spatial working memory demand. However, the mechanisms and circuitry supporting hippocampal-mPFC interactions during these tasks is unknown. The midline thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE is reciprocally connected to both the hippocampus and the mPFC and has been shown to be critical for a variety of working memory tasks. Therefore, it is likely that hippocampal-mPFC oscillatory synchrony is modulated by RE activity. This article will review the anatomical connections between the hippocampus, mPFC and RE along with the behavioral studies that have investigated the effects of RE disruption on working memory task performance. The article will conclude with suggestions for future directions aimed at identifying the specific role of the RE in regulating functional interactions between the hippocampus and the PFC and investigating the degree to which these interactions contribute to spatial working memory.

  5. Divergent Structural Responses to Pharmacological Interventions in Orbitofronto-Striato-Thalamic and Premotor Circuits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiming Lv

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior efforts to dissect etiological and pharmacological modulations in brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are often undermined by methodological and sampling constraints, yielding conflicting conclusions and no reliable neuromarkers. Here we evaluated alteration of regional gray matter volume including effect size (Cohen's d value in 95 drug-naïve patients (age range: 18–55 compared to 95 healthy subjects (age: 18–63, then examined pharmacological effects in 65 medicated (age: 18–57 and 73 medication-free patients (age: 18–61. Robustness of statistical outcomes and effect sizes was rigorously tested with Monte Carlo cross-validation. Relative to controls, both drug-naïve and medication-free patients exhibited comparable volumetric increases mainly in the left thalamus (d = 0.90, 0.82, respectively, left ventral striatum (d = 0.88, 0.67, bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (d = 0.86, 0.71; 0.90, 0.73, and left inferior temporal gyrus (d = 0.83, 0.66, and decreased volumes in left premotor/presupplementary motor areas (d = −0.83, −0.71. Interestingly, abnormalities in the thalamus and medial orbitofrontal cortex were present in medicated patients whereas entirely absent in premotor and ventral striatum. It suggests that pharmacotherapy elicited divergent responses in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic and premotor circuits, which warrants the design of longitudinal studies investigating the potential of these neuromarkers in stratified treatments of OCD.

  6. A thalamic-fronto-parietal structural covariance network emerging in the course of recovery from hand paresis after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eAbela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe structural covariance networks of grey matter volume (GMV change in 28 patients with first-ever stroke to the primary sensorimotor cortices, and to investigate their relationship to hand function recovery and local GMV change.Methods: Tensor based morphometry maps derived from high resolution structural images were subject to principal component analyses to identify the networks. We calculated correlations between network expression and local GMV change, sensorimotor hand function and lesion volume. To verify which of the structural covariance networks of GMV change have a significant relationship to hand function we performed an additional multivariate regression approach.Results: Expression of the second network, explaining 9.1% of variance, correlated with GMV increase in the medio-dorsal (md thalamus and hand motor skill. Patients with positive expression coefficients were distinguished by significantly higher GMV-increase of this structure during stroke recovery. Significant nodes of this network were located in md thalamus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and higher order sensorimotor cortices. Parameter of hand function had a unique relationship to the network and depended on an interaction between network expression and lesion volume. Inversely network expression is limited in patients with large lesion volumes.Conclusions: Chronic phase of sensorimotor cortical stroke has been characterized by a large scale covarying structural network in the ipsilesional hemisphere associated specifically with sensorimotor hand skill. Its expression is related to GMV-increase of md thalamus, one constituent of the network, and correlated with the cortico-striato-thalamic loop involved in control of motor execution and higher order sensorimotor cortices. A close relation between expression of this network with degree of recovery might indicate reduced compensatory resources in the impaired subgroup.

  7. Thalamic volume deficit contributes to procedural and explicit memory impairment in HIV infection with primary alcoholism comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2014-12-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes.

  8. Consistent phosphenes generated by electrical microstimulation of the visual thalamus. An experimental approach for thalamic visual neuroprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fivos ePanetsos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Most work on visual prostheses has centred on developing retinal or cortical devices. However, when retinal implants are not feasible, neuroprostheses could be implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN, the intermediate relay station of visual information from the retina to the visual cortex (V1. The objective of the present study was to determine the types of artificial stimuli that when delivered to the visual thalamus can generate reliable responses of the cortical neurons similar to those obtained when the eye perceives a visual image. Visual stimuli {Si} were presented to one eye of an experimental animal and both, the thalamic {RThi} and cortical responses {RV1i} to such stimuli were recorded. Electrical patterns {RThi*} resembling {RThi} were then injected into the visual thalamus to obtain cortical responses {RV1i*} similar to {RV1i}. Visually- and electrically-generated V1 responses were compared.Results: During the course of this work we: (i characterised the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli according to response magnitude, duration, spiking rate and the distribution of interspike intervals; (ii experimentally tested the dependence of V1 responses on stimulation parameters such as intensity, frequency, duration, etc. and determined the ranges of these parameters generating the desired cortical activity; (iii identified similarities between responses of V1 useful to compare the naturally and artificially generated neuronal activity of V1; and (iv by modifying the stimulation parameters, we generated artificial V1 responses similar to those elicited by visual stimuli.Generation of predictable and consistent phosphenes by means of artificial stimulation of the LGN is important for the feasibility of visual prostheses. Here we proved that electrical stimuli to the LGN can generate V1 neural responses that resemble those elicited by natural visual stimuli.

  9. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of tremor due to multiple sclerosis: a prospective study of tremor and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Caglar; Carr, Jason; Sinden, Marci; Martzke, Jeff; Honey, Christopher R

    2002-10-01

    In several studies a significant reduction in tremor after thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It has not been determined if this results in an improved quality of life. In this study the authors prospectively evaluated the effects of thalamic DBS on tremor and quality of life. Videotapes of the patients' tremor were made preoperatively and 2 and 12 months postoperatively, and tremor was scored by a neurologist blinded to the treatment. Patients were tested pre- and postoperatively to measure any changes in their reported ability to perform selected activities of daily living and in their health-related quality of life. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their satisfaction with the surgery. Postoperative changes were examined using paired t-tests. There were significant reductions in postural, action, and overall tremor at 2 and 12 months postoperatively. The patients' reported ability to feed themselves was significantly improved 2 months after surgery (p = 0.01). There were short-term trends toward improvement in reported dressing ability, personal hygiene, and writing. There were no significant changes in the SF-36 subscales or total score. In this cohort of patients with MS who suffered from tremor, thalamic DBS significantly improved their tremor and ability to feed themselves. Patient satisfaction with the procedure, however, was variable. Preoperative patient education about what functions might (and might not) be improved is crucial to avoid unrealistic expectations. Our results indicate that younger patients with MS tremor who had a shorter disease duration and no superimposed ataxia benefited most from this surgery.

