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Sample records for thalamic projections requires

  1. Two distinct populations of projection neurons in the rat lateral parafascicular thalamic nucleus and their cholinergic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J A; Sylwestrak, E L; Cox, C L

    2009-08-04

    The lateral parafascicular nucleus (lPf) is a member of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, a collection of nuclei that characteristically provides widespread projections to the neocortex and basal ganglia and is associated with arousal, sensory, and motor functions. Recently, lPf neurons have been shown to possess different characteristics than other cortical-projecting thalamic relay neurons. We performed whole cell recordings from lPf neurons using an in vitro rat slice preparation and found two distinct neuronal subtypes that were differentiated by distinct morphological and physiological characteristics: diffuse and bushy. Diffuse neurons, which had been previously described, were the predominant neuronal subtype (66%). These neurons had few, poorly-branching, extended dendrites, and rarely displayed burst-like action potential discharge, a ubiquitous feature of thalamocortical relay neurons. Interestingly, we discovered a smaller population of bushy neurons (34%) that shared similar morphological and physiological characteristics with thalamocortical relay neurons of primary sensory thalamic nuclei. In contrast to other thalamocortical relay neurons, activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced a membrane hyperpolarization via activation of M(2) receptors in most lPf neurons (60%). In a minority of lPf neurons (33%), muscarinic agonists produced a membrane depolarization via activation of predominantly M(3) receptors. The muscarinic receptor-mediated actions were independent of lPf neuronal subtype (i.e. diffuse or bushy neurons); however the cholinergic actions were correlated with lPf neurons with different efferent targets. Retrogradely-labeled lPf neurons from frontal cortical fluorescent bead injections primarily consisted of bushy type lPf neurons (78%), but more importantly, all of these neurons were depolarized by muscarinic agonists. On the other hand, lPf neurons labeled by striatal injections were predominantly hyperpolarized by muscarinic

  2. Fear conditioning leads to alteration in specific genes expression in cortical and thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ira K; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    RNA transcription is needed for memory formation. However, the ability to identify genes whose expression is altered by learning is greatly impaired because of methodological difficulties in profiling gene expression in specific neurons involved in memory formation. Here, we report a novel approach to monitor the expression of genes after learning in neurons in specific brain pathways needed for memory formation. In this study, we aimed to monitor gene expression after fear learning. We retrogradely labeled discrete thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala (LA) of rats. The labeled neurons were dissected, using laser microdissection microscopy, after fear conditioning learning or unpaired training. The RNAs from the dissected neurons were subjected to microarray analysis. The levels of selected RNAs detected by the microarray analysis to be altered by fear conditioning were also assessed by nanostring analysis. We observed that the expression of genes involved in the regulation of translation, maturation and degradation of proteins was increased 6 h after fear conditioning compared to unpaired or naïve trained rats. These genes were not expressed 24 h after training or in cortical neurons that project to the LA. The expression of genes involved in transcription regulation and neuronal development was altered after fear conditioning learning in the cortical-LA pathway. The present study provides key information on the identity of genes expressed in discrete thalamic and cortical neurons that project to the LA after fear conditioning. Such an approach could also serve to identify gene products as targets for the development of a new generation of therapeutic agents that could be aimed to functionally identified brain circuits to treat memory-related disorders. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Prefrontal cortex-projecting glutamatergic thalamic paraventricular nucleus-excited by hypocretin: a feedforward circuit that may enhance cognitive arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ghosh, Prabhat; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2006-03-01

    The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) receives one of the most dense innervations by hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons, which play important roles in sleep-wakefulness, attention, and autonomic function. The PVT projects to several loci, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a cortical region involved in associative function and attention. To study the effect of Hcrt on excitatory PVT neurons that project to the mPFC, we used a new line of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the vesicular glutamate-transporter-2 promoter. These neurons were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit B that had been microinjected into the mPFC. Membrane characteristics and responses to hypocretin-1 and -2 (Hcrt-1 and -2) were studied using whole cell recording (n > 300). PVT neurons showed distinct membrane properties including inward rectification, H-type potassium currents, low threshold spikes, and spike frequency adaptation. Cortically projecting neurons were depolarized and excited by Hcrt-2. Hcrt-2 actions were stronger than those of Hcrt-1, and the action persisted in TTX and in low calcium/high magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid, consistent with direct actions mediated by Hcrt receptor-2. Two mechanisms of Hcrt excitation were found: an increase in input resistance caused by closure of potassium channels and activation of nonselective cation channels. The robust excitation evoked by Hcrt-2 on cortically projecting glutamate PVT neurons could generate substantial excitation in multiple layers of the mPFC, adding to the more selective direct excitatory actions of Hcrt in the mPFC and potentially increasing cortical arousal and attention to limbic or visceral states.

  4. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  5. Thalamocortical Projection Neuron and Interneuron Numbers in the Visual Thalamic Nuclei of the Adult C57BL/6 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelio, Marian; García-Amado, María; Clascá, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    A key parameter to constrain predictive, bottom-up circuit models of a given brain domain is the number and position of the neuronal populations involved. These include not only the neurons whose bodies reside within the domain, but also the neurons in distant regions that innervate the domain. The mouse visual cortex receives its main subcortical input from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the lateral posterior (LP) complex of the thalamus. The latter consists of three different nuclei: lateral posterior lateral (LPL), lateral posterior medial rostral (LPMR), and lateral posterior medial caudal (LPMC), each exhibiting specific patterns of connections with the various visual cortical areas. Here, we have determined the number of thalamocortical projection neurons and interneurons in the LP complex and dLGN of the adult C57BL/6 male mouse. We combined Nissl staining and histochemical and immunolabeling methods for consistently delineating nuclei borders, and applied unbiased stereological cell counting methods. Thalamic interneurons were identified using GABA immunolabeling. The C57BL/6 dLGN contains ∼21,200 neurons, while LP complex contains ∼31,000 total neurons. The dLGN and LP are the only nuclei of the mouse dorsal thalamus containing substantial numbers GABA-immunoreactive interneurons. These interneurons, however, are scarcer than previously estimated; they are 5.6% of dLGN neurons and just 1.9% of the LP neurons. It can be thus inferred that the dLGN contains ∼20,000 and the LP complex ∼30,400 thalamocortical projection neurons (∼12,000 in LPL, 15,200 in LPMR, and 4,200 in LPMC). The present dataset is relevant for constraining models of mouse visual thalamocortical circuits, as well as for quantitative comparisons between genetically modified mouse strains, or across species.

  6. Role of thalamic projection in NMDA receptor-induced disruption of cortical slow oscillation and short-term plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás eKiss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptor (NMDAR antagonists, such as phencyclidine, ketamine or dizocilpine (MK-801 are commonly used in psychiatric drug discovery in order to model several symptoms of schizophrenia, including psychosis and impairments in working memory. In spite of the widespread use of NMDAR antagonists in preclinical and clinical studies, our understanding of the mode of action of these drugs on brain circuits and neuronal networks is still limited. In the present study spontaneous local field potential (LFP, multi- (MUA and single unit activity, and evoked potential, including paired-pulse facilitation (PPF in response to electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral subiculum were carried out in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in urethane anesthetized rats. Systemic administration of MK-801 (0.05~mg/kg, i.v. decreased overall MUA, with a diverse effect on single unit activity, including increased, decreased or unchanged firing, and in line with our previous findings shifted delta frequency power of the LFP and disrupted PPF (Kiss et al., Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010. In order to provide further insight to the mechanisms of action of NMDAR antagonists, MK-801 was administered intracranially into the mPFC and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD. Microinjections of MK-801, but not physiological saline, localized into the MD evoked changes in both LFP parameters and PPF similar to the effects of systemically administered MK-801. Local microinjection of MK-801 into the mPFC was without effect on these parameters. Our findings indicate that the primary site of the action of systemic administration of NMDA receptor antagonists is unlikely to be the cortex. We presume that multiple neuronal networks, involving thalamic nuclei contribute to disrupted behavior and cognition following NMDA receptor blockade.

  7. Individual mediodorsal thalamic neurons project to multiple areas of the rat prefrontal cortex: A single neuron-tracing study using virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Eriko; Pan, Shixiu; Furuta, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro R; Iwai, Haruki; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Ohno, Sachi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Goto, Tetsuya; Hioki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has an important role in a variety of cognitive and executive processes, and is generally defined by its reciprocal connections with the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD). The rat MD is mainly subdivided into three segments, the medial (MDm), central (MDc), and lateral (MDl) divisions, on the basis of the cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture. The MD segments are known to topographically project to multiple prefrontal areas at the population level: the MDm mainly to the prelimbic, infralimbic, and agranular insular areas; the MDc to the orbital and agranular insular areas; and the MDl to the prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas. However, it is unknown whether individual MD neurons project to single or multiple prefrontal cortical areas. In the present study, we visualized individual MD neurons with Sindbis virus vectors, and reconstructed whole structures of MD neurons. While the main cortical projection targets of MDm, MDc, and MDl neurons were generally consistent with those of previous results, it was found that individual MD neurons sent their axon fibers to multiple prefrontal areas, and displayed various projection patterns in the target areas. Furthermore, the axons of single MD neurons were not homogeneously spread, but were rather distributed to form patchy axon arbors approximately 1 mm in diameter. The multiple-area projections and patchy axon arbors of single MD neurons might be able to coactivate cortical neuron groups in distant prefrontal areas simultaneously. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity of the projection patterns is likely, to recruit the different sets of cortical neurons, and thus contributes to a variety of prefrontal functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:166-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-01-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis. (author)

  9. Generation of thalamic neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Atsushi; Muguruma, Keiko; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    The thalamus is a diencephalic structure that plays crucial roles in relaying and modulating sensory and motor information to the neocortex. The thalamus develops in the dorsal part of the neural tube at the level of the caudal forebrain. However, the molecular mechanisms that are essential for thalamic differentiation are still unknown. Here, we have succeeded in generating thalamic neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) by modifying the default method that induces the most-anterior neural type in self-organizing culture. A low concentration of the caudalizing factor insulin and a MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor enhanced the expression of the caudal forebrain markers Otx2 and Pax6. BMP7 promoted an increase in thalamic precursors such as Tcf7l2 + /Gbx2 + and Tcf7l2 + /Olig3 + cells. mESC thalamic precursors began to express the glutamate transporter vGlut2 and the axon-specific marker VGF, similar to mature projection neurons. The mESC thalamic neurons extended their axons to cortical layers in both organotypic culture and subcortical transplantation. Thus, we have identified the minimum elements sufficient for in vitro generation of thalamic neurons. These findings expand our knowledge of thalamic development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Dorsal-to-Ventral Shift in Midbrain Dopaminergic Projections and Increased Thalamic/Raphe Serotonergic Function in Early Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Seppänen, Marko; Noponen, Tommi; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2015-07-01

    Loss of nigrostriatal neurons leading to dopamine depletion in the dorsal striatum is the pathologic hallmark of Parkinson disease contributing to the primary motor symptoms of the disease. However, Parkinson pathology is more widespread in the brain, affecting also other dopaminergic pathways and neurotransmitter systems, but these changes are less well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the mesencephalic striatal and extrastriatal dopaminergic projections together with extrastriatal serotonin transporter binding in Parkinson disease. Two hundred sixteen patients with Parkinson disease and 204 control patients (patients without neurodegenerative parkinsonism syndromes and normal SPECT imaging) were investigated with SPECT using the dopamine/serotonin transporter ligand (123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) in the clinical setting. The group differences and midbrain correlations were analyzed voxel by voxel over the entire brain. We found that Parkinson patients had lower (123)I-FP-CIT uptake in the striatum and ventral midbrain but higher uptake in the thalamus and raphe nuclei than control patients. In patients with Parkinson disease, the correlation of the midbrain tracer uptake was shifted from the putamen to widespread corticolimbic areas. All findings were highly significant at the voxel level familywise error-corrected P value of less than 0.05. Our findings show that Parkinson disease is associated not only with the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission, but also with a parallel shift toward mesolimbic and mesocortical function. Furthermore, Parkinson disease patients seem to have upregulation of brain serotonin transporter function at the early phase of the disease. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. Project structure plan requirements for the deconstruction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasch, Peter; Schmitt, Christian; Stapf, Meike

    2011-01-01

    The deconstruction of nuclear facilities requires due to the particular conditions and the size of the project a special project planning. The authors analyze the possible requirements to be fulfilled by a project structure plan for nuclear facilities, including personnel resources, organization structure, budget questions, operation and project oriented measures, possibility of modifications and supplements. Further topics include controlling and project realization procedures, documentation, third party activities (authorities, consultants, surveyors), logistics and transport, and radiation protection issues. Several questions remain for plants-specific planning, including the integration of the plant personnel, administrative work, project management, economic and financial issues, radioactive waste management issues.

  12. 24 CFR 234.26 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioner for the purpose of constructing or converting the project in phases or stages, any special right..., the management company, the real estate broker, and the project developer, but the lender must ensure... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project requirements. 234.26...

  13. AFSC Laboratory Management Information Requirements Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This document was developed under the auspices of the Laboratory IRM (LIRM) Management Working Group in response to AFSC Program Directive 0008-81-1, Management Information Requirement Project (23 February 1981...

  14. 24 CFR 92.612 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project requirements. 92.612 Section 92.612 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.612 Project...

  15. 24 CFR 511.11 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... low income occupancy or rent projections, or restrictions on return on investment or other similar policies that prevent an owner, whether for-profit or non-profit, from maximizing return or setting rent... requirements and with the affirmative marketing requirements and procedures adopted under § 511.13, for the...

  16. International power projections and capital requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, H.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the international power projections and capital requirements of all kinds of energy and the share of electricity. It is also related to the so-called greenhouse effect carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere. (A.C.A.S.)

  17. 42 CFR 65.4 - Project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project requirements. 65.4 Section 65.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING... appropriate academic disciplines and talents. Joint applications must describe the cooperative arrangements...

  18. Response sensitivity of barrel neuron subpopulations to simulated thalamic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Rittenhouse, Cynthia D; Pinto, David J

    2010-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the relationship between neuron- and network-level processing in the context of a well-studied cortical function, the processing of thalamic input by whisker-barrel circuits in rodent neocortex. Here we focus on neuron-level processing and investigate the responses of excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons to simulated thalamic inputs applied using the dynamic clamp method in brain slices. Simulated inputs are modeled after real thalamic inputs recorded in vivo in response to brief whisker deflections. Our results suggest that inhibitory neurons require more input to reach firing threshold, but then fire earlier, with less variability, and respond to a broader range of inputs than do excitatory neurons. Differences in the responses of barrel neuron subtypes depend on their intrinsic membrane properties. Neurons with a low input resistance require more input to reach threshold but then fire earlier than neurons with a higher input resistance, regardless of the neuron's classification. Our results also suggest that the response properties of excitatory versus inhibitory barrel neurons are consistent with the response sensitivities of the ensemble barrel network. The short response latency of inhibitory neurons may serve to suppress ensemble barrel responses to asynchronous thalamic input. Correspondingly, whereas neurons acting as part of the barrel circuit in vivo are highly selective for temporally correlated thalamic input, excitatory barrel neurons acting alone in vitro are less so. These data suggest that network-level processing of thalamic input in barrel cortex depends on neuron-level processing of the same input by excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons.

  19. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  20. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  1. Connectivity derived thalamic segmentation in deep brain stimulation for tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harith Akram

    Full Text Available The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM of the thalamus is an established surgical target for stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD and essential tremor (ET. It is centrally placed on a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network connecting the primary motor cortex, to the dentate nucleus of the contralateral cerebellum through the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT. The VIM is not readily visible on conventional MR imaging, so identifying the surgical target traditionally involved indirect targeting that relies on atlas-defined coordinates. Unfortunately, this approach does not fully account for individual variability and requires surgery to be performed with the patient awake to allow for intraoperative targeting confirmation. The aim of this study is to identify the VIM and the DRT using probabilistic tractography in patients that will undergo thalamic DBS for tremor. Four male patients with tremor dominant PD and five patients (three female with ET underwent high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI (128 diffusion directions, 1.5 mm isotropic voxels and b value = 1500 preoperatively. Patients received VIM-DBS using an MR image guided and MR image verified approach with indirect targeting. Postoperatively, using parallel Graphical Processing Unit (GPU processing, thalamic areas with the highest diffusion connectivity to the primary motor area (M1, supplementary motor area (SMA, primary sensory area (S1 and contralateral dentate nucleus were identified. Additionally, volume of tissue activation (VTA corresponding to active DBS contacts were modelled. Response to treatment was defined as 40% reduction in the total Fahn-Tolosa-Martin Tremor Rating Score (FTMTRS with DBS-ON, one year from surgery. Three out of nine patients had a suboptimal, long-term response to treatment. The segmented thalamic areas corresponded well to anatomically known counterparts in the ventrolateral

  2. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Motohiro; Chernov, Mikhail F.; Taira, Takaomi; Ochiai, Taku; Nakaya, Kotaro; Tamura, Noriko; Goto, Shinichi; Yomo, Shoji; Kouyama, Nobuo; Katayama, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoriko; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment

  3. Fatal thalamic abscess secondary to dental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, Shadi; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay; Ferro, Ashley

    2015-12-17

    We present the case of poor neurological recovery and subsequent death secondary to a thalamic abscess in a 53-year-old man. This patient initially presented with sudden dysarthria and left hemiparesis while driving. Neuroimaging showed a multilobular abscess involving the right thalamus with oedema extending to the basal ganglionic region and brainstem. The source of the abscess was initially unknown and it required draining multiple times while the different causes were being explored. The patient's neurological state along with intubation made for a difficult and inconclusive oral examination. It was only after neuroimaging included tooth-bearing areas that it became evident that this patient had extensive periodontal disease with multiple areas of periapical radiolucencies. The patient underwent complete dental clearance alongside repeated drainage of the abscess. Despite initial postoperative improvement, the patient never recovered from the neurological damage and died 3 weeks later. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Connectivity derived thalamic segmentation in deep brain stimulation for tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Harith; Dayal, Viswas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Georgiev, Dejan; Hyam, Jonathan; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; De Vita, Enrico; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Ashburner, John; Behrens, Tim; Hariz, Marwan; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2018-01-01

    The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is an established surgical target for stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). It is centrally placed on a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network connecting the primary motor cortex, to the dentate nucleus of the contralateral cerebellum through the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT). The VIM is not readily visible on conventional MR imaging, so identifying the surgical target traditionally involved indirect targeting that relies on atlas-defined coordinates. Unfortunately, this approach does not fully account for individual variability and requires surgery to be performed with the patient awake to allow for intraoperative targeting confirmation. The aim of this study is to identify the VIM and the DRT using probabilistic tractography in patients that will undergo thalamic DBS for tremor. Four male patients with tremor dominant PD and five patients (three female) with ET underwent high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) (128 diffusion directions, 1.5 mm isotropic voxels and b value = 1500) preoperatively. Patients received VIM-DBS using an MR image guided and MR image verified approach with indirect targeting. Postoperatively, using parallel Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) processing, thalamic areas with the highest diffusion connectivity to the primary motor area (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), primary sensory area (S1) and contralateral dentate nucleus were identified. Additionally, volume of tissue activation (VTA) corresponding to active DBS contacts were modelled. Response to treatment was defined as 40% reduction in the total Fahn-Tolosa-Martin Tremor Rating Score (FTMTRS) with DBS-ON, one year from surgery. Three out of nine patients had a suboptimal, long-term response to treatment. The segmented thalamic areas corresponded well to anatomically known counterparts in the ventrolateral (VL

  5. When Serious Project Management is a Critical Business Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.; Gibby, L.; Chambers, C.; Joines, J.; Egger, R.

    2000-01-01

    When serious project management is a critical business requirement, project managers need to integrate cost, schedule and technical scope of work across the project, and apply earned value management (EVM).

  6. Radiation requirements for uranium project approvals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining projects in Australia must receive approval under both state and national laws based on a wide ranging impact assessment of the project. The process may take a number of years and involves multiple levels and parts of government and public consultation and scrutiny. The impact assessment is broad and usually covers; environmental, social, health, public safety and economic aspects. Information provided in the approvals documentation needs to be presented in a credible and understandable manner for all audiences. This means making complex information simpler, while making sure that it maintains its technical integrity. Poorly communicated information, which is overly complex, overly simplified or incomplete, can result in significant delays to the project approval which can potentially impact on project timelines. For uranium projects, along with other projects involving radioactive materials, such as minerals sands and rare earths, radiation and its impacts usually draw a disproportionate amount of both government and public scrutiny compared to other potential impacts and risks. It is therefore of key importance that radiation assessments are properly performed and results clearly presented and communicated with sufficient detail for stakeholders to make informed decisions. It is also important to ensure that the radiation risk is presented in perspective with other risks of the project. This presentation outlines a structure for a radiation impact assessment based on experience from a number of projects in Australia. The structure aims to be clear and simple and ensure the right balance between scientific fact, digestible information and demonstrable competence. (author)

  7. Decoding thalamic afferent input using microcircuit spiking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederberg, Audrey J; Palmer, Stephanie E; MacLean, Jason N

    2015-04-01

    A behavioral response appropriate to a sensory stimulus depends on the collective activity of thousands of interconnected neurons. The majority of cortical connections arise from neighboring neurons, and thus understanding the cortical code requires characterizing information representation at the scale of the cortical microcircuit. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we densely sampled the thalamically evoked response of hundreds of neurons spanning multiple layers and columns in thalamocortical slices of mouse somatosensory cortex. We then used a biologically plausible decoder to characterize the representation of two distinct thalamic inputs, at the level of the microcircuit, to reveal those aspects of the activity pattern that are likely relevant to downstream neurons. Our data suggest a sparse code, distributed across lamina, in which a small population of cells carries stimulus-relevant information. Furthermore, we find that, within this subset of neurons, decoder performance improves when noise correlations are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Language disturbances from mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarino, L.G.; Nicolai, A.; Valassi, F.; Biasizzo, E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the cases of two patients with CT-documented paramedian mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts, showing language disturbances. The first patient showed a non fluent, transcortical motor-like aphasia, the other had a fluent but severely paraphasic language disorder. The CT study disclosed that it was the dorso-median thalamic nucleus that was mostly involved in both cases. These findings agree with a few previous pathological studies suggesting that the paramedian thalamic nuclei, particlularly the dorso-median nucleus may play some role in language disturbances. However the anatomical basis for thalamic aphasia remains speculative, taking into account the importantce of cortical connections in the origin of subcortical neuropsychological disturbances. (orig.)

  9. Radiation Requirements for Uranium Mining Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Radiation impact can be complex and confusing; • Aim to be credible and competent; • Process can be straightforward; – Baseline monitoring; – Project emissions; – Impact of emission; – Management measures. • “Tell the story” (what does it all mean)

  10. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  11. Requirements: Towards an understanding on why software projects fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Requirement engineering is at the foundation of every successful software project. There are many reasons for software project failures; however, poorly engineered requirements process contributes immensely to the reason why software projects fail. Software project failure is usually costly and risky and could also be life threatening. Projects that undermine requirements engineering suffer or are likely to suffer from failures, challenges and other attending risks. The cost of project failures and overruns when estimated is very huge. Furthermore, software project failures or overruns pose a challenge in today's competitive market environment. It affects the company's image, goodwill, and revenue drive and decreases the perceived satisfaction of customers and clients. In this paper, requirements engineering was discussed. Its role in software projects success was elaborated. The place of software requirements process in relation to software project failure was explored and examined. Also, project success and failure factors were also discussed with emphasis placed on requirements factors as they play a major role in software projects' challenges, successes and failures. The paper relied on secondary data and empirical statistics to explore and examine factors responsible for the successes, challenges and failures of software projects in large, medium and small scaled software companies.

  12. Projections of energy requirements and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogroian, P.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. The record of nuclear power forecasting (estimates of the growth of world nuclear power, penetration of the electric power market by nuclear power); brief review of energy forecasting techniques and problems; some views of future world energy demand (estimates of world primary energy requirements); possible allocations of energy resources to needs (allocation of resources (oil, oil from tar sands, shale, natural gas, coal, coal to gasification, hydroelectricity, renewable resources, nuclear) to the world's primary energy needs in the year 2000); observations on the adequacy of energy resources; implications for nuclear energy (postulated growth of world nuclear power, annual fuel cycle requirements of the world, annual uranium requirements of the world). (U.K.)

  13. Supplemental design requirements document, Project W026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document supplements and extends the Functional Design Criteria, SP-W026-FDC-001, for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), Module 1. It provides additional detailed requirements, summarizes key Westinghouse Hanford Company design guidance, and establishes baseline technical agreements to be used in definitive design of the WRAP-1 facility. Revision 3 of the Supplemental Design Requirements Document has been assigned an Impact Level of 3ESQ based on the content of the entire revision. The actual changes made from Revision 2 have an Impact Level of 3S and the basis for these changes was previously reviewed and approved per WHC correspondence No. 9355770

  14. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL; White, James D [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  15. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Smith, Cyrus M; DeNap, Frank A; White, James D; Gross, Ian G; Gorman, Bryan L; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  16. Projecting India's energy requirements for policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Karandikar, Vivek; Rana, Ashish; Dani, Prasanna

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy has to have a long-term perspective. To formulate it one needs to know the contours of energy requirements and options. Different approaches have been followed in literature, each with their own problems. A top down econometric approach provides little guidance on policies, while a bottom up approval requires too much knowledge and too many assumptions. Using top-down econometric approach for aggregate overall benchmarking and a detailed activity analysis model, Integrated Energy System Model, for a few large sectors, provides a unique combination for easing the difficulties of policy formulation. The model is described in this paper. Eleven alternate scenarios are built, designed to map out extreme points of feasible options. Results show that even after employing all domestic energy resource to their full potential, there will be a continued rise of fossil fuel use, continued importance of coal, and continued rise of import dependence. Energy efficiency emerges as a major option with a potential to reduce energy requirement by as much as 17%. Scenario results point towards pushing for development of alternative sources. (author)

  17. Pathogenesis and prognosis of bilateral thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Taizen; Ogura, Naoko; Maeda, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Takashi; Kameda, Tomoaki; Sato, Yuichi; Nagata, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Only a few reports have discussed the detailed clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of bilateral thalamic infarction. The thalamus is composed of different functional nuclei and supplied by vessels containing several variations from the main arteries, leading to difficulty in the precise evaluation of bilateral thalamic infarction. In the present study, we assessed the prognosis of bilateral thalamic infarction based on the distribution of stroke lesions. From among the consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to hospital between April 2001 and March 2005, cases of acute bilateral thalamic infarction were selected for this study (n=9; 65.1±13.6 y.o.). The stroke lesions and vascular abnormalities were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography on admission. Outcome was evaluated from the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at discharge. Good outcome patients (mRS 0-2; n=5) showed memory disturbance, cognitive impairment and hypersomnia. On the other hand, quadriplegia, oculomotor disturbance and bulbar palsy were observed in the poor outcome patients (mRS≥4; n=4). The critical features of a poor outcome were the age at onset (72.0±15.3 vs. 58.2±11.9 y.o.), inclusion of brainstem lesions and total occlusion of the basilar artery. In conclusion, older age at onset and/or basilar artery occlusion may be critical factors for predicting a poor outcome in bilateral thalamic infarction cases. (author)

  18. MORE: Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C.; Valkonen, J.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE (Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2005-47) project. This report also provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, and discusses possible application areas. The project has aimed at the industrial utilisation of the results from the TACO: (Traceability and Communication of Requirements in Digital I and C Systems Development) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2002-16, completed June, 2005) project, and practical application of improved approaches and methods for requirements engineering and change management. Finally, the report provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (au)

  19. MORE: Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C. (Inst. for energiteknikk (IFE) (Norway)); Valkonen, J. (Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland))

    2008-09-15

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE (Management of Requirements in NPP Modernisation Projects) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2005-47) project. This report also provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, and discusses possible application areas. The project has aimed at the industrial utilisation of the results from the TACO: (Traceability and Communication of Requirements in Digital I and C Systems Development) (NKS-R project number NKS-R-2002-16, completed June, 2005) project, and practical application of improved approaches and methods for requirements engineering and change management. Finally, the report provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (author)

  20. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... result of a change of the name, identity, internal corporate structure or place of organization and does... period, and undergoing a change of ownership, unless such project satisfies the requirements of..., and undergoing a change of ownership, unless such project satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (b...

  1. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  2. Thalamic changes with mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, N.P.; Jarosz, J.M.; Cox, T.C.S. [Department of Neuroradiology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Elwes, R.C.D. [Department of Neurology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Polkey, C.E. [Department of Neurosurgery, King' s College and Maudsley Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    We reviewed the preoperative images of 28 patients with pathologically proven mesial temporal sclerosis, to assess thalamic asymmetry and signal change. A further 25 nonsurgical patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and unequivocal, unilateral changes of mesial temporal sclerosis, and 20 controls, were also reviewed. None of the control group had unequivocal asymmetry of the thalamus. There was an ipsilateral asymmetrically small thalamus in five (18 %) of the surgical group and in three (12 %) of the nonsurgical patients. In four cases there was thalamic signal change. In three patients with thalamic volume loss there was ipsilateral hemiatrophy. All patients with an asymmetrically small thalamus had an asymmetrically small fornix and all but one a small ipsilateral mamillary body. (orig.)

  3. Right thalamic infarction after closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Takashi; Doi, Terushige; Katsumata, Tsuguo; Kuwayama, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    We reported a case of right thalamic infarction after a closed head injury. A 12-year-old boy was hit by an autotruck. He was semi-comatose, with left temporal scalp swelling and excoriation in the left lower limb. Three days after the accident, he exhibited left hemiparesis. CT scans on the day of the accident showed no abnormality, but on the following day, right thalamic infarction appeared. Right carotid angiography showed only an irregular vascular shadow in the cisternal segment of the right internal carotid artery. Vascular obstruction after closed head injury is rare, especially in the intracranial vessels, and several pathogeneses may be postulated. The right thalamic infarction in this case was supposed to be due to the damage of the perforators from the right posterior communicating artery and the right posterior cerebral artery, which were struck as a contre-coup by the force from the left side. (author)

  4. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  5. Dissociable Contributions of Thalamic Nuclei to Recognition Memory: Novel Evidence from a Case of Medial Dorsal Thalamic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Rachel N.; Trelle, Alexandra N.; Fidalgo, Celia; Hong, Bryan; Smith, Victoria M.; Jacob, Alexander; Ryan, Jennifer D.; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Cowell, Rosemary A.; Barense, Morgan D.

    2018-01-01

    The thalamic nuclei are thought to play a critical role in recognition memory. Specifically, the anterior thalamic nuclei and medial dorsal nuclei may serve as critical output structures in distinct hippocampal and perirhinal cortex systems, respectively. Existing evidence indicates that damage to the anterior thalamic nuclei leads to impairments…

  6. Language disturbances from mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts. Identification of thalamic nuclei by CT-reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarino, L G; Nicolai, A; Valassi, F [Ospedale Civile di Gorizia (Italy). Div. di Neurologia; Biasizzo, E [Ospedale di Udine (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradiologia

    1991-08-01

    The authors report the cases of two patients with CT-documented paramedian mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts, showing language disturbances. The first patient showed a non fluent, transcortical motor-like aphasia, the other had a fluent but severely paraphasic language disorder. The CT study disclosed that it was the dorso-median thalamic nucleus that was mostly involved in both cases. These findings agree with a few previous pathological studies suggesting that the paramedian thalamic nuclei, particlularly the dorso-median nucleus may play some role in language disturbances. However the anatomical basis for thalamic aphasia remains speculative, taking into account the importantce of cortical connections in the origin of subcortical neuropsychological disturbances. (orig.).

  7. Unilateral Thalamic Infarct Presenting as a Convulsive Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Brohi, Hazim; Mughul, Afshan

    2017-09-01

    Lesions of the thalamus and those extending into midbrain can cause various types of movement disorders such as dystonia, asterixis and ballism-chorea. Seizures are rare manifestation of thalamic disorder. Occurrence of seizures in bilateral thalamic infarct has been reported; but seizures in unilateral thalamic infarct have been reported very rarely. Literature review showed only single case of perinatal unilateral thalamic infarct presenting with seizures. We are reporting a unique case of convulsive seizure at the onset of unilateral thalamic infarct in an adult male, which has never been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  8. Thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Wang, Lei; Cronenwett, Will; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Csernansky, John G

    2011-03-01

    Biomarkers are needed that can distinguish between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to inform the ongoing debate over the diagnostic boundary between these two disorders. Neuromorphometric abnormalities of the thalamus have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia and linked to core features of the disorder, but have not been similarly investigated in individuals with schizoaffective disorder. In this study, we examine whether individuals with schizoaffective disorder have a pattern of thalamic deformation that is similar or different to the pattern found in individuals with schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 47), individuals with schizoaffective disorder (n = 15), and controls (n = 42). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain three-dimensional surfaces of the thalamus. Multiple analyses of variance were used to test for group differences in volume and measures of surface shape. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder have similar thalamic volumes. Thalamic surface shape deformation associated with schizophrenia suggests selective involvement of the anterior and posterior thalamus, while deformations in mediodorsal and ventrolateral regions were observed in both groups. Schizoaffective disorder had distinct deformations in medial and lateral thalamic regions. Abnormalities distinct to schizoaffective disorder suggest involvement of the central and ventroposterior medial thalamus which may be involved in mood circuitry, dorsolateral nucleus which is involved in recall processing, and the lateral geniculate nucleus which is involved in visual processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 42 CFR 50.208 - Program or project requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program or project requirements. 50.208 Section 50.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.208...

  10. From Parkinsonian thalamic activity to restoring thalamic relay using deep brain stimulation: new insights from computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, H. G. E.; Krupa, M.; Cagnan, H.; Lourens, M. A. J.; Heida, T.; Martens, H. C. F.; Bour, L. J.; van Gils, S. A.