  10. Stimulation of the Pontine Parabrachial Nucleus Promotes Wakefulness via Extra-thalamic Forebrain Circuit Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mei Hong; Chen, Michael C; Fuller, Patrick M; Lu, Jun

    2016-09-12

    Human and animal studies have identified an especially critical role for the brainstem parabrachial (PB) complex in regulating electrocortical (electroencephalogram [EEG]) and behavioral arousal: lesions of the PB complex produce a monotonous high-voltage, slow-wave EEG and eliminate spontaneous behaviors. We report here that targeted chemogenetic activation of the PB complex produces sustained EEG and behavioral arousal in the rat. We further establish, using viral-mediated retrograde activation, that PB projections to the preoptic-basal forebrain and lateral hypothalamus, but not to the thalamus, mediate PB-driven wakefulness. We exploited this novel and noninvasive model of induced wakefulness to explore the EEG and metabolic consequences of extended wakefulness. Repeated (daily) chemogenetic activation of the PB was highly effective in extending wakefulness over 4 days, although subsequent PB activation produced progressively lesser wake amounts. Curiously, no EEG or behavioral sleep rebound was observed, even after 4 days of induced wakefulness. Following the last of the four daily induced wake bouts, we examined the brains and observed a chimeric pattern of c-Fos expression, with c-Fos expressed in subsets of both arousal- and sleep-promoting nuclei. From a metabolic standpoint, induced extended wakefulness significantly reduced body weight and leptin but was without significant effect on cholesterol, triglyceride, or insulin levels, suggesting that high sleep pressure or sleep debt per se does not, as previously implicated, result in a deleterious metabolic phenotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the required additional organic inputs to soils to reach the 4 per 1000 objective at the global scale: a RothC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Skalsky, Rastislav; Martin, Manuel; Balkovic, Juraj; Havlik, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    The 4 per 1000 Initiative underlines the role of soil organic matter in addressing the three-fold challenge of food security, adaptation of the land sector to climate change, and mitigation of human-induced GHG emissions. It sets an ambitious global target of a 0.4% (4/1000) annual increase in top soil organic carbon (SOC) stock. The present collaborative project between the 4 per 1000 research program, INRA and IIASA aims at providing a first global assessment of the translation of this soil organic carbon sequestration target into the equivalent organic matter inputs target. Indeed, soil organic carbon builds up in the soil through different processes leading to an increased input of carbon to the system (by increasing returns to the soil for instance) or a decreased output of carbon from the system (mainly by biodegradation and mineralization processes). Here we answer the question of how much extra organic matter must be added to agricultural soils every year (in otherwise unchanged climatic conditions) in order to guarantee a 0.4% yearly increase of total soil organic carbon stocks (40cm soil depth is considered). We use the RothC model of soil organic matter turnover on a spatial grid over 10 years to model two situations for croplands: a first situation where soil organic carbon remains constant (system at equilibrium) and a second situation where soil organic matter increases by 0.4% every year. The model accounts for the effects of soil type, temperature, moisture content and plant cover on the turnover process, it is run on a monthly time step, and it can simulate the needed organic input to sustain a certain SOC stock (or evolution of SOC stock). These two SOC conditions lead to two average yearly plant inputs over 10 years. The difference between the two simulated inputs represent the additional yearly input needed to reach the 4 per 1000 objective (input_eq for inputs needed for SOC to remain constant; input_4/1000 for inputs needed for SOC to reach

  12. Risks management in project planning

    OpenAIRE

    Stankevičiūtė, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Project management consists of two very important aspects – managing the right project and managing the project right. To know that you are managing the right project you need to ensure that your project is based on an actual requirement and that your project goal is relevant and beneficial. And professional project planning assists in managing project the right way. The project planning process is very time consuming and is one of the most important parts of the project management process. T...

  13. Opinion on the orientations chosen by the ASN within the frame of the preparation of projects of technical decisions related to nuclear activities requiring a declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This report comments the orientations chosen by the ASN (the French Nuclear Safety Authority) on different topics: general methodology of assessment of risks related to some nuclear activities, projects of technical decisions related to some electric devices generating X rays, to the list of information attached to the declaration, and to practice conditions for a person with radioprotection capabilities, and project of decision related to radioprotection and ambient technical controls for some nuclear medical activities

  14. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  15. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  16. Thinking outside a less intact box: thalamic dopamine D2 receptor densities are negatively related to psychometric creativity in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjan de Manzano

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Test were correlated with regional D2 receptor densities, as measured by Positron Emission Tomography, and the radioligands [(11C]raclopride and [(11C]FLB 457. The results show a negative correlation between divergent thinking scores and D2 density in the thalamus, also when controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Hence, the results demonstrate that the D2 receptor system, and specifically thalamic function, is important for creative performance, and may be one crucial link between creativity and psychopathology. We suggest that decreased D2 receptor densities in the thalamus lower thalamic gating thresholds, thus increasing thalamocortical information flow. In healthy individuals, who do not suffer from the detrimental effects of psychiatric disease, this may increase performance on divergent thinking tests. In combination with the cognitive functions of higher order cortical networks, this could constitute a basis for the generative and selective processes that underlie real life creativity.

  17. Thinking outside a less intact box: thalamic dopamine D2 receptor densities are negatively related to psychometric creativity in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Orjan; Cervenka, Simon; Karabanov, Anke; Farde, Lars; Ullén, Fredrik

    2010-05-17

    Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Test) were correlated with regional D2 receptor densities, as measured by Positron Emission Tomography, and the radioligands [(11)C]raclopride and [(11)C]FLB 457. The results show a negative correlation between divergent thinking scores and D2 density in the thalamus, also when controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Hence, the results demonstrate that the D2 receptor system, and specifically thalamic function, is important for creative performance, and may be one crucial link between creativity and psychopathology. We suggest that decreased D2 receptor densities in the thalamus lower thalamic gating thresholds, thus increasing thalamocortical information flow. In healthy individuals, who do not suffer from the detrimental effects of psychiatric disease, this may increase performance on divergent thinking tests. In combination with the cognitive functions of higher order cortical networks, this could constitute a basis for the generative and selective processes that underlie real life creativity.