    2011-10-01

    We present a computational model of a thalamocortical relay neuron for exploring basal ganglia thalamocortical loop behavior in relation to Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Previous microelectrode, single-unit recording studies demonstrated that oscillatory interaction within and between basal ganglia nuclei is very often accompanied by synchronization at Parkinsonian rest tremor frequencies (3-10 Hz). These oscillations have a profound influence on thalamic projections and impair the thalamic relaying of cortical input by generating rebound action potentials. Our model describes convergent inhibitory input received from basal ganglia by the thalamocortical cells based on characteristics of normal activity, and/or low-frequency oscillations (activity associated with Parkinson's disease). In addition to simulated input, we also used microelectrode recordings as inputs for the model. In the resting state, and without additional sensorimotor input, pathological rebound activity is generated for even mild Parkinsonian input. We have found a specific stimulation window of amplitudes and frequencies for periodic input, which corresponds to high-frequency DBS, and which also suppresses rebound activity for mild and even more prominent Parkinsonian input. When low-frequency pathological rebound activity disables the thalamocortical cell's ability to relay excitatory cortical input, a stimulation signal with parameter settings corresponding to our stimulation window can restore the thalamocortical cell's relay functionality.

  11. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging te...... is a disorder of the CNS in which not only is brain function abnormal, but also brain structure is undergoing significant remodeling....... a fully automated multiatlas approach. Deformation-based shape analysis was performed to localize surface abnormalities. Differences between patients with migraine and healthy subjects were assessed using an ANCOVA model. After correction for multiple comparisons, performed using the false discovery rate.......9) was observed in patients. This large-scale study indicates structural thalamic abnormalities in patients with migraine. The thalamic nuclei with abnormal volumes are densely connected to the limbic system. The data hence lend support to the view that higher-order integration systems are altered in migraine...

  12. International environmental issues and requirements for new power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.R. [Golder Associates Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States); Maltby, J.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation was to discuss the emerging role of financial entities in determining environmental requirements for international power projects. The paper outlines the following: emerging conditions; examples of announced privatization energy projects by country; types of government and international financial entity sources; problems for IPPs; similarity and differences between the World Bank and the USEPA; comparison of the international standards and regulations for power plants; recent trends/issues involving international power project approval; and recommendations for understanding/expediting the financial entities` environmental approval process and how to expedite this process.

  13. Subset of Cortical Layer 6b Neurons Selectively Innervates Higher Order Thalamic Nuclei in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Hayashi, Shuichi; Upton, Louise; Nolan, Zachary; Casas-Torremocha, Diana; Grant, Eleanor; Viswanathan, Sarada; Kanold, Patrick O; Clasca, Francisco; Kim, Yongsoo; Molnár, Zoltán

    2018-05-01

    The thalamus receives input from 3 distinct cortical layers, but input from only 2 of these has been well characterized. We therefore investigated whether the third input, derived from layer 6b, is more similar to the projections from layer 6a or layer 5. We studied the projections of a restricted population of deep layer 6 cells ("layer 6b cells") taking advantage of the transgenic mouse Tg(Drd1a-cre)FK164Gsat/Mmucd (Drd1a-Cre), that selectively expresses Cre-recombinase in a subpopulation of layer 6b neurons across the entire cortical mantle. At P8, 18% of layer 6b neurons are labeled with Drd1a-Cre::tdTomato in somatosensory cortex (SS), and some co-express known layer 6b markers. Using Cre-dependent viral tracing, we identified topographical projections to higher order thalamic nuclei. VGluT1+ synapses formed by labeled layer 6b projections were found in posterior thalamic nucleus (Po) but not in the (pre)thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). The lack of TRN collaterals was confirmed with single-cell tracing from SS. Transmission electron microscopy comparison of terminal varicosities from layer 5 and layer 6b axons in Po showed that L6b varicosities are markedly smaller and simpler than the majority from L5. Our results suggest that L6b projections to the thalamus are distinct from both L5 and L6a projections.

  14. MORE. Management of Requirements in NPP modernisation projects - Project report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Fredriksen, R.; Thunem, H.P.J.; Ventae, O.; Valkonen, J.; Holmberg, J.E.

    2006-04-01

    The overall objective of the project MORE is to improve the means for managing the large amounts of evolving requirements in Nordic NPP modernisation projects. In accordance to this objective, the activity will facilitate the industrial utilisation of the research results from the project TACO. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the overall aim of the TACO project has been to identify the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements. The project resulted in the development of a traceability model for handling requirements from their origins and through their final shapes. Particular emphasis for the MORE project in 2005 was put on utilising a prototype of a tool (TRACE) intended to support an adopted approach to dependable requirements engineering, suitable for modelling and handling large amounts of requirements related to all stages of the systems development process and not only those traditionally including requirements at high-level stages. (au)

  15. MORE. Management of Requirements in NPP modernisation projects - Project report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Fredriksen, R.; Thunem, H.P.J. [IFE (Norway); Ventae, O.; Valkonen, J.; Holmberg, J.E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    The overall objective of the project MORE is to improve the means for managing the large amounts of evolving requirements in Nordic NPP modernisation projects. In accordance to this objective, the activity will facilitate the industrial utilisation of the research results from the project TACO. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the overall aim of the TACO project has been to identify the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements. The project resulted in the development of a traceability model for handling requirements from their origins and through their final shapes. Particular emphasis for the MORE project in 2005 was put on utilising a prototype of a tool (TRACE) intended to support an adopted approach to dependable requirements engineering, suitable for modelling and handling large amounts of requirements related to all stages of the systems development process and not only those traditionally including requirements at high-level stages. (au)

  16. Midline thalamic reuniens lesions improve executive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, J A; Abela, A R; Chudasama, Y

    2017-03-14

    The role of the thalamus in complex cognitive behavior is a topic of increasing interest. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the nucleus reuniens (NRe), a midline thalamic nucleus interconnected with both hippocampal and prefrontal circuitry, lead to enhancement of executive behaviors typically associated with the prefrontal cortex. Rats were tested on four behavioral tasks: (1) the combined attention-memory (CAM) task, which simultaneously assessed attention to a visual target and memory for that target over a variable delay; (2) spatial memory using a radial arm maze, (3) discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen operant platform, and (4) decision-making with delayed outcomes. Following NRe lesions, the animals became more efficient in their performance, responding with shorter reaction times but also less impulsively than controls. This change, combined with a decrease in perseverative responses, led to focused attention in the CAM task and accelerated learning in the visual discrimination task. There were no observed changes in tasks involving either spatial memory or value-based decision making. These data complement ongoing efforts to understand the role of midline thalamic structures in human cognition, including the development of thalamic stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for acquired cognitive disabilities (Schiff, 2008; Mair et al., 2011), and point to the NRe as a potential target for clinical intervention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Enlarged thalamic volumes and increased fractional anisotropy in the thalamic radiations in Veterans with suicide behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eLopez-Larson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-mortem studies have suggested a link between the thalamus, psychiatric disorders, and suicide. We evaluated the thalamus and anterior thalamic radiations (ATR in a group of Veterans with and without a history of suicidal behavior (SB to determine if thalamic abnormalities were associated with an increased risk of SB. Forty Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI and no SB (TBI-SB, 19 Veterans with mild TBI and a history of SB (TB+SB and 15 healthy controls (HC underwent MRI scanning including a structural and diffusion tensor imaging scan. Suicidal behaviors were evaluated utilizing the Columbia Suicide Rating Scale and impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Differences in thalamic volumes and ATR fractional anisotropy (FA were examined between 1 TBI+SB versus HC and 2 TBI+SB versus combined HC and TBI-SB and 2 between TBI+SB and TBI-SB. Left and right thalamic volumes were significantly increased in those with TBI+SB compared to the HC, TBI-SB and the combined group. Veterans with TBI+SB had increased FA bilaterally compared to the HC, HC and TBI-SB group, and the TBI-SB only group. Significant positive associations were found for bilateral ATR and BIS in the TBI+SB group. Our findings of thalamic enlargement and increased FA in individuals with TBI+SB suggest that this region may be a biomarker for suicide risk. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence indicating that suicide may be associated with behavioral disinhibition and frontal-thalamic-limbic dysfunction and suggest a neurobiologic mechanism that may increase vulnerability to suicide.

  18. Projection of US LWR spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Cole, B.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Rau, R.G.

    1982-11-01

    The spent fuel storage requirements projection is based on data supplied for each operating or planned nuclear power power plant by the operting utilities. The data supplied by the utilities encompassed details of plant operating history, past records of fuel discharges, current inventories in reactor spent fuel storage pools, and projections of future discharge patterns. Data on storage capacity of storage pools and on characterization of the discharged fuel are also included. The data supplied by the utilities, plus additional data from other appropriate sources, are maintained on a computerized data base by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The spent fuel requirements projection was based on utility data updated and verified as of December 31, 1981

  19. 45 CFR 2553.72 - What are project funding requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... local funding sources during the first three years of operations; or (2) An economic downturn, the... sources of local funding support; or (3) The unexpected discontinuation of local support from one or more... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are project funding requirements? 2553.72...

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the

  1. Distinct molecular components for thalamic- and cortical-dependent plasticity in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Brandalise, Federico; Bohacek, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to be a cellular substrate for the extinction of fear memory. The LA receives converging inputs from the sensory thalamus and neocortex that are weakened following fear extinction. Combining field and patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation can induce a robust LTD at thalamic and cortical inputs to LA, and we identify different underlying molecular components at these pathways. We show that while LTD depends on NMDARs and activation of the protein phosphatases PP2B and PP1 at both pathways, it requires NR2B-containing NMDARs at the thalamic pathway, but NR2C/D-containing NMDARs at the cortical pathway. LTD appears to be induced post-synaptically at the thalamic input but presynaptically at the cortical input, since post-synaptic calcium chelation and NMDAR blockade prevent thalamic but not cortical LTD. These results highlight distinct molecular features of LTD in LA that may be relevant for traumatic memory and its erasure, and for pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  2. Distinct molecular components for thalamic- and cortical-dependent plasticity in the lateral amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eMirante

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR-dependent long-term depression (LTD in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to be a cellular substrate for the extinction of fear memory. The LA receives converging inputs from the sensory thalamus and neocortex that are weakened following fear extinction. Combining field and patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that a paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation can induce a robust LTD at thalamic and cortical inputs to LA, and we identify different underlying molecular components at these pathways. We show that while LTD depends on NMDARs and activation of the protein phosphatases PP2B and PP1 at both pathways, it requires NR2B-containing NMDARs at the thalamic pathway, but NR2C/D-containing NMDARs at the cortical pathway. LTD appears to be induced postsynaptically at the thalamic input but presynaptically at the cortical input, since postsynaptic calcium chelation and NMDAR blockade prevent thalamic but not cortical LTD. These results highlight distinct molecular features of LTD in LA that may be relevant for traumatic memory and its erasure, and for pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

  3. Flexible Use of Predictive Cues beyond the Orbitofrontal Cortex: Role of the Submedius Thalamic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Fabien; Marchand, Alain R; Vidal, Elisa; Guillou, Alexandre; Faugère, Angélique; Coutureau, Etienne; Wolff, Mathieu

    2015-09-23

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is known to play a crucial role in learning the consequences of specific events. However, the contribution of OFC thalamic inputs to these processes is largely unknown. Using a tract-tracing approach, we first demonstrated that the submedius nucleus (Sub) shares extensive reciprocal connections with the OFC. We then compared the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the Sub or the OFC on the ability of rats to use outcome identity to direct responding. We found that neither OFC nor Sub lesions interfered with the basic differential outcomes effect. However, more specific tests revealed that OFC rats, but not Sub rats, were disproportionally relying on the outcome, rather than on the discriminative stimulus, to guide behavior, which is consistent with the view that the OFC integrates information about predictive cues. In subsequent experiments using a Pavlovian contingency degradation procedure, we found that both OFC and Sub lesions produced a severe deficit in the ability to update Pavlovian associations. Altogether, the submedius therefore appears as a functionally relevant thalamic component in a circuit dedicated to the integration of predictive cues to guide behavior, previously conceived as essentially dependent on orbitofrontal functions. Significance statement: In the present study, we identify a largely unknown thalamic region, the submedius nucleus, as a new functionally relevant component in a circuit supporting the flexible use of predictive cues. Such abilities were previously conceived as largely dependent on the orbitofrontal cortex. Interestingly, this echoes recent findings in the field showing, in research involving an instrumental setup, an additional involvement of another thalamic nuclei, the parafascicular nucleus, when correct responding requires an element of flexibility (Bradfield et al., 2013a). Therefore, the present contribution supports the emerging view that limbic thalamic nuclei may contribute critically to

  4. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO{sub 2} extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO{sub 2} observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO{sub 2} secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author).

  5. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO 2 extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO 2 observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO 2 secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author)

  6. Database requirements for the Advanced Test Accelerator project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The database requirements for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) project are outlined. ATA is a state-of-the-art electron accelerator capable of producing energetic (50 million electron volt), high current (10,000 ampere), short pulse (70 billionths of a second) beams of electrons for a wide variety of applications. Databasing is required for two applications. First, the description of the configuration of facility itself requires an extended database. Second, experimental data gathered from the facility must be organized and managed to insure its full utilization. The two applications are intimately related since the acquisition and analysis of experimental data requires knowledge of the system configuration. This report reviews the needs of the ATA program and current implementation, intentions, and desires. These database applications have several unique aspects which are of interest and will be highlighted. The features desired in an ultimate database system are outlined. 3 references, 5 figures

  7. Project W-441 cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage

  8. National Land Imaging Requirements (NLIR) Pilot Project summary report: summary of moderate resolution imaging user requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnais, Carolyn; Stensaas, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Under the National Land Imaging Requirements (NLIR) Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing a functional capability to obtain, characterize, manage, maintain and prioritize all Earth observing (EO) land remote sensing user requirements. The goal is a better understanding of community needs that can be supported with land remote sensing resources, and a means to match needs with appropriate solutions in an effective and efficient way. The NLIR Project is composed of two components. The first component is focused on the development of the Earth Observation Requirements Evaluation System (EORES) to capture, store and analyze user requirements, whereas, the second component is the mechanism and processes to elicit and document the user requirements that will populate the EORES. To develop the second component, the requirements elicitation methodology was exercised and refined through a pilot project conducted from June to September 2013. The pilot project focused specifically on applications and user requirements for moderate resolution imagery (5–120 meter resolution) as the test case for requirements development. The purpose of this summary report is to provide a high-level overview of the requirements elicitation process that was exercised through the pilot project and an early analysis of the moderate resolution imaging user requirements acquired to date to support ongoing USGS sustainable land imaging study needs. The pilot project engaged a limited set of Federal Government users from the operational and research communities and therefore the information captured represents only a subset of all land imaging user requirements. However, based on a comparison of results, trends, and analysis, the pilot captured a strong baseline of typical applications areas and user needs for moderate resolution imagery. Because these results are preliminary and represent only a sample of users and application areas, the information from this report should only

  9. Thalamic neuron models encode stimulus information by burst-size modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henry Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic neurons have been long assumed to fire in tonic mode during perceptive states, and in burst mode during sleep and unconsciousness. However, recent evidence suggests that bursts may also be relevant in the encoding of sensory information. Here we explore the neural code of such thalamic bursts. In order to assess whether the burst code is generic or whether it depends on the detailed properties of each bursting neuron, we analyzed two neuron models incorporating different levels of biological detail. One of the models contained no information of the biophysical processes entailed in spike generation, and described neuron activity at a phenomenological level. The second model represented the evolution of the individual ionic conductances involved in spiking and bursting, and required a large number of parameters. We analyzed the models' input selectivity using reverse correlation methods and information theory. We found that n-spike bursts from both models transmit information by modulating their spike count in response to changes to instantaneous input features, such as slope, phase, amplitude, etc. The stimulus feature that is most efficiently encoded by bursts, however, need not coincide with one of such classical features. We therefore searched for the optimal feature among all those that could be expressed as a linear transformation of the time-dependent input current. We found that bursting neurons transmitted 6 times more information about such more general features. The relevant events in the stimulus were located in a time window spanning ~100 ms before and ~20 ms after burst onset. Most importantly, the neural code employed by the simple and the biologically realistic models was largely the same, implying that the simple thalamic neuron model contains the essential ingredients that account for the computational properties of the thalamic burst code. Thus, our results suggest the n-spike burst code is a general property of

  10. Thalamic neuron models encode stimulus information by burst-size modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elijah, Daniel H; Samengo, Inés; Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2015-01-01

    Thalamic neurons have been long assumed to fire in tonic mode during perceptive states, and in burst mode during sleep and unconsciousness. However, recent evidence suggests that bursts may also be relevant in the encoding of sensory information. Here, we explore the neural code of such thalamic bursts. In order to assess whether the burst code is generic or whether it depends on the detailed properties of each bursting neuron, we analyzed two neuron models incorporating different levels of biological detail. One of the models contained no information of the biophysical processes entailed in spike generation, and described neuron activity at a phenomenological level. The second model represented the evolution of the individual ionic conductances involved in spiking and bursting, and required a large number of parameters. We analyzed the models' input selectivity using reverse correlation methods and information theory. We found that n-spike bursts from both models transmit information by modulating their spike count in response to changes to instantaneous input features, such as slope, phase, amplitude, etc. The stimulus feature that is most efficiently encoded by bursts, however, need not coincide with one of such classical features. We therefore searched for the optimal feature among all those that could be expressed as a linear transformation of the time-dependent input current. We found that bursting neurons transmitted 6 times more information about such more general features. The relevant events in the stimulus were located in a time window spanning ~100 ms before and ~20 ms after burst onset. Most importantly, the neural code employed by the simple and the biologically realistic models was largely the same, implying that the simple thalamic neuron model contains the essential ingredients that account for the computational properties of the thalamic burst code. Thus, our results suggest the n-spike burst code is a general property of thalamic neurons.

  11. Thalamic hemorrhage following carotid angioplasty and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Jonathan A.; Kallmes, David F.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative treatment of carotid stenosis for patients poorly suited for endarterectomy. Intracerebral hemorrhage following carotid revascularization is rare and thought to be related to hyperperfusion injury in most cases. Early experience suggests an increased incidence of hemorrhage following CAS as compared to endarterectomy. We describe a patient who suffered a thalamic hemorrhage following CAS. Because this hemorrhage occurred in a vascular territory unlikely to have been supplied by the treated artery, this case suggests that the mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage following CAS may in some cases be different from the hyperperfusion hemorrhage classically described following endarterectomy. (orig.)

  12. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L; Kuster, John K; Levenstein, Jacob M; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Breiter, Hans C; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  13. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff L Waugh

    Full Text Available Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia.We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7. We used (1 automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2 blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume; and (3 voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus.Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region.Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  14. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. Methods We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Results Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Conclusions Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches. PMID:27171035

  15. Functional characterization and expression of thalamic GABA(B) receptors in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groote, C; Wullner, U; Loschmann, PA; Luiten, PGM; Klockgether, T

    1999-01-01

    Increased GABAergic neurotransmission of the basal ganglia output nuclei projecting to the motor thalamus is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. We investigated the functional role of thalamic GABA(B) receptors in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. First, we

  16. Preliminary Design Requirements Document for Project W-314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-04-27

    This document sets forth functional requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints for the tank farm systems elements identified in Section 3.1 of this document. These requirements shall be used to develop the Design Requirements Baseline for those system elements. System Overview--The tank farm system at Hanford Site currently consists of 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks with associated facilities and equipment, located in 18 separate groupings. Each grouping is known as a tank farm. They are located in the areas designated as 200 West and 200 East. Table 1-1 shows the number of tanks in each farm. The farms are connected together through a transfer system consisting of piping, diversion boxes, Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) and other miscellaneous facilities and elements. The tank farm system also connects to a series of processing plants which generate radioactive and hazardous wastes. The primary functions of the tank farm system are to store, transfer, concentrate, and characterize radioactive and hazardous waste generated at Hanford, until the waste can be safely retrieved, processed and dispositioned. The systems provided by Project W-314 support the store and transfer waste functions. The system elements to be upgraded by Project W-314 are identified in Section 3.1.

  17. Preliminary Design Requirements Document for Project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document sets forth functional requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints for the tank farm systems elements identified in Section 3.1 of this document. These requirements shall be used to develop the Design Requirements Baseline for those system elements. System Overview--The tank farm system at Hanford Site currently consists of 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks with associated facilities and equipment, located in 18 separate groupings. Each grouping is known as a tank farm. They are located in the areas designated as 200 West and 200 East. Table 1-1 shows the number of tanks in each farm. The farms are connected together through a transfer system consisting of piping, diversion boxes, Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) and other miscellaneous facilities and elements. The tank farm system also connects to a series of processing plants which generate radioactive and hazardous wastes. The primary functions of the tank farm system are to store, transfer, concentrate, and characterize radioactive and hazardous waste generated at Hanford, until the waste can be safely retrieved, processed and dispositioned. The systems provided by Project W-314 support the store and transfer waste functions. The system elements to be upgraded by Project W-314 are identified in Section 3.1

  18. An Engineering Method of Civil Jet Requirements Validation Based on Requirements Project Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Dan; Mao, Xuming

    2018-03-01

    A method of requirements validation is developed and defined to meet the needs of civil jet requirements validation in product development. Based on requirements project principle, this method will not affect the conventional design elements, and can effectively connect the requirements with design. It realizes the modern civil jet development concept, which is “requirement is the origin, design is the basis”. So far, the method has been successfully applied in civil jet aircraft development in China. Taking takeoff field length as an example, the validation process and the validation method of the requirements are detailed introduced in the study, with the hope of providing the experiences to other civil jet product design.

  19. Thalamic structures and associated cognitive functions: Relations with age and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, with its cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar connections, is a critical node in networks supporting cognitive functions known to decline in normal aging, including component processes of memory and executive functions of attention and information processing. The macrostructure, microstructure, and neural connectivity of the thalamus changes across the adult lifespan. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated, regional thalamic volume shrinkage and microstructural degradation, with anterior regions generally more compromised than posterior regions. The integrity of selective thalamic nuclei and projections decline with advancing age, particularly those in thalamofrontal, thalamoparietal, and thalamolimbic networks. This review presents studies that assess the relations between age and aging and the structure, function, and connectivity of the thalamus and associated neural networks and focuses on their relations with processes of attention, speed of information processing, and working and episodic memory. PMID:25862940

  20. Compiling Utility Requirements For New Nuclear Power Plant Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, Eero

    2002-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted in November 2000 to the Finnish Government an application for a Decision-in-Principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Finland. The actual investment decision can be made first after a positive decision has been made by the Government and the Parliament. Parallel to the licensing process, technical preparedness has been upheld so that the procurement process can be commenced without delay, when needed. This includes the definition of requirements for the plant and preliminary preparation of bid inquiry specifications. The core of the technical requirements corresponds to the specifications presented in the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document, compiled by major European electricity producers. Quite naturally, an amount of modifications to the EUR document are needed that take into account the country- and site-specific conditions as well as the experiences gained in the operation of the existing NPP units. Along with the EUR-related requirements concerning the nuclear island and power generation plant, requirements are specified for scope of supply as well as for a variety of issues related to project implementation. (author)

  1. Thalamic inputs to dorsomedial striatum are involved in inhibitory control: evidence from the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Jasjot; Dautan, Daniel; Rostron, Claire; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2017-08-01

    Corticostriatal circuits are widely implicated in the top-down control of attention including inhibitory control and behavioural flexibility. However, recent neurophysiological evidence also suggests a role for thalamic inputs to striatum in behaviours related to salient, reward-paired cues. Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to investigate the role of parafascicular (Pf) thalamic inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) in rats. The 5CSRTT requires sustained attention in order to detect spatially and temporally distributed visual cues and provides measures of inhibitory control related to impulsivity (premature responses) and compulsivity (perseverative responses). Rats underwent bilateral Pf injections of the DREADD vector, AAV2-CaMKIIa-HA-hM4D(Gi)-IRES-mCitrine. The DREADD agonist, clozapine N-oxide (CNO; 1 μl bilateral; 3 μM) or vehicle, was injected into DMS 1 h before behavioural testing. Task parameters were manipulated to increase attention load or reduce stimulus predictability respectively. We found that inhibition of the Pf-DMS projection significantly increased perseverative responses when stimulus predictability was reduced but had no effect on premature responses or response accuracy, even under increased attentional load. Control experiments showed no effects on locomotor activity in an open field. These results complement previous lesion work in which the DMS and orbitofrontal cortex were similarly implicated in perseverative responses and suggest a specific role for thalamostriatal inputs in inhibitory control.

  2. Isolated thalamic tuberculoma presenting as ataxic hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ritesh; Patil, Tushar B; Kori, Prakash; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Lacunar syndrome is a neurodeficit secondary to a deep cerebral lesion, usually because of microatheroma of small arteries. Ataxic hemiparesis (AH) is a lacunar syndrome with unilateral pyramidal weakness and ipsilateral ataxia. Thalamic tuberculoma, as a cause of AH, has not been previously described in the literature. We describe an elderly man who presented with left hemiparesis and ipsilateral ataxia. Clinical examination revealed upper motor neuron left facial paresis and left-sided hemiparesis. The patient had incoordination in left upper and lower limbs. Mantoux test was positive and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated. MRI of brain showed a conglomerated hypointense lesion in the right thalamus with a peripheral hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging and a hyperintense lesion in T2-weighted imaging with significant perilesional oedema, suggesting a tuberculoma. The patient was treated with antitubercular therapy and was symptomatically better at the 9 months follow-up. PMID:23580686

  3. CT classification of small thalamic hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Nobutaka; Kaneko, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Keisei; Muraki, Masaaki; Sato, Kengo

    1984-01-01

    The thalamus is located deep in the cerebral hemispheres, and most of its nuclei have reciprocal fiber connections with specific areas over the cerebral cortex. Localized lesions in the thalamus, therefore, can cause specific neurological deficits, depending on their locations. From this point of view, we reviewed 110 cases, admitted over the past 7 years, with thalamic hemorrhages 37 (34%) of which were small hematomas less than 2 cm in diameter. These small hematomas could be divided into 4 types depending on their locations as follows: antero-lateral type, postero-lateral type, medial type, and dorsal type. Each type had the peculiar clinical features described below: 1) Postero-lateral Type (PL type, 28 cases, 76%): The original symptom was a sudden onset of moderate to severe sensori-motor deficits in most cases. The patients were mostly alert or only slightly confused. 2) Antero-lateral Type (AL type, 4 cases, 11%): The patients of this type first presented with sensori-motor disturbance and prefrontal signs. Both were generally mild and often disappeared early. 3) Medial Type (M type, 3 cases, 8%): The main symptom at onset was either a disturbance of consciousness or dementia. 4) Dorsal Type (D type, 2 cases, 5%): One patient with a right thalamic hematoma of this type showed geographical agnosia and visuo-constructive apraxia. The other patient, with a left-sided hematoma, exhibited transient clumsiness of the right hand and mild dysphasia. In our experience, the above classification of small hematomas clearly delineated the clinical symptoms and neurological signs of the different types; therefore, the symptoms and signs in larger hematoma could be explained by a combination of those of each type. (J.P.N.)

  4. COMMUNICATION Designing a somatosensory neural prosthesis: percepts evoked by different patterns of thalamic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Ethan; Sanden, Andrew; Kiss, Zelma H. T.

    2010-12-01

    Although major advances have been made in the development of motor prostheses, fine motor control requires intuitive somatosensory feedback. Here we explored whether a thalamic site for a somatosensory neural prosthetic could provide natural somatic sensation to humans. Different patterns of electrical stimulation (obtained from thalamic spike trains) were applied in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery. Changes in pattern produced different sensations, while preserving somatotopic representation. While most percepts were reported as 'unnatural', some stimulations produced more 'natural' sensations than others. However, the additional patterns did not elicit more 'natural' percepts than high-frequency (333 Hz) electrical stimulation. These features suggest that despite some limitations, the thalamus may be a feasible site for a somatosensory neural prosthesis and different stimulation patterns may be useful in its development.

  5. Projecting future solid waste management requirements on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Stiles, D.L.; Holter, G.M.; Anderson, B.C.

    1990-09-01

    The problem of treating and disposing of hazardous transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, and mixed waste has become a major concern of the public and the government. At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state, the problem is compounded by the need to characterize, retrieve, and treat the solid waste that was generated and stored for retrieval during the past 20 years. This paper discusses the development and application of a Solid Waste Projection Model that uses forecast volumes and characteristics of existing and future solid waste to address the treatment, storage, and disposal requirements at Hanford. The model uses a data-driven, object-oriented approach to assess the storage and treatment throughout requirements for each operation for each of the distinct waste classes and the accompanying cost of the storage and treatment operations. By defining the elements of each alternative for the total waste management system, the same database can be used for numerous analyses performed at different levels of detail. This approach also helps a variety of users with widely varying information requirements to use the model and helps achieve the high degree of flexibility needed to cope with changing regulations and evolving treatment and disposal technologies. 2 figs

  6. MRI of paramedian thalamic stroke with sleep disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, K.O.; Bassetti, C.; Mathis, J.; Schroth, G.

    1997-01-01

    The paramedian thalamus is believed to play an important role in the regulation of sleep, and disturbances of sleep regulation are known to occur in paramedian thalamic stroke (PTS). We examined 12 consecutive patients with PTS and sleep disturbance by MRI. Two distinct groups of patients could be defined: six presenting with severe hypersomnia (group 1) and six with slight sleepiness (group 2). On MRI, all patients had ischaemic lesions involving the paramedian thalamic nuclei, the centre of the lesions being the dorsomedial and centromedial thalamic nuclei. In group 1 the lesions were bilateral, butterfly-shaped infarcts involving the paramedian nuclei (three cases), or unilateral with an extension into the subthalamic nuclei. In group 2 the lesions were unilateral and limited to the paramedian nuclei, mainly the dorsomedial nucleus. Bilateral lesions can be attributed to a common origin in some cases for both paramedian thalamic arteries and the mesencephalic arteries. (orig.). With 5 figs

  7. System requirements for the Los Alamos foil-implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.; Lindemuth, I.; Nickel, G.; Oliphant, T.; Weiss, D.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the Los Alamos imploding foil project is the development of an intense source of soft x rays and hot plasma produced from the thermalization of 1 to 10 MJ of plasma kinetic energy. The source will be used for material studies and fusion experiments. Specifically, thin, current-carrying cylindrical metallic plasmas are imploded via their self-magnetic forces. Features of this project are the use of high-explosive-driven flux-compression generators as the prime power source to achieve very high energies and fast opening switches to shorten the electrical pulses. To reach a load kinetic energy of 10 MJ, it is expected that the foil-plasma must carry about 50 MA of current and must implode in less than 1/2 μsec. This imposes the requirements that switch opening times must be less than 1/2 μsec and the transmission line must withstand voltages of about 1 MV. The system being pursued at Los Alamos is described, and model calculations are presented

  8. Model-based iterative learning control of Parkinsonian state in thalamic relay neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Li, Huiyan; Xue, Zhiqin; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2014-09-01

    Although the beneficial effects of chronic deep brain stimulation on Parkinson's disease motor symptoms are now largely confirmed, the underlying mechanisms behind deep brain stimulation remain unclear and under debate. Hence, the selection of stimulation parameters is full of challenges. Additionally, due to the complexity of neural system, together with omnipresent noises, the accurate model of thalamic relay neuron is unknown. Thus, the iterative learning control of the thalamic relay neuron's Parkinsonian state based on various variables is presented. Combining the iterative learning control with typical proportional-integral control algorithm, a novel and efficient control strategy is proposed, which does not require any particular knowledge on the detailed physiological characteristics of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop and can automatically adjust the stimulation parameters. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed control strategy to restore the fidelity of thalamic relay in the Parkinsonian condition. Furthermore, through changing the important parameter—the maximum ionic conductance densities of low-threshold calcium current, the dominant characteristic of the proposed method which is independent of the accurate model can be further verified.

  9. MORE - Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Thunem, H.P.J. [IFE (Norway); Valkonen, J. [VTT (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of the report is to document the work and related activities in the period January 1 December 31 in 2006, including dissemination activities. The work in this period has been concentrated on further research for adopting an approach for dependable requirements engineering and its supporting tool. The majority of the efforts in 2006, however, was spent on making the researchers, developers, utilities and licensees more aware of the importance of the area of requirements engineering, and in that respect organising an international seminar on dependable requirements engineering. This seminar was defined as a deliverable in the Activity Plan for 2006 and became also the most important deliverable for 2006. Therefore, this report naturally features a detailed summary of the seminar, which proved to be a true success and at the same time a door opener for more initiatives within the topic, proposed by several participants. More efforts within dissemination of the background and objectives of the project MORE within the nuclear community and towards NPPs that do carry out modernisation projects continued to be one important focus. (au)

  10. MORE - Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunem, A.P.J.; Thunem, H.P.J.; Valkonen, J.

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of the report is to document the work and related activities in the period January 1 December 31 in 2006, including dissemination activities. The work in this period has been concentrated on further research for adopting an approach for dependable requirements engineering and its supporting tool. The majority of the efforts in 2006, however, was spent on making the researchers, developers, utilities and licensees more aware of the importance of the area of requirements engineering, and in that respect organising an international seminar on dependable requirements engineering. This seminar was defined as a deliverable in the Activity Plan for 2006 and became also the most important deliverable for 2006. Therefore, this report naturally features a detailed summary of the seminar, which proved to be a true success and at the same time a door opener for more initiatives within the topic, proposed by several participants. More efforts within dissemination of the background and objectives of the project MORE within the nuclear community and towards NPPs that do carry out modernisation projects continued to be one important focus. (au)

  11. The Role of Requirements in the Success or Failure of Software Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O.C.; Kamal, Fazillah Mohmad

    2016-01-01

    Requirements engineering is pivotal and central to every successful software development project. There are several reasons why software projects fail; however, poorly elicited, documented, validated and managed requirements contribute grossly to software projects failure. Software project failures are normally very costly and risky and these could even a times be life threatening also. Projects that overlook requirements engineering processes often suffer or are most likely to suffer from fa...

  12. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported under this part must: (1... (iii) Promote continued participation in the project by persons to whom family planning services may be... services purchased for project participants will be authorized by the project director or his designee on...

  13. Global suppression of electrocortical activity in unilateral perinatal thalamic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kharoshankaya, Liudmila

    2014-07-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression and right-sided clonic seizures in a male infant born at 40(+2) weeks\\' gestation, birthweight 3240g, with an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke. The EEG at 13 hours after birth showed a generalized very low amplitude background pattern, which progressed to frequent electrographic seizures over the left hemisphere. The interictal background EEG pattern remained grossly abnormal over the next 48 hours, showing very low background amplitudes (<10μV). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated acute left-sided thalamic infarction. This is the first description of severe global EEG suppression caused by an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke and supports the role of the thalamus as the control centre for cortical electrical activity.

  14. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei hg19 Histone Neural Thalamic Nuclei SRX998288,SRX9...98287,SRX998286 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Thalamic_Nuclei.bed ...

  2. Requirements for the project management in the client / engineering contractor relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Investment projects impose a multitude of requirements upon clients and engineering contractors to cope with the management of project inherent conflicts. The paper reviews certain aspects on why such conflicts develop, and how they may be resolved. (orig.)

  3. 78 FR 53712 - Surface Transportation Project Delivery Program Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... application, and discussion of classes of multimodal projects that may be best handled on a case-by-case basis... submissions; a paragraph discussing the joint application process; and a paragraph authorizing the Agencies to... early enough to allow for a joint application of the Secretary's responsibilities before the...

  4. Required doses for projection methods in X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The ideal dose requirement has been stated by Cohen et al. (1981) by a formula basing on parallel beam, maximum quantum yield and Bucky grid effect depending on the signal to noise ratio and object contrast. This was checked by means of contrast detail diagrams measured at the hole phantom, and was additionally compared with measurement results obtained with acrylic glass phantoms. The optimal dose requirement is obtained by the maximum technically possible approach to the ideal requirement level. Examples are given, besides for x-ray equipment with Gd 2 O 2 S screen film systems for grid screen mammography, and new thoracic examination systems for mass screenings. Finally, a few values concerning the dose requirement or the analogous time required for fluorscent screening in angiography and interventional radiology, are stated, as well as for dentistry and paediatric x-ray diagnostics. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Fear extinction requires infralimbic cortex projections to the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodgood, Daniel W; Sugam, Jonathan A; Holmes, Andrew; Kash, Thomas L

    2018-03-06

    Fear extinction involves the formation of a new memory trace that attenuates fear responses to a conditioned aversive memory, and extinction impairments are implicated in trauma- and stress-related disorders. Previous studies in rodents have found that the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) and its glutamatergic projections to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and basomedial amygdala (BMA) instruct the formation of fear extinction memories. However, it is unclear whether these pathways are exclusively involved in extinction, or whether other major targets of the IL, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) also play a role. To address this outstanding issue, the current study employed a combination of electrophysiological and chemogenetic approaches in mice to interrogate the role of IL-BLA and IL-NAc pathways in extinction. Specifically, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology coupled with retrograde tracing to examine changes in neuronal activity of the IL and prelimbic cortex (PL) projections to both the BLA and NAc following fear extinction. We found that extinction produced a significant increase in the intrinsic excitability of IL-BLA projection neurons, while extinction appeared to reverse fear-induced changes in IL-NAc projection neurons. To establish a causal counterpart to these observations, we then used a pathway-specific Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD) strategy to selectively inhibit PFC-BLA projection neurons during extinction acquisition. Using this approach, we found that DREADD-mediated inhibition of PFC-BLA neurons during extinction acquisition impaired subsequent extinction retrieval. Taken together, our findings provide further evidence for a critical contribution of the IL-BLA neural circuit to fear extinction.

  6. Experimentation on accuracy of non functional requirement prioritization approaches for different complexity projects

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumar Chopra; Varun Gupta; Durg Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Non functional requirements must be selected for implementation together with functional requirements to enhance the success of software projects. Three approaches exist for performing the prioritization of non functional requirements using the suitable prioritization technique. This paper performs experimentation on three different complexity versions of the industrial software project using cost-value prioritization technique employing three approaches. Experimentation is conducted to analy...

  7. Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouchedi, M; Galanaud, D; Delmaire, C; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Messé, A; Mesmoudi, S; Oulebsir Boumghar, F; Pélégrini-Issac, M; Puybasset, L; Benali, H; Perlbarg, V

    2015-07-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized mainly by diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). The cortico-subcortical disconnections induced by such fiber disruption play a central role in consciousness recovery. We hypothesized that these cortico-subcortical deafferentations inferred from diffusion MRI data could differentiate between TBI patients with favorable or unfavorable (death, vegetative state, or minimally conscious state) outcome one year after injury. Cortico-subcortical fiber density maps were derived by using probabilistic tractography from diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in 24 severe TBI patients and 9 healthy controls. These maps were compared between patients and controls as well as between patients with favorable (FO) and unfavorable (UFO) 1-year outcome to identify the thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways involved in the maintenance of consciousness. Thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical fiber density was significantly lower in TBI patients than in healthy controls. Comparing FO and UFO TBI patients showed thalamo-cortical deafferentation associated with unfavorable outcome for projections from ventral posterior and intermediate thalamic nuclei to the associative frontal, sensorimotor and associative temporal cortices. Specific ponto-thalamic deafferentation in projections from the upper dorsal pons (including the reticular formation) was also associated with unfavorable outcome. Fiber density of cortico-subcortical pathways as measured from diffusion MRI tractography is a relevant candidate biomarker for early prediction of one-year favorable outcome in severe TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Defining project scenarios for the agile requirements engineering product-line development questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Kunwu; Lempert, Meli; Tang, Yan; Tian, Kun; Cooper, Kendra M.L.; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Current agile methods are focused on practices of small, rapid developing and iteration, more people oriented, less documentation projects, and the use of the methods in large, product line projects are somehow difficult. UTD and GESSI have started a project to develop an expert system that can assist a requirements enginer in selecting a requirements engineering process that is well suited for their project, in particular with respect to the use of agile and product line engineering methods....

  9. Impact of Requirements Elicitation Processes on Success of Information System Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bormane Līga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements articulating user needs and corresponding to enterprise business processes are a key to successful implementation of information system development projects. However, the parties involved in projects frequently are not able to agree on a common development vision and have difficulties expressing their needs. Several industry experts have acknowledged that requirements elicitation is one of the most difficult tasks in development projects. This study investigates the impact of requirements elicitation processes on project outcomes depending on the applied project development methodology.

  10. Communication skills and thalamic lesion: Strategies of rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaddii, Luisa; Centorrino, Santi; Cambi, Jacopo; Passali, Desiderio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the speech rehabilitation history of patients with thalamic lesions. Thalamic lesions can affect speech and language according to diverse thalamic nuclei involved. Because of the strategic functional position of the thalamus within the cognitive networks, its lesion can also interfere with other cognitive processes, such as attention, memory and executive functions. Alterations of these cognitive domains contribute significantly to language deficits, leading to communicative inefficacy. This fact must be considered in the rehabilitation efforts. Whereas evaluation of cognitive functions and communicative efficiency is different from that of aphasic disorder, treatment should also be different. The treatment must be focused on specific cognitive deficits with belief in the regaining of communicative ability, as well as it occurs in therapy of pragmatic disorder in traumatic brain injury: attention process training, mnemotechnics and prospective memory training. According to our experience: (a) there is a close correlation between cognitive processes and communication skills; (b) alterations of attention, memory and executive functions cause a loss of efficiency in the language use; and (c) appropriate cognitive treatment improves pragmatic competence and therefore the linguistic disorder. For planning a speech-therapy it is important to consider the relationship between cognitive functions and communication. The cognitive/behavioral treatment confirms its therapeutic efficiency for thalamic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage. Clinical symptoms and outcomes in 40 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-12-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis.

  12. Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Davidson, Thomas J; Nakajima, Miho; Deisseroth, Karl; Halassa, Michael M

    2015-10-29

    How the brain selects appropriate sensory inputs and suppresses distractors is unknown. Given the well-established role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive function, its interactions with sensory cortical areas during attention have been hypothesized to control sensory selection. To test this idea and, more generally, dissect the circuits underlying sensory selection, we developed a cross-modal divided-attention task in mice that allowed genetic access to this cognitive process. By optogenetically perturbing PFC function in a temporally precise window, the ability of mice to select appropriately between conflicting visual and auditory stimuli was diminished. Equivalent sensory thalamocortical manipulations showed that behaviour was causally dependent on PFC interactions with the sensory thalamus, not sensory cortex. Consistent with this notion, we found neurons of the visual thalamic reticular nucleus (visTRN) to exhibit PFC-dependent changes in firing rate predictive of the modality selected. visTRN activity was causal to performance as confirmed by bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this subnetwork. Using a combination of electrophysiology and intracellular chloride photometry, we demonstrated that visTRN dynamically controls visual thalamic gain through feedforward inhibition. Our experiments introduce a new subcortical model of sensory selection, in which the PFC biases thalamic reticular subnetworks to control thalamic sensory gain, selecting appropriate inputs for further processing.

  13. Neuroanatomical considerations of isolated hearing loss in thalamic hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Agarwal, M.D.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Presumably, this neurological deficit was caused by a hypertensive hemorrhage in the posterior right thalamus. The following case and discussion will review the potential neuroanatomical pathways that we suggest could make isolated hearing loss be part of a “thalamic syndrome.”

  14. Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

  15. Visual Orientation and Directional Selectivity through Thalamic Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Garrett B.; Jin, Jianzhong; Wang, Yushi; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Wang, Qi; Black, Michael J.; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Thalamic neurons respond to visual scenes by generating synchronous spike trains on the timescale of 10 – 20 ms that are very effective at driving cortical targets. Here we demonstrate that this synchronous activity contains unexpectedly rich information about fundamental properties of visual stimuli. We report that the occurrence of synchronous firing of cat thalamic cells with highly overlapping receptive fields is strongly sensitive to the orientation and the direction of motion of the visual stimulus. We show that this stimulus selectivity is robust, remaining relatively unchanged under different contrasts and temporal frequencies (stimulus velocities). A computational analysis based on an integrate-and-fire model of the direct thalamic input to a layer 4 cortical cell reveals a strong correlation between the degree of thalamic synchrony and the nonlinear relationship between cortical membrane potential and the resultant firing rate. Together, these findings suggest a novel population code in the synchronous firing of neurons in the early visual pathway that could serve as the substrate for establishing cortical representations of the visual scene. PMID:22745507

  16. Disrupted thalamic prefrontal pathways in patients with idiopathic dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilha, Leonardo; de Vries, Paulien M.; Hurd, Mark W.; Rorden, Chris; Morgan, Paul S.; Besenski, Nada; Bergmann, Kenneth J.; Hinson, Vanessa K.

    There are quantifiable abnormalities in water diffusion properties of the white matter in thalamic and prefrontal areas in patients with idiopathic dystonia (ID). However, it is unclear which pathways are disrupted in these patients. Using probabilistic tractography of high resolution DTI, we

  17. Sleep onset uncovers thalamic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Bagshaw

    Full Text Available The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE, and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC. Inter-hemispheric thalamic FC differed between patients and controls in somatosensory regions during wakefulness, and occipital regions during sleep. Intra-hemispheric thalamic FC was significantly higher in patients than controls following sleep onset, and disorder-dependent alterations to FC were seen in several thalamic regions always involving somatomotor and occipital regions. As interactions between thalamic sub-regions are indirect and mediated by the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, the results suggest abnormal TRN function in patients with IGE, with a regional distribution which could suggest a link with the thalamocortical networks involved in the generation of alpha rhythms. Intra-thalamic FC could be a more widely applicable marker beyond patients with IGE. Keywords: Functional connectivity, Generalised epilepsy, Sleep, Thalamic reticular nucleus thalamus

  18. Alcan Kitimat smelter modernization project remedial action scheme functional requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-09

    This paper identified remedial actions for reducing islanding and voltage collapse at the Alcan Kitimat smelter modernization project. The study was conducted after an earlier study indicated that the proposed project significantly increased electricity loads and stresses on Alcan's power system. Remedial actions included shedding the appropriate number of Kemano (KMO) generators; reducing Kitimat potline loads by de-saturating saturable reactors and lowering tap changers; and shedding potlines to preserve the Kitimat auxiliary load and facilitate power restoration. Power flow and transient stability studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of the remedial actions on the KMO generators and the transmission system. Results showed that fast load reduction improved power system response. Load reduction by changing the converter transformer tap reduced significant amounts of loads, but was too slow to be effective during fast voltage collapse. The study showed that although the remedial action scheme (RAS) reduced the impact of various contingencies on the Alcan system, performance was degraded due to the significant load increase. Fast load shedding capability was also reduced. It was concluded that further research is needed to develop and implement the RAS. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. Projected transuranic waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides information on the volume of TRU waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal at DOE facilities for three siting configurations. Input consisted of updated inventory and generation data from. Waste Isolation Pilot plant Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory report. Results indicate that WIPP's design capacity is sufficient for the CH TRU waste found throughout the DOE Complex

  20. IT Requirements Integration in High-Rise Construction Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Anastasia; Ilin, Igor; Esedulaev, Rustam

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses the growing role of IT support for the operation of modern high-rise buildings, due to the complexity of managing engineering systems of buildings and the requirements of consumers for the IT infrastructure. The existing regulatory framework for the development of design documentation for construction, including high-rise buildings, is analyzed, and the lack of coherence in the development of this documentation with the requirements for the creation of an automated management system and the corresponding IT infrastructure is stated. The lack of integration between these areas is the cause of delays and inefficiencies both at the design stage and at the stage of putting the building into operation. The paper proposes an approach to coordinate the requirements of the IT infrastructure of high-rise buildings and design documentation for construction. The solution to this problem is possible within the framework of the enterprise architecture concept by coordinating the requirements of the IT and technological layers at the design stage of the construction.

  1. Remote effect in patients with thalamic stroke. A study using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaba, Yuichi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashi, Akiro

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional relation between the thalamus and other cortical regions in patients with thalamic stroke from the view of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) using positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty patients with thalamic stroke (right lesion=8, left lesion=12) and 7 normal controls were studied. Five patients were diagnosed as having thalamic infarction, and 15 (patients were diagnosed) as having thalamic hemorrhage by X-CT and/or MRI scan. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen were measured by PET using C 15 O 2 and 15 O 2 steady state inhalation technique. In the left thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was significantly decreased in the left cingulate, superior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, medial occipital, and thalamic regions, compared with the normal control group. In the right thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was decreased in the left cingulate, medial occipital, right hippocampal, thalamic, and the bilateral cerebellar regions, compared with the normal control group. In the left thalamic stroke group, CBF was decreased significantly in the left cingulate, middle temporal, hippocampal, thalamic, and right cerebellar regions, compared with the normal control group. In the right thalamic stroke group, CBF was significantly decreased in the right hippocampal, thalamic and left cerebellar regions compared with the normal control group. These results indicate that CBF and CMRO 2 decrease in some distant regions from thalamic lesions, perhaps due to a disconnection of neuronal fiber. Especially in the left thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was decreased in the ipsilateral temporal regions. This result suggests that there are more intimate functional fiber connections between the thalamus and temporal cortex in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere. (author)

  2. Using Project Complexity Determinations to Establish Required Levels of Project Rigor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    This presentation discusses the project complexity determination process that was developed by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for implementation at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The complexity determination process was developed to address the diversity of NNSS project types, size, and complexity; to fill the need for one procedure but with provision for tailoring the level of rigor to the project type, size, and complexity; and to provide consistent, repeatable, effective application of project management processes across the enterprise; and to achieve higher levels of efficiency in project delivery. These needs are illustrated by the wide diversity of NNSS projects: Defense Experimentation, Global Security, weapons tests, military training areas, sensor development and testing, training in realistic environments, intelligence community support, sensor development, environmental restoration/waste management, and disposal of radioactive waste, among others.

  3. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment

  4. MORE: Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C.; Valkonen, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE project in the period January 1 - December 31 in 2007. The focus of this report is on improvements of the former project results, to identify and apply a couple of case studies from NPP projects, and activities in order to initiate and implement the industrial take-up and utilisation of the research results in real modernisation projects. The report also provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (au)

  5. MORE: Management of requirements in NPP modernisation projects. Project report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, R.; Katta, V.; Raspotnig, C. [Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE) (Norway); Valkonen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)

    2008-03-15

    This report documents the work and related activities of the MORE project in the period January 1 - December 31 in 2007. The focus of this report is on improvements of the former project results, to identify and apply a couple of case studies from NPP projects, and activities in order to initiate and implement the industrial take-up and utilisation of the research results in real modernisation projects. The report also provides a brief description of the extended industrial network and disseminations of the results in Nordic and NKS related events such as seminars and workshops. (au)

  6. Tolerancing requirements for remote handling at the Hanford vitrification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, R.M.; Bullis, R.E.; Van Katwijk, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant is being designed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. with WasteChem Corporation as Fluor Daniel's major subcontractor specializing in vitrification and remote system technologies. United Engineers and Constructors/Catalytic (UE ampersand C) will construct the plant. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Project Integration manager, manager and as the plant operator provides technical direction to the Architect/Engineer team (A/E) and constructor on behalf of the Department of Energy - Richland Field Office. The A/E has developed, in cooperation with UE ampersand C, WHC and DOE, a new and innovative approach to installations of the many remote nozzles and electrical connectors that must be installed to demanding tolerances. This paper summarizes the key elements of the HWVP approach

  7. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent open-quotes Murder Board.close quotes Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters' budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management

  8. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent {open_quotes}Murder Board.{close_quotes} Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters` budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management.

  9. The Activity of Thalamic Nucleus Reuniens Is Critical for Memory Retrieval, but Not Essential for the Early Phase of "Off-Line" Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hao; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Eschenko, Oxana

    2018-01-01

    Spatial navigation depends on the hippocampal function, but also requires bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus (HPC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cross-regional communication is typically regulated by critical nodes of a distributed brain network. The thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both HPC and…

  10. Regional thalamic neuropathology in patients with hippocampal sclerosis and epilepsy: A postmortem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinjab, Barah; Martinian, Lillian; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Clinical, experimental, and neuroimaging data all indicate that the thalamus is involved in the network of changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in association with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), with potential roles in seizure initiation and propagation. Pathologic changes in the thalamus may be a result of an initial insult, ongoing seizures, or retrograde degeneration through reciprocal connections between thalamic and limbic regions. Our aim was to carry out a neuropathologic analysis of the thalamus in a postmortem (PM) epilepsy series, to assess the distribution, severity, and nature of pathologic changes and its association with HS. Methods Twenty-four epilepsy PM cases (age range 25–87 years) and eight controls (age range 38–85 years) were studied. HS was classified as unilateral (UHS, 11 cases), bilateral (BHS, 4 cases) or absent (No-HS, 9 cases). Samples from the left and right sides of the thalamus were stained with cresyl violet (CV), and for glial firbillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin. Using image analysis, neuronal densities (NDs) or field fraction staining values (GFAP, synaptophysin) were measured in four thalamic nuclei: anteroventral nucleus (AV), lateral dorsal nucleus (LD), mediodorsal nucleus (MD), and ventrolateral nucleus (VL). The results were compared within and between cases. Key Findings The severity, nature, and distribution of thalamic pathology varied between cases. A pattern that emerged was a preferential involvement of the MD in UHS cases with a reduction in mean ND ipsilateral to the side of HS (p = 0.05). In UHS cases, greater field fraction values for GFAP and lower values for synaptophysin and ND were seen in the majority of cases in the MD ipsilateral to the side of sclerosis compared to other thalamic nuclei. In addition, differences in the mean ND between classical HS, atypical HS, and No-HS cases were noted in the ipsilateral MD (p < 0.05), with lower values observed in

  11. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yeon Eom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections. This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8–Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS.

  12. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Bayazitov, Ildar T; Anderson, Kara; Yu, Jing; Zakharenko, Stanislav S

    2017-05-23

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8-Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope

  14. Private capital requirements for international biomass energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-01

    In developing countries, the use of biomass for energy production faces two contradictory pressures. On the one hand, biomass costs very little and it is used inefficiently for fuel or charcoal production, leading to widespread destruction of forested areas and environmental degradation; this problem is being attenuated by the promotion, through aid programmes, of more efficient cook stoves for poor people. On the other hand, the conversion of biomass into high-grade fuel such as ethanol from sugar cane or burning urban refuse or gasifying it to produce electricity is not economically competitive at this time and requires subsidies of approximately 30% to make it as attractive as conventional fuels. Only electricity production using residues from sawmills, crops and other biomass by-products is competitive, and a number of plants are in operation in some countries, particularly the United States. For such plants, the usual rates of return and long-term contract purchases that characterize investments of this kind are applied. Although technologies are available for the widespread efficient use of biomass, the financial hurdle of high initial costs has impeded their market penetration, which in turn precludes any decline in costs that might otherwise have come from production increases. Intervention by governments or by GEF, justified on grounds of environmental protection, is needed to accelerate the introduction of the new technologies. The only private flows that are taking place at the moment are those from enlightened investors wishing to guarantee themselves a strong position in the area for the future or to preempt command and control regulations, such as carbon taxes, imposed by governments. The joint implementation of biomass technologies between industrialized and developing countries might be one method of accelerating this flow. (author) 9 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Private capital requirements for international biomass energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1995-01-01

    In developing countries, the use of biomass for energy production faces two contradictory pressures. On the one hand, biomass costs very little and it is used inefficiently for fuel or charcoal production, leading to widespread destruction of forested areas and environmental degradation; this problem is being attenuated by the promotion, through aid programmes, of more efficient cook stoves for poor people. On the other hand, the conversion of biomass into high-grade fuel such as ethanol from sugar cane or burning urban refuse or gasifying it to produce electricity is not economically competitive at this time and requires subsidies of approximately 30% to make it as attractive as conventional fuels. Only electricity production using residues from sawmills, crops and other biomass by-products is competitive, and a number of plants are in operation in some countries, particularly the United States. For such plants, the usual rates of return and long-term contract purchases that characterize investments of this kind are applied. Although technologies are available for the widespread efficient use of biomass, the financial hurdle of high initial costs has impeded their market penetration, which in turn precludes any decline in costs that might otherwise have come from production increases. Intervention by governments or by GEF, justified on grounds of environmental protection, is needed to accelerate the introduction of the new technologies. The only private flows that are taking place at the moment are those from enlightened investors wishing to guarantee themselves a strong position in the area for the future or to preempt command and control regulations, such as carbon taxes, imposed by governments. The joint implementation of biomass technologies between industrialized and developing countries might be one method of accelerating this flow. (author)

  16. Anterior Thalamic High Frequency Band Activity Is Coupled with Theta Oscillations at Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-frequency coupling (CFC between slow and fast brain rhythms, in the form of phase–amplitude coupling (PAC, is proposed to enable the coordination of neural oscillatory activity required for cognitive processing. PAC has been identified in the neocortex and mesial temporal regions, varying according to the cognitive task being performed and also at rest. PAC has also been observed in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN during memory processing. The thalamus is active during the resting state and has been proposed to be involved in switching between task-free cognitive states such as rest, in which attention is internally-focused, and externally-focused cognitive states, in which an individual engages with environmental stimuli. It is unknown whether PAC is an ongoing phenomenon during the resting state in the ATN, which is modulated during different cognitive states, or whether it only arises during the performance of specific tasks. We analyzed electrophysiological recordings of ATN activity during rest from seven patients who received thalamic electrodes implanted for treatment of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. PAC was identified between theta (4–6 Hz phase and high frequency band (80–150 Hz amplitude during rest in all seven patients, which diminished during engagement in tasks involving an external focus of attention. The findings are consistent with the proposal that theta–gamma coupling in the ATN is an ongoing phenomenon, which is modulated by task performance.

  17. Dopamine, fronto-striato-thalamic circuits and risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandash, Orwa; Pantelis, Christos; Fornito, Alex

    2017-02-01

    A series of parallel, integrated circuits link distinct regions of prefrontal cortex with specific nuclei of the striatum and thalamus. Dysfunction of these fronto-striato-thalamic systems is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of psychosis. In this review, we examine evidence from human and animal investigations that dysfunction of a specific dorsal fronto-striato-thalamic circuit, linking the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal (associative) striatum, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, is apparent across different stages of psychosis, including prior to the onset of a first episode, suggesting that it represents a candidate risk biomarker. We consider how abnormalities at distinct points in the circuit may give rise to the pattern of findings seen in patient populations, and how these changes relate to disruptions in dopamine, glutamate and GABA signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Holmes' tremor as a delayed complication of thalamic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, William Alves; Marrone, Luiz Carlos Porcello; Fussiger, Helena; Vedana, Viviane Maria; Cristovam, Rafael do Amaral; Taietti, Marjorye Z; Marrone, Antonio Carlos Huf

    2016-04-01

    Movement disorders are not commonly associated with stroke. Accordingly, thalamic strokes have rarely been associated with tremor, pseudo-athetosis and dystonic postures. We present a 75-year-old man who developed a disabling tremor 1 year after a posterolateral thalamic stroke. This tremor had low frequency (3-4 Hz), did not disappear on focus and was exacerbated by maintaining a static posture and on target pursuit, which made it very difficult to perform basic functions. MRI demonstrated an old ischemic lesion at the left posterolateral thalamus. Treatment with levodopa led to symptom control. Lesions in the midbrain, cerebellum and thalamus may cause Holmes' tremor. Delayed onset of symptoms is usually seen, sometimes appearing 2 years after the original injury. This may be due to maturation of a complex neuronal network, leading to slow dopaminergic denervation. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of this unique disconnection syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital and I and C systems development - Project report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Frederiksen, R.; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.

    2004-03-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project is to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. In the year 2003, the TACO-project concentrated on four central issues: 1) Representation of requirements origins. 2) Traceability techniques. 3) Configuration management and the traceability of requirements. 4) Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models The work was presented at the first TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Stockholm on the 12th of December 2003. The seminar was hosted by SKI. (au)

  20. Thalamic connections of the core auditory cortex and rostral supratemporal plane in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Fukushima, Makoto; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    In the primate auditory cortex, information flows serially in the mediolateral dimension from core, to belt, to parabelt. In the caudorostral dimension, stepwise serial projections convey information through the primary, rostral, and rostrotemporal (AI, R, and RT) core areas on the supratemporal plane, continuing to the rostrotemporal polar area (RTp) and adjacent auditory-related areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STGr) and temporal pole. In addition to this cascade of corticocortical connections, the auditory cortex receives parallel thalamocortical projections from the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). Previous studies have examined the projections from MGN to auditory cortex, but most have focused on the caudal core areas AI and R. In this study, we investigated the full extent of connections between MGN and AI, R, RT, RTp, and STGr using retrograde and anterograde anatomical tracers. Both AI and R received nearly 90% of their thalamic inputs from the ventral subdivision of the MGN (MGv; the primary/lemniscal auditory pathway). By contrast, RT received only ∼45% from MGv, and an equal share from the dorsal subdivision (MGd). Area RTp received ∼25% of its inputs from MGv, but received additional inputs from multisensory areas outside the MGN (30% in RTp vs. 1-5% in core areas). The MGN input to RTp distinguished this rostral extension of auditory cortex from the adjacent auditory-related cortex of the STGr, which received 80% of its thalamic input from multisensory nuclei (primarily medial pulvinar). Anterograde tracers identified complementary descending connections by which highly processed auditory information may modulate thalamocortical inputs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. What does a comparison of the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and thalamic infarction tell us about thalamic amnesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    In this review, the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging findings in the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and in thalamic amnesia, resulting from focal infarction, are compared. In both disorders, there is controversy over what is the critical site for anterograde amnesia to occur-damage to the anterior thalamus/mammillo-thalamic tract has most commonly been cited, but damage to the medio-dorsal nuclei has also been advocated. Both syndromes show 'core' features of an anterograde amnesic syndrome; but retrograde amnesia is generally much more extensive (going back many years or decades) in the Korsakoff syndrome. Likewise, spontaneous confabulation occurs more commonly in the Korsakoff syndrome, although seen in only a minority of chronic cases. These differences are attributed to the greater prevalence of frontal atrophy and frontal damage in Korsakoff cases. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Structuring Requirements in a Multi-Project Environment in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Being in control of requirements in building projects is vital, since it helps securing the often small profit margins and the reputation of the responsible company. Hence this research aims to introduce requirements management to the construction industry. By means of case study and action...... in this industry, yet, success is here defined as an accomplished and accepted implementation of requirements management processes that are used by the relevant project members in their daily work and where the benefits of implementing requirements management outweighs the cost of invested resources. Furthermore...... it is argued that when running technology development, product development, product platform development, and a portfolio of building projects at the same time the use of requirements management is advantageous and an intelligent way of structuring requirements is needed. This article also demonstrates...

  3. Hypertensive thalamic hematoma treated by CT stereotactic evacuation (with two cases reports)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongsheng; Zhu Fengqing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate new surgical method to treat hypertensive thalamic hematoma. Methods: Two medial-degree coma patients with hypertensive thalamic hematoma were treated by CT stereotactic evacuation. Results: One week after operation the two patients regained consciousness. The function of paraplegic appendage restored partly, and one patient could take care of himself. Conclusion: CT stereotactic evacuation to treat hypertensive thalamic hematoma has the advantages of small trauma, little complication and good clinical results. The authors suggest that it be selected firstly in treating hypertensive thalamic hematoma

  4. Evaluation of data requirements for computerized constructability analysis of pavement rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the data requirements for computer assisted construction planning : and staging methods that can be implemented in pavement rehabilitation projects in the state of : Georgia. Results showed that two main issues for the...

  5. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities

  6. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity

  7. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  8. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development - the TACO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, Atoosa P-J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the issues studied in the TACO project, a current activity partially funded by Nordic nuclear safety research through the NKS-R programme (NKS-R project number NKS R2 002 1 6). For more details, the reader is referred to the two project reports already delivered by the project (see section 9). On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the TACO project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The overall aim of the preproject, which was carried out in the second half of 2002, was to identify the main issues related to traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. By focusing on the identification of main issues, the preproject provided a basis for prioritising further work, while at the same time providing some initial recommendations related to these issues. The establishment of a Nordic expert network within the subject was another important result of the preproject. Further work has concentrated on four central and related issues, viz.; Representation of requirements origins; Traceability techniques; Configuration management and the traceability of requirements; Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models. (Author)

  9. Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project

  10. Salt Repository Project transportation system interface requirements: Transportation system/repository receiving facility interface requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Insalaco, J.W.; Trainer, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is a preliminary review of the interface between the transportation system and the repository receiving facility for a nuclear waste mined geologic disposal system in salt. Criteria for generic cask and facility designs are developed. These criteria are derived by examining the interfaces that occur as a result of the operations needed to receive nuclear waste at a repository. These criteria provide the basis for design of a safe, operable, practical nuclear waste receiving facility. The processing functions required to move the shipping unit from the gate into the unloading area and back to the gate for dispatch are described. Criteria for a generic receiving facility are discussed but no specific facility design is presented or evaluated. The criteria are stated in general terms to allow application to a wide variety of cask and facility designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Project W-236A, work plan for preparation of a design requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    This work plan outlines the tasks necessary, and defines the organizational responsibilities for preparing a Design Requirements Document (DRD) for project W-236A, Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). A DRD is a Systems Engineering document which bounds, at a high level, the requirements of a discrete system element of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. This system element is usually assigned to a specific project, in this case the MWTF. The DRD is the document that connects the TWRS program requirements with the highest level projects requirements and provides the project's link to the overall TWRS mission. The MWTF DRD effort is somewhat unique in that the project is already in detailed design, whereas a DRO is normally prepared prior to preliminary design. The MWTF design effort was initiated with a Functional Design Criteria (FDC) and a Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) bounding the high level requirements. Another unique aspect of this effort is that some of the TWRS program requirements are still in development. Because of these unique aspects of the MWTF DRD development, the MWTF will be developed from existing TWRS Program requirements and project specific requirements contained in the FDC and SDRD. The following list describes the objectives of the MWTF DRD: determine the primary functions of the tanks through a functional decomposition of the TWRS Program high level functions; allocate the primary functions to a sub-system architecture for the tanks; define the fundamental design features in terms of performance requirements for the system and subsystems; identify system interfaces and design constraints; and document the results in a DRD

  12. South African CSP projects under the REIPPP programme - Requirements, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relancio, Javier; Cuellar, Alberto; Walker, Gregg; Ettmayr, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Thus far seven Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) projects have been awarded under the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP), totalling 600MW: one project is in operation, four under construction and two on their way to financial close. This provides an excellent opportunity for analysis of key features of the projects that have contributed to or detracted from the programme's success. The paper draws from Mott MacDonald's involvement as Technical Advisor on the seven CSP projects that have been successful under the REIPPPP to date as well as other global CSP developments. It presents how various programme requirements have affected the implementation of projects, such as the technical requirements, time of day tariff structure, economic development requirements and the renewable energy grid code. The increasingly competitive tariffs offered have encouraged developers to investigate efficiency maximising project configurations and cost saving mechanisms, as well as featuring state of the art technology in their proposals. The paper assesses the role of the project participants (developers, lenders and government) with regards to these innovative technologies and solutions. In our paper we discuss the status of projects and the SA market, analysing the main challenges and opportunities that in turn have influenced various aspects such as technology choice, operational regimes and supply chain arrangements.