  18. Combination Treatment of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Ataxic Hemiparesis due to Thalamic Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Urushidani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS and intensive occupational therapy (OT are clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper-limb hemiparesis. However, the usefulness of LF-rTMS and intensive OT for ataxic hemiparesis (AH is unknown. Methods: The study subjects included 7 patients with AH. All patients had ataxia and mild hemiparesis without a sensory disturbance that was due to thalamic hemorrhage. Each patient was scheduled to receive 20-min rTMS at 1 Hz at the contralesional cerebral hemisphere followed by 120-min intensive OT, daily for 21 sessions. The primary outcome was the motor function of the affected upper limb that was evaluated by using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA. In addition, the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS score was determined to assess the severity of ataxia. Results: All patients completed the protocol without any adverse effects. The FMA score significantly increased after treatment. Notably, the ICARS score also significantly decreased. Conclusions: Our proposed combination treatment is a safe and feasible neurorehabilitative intervention for patients with AH due to thalamic hemorrhage. Our results demonstrate the possibility that rTMS in combination with intensive OT could improve motor function and alleviated ataxia in patients with AH.

  19. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  20. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  1. Netrin-1 rescues neuron loss by attenuating secondary apoptosis in ipsilateral thalamic nucleus following focal cerebral infarction in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S-J; Gong, Q; Chen, X-R; Ye, L-X; Ding, Q; Zeng, J-S; Yu, J

    2013-02-12

    Neurological deficit following cerebral infarction correlates with not only primary injury, but also secondary neuronal apoptosis in remote loci connected to the infarction. Netrin-1 is crucial for axonal guidance by interacting with its receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and uncoordinated gene 5H (UNC5H). DCC and UNC5H are also dependence receptors inducing cell apoptosis when unbound by netrin-1. The present study is to investigate the role of netrin-1 and its receptors in ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN) injury secondary to stroke in hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of netrin-1 (600 ng/d for 7 days) or vehicle (IgG/Fc) was given 24h after MCAO. Neurological function was evaluated by postural reflex 8 and 14 days after MCAO. Then, immunoreactivity was determined in the ipsilateral VPN for NeuN, glial fibrillary acidic protein, netrin-1 and its receptors (DCC and UNC5H2), apoptosis was detected with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the expressions of caspase-3, netrin-1, DCC, and UNC5H2 were quantified by western blot analysis. MCAO resulted in the impaired postural reflex after 8 and 14 days, with decreased NeuN marked neurons and increased TUNEL-positive cells, as well as an up-regulation in the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and UNC5H2 protein in the ipsilateral VPN, without significant change in DCC or netrin-1 expression. By exogenous netrin-1 infusion, the number of neurons was increased in the ipsilateral VPN, and both TUNEL-positive cell number and caspase-3 protein level were reduced, while UNC5H2 expression remained unaffected, simultaneously, the impairment of postural reflex was improved. Taken together, the present study indicates that exogenous netrin-1 could rescue neuron loss by attenuating secondary apoptosis in the

  2. Increased thalamic perfusion as a characteristic finding with brain SPECT in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mut, F.; Beretta, M.; Nunez, M.; Zamora, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively frequent psychiatric condition affecting most commonly young patients. Correct diagnosis and follow-up is essential in order to apply effective therapy. However, some common characteristics have been reported with brain SPECT for OCD and depression, with several brain structures belonging to the limbic system involved in both conditions: frontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and hippocampus, among others. The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative findings of brain SPECT in OCD compared to other psychiatric conditions such as depression and dementia. Material and Methods: We studied 33 patients, 22 women, ages 39.3±10.9 years. Fifteen patients had clinical diagnosis of OCD (8 women, 21∫8 ys.), 13 of bipolar or unipolar depression (11 women, 28±15 ys.) and 5 of senile dementia (3 women, 69±10 ys). All were injected in the basal state with a standard dose of 925 MBq (25 mCi) of 99mTc-ECD. Brain SPECT was performed with a dual-head camera equipped with a high-resolution collimator using 360 0 rotation, 120 angular steps and 15 sec/step in a 64x64 matrix with 1.5 x magnification. Reconstruction of transaxial tomograms was performed using filtered backprojection with a Metz filter. Attenuation correction was applied according to Chang's method. In order to calculate uptake ratios, regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on the right and left frontal cortex (RFron, LFron), anterior or posterior cingulate gyrus (Cing) according to the site of highest uptake recorded, both caudate nucleus (RCau, LCau), thalamus (Thal) and cerebellum (cer). Results: The findings are presented. Conclusion: Cingulate gyrus hyperactivity has been reported in patients with OCD and confirmed in our series, however not significantly different from that observed in depressed patients. The only distinct finding was higher thalamic activity in OCD patients compared to the other groups, suggesting that this

  3. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  4. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  5. Requirements Reasoning for Distributed Requirements Analysis using Semantic Wiki

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; Clerc, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    In large-scale collaborative software projects, thousands of requirements with complex interdependencies and different granularity spreading in different levels are elicited, documented, and evolved during the project lifecycle. Non-technical stakeholders involved in requirements engineering

  6. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  7. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  8. Project mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Limbrick, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies and reviews the issues to be addressed and the procedures to be followed during the mobilisation of projects using LFG as an energy source. Knowledge of the procedures involved in project mobilisation, their sequence and probable timescales, is essential for efficient project management. It is assumed that the majority of projects will be situated on existing, licensed landfill sites and, in addition to complying with the relevant conditions of the waste management licence and original planning consent, any proposed developments on the site will require a separate planning consent. Experience in the UK indicates that obtaining planning permission rarely constitutes a barrier to the development of schemes for the utilisation of LFG. Even so, an appreciation of the applicable environmental and planning legislation is essential as this will enable the developer to recognise the main concerns of the relevant planning authority at an early stage of the project, resulting in the preparation of an informed and well-structured application for planning permission. For a LFG utilisation scheme on an existing landfill site, the need to carry out an environmental assessment (EA) as part of the application for planning permission will, in vitually all cases, be discretionary. Even if not deemed necessary by the planning authority, an EA is a useful tool at the planning application stage, to identify and address potential problems and to support discussions with bodies such as the Environment Agency, from whom consents or authorisations may be required. Carrying out an EA can thus provide for more cost-effective project development and enhanced environmental protection. Typically, the principal contractual arrangements, such as the purchase of gas or the sale of electricity, will have been established before the project mobilisation phase. However, there are many other contractural arrangements that must be established, and consents and permits that may be

  9. Forward collision warning requirements project : refining the CAMP crash alert timing approach by examining "last second" braking and lane change maneuvers under various kinematic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This final report describes a follow-on study to the previous Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) human factors work addressing Forward Collision Warning (FCW) timing requirements. This research extends this work by gathering not only "last-se...