  13. Optimizing experimental parameters for the projection requirement in HAADF-STEM tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveyard, R., E-mail: r.a.aveyard@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Zhong, Z.; Batenburg, K.J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rieger, B., E-mail: b.rieger@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The extent to which HAADF-STEM meets the projection requirement has been studied. • Multislice simulations used to model beam propagation and study signal linearity. • Propagation in crystalline and amorphous materials considered. • Optimal experimental set-up for the projection requirement is discussed. - Abstract: Tomographic reconstruction algorithms offer a means by which a tilt-series of transmission images can be combined to yield a three dimensional model of the specimen. Conventional reconstruction algorithms assume that the measured signal is a linear projection of some property, typically the density, of the material. Here we report the use of multislice simulations to investigate the extent to which this assumption is met in HAADF-STEM imaging. The use of simulations allows for a systematic survey of a range of materials and microscope parameters to inform optimal experimental design. Using this approach it is demonstrated that the imaging of amorphous materials is in good agreement with the projection assumption in most cases. Images of crystalline specimens taken along zone-axes are found to be poorly suited for conventional linear reconstruction algorithms due to channelling effects which produce enhanced intensities compared with off-axis images, and poor compliance with the projection requirement. Off-axis images are found to be suitable for reconstruction, though they do not strictly meet the linearity requirement in most cases. It is demonstrated that microscope parameters can be selected to yield improved compliance with the projection requirement.

  14. Optimizing experimental parameters for the projection requirement in HAADF-STEM tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aveyard, R.; Zhong, Z.; Batenburg, K.J.; Rieger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The extent to which HAADF-STEM meets the projection requirement has been studied. • Multislice simulations used to model beam propagation and study signal linearity. • Propagation in crystalline and amorphous materials considered. • Optimal experimental set-up for the projection requirement is discussed. - Abstract: Tomographic reconstruction algorithms offer a means by which a tilt-series of transmission images can be combined to yield a three dimensional model of the specimen. Conventional reconstruction algorithms assume that the measured signal is a linear projection of some property, typically the density, of the material. Here we report the use of multislice simulations to investigate the extent to which this assumption is met in HAADF-STEM imaging. The use of simulations allows for a systematic survey of a range of materials and microscope parameters to inform optimal experimental design. Using this approach it is demonstrated that the imaging of amorphous materials is in good agreement with the projection assumption in most cases. Images of crystalline specimens taken along zone-axes are found to be poorly suited for conventional linear reconstruction algorithms due to channelling effects which produce enhanced intensities compared with off-axis images, and poor compliance with the projection requirement. Off-axis images are found to be suitable for reconstruction, though they do not strictly meet the linearity requirement in most cases. It is demonstrated that microscope parameters can be selected to yield improved compliance with the projection requirement.

  15. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  16. Standardizing instream flow requirements at hydropower projects in the Cascade Mountains, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I.M.; Sale, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Instream flow requirements are common mitigation measures instituted in the bypassed reaches of hydroelectric diversion projects. Currently, there are two extremes among the ways to determine instream flow requirements: generic standard-setting methods and detailed, habitat-based, impact assessment methods such as the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Data from streams in Washington state show a consistent pattern in the instream flow requirements resulting from the IFIM. This pattern can be used to refine the simpler standard-setting approaches and thereby provide better estimates of flow needs during early stages of project design.

  17. 76 FR 2683 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605: (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... to delay shovel ready projects by requiring entities, like the IEUA, to revise their design and... the ``shovel ready'' status for this project. Further delay of this project would contravene the most...

  18. 76 FR 18218 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... delay projects that are ``shovel ready'' by requiring cities such as Salt Lake City to revise their... unreasonable delay and thus displace the ``shovel ready'' status for this project. To further delay project...

  19. 76 FR 2684 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... construction, not to delay shovel ready projects by requiring entities, like Lake County, to revise their... thus displace the ``shovel ready'' status for this project. Further delay of this project would...

  20. Experimentation on accuracy of non functional requirement prioritization approaches for different complexity projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Chopra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non functional requirements must be selected for implementation together with functional requirements to enhance the success of software projects. Three approaches exist for performing the prioritization of non functional requirements using the suitable prioritization technique. This paper performs experimentation on three different complexity versions of the industrial software project using cost-value prioritization technique employing three approaches. Experimentation is conducted to analyze the accuracy of individual approaches and the variation of accuracy with the complexity of the software project. The results indicate that selecting non functional requirements separately, but in accordance with functionality has higher accuracy amongst the other two approaches. Further, likewise other approaches, it witnesses the decrease in accuracy with increase in software complexity but the decrease is minimal.

  1. Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power predicts human memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Rugg, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Pre-stimulus theta (4-8Hz) power in the hippocampus and neocortex predicts whether a memory for a subsequent event will be formed. Anatomical studies reveal thalamus-hippocampal connectivity, and lesion, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies show that memory processing involves the dorsomedial (DMTN) and anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN). The small size and deep location of these nuclei have limited real-time study of their activity, however, and it is unknown whether pre-stimulus theta power predictive of successful memory formation is also found in these subcortical structures. We recorded human electrophysiological data from the DMTN and ATN of 7 patients receiving deep brain stimulation for refractory epilepsy. We found that greater pre-stimulus theta power in the right DMTN was associated with successful memory encoding, predicting both behavioral outcome and post-stimulus correlates of successful memory formation. In particular, significant correlations were observed between right DMTN theta power and both frontal theta and right ATN gamma (32-50Hz) phase alignment, and frontal-ATN theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling. We draw the following primary conclusions. Our results provide direct electrophysiological evidence in humans of a role for the DMTN as well as the ATN in memory formation. Furthermore, prediction of subsequent memory performance by pre-stimulus thalamic oscillations provides evidence that post-stimulus differences in thalamic activity that index successful and unsuccessful encoding reflect brain processes specifically underpinning memory formation. Finally, the findings broaden the understanding of brain states that facilitate memory encoding to include subcortical as well as cortical structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Deficit of verbal recall caused by left dorso-lateral thalamic infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, M; Cabaret, M; Benaim, C; Steinling, M

    1995-01-01

    A case of amnesia with preferential disorder of verbal recall, associated to a limited infarct of the left superior, external and anterior thalamus, is reported. This lesion involved the anterior and middle dorso-lateral nuclei and the centrolateral nucleus, sparing most of the structures classically incriminated in diencephalic amnesia. At the initial stage, the patient presented discrete language impairment and severe deficit of semantic processing, which later recovered. At the late stage, the anterograde and retrograde amnesia principally concerned the recall of verbal information used in daily life, verbal learning using short-term and long-term recall, questionnaires evaluating retrograde memory and requiring the evocation of proper names. Verbal priming was also affected. Verbal recognition was preserved. Evocation of the most recent events of the personal life was also impaired. Confrontation of this case with others previously reported suggests that various thalamic amnesias may be described, associated to different cognitive deficits, in relation with the preferential situation of lesions.

  3. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation in parkinsonian and essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limousin, P.; Speelman, J. D.; Gielen, F.; Janssens, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thalamic stimulation has been proposed to treat disabling tremor. The aims of this multicentre study were to evaluate the efficacy and the morbidity of thalamic stimulation in a large number of patients with parkinsonian or essential tremor. One hundred and eleven patients were included in the study

  4. Astrocytes potentiate GABAergic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus via endozepine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Catherine A; Huguenard, John R

    2013-12-10

    Emerging evidence indicates that diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) mediates an endogenous benzodiazepine-mimicking (endozepine) effect on synaptic inhibition in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT). Here we demonstrate that DBI peptide colocalizes with both astrocytic and neuronal markers in mouse nRT, and investigate the role of astrocytic function in endozepine modulation in this nucleus by testing the effects of the gliotoxin fluorocitrate (FC) on synaptic inhibition and endozepine signaling in the nRT using patch-clamp recordings. FC treatment reduced the effective inhibitory charge of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in WT mice, indicating that astrocytes enhance GABAAR responses in the nRT. This effect was abolished by both a point mutation that inhibits classical benzodiazepine binding to GABAARs containing the α3 subunit (predominant in the nRT) and a chromosomal deletion that removes the Dbi gene. Thus, astrocytes are required for positive allosteric modulation via the α3 subunit benzodiazepine-binding site by DBI peptide family endozepines. Outside-out sniffer patches pulled from neurons in the adjacent ventrobasal nucleus, which does not contain endozepines, show a potentiated response to laser photostimulation of caged GABA when placed in the nRT. FC treatment blocked the nRT-dependent potentiation of this response, as did the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil. When sniffer patches were placed in the ventrobasal nucleus, however, subsequent treatment with FC led to potentiation of the uncaged GABA response, suggesting nucleus-specific roles for thalamic astrocytes in regulating inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that astrocytes are required for endozepine actions in the nRT, and as such can be positive modulators of synaptic inhibition.

  5. Functions and requirements for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford Site tank waste supernatants will be pretreated to separate the low-level and high-level fractions. The low-level waste fraction, containing the bulk of the chemical constituents, must be processed into a vitrified waste product which will be disposed of onsite, in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost effective manner. The high-level waste fraction separated during supernatant pretreatment (primarily cesium) will be recombined with an additional high-level waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-level waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository. The purpose of this document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module, by defining the level 5 and 6 functions and requirements for the project. A functional analysis approach has been used to break down the program functions and associated physical requirements that each function must meet. As the systems engineering process evolves, the design requirements document will replace this preliminary functions and requirements document. The design requirements document (DRD) will identify key decisions and associated uncertainties that impact the project. A revision of this document to a DRD is not expected to change the performance requirements or open issues. However, additional requirements and issues may be identified

  6. Structural requirements of research tissue banks derived from standardized project surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpel, E; Koleganova, N; Schreiber, B; Walter, B; Kalle, C V; Schirmacher, P

    2012-07-01

    Tissue banks constitute decisive and rate-limiting resource and technology platforms for basic and translational biomedical research, notably in the area of cancer. Thus, it is essential to plan and structure tissue banking and allocate resources according to research needs, but essential requirements are still incompletely defined. The tissue bank of the National Center of Tumor Diseases Heidelberg (NCT) was founded with the intention to provide tissues of optimal quality and to prioritize the realization of research projects. We analysed its structure and prospective project management registration as well as tracking records for all projects of the NCT tissue bank as of its start in 2005 in order to obtain information that may be relevant for tissue bank planning. All project proposals submitted to the NCT tissue bank (n = 681) were included in the study. For a detailed evaluation of provided services, only projects that were completed until July 2011 (n = 605) were analysed. For these 605 projects, NCT tissue bank provided 769 specific services. In all projects/services, we recorded project leader, type and amount of material provided, type of research (basic/translational), work load of project and project completion. Furthermore, all completed projects were tracked after 90 days according to a standard protocol to determine principal investigators' (PI) satisfaction and quality of the provided material. Until July 2011, 605 projects had been successfully completed as documented by material transfer agreement. Of the projects, 72.7 % addressed basic research, 22.3 % were translational research projects and 3 % concerned epidemiological research; 91 % (n = 546) concerned a single PI and the NTC tissue bank. For these projects, 769 specific services were provided. Of these services, 288 concerned providing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue (extracts, full size sections), 126 providing fresh frozen materials (including fresh frozen

  7. AN APPROACH TO REDUCE THE STORAGE REQUIREMENT FOR BIOMETRIC DATA IN AADHAR PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AADHAR is an Indian Government Project to provide unique identification to each Citizen of India. The objective of the project is to collect all the personal details and the biometric traits from each individual. Biometric traits such as iris, face and fingerprint are being collected for authentication. All the information will be stored in a centralized data repository. Considering about the storage requirement for the biometric data of the entire population of India, approximately 20,218 TB of storage space will be required. Since 10 fingerprint data are stored, fingerprint details will take most of the space. In this paper, the storage requirement for the biometric data in the AADHAR project is analyzed and a method is proposed to reduce the storage by cropping the original biometric image before storing. This method can reduce the storage space of the biometric data drastically. All the measurements given in this paper are approximate only.

  8. How to scope configuration projects and manage the knowledge they require

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to explore the use of the knowledge management (KM) perspective for configuration projects. Configuration projects implement configurators as information technology systems that help companies manage the specification process of customised products. An effective method...... of retrieving and formalising knowledge for configurators is essential, because it can reduce the risk of unsuccessful implementation and the time and effort required for development. Unfortunately, no standard KM frameworks are available specifically for configuration projects. This study identifies...... the knowledge necessary for different phases of a configuration project (which knowledge, for what purpose and from what sources), examines how it is transformed during a configuration project (what KM activities and tools are used) and establishes how the knowledge can be documented for future maintenance...

  9. Functions and requirements for tank farm restoration and safe operations, Project W-314. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Functions and Requirements document (FRD) establishes the basic performance criteria for Project W-314, in accordance with the guidance outlined in the letter from R.W. Brown, RL, to President, WHC, ''Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Documentation Methodology,'' 94-PRJ-018, dated 3/18/94. The FRD replaces the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) as the project technical baseline documentation. Project W-314 will improve the reliability of safety related systems, minimize onsite health and safety hazards, and support waste retrieval and disposal activities by restoring and/or upgrading existing Tank Farm facilities and systems. The scope of Project W-314 encompasses the necessary restoration upgrades of the Tank Farms' instrumentation, ventilation, electrical distribution, and waste transfer systems

  10. KWIKPLAN: a computer program for projecting the annual requirements of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Kee, C.W.

    1977-06-01

    The computer code KWIKPLAN was written to facilitate the calculation of projected nuclear fuel cycle activities. Using given projections of power generation, the code calculates annual requirements for fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, uranium mining, and plutonium use and production. The code uses installed capacity projections and mass flow data for six types of reactors to calculate projected fuel cycle activities and inventories. It calculates fissile uranium and plutonium flows and inventories after allowing for an economy with limited reprocessing capacity and a backlog of unreprocessed fuel. All calculations are made on a quarterly basis; printed and punched output of the projected fuel cycle activities are made on an annual basis. Since the punched information is used in another code to determine waste inventories, the code punches a table from which the effective average burnup can be calculated for the fuel being reprocessed

  11. Prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Sonobe, Makoto; Sugita, Kyoichi; Kuwayama, Naoya

    1984-01-01

    The present authors have analyzed the correlation between the clinical features and the CT findings in 66 cases of thalamic hemorrhage. Hitachi CT-H and CT-HF apparatuses (256 x 256 matrix) were used at an angle parallel to the OM line. Of the 48 patients with hematoma less than 20 ml, only four died; however, of the 18 patients with hematoma larger than 20 ml, five died. An analysis has been made of the correlation between the occurrence of brain edema in the acute stage and high density in the subthalamic area. The hematoma extending to the subthalamic area was diagnosed by means of high density at the level of 35 mm above the OM line. Of the 13 cases with hematoma in the subthalamic area, acute brain edema occurred in 9 cases. On the other hand, of the 53 cases without hematoma at the subthalamic area, brain edema occurred in only one case. It was concluded that high density in the subthalamic area is a significant index for the occurrence of acute brain edema in a thalamic hemorrhage. (author)

  12. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism in thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were studied in 20 cases of thalamic hemorrhage using positron CT and 15 O labeled gas steady-state inhalation method. CBF reduction was limited around the thalamus in the small sized hematoma. CBF were significantly diminished in the mean cortical, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and thalamic area ipsilateral and cerebellar cortex contralateral to the medium sized hematoma. There was bilateral and diffuse CBF reduction in the large sized hematoma which was caused by increased intracranial pressure. CMRO 2 value were similary changed as CBF. OEF change showed within normal limit. Diffuse CBV reduction was observed in the large sized hematoma. This reduction was the result of decreased vascular bed caused by mass effect of the hematoma and hydrocephalus. Effect of surgical treatment such as ventricular drainage and hematoma evacuation were also discussed in correlation to CBF in some case using positron and single photon ECT. (author)

  13. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  14. Requirement Volatility, Standardization and Knowledge Integration in Software Projects: An Empirical Analysis on Outsourced IS Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesri Govindaraju

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information systems development (ISD projects are highly complex, with different groups of people having  to collaborate and exchange their knowledge. Considering the intensity of knowledge exchange that takes place in outsourced ISD projects, in this study a conceptual model was developed, aiming to examine the influence of four antecedents, i.e. standardization, requirement volatility, internal integration, and external integration, on two dependent variables, i.e. process performance and product performance. Data  were collected from 46 software companies in four big cities in Indonesia. The collected data were examined to verify the proposed theoretical model using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM technique. The results show that process performance is significantly influenced by internal integration and standardization, while product performance is  significantly influenced by external integration and  requirement volatility. This study contributes  to a better understanding of how knowledge integration can be managed in outsourced ISD projects in view of increasing their success.

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project multi-canister overpack, additional NRC requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), established in the K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Regulatory Policy, dated August 4, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the Policy), the requirement for new Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities to achieve nuclear safety equivalency to comparable US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facilities. For activities other than during transport, when the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) is used and resides in the Canister Storage Building (CSB), Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility or Hot Conditioning System, additional NRC requirements will also apply to the MCO based on the safety functions it performs and its interfaces with the SNF Project facilities. An evaluation was performed in consideration of the MCO safety functions to identify any additional NRC requirements needed, in combination with the existing and applicable DOE requirements, to establish nuclear safety equivalency for the MCO. The background, basic safety issues and general comparison of NRC and DOE requirements for the SNF Project are presented in WHC-SD-SNF-DB-002

  16. Visuomotor signals for reaching movements in the rostro-dorsal sector of the monkey thalamic reticular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Yosuke; Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Yamagata, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Masashi; Tremblay, Léon; Takada, Masahiko; Hoshi, Eiji

    2017-05-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) collects inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and, in turn, sends inhibitory outputs to the thalamic relay nuclei. This unique connectivity suggests that the TRN plays a pivotal role in regulating information flow through the thalamus. Here, we analyzed the roles of TRN neurons in visually guided reaching movements. We first used retrograde transneuronal labeling with rabies virus, and showed that the rostro-dorsal sector of the TRN (TRNrd) projected disynaptically to the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). In other experiments, we recorded neurons from the TRNrd or PMv while monkeys performed a visuomotor task. We found that neurons in the TRNrd and PMv showed visual-, set-, and movement-related activity modulation. These results indicate that the TRNrd, as well as the PMv, is involved in the reception of visual signals and in the preparation and execution of reaching movements. The fraction of neurons that were non-selective for the location of visual signals or the direction of reaching movements was greater in the TRNrd than in the PMv. Furthermore, the fraction of neurons whose activity increased from the baseline was greater in the TRNrd than in the PMv. The timing of activity modulation of visual-related and movement-related neurons was similar in TRNrd and PMv neurons. Overall, our data suggest that TRNrd neurons provide motor thalamic nuclei with inhibitory inputs that are predominantly devoid of spatial selectivity, and that these signals modulate how these nuclei engage in both sensory processing and motor output during visually guided reaching behavior. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Projected irrigation requirements for upland crops using soil moisture model under climate change in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in abnormal climate change patterns and unsustainable irrigation in uplands cause drought and affect agricultural water security, crop productivity, and price fluctuations. In this study, we developed a soil moisture model to project irrigation requirements (IR) for upland crops under cl...

  18. 75 FR 41875 - Technical Processing Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... is used to determine if key principals are acceptable and have the ability to manage the development... principals are acceptable and have the ability to manage the development, construction, completion, and... Requirements for Multifamily Project Mortgage Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD...

  19. Capstone Interdisciplinary Team Project: A Requirement for the MS in Sustainability Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, Latif M.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Smith, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe experience gained with a required six-credit year-long course, the Capstone Interdisciplinary Team Project, a key component of the Master of Science (MS) in Sustainability degree at the City College of New York. A common feature of sustainability problems is their interdisciplinary nature. Solutions to…

  20. A Quantitative Study of Global Software Development Teams, Requirements, and Software Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Linda L.

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the relationship between global software development teams, effective software requirements, and stakeholders' perception of successful software development projects within the field of information technology management. It examined the critical relationship between Global Software Development (GSD) teams creating effective…

  1. 34 CFR 350.10 - What are the general requirements for Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... more of the following types of activities, as specified in §§ 350.13-350.19: (1) Research. (2... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the general requirements for Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects? 350.10 Section 350.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  2. 7 CFR 4280.29 - Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project. 4280.29 Section 4280.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.29 Supplemental financing...

  3. Preliminary design requirements document (DRD) for Project W-236B, ''Initial Pretreatment Module''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to separate Hanford Site tank waste supernatants into low-level and high-level fractions. This documents sets forth function requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). System and physical interfaces between the IPM project and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. Supplemental DRDs will be prepared to provide more detailed requirements specific to systems described in the DRD

  4. Unified thalamic model generates multiple distinct oscillations with state-dependent entrainment by stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshi Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To understand whether the isolated thalamus can generate multiple distinct oscillations, we developed a biophysical thalamic model to test the hypothesis that generation of and transition between distinct thalamic oscillations can be explained as a function of neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh and norepinephrine (NE and afferent synaptic excitation. Indeed, the model exhibited four distinct thalamic rhythms (delta, sleep spindle, alpha and gamma oscillations that span the physiological states corresponding to different arousal levels from deep sleep to focused attention. Our simulation results indicate that generation of these distinct thalamic oscillations is a result of both intrinsic oscillatory cellular properties and specific network connectivity patterns. We then systematically varied the ACh/NE and input levels to generate a complete map of the different oscillatory states and their transitions. Lastly, we applied periodic stimulation to the thalamic network and found that entrainment of thalamic oscillations is highly state-dependent. Our results support the hypothesis that ACh/NE modulation and afferent excitation define thalamic oscillatory states and their response to brain stimulation. Our model proposes a broader and more central role of the thalamus in the genesis of multiple distinct thalamo-cortical rhythms than previously assumed.

  5. Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal System-Project A.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRECECHTEL, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This revision of the Functions and Requirements Document updates the approved Functions and Requirements for Debris Removal Subproject WHC-SD-SNF-FRD-009, Rev. 0. It has been revised in its entirety to reflect the current scope of work for Debris Removal as canisters and lids under the K Basin Projects work breakdown structure (WBS). In this revision the canisters and lids will be consider debris and a new set of Functions and Requirements have been developed to remove the canisters and lids from the basin

  6. Effects of donepezil on behavioural manifestations of thalamic infarction: a single case observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eRiveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of donepezil for the treatment of cognitive and behavioural disorders associated with thalamic lesions in a 45 years old male who suffered an infarct in the left thalamus. Background: Recent studies suggest that donepezil may improve executive functions impairments due to subcortical ischemic lesionsMethod: The crossover effects of donepezil were analyzed in a single case of thalamic infarction with cognitive and behavioural alterations. Results: Significant behavioural modifications related to improved performances in executive functions were observed with the treatment. Conclusions: The results suggest that donepezil may have significant effect on executive functions that can alter behavioural outcomes after thalamic infarctions

  7. Thalamic Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Orthostatic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Lehn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT was first described in 1977. It is characterized by rapid tremor of 13–18 Hz and can be recorded in the lower limbs and trunk muscles. OT remains difficult to treat, although some success has been reported with deep brain stimulation (DBS.Case Report: We report a 68-year-old male with OT who did not improve significantly after bilateral thalamic stimulation.Discussion: Although some patients were described who improved after DBS surgery, more information is needed about the effect of these treatment modalities on OT, ideally in the form of randomized trial data. 

  8. Mobile health systems for bipolar disorder: the relevance of non-functional requirements in MONARCA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayora, Oscar; Frost, Mads; Arnrich, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a series of challenges for developing mobile health solutions for mental health as a result of MONARCA project three-year activities. The lessons learnt on the design, development and evaluation of a mobile health system for supporting the treatment of bipolar disorder....... The findings presented here are the result of over 3 years of activity within the MONARCA EU project. The challenges listed and detailed in this paper may be used in future research as a starting point for identifying important non-functional requirements involved in mobile health provisioning...

  9. Crosscutting Requirements in the International Project on Innovative Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steur, Ronald; Lyubenov Yaven, Yanko; Gueorguiev, Boris; Mahadeva, Rao; Shen, Wenquan

    2002-01-01

    There are two categories of requirements: (i) user requirements that need to be met by the designers and manufacturers of innovative reactors and fuel cycles, and (ii) a wide spectrum of requirements that need to be met by countries, willing to successfully deploy innovative nuclear reactors for energy production. This part of the International Project on Innovative Reactors and Fuel Cycles will mainly deal with the second category of requirements. Both categories of requirements will vary depending on the institutional development, infrastructure availability and social attitude in any given country. Out of the need for sustainable development requirements will also more specific in the future. Over a 50-year time frame both categories of requirements will evolve with social and economic development as nuclear technology develops further. For example, the deployment of innovative reactors in countries with marginal or non-existing nuclear infrastructures would be possible only if the reactors are built, owned and operated by an international nuclear utility or if they are inherently safe and can be delivered as a 'black box - nuclear battery'. A number of issues will need to be addressed and conditions and requirements developed if this is going to become a reality. One general requirement for wider utilization of innovative nuclear power will be the public and environmental considerations, which will play a role in the decision making processes. Five main clusters of topics will be handled: - Infra-structural aspects, typology and consequences for nuclear development. - Industrial requirements for the different innovative concepts. - Institutional developments and requirements for future deployment of nuclear energy. (National as well as international) - Socio-political aspects, a.o. public acceptance and role of governments. - Sustainability: requirements following the need for sustainability Analysis will be made of the evolution of national and international

  10. Sensory disturbance, CT, and somatosensory evoked potentials in thalamic hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Hisanobu; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Miyazaki, Hisaya

    1985-01-01

    Thalamic hemorrhages often lead to sensory disturbances. However, no effective method for the evaluation of their prognoses has yet been clinically utilized. The somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) has been reported as an effective method, but it remains controversial. A CT scan is eminently suitable for determining the size and position of the hemorrhage. However, the correlation between the localization of the hematoma on the CT scan and the sensory distrubance has not been investigated fully. The authors selected 20 cases with the chronic stage of a thalamic hemorrhage. Each one was clinically evaluated as to sensory disturbance; they were then classified into the following five groups: Group 1: no sensory deficit (3 cases); Group 2: complete recovery from initial deficit (2 cases); Group 3: mild hypesthesia (5 cases); Group 4: severe hypesthesia (5 cases), and Group 5: paresthesia or dysesthesia (5 cases). Also, the CT scan was investigated with regard to the localization of the hematoma and the SEP. We could thus find a characteristic pattern in each group. The results may be summarized as follows. 1. The correlation between the degree of the sensory disturbance and the size and expansion of the hematoma was clearly detected. Especially, the most severe sensory disturbance was found in the hematoma extending to the lateral nuclear and ventral nuclear regions. 2. In Group 1 and 2, each SEP component (N 1 N 2 N 3 ) was shown to be normal. In Group 3, SEP components could be detected, but not completely. In Group 4, no components at all could be found. 3. In Group 5, all cases were small hematoma localized in the lateral nuclear region of the thalamus, while the N 3 components were prolonged on the SEP findings. The authors demonstrate the results and discuss the correlation between the sensory disturbance and the CT or SEP findings. (author)

  11. 75 FR 10258 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605: (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... recovery by funding current infrastructure construction, not to delay shovel ready projects by requiring... would result in unreasonable delay and thus displace the ``shovel ready'' status for this project...

  12. TA-55 facility control system upgrade project - human-system interface functional requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.H.; Pope, N.G.; Turner, W.J.; Brown, R.E.

    1995-11-01

    The functional requirements for that part of the Technical Area (TA)-55 Operations Center Upgrade Project that involves the human-system interface (HSI) are described in this document. The upgrade project seeks to replace completely the center's existing computerized data acquisition and display system, which consists of the field multiplexer units, Data General computer systems, and associated peripherals and software. The upgrade project has two parts-the Facility Data Acquisition Interface System (FDAIS) and the HSI. The HSI comprises software and hardware to provide a high-level graphical operator interface to the data acquisition system, as well as data archiving, alarm annunciation, and logging. The new system will be built with modern, commercially available components; it will improve reliability and maintainability, and it can be expanded for future needs

  13. Meeting the requirements for a DOE environmental restoration project. The Fernald strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanoss, R.L.; Risenhoover, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) of five Operable Units (OU) at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) includes compliance with the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE Orders. Each regulatory driver has differing procedural requirements for documenting calculations, decisions, and actions involved in site cleanup. Integration of documentation and avoidance of duplication can save time and money. Such savings are being achieved by OU specific application of supporting studies, revised procedures, and guidance documents. Each OU is seeking appropriate opportunities to produce single documents that simultaneously fulfill the important requirements of the other regulations and DOE orders. These opportunities are evaluated at all phases of decision making, remedial design, and remedial action. Three essential processes precede environmental restoration/remedial action at a DOE site/project: 1. Completion of decision-making documents required by governing or applicable statutes. 2. Completion of important scientific and engineering analyses of remedial alternatives, and design and implementation of the remedial solution established in the CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD). 3. Preparation of DOE-mandated documentation to record engineering evaluations and cost estimates required for budgeting, decision making, and project management. Methodology and requirements for each process have developed from long, successful practice, but independently of each other. FERMCO, as new DOE contractor at Fernald and first Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC), is committed to a process of Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI). A major reevaluation of documentation and processes for support of environmental decision-making and design of cleanup activities to remediate the five OUs at the FEMP is being undertaken

  14. A Systematic Mapping on Supporting Approaches for Requirements Traceability in the Context of Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCHER, P R.C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Requirements Traceability is seen as a quality factor with regard to software development, being present in standards and quality models. In this context, several techniques, models, frameworks and tools have been used to support it. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present a systematic mapping carried out in order to find in the literature approaches to support the requirements traceability in the context of software projects and make the categorization of the data found in order to demonstrate, by means of a reliable, accurate and auditable method, how this area has developed and what are the main approaches are used to implement it.

  15. Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects thalamic neurochemical metabolic changes in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania E. Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The multi-voxel 1H-MRS can provide an insight to the neurochemical metabolic changes occurring in both thalami in patients with MDD. Increased severity of depression is significantly related to these thalamic neurochemical changes.

  16. Development of functional requirements for electronic health communication: preliminary results from the ELIN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tom; Grimsmo, Anders

    2005-01-01

    User participation is important for developing a functional requirements specification for electronic communication. General practitioners and practising specialists, however, often work in small practices without the resources to develop and present their requirements. It was necessary to find a method that could engage practising doctors in order to promote their needs related to electronic communication. Qualitative research methods were used, starting a process to develop and study documents and collect data from meetings in project groups. Triangulation was used, in that the participants were organised into a panel of experts, a user group, a supplier group and an editorial committee. The panel of experts created a list of functional requirements for electronic communication in health care, consisting of 197 requirements, in addition to 67 requirements selected from an existing Norwegian standard for electronic patient records (EPRs). Elimination of paper copies sent in parallel with electronic messages, optimal workflow, a common electronic 'envelope' with directory services for units and end-users, and defined requirements for content with the possibility of decision support were the most important requirements. The results indicate that we have found a method of developing functional requirements which provides valid results both for practising doctors and for suppliers of EPR systems.

  17. Application of Total Quality Management (TQM Requirements in Risk Management in Construction Projects in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entisar K. Al-Geelawee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total quality management considers one of the modern scientific entrances which practiced by productivity service organizations alike to provide appropriate quality required outputs according to the needs and desires of customers manage , enable the organization seeking to continue and grow in light of the increasing competition from the satisfy and provide the appropriate total quality management requirements whenever led to face risks that they may have in a manner in which they can be addressed and find ways to avoid them in the future when repeated. The research has consist of two main parts firstly have included a review of the most important concepts of total quality management in addition to the concept of risk analysis and management in construction projects and how to apply the concept of total quality management in the risk analysis and management. Second part included the practical part of the research, which was open and closed questionnaire for experts in the construction industry to obtain required informations for the application of total quality management requirements in risk management in construction projects in Iraq. One of the main findings of the research is that top management support has a high impact on risk management in addition to continuous improvement, training and education, while the participation of all employees in the organization and constant stimulation and focusing on the customer as one of the total quality management requirements had a moderate impact on risk management.

  18. Capital planning for operating theatres based on projecting future theatre requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Jennifer A; Tyler, Peter; Jayasinha, Hirani; Meleady, Kathleen T; Jones, Neill

    2011-05-01

    During 2006, NSW and ACT Health Departments jointly engaged KPMG to develop an Operating Theatre Requirements' Projection Model and an accompanying planning guideline. A research scan was carried out to identify drivers of surgical demand, theatre capacity and theatre performance, as well as locating existing approaches to modelling operating theatre requirements for planning purposes. The project delivered a Microsoft Excel-based model for projecting future operating theatre requirements, together with an accompanying guideline for use of the model and interpretation of its outputs. It provides a valuable addition to the suite of tools available to Health staff for service and capital planning. The model operates with several limitations, largely due to being data dependent, and the state and completeness of available theatre activity data. However, the operational flexibility built into the model allows users to compensate for these limitations, on a case by case basis, when the user has access to suitable, local data. The design flexibility of the model means that updating the model as improved data become available is not difficult; resulting in revisions being able to be made quickly, and disseminated to users rapidly.

  19. Supplmental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage: Phase 5, Project W-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    This Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) is used to communicate Project W-113 specific plant design information from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the cognizant Architect Engineer (A/E). The SDRD is prepared after the completion of the project Conceptual Design report (CDR) and prior to the initiation of definitive design. Information in the SDRD serves two purposes: to convey design requirements that are too detailed for inclusion in the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) report and to serve as a means of change control for design commitments in the Title I and Title II design. The Solid Waste Retrieval Project (W-113) SDRD has been restructured from the equipment based outline used in previous SDRDs to a functional systems outline. This was done to facilitate identification of deficiencies in the information provided in the initial draft SDRD and aid design confirmation. The format and content of this SDRD adhere as closely as practicable to the requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices for Functional Design Criteria

  20. Projected requirements for radiation oncologists and trainees in Australia and New Zealand to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.; Wigg, D.; Childs, J.

    2000-01-01

    Workloads in radiation oncology facilities in Australia and New Zealand have been increasing steadily for many years and it is anticipated that this trend will continue. In the present paper the projected number of radiation oncologists required to meet this demand to the year 2007 are estimated, along with the number of trainees required. The estimates are based on data from regular surveys by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) for the years 1988-97 (inclusive). From these surveys profiles of numbers, age and gender of specialists and trainees are documented together with increases from the training programme and losses from retirement. It is concluded that if the current trainee numbers are increased by 12 in Australia and two in New Zealand, there will be approximately 10 radiation oncologists per million of population by the year 2007. This number is considered appropriate vue the anticipated increase in demands and complexity of treatment. Because projections too far forward are unreliable, careful monitoring of progress is essential to obtain the appropriate balance between requirement and supply. Comparisons are made with other estimates of needs including the 1998 Australian Medical Workforce Advisory Committee (AMWAC) Report and the New Zealand Clinical Agency Workforce Project Report in 1997. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Cerebellar Ataxia from Multiple Potential Causes: Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Thalamic Stimulation, and Essential Tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Shneyder, Natalya; Lyons, Mark K.; Driver-dunckley, Erika; Evidente, Virgilio Gerald H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Both hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) can rarely be associated with cerebellar ataxia. Severe essential tremor (ET) as well as bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) may lead to subtle cerebellar signs. Case Report: We report a 74-year-old male with hypothyroidism and a 20-year history of ET who developed cerebellar ataxia after bilateral thalamic DBS. Extensive workup revealed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroperoxidase antibody titers c...

  2. Grey matter volume patterns in thalamic nuclei are associated with familial risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Giulio; Trizio, Silvestro; Di Carlo, Pasquale; Taurisano, Paolo; Mancini, Marina; Amoroso, Nicola; Nettis, Maria Antonietta; Andriola, Ileana; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Rampino, Antonio; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Previous evidence suggests reduced thalamic grey matter volume (GMV) in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, it is not considered an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, possibly because previous studies did not assess the contribution of individual thalamic nuclei and employed univariate statistics. Here, we hypothesized that multivariate statistics would reveal an association of GMV in different thalamic nuclei with familial risk for schizophrenia. We also hypothesized that accounting for the heterogeneity of thalamic GMV in healthy controls would improve the detection of subjects at familial risk for the disorder. We acquired MRI scans for 96 clinically stable SCZ, 55 non-affected siblings of patients with schizophrenia (SIB), and 249 HC. The thalamus was parceled into seven regions of interest (ROIs). After a canonical univariate analysis, we used GMV estimates of thalamic ROIs, together with total thalamic GMV and premorbid intelligence, as features in Random Forests to classify HC, SIB, and SCZ. Then, we computed a Misclassification Index for each individual and tested the improvement in SIB detection after excluding a subsample of HC misclassified as patients. Random Forests discriminated SCZ from HC (accuracy=81%) and SIB from HC (accuracy=75%). Left anteromedial thalamic volumes were significantly associated with both multivariate classifications (p<0.05). Excluding HC misclassified as SCZ improved greatly HC vs. SIB classification (Cohen's d=1.39). These findings suggest that multivariate statistics identify a familial background associated with thalamic GMV reduction in SCZ. They also suggest the relevance of inter-individual variability of GMV patterns for the discrimination of individuals at familial risk for the disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thalamic physiology of intentional essential tremor is more like cerebellar tremor than postural essential tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, R; Lenz, FA; Hua, S; Avin, BH; Liu, CC; Mari, Z

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal physiological correlates of clinical heterogeneity in human essential tremor are unknown. We now test the hypothesis that thalamic neuronal and EMG activities during intention essential tremor are similar to those of the intention tremor which is characteristic of cerebellar lesions. Thalamic neuronal firing was studied in a cerebellar relay nucleus (ventral intermediate, Vim) and in a pallidal relay nucleus (ventral oral posterior, Vop) during stereotactic surgery for the treatm...

  4. Thalamic lesions in multiple sclerosis by 7T MRI: Clinical implications and relationship to cortical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel M; Oh, Jiwon; Roy, Snehashis; Wood, Emily T; Whetstone, Anna; Seigo, Michaela A; Jones, Craig K; Pham, Dzung; van Zijl, Peter; Reich, Daniel S; Calabresi, Peter A

    2015-08-01

    Pathology in both cortex and deep gray matter contribute to disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). We used the increased signal-to-noise ratio of 7-tesla (7T) MRI to visualize small lesions within the thalamus and to relate this to clinical information and cortical lesions. We obtained 7T MRI scans on 34 MS cases and 15 healthy volunteers. Thalamic lesion number and volume were related to demographic data, clinical disability measures, and lesions in cortical gray matter. Thalamic lesions were found in 24/34 of MS cases. Two lesion subtypes were noted: discrete, ovoid lesions, and more diffuse lesional areas lining the periventricular surface. The number of thalamic lesions was greater in progressive MS compared to relapsing-remitting (mean ±SD, 10.7 ±0.7 vs. 3.0 ±0.7, respectively, p < 0.001). Thalamic lesion burden (count and volume) correlated with EDSS score and measures of cortical lesion burden, but not with white matter lesion burden or white matter volume. Using 7T MRI allows identification of thalamic lesions in MS, which are associated with disability, progressive disease, and cortical lesions. Thalamic lesion analysis may be a simpler, more rapid estimate of overall gray matter lesion burden in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  5. Pathways for Emotions: Specializations in the Amygdalar, Mediodorsal Thalamic, and Posterior Orbitofrontal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Clare; Barbas, Helen

    2015-08-26

    The primate amygdala projects to posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) directly and possibly indirectly through a pathway to the magnocellular mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDmc), which may convey signals about the significance of stimuli. However, because MDmc receives input from structures in addition to the amygdala and MDmc projects to areas in addition to pOFC, it is unknown whether amygdalar pathways in MDmc innervate pOFC-bound neurons. We addressed this issue using double- or triple-labeling approaches to identify pathways and key cellular and molecular features in rhesus monkeys. We found that amygdalar terminations innervated labeled neurons in MDmc that project to pOFC. Projection neurons in MDmc directed to pOFC included comparatively fewer "core" parvalbumin neurons that project focally to the middle cortical layers and more "matrix" calbindin neurons that project expansively to the upper cortical layers. In addition, a small and hitherto unknown pathway originated from MDmc calretinin neurons and projected to pOFC. Further, whereas projection neurons directed to MDmc and to pOFC were intermingled in the amygdala, none projected to both structures. Larger amygdalar neurons projected to MDmc and expressed the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), which is found in highly efficient "driver" pathways. In contrast, smaller amygdalar neurons directed to pOFC expressed VGLUT1 found in modulatory pathways. The indirect pathway from the amygdala to pOFC via MDmc may provide information about the emotional significance of events and, along with a parallel direct pathway, ensures transfer of signals to all layers of pOFC. The amygdala-the brain's center for emotions-is strongly linked with the orbital cortex, a region associated with social interactions. This study provides evidence that a robust pathway from the amygdala reaches neurons in the thalamus that link directly with the orbital cortex, forming a tight tripartite network. The dual pathways from

  6. RGMDV: An approach to requirements gathering and the management of data virtualization projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ayad Hameed; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada; Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu

    2015-12-01

    Data virtualization (DV) refers to a set of data stores that enable users to query, access, and manipulate data in a unified, abstracted, and encapsulated manner regardless of data location. Apart from reducing data movement, this system provides a unified, abstracted, real-time, and encapsulated view of information for query purposes. Through its provision of live, virtual data in a timely manner, the DV technique can overcome the obstacles faced by organizations and companies as a result of using other data integration techniques. The systematic planning for the period that precedes DV deployment enables organizations to avoid many challenges related to manageability, usability, data quality, and performance. DV requirements are among the most significant and challenging aspects of a DV project. In this study, an approach has been developed to gather and manage the requirements of a DV design model as an initial step in developing such projects. Expert methods are reviewed to validate and evaluate the proposed approach in terms of usability and related components; the results of this review demonstrate that the applied approaches benefit DV development projects.

  7. International shock-wave database project : report of the requirements workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidun, John Bahram (Institute of Problems of chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences); Lomonosov, Igor V. (Institute of Problems of chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences); Levashov, Pavel R. (Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences)

    2012-03-01

    We report on the requirements workshop for a new project, the International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb), which was held October 31 - November 2, 2011, at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. Participants considered the idea of this database, its structure, technical requirements, content, and principles of operation. This report presents the consensus conclusions from the workshop, key discussion points, and the goals and plan for near-term and intermediate-term development of the ISWdb. The main points of consensus from the workshop were: (1) This international database is of interest and of practical use for the shock-wave and high pressure physics communities; (2) Intermediate state information and off-Hugoniot information is important and should be included in ISWdb; (3) Other relevant high pressure and auxiliary data should be included to the database, in the future; (4) Information on the ISWdb needs to be communicated, broadly, to the research community; and (5) Operating structure will consist of an Advisory Board, subject-matter expert Moderators to vet submitted data, and the database Project Team. This brief report is intended to inform the shock-wave research community and interested funding agencies about the project, as its success, ultimately, depends on both of these groups finding sufficient value in the database to use it, contribute to it, and support it.

  8. Reduced thalamic and pontine connectivity in Kleine-Levin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eEngström

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare sleep disorder, characterized by exceptionally long sleep episodes. The neuropathology of the syndrome is unknown and treatment is often inadequate. The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the underlying neuropathology, related to cerebral networks, in Kleine-Levin syndrome during sleep episodes. One patient with Kleine-Levin syndrome and congenital nystagmus, was investigated by resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during both asymptomatic and hypersomnic periods. Fourteen healthy subjects were also investigated as control samples. Functional connectivity was assessed from seed regions of interest in the thalamus and the dorsal pons. Thalamic connectivity was normal in the asymptomatic patient whereas the connectivity between the brain stem, including dorsal pons, and the thalamus was diminished during hypersomnia. These results suggest that the patient’s nystagmus and hypersomnia might have their pathological origin in adjacent dorsal pontine regions. This finding provides additional knowledge of the cerebral networks involved in the neuropathology of this disabling disorder. Furthermore, these findings regarding a rare syndrome have broad implications and results could be of interest to researchers and clinicians in the whole field of sleep medicine.

  9. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The thalamic reticular nucleus: structure, function and concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Didier

    2004-08-01

    On the basis of theoretical, anatomical, psychological and physiological considerations, Francis Crick (1984) proposed that, during selective attention, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls the internal attentional searchlight that simultaneously highlights all the neural circuits called on by the object of attention. In other words, he submitted that during either perception, or the preparation and execution of any cognitive and/or motor task, the TRN sets all the corresponding thalamocortical (TC) circuits in motion. Over the last two decades, behavioural, electrophysiological, anatomical and neurochemical findings have been accumulating, supporting the complex nature of the TRN and raising questions about the validity of this speculative hypothesis. Indeed, our knowledge of the actual functioning of the TRN is still sprinkled with unresolved questions. Therefore, the time has come to join forces and discuss some recent cellular and network findings concerning this diencephalic GABAergic structure, which plays important roles during various states of consciousness. On the whole, the present critical survey emphasizes the TRN's complexity, and provides arguments combining anatomy, physiology and cognitive psychology.

  11. Cerebral blood flow in patients with thalamic hemorrhage, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Mikiya; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Omiya, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Junichi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yoshitoshi; Okawara, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Takeda, Satoshi.

    1989-01-01

    In twenty-nine patients with thalamic hemorrhage, single photon emission CT (SPECT) and CT were performed in the acute stage. Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was performed by the 133-Xe inhalation method using SPECT (Tomomatic 64). CT findings such as hematoma volume, involvement of internal capsule, ventricular hematoma and topographical localization of hematoma were investigated. We studied etiological analysis of decreased CBF in the acute stage. CBF values in the group of large-volume hematoma (≥10 ml) decreased moderately on the hematoma side and mildly on the nonhematoma side. CBF values in the group of small-volume hematoma (<10 ml) decreased mildly on the hematoma side but didn't decrease on the nonhematoma side. CBF values of the former on the hematoma side decreased significantly compared with the latter. Linear correlation between hematoma volume and CBF was significant. As to topographical localization, CBF values of the group which involved medial thalamus decreased significantly compared with the other group. Factors of involvement of internal capsule and ventricular hematoma didn't affect CBF values. In conclusion, major factors which affected decreased CBF in the acute stage were hematoma volume and tomographical localization. (author)

  12. Getting signals into the brain: visual prosthetics through thalamic microstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezaris, John S; Eskandar, Emad N

    2009-07-01

    Common causes of blindness are diseases that affect the ocular structures, such as glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular degeneration, rendering the eyes no longer sensitive to light. The visual pathway, however, as a predominantly central structure, is largely spared in these cases. It is thus widely thought that a device-based prosthetic approach to restoration of visual function will be effective and will enjoy similar success as cochlear implants have for restoration of auditory function. In this article the authors review the potential locations for stimulation electrode placement for visual prostheses, assessing the anatomical and functional advantages and disadvantages of each. Of particular interest to the neurosurgical community is placement of deep brain stimulating electrodes in thalamic structures that has shown substantial promise in an animal model. The theory of operation of visual prostheses is discussed, along with a review of the current state of knowledge. Finally, the visual prosthesis is proposed as a model for a general high-fidelity machine-brain interface.

  13. Prefrontal-Thalamic Anatomical Connectivity and Executive Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Chica, Monica; Rogers, Baxter P; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Woodward, Neil D

    2018-03-15

    Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses. Forty-five healthy subjects and 62 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed a battery of tests of executive function and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Probabilistic tractography was used to quantify anatomical connectivity between six cortical regions, including PFC, and the thalamus. Thalamocortical anatomical connectivity was compared between healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia using region-of-interest and voxelwise approaches, and the association between PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity and severity of executive function impairment was examined in patients. Anatomical connectivity between the thalamus and PFC was reduced in schizophrenia. Voxelwise analysis localized the reduction to areas of the mediodorsal thalamus connected to lateral PFC. Reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity in schizophrenia correlated with impaired working memory but not cognitive flexibility and inhibition. In contrast to reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity, thalamic connectivity with somatosensory and occipital cortices was increased in schizophrenia. The results are consistent with models implicating disrupted PFC-thalamic connectivity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity may be an important target for procognitive interventions. Further work is needed to determine the implications of increased thalamic connectivity with sensory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Society of

  14. Financing biotechnology projects: lender due diligence requirements and the role of independent technical consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J B; Plath, P B

    1999-01-01

    An increasing number of biotechnology projects are being brought to commercialization using conventional structured finance sources, which have traditionally only been available to proven technologies and primary industries. Attracting and securing competitive cost financing from mainstream lenders, however, will require the sponsor of a new technology or process to undergo a greater level of due diligence. The specific areas and intensity of investigation, which are typically required by lenders in order to secure long-term financing for biotechnology-based manufacturing systems, is reviewed. The processes for evaluating the adequacy of prior laboratory testing and pilot plant demonstrations is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to scale-up considerations and the ability of the proposed facility design to accommodate significant modifications, in the event that scale-up problems are encountered.

  15. Transcallosal Projections Require Glycoprotein M6-Dependent Neurite Growth and Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Sakura; de Monasterio-Schrader, Patricia; Fünfschilling, Ursula; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Mizuno, Hidenobu; Iwasato, Takuji; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Werner, Hauke B; Hirata, Tatsumi

    2015-11-01

    The function of mature neurons critically relies on the developmental outgrowth and projection of their cellular processes. It has long been postulated that the neuronal glycoproteins M6a and M6b are involved in axon growth because these four-transmembrane domain-proteins of the proteolipid protein family are highly enriched on growth cones, but in vivo evidence has been lacking. Here, we report that the function of M6 proteins is required for normal axonal extension and guidance in vivo. In mice lacking both M6a and M6b, a severe hypoplasia of axon tracts was manifested. Most strikingly, the corpus callosum was reduced in thickness despite normal densities of cortical projection neurons. In single neuron tracing, many axons appeared shorter and disorganized in the double-mutant cortex, and some of them were even misdirected laterally toward the subcortex. Probst bundles were not observed. Upon culturing, double-mutant cortical and cerebellar neurons displayed impaired neurite outgrowth, indicating a cell-intrinsic function of M6 proteins. A rescue experiment showed that the intracellular loop of M6a is essential for the support of neurite extension. We propose that M6 proteins are required for proper extension and guidance of callosal axons that follow one of the most complex trajectories in the mammalian nervous system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic deep brain stimulation in patients with essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Holmberg, Björn; Johnels, Bo; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a safe and efficient method for treatment of disabling tremor in patient with essential tremor (ET). However, successful tremor suppression after surgery requires careful selection of stimulus parameters. Our aim was to examine the possible use of certain quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic DBS in ET patients in clinical practice, and to compare these methods with traditional clinical tests. We examined 22 patients using the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) and quantitative assessment of tremor with the stimulator both activated and deactivated. We used an accelerometer (CATSYS tremor Pen) for quantitative measurement of postural tremor, and a eurythmokinesimeter (EKM) to evaluate kinetic tremor in a rapid pointing task. The efficacy of DBS on tremor suppression was prominent irrespective of the method used. The agreement between clinical rating of postural tremor and tremor intensity as measured by the CATSYS tremor pen was relatively high (rs = 0.74). The agreement between kinetic tremor as assessed by the ETRS and the main outcome variable from the EKM test was low (rs = 0.34). The lack of agreement indicates that the EKM test is not comparable with the clinical test. Quantitative methods, such as the CATSYS tremor pen, could be a useful complement to clinical tremor assessment in evaluating the efficacy of DBS in clinical practice. Future studies should evaluate the precision of these methods and long-term impact on tremor suppression, activities of daily living (ADL) function and quality of life.

  17. The tail wags the dog: managing large telescope construction projects with lagging requirements and creeping scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In a perfect world, large telescopes would be developed and built in logical, sequential order. First, scientific requirements would be agreed upon, vetted, and fully developed. From these, instrument designers would define their own subsystem requirements and specifications, and then flesh out preliminary designs. This in turn would then allow optic designers to specify lens and mirror requirements, which would permit telescope mounts and drives to be designed. Finally, software and safety systems, enclosures and domes, buildings, foundations, and infrastructures would be specified and developed. Unfortunately, the order of most large telescope projects is the opposite of this sequence. We don't live in a perfect world. Scientists usually don't want to commit to operational requirements until late in the design process, instrument designers frequently change and update their designs due to improving filter and camera technologies, and mount and optics engineers seem to live by the words "more" and "better" throughout their own design processes. Amplifying this is the fact that site construction of buildings and domes are usually the earliest critical path items on the schedule, and are often subject to lengthy permitting and environmental processes. These facility and support items therefore must quickly get underway, often before operational requirements are fully considered. Mirrors and mounts also have very long lead times for fabrication, which in turn necessitates that they are specified and purchased early. All of these factors can result in expensive and time-consuming change orders when requirements are finalized and/or shift late in the process. This paper discusses some of these issues encountered on large, multi-year construction projects. It also presents some techniques and ideas to minimize these effects on schedule and cost. Included is a discussion on the role of Interface Control Documents (ICDs), the importance (and danger) of making big

  18. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital and I and C systems development - Project report 2003[TACO. Reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Frederiksen, R.; Thunem, A.P.J. [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Kjeller (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project is to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the preproject. On basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aims at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. In the year 2003, the TACO-project concentrated on four central issues: 1) Representation of requirements origins. 2) Traceability techniques. 3) Configuration management and the traceability of requirements. 4) Identification and categorisation of system aspects and their models The work was presented at the first TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Stockholm on the 12th of December 2003. The seminar was hosted by SKI. (au)

  19. Intralaminar and medial thalamic influence on cortical synchrony, information transmission and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B Saalmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The intralaminar and medial thalamic nuclei are part of the higher-order thalamus, which receives little sensory input, and instead forms extensive cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. The large mediodorsal thalamic nucleus predominantly connects with the prefrontal cortex, the adjacent intralaminar nuclei connect with fronto-parietal cortex, and the midline thalamic nuclei connect with medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Taking into account this connectivity pattern, it is not surprising that the intralaminar and medial thalamus has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions, including memory processing, attention and orienting, as well as reward-based behavior. This review addresses how the intralaminar and medial thalamus may regulate information transmission in cortical circuits. A key neural mechanism may involve intralaminar and medial thalamic neurons modulating the degree of synchrony between different groups of cortical neurons according to behavioral demands. Such a thalamic-mediated synchronization mechanism may give rise to large-scale integration of information across multiple cortical circuits, consequently influencing the level of arousal and consciousness. Overall, the growing evidence supports a general role for the higher-order thalamus in the control of cortical information transmission and cognitive processing.

  20. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Ceschin, Rafael C.; Choi, So Young; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Painter, Michael J.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Blueml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  1. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  2. Thalamic diffusion differences related to cognitive function in white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andújar, Marina; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Cáceres, Cynthia; Bargalló, Núria; Barrios, Maite; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Clemente, Imma; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are related to cognitive deficits, probably due to a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits. We explored thalamic diffusion differences related to white matter lesions (WMLs) and their association with cognitive function in middle-aged individuals. Ninety-six participants from the Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study were included. Participants were classified into groups based on low grade and high grade of periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to study thalamic diffusion differences between groups. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in significant areas were calculated for each subject and correlated with cognitive performance. Participants with high-grade PVHs and DWMHs showed lower FA thalamic values compared to those with low-grade PVHs and DWMHs, respectively. Decreased FA thalamic values in high-grade DWMHs, but not high-grade PVH, were related to lower levels of performance in psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, and visuospatial skills. Thalamic diffusion differences are related to lower cognitive function only in participants with high-grade DWMHs. These results support the hypothesis that fronto-subcortical disruption is associated with cognitive function only in DWMHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of in vivo MRI detectable thalamic amyloid plaques from APP/PS1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenain, M. [URA CEA CNRS 2210, I2BM, SHFJ, 4 Place du General Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [U759 INSERM, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guegan, M.; Delatour, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid-CSIC, 8, Isaac Newton, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Amyloid deposits are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies, in transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease showed that, using in vivo, contrast agent-free, MRI, thalamic amyloid plaques are more easily detected than other plaques of the brain. Our study evaluated the characteristics of these thalamic plaques in a large population of APP/PS1, PS1 and C57BL/6 mice. Thalamic spots were detected in all mice but with different frequency and magnitude. Hence, the prevalence and size of the lesions were higher in APP/PS1 mice. However, even in APP/PS1 mice, thalamic spots did not occur in all the old animals. In APP/PS1 mice, spots detection was related to high iron and calcium load within amyloid plaques and thus reflects the ability of such plaque to capture large amounts of minerals. Interestingly, calcium and iron was also detected in extra-thalamic plaques but with a lower intensity. Hypointense lesions in the thalamus were not associated with the iron load in the tissue surrounding the plaques, nor with micro-hemorrhages, inflammation, or a neuro-degenerative context. (authors)

  4. Effect of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Gait in a Patient with Thalamic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arito Yozu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic pain is a central neuropathic pain disorder which occurs after stroke. Its severe chronic pain is often intractable to pharmacotherapies and affects the patients’ activities of daily living (ADL and quality of life (QOL. Recently, spinal cord stimulation (SCS has been reported to be effective in relieving the pain of thalamic pain; however, the effect of SCS on gait performance in patients is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the gait performance before and after SCS in a case with thalamic pain. A 73-year-old male with thalamic pain participated in this study. We evaluated the gait of the patient two times: before SCS insertion and after 6 days of SCS. At the second evaluation, we measured the gait in three conditions: stimulation off, comfortable stimulation, and strong stimulation. SCS succeeded in improving the pain from 7 to 2 on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Step frequency and the velocity of gait tended to increase between pre- and poststimulation periods. There were no apparent differences in gait among the three stimulation conditions (off, comfortable, and strong at the poststimulation period. SCS may be effective on gait in patients with thalamic pain.

  5. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  7. The effect of unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation on the vocal dysfunction in a patient with spasmodic dysphonia: interrogating cerebellar and pallidal neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poologaindran, Anujan; Ivanishvili, Zurab; Morrison, Murray D; Rammage, Linda A; Sandhu, Mini K; Polyhronopoulos, Nancy E; Honey, Christopher R

    2018-02-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a neurological disorder of the voice where a patient's ability to speak is compromised due to involuntary contractions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Since the 1980s, SD has been treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX) injections into the throat. This therapy is limited by the delayed-onset of benefits, wearing-off effects, and repeated injections required every 3 months. In a patient with essential tremor (ET) and coincident SD, the authors set out to quantify the effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on vocal function while investigating the underlying motor thalamic circuitry. A 79-year-old right-handed woman with ET and coincident adductor SD was referred to our neurosurgical team. While primarily treating her limb tremor, the authors studied the effects of unilateral, thalamic DBS on vocal function using the Unified Spasmodic Dysphonia Rating Scale (USDRS) and voice-related quality of life (VRQOL). Since dystonia is increasingly being considered a multinodal network disorder, an anterior trajectory into the left thalamus was deliberately chosen such that the proximal contacts of the electrode were in the ventral oralis anterior (Voa) nucleus (pallidal outflow) and the distal contacts were in the ventral intermediate (Vim) nucleus (cerebellar outflow). In addition to assessing on/off unilateral thalamic Vim stimulation on voice, the authors experimentally assessed low-voltage unilateral Vim, Voa, or multitarget stimulation in a prospective, randomized, doubled-blinded manner. The evaluators were experienced at rating SD and were familiar with the vocal tremor of ET. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to study the pre- and posttreatment effect of DBS on voice. Unilateral left thalamic Vim stimulation (DBS on) significantly improved SD vocal dysfunction compared with no stimulation (DBS off), as measured by the USDRS (p dysphonia. A Phase 1 pilot trial (DEBUSSY; clinical trial no. NCT02558634, clinicaltrials.gov) is

  8. Thalamic control of human attention driven by memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bourbon-Teles, José; Bentley, Paul; Koshino, Saori; Shah, Kushal; Dutta, Agneish; Malhotra, Paresh; Egner, Tobias; Husain, Masud; Soto, David

    2014-05-05

    The role of the thalamus in high-level cognition-attention, working memory (WM), rule-based learning, and decision making-remains poorly understood, especially in comparison to that of cortical frontoparietal networks [1-3]. Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception and attention [4-10] and for mediodorsal thalamus in oculomotor control [11]. Ventrolateral thalamus contains subdivisions devoted to action control as part of a circuit involving the basal ganglia [12, 13] and motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortices [14], whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus [15]. This connectivity profile suggests that ventrolateral and anterior thalamus may represent a nexus between mnemonic and control functions, such as action or attentional selection. Here, we characterize the role of thalamus in the interplay between memory and visual attention. We show that ventrolateral lesions impair the influence of WM representations on attentional deployment. A subsequent fMRI study in healthy volunteers demonstrates involvement of ventrolateral and, notably, anterior thalamus in biasing attention through WM contents. To further characterize the memory types used by the thalamus to bias attention, we performed a second fMRI study that involved learning of stimulus-stimulus associations and their retrieval from long-term memory to optimize attention in search. Responses in ventrolateral and anterior thalamic nuclei tracked learning of the predictiveness of these abstract associations and their use in directing attention. These findings demonstrate a key role for human thalamus in higher-level cognition, notably, in mnemonic biasing of attention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. At the centre of neuronal, synaptic and axonal pathology in murine prion disease: degeneration of neuroanatomically linked thalamic and brainstem nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Renata; Hennessy, Edel; Murray, Caoimhe; Griffin, Éadaoin W.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The processes by which neurons degenerate in chronic neurodegenerative diseases remain unclear. Synaptic loss and axonal pathology frequently precede neuronal loss and protein aggregation demonstrably spreads along neuroanatomical pathways in many neurodegenerative diseases. The spread of neuronal pathology is less studied. Methods We previously demonstrated severe neurodegeneration in the posterior thalamus of multiple prion disease strains. Here we used the ME7 model of prion disease to examine the nature of this degeneration in the posterior thalamus and the major brainstem projections into this region. Results We objectively quantified neurological decline between 16 and 18 weeks post‐inoculation and observed thalamic subregion‐selective neuronal, synaptic and axonal pathology while demonstrating relatively uniform protease‐resistant prion protein (PrP) aggregation and microgliosis across the posterior thalamus. Novel amyloid precursor protein (APP) pathology was particularly prominent in the thalamic posterior (PO) and ventroposterior lateral (VPL) nuclei. The brainstem nuclei forming the major projections to these thalamic nuclei were examined. Massive neuronal loss in the PO was not matched by significant neuronal loss in the interpolaris (Sp5I), while massive synaptic loss in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) did correspond with significant neuronal loss in the principal trigeminal nucleus. Likewise, significant VPL synaptic loss was matched by significant neuronal loss in the gracile and cuneate nuclei. Conclusion These findings demonstrate significant spread of neuronal pathology from the thalamus to the brainstem in prion disease. The divergent neuropathological features in adjacent neuronal populations demonstrates that there are discrete pathways to neurodegeneration in different neuronal populations. PMID:25727649

  10. Accelerated forgetting of contextual details due to focal medio-dorsal thalamic lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicong eTu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of thalamic nuclei damage and related white matter tracts on memory performance are still debated. This is particularly evident for the medio-dorsal thalamus which has been less clear in predicting amnesia than anterior thalamus changes. The current study addresses this issue by assessing 7 thalamic stroke patients with consistent unilateral lesions focal to the left medio-dorsal nuclei for immediate and delayed memory performance on standard visual and verbal tests of anterograde memory, and over the long-term (> 24 hrs on an object-location associative memory task. Thalamic patients showed selective impairment to delayed recall, but intact recognition memory. Patients also showed accelerated forgetting of contextual information after a 24 hour delay, compared to controls. Importantly, the mammillothalamic tract was intact in all patients, which suggests a role for the medio-dorsal nuclei in recall and early consolidation memory processes.

  11. Cerebellar Ataxia from Multiple Potential Causes: Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Thalamic Stimulation, and Essential Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Shneyder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT can rarely be associated with cerebellar ataxia. Severe essential tremor (ET as well as bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS may lead to subtle cerebellar signs. Case Report: We report a 74-year-old male with hypothyroidism and a 20-year history of ET who developed cerebellar ataxia after bilateral thalamic DBS. Extensive workup revealed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroperoxidase antibody titers confirming the diagnosis of HT. Discussion: Our case demonstrates multiple possible causes of cerebellar ataxia in a patient, including hypothyroidism, HT, chronic ET, and bilateral thalamic DBS. Counseling of patients may be appropriate when multiple risk factors for cerebellar ataxia coexist in one individual.

  12. Frontotemporal dementia with severe thalamic involvement : a clinical and neuropathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanovic Márcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is the third-leading cause of cortical dementia after Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia, and is characterized by a dementia where behavioral disturbances are prominent and appear early in the course of the disease. We report the case of a 58 year-old man affected by dementia with behavioral disturbances, in addition to rigid-hypokinetic and a lower motor neuron syndrome that were present at later stages of the illness. Neuroimaging studies showed frontotemporal atrophy. Neuropathological studies revealed intense thalamic neuronal loss and astrocytic gliosis, as well as moderate frontotemporal neuronal loss, astrocytosis and spongiform degeneration. Thalamic degeneration has previously been described among the wide group of neuropathological features of FTD. The aim of the present study is to show the clinical and neuropathological aspects of thalamic degeneration in FTD, along with its role in behavioral disturbances, a common finding in this condition.

  13. 41 CFR 102-72.65 - What are the requirements for obtaining a delegation of individual repair and alteration project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for other individual alteration projects when they demonstrate the ability to perform the delegated... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for obtaining a delegation of individual repair and alteration project authority from GSA? 102-72...

  14. Control of Somatosensory Cortical Processing by Thalamic Posterior Medial Nucleus: A New Role of Thalamus in Cortical Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castejon

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of thalamocortical interaction comes mainly from studying lemniscal thalamic systems. Less is known about paralemniscal thalamic nuclei function. In the vibrissae system, the posterior medial nucleus (POm is the corresponding paralemniscal nucleus. POm neurons project to L1 and L5A of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 in the rat brain. It is known that L1 modifies sensory-evoked responses through control of intracortical excitability suggesting that L1 exerts an influence on whisker responses. Therefore, thalamocortical pathways targeting L1 could modulate cortical firing. Here, using a combination of electrophysiology and pharmacology in vivo, we have sought to determine how POm influences cortical processing. In our experiments, single unit recordings performed in urethane-anesthetized rats showed that POm imposes precise control on the magnitude and duration of supra- and infragranular barrel cortex whisker responses. Our findings demonstrated that L1 inputs from POm imposed a time and intensity dependent regulation on cortical sensory processing. Moreover, we found that blocking L1 GABAergic inhibition or blocking P/Q-type Ca2+ channels in L1 prevents POm adjustment of whisker responses in the barrel cortex. Additionally, we found that POm was also controlling the sensory processing in S2 and this regulation was modulated by corticofugal activity from L5 in S1. Taken together, our data demonstrate the determinant role exerted by the POm in the adjustment of somatosensory cortical processing and in the regulation of cortical processing between S1 and S2. We propose that this adjustment could be a thalamocortical gain regulation mechanism also present in the processing of information between cortical areas.