  10. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  11. Improved Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Mass Spectrometer project will develop system requirements and analyze the path to space qualification.   The results of this project...

  12. ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico SRV: a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring based on Italian Civil Protection Department requirements and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Musacchio, Massimo; Silvestri, Malvina; Spinetti, Claudia; Corradini, Stefano; Lombardo, Valerio; Merucci, Luca; Sansosti, Eugenio; Pugnagli, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; Pace, Gaetano; Fermi, Marco; Zoffoli, Simona

    2007-10-01

    The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The objective of the project is to develop a pre-operative system based on EO data and ground measurements integration to support the volcanic risk monitoring of the Italian Civil Protection Department which requirements and need are well integrated in the GMES Emergency Core Services program. The project philosophy is to implement, by incremental versions, specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools EO derived parameters considering three activity phases: 1) knowledge and prevention; 2) crisis; 3) post crisis. In order to combine effectively the EO data and the ground networks measurements the system will implement a multi-parametric analysis tool, which represents and unique tool to analyze contemporaneously a large data set of data in "near real time". The SRV project will be tested his operational capabilities on three Italian Volcanoes: Etna,Vesuvio and Campi Flegrei.

  13. Variable Action Potential Backpropagation during Tonic Firing and Low-Threshold Spike Bursts in Thalamocortical But Not Thalamic Reticular Nucleus Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, William M; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Errington, Adam C

    2017-05-24

    Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) are indispensable in dendritic signaling. Conflicting Ca 2+ -imaging data and an absence of dendritic recording data means that the extent of backpropagation in thalamocortical (TC) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons remains unknown. Because TRN neurons signal electrically through dendrodendritic gap junctions and possibly via chemical dendritic GABAergic synapses, as well as classical axonal GABA release, this lack of knowledge is problematic. To address this issue, we made two-photon targeted patch-clamp recordings from rat TC and TRN neuron dendrites to measure bAPs directly. These recordings reveal that "tonic"' and low-threshold-spike (LTS) "burst" APs in both cell types are always recorded first at the soma before backpropagating into the dendrites while undergoing substantial distance-dependent dendritic amplitude attenuation. In TC neurons, bAP attenuation strength varies according to firing mode. During LTS bursts, somatic AP half-width increases progressively with increasing spike number, allowing late-burst spikes to propagate more efficiently into the dendritic tree compared with spikes occurring at burst onset. Tonic spikes have similar somatic half-widths to late burst spikes and undergo similar dendritic attenuation. In contrast, in TRN neurons, AP properties are unchanged between LTS bursts and tonic firing and, as a result, distance-dependent dendritic attenuation remains consistent across different firing modes. Therefore, unlike LTS-associated global electrical and calcium signals, the spatial influence of bAP signaling in TC and TRN neurons is more restricted, with potentially important behavioral-state-dependent consequences for synaptic integration and plasticity in thalamic neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In most neurons, action potentials (APs) initiate in the axosomatic region and propagate into the dendritic tree to provide a retrograde signal that conveys information about the level of

  14. An autopsy-verified case of FTLD-TDP type A with upper motor neuron-predominant motor neuron disease mimicking MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Takekoshi, Akira; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Mimuro, Maya; Kimura, Akio; Satoh, Katsuya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Here we report an autopsy-verified case of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-transactivation responsive region (TAR) DNA binding protein (TDP) type A with upper motor neuron-predominant motor neuron disease mimicking MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). A 69-year-old woman presented with an 11-month history of progressive dementia, irritability, insomnia, and gait disturbance without a family history of dementia or prion disease. Neurological examination revealed severe dementia, frontal signs, and exaggerated bilateral tendon reflexes. Periodic sharp-wave complexes were not observed on the electroencephalogram. Brain diffusion MRI did not reveal abnormal changes. An easy Z score (eZIS) analysis for 99m Tc-ECD-single photon emission computed tomography ( 99m Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed a bilateral decrease in thalamic regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). PRNP gene analysis demonstrated methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed normal levels of both 14-3-3 and total tau proteins. Conversely, prion protein was slowly amplified in the CSF by a real-time quaking-induced conversion assay. Her symptoms deteriorated to a state of akinetic mutism, and she died of sudden cardiac arrest, one year after symptom onset.  Despite the SPECT results supporting a clinical diagnosis of MM2-thalamic-type sCJD, a postmortem assessment revealed that this was a case of FTLD-TDP type A, and excluded prion disease. Thus, this case indicates that whereas a bilateral decreasing thalamic rCBF detected by 99m Tc-ECD-SPECT can be useful for diagnosing MM2-thalamic-type sCJD, it is not sufficiently specific. Postmortem diagnosis remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of this condition.

  15. An experimental Study using ACSL and Frama-C to formulate and verify Low-Level Requirements from a DO-178C compliant Avionics Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dordowsky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety critical avionics software is a natural application area for formal verification. This is reflected in the formal method's inclusion into the certification guideline DO-178C and its formal methods supplement DO-333. Airbus and Dassault-Aviation, for example, have conducted studies in using formal verification. A large German national research project, Verisoft XT, also examined the application of formal methods in the avionics domain. However, formal methods are not yet mainstream, and it is questionable if formal verification, especially formal deduction, can be integrated into the software development processes of a resource constrained small or medium enterprise (SME. ESG, a Munich based medium sized company, has conducted a small experimental study on the application of formal verification on a small portion of a real avionics project. The low level specification of a software function was formalized with ACSL, and the corresponding source code was partially verified using Frama-C and the WP plugin, with Alt-Ergo as automated prover. We established a couple of criteria which a method should meet to be fit for purpose for industrial use in SME, and evaluated these criteria with the experience gathered by using ACSL with Frama-C on a real world example. The paper reports on the results of this study but also highlights some issues regarding the method in general which, in our view, will typically arise when using the method in the domain of embedded real-time programming.

  16. Managing projects using a project management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern management theory treats all complex tasks and duties like projects and make these projects possible to be managed by a particular organizational-management concept in order to achieve a goal effectively. A large number of jobs and tasks performed in the system of defense or for defense purposes have the characteristics of projects. Project management is both a skill and a science of monitoring human, material, financial, energy and other resources to achieve required objectives within the given limits: deadlines, time, budget, possibility of realization and the satisfaction of the interests of all project participants. Project management is a traditional area of applied (or functional management focused on managing complex and uncertain situations with defined goals. Introduction In conditions of rapid change and high uncertainty, only adaptive organizations survive, i. e. those that are able not only to react quickly to changes but also to proactively take advantage of changes. Development of project management The biggest influence on the development of the area had complex jobs within the engineering profession. In parallel with the traditional approach new approaches began to develop, while the traditional one still remained in use. Contrary to the traditional engineering approach, a dynamic model first developed in order to respond to demands for greater control of costs. Project management Project management is a skill and knowledge of human and material resources to achieve set objectives within prescribed limits: deadlines, time, budget, possibility of realization, and the satisfaction of all participants in the project. In order to realize a project effectively, it is necessary to manage it rationally. Planning and project management A project plan is a document that allows all team members insight on where to go, when to start and when to arrive, what is necessary to be done in order to achieve the project objectives and what

  17. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris: Status Report and FY16 Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, S. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced. This is a planning document only.

  18. Delimitação dos núcleos talâmicos pela eletrofisiologia estereotáxica Delimitation of the thalamic nuclei by stereotaxic electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Luís Latuf

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Os limites da área destruída durante a cirurgia estereotáxica são descritos levando em consideração as complicações decorrentes de lesões determinadas erroneamente. São comentados os métodos empregados com a finalidade de controlar a delimitação do alvo, sendo descrita a técnica usada em 23 talamotomias com derivação da atividade elétrica celular dos núcleos talâmicos atravessados e a pesquisa de potenciais evocados, graças à somatotopia da representação táctil no núcleo ventral posterior. Com este método reduz-se de mais ou menos 1 mm o erro radiológico, prescisando-se o alvo terapêutico talâmico nos três planos de espaço.The limits of the area to be destroyed during the stereotaxic surgery for the treatment of tremors are described taking into account the complications due to lesions erroneously performed. The method applied is commented in order to control the accuracy of the target delimitation, describing the technique employed in 23 thalamotomies, recording the electrical activity of the thalamic nuclei acrossed and researching evoked potentials thanks to the somatotopic tactil representation in the ventral posterior nuclei. The method permits to reduce radiologic errors giving more accuracy for the delimitation of thalamic target in the three planes of space.

  19. Five-months-postoperative neuropsychological outcome from a pilot prospective randomized clinical trial of thalamic deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Maddux, Brian N; Riley, David E; Whitney, Christina M; Ogrocki, Paula K; Gould, Deborah; Maciunas, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder presenting with motor and/or sonic tics associated with frontostriatal dysfunction. This study provided pilot data of the neuropsychological safety of bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat medication-refractory TS in adults. This study used a repeated-measures design with pretest and 3-month follow-up from start of continuous bilateral DBS. Five male patients underwent DBS surgery for medically refractory TS. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate for any change in neuropsychological test scores, employing a false discovery rate. Outcome measures included 14 neuropsychological tests assessing psychomotor speed, attention, memory, language, visuoconstructional, and executive functions, as well as subjective mood ratings of depression and anxiety. Average age was 28.2 years (SD = 7.5) with 12-17 years of education. Participants were disabled by tics, with a tic frequency of 50-80 per minute before surgery. At baseline, subjects' cognitive function was generally average, although mild deficits in sequencing and verbal fluency were present, as were clinically mild obsessive-compulsive symptoms. At 3 months of continuous DBS (5 months after implantation), 3 of 5 participants had clinical reductions in motor and sonic tics. Cognitive scores generally remained stable, but declines of moderate to large effect size (Cohen's d > 0.6) in verbal fluency, visual immediate memory, and reaction time were observed. Fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as fewer obsessions and compulsions, were reported after 3 months of continuous high-frequency DBS. Bilateral centromedian-parafascicular thalamic DBS for medically refractory TS shows promise for treatment of medically refractory TS without marked neuropsychological morbidity. Symptoms of depression and anxiety improved. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  20. Probabilistic vs. deterministic fiber tracking and the influence of different seed regions to delineate cerebellar-thalamic fibers in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaier, Juergen R; Beer, Anton L; Faltermeier, Rupert; Fellner, Claudia; Steib, Kathrin; Lange, Max; Greenlee, Mark W; Brawanski, Alexander T; Anthofer, Judith M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared tractography approaches for identifying cerebellar-thalamic fiber bundles relevant to planning target sites for deep brain stimulation (DBS). In particular, probabilistic and deterministic tracking of the dentate-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) and differences between the spatial courses of the DRTT and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) tract were compared. Six patients with movement disorders were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including two sets of diffusion-weighted images (12 and 64 directions). Probabilistic and deterministic tractography was applied on each diffusion-weighted dataset to delineate the DRTT. Results were compared with regard to their sensitivity in revealing the DRTT and additional fiber tracts and processing time. Two sets of regions-of-interests (ROIs) guided deterministic tractography of the DRTT or the CTC, respectively. Tract distances to an atlas-based reference target were compared. Probabilistic fiber tracking with 64 orientations detected the DRTT in all twelve hemispheres. Deterministic tracking detected the DRTT in nine (12 directions) and in only two (64 directions) hemispheres. Probabilistic tracking was more sensitive in detecting additional fibers (e.g. ansa lenticularis and medial forebrain bundle) than deterministic tracking. Probabilistic tracking lasted substantially longer than deterministic. Deterministic tracking was more sensitive in detecting the CTC than the DRTT. CTC tracts were located adjacent but consistently more posterior to DRTT tracts. These results suggest that probabilistic tracking is more sensitive and robust in detecting the DRTT but harder to implement than deterministic approaches. Although sensitivity of deterministic tracking is higher for the CTC than the DRTT, targets for DBS based on these tracts likely differ. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Robust Subthreshold Cross-modal Modulation of Auditory Response by Cutaneous Electrical Stimulation in First- and Higher-order Auditory Thalamic Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akihisa; Imbe, Hiroki