  15. Designing for Change: Minimizing the Impact of Changing Requirements in the Later Stages of a Spaceflight Software Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, B. Danette

    1998-01-01

    In the traditional 'waterfall' model of the software project life cycle, the Requirements Phase ends and flows into the Design Phase, which ends and flows into the Development Phase. Unfortunately, the process rarely, if ever, works so smoothly in practice. Instead, software developers often receive new requirements, or modifications to the original requirements, well after the earlier project phases have been completed. In particular, projects with shorter than ideal schedules are highly susceptible to frequent requirements changes, as the software requirements analysis phase is often forced to begin before the overall system requirements and top-level design are complete. This results in later modifications to the software requirements, even though the software design and development phases may be complete. Requirements changes received in the later stages of a software project inevitably lead to modification of existing developed software. Presented here is a series of software design techniques that can greatly reduce the impact of last-minute requirements changes. These techniques were successfully used to add built-in flexibility to two complex software systems in which the requirements were expected to (and did) change frequently. These large, real-time systems were developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to test and control the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) instrument which flew aboard the space shuttle Discovery as the primary payload on the STS-64 mission.

  16. The Effect of Thalamic Stimulation on Memory and Language Processing in Parkinsonian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahrasadat Ghoreishi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS is reported to be successful in Parkinson patients with motor symptoms resistant to medication as a treatment procedure. Despite evidence of cortico-subcortico-cortical circuit involvement in motor control, the role of this neural circuitry on higher cognitive functions such as language is still controversial. In particular, research evidence pertaining to the impact of ventrolateral thalamic stimulation on linguistic processing is scarce. This paper investigates the effect of right and left thalamus-DBS on memory and language processing in Parkinson patients. Materials & Methods: In this paper as a case series research we measured memory and language processing in six Parkinson patients (2 left, 2right, 2 bilateral underwent implantation of deep brain stimulating electrode in ventrolateral thalamic nucleus. The data were collected in two “on” and “off” positions, with at least 40 days time interval in between. The patients were assessed using Wechsler memory test, verbal fluency and some sub-tests of Farsi version of Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT. Results: The findings of this research are suggesting an improvement on grammar comprehension and a decline in sentence production and verbal fluency in “on” position versus “off” position, in both groups. The Wechsler memory scores in left thalamus group improved but declined in right thalamus group. Conclusion: The results indicate that thalamic DBS did not cause any deficit on grammar comprehension and even improved the level of comprehension. On the contrary a decrease in verbal fluency and sentence production, as two high level linguistic processing tasks, was observed. The results confirmed contemporary theories of thalamic participation on language processing and did not confirm a laterality effect on language skills. Although observed difference after thalamic DBS between right and left group on memory score can confirm laterality

  17. Impairments of thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Yu-Chen [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Feng, Xu [Department of Otolaryngology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Yang, Ming; Liu, Bin; Qian, Cheng [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Jian [Department of Physiology, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Salvi, Richard [Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Teng, Gao-Jun, E-mail: gjteng@vip.sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Tinnitus patients have aberrant thalamic connectivity to many brain regions. • Decreased thalamic connectivity is linked with tinnitus characteristics. • Thalamocortical connectivity disturbances can reflect tinnitus-related networks. - Abstract: Purpose: The phantom sound of tinnitus is believed to arise from abnormal functional coupling between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the degree of thalamocortical functional connectivity in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Materials and methods: Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 31 chronic tinnitus patients and 33 well-matched healthy controls. Thalamocortical functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The resulting thalamic functional connectivity measures were correlated with other clinical data. Results: We found decreased functional connectivity between the seed region in left thalamus and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right middle orbitofrontal cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and bilateral calcarine cortex. Decreased functional connectivity was detected between the seed in the right thalamus and the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), left amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus. Tinnitus distress correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in right MTG; tinnitus duration correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in left STG. Increased functional connectivity between the bilateral thalamus and a set of regions were also observed. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted thalamocortical functional connectivity to selected brain regions which is associated with specific tinnitus characteristics. Resting-state thalamic functional connectivity disturbances may play an important role in

  18. Dissociation of Recognition and Recency Memory Judgments After Anterior Thalamic Nuclei Lesions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Julie R.; Aggleton, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei form part of a network for episodic memory in humans. The importance of these nuclei for recognition and recency judgments remains, however, unclear. Rats with anterior thalamic nuclei lesions and their controls were tested on object recognition, along with two types of recency judgment. The spontaneous discrimination of a novel object or a novel odor from a familiar counterpart (recognition memory) was not affected by anterior thalamic lesions when tested after retention delays of 1 and 60 min. To measure recency memory, rats were shown two familiar objects, one of which had been explored more recently. In one condition, rats were presented with two lists (List A, List B) of objects separated by a delay, thereby creating two distinct blocks of stimuli. After an additional delay, rats were presented with pairs of objects, one from List A and one from List B (between-block recency). No lesion-induced deficit was apparent for recency discriminations between objects from different lists, despite using three different levels of task difficulty. In contrast, rats with anterior thalamic lesions were significantly impaired when presented with a continuous list of objects and then tested on their ability to distinguish between those items early and late in the same list (within-block recency). The contrasting effects on recognition and recency support the notion that interlinked hippocampal–anterior thalamic interconnections support aspects of both spatial and nonspatial learning, although the role of the anterior thalamic nuclei may be restricted to a subclass of recency judgments (within-block). PMID:23731076

  19. Neonatal thalamic hemorrhage is strongly associated with electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; de Vries, Linda S; Leijten, Frans S S; Braun, Kees P J; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; Jansen, Floor E

    2013-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhage has been associated with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), especially when the straight sinus is involved, and often presents with neonatal seizures. Early thalamic injury has previously been shown to predispose to epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-induced epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and postneonatal epilepsy after neonatal thalamic hemorrhage associated with CSVT, in the absence of more widespread cerebral damage. Between 2003 and 2008 15 neonates were diagnosed with a thalamic hemorrhage due to suspected or proven CSVT. Neurodevelopment and the history of seizures were assessed at follow-up in the outpatient clinic in all 14 survivors (age 2-9 years). Whole-night or sleep-deprived EEG recordings were obtained to assess the prevalence of interictal epileptiform activity (EA) and calculate a sleep-induced spike and wave index (SWI). Three children were diagnosed with classic ESES (SWI >85%). Two children had ESES spectrum disorder (SWI between 50% and 85%), and in two children significant sleep-induced epileptiform activity (SIEA) was noted (SWI between 25% and 50%). Two other children were diagnosed with focal epilepsy, in the absence of sleep-induced epileptiform EEG abnormalities. Five children (age 2-7 years) had normal EEG recordings at follow-up. Deficits in neurodevelopment were seen significantly more often in children with ESES, ESES spectrum, or SIEA. Neonates with thalamic hemorrhage associated with straight sinus thrombosis, without evidence of more widespread cerebral damage, are at high risk of developing ESES (spectrum) disorder (35%), SIEA (14%), or focal epilepsy (14%). Electrographic abnormalities may already be present prior to recognition of cognitive deficits. Early diagnosis may guide parents and caregivers, and subsequent treatment may improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Routine

  20. Impairments of thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yu-Chen; Feng, Xu; Yang, Ming; Liu, Bin; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Jian; Salvi, Richard; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tinnitus patients have aberrant thalamic connectivity to many brain regions. • Decreased thalamic connectivity is linked with tinnitus characteristics. • Thalamocortical connectivity disturbances can reflect tinnitus-related networks. - Abstract: Purpose: The phantom sound of tinnitus is believed to arise from abnormal functional coupling between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the degree of thalamocortical functional connectivity in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Materials and methods: Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 31 chronic tinnitus patients and 33 well-matched healthy controls. Thalamocortical functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The resulting thalamic functional connectivity measures were correlated with other clinical data. Results: We found decreased functional connectivity between the seed region in left thalamus and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right middle orbitofrontal cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and bilateral calcarine cortex. Decreased functional connectivity was detected between the seed in the right thalamus and the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), left amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus. Tinnitus distress correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in right MTG; tinnitus duration correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in left STG. Increased functional connectivity between the bilateral thalamus and a set of regions were also observed. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted thalamocortical functional connectivity to selected brain regions which is associated with specific tinnitus characteristics. Resting-state thalamic functional connectivity disturbances may play an important role in

  1. Lucid dreams, an atypical sleep disturbance in anterior and mediodorsal thalamic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnier, S; Coulon, P; Chaufton, C; Poli, M; Debruxelles, S; Renou, P; Rouanet, F; Olindo, S; Sibon, I

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive, affective, and behavioural disturbances are commonly reported following thalamic strokes. Conversely, sleep disorders are rarely reported in this context. Herein, we report the cases of two young patients admitted for an ischemic stroke located in the territories of the left pre-mammillary and paramedian arteries. Together with aphasia, memory complaint, impaired attention and executive functions, they reported lucid dreams with catastrophic content or conflicting situations. Lucid dreams are an atypical presentation in thalamic strokes. These cases enlarge the clinical spectrum of sleep-wake disturbances potentially observed after an acute cerebrovascular event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Software use cases to elicit the software requirements analysis within the ASTRI project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Vito; Antolini, Elisa; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Bruno, Pietro; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Capalbi, Milvia; Fioretti, Valentina; Fugazza, Dino; Gardiol, Daniele; Grillo, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Saverio; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Pareschi, Giovanni; Russo, Federico; Sangiorgi, Pierluca; Schwarz, Joseph; Scuderi, Salvatore; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Trifoglio, Massimo; Vercellone, Stefano; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    The Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) is leading the Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana (ASTRI) project whose main purpose is the realization of small size telescopes (SST) for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The first goal of the ASTRI project has been the development and operation of an innovative end-to-end telescope prototype using a dual-mirror optical configuration (SST-2M) equipped with a camera based on silicon photo-multipliers and very fast read-out electronics. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype has been installed in Italy at the INAF "M.G. Fracastoro" Astronomical Station located at Serra La Nave, on Mount Etna, Sicily. This prototype will be used to test several mechanical, optical, control hardware and software solutions which will be used in the ASTRI mini-array, comprising nine telescopes proposed to be placed at the CTA southern site. The ASTRI mini-array is a collaborative and international effort led by INAF and carried out by Italy, Brazil and South-Africa. We present here the use cases, through UML (Unified Modeling Language) diagrams and text details, that describe the functional requirements of the software that will manage the ASTRI SST-2M prototype, and the lessons learned thanks to these activities. We intend to adopt the same approach for the Mini Array Software System that will manage the ASTRI miniarray operations. Use cases are of importance for the whole software life cycle; in particular they provide valuable support to the validation and verification activities. Following the iterative development approach, which breaks down the software development into smaller chunks, we have analysed the requirements, developed, and then tested the code in repeated cycles. The use case technique allowed us to formalize the problem through user stories that describe how the user procedurally interacts with the software system. Through the use cases we improved the communication among team members, fostered

  3. Southwest Project: resource/institutional requirements analysis. Volume II. Technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsby, L. S.; Sawyer, T. G.; Brown, Dr., M. L.; Daviet, II, L. L.; Weber, E. R.; Brown, J. E.; Arlidge, J. W.; Novak, H. R.; Sanesi, Norman; Klaiman, H. C.; Spangenberg, Jr., D. T.; Groves, D. J.; Maddox, J. D.; Hayslip, R. M.; Ijams, G.; Lacy, R. G.; Montgomery, J.; Carito, J. A.; Ballance, J. W.; Bluemle, C. F.; Smith, D. N.; Wehrey, M. C.; Ladd, K. L.; Evans, Dr., S. K.; Guild, D. H.; Brodfeld, B.; Cleveland, J. A.; Hicks, K. L.; Noga, M. W.; Ross, A. M.

    1979-12-01

    The project provides information which could be used to accelerate the commercialization and market penetration of solar electric generation plants in the southwestern region of the United States. The area of concern includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The project evaluated the potential integration of solar electric generating facilities into the existing electric grids of the region through the year 2000. The technologies included wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric, solar photovoltaic conversion, and hybrid solar electric systems. Each of the technologies considered, except hybrid solar electric, was paired with a compatible energy storage system to improve plant performance and enhance applicability to a utility grid system. The hybrid concept utilizes a conventionally-fueled steam generator as well as a solar steam generator so it is not as dependent upon the availability of solar energy as are the other concepts. Operation of solar electric generating plants in conjunction with existing hydroelectric power facilities was also studied. The participants included 12 electric utility companies and a state power authority in the southwestern US, as well as a major consulting engineering firm. An assessment of the state-of-the-art of solar electric generating plants from an electric utility standpoint; identification of the electric utility industry's technical requirements and considerations for solar electric generating plants; estimation of the capital investment, operation, and maintenance costs for solar electric generating plants; and determination of the capital investment of conventional fossil and nuclear electric generating plants are presented. (MCW)

  4. 42 CFR 137.351 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of Self-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.351 Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to...

  5. 23 CFR 636.116 - What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nature of the potential conflict as seen by the owner; (iii) States the nature of the proposed restraint... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What organizational conflict of interest requirements... What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects? (a) State...

  6. Effects of Using Requirements Catalogs on Effectiveness and Productivity of Requirements Specification in a Software Project Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Meca, Joaquín Vidal; Ros, Joaquín Nicolás; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two educational experiments carried out to determine whether the process of specifying requirements (catalog-based reuse as opposed to conventional specification) has an impact on effectiveness and productivity in co-located and distributed software development environments. The participants in the experiments…

  7. Metrology for hydrogen energy applications: a project to address normative requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloua, Frédérique; Bacquart, Thomas; Arrhenius, Karine; Delobelle, Benoît; Ent, Hugo

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a clean and storable energy solution that could meet worldwide energy demands and reduce greenhouse gases emission. The joint research project (JRP) ‘Metrology for sustainable hydrogen energy applications’ addresses standardisation needs through pre- and co-normative metrology research in the fast emerging sector of hydrogen fuel that meet the requirements of the European Directive 2014/94/EU by supplementing the revision of two ISO standards that are currently too generic to enable a sustainable implementation of hydrogen. The hydrogen purity dispensed at refueling points should comply with the technical specifications of ISO 14687-2 for fuel cell electric vehicles. The rapid progress of fuel cell technology now requires revising this standard towards less constraining limits for the 13 gaseous impurities. In parallel, optimized validated analytical methods are proposed to reduce the number of analyses. The study aims also at developing and validating traceable methods to assess accurately the hydrogen mass absorbed and stored in metal hydride tanks; this is a research axis for the revision of the ISO 16111 standard to develop this safe storage technique for hydrogen. The probability of hydrogen impurity presence affecting fuel cells and analytical techniques for traceable measurements of hydrogen impurities will be assessed and new data of maximum concentrations of impurities based on degradation studies will be proposed. Novel validated methods for measuring the hydrogen mass absorbed in hydrides tanks AB, AB2 and AB5 types referenced to ISO 16111 will be determined, as the methods currently available do not provide accurate results. The outputs here will have a direct impact on the standardisation works for ISO 16111 and ISO 14687-2 revisions in the relevant working groups of ISO/TC 197 ‘Hydrogen technologies’.

  8. Rigorous project for existing houses. Energy conservation requires evolution; Rigoureus project voor bestaande woningen. Evolutie voor energiebesparing nodig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clocquet, R. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Koene, F. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    How can existing terraced houses be renovated in such a way that their energy use decreases with 75 percent? The Rigorous project of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), TNO, Delft University of Technology and DHV, developed innovative renovation concepts that make such savings feasible by combining constructional measures with installation concepts. On top of that it is also essential that consumer behavior is addressed. [Dutch] Hoe kunnen bestaande rijtjeswoningen zo worden gerenoveerd dat het totale energiegebruik met 75 procent afneemt? In het Rigoureus-project hebben ECN, TNO, TU Delft en DHV innovatieve renovatieconcepten ontwikkeld die dat, door een combinatie van bouwkundige maatregelen en uitgeldende installatieconcepten, mogelijk maken. Daarbij blijkt het van essentieel belang ook het gebruikersgedrag aan te pakken.

  9. Projections of cost and on-site manual-labor requirements for constructing electric-generating plants, 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report represents part of a continuing effort by the Federal Government to forecast the capital and labor required for constructing electric generating capacity additions necessary to accommodate projected economic and population growth in the US and its regions. Information is included on anticipated additions to electric generating capacity, labor requirements for these additions, capital cost requirements, and forecasting models. Coal-fired, nuclear, hydro, and pumped storage power plants are considered in these forecasts

  10. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation for parkinsonian tremor: a 6 year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hariz, M. I.; Krack, P.; Alesch, F.; Augustinsson, L.-E.; Bosch, A.; Ekberg, R.; Johansson, F.; Johnels, B.; Meyerson, B. A.; N'Guyen, J.-P.; Pinter, M.; Pollak, P.; von Raison, F.; Rehncrona, S.; Speelman, J. D.; Sydow, O.; Benabid, A.-L.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the results of ventral intermediate (Vim) thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with tremor predominant Parkinson's disease (PD) at 6 years post surgery. This was a prolonged follow-up study of 38 patients from eight centres who participated in a multicentre study, the 1 year

  11. A case of thalamic hemorrhage presenting high density on CT in a long time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Takeda, Yoshio; Sugai, Yukio; Umetsu, Akemi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    We presented a thalamic hemorrhage in a 29-year-old woman with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy showing a high density lesion at least for 50 days on CT. From beginning of the illness, this condition was considered to continue for 3 months by chronic bleeding or recurrent hemorrhage. (author)

  12. Aphasia and unilateral spatial neglect due to acute thalamic hemorrhage: clinical correlations and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Aiko; Maeshima, Shinichiro

    2016-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhages are associated with a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is well known that such cognitive changes constitute a limiting factor of recovery of the activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and hematomas is unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aphasia/neglect and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. One hundred fifteen patients with thalamic hemorrhage (70 men and 45 women) were studied. Their mean age was 68.9 ± 10.3 years, and patients with both left and right lesions were included. We calculated hematoma volume and examined the presence or absence of aphasia/neglect and the relationships between these dysfunctions and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. Fifty-nine patients were found to have aphasia and 35 were found to have neglect. Although there was no relationship between hematoma type and cognitive dysfunction, hematoma volume showed a correlation with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The ADL score and ratio of patient discharge for patients with aphasia/neglect were lower than those for patients without aphasia/neglect. We observed a correlation between the hematoma volume in thalamic hemorrhage and cognitive dysfunction. Aphasia/neglect is found frequently in patients with acute thalamic hemorrhage and may influence the ADL.

  13. Schizophrenia; from structure to function with special focus on the mediodorsal thalamic prefrontal loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkenberg, B.; Scheel-Kruger, J.; Kristiansen, L.V.

    2009-01-01

    studies in postmortem brain from patients with schizophrenia have reported divergent and often opposing findings in the total number of neurons and volume of the mediodorsal (MD) thalamic nucleus, and to a lesser degree in its reciprocally associated areas of the prefrontal cortex. Similarly, quantitative...

  14. Acute Korsakoff-like amnestic syndrome resulting from left thalamic infarction following a right hippocampal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, R; Moussa, R; Awada, A; Ibrahim, I; Ali, Y; Maarrawi, J; Rizk, T; Nohra, G; Okais, N; Samaha, E

    2007-04-01

    Korsakoff-like amnestic syndromes have been rarely described following structural lesions of the central nervous system. In this report, we describe a case of acute Korsakoff-like syndrome resulting from the combination of a left anteromedian thalamic infarct and a right hippocampal hemorrhage. We also review the literature relevant to the neuropathology and pathophysiology of Korsakoff syndrome and anterograde amnesia.

  15. Complex neurological symptoms in bilateral thalamic stroke due to Percheron artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Paola; Manganotti, Paolo; Moretti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma), vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance. The presentation is similar to the "top of the basilar syndrome", and early recognition should be prompted. We describe the case of a young female with this vessel variant who experienced a bilateral thalamic stroke. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral thalamic infarcts and a truncated artery of Percheron. Occlusion of the vessel was presumably due to embolism from a patent foramen ovale. Thrombolysis was performed, with incomplete symptom remission, cognitive impairment, and persistence of speech disorders. Early recognition and treatment of posterior circulation strokes is mandatory, and further investigation for underlying stroke etiologies is needed.

  16. A stereological study of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, A S; Korbo, S; Uylings, H B M

    2014-01-01

    The total number of neurons and glial cells in the mediodorsal thalamic (MDT) nucleus of four aged females with Down syndrome (DS; mean age 69years) was estimated and compared to six age- and sex-matched controls. The MDT nucleus was delineated on coronal sections, and cell numbers (large and small...

  17. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate

  18. A Requirements-Based Exploration of Open-Source Software Development Projects--Towards a Natural Language Processing Software Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlas, Radu Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Open source projects do have requirements; they are, however, mostly informal, text descriptions found in requests, forums, and other correspondence. Understanding such requirements provides insight into the nature of open source projects. Unfortunately, manual analysis of natural language requirements is time-consuming, and for large projects,…

  19. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  20. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rongfeng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  1. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT and M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RYAN GW

    2008-01-01

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized

  2. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE → TC → Cortex . Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 → TC 1 → Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 → Cortex 2

  3. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE→TC→Cortex. Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 →TC 1 →Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 →Cortex 2 →Cortex 3

  4. Efferent projections of the septum in the Tegu lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sligar, C M; Voneida, T J

    1981-09-01

    A H3 proline or H3 leucine mixture was injected into the septal region of the Tegu lizard in order to determine its efferent projections. The brains were processed according to standard autoradiographic technique and counterstained with cresyl violet. Septal projections were limited to either telencephalic or diencephalic areas. Intratelencephalic projections consisted of efferents to medial pallium, nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of the anterior commissure, preoptic area and septum itself. Fibers entering the diencephalon projected to medial habenular nucleus, dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, dorsolateral thalamic area, periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area and mammillary nucleus. The results are discussed in relation to the efferent projections of the septum in other vertebrates.

  5. THE PLANNING OF A CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT PROJECT: REQUIREMENTS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana OLARU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the aspects regarding the planning of a customer relationship management (CRM project, we emphasize the factors that assure the success of such an approach. In order to obtain the attended results, an organization needs the best selection of the project manager and the most efficient teamwork, which implies employees from the company’s departments and also IT specialists. In the final part, we made appreciations concerning the efficiency of a CRM project and the opportunities created by its implementation.

  6. Dynamics of epileptic activity in a peculiar case of childhood absence epilepsy and correlation with thalamic levels of GABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Leal

    2016-01-01

    Significance: In a clinical case of CAE with EEG and fMRI-BOLD manifestations restricted to one hemisphere, we found an associated increase in thalamic GABA concentration consistent with a role for this abnormality in human CAE.

  7. 75 FR 10866 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...) with respect to certain water quality treatment and monitoring equipment that will be used in a project... Act (Buy American provision) with respect to certain water quality treatment and monitoring equipment... temperatures for culture of June sucker. The recirculation system requires water treatment and water quality...

  8. Development of Occupational Safety and Health Requirement Management System (OSHREMS Software Using Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 for Building Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Nor Haslinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry sector is considered as being risky with frequent and high accident rate. According to Social Security Organization (SOCSO, the construction accidents has arisen from time to time. Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB has developed the Safety and Health Assessment System in Construction (SHASSIC for evaluating the performance of a contractor in construction project by setting out the safety and health management and practices, however the requirement checklist provided is not comprehensive. Therefore, this study aims to develop a software system for facilitating OSH in building construction project, namely OSH requirements management system (OSHREMS, using Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 and Sublime Text as PHP editor. The results from a preliminary study which was conducted through interviews showed that, the respondents were only implementing the basic requirements that comply with legislations, with the absence of appropriate and specific guideline in ensuring occupational safety and health (OSH at the workplace. The tool will be benefits for contractors and other parties to effectively manage the OSH requirements for their projects based on project details.

  9. Report: Response to Congressional Request on Signage Requirements for Projects Funded by the Recovery Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-X-0175, August 2, 2010. EPA developed two forms of guidance that discuss the need for recipients to display a Recovery Act logo to communicate to the public that the project is a Recovery Act investment.

  10. Estimating Required Contingency Funds for Construction Projects using Multiple Linear Regression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Jason J

    2006-01-01

    Cost overruns are a critical problem for construction projects. The common practice for dealing with cost overruns is the assignment of an arbitrary flat percentage of the construction budget as a contingency fund...

  11. How Would an Eight-Division Army Meet Current and Likely Projected Strategic Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannon, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Given today's demographics and the projected future demographics of the primary recruited population of males and females ages 17 to 24, this challenge will only intensify as the Army and the other...

  12. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  13. Interactions between thalamic and cortical rhythms during semantic memory recall in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D.; Moo, Lauren R.; Kraut, Michael A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Hart, John, Jr.

    2002-04-01

    Human scalp electroencephalographic rhythms, indicative of cortical population synchrony, have long been posited to reflect cognitive processing. Although numerous studies employing simultaneous thalamic and cortical electrode recording in nonhuman animals have explored the role of the thalamus in the modulation of cortical rhythms, direct evidence for thalamocortical modulation in human has not, to our knowledge, been obtained. We simultaneously recorded from thalamic and scalp electrodes in one human during performance of a cognitive task and found a spatially widespread, phase-locked, low-frequency rhythm (7-8 Hz) power decrease at thalamus and scalp during semantic memory recall. This low-frequency rhythm power decrease was followed by a spatially specific, phase-locked, fast-rhythm (21-34 Hz) power increase at thalamus and occipital scalp. Such a pattern of thalamocortical activity reflects a plausible neural mechanism underlying semantic memory recall that may underlie other cognitive processes as well.

  14. A Case of Midbrain and Thalamic Infarction Involving Artery of Percheron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Almamun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood supply to the thalamus and brainstem have frequent anatomic variations. One of these is where all the perforators to the above areas arise from a single branch of the posterior cerebral artery commonly known as the artery of Percheron. Infarction involving this artery leading to bilateral thalamic and midbrain lesions is not uncommon, but can cause diagnostic difficulties due to the varying clinical presentations possible and the wide differentials. Early brain imaging and diagnosis is important for initiating appropriate treatment. In this case report, we discuss a patient who presented with an artery of Percheron related stroke affecting the mid brain and paramedian thalamic areas. We also discuss the differentials of presentations with similar symptoms.

  15. Thalamic deactivation at sleep onset precedes that of the cerebral cortex in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Michel; Rey, Marc; Bastuji, Hélène; Guillemant, Philippe; Mauguière, François; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Thalamic and cortical activities are assumed to be time-locked throughout all vigilance states. Using simultaneous intracortical and intrathalamic recordings, we demonstrate here that the thalamic deactivation occurring at sleep onset most often precedes that of the cortex by several minutes, whereas reactivation of both structures during awakening is synchronized. Delays between thalamus and cortex deactivations can vary from one subject to another when a similar cortical region is considered. In addition, heterogeneity in activity levels throughout the cortical mantle is larger than previously thought during the descent into sleep. Thus, asynchronous thalamo-cortical deactivation while falling asleep probably explains the production of hypnagogic hallucinations by a still-activated cortex and the common self-overestimation of the time needed to fall asleep. PMID:20142493

  16. Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis

  17. [Motor neglect of thalamic origin: report on two cases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplane, D; Escourolle, R; Degos, J D; Sauron, B; Massiou, H

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of thalamic lesions with motor neglect are presented. The syndrome of motor neglect was complete in those cases with a) underutilization of left limbs, but good utilization upon verbal orders, b) loss of placement reaction, c) weakness of movement when hand was approaching the target, d) weakness of motor reaction to nociceptive stimuli. Those cases confirm that motor neglect exists after thalamic lesions and bring pathologic clues for topographic discussion. Motor neglect seems to be a particular case of partial unilateral neglect throwing some doubt on the hypothesis of a global trouble of hemispheric activation. Prevalence of left motor neglects suggests some linkage between propositional motility and language. One may suppose that in the right hemisphere language is able to have a vicarious action when spontaneous activation is lost; at the opposite, in the left hemisphere language and motility would be too linked to let this dissociation be generally possible.

  18. Surgical management of thalamic gliomas: case selection, technical considerations, and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Thakar, Sumit; Dadlani, Ravi; Mohan, Dilip; Furtado, Sunil Valentine; Ghosal, Nandita; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify (1) the thalamic gliomas suitable for surgical resection and (2) the appropriate surgical approach based on their location and the displacement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC). A retrospective study over a 5-year period (from 2006 to 2010) was performed in 41 patients with thalamic gliomas. The mean age of these patients was 20.4 years (range, 2-65 years). Twenty (49 %) tumors were thalamic, 19 (46 %) were thalamopeduncular, and 2 (5 %) were bilateral. The PLIC, based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance axial sections, was displaced anterolaterally in 23 (56 %) cases and laterally in 6 (14 %) cases. It was involved by lesion in eight (20 %) cases and could not be identified in four (10 %) cases. Resection, favored in patients with well-defined, contrast-enhancing lesions, was performed in 34 (83 %) cases, while a biopsy was resorted to in 7 (17 %) cases. A gross total resection or near total resection (>90 %) could be achieved in 26 (63 %) cases. The middle temporal gyrus approach, used when the PLIC was displaced anterolaterally, was the commonly used approach (63.5 %). Common pathologies were pilocytic astrocytoma (58 %) in children and grade III/IV astrocytomas (86 %) in adults. Preoperative motor deficits improved in 64 % of the patients with pilocytic lesions as compared to 0 % in patients with grade III/IV lesions (P value, 0.001). Postoperatively, two patients (5 %) had marginal worsening of motor power, two patients developed visual field defects, and one patient developed a third nerve paresis. Radical resection of thalamic gliomas is a useful treatment modality in a select subset of patients and is the treatment of choice for pilocytic astrocytomas. Tailoring the surgical approach, depending on the relative position of the PLIC, has an important bearing on outcome.

  19. Passive accessory joint mobilization in the multimodal management of chronic dysesthesia following thalamic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kristina; O'Hearn, Michael; Franck, Carla C; Courtney, Carol A

    2018-03-20

    Case Report. Stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability. Dysesthesia, an unpleasant sensory disturbance, is common following thalamic stroke and evidence-based interventions for this impairment are limited. The purpose of this case report was to describe a decrease in dysesthesia following manual therapy intervention in a patient with history of right lacunar thalamic stroke. A 66-year-old female presented with tingling and dysesthesia in left hemisensory distribution including left trunk and upper/lower extremities, limiting function. Decreased left shoulder active range of motion, positive sensory symptoms but no sensory loss in light touch was found. She denied pain and moderate shoulder muscular weakness was demonstrated. Laterality testing revealed right/left limb discrimination deficits and neglect-like symptoms were reported. Passive accessory joint motion assessment of glenohumeral and thoracic spine revealed hypomobility and provoked dysesthesia. Interventions included passive oscillatory joint mobilization of glenohumeral joint, thoracic spine, ribs and shoulder strengthening. After six sessions, shoulder function, active range of motion, strength improved and dysesthesia decreased. Global Rating of Change Scale was +5 and QuickDASH score decreased from 45% to 22% disability. Laterality testing was unchanged. Manual therapy may be a beneficial intervention in management of thalamic stroke-related dysesthesia. Implications for Rehabilitation While pain is common following thalamic stroke, patients may present with chronic paresthesia or dysesthesia, often in a hemisensory distribution. Passive movement may promote inhibition of hyperexcitable cortical pathways, which may diminish aberrant sensations. Passive oscillatory manual therapy may be an effective way to treat sensory disturbances such as paresthesias or dysesthesia.

  20. Sensory processing of deep tissue nociception in the rat spinal cord and thalamic ventrobasal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Shafaq; West, Steven J; McMahon, Stephen B; Bennett, David L; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2017-07-01

    Sensory processing of deep somatic tissue constitutes an important component of the nociceptive system, yet associated central processing pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a novel electrophysiological characterization and immunohistochemical analysis of neural activation in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN). These neurons show evoked activity to deep, but not cutaneous, stimulation. The evoked responses of neurons in the LSN can be sensitized to somatosensory stimulation following intramuscular hypertonic saline, an acute model of muscle pain, suggesting this is an important spinal relay site for the processing of deep tissue nociceptive inputs. Neurons of the thalamic ventrobasal complex (VBC) mediate both cutaneous and deep tissue sensory processing, but in contrast to the lateral spinal nucleus our electrophysiological studies do not suggest the existence of a subgroup of cells that selectively process deep tissue inputs. The sensitization of polymodal and thermospecific VBC neurons to mechanical somatosensory stimulation following acute muscle stimulation with hypertonic saline suggests differential roles of thalamic subpopulations in mediating cutaneous and deep tissue nociception in pathological states. Overall, our studies at both the spinal (lateral spinal nucleus) and supraspinal (thalamic ventrobasal complex) levels suggest a convergence of cutaneous and deep somatosensory inputs onto spinothalamic pathways, which are unmasked by activation of muscle nociceptive afferents to produce consequent phenotypic alterations in spinal and thalamic neural coding of somatosensory stimulation. A better understanding of the sensory pathways involved in deep tissue nociception, as well as the degree of labeled line and convergent pathways for cutaneous and deep somatosensory inputs, is fundamental to developing targeted analgesic therapies for deep pain syndromes. © 2017 University College London. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals

  1. Bulk Fuel Storage Requirements for Maintenance, Repair, and Environmental Projects at Fort Hood, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carros, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, environmental, and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  2. Increased thalamic resting-state connectivity as a core driver of LSD-induced hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P; Lang, U; Schmidt, A; Liechti, M; Borgwardt, S

    2017-12-01

    It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches. Correlation analyses were used to explore relationships between thalamic connectivity to regions involved in auditory and visual hallucinations and subjective ratings on auditory and visual drug effects. LSD caused significant alterations in all dimensions of the 5D-ASC scale and significantly increased thalamic functional connectivity to various cortical regions. Furthermore, LSD-induced functional connectivity measures between the thalamus and the right fusiform gyrus and insula correlated significantly with subjective auditory and visual drug effects. Hallucinogenic drug effects might be provoked by facilitations of cortical excitability via thalamocortical interactions. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs and provide further insight into the role of the 5-HT 2A -receptor in altered states of consciousness. © 2017 The Authors Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Assessment of paramedian thalamic infarcts: MR imaging, clinical features and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidauer, Stefan; Zanella, Friedhelm E.; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Nichtweiss, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Considering the highly variable vascular supply of the thalamic nuclei, MRI and clinical syndromes can be heterogeneous in ischemic diseases. We attempt to determine MRI pattern and to analyse neurological features and prognosis of paramedian infarcts. In a prospective case series within 5 years from 1999 to 2003, MRI, MRA and clinical symptoms of 38 consecutive patients were analysed. The inferomedial (posterior thalamoperforating artery) territory was affected in 89%, and lesions in the anterolateral (tuberothalamic artery) territory occurred in 42%. However, definite attribution to anterolateral or inferomedial territories was not possible in 13%. Neurological manifestations were somnolence (87%), hemisyndromes (79%), cognitive deficits (58%), oculomotor nerve palsies (53%) and vertical gaze palsies (39%). The most common aetiologies were cardiac embolism (42%), intraarterial embolism (16%), small vessel disease (13%) and large artery arteriosclerosis (13%). Pathological MRA findings were encountered in 55%, and in 18%, lesions were only visible on diffusion-weighted imaging. Correlation of MRI pattern and neurological symptoms points out anterolateral thalamic lesions as the cause of amnestic deficits. Intracranial MRA allows a non-invasive prediction of basilar tip occlusion. Our results underline the necessity of additional diffusion-weighted imaging in detecting small thalamic and midbrain lesions. (orig.)