    2018-02-21

    Conventional extracellular recording has revealed cross-modal alterations of auditory cell activities by cutaneous electrical stimulation of the hindpaw in first- and higher-order auditory thalamic nuclei (Donishi et al., 2011). Juxta-cellular recording and labeling techniques were used in the present study to examine the cross-modal alterations in detail, focusing on possible nucleus and/or cell type-related distinctions in modulation. Recordings were obtained from 80 cells of anesthetized rats. Cutaneous electrical stimulation, which did not elicit unit discharges, i.e., subthreshold effects, modulated early (onset) and/or late auditory responses of first- (64%) and higher-order nucleus cells (77%) with regard to response magnitude, latency and/or burst spiking. Attenuation predominated in the modulation of response magnitude and burst spiking, and delay predominated in the modulation of response time. Striking alterations of burst spiking took place in higher-order nucleus cells, which had the potential to exhibit higher propensities for burst spiking as compared to first-order nucleus cells. A subpopulation of first-order nucleus cells showing modulation in early response magnitude in the caudal domain of the nucleus had larger cell bodies and higher propensities for burst spiking as compared to cells showing no modulation. These findings suggest that somatosensory influence is incorporated into parallel channels in auditory thalamic nuclei to impose distinct impacts on cortical and subcortical sensory processing. Further, cutaneous electrical stimulation given after early auditory responses modulated late responses. Somatosensory influence is likely to affect ongoing auditory processing at any time without being coincident with sound onset in a narrow temporal window. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A unique combination of anatomy and physiology in cells of the rat paralaminar thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip H.; Bartlett, Edward L.; Kowalkowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The medial geniculate body (MGB) has three major subdivisions - ventral (MGV), dorsal (MGD) and medial (MGM). MGM is linked with paralaminar nuclei that are situated medial and ventral to MGV/MGD. Paralaminar nuclei have unique inputs and outputs when compared with MGV and MGD and have been linked to circuitry underlying some important functional roles. We recorded intracellularly from cells in the paralaminar nuclei in vitro. We found that they possess an unusual combination of anatomical and physiological features when compared to those reported for “standard” thalamic neurons seen in the MGV/MGD and elsewhere in the thalamus. Compared to MGV/MGD neurons, anatomically, 1) paralaminar cell dendrites can be long, branch sparingly and encompass a much larger area. 2) their dendrites may be smooth but can have well defined spines and 3) their axons can have collaterals that branch locally within the same or nearby paralaminar nuclei. When compared to MGV/MGD neurons physiologically 1) their spikes are larger in amplitude and can be shorter in duration and 2) can have dual afterhyperpolarizations with fast and slow components and 3) they can have a reduction or complete absence of the low threshold, voltage-sensitive calcium conductance that reduces or eliminates the voltage-dependent burst response. We also recorded from cells in the parafascicular nucleus, a nucleus of the posterior intralaminar nuclear group, because they have unusual anatomical features that are similar to some of our paralaminar cells. Like the labeled paralaminar cells, parafascicular cells had physiological features distinguishing them from typical thalamic neurons. PMID:16566009

  3. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  4. Project stakeholder management

    CERN Document Server

    Eskerod, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out a project as planned is not a guarantee for success. Projects may fail because project management does not take the requirements, wishes and concerns of stakeholders sufficiently into account. Projects can only be successful though contributions from stakeholders. And in the end, it is the stakeholders that evaluate whether they find that the project is a success. To manage stakeholders effectively, you need to know your stakeholders, their behaviours and attitudes towards the project. In Project Stakeholder Management, the authors give guidance on how to adopt an analytical and s

  5. Payload/orbiter contamination control requirement study: Preliminary contamination mission support plan. [a management analysis of project planning of spacecraft sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareiss, L. E.; Hooper, V. W.; Ress, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the mission support plan and those support activities envisioned to be applicable and necessary during premission and postmission phases of the Spacelab program. The purpose, role, and requirements of the contamination control operations for the first two missions of the Spacelab equipped Space Transportation System are discussed. The organization of the contamination control operation and its relationship to and interfaces with other mission support functions is also discussed. Some specific areas of contamination to be investigated are treated. They are: (1) windows and viewports, (2) experiment equipment, (3) thermal control surfaces, (4) the contaminant induced atmosphere (as differentiated from the normal ambient atmosphere at the orbit altitude), and (5) optical navigation instruments.

  6. BODIES OF KNOWLEDGE IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Gvozdenovic; Mirjana Miljanovic; Aleksandar Jegdic; Zeljko Crnogorcic

    2008-01-01

    One of the main trends is standardization of project management. Some of the most important bodies of knowledge in project management, which were created by professional associations for project management are given in this paper. The main of the project management, apart from minimization of time, resources and costs, is to finish the project in the required quality, i.e. it is very important during the whole process of project management to provide realizing the project without any deviatio...

  7. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  8. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  9. Managing Projects with KPRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    How does a Project Management Office provide: Consistent, familiar, easily used scheduling tools to Project Managers and project team members? Provide a complete list of organization resources available for use on the project? Facilitate resource tracking and visibility? Provide the myriad reports that the organization requires? Facilitate consistent budget planning and cost performance information? Provide all of this to the entire organization? Provide for the unique requirement of the organization? and get people to use it? Answer: Implementation of the Kennedy space Center Projects and Resources Online (KPRO), a modified COTS solution.

  10. Analysis of Issues for Project Scheduling by Multiple, Dispersed Schedulers (distributed Scheduling) and Requirements for Manual Protocols and Computer-based Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephen F.

    1991-01-01

    Although computerized operations have significant gains realized in many areas, one area, scheduling, has enjoyed few benefits from automation. The traditional methods of industrial engineering and operations research have not proven robust enough to handle the complexities associated with the scheduling of realistic problems. To address this need, NASA has developed the computer-aided scheduling system (COMPASS), a sophisticated, interactive scheduling tool that is in wide-spread use within NASA and the contractor community. Therefore, COMPASS provides no explicit support for the large class of problems in which several people, perhaps at various locations, build separate schedules that share a common pool of resources. This research examines the issue of distributing scheduling, as applied to application domains characterized by the partial ordering of tasks, limited resources, and time restrictions. The focus of this research is on identifying issues related to distributed scheduling, locating applicable problem domains within NASA, and suggesting areas for ongoing research. The issues that this research identifies are goals, rescheduling requirements, database support, the need for communication and coordination among individual schedulers, the potential for expert system support for scheduling, and the possibility of integrating artificially intelligent schedulers into a network of human schedulers.

  11. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff

  12. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  13. Overview about project planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Drob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the main aspects regarding project planning. This study is generally based on the fourth edition of the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI in 2008. According to this edition of PMBOK, project planning involves a group of processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the actions that must be undertaken to attain the objectives of the project.

  14. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  15. A proof-of-principle simulation for closed-loop control based on preexisting experimental thalamic DBS-enhanced instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Fu; Yang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Pan, Han-Chi; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chen, Hsu-Yan; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wun-Jhu; Chen, You-Yin

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption. However, when the association between the biomarkers of the model and stimulation is unclear, it is difficult to develop an optimal control scheme for other DBS applications, i.e., DBS-enhanced instrumental learning. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of closed-loop DBS control for cognition function, such as instrumental skill learning, and have been implemented in simulation environments. In this paper, we proposed a proof-of-principle design for a closed-loop DBS system, cognitive-enhancing DBS (ceDBS), which enhanced skill learning based on in vivo experimental data. The ceDBS acquired local field potential (LFP) signal from the thalamic central lateral (CL) nuclei of animals through a neural signal processing system. A strong coupling of the theta oscillation (4-7 Hz) and the learning period was found in the water reward-related lever-pressing learning task. Therefore, the theta-band power ratio, which was the averaged theta band to averaged total band (1-55 Hz) power ratio, could be used as a physiological marker for enhancement of instrumental skill learning. The on-line extraction of the theta-band power ratio was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). An autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX)-based predictor was designed to construct a CL-thalamic DBS model and forecast the future physiological marker according to the past physiological marker and applied DBS. The prediction could further assist the design of

  16. Project Exodus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Project Exodus is an in-depth study to identify and address the basic problems of a manned mission to Mars. The most important problems concern propulsion, life support, structure, trajectory, and finance. Exodus will employ a passenger ship, cargo ship, and landing craft for the journey to Mars. These three major components of the mission design are discussed separately. Within each component the design characteristics of structures, trajectory, and propulsion are addressed. The design characteristics of life support are mentioned only in those sections requiring it.

  17. Hydrogen tomorrow: Demands and technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    National needs for hydrogen are projected and the technologies of production, handling, and utilization are evaluated. Research and technology activities required to meet the projected needs are determined.

  18. 42 CFR 86.13 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...), a school of nursing, a school of public health or its equivalent, and a school of engineering or its... and research expertise, appropriate facilities and ongoing training and research activities in...

  19. Global mainpower requirements for projected nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, S.B.; Lane, J.A.; Rogov, A.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1976-01-01

    The scarcity of trained engineers and technicians may be an important bottleneck to the continued growth of nuclear power, particularly in developing countries, if steps are not taken at an early date to insure against such a limitation. This paper presents a quantitative indication of both regional and global needs for trained manpower in all sectors of the nuclear power industry and compares these with estimates of the corresponding output of engineers. Studies of a few selected countries are also presented to illustrate potential problems on a national scale. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asensio, S.; Goldstein, R.; Asensio, S.; Romero, M.J.; Romero, F.J.; Wong, C.T.; Alia-Klein, N.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Telang, F..; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-05-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to nondrug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with [{sup 11}C]raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of three years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine-addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a nondrug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  1. Spatial cognitive deficits in an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome are related to changes in thalamic VDAC protein concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, K O; de Souza Resende, L; Ribeiro, A F; Dos Santos, D M; Gonçalves, E C; Vigil, F A B; de Oliveira Silva, I F; Ferreira, L F; de Castro Pimenta, A M; Ribeiro, A M

    2015-05-21

    Proteomic profiles of the thalamus and the correlation between the rats' performance on a spatial learning task and differential protein expression were assessed in the thiamine deficiency (TD) rat model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis detected 320 spots and a significant increase or decrease in seven proteins. Four proteins were correlated to rat behavioral performance in the Morris Water Maze. One of the four proteins was identified by mass spectrometry as Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels (VDACs). The association of VDAC is evident in trials in which the rats' performance was worst, in which the VDAC protein was reduced, as confirmed by Western blot. No difference was observed on the mRNA of Vdac genes, indicating that the decreased VDAC expression may be related to a post-transcriptional process. The results show that TD neurodegeneration involves changes in thalamic proteins and suggest that VDAC protein activity might play an important role in an initial stage of the spatial learning process. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio, S.; Goldstein, R.; Romero, M.J.; Romero, F.J.; Wong, C.T.; Alia-Klein, N.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Telang, F.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to nondrug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with ( 11 C)raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of three years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine-addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a nondrug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  3. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability predicts the thalamic and medial prefrontal responses to reward in cocaine abusers three years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Samuel; Romero, Maria J.; Romero, Francisco J.; Wong, Christopher; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability at a resting baseline have been previously reported in drug addicted individuals and have been associated with reduced ventral and dorsal prefrontal metabolism. The reduction in DA D2 receptor availability along with the reduced ventral frontal metabolism is thought to underlie compromised sensitivity to non-drug reward, a core characteristic of drug addiction. We therefore hypothesized that variability in DA D2 receptor availability at baseline will covary with dynamic responses to monetary reward in addicted individuals. Striatal DA D2 receptor availability was measured with [11C]raclopride and positron emission tomography and response to monetary reward was measured (an average of 3 years later) with functional magnetic resonance imaging in seven cocaine addicted individuals. Results show that low DA D2 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum was associated with decreased thalamic response to monetary reward; while low availability in ventral striatum was associated with increased medial prefrontal (Brodmann Area 6/8/32) response to monetary reward. These preliminary results, that need to be replicated in larger sample sizes and validated with healthy controls, suggest that resting striatal DA D2 receptor availability predicts variability in functional responses to a non-drug reinforcer (money) in prefrontal cortex, implicated in behavioral monitoring, and in thalamus, implicated in conditioned responses and expectation, in cocaine addicted individuals. PMID:20034014

  4. Crossed Cerebellar Tracer Uptake on Acute-Stage 123I-Iomazenil SPECT Imaging Predicts 3-Month Functional Outcome in Patients With Nonfatal Hypertensive Putaminal or Thalamic Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Daigo; Komoribayashi, Nobukazu; Omama, Shinichi; Oikawa, Kohki; Fujiwara, Shunrou; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Terasaki, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2018-03-13

    Whereas SPECT images obtained 180 minutes after administration of I-iomazenil (IMZ) (late images) are proportional to the distribution of central benzodiazepine receptor-binding potential, SPECT images obtained within 30 minutes after I-IMZ administration (early images) correlate with regional brain perfusion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether crossed cerebellar tracer uptake on acute-stage I-IMZ SPECT imaging predicts 3-month functional outcome in patients with nonfatal hypertensive putaminal or thalamic hemorrhage. Forty-six patients underwent early and late SPECT imaging with I-IMZ within 7 days after the onset of hemorrhage. A region of interest was automatically placed in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres using a 3-dimensional stereotaxic region-of-interest template, and the ratio of the value in the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the affected side to that in the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere (ARcbl) was calculated in each patient. Each patient's physical function was measured using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score 3 months after onset. The ARcbl on early (ρ = -0.511, P = 0.0003) and late (ρ = -0.714, P download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  5. Leading global projects for professional and accidental project leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Robert T

    2008-01-01

    This book is a must-read for anyone responsible for projects and initiatives that span functional and geographical divides. Authors Moran and Youngdahl bring extensive experience and learning from industry practice to present a clear and straightforward treatment of the leadership skills and knowledge required to lead projects that are global in nature. They have written the first book of its kind to address the three essential skills of global project leaders - strategic project management, project leadership, and cross-cultural leadership. The authors argue that global project leadership is an essential skill in our project-based world and that we are all either intentional or accidental project leaders. Intentional project leaders pursue formal project management education and even certification whereas accidental project leaders find themselves leading global projects and initiatives as a result of a special assignment or promotion. Moran and Youndahl have found that the vast majority of global projects ...