  4. Clinical, neuropsychological, and pre-stimulus dorsomedial thalamic nucleus electrophysiological data in deep brain stimulation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here comprise clinical, neuropsychological, and intrathalamic electrophysiological data from 7 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and are related to the article “Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power predicts human memory formation” C.M. Sweeney-Reed, T. Zaehle, J. Voges, F.C. Schmitt, L. Buentjen, K. Kopitzki, et al. (2016 [1]. The patients participated in a memory paradigm after receiving electrodes implanted in the DMTN due to the surgical approach taken in electrode insertion for deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamic nucleus. Epilepsy duration and pre-operative neuropsychological tests provide an indication of the profile of patients receiving intrathalamic electrode implantation and the memory capabilities in such a patient group. The electrophysiological data were recorded from the right DMTN preceding stimulus presentation during intentional memory encoding. The patients viewed a series of photographic scenes, which they judged as indoors or outdoors. The 900 ms epochs prior to stimulus presentation were labeled as preceding successful or unsuccessful subsequent memory formation according to a subsequent memory test for the items. The difference between theta power preceding successful versus unsuccessful subsequent memory formation is shown against time for each patient individually. Keywords: Memory encoding, Dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, Pre-stimulus theta

  5. The neurobiology of thalamic amnesia: Contributions of medial thalamus and prefrontal cortex to delayed conditional discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Robert G; Miller, Rikki L A; Wormwood, Benjamin A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Onos, Kristen D; Gibson, Brett M

    2015-07-01

    Although medial thalamus is well established as a site of pathology associated with global amnesia, there is uncertainty about which structures are critical and how they affect memory function. Evidence from human and animal research suggests that damage to the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior, mediodorsal (MD), midline (M), and intralaminar (IL) nuclei contribute to different signs of thalamic amnesia. Here we focus on MD and the adjacent M and IL nuclei, structures identified in animal studies as critical nodes in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-related pathways that are necessary for delayed conditional discrimination. Recordings of PFC neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed non-matching-to position (DNMTP) task revealed discrete populations encoding information related to planning, execution, and outcome of DNMTP-related actions and delay-related activity signaling previous reinforcement. Parallel studies recording the activity of MD and IL neurons and examining the effects of unilateral thalamic inactivation on the responses of PFC neurons demonstrated a close coupling of central thalamic and PFC neurons responding to diverse aspects of DNMTP and provide evidence that thalamus interacts with PFC neurons to give rise to complex goal-directed behavior exemplified by the DNMTP task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contralateral Supracerebellar-Infratentorial Approach for Resection of Thalamic Cavernous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitelli, Justin; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Gandhi, Sirin; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-02-26

    Surgical resection of cavernous malformations (CM) in the posterior thalamus, pineal region, and midbrain tectum is technically challenging owing to the presence of adjacent eloquent cortex and critical neurovascular structures. Various supracerebellar infratentorial (SCIT) approaches have been used in the surgical armamentarium targeting lesions in this region, including the median, paramedian, and extreme lateral variants. Surgical view of a posterior thalamic CM from the traditional ipsilateral vantage point may be obscured by occipital lobe and tentorium. To describe a novel surgical approach via a contralateral SCIT (cSCIT) trajectory for resecting posterior thalamic CMs. From 1997 to 2017, 75 patients underwent the SCIT approach for cerebrovascular/oncologic pathology by the senior author. Of these, 30 patients underwent the SCIT approach for CM resection, and 3 patients underwent the cSCIT approach. Historical patient data, radiographic features, surgical technique, and postoperative neurological outcomes were evaluated in each patient. All 3 patients presented with symptomatic CMs within the right posterior thalamus with radiographic evidence of hemorrhage. All surgeries were performed in the sitting position. There were no intraoperative complications. Neuroimaging demonstrated complete CM resection in all cases. There were no new or worsening neurological deficits or evidence of rebleeding/recurrence noted postoperatively. This study establishes the surgical feasibility of a contralateral SCIT approach in resection of symptomatic thalamic CMs It demonstrates the application for this procedure in extending the surgical trajectory superiorly and laterally and maximizing safe resectability of these deep CMs with gravity-assisted brain retraction.

  7. Long-term outcome of thalamic deep brain stimulation in two patients with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermans, Linda; Duits, Annelien; Temel, Yasin; Winogrodzka, Ania; Peeters, Frenk; Beuls, Emile A M; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle

    2010-10-01

    Thalamic deep brain stimulation for intractable Tourette Syndrome was introduced in 1999 by Vandewalle et al. In this follow-up study, the authors report on the long-term (6 and 10 years) outcome in terms of tic reduction, cognition, mood and side effects of medial thalamic deep brain stimulation in two previously described Tourette patients. The authors compared the outcome of two patients at 6 and 10 years after surgery with their preoperative status and after 8 months and 5 years of treatment, respectively. Standardised video recordings were scored by three independent investigators. Both patients underwent (neuro)psychological assessment at all time points of follow-up. Tic improvement observed at 5 years in patient 1 (90.1%) was maintained at 10 years (92.6%). In patient 2, the tic improvement at 8 months (82%) was slightly decreased at 6 years (78%). During follow-up, case 1 revealed no changes in cognition, but case 2 showed a decrease in verbal fluency and learning which was in line with his subjective reports. Case 2 showed a slight decrease in depression, but overall psychopathology was still high at 6 years after surgery with an increase in anger and aggression together with difficulties in social adaptation. Besides temporary hardware-related complications, no distressing adverse effects were observed. Bilateral thalamic stimulation may provide sustained tic benefit after at least 6 years, but to maximise overall outcome, attention is needed for postoperative psychosocial adaptation, already prior to surgery.

  8. Disrupted Auto-Activation, Dysexecutive and Confabulating Syndrome Following Bilateral Thalamic and Right Putaminal Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve De Witte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical, neuropsychological, structural and functional neuroimaging results are reported in a patient who developed a unique combination of symptoms after a bi-thalamic and right putaminal stroke. The symptoms consisted of dysexecutive disturbances associated with confabulating behavior and auto-activation deficits. Background: Basal ganglia and thalamic lesions may result in a variety of motor, sensory, neuropsychological and behavioral syndromes. However, the combination of a dysexecutive syndrome complicated at the behavioral level with an auto-activation and confabulatory syndrome has never been reported. Methods: Besides clinical and neuroradiological investigations, an extensive set of standardized neuropsychological tests was carried out. Results: In the post-acute phase of the stroke, a dysexecutive syndrome was found in association with confabulating behavior and auto-activation deficits. MRI showed focal destruction of both thalami and the right putamen. Quantified ECD SPECT revealed bilateral hypoperfusions in the basal ganglia and thalamus but no perfusion deficits were found at the cortical level. Conclusion: The combination of disrupted auto-activation, dysexecutive and confabulating syndrome in a single patient following isolated subcortical damage renders this case exceptional. Although these findings do not reveal a functional disruption of the striato-ventral pallidal-thalamic-frontomesial limbic circuitry, they add to the understanding of the functional role of the basal ganglia in cognitive and behavioral syndromes.

  9. An approach to estimation of degree of customization for ERP projects using prioritized requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parthasarathy, Sudhaman; Daneva, Maia

    2016-01-01

    Customization in ERP projects is a risky, but unavoidable undertaking that companies need to initiate in order to achieve alignment between their acquired ERP solution and their organizational goals and business processes. Conscious about the risks, many companies commit to leveraging the

  10. 24 CFR 401.420 - When must the Restructuring Plan require project-based assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.420 When must the..., if: (a) The PAE determines there is a market-wide vacancy rate of 6 percent or less; (b) At least 50 percent of the units in the project are occupied by elderly families, disabled families, or elderly and...

  11. Handling requirements dependencies in agile projects: A focus group with agile software development practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martakis, Aias; Daneva, Maia; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Jean-Louis Cavarero, S.; Rolland, C; Cavarero, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Agile practices on requirements dependencies are a relatively unexplored topic in literature. Empirical studies on it are scarce. This research sets out to uncover concepts that practitioners in companies of various sizes across the globe and in various industries, use for dealing with requirements

  12. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  13. 0-6686 : improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Limestone rock asphalt (LRA) mixtures have : been produced and placed for several decades : using specification requirements currently listed : under DMS 9210, Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA). : Several Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) distr...

  14. Application of Total Quality Management (TQM) Requirements in Risk Management in Construction Projects in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Entisar K. Al-Geelawee; Anfal Nadhel Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Total quality management considers one of the modern scientific entrances which practiced by productivity service organizations alike to provide appropriate quality required outputs according to the needs and desires of customers manage , enable the organization seeking to continue and grow in light of the increasing competition from the satisfy and provide the appropriate total quality management requirements whenever led to face risks that they may have in a manner in which they can be a...

  15. FEM-model of the Naesliden Mine: requirements and limitations at the outset of the project. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauland, N.

    1980-05-15

    The design of any instrument depends entirely on the application planned for the instrument. This applies also to the FEM-representation of the Naesliden Mine. With reference to the aims of the project the requirements on the model are outlined with regard to - simulation of the mining process - modelling with special reference to the aims of the project - comparison of FEM-results with in situ observations to determine the validity of the model. The proposed model is two-dimensional and incorporates joint elements to simulate the weak alteration zone between orebody and sidewall rock. The remainder of the model exhibits linear elastic behaviour. This model is evaluated with respect to the given requirements. The limitations of the chosen model are outlined.

  16. Thalamic involvement in the regulation of alpha EEG activity in psychiatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, S.P.; Pakula, J.; Young, I.J.; Crayton, J.W.; Konopka, L.M.; Rybak, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The thalamus is considered to be an important sub-cortical system involved in modulation of cortical activities. A relationship between thalamic activity and surface EEG was recently reported. In this study we evaluated a group of patients with psychiatric disorders who presented with asymmetric perfusion of the thalamus based on brain SPECT HMPAO studies. We predicted that asymmetrical activity of the thalamus would have asymmetrically distributed surface qEEG activity patterns. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three male psychiatric patients (age 54±14) with a primary diagnosis of depression and co-morbid substance abuse (83%) were studied with qEEG and HMPAO brain SPECT. The HMPAO ligand was administered while the EEG activity was being recorded. The SPECT analysis was conducted by means of ROI and SPM. ROI regions were determined based on the Talairach atlas coordinate system. ROI locations were verified by the automated utility, Talairach Demon. QEEG data was analyzed by a standardized protocol involving the NxLink database. Correlations between SPECT findings and qEEG absolute power were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups based on thalamic perfusion patterns. Group 1 (Gr 1) had decreased perfusion to the right thalamus whereas Group 2 (Gr 2) had decreased perfusion to the left thalamus. SPM comparison of the patient groups to normal control subjects indicated significant findings. Comparison of Gr 1 to controls showed increased activity in the left temporal lobe and vermis. Decreased activity was observed in the left and right medial frontal lobes (right Brodmann 9;left Brodmann 6) as well as the left (Brodmann 30) and right (Brodmann 24) cingulate. Gr 2 comparison showed increased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann 10) and left inferior parietal lobe. Decreased activity was found in the left inferior frontal lobe (Brodmann 47). A positive correlation between alpha power and thalamic perfusion was identified in Gr

  17. Cortically-controlled population stochastic facilitation as a plausible substrate for guiding sensory transfer across the thalamic gateway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Béhuret

    Full Text Available The thalamus is the primary gateway that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex. While a single recipient cortical cell receives the convergence of many principal relay cells of the thalamus, each thalamic cell in turn integrates a dense and distributed synaptic feedback from the cortex. During sensory processing, the influence of this functional loop remains largely ignored. Using dynamic-clamp techniques in thalamic slices in vitro, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to implement a realistic hybrid retino-thalamo-cortical pathway mixing biological cells and simulated circuits. The synaptic bombardment of cortical origin was mimicked through the injection of a stochastic mixture of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, resulting in a gradable correlation level of afferent activity shared by thalamic cells. The study of the impact of the simulated cortical input on the global retinocortical signal transfer efficiency revealed a novel control mechanism resulting from the collective resonance of all thalamic relay neurons. We show here that the transfer efficiency of sensory input transmission depends on three key features: i the number of thalamocortical cells involved in the many-to-one convergence from thalamus to cortex, ii the statistics of the corticothalamic synaptic bombardment and iii the level of correlation imposed between converging thalamic relay cells. In particular, our results demonstrate counterintuitively that the retinocortical signal transfer efficiency increases when the level of correlation across thalamic cells decreases. This suggests that the transfer efficiency of relay cells could be selectively amplified when they become simultaneously desynchronized by the cortical feedback. When applied to the intact brain, this network regulation mechanism could direct an attentional focus to specific thalamic subassemblies and select the appropriate input lines to the cortex according to the descending

  18. Projecting Personnel Security Investigations (PSI) Requirements: Current Issues, Challenges and a Viable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    the DoD components to project annual investigations within 5% of annual submissions in order to properly staff the OPM investigations programa ...Level97E N/ANavigator Trainee92T1 N/APilot Trainee92T0 N/AWing Commander91W N/AGeneral Officer90G N/AAide- De -Camp88A N/ACommand and Control86P N/AUnited...the Navy and Marine Corps can simply reflect inclusion of clearances from individuals who have transitioned from the Selected Reserves to the

  19. Meeting up-to-date safety requirements in the Russian NPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepkyan, G. O.; Yashkin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Safety features in Russian NPP designs are implemented by the combination of active and passive safety systems • Russian NPP designs are in compliance with up-to-date international and European safety requirements and refer to Generation III+ • Russian state-of-the-art designs have already implemented some design solutions, which take into account “post-Fukushima” requirements. Russian NPP design principles have been approved during the European discussions in spring 2012, including the IAEA extraordinary session addressed to Fukushima NPP accident

  20. A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pankaj Kumar; Mazumdar, Asis

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

  1. 28 CFR 512.11 - Requirements for research projects and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Incentives may not be offered to help persuade inmate subjects to participate. However, soft drinks and... not be stored in, or introduced into, an electronic retrieval system. (13) If the researcher is... be required to revise study procedures in accordance with the new methodology. (b) Requests from...

  2. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development - Project report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredrikson, R.; Thunem, A.P.J. [Institute for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    In 2004, the work has focused on providing a unified exposition on the issues studied and thereby facilitating a common approach to requirements handling, from their origins and through the different development phases. Emphasis has been put on the development of the TACO Traceability Model. The model supports understandability, communication and traceability by providing a common basis, in the form of a requirements change history, for different kinds of analysis and presentation of different requirements perspectives. Traceability is facilitated through the representation of requirements changes in terms of a change history tree built up by composition of instances of a number of change types, and by providing analysis on the basis of this representation. Much of the strength of the TACO Traceability Model is that it aims at forming the logic needed for formalising the activities related to change management and hence their further automation. The work was presented at the second TACO Industrial Seminar, which took place in Helsinki on the 8th of December 2004. Minutes of the seminar are included in appendix B. (au)

  3. Mise en Scene: Conversion of Scenarios to CSP Traces for the Requirements-to-Design-to-Code Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter. John D.; Gardner, William B.; Rash, James L.; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The "Requirements-to-Design-to-Code" (R2D2C) project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is based on deriving a formal specification expressed in Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) notation from system requirements supplied in the form of CSP traces. The traces, in turn, are to be extracted from scenarios, a user-friendly medium often used to describe the required behavior of computer systems under development. This work, called Mise en Scene, defines a new scenario medium (Scenario Notation Language, SNL) suitable for control-dominated systems, coupled with a two-stage process for automatic translation of scenarios to a new trace medium (Trace Notation Language, TNL) that encompasses CSP traces. Mise en Scene is offered as an initial solution to the problem of the scenarios-to-traces "D2" phase of R2D2C. A survey of the "scenario" concept and some case studies are also provided.

  4. MINERVE flood warning and management project. What is computed, what is required and what is visualized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Hernandez, J.; Boillat, J.-L.; Schleiss, A.

    2010-09-01

    During last decades several flood events caused important inundations in the Upper Rhone River basin in Switzerland. As a response to such disasters, the MINERVE project aims to improve the security by reducing damages in this basin. The main goal of this project is to predict floods in advance in order to obtain a better flow control during flood peaks taking advantage from the multireservoir system of the existing hydropower schemes. The MINERVE system evaluates the hydro-meteorological situation on the watershed and provides hydrological forecasts with a horizon from three to five days. It exploits flow measurements, data from reservoirs and hydropower plants as well as deterministic (COSMO-7 and COSMO-2) and ensemble (COSMO-LEPS) meteorological forecast from MeteoSwiss. The hydrological model is based on a semi-distributed concept, dividing the watershed in 239 sub-catchments, themselves decomposed in elevation bands in order to describe the temperature-driven processes related to snow and glacier melt. The model is completed by rivers and hydraulic works such as water intakes, reservoirs, turbines and pumps. Once the hydrological forecasts are calculated, a report provides the warning level at selected control points according to time, being a support to decision-making for preventive actions. A Notice, Alert or Alarm is then activated depending on the discharge thresholds defined by the Valais Canton. Preventive operation scenarios are then generated based on observed discharge at control points, meteorological forecasts from MeteoSwiss, hydrological forecasts from MINERVE and retention possibilities in the reservoirs. An update of the situation is done every time new data or new forecasts are provided, keeping last observations and last forecasts in the warning report. The forecasts can also be used for the evaluation of priority decisions concerning the management of hydropower plants for security purposes. Considering future inflows and reservoir levels

  5. Distributed project scheduling at NASA: Requirements for manual protocols and computer-based support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephen F.

    1992-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of Space Shuttle mission planning.

  6. Supplemental design requirements document, Multifunction Waste Tank Facility, Project W-236A. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) consists of four, nominal 1 million gallon, underground double-shell tanks, located in the 200-East area, and two tanks of the same capacity in the 200-West area. MWTF will provide environmentally safe storage capacity for wastes generated during remediation/retrieval activities of existing waste storage tanks. This document delineates in detail the information to be used for effective implementation of the Functional Design Criteria requirements

  7. Requirements on the Wismut rehabilitation project in terms of waste management and planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the question as to what extent the EC Directives, especially the more recent ones, and their transposition into national law entail altered requirements for the rehabilitation and management of radiologically relevant former mining sites. Its main focus is on waste management law. Furthermore, it briefly deals with questions concerning the IVU Directive in conjunction with German Federal Emission Control Law as well as with some issues concerning environmental impact assessments [de

  8. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors based on projections in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonovsky, G.M.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Kurachenkov, A.V.; Novikov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering (OKBM) specializes in the development of small and medium power reactors having different purposes. They include reactor plants for NPHPP, nuclear district heating power plants and propulsion plants. Small and medium power plants have simpler processes of electricity and heat production, less systems, simpler control algorithms and considerably enhanced inherent safety properties. These plants are mainly equipped with passive safety systems. These properties are especially characteristic for reactor plants of nuclear district heating power plants and HTG reactor plants. The designs of small and medium power plants actually provide a high degree of control automation which considerably reduces workload on the personnel in both normal and abnormal operation conditions. All this allows the reduction in personnel for small and medium power reactors if compared to high capacity reactor plants. But due to objective reasons the specific number of personnel (man/MW) for average and especially small capacity reactors considerably exceeds the value for high capacity reactor plants. At the same time one can propose a set of organization - technical measures allowing the increase in this value in future. Safety requirements imposed for small and average capacity reactors are the same or more strict than those for high capacity reactors. That's why the requirements to the training of personnel for such reactor plants are not allowed to be lowered if compared to the requirements imposed to the personnel of high capacity reactors. (author)

  9. Mediodorsal Thalamic Neurons Mirror the Activity of Medial Prefrontal Neurons Responding to Movement and Reinforcement during a Dynamic DNMTP Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rikki L A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Gibson, Brett M; Mair, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al., 2016). Criterion event-related responses were observed for 22% (254/1179) of neurons recorded in MD, 237 (93%) of which exhibited activity consistent with mPFC response types. More MD than mPFC neurons exhibited responses related to movement (45% vs. 29%) and reinforcement (51% vs. 27%). MD had few responses related to lever presses, and none related to preparation or memory delay, which constituted 43% of event-related activity in mPFC. Comparison of averaged normalized population activity and population response times confirmed the broad similarity of common response types in MD and mPFC and revealed differences in the onset and offset of some response types. Our results show that MD represents information about actions and outcomes essential for decision-making during dDNMTP, consistent with evidence from lesion studies that MD supports reward-based learning and action-selection. These findings support the hypothesis that MD reinforces task-relevant neural activity in PFC that gives rise to adaptive behavior.

  10. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor ...

  11. Medicinal Chemistry Projects Requiring Imaginative Structure-Based Drug Design Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitessier, Nicolas; Pottel, Joshua; Therrien, Eric; Englebienne, Pablo; Liu, Zhaomin; Tomberg, Anna; Corbeil, Christopher R

    2016-09-20

    Computational methods for docking small molecules to proteins are prominent in drug discovery. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of documented examples-and several pertinent cases within our research program. Fifteen years ago, our first docking-guided drug design project yielded nanomolar metalloproteinase inhibitors and illustrated the potential of structure-based drug design. Subsequent applications of docking programs to the design of integrin antagonists, BACE-1 inhibitors, and aminoglycosides binding to bacterial RNA demonstrated that available docking programs needed significant improvement. At that time, docking programs primarily considered flexible ligands and rigid proteins. We demonstrated that accounting for protein flexibility, employing displaceable water molecules, and using ligand-based pharmacophores improved the docking accuracy of existing methods-enabling the design of bioactive molecules. The success prompted the development of our own program, Fitted, implementing all of these aspects. The primary motivation has always been to respond to the needs of drug design studies; the majority of the concepts behind the evolution of Fitted are rooted in medicinal chemistry projects and collaborations. Several examples follow: (1) Searching for HDAC inhibitors led us to develop methods considering drug-zinc coordination and its effect on the pKa of surrounding residues. (2) Targeting covalent prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibitors prompted an update to Fitted to identify reactive groups and form bonds with a given residue (e.g., a catalytic residue) when the geometry allows it. Fitted-the first fully automated covalent docking program-was successfully applied to the discovery of four new classes of covalent POP inhibitors. As a result, efficient stereoselective syntheses of a few screening hits were prioritized rather than synthesizing large chemical libraries-yielding nanomolar inhibitors. (3) In order to study the metabolism of POP inhibitors by

  12. AAFE man-made noise experiment project. Volume 1: Introduction experiment definition and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure and map the man-made radio frequency emanations which exist at earth orbital altitudes. The major objectives of the program are to develop a complete conceptual experiment and developmental hardware for the collection and processing of data required to produce meaningful statistics on man-made noise level variations as functions of time, frequency, and geographic location. A wide dispersion measurement receiver mounted in a spacecraft operating in a specialized orbit is used to obtain the data. A summary of the experiment designs goals and constraints is provided. The recommended orbit for the spacecraft is defined. The characteristics of the receiver and the antennas are analyzed.

  13. Applicability of PSD Requirements to the Wisconsin Electric Power Company Port Washington Life Extension Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Functions and Requirements for West Valley Demonstration Project Tank Lay-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-01-01

    Documents completion of Milestone A.1-1, ''Issue Functions and Requirements for WVDP Tank Lay-Up,'' in Technical Task Plan TTP RL3-WT21A - ''Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up.'' This task is a collaborative effort among Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). Because of the site-specific nature of this task, the involvement of WVNS personnel is critical to the success of this task

  15. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  16. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  17. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors (SMRs) based on operating experience and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the time of this study there were about 160 small and medium sized nuclear power reactors (referred to as SMRs) in operation worldwide, and about 25 more under construction. Operation and maintenance costs for operating SMRs represent a substantial portion of the cost of electricity produced. Of these costs, the direct and indirect cost of staff represents the major cost component. In recent years, particularly since 1990, there has been increased interest in SMRs by many developing countries wishing to take advantage of nuclear power and several small and medium reactor designs are in various stages of development. To enhance the economic competitive position of SMRs relative to alternative methods of electricity generation, it is essential to ensure that new SMRs can be operated reliably and efficiently using the optimum number of staff. This publication reviews the lessons learned from the reactor operation, and the insights gained through the design of new SMRs, with a view to optimizing staffing in order to improve overall plant economics without compromising safety.This publication is intended to evaluate the estimated staffing size of various SMRs, the staff qualification and training required for the operation of future SMRs. and the key issues which impact the staffing requirements that should be considered in the development and deployment of future SMRs

  18. Motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity alterations in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eixarch, Elisenda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Batalle, Dafnis; Gratacos, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with short- and long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Structural brain changes underlying these alterations have been described with the use of different magnetic resonance-based methods that include changes in whole structural brain networks. However, evaluation of specific brain circuits and its correlation with related functions has not been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction. In this study, we aimed to investigate differences in tractography-related metrics in cortico-striatal-thalamic and motor networks in intrauterine growth restricted children and whether these parameters were related with their specific function in order to explore its potential use as an imaging biomarker of altered neurodevelopment. We included a group of 24 intrauterine growth restriction subjects and 27 control subjects that were scanned at 1 year old; we acquired T1-weighted and 30 directions diffusion magnetic resonance images. Each subject brain was segmented in 93 regions with the use of anatomical automatic labeling atlas, and deterministic tractography was performed. Brain regions included in motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic networks were defined based in functional and anatomic criteria. Within the streamlines that resulted from the whole brain tractography, those belonging to each specific circuit were selected and tractography-related metrics that included number of streamlines, fractional anisotropy, and integrity were calculated for each network. We evaluated differences between both groups and further explored the correlation of these parameters with the results of socioemotional, cognitive, and motor scales from Bayley Scale at 2 years of age. Reduced fractional anisotropy (cortico-striatal-thalamic, 0.319 ± 0.018 vs 0.315 ± 0.015; P = .010; motor, 0.322 ± 0.019 vs 0.319 ± 0.020; P = .019) and integrity cortico-striatal-thalamic (0.407 ± 0.040 vs 0.399 ± 0.034; P = .018; motor, 0.417 ± 0.044 vs 0

  19. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers

  20. A computational relationship between thalamic sensory neural responses and contrast perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaoguang; Purushothaman, Gopathy; Casagrande, Vivien A

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the relationship between sensory neural responses and perceptual decisions remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. Decades of experimental and modeling work in the sensory cortex have demonstrated that a perceptual decision pool is usually composed of tens to hundreds of neurons, the responses of which are significantly correlated not only with each other, but also with the behavioral choices of an animal. Few studies, however, have measured neural activity in the sensory thalamus of awake, behaving animals. Therefore, it remains unclear how many thalamic neurons are recruited and how the information from these neurons is pooled at subsequent cortical stages to form a perceptual decision. In a previous study we measured neural activity in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) during a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) contrast detection task, and found that single LGN neurons were significantly correlated with the monkeys' behavioral choices, despite their relatively poor contrast sensitivity and a lack of overall interneuronal correlations. We have now computationally tested a number of specific hypotheses relating these measured LGN neural responses to the contrast detection behavior of the animals. We modeled the perceptual decisions with different numbers of neurons and using a variety of pooling/readout strategies, and found that the most successful model consisted of about 50-200 LGN neurons, with individual neurons weighted differentially according to their signal-to-noise ratios (quantified as d-primes). These results supported the hypothesis that in contrast detection the perceptual decision pool consists of multiple thalamic neurons, and that the response fluctuations in these neurons can influence contrast perception, with the more sensitive thalamic neurons likely to exert a greater influence.

  1. Thalamic functional connectivity predicts seizure laterality in individual TLE patients: application of a biomarker development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel S; Fox, Peter T; Pardoe, Heath; Lancaster, Jack; Price, Larry R; Blackmon, Karen; Berry, Kristen; Cavazos, Jose E; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive markers of brain function could yield biomarkers in many neurological disorders. Disease models constrained by coordinate-based meta-analysis are likely to increase this yield. Here, we evaluate a thalamic model of temporal lobe epilepsy that we proposed in a coordinate-based meta-analysis and extended in a diffusion tractography study of an independent patient population. Specifically, we evaluated whether thalamic functional connectivity (resting-state fMRI-BOLD) with temporal lobe areas can predict seizure onset laterality, as established with intracranial EEG. Twenty-four lesional and non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. No significant differences in functional connection strength in patient and control groups were observed with Mann-Whitney Tests (corrected for multiple comparisons). Notwithstanding the lack of group differences, individual patient difference scores (from control mean connection strength) successfully predicted seizure onset zone as shown in ROC curves: discriminant analysis (two-dimensional) predicted seizure onset zone with 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity; logistic regression (four-dimensional) achieved 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The strongest markers in both analyses were left thalamo-hippocampal and right thalamo-entorhinal cortex functional connection strength. Thus, this study shows that thalamic functional connections are sensitive and specific markers of seizure onset laterality in individual temporal lobe epilepsy patients. This study also advances an overall strategy for the programmatic development of neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical and genetic populations: a disease model informed by coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to anatomically constrain individual patient analyses.

  2. Thalamic metabolic alterations with cognitive dysfunction in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: a multivoxel spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Faxiu; Ma, Shaohui; Guo, Chenguang; Jin, Chenwang; Zhang, Ming [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Li, Dan [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-08-15

    Although abnormalities in metabolite compositions in the thalamus are well described in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN), differences in distinct thalamic subregions have not been measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), and whether there are correlations between thalamic metabolites and cognitive function still remain unknown. Multivoxel MRS was recorded to investigate the metabolic alterations in the thalamic subregions of patients with ITN. The regions of interest were localized in the anterior thalamus (A-Th), intralaminar portion of the thalamus (IL-Th), posterior lateral thalamus (PL-Th), posterior medial thalamus (PM-Th), and medial and lateral pulvinar of the thalamus (PuM-Th and PuL-Th). The N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline to creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were measured in the ITN and control groups. Scores of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were analyzed to correlate with the neuroradiological findings. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected side of PM-Th and PL-Th in ITN patients was statistically lower than that in the corresponding regions of the thalamus in controls. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected PM-Th was negatively associated with VAS and disease duration. Furthermore, decreases of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were detected in the affected side of IL-Th, and lower Cho/Cr was positively correlated with MoCA values in the ITN group. Our result of low level of NAA/Cr in the affected PM-Th probably serves as a marker of the pain-rating index, and decreased Cho/Cr in IL-Th may be an indicator of cognitive disorder in patients with ITN. (orig.)

  3. Thalamic gap junctions control local neuronal synchrony and influence macroscopic oscillation amplitude during EEG alpha rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart eHughes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although EEG alpha ( (8-13 Hz rhythms are often considered to reflect an ‘idling’ brain state, numerous studies indicate that they are also related to many aspects of perception. Recently, we outlined a potential cellular substrate by which such aspects of perception might be linked to basic  rhythm mechanisms. This scheme relies on a specialized subset of rhythmically bursting thalamocortical (TC neurons (high-threshold bursting cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN which are interconnected by gap junctions (GJs. By engaging GABAergic interneurons, that in turn inhibit conventional relay-mode TC neurons, these cells can lead to an effective temporal framing of thalamic relay-mode output. Although the role of GJs is pivotal in this scheme, evidence for their involvement in thalamic  rhythms has thus far mainly derived from experiments in in vitro slice preparations. In addition, direct anatomical evidence of neuronal GJs in the LGN is currently lacking. To address the first of these issues we tested the effects of the GJ inhibitors, carbenoxolone (CBX and 18-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-GA, given directly to the LGN via reverse microdialysis, on spontaneous LGN and EEG  rhythms in behaving cats. We also examined the effect of CBX on  rhythm-related LGN unit activity. Indicative of a role for thalamic GJs in these activities, 18-GA and CBX reversibly suppressed both LGN and EEG  rhythms, with CBX also decreasing neuronal synchrony. To address the second point, we used electron microscopy to obtain definitive ultrastructural evidence for the presence of GJs between neurons in the cat LGN. As interneurons show no phenotypic evidence of GJ coupling (i.e. dye-coupling and spikelets we conclude that these GJs must belong to TC neurons. The potential significance of these findings for relating macroscopic changes in  rhythms to basic cellular processes is discussed.