  6. Seamless Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Naumchev, Alexandr; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Popular notations for functional requirements specifications frequently ignore developers' needs, target specific development models, or require translation of requirements into tests for verification; the results can give out-of-sync or downright incompatible artifacts. Seamless Requirements, a new approach to specifying functional requirements, contributes to developers' understanding of requirements and to software quality regardless of the process, while the process itself becomes lighter...

  7. SISCAL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    ), combining satellite data, evaluation algorithms and value-adding ancillary digital information. This prevents the end user from investing funds into expensive equipment or to hire specialized personnel. The data processor shall be a generic tool, which may be applied to a large variety of operationally gathered satellite data. In the frame of SISCAL, the processor shall be applied to remotely sensed data of selected coastal areas and lakes in Central Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, according to the needs of the end users within the SISCAL consortium. A number of measures are required to achieve the objective of the proposed project: (1) Identification and specification of the SISCAL end user needs for NRT water related data products accessible to EO techniques. (2) Selection of the most appropriate instruments, evaluation algorithms and ancillary data bases required to provide the identified data products. (3) Development of the actual Near-Real-Time data processor for the specified EO data products. (4) Development of the GIS processor adding ancillary digital information to the satellite images and providing the required geographical projections. (5) Development of a product retrieval and management system to handle ordering and distribution of data products between the SISCAL server and the end users, including payment and invoicing. (6) Evaluation of the derived data products in terms of accuracy and usefulness by comparison with available in-situ measurements and by making use of the local expertise of the end users. (7) Establishing an Internet server dedicated to internal communication between the consortium members as well as presenting the SISCAL project to a larger public. (8) Marketing activities, presentation of data processor to potential external customers, identification of their exact needs. The innovative aspect of the SISCAL project consists in the generation of NRT data products on water quality parameters from EO data. This article mainly deals

  8. Efferent projections of the ectostriatum in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this

  9. Computer Assets Recovery Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    CortesPena, Aida Yoguely

    2010-01-01

    This document reports on the project that was performed during the internship of the author. The project involved locating and recovering machines in various locations that Boeing has no need for, and therefore requires that they be transferred to another user or transferred to a non-profit organization. Other projects that the author performed was an inventory of toner and printers, loading new computers and connecting them to the network.

  10. EURO HAWK Project Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    Briefing charts from presentation on a EURO HAWK project overview; an airborne system with stand-off capability for wide-area intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance meeting European NATO countries' ISR requirements...

  11. Navajo Electrification Demonstraiton Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Ahasteen, Project Manager

    2006-07-17

    This is a final technical report required by DOE for the Navajo Electrification Demonstration Program, This report covers the electric line extension project for Navajo families that currently without electric power.

  12. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  13. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  14. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  15. Climate projections FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Daniels; J.F. Morrison; L.A. Joyce; N.L. Crookston; S.C. Chen; S.G. McNulty

    2012-01-01

    Climate scenarios offer one way to identify and examine the land management challenges posed by climate change. Selecting projections, however, requires careful consideration of the natural resources under study, and where and how they are sensitive to climate. Selection also depends on the robustness of different projections for the resources and geographic area of...

  16. BI Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Graham; Riha, James

    2009-01-01

    Managing business intelligence (BI) projects in higher education is a formidable responsibility that challenges even the most experienced technical project managers. Data source dependencies, uncertain data quality, changing information requirements, and urgency for actionable information are but a few examples among the multitude of challenges.…

  17. Financing nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) To provide an historical framework for understanding why it is difficult to finance nuclear power projects in the U.S.; (2) To mention briefly certain financing techniques utilized by companies to finance nuclear investments; and (3) To set forth the requirements investors will need before taking on the risks associated with nuclear power projects

  18. Project quality assurance plant: Sodium storage facility, project F-031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, J.W.; Shank, D.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Sodium Storage Facility Project Quality Assurance Plan delineates the quality assurance requirements for construction of a new facility, modifications to the sodium storage tanks, and tie-ins to the FFTF Plant. This plan provides direction for the types of verifications necessary to satisfy the functional requirements within the project scope and applicable regulatory requirements determined in the Project Functional Design Criteria (FDC), WHC-SD-FF-FDC-009

  19. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... huge problems with the final product. The elicitation of user requirements as such changes according to age groups;, to gender,; to cultural settings,; and into time; and experience in the use of the system/software. User requirements, therefore, cannot be used between projects, IT systems......, and different software. That makes the elicitation of user requirements an inherent part of any software development project and a resourceful activity as well. This book provides insights to the process of identifying user requirements and to different types by describing varying case studies in which...

  20. Dorsal and median Raphe nuclei projection to MD of Thalamus in rat: A retrograde tracer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pas Bakhsh P

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the function of mammalians serotonin system, we have to know the anatomical structure, because physiological changes are influenced through the anatomical changes. A number of thalamic nuclei are associated with functions known to be influenced by serotonergic input in brainstem, among them mediodorsal thalamic nucleus has relationship with limbic system and prefrontal cortex. The precise topographical projections of mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the MD nucleus of thalamus were identified in the rat using horseradish peroxidase (HRP retrograde tracing substance. Injection of HRP in MD labeled a large number of neurons in rostral to caudal part of dorsal raphe nucleus. It exhibited a strong number of neurons in ipsilateral part of DR and a few cells in its contralateral part. Numerously labeled cells were also observed ipsilateral in rostral and medial part of MnR (86% and a few cells in it's contralateral part. The present study has provided that the MD innervation by DR is more greater in density than that observed at the MnR. Upon these results and previous study, mesencephalic raphe nuclei are involved in several specific functions of thalamus as limbic system behavioral mechanism. A much more detailed knowledge is needed to show topographic relationships between mesencephalic raphe nuclei and forebrain.