  4. Practical CT classification for thalamic hemorrhage. Relationship between localization of hematoma and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Hiroki; Furuya, Kazuhide; Segawa, Hiromu; Taniguchi, Tamiki; Sano, Keiji [Fuji Brain Inst. and Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    1994-06-01

    The study was designed to establish CT classification for predicting prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage. A retrospective analysis was made on CT scans from 100 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage less than 4 cm. Four lines were drawn on axial CT scans at the level of the pineal body: (A) line between the lateral edge of the anterior horn and the midpoint of the third ventricle; (B) vertebral line to the sagittal line from the midpoint of the third ventricle; (C) line between the lateral edge of the trigone and the midpoint of the third ventricle; and (D) line between the lateral edge of the anterior horn and the lateral edge of the trigone. According to the lateral extension, the location of hematoma fell into three types: anterior type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines A and B (type A); posterior type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines B and C and external margin of hematoma was localized medial to line D (type P); postero-lateral type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines B and C and showed lateral extension beyond line D (type PL). Severe hemiparesis was observed in 15.3% for type A, 21.8% for type P, and 59.3% for type PL. Good prognosis was seen in 84.7% for type A, 70.9% for type P, and 12.5% for type PL. Acute disturbance of consciousness was significantly observed in patients with medial extension of hematoma (86.4%) as compared with those without it (21.4%). These results indicated that CT classification is a simple means for predicting functional outcome of motor paresis and consciousness disturbance in patients with thalamic hemorrhage. (N.K.).

  5. Practical CT classification for thalamic hemorrhage. Relationship between localization of hematoma and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroki; Furuya, Kazuhide; Segawa, Hiromu; Taniguchi, Tamiki; Sano, Keiji; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki.

    1994-01-01

    The study was designed to establish CT classification for predicting prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage. A retrospective analysis was made on CT scans from 100 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage less than 4 cm. Four lines were drawn on axial CT scans at the level of the pineal body: (A) line between the lateral edge of the anterior horn and the midpoint of the third ventricle; (B) vertebral line to the sagittal line from the midpoint of the third ventricle; (C) line between the lateral edge of the trigone and the midpoint of the third ventricle; and (D) line between the lateral edge of the anterior horn and the lateral edge of the trigone. According to the lateral extension, the location of hematoma fell into three types: anterior type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines A and B (type A); posterior type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines B and C and external margin of hematoma was localized medial to line D (type P); postero-lateral type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines B and C and showed lateral extension beyond line D (type PL). Severe hemiparesis was observed in 15.3% for type A, 21.8% for type P, and 59.3% for type PL. Good prognosis was seen in 84.7% for type A, 70.9% for type P, and 12.5% for type PL. Acute disturbance of consciousness was significantly observed in patients with medial extension of hematoma (86.4%) as compared with those without it (21.4%). These results indicated that CT classification is a simple means for predicting functional outcome of motor paresis and consciousness disturbance in patients with thalamic hemorrhage. (N.K.)

  6. Future semiconductor material requirements and innovations as projected in the ITRS 2005 roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The international technology roadmap for semiconductors (ITRS) is a joint global effort of the semiconductor industry, the manufacturing equipment and material industry and the research community and consortia to define the future requirements and development of the semiconductor technology for the next 15 years. The ITRS started in 1992 as a US-national roadmap and became an international effort in 1998 with all major five industrial global regions (US, Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Europe) participating in its definition. The outlook in semiconductor manufacturing expects the continuous application of silicon technology for the next 15 years where complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based devices will carry the development of the industry at least for one more decade. New device architectures and concepts based on silicon wafer material are being developed to support the development of the IC industry for another one or two decade. The major section of the ITRS contains technical information about frontend processing and interconnects, device structures and memory concepts, lithography and metrology as well as factory integration and environmental issues. This paper will review the material requirements and the expected material innovations for the industry as outlined in the ITRS Version 2005. Materials to be discussed are, for example, high permittivity gate dielectrics, insulating layers with low dielectric constants for interconnects, and capacitor dielectrics for dynamic memories. In addition, the paper will address, for example, new transistor gate materials, new solutions for interconnect systems beyond copper as well as new starting materials for wafer sizes beyond 300 mm. This publication was presented as an invited paper in the Symposium V of the 2006 spring meeting of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) in Nice, May 29th

  7. Capsular and thalamic infarction caused by tentorial herniation subsequent to head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Ichikawa, F.; Miyasaka, Y.; Yada, K.; Ohwada, T.

    1991-01-01

    Five patients (4 male and 1 female) were observed to have capsular and thalamic infarction ascribed to descending transtentorial herniation (DTH) caused by head injury. A lucid interval immediately after the trauma and the presence of an epidural hematoma (EDH) characterized all five case. The low attenuation implicated the perforating arteries, that is the anterior thalamoperforating and anterior choroidal arteries, suggesting infarcted regions caused by occlusion of these arteries. Findings in the present study suggest that arterial occlusion in closed head injury may result from DTH. Moreover, infarction may be attributed to the delayed effects of injury. (orig./GDG)

  8. Thalamic Massa Intermedia Duplication in a Dysmorphic 14 month-old Toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew T

    2015-06-01

    The massa intermedia is an inconstant parenchymal band connecting the medial thalami. It may be thickened in various disease processes such as Chiari II malformation or absent in other disease states. However, the massa intermedia may also be absent in up to 30% of normal human brains. To the best of my knowledge, detailed imaging findings of massa intermedia duplication have only been described in a single case report. An additional case of thalamic massa intermedia duplication discovered on a routine brain MR performed for dysmorphic facial features is reported herein.

  9. Orthodenticle is required for the development of olfactory projection neurons and local interneurons in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate wiring of nervous systems involves precise control over cellular processes like cell division, cell fate specification, and targeting of neurons. The nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to understand these processes. Drosophila neurons are generated by stem cell like precursors called neuroblasts that are formed and specified in a highly stereotypical manner along the neuroectoderm. This stereotypy has been attributed, in part, to the expression and function of transcription factors that act as intrinsic cell fate determinants in the neuroblasts and their progeny during embryogenesis. Here we focus on the lateral neuroblast lineage, ALl1, of the antennal lobe and show that the transcription factor-encoding cephalic gap gene orthodenticle is required in this lineage during postembryonic brain development. We use immunolabelling to demonstrate that Otd is expressed in the neuroblast of this lineage during postembryonic larval stages. Subsequently, we use MARCM clonal mutational methods to show that the majority of the postembryonic neuronal progeny in the ALl1 lineage undergoes apoptosis in the absence of orthodenticle. Moreover, we demonstrate that the neurons that survive in the orthodenticle loss-of-function condition display severe targeting defects in both the proximal (dendritic and distal (axonal neurites. These findings indicate that the cephalic gap gene orthodenticle acts as an important intrinsic determinant in the ALl1 neuroblast lineage and, hence, could be a member of a putative combinatorial code involved in specifying the fate and identity of cells in this lineage.

  10. A therapeutic dose of zolpidem reduces thalamic GABA in healthy volunteers: a proton MRS study at 4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C; Jensen, J Eric; Penetar, David M; Prescot, Andrew P; Lukas, Scott E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2009-05-01

    Zolpidem is a nonbenzodiazepine sedative/hypnotic that acts at GABA(A) receptors to influence inhibitory neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system. A great deal is known about the behavioral effects of this drug in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about zolpidem's specific effects on neurochemistry in vivo. We evaluated how acute administration of zolpidem affected levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and other brain metabolites. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 4 T was employed to measure the effects of zolpidem on brain chemistry in 19 healthy volunteers. Participants underwent scanning following acute oral administration of a therapeutic dose of zolpidem (10 mg) in a within-subject, single-blind, placebo-controlled, single-visit study. In addition to neurochemical measurements from single voxels within the anterior cingulate (ACC) and thalamus, a series of questionnaires were administered periodically throughout the experimental session to assess subjective mood states. Zolpidem reduced GABA levels in the thalamus, but not the ACC. There were no treatment effects with respect to other metabolite levels. Self-reported ratings of "dizzy," "nauseous," "confused," and "bad effects" were increased relative to placebo, as were ratings on the sedation/intoxication (PCAG) and psychotomimetic/dysphoria (LSD) scales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the decrease in GABA and "dizzy." Zolpidem engendered primarily dysphoric-like effects and the correlation between reduced thalamic GABA and "dizzy" may be a function of zolpidem's interaction with alpha1GABA(A) receptors in the cerebellum, projecting through the vestibular system to the thalamus.

  11. A therapeutic dose of zolpidem reduces thalamic GABA in healthy volunteers: A proton MRS study at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Jensen, J. Eric; Penetar, David M.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Lukas, scott E.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine sedative/hypnotic that acts at GABAA receptors to influence inhibitory neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system. A great deal is known about the behavioral effects of this drug in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about zolpidem’s specific effects on neurochemistry in vivo. Objectives We evaluated how acute administration of zolpidem affected levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and other brain metabolites. Methods Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 4 Tesla was employed to measure the effects of zolpidem on brain chemistry in 19 healthy volunteers. Participants underwent scanning following acute oral administration of a therapeutic dose of zolpidem (10 mg) in a within-subject, single-blind, placebo-controlled, single-visit study. In addition to neurochemical measurements from single voxels within the anterior cingulate (ACC) and thalamus, a series of questionnaires were administered periodically throughout the experimental session to assess subjective mood states. Results Zolpidem reduced GABA levels in the thalamus, but not the ACC. There were no treatment effects with respect to other metabolite levels. Self-reported ratings of “dizzy”, “nauseous”, “confused”, and “bad effects” were increased relative to placebo, as were ratings on the sedation/intoxication (PCAG) and psychotomimetic/dysphoria (LSD) scales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the decrease in GABA and “dizzy”. Conclusions Zolpidem engendered primarily dysphoric-like effects and the correlation between reduced thalamic GABA and “dizzy” may be a function of zolpidem’s interaction with α1GABAA receptors in the cerebellum, projecting through the vestibular system to the thalamus. PMID:19125238

  12. Feedforward inhibitory control of sensory information in higher-order thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Philippe; Urbain, Nadia; Dufresne, Caroline; Bokor, Hajnalka; Acsády, László; Deschênes, Martin

    2005-08-17

    Sensory stimuli evoke strong responses in thalamic relay cells, which ensure a faithful relay of information to the neocortex. However, relay cells of the posterior thalamic nuclear group in rodents, despite receiving significant trigeminal input, respond poorly to vibrissa deflection. Here we show that sensory transmission in this nucleus is impeded by fast feedforward inhibition mediated by GABAergic neurons of the zona incerta. Intracellular recordings of posterior group neurons revealed that the first synaptic event after whisker deflection is a prominent inhibition. Whisker-evoked EPSPs with fast rise time and longer onset latency are unveiled only after lesioning the zona incerta. Excitation survives barrel cortex lesion, demonstrating its peripheral origin. Electron microscopic data confirm that trigeminal axons make large synaptic terminals on the proximal dendrites of posterior group cells and on the somata of incertal neurons. Thus, the connectivity of the system allows an unusual situation in which inhibition precedes ascending excitation resulting in efficient shunting of the responses. The dominance of inhibition over excitation strongly suggests that the paralemniscal pathway is not designed to relay inputs triggered by passive whisker deflection. Instead, we propose that this pathway operates through disinhibition, and that the posterior group forwards to the cerebral cortex sensory information that is contingent on motor instructions.

  13. Sleep spindles are related to schizotypal personality traits and thalamic glutamine/glutamate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Pugin, Fiona; Tüshaus, Laura; Wehrle, Flavia; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether sleep spindles and Glx levels are related to schizotypal personality traits in healthy subjects. Twenty young male subjects underwent 2 all-night sleep electroencephalography recordings (128 electrodes). Sleep spindles were detected automatically. After those 2 nights, thalamic Glx levels were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects completed a magical ideation scale to assess schizotypy. Sleep spindle density was negatively correlated with magical ideation (r = -.64, P .1). The common relationship of sleep spindle density with schizotypy and thalamic Glx levels indicates a neurobiological overlap between nonclinical schizotypy and schizophrenia. Thus, sleep spindle density and magical ideation may reflect the anatomy and efficiency of the thalamo-cortical system that shows pronounced impairment in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation for support of forebrain arousal regulation in the minimally conscious state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT/DBS) to support arousal regulation mechanisms in the minimally conscious state (MCS). CT/DBS for selected patients in a MCS is first placed in the historical context of prior efforts to use thalamic electrical brain stimulation to treat the unconscious clinical conditions of coma and vegetative state. These previous studies and a proof of concept result from a single-subject study of a patient in a MCS are reviewed against the background of new population data providing benchmarks of the natural history of vegetative and MCSs. The conceptual foundations for CT/DBS in selected patients in a MCS are then presented with consideration of both circuit and cellular mechanisms underlying recovery of consciousness identified from empirical studies. Directions for developing future generalizable criteria for CT/DBS that focus on the integrity of necessary brain systems and behavioral profiles in patients in a MCS that may optimally response to support of arousal regulation mechanisms are proposed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical appraisal of stereotactic hematoma aspiration surgery for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koji; Matsumoto, Keizo

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage were managed by medical treatment, ventricular drainage, or CT-controlled stereotactic aspiration surgery (AS). The therapeutic results of the 6-month outcome were analyzed and correlated with the volume of the hematoma. A hematoma volume of 20 ml was thought to be the critical size in determining whether the outcome would be favorable or unfavorable. Indications for AS are suggested as follows. In patients with a small-sized hematoma having a volume of less than 10 ml use of AS should be restricted to patients with severe paralysis or other neurological complications and the elderly (aged 70 years or older). For patients with a medium-sized hematoma having a volume between 10 ml and 20 ml, AS is indicated for patients having severe paralysis and disturbances of consciousness. For patients with a large-sized hematoma having a volume of 20 ml or more, AS increases not only the survival rate of patients but also reduces the number of bedridden patients. We conclude that AS opens up a new avenue of surgical treatment for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage, which has been no indication for hematoma evacuation by conventional craniotomy. (author)

  16. Human Thalamic-Prefrontal Peduncle Connectivity Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Fiber Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The thalamic-prefrontal peduncle (TPP is a large bundle connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. The definitive structure and function of the TPP are still controversial. To investigate the connectivity and segmentation patterns of the TPP, we employed diffusion spectrum imaging with generalized q-sampling reconstruction to perform both subject-specific and template-based analyses. Our results confirmed the trajectory and spatial relationship of the TPP in the human brain and identified the connection areas in the prefrontal cortex. The TPP-connecting areas identified based on Brodmann areas (BAs were BAs 8–11 and 45–47. Based on the automated anatomical atlas, these areas were the medial superior frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, pars triangularis, pars orbitalis, anterior orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. In addition, we identified the TPP connection areas in the thalamus, including the anterior and medial nuclei, and the lateral dorsal/lateral posterior nuclei. TPP fibers connected the thalamus with the ipsilateral prefrontal BAs 11, 47, 10, 46, 45, 9, and 8 seriatim from medial to lateral, layer by layer. Our results provide further details of the thalamic-prefrontal peduncle structure, and may aid future studies and a better understanding of the functional roles of the TPP in the human brain.

  17. Case of herpes simplex encephalitis(HSE) with a thalamic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, K; Koike, R; Yuasa, T; Miyatake, T; Ito, J

    1987-02-01

    A case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) with thalamic involvement was reported. The patient, a 27-year-old man, was admitted because of abnormal behavior and fever. He exhibited a disturbance of consciousness, meningial signs, and hyperreflexia. A CT scan of the head revealed diffuse brain edema. Acute encephalitis, especially HSE, was suspected, and so the intravenous administration of acyclovir and steroid therapy were started. The titer of herpes simplex Type 1 virus, as measured by CF and ELISA, was found to have increased amounts of serum and cerebrospinal fluid. 5 days after the onset, his consciousness worsened. He could not tell his name and scarely opened his eyes upon pain stimulation. A CT scan at this time showed low-density lesions in the left thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and the posterior portion of the putamen. About 5 days later, his consciousness level was increased, but he was mute. This symptom was thought to be thalamic aphasia, which might be correlative with the low-density lesions shown in the left thalamus by the CT scan. About 30 days after the onset of the disease, his speech became normal, and a CT scan at 51 hospital days showed no abnormality. The etiology of low-density lesions of the left thalamus in the CT scan is speculated to be as follows: firstly, vascular damage of circulation disturbance, and secondly a special affinity of herpes simplex Type 1 virus to the thalamus.

  18. Persistence of disturbed thalamic glucose metabolism in a case of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellgiebel, Andreas; Scheurich, Armin; Siessmeier, Thomas; Schmidt, Lutz G; Bartenstein, Peter

    2003-10-30

    We report the case of a 40-year-old alcoholic male patient, hospitalized with an acute ataxia of stance and gait, ocular muscle weakness with nystagmus and a global apathetic-confusional state. After admission, an amnestic syndrome with confabulation was also observed and diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome was made. Under treatment with intravenous thiamine, the patient recovered completely from gaze weakness and ataxia, whereas a severe amnestic syndrome persisted. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) showed bilateral thalamic and severe bilateral temporal-parietal hypometabolism resembling a pattern typical for Alzheimer's disease. Longitudinal assessment of the alcohol-abstinent and thiamine-substituted patient revealed improvements of clinical state and neuropsychological performance that were paralleled by recovered cerebral glucose metabolism. In contrast to metabolic rates that increased between 7.1% (anterior cingulate, left) and 23.5% (parietal, left) in cortical areas during a 9-month remission period, thalamic glucose metabolism remained severely disturbed over time (change: left +0.2%, right +0.3%).

  19. Thalamic synaptic transmission of sensory information modulated by synergistic interaction of adenosine and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Hu, Chun-Chang; Huang, Chen-Syuan; Chou, Pei-Yu

    2014-03-01

    The thalamic synapses relay peripheral sensory information to the cortex, and constitute an important part of the thalamocortical network that generates oscillatory activities responsible for different vigilance (sleep and wakefulness) states. However, the modulation of thalamic synaptic transmission by potential sleep regulators, especially by combination of regulators in physiological scenarios, is not fully characterized. We found that somnogen adenosine itself acts similar to wake-promoting serotonin, both decreasing synaptic strength as well as short-term depression, at the retinothalamic synapse. We then combined the two modulators considering the coexistence of them in the hypnagogic (sleep-onset) state. Adenosine plus serotonin results in robust synergistic inhibition of synaptic strength and dramatic transformation of short-term synaptic depression to facilitation. These synaptic effects are not achievable with a single modulator, and are consistent with a high signal-to-noise ratio but a low level of signal transmission through the thalamus appropriate for slow-wave sleep. This study for the first time demonstrates that the sleep-regulatory modulators may work differently when present in combination than present singly in terms of shaping information flow in the thalamocortical network. The major synaptic characters such as the strength and short-term plasticity can be profoundly altered by combination of modulators based on physiological considerations. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. A case of herpes simplex encephalitis(HSE) with a thalamic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Katsuya; Koike, Ryoko; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Miyatake, Tadashi; Ito, Jusuke.

    1987-01-01

    A case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) with thalamic involvement was reported. The patient, a 27-year-old man, was admitted because of abnormal behavior and fever. He exhibited a disturbance of consciousness, meningial signs, and hyperreflexia. A CT scan of the head revealed diffuse brain edema. Acute encephalitis, especially HSE, was suspected, and so the intravenous administration of acyclovir and steroid therapy were started. The titer of herpes simplex Type 1 virus, as measured by CF and ELISA, was found to have increased amounts of serum and cerebrospinal fluid. 5 days after the onset, his consciousness worsened. He could not tell his name and scarely opened his eyes upon pain stimulation. A CT scan at this time showed low-density lesions in the left thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and the posterior portion of the putamen. About 5 days later, his consciousness level was increased, but he was mute. This symptom was thought to be thalamic aphasia, which might be correlative with the low-density lesions shown in the left thalamus by the CT scan. About 30 days after the onset of the disease, his speech became normal, and a CT scan at 51 hospital days showed no abnormality. The etiology of low-density lesions of the left thalamus in the CT scan is speculated to be as follows: firstly, vascular damage of circulation disturbance, and secondly a special affinity of herpes simplex Type 1 virus to the thalamus. (author)

  1. Dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fabián; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold.

  2. Intraoperative neurophysiological responses in epileptic patients submitted to hippocampal and thalamic deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukiert, Arthur; Cukiert, Cristine Mella; Argentoni-Baldochi, Meire; Baise, Carla; Forster, Cássio Roberto; Mello, Valeria Antakli; Burattini, José Augusto; Lima, Alessandra Moura

    2011-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used in an increasing frequency for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Acute deep brain macrostimulation intraoperative findings were sparsely published in the literature. We report on our intraoperative macrostimulation findings during thalamic and hippocampal DBS implantation. Eighteen patients were studied. All patients underwent routine pre-operative evaluation that included clinical history, neurological examination, interictal and ictal EEG, high resolution 1.5T MRI and neuropsychological testing. Six patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were submitted to hippocampal DBS (Hip-DBS); 6 patients with focal epilepsy were submitted to anterior thalamic nucleus DBS (AN-DBS) and 6 patients with generalized epilepsy were submitted to centro-median thalamic nucleus DBS (CM-DBS). Age ranged from 9 to 40 years (11 males). All patients were submitted to bilateral quadripolar DBS electrode implantation in a single procedure, under general anesthesia, and intraoperative scalp EEG monitoring. Final electrode's position was checked postoperatively using volumetric CT scanning. Bipolar stimulation using the more proximal and distal electrodes was performed. Final standard stimulation parameters were 6Hz, 4V, 300μs (low frequency range: LF) or 130Hz, 4V, 300μs (high frequency range: HF). Bilateral recruiting response (RR) was obtained after unilateral stimulation in all patients submitted to AN and CM-DBS using LF stimulation. RR was widespread but prevailed over the fronto-temporal region bilaterally, and over the stimulated hemisphere. HF stimulation led to background slowing and a DC shift. The mean voltage for the appearance of RR was 4V (CM) and 3V (AN). CM and AN-DBS did not alter inter-ictal spiking frequency or morphology. RR obtained after LF Hip-DBS was restricted to the stimulated temporal lobe and no contralateral activation was noted. HF stimulation yielded no visually recognizable EEG modification. Mean intensity for initial

  3. Recall deficits in stroke patients with thalamic lesions covary with damage to the parvocellular mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Giulio; Güntürkün, Onur; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene; Suchan, Boris

    2012-08-01

    The functional role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) and its cortical network in memory processes is discussed controversially. While Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested a role for recognition and not recall, Van der Werf et al. (2003) suggested that this nucleus is functionally related to executive function and strategic retrieval, based on its connections to the prefrontal cortices (PFC). The present study used a lesion approach including patients with focal thalamic lesions to examine the functions of the MD, the intralaminar nuclei and the midline nuclei in memory processing. A newly designed pair association task was used, which allowed the assessment of recognition and cued recall performance. Volume loss in thalamic nuclei was estimated as a predictor for alterations in memory performance. Patients performed poorer than healthy controls on recognition accuracy and cued recall. Furthermore, patients responded slower than controls specifically on recognition trials followed by successful cued recall of the paired associate. Reduced recall of picture pairs and increased response times during recognition followed by cued recall covaried with the volume loss in the parvocellular MD. This pattern suggests a role of this thalamic region in recall and thus recollection, which does not fit the framework proposed by Aggleton and Brown (1999). The functional specialization of the parvocellular MD accords with its connectivity to the dorsolateral PFC, highlighting the role of this thalamocortical network in explicit memory (Van der Werf et al., 2003). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thalamic glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy measured with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N; Leenders, KL; Hajek, M; Maguire, P; Missimer, J; Wieser, HG

    1997-01-01

    Thalamic glucose metabolism has been studied in 24 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using interictal F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). A total of 17 patients had a unilateral TL seizure onset, 11 of these patients had a mesial temporal lobe

  5. MM2-thalamic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: neuropathological, biochemical and transmission studies identify a distinctive prion strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Suardi, Silvia; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Indaco, Antonio; Limido, Lucia; Vimercati, Chiara; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Langeveld, Jan; Terruzzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Antonio; Zerbi, Pietro; Fociani, Paolo; Bishop, Matthew T; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-09-01

    In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrP(Sc) are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrP(Sc) . Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrP(Sc) , a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  6. Technical safety requirements for the South Tank Farm remediation project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW) System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Although the last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, they have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program, which includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excess liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. A technique known as confined sluicing, which uses a high-pressure, low-volume water jet integrated with a jet pump, will be used to remove the sludge. The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) are those operational requirements that specify the operating limits and surveillance requirements, the basis thereof, safety boundaries, and the management of administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of the STF remediation project. Effective implementation of TSRs will limit to acceptable levels the risks to the public and workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous material

  7. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation to promote recovery from chronic posttraumatic minimally conscious state: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacino, Joseph; Fins, Joseph J; Machado, Andre; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2012-07-01

    Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) may have therapeutic potential to improve behavioral functioning in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its use remains experimental. Current research suggests that the central thalamus plays a critical role in modulating arousal during tasks requiring sustained attention, working memory, and motor function. The aim of the current article is to review the methodology used in the CT-DBS protocol developed by our group, outline the challenges we encountered and offer suggestions for future DBS trials in this population. RATIONAL FOR CT-DBS IN TBI:  CT-DBS may therefore be able to stimulate these functions by eliciting action potentials that excite thalamocortical and thalamostriatal pathways. Because patients in chronic minimally conscious state (MCS) have a very low probability of regaining functional independence, yet often have significant sparing of cortical connectivity, they may represent a particularly appropriate target group for CT-DBS. PIlOT STUDY RESULTS:  We have conducted a series of single-subject studies of CT-DBS in patients with chronic posttraumatic MCS, with 24-month follow-up. Outcomes were measured using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised as well as a battery of secondary outcome measures to capture more granular changes. Findings from our index case suggest that CT-DBS can significantly increase functional communication, motor performance, feeding, and object naming in the DBS on state, with performance in some domains remaining above baseline even after DBS was turned off. The use of CT-DBS in patients in MCS, however, presents challenges at almost every step, including during surgical planning, outcome measurement, and postoperative care. Additionally, given the difficulties of obtaining informed consent from patients in MCS and the experimental nature of the treatment, a robust, scientifically rooted ethical framework is resented for pursuing this line of work. © 2012

  8. SNF project's MCO compliance assessment with DOE ''general design criteria,'' order 6430.1A and ''SNF project MCO additional NRC requirements,'' HNF-SD-SNF-DB-005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOLDMANN, L.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is presented to demonstrate the MCOs compliance to the major design criteria invoked on the MCO. This document is broken down into a section for the MCO's evaluation against DOE Order 6430.1A General Design Criteria sixteen divisions and then the evaluation of the MCO against HNF-SD-SNF-DB-005 ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Multi-Canister Overpack Additional NRC Requirements.'' The compliance assessment is presented as a matrix in tabular form. The MCO is the primary container for the K-basin's spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the basin pools and through to the 40 year interim storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The MCO and its components interface with; the K basins, shipping cask and transportation system, Cold Vacuum Drying facility individual process bays and equipment, and CSB facility including the MCO handling machine (MHM), the storage tubes, and the MCO work stations where sampling, welding, and inspection of the MCO is performed. As the MCO is the primary boundary for handling, process, and storage, its main goals are to minimize the spread of its radiological contents to the outside of the MCO and provide for nuclear criticality control. The MCO contains personnel radiation shielding only on its upper end, in the form of a shield plug, where the process interfaces are located. Shielding beyond the shield plug is the responsibility of the using facilities. The design of the MCO and its components is depicted in drawings H-2-828040 through H-2-828075. Not every drawing number in the sequence is used. The first drawing number, H-2-828040, is the drawing index for the MCO. The design performance specification for the MCO is HW-S-0426, and was reviewed and approved by the interfacing design authorities, the safety, regulatory, and operations groups, and the local DOE office. The current revision for the design performance specification is revision 5. The designs of the MCO have been reviewed and approved in a similar way and the reports

  9. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    The learned helplessness paradigm has been repeatedly shown to correlate with neurobiological aspects of depression in humans. In this model, rodents are exposed inescapable foot-shock in order to reveal susceptibility to escape deficit, defined as 'learned helplessness' (LH). Few methods are available to probe the neurobiological aspects underlying the differences in susceptibility in the living animal, thus far being limited to studies examining regional neurochemical changes with microdialysis. With the widespread implementation of small animal neuroimaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to explore the living brain on a systems level to define regional changes that may correlate with vulnerability to stress. In this study, 12 wild type Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 minutes of inescapable foot-shock followed by metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) 1 hour later. The escape test was performed on these rats 48 hours later (to accommodate radiotracer decay), where they were given the opportunity to press a lever to shut off the shock. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to investigate potential correlations (Pearson Regression Coefficients) between regional 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock and subsequent learned helpless behavior (time to finish the test; number of successful lever presses within 20 seconds of shock onset). ROI analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between time to finish and 18-FDG uptake, and a negative correlation between lever presses and uptake, in the medial thalamic area (p=0.033, p=0.036). This ROI included the paraventricular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and the habenula. In an effort to account for possible spillover artifact, the posterior thalamic area (including ventral medial and lateral portions) was also evaluated but did not reveal significant correlations (p=0.870, p=0.897). No other significant correlations were found

  10. Serotonin gating of cortical and thalamic glutamate inputs onto principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ji-Dong; O'Flaherty, Brendan M; Rainnie, Donald G

    2017-11-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key site for crossmodal association of sensory stimuli and an important relay in the neural circuitry of emotion. Indeed, the BLA receives substantial glutamatergic inputs from multiple brain regions including the prefrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei. Modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the BLA regulates stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) also plays an important role in regulating stress-related behavior through activation of both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT receptors. Multiple 5-HT receptors are expressed in the BLA, where 5-HT has been reported to modulate glutamatergic transmission. However, the 5-HT receptor subtype mediating this effect is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to use patch-clamp recordings from BLA neurons in an ex vivo slice preparation to examine 1) the effect of 5-HT on extrinsic sensory inputs, and 2) to determine if any pathway specificity exists in 5-HT regulation of glutamatergic transmission. Two independent input pathways into the BLA were stimulated: the external capsule to mimic cortical input, and the internal capsule to mimic thalamic input. Bath application of 5-HT reversibly reduced the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) induced by stimulation of both pathways. The decrease was associated with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio and coefficient of variation of eEPSC amplitude, suggesting 5-HT acts presynaptically. Moreover, the effect of 5-HT in both pathways was mimicked by the selective 5-HT 1B receptor agonist CP93129, but not by the 5-HT 1A receptor agonist 8-OH DPAT. Similarly the effect of exogenous 5-HT was blocked by the 5-HT 1B receptor antagonist GR55562, but not affected by the 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 or the 5-HT 2 receptor antagonists pirenperone and MDL 100907. Together these data suggest 5-HT gates cortical and thalamic glutamatergic inputs into the BLA by activating presynaptic 5-HT 1B receptors

  11. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  12. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract

  13. Altered cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity in relation to spatial working memory capacity in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD captures a heterogeneous group of children, who are characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Previous resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI studies have sought to understand the neural correlates of ADHD by comparing connectivity measurements between those with and without the disorder, focusing primarily on cortical-striatal circuits mediated by the thalamus. To integrate the multiple phenotypic features associated with ADHD and help resolve its heterogeneity, it is helpful to determine how specific circuits relate to unique cognitive domains of the ADHD syndrome. Spatial working memory has been proposed as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Methods: We correlated the rs-fcMRI of five thalamic regions of interest with spatial span working memory scores in a sample of 67 children aged 7-11 years (ADHD and typically developing children; TDC. In an independent dataset, we then examined group differences in thalamo-striatal functional connectivity between 70 ADHD and 89 TDC (7-11 years from the ADHD-200 dataset. Thalamic regions of interest were created based on previous methods that utilize known thalamo-cortical loops and rs-fcMRI to identify functional boundaries in the thalamus.Results/Conclusions: Using these thalamic regions, we found atypical rs-fcMRI between specific thalamic groupings with the basal ganglia. To identify the thalamic connections that relate to spatial working memory in ADHD, only connections identified in both the correlational and comparative analyses were considered. Multiple connections between the thalamus and basal ganglia, particularly between medial and anterior dorsal thalamus and the putamen, were related to spatial working memory and also altered in ADHD. These thalamo-striatal disruptions may be one of multiple atypical neural and cognitive mechanisms that relate to the ADHD clinical phenotype.

  14. Medical emergency aid through telematics: design, implementation guidelines and analysis of user requirements for the MERMAID project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A; Bountzioukas, S; Beltrame, F; Orsi, G

    1998-01-01

    MERMAID is an EU financed telemedicine project with global reach and 24-h, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model will not be limited to medical diagnostics but it will encompass all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications (audio and video conferencing, multimedia communications, flat file and image transfer with low, medium and high bandwidth data requirements) are considered while the full range of network choices (digital land lines, cellular/wireless, satellite and broadband) are being tested in terms of cost/performance tradeoffs that are inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in their in its life cycle. Finally, out that MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialist care that is best suited in the particular case.

  15. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Yannes, Michael Paul; Nardone, Raffaele; Bailey, Ariel; Goldstein, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. [Thalamic Stroke and Associated Behavior Disorders. Possibilities for Integral Management: Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Loida Camargo; Sánchez, Katherine Parra

    2012-06-01

    Since ancient Greece, cerebrovascular accidents have been described with no variation. Even today, they are still a catastrophic event in the lives of patients with a high risk of disabling sequelae. Case report of a 56-year male patient with thalamic ischemia. The intervention with integral strategies involving pharmacological management and cognitive interventions was decisive for the satisfactory evolution of the patient. The management of patients with cerebrovascular accidents cannot be limited to the emergency room. Pharmacological advances in programs and cognitive intervention methods provide intervention tools from the very beginning of the stroke thus reducing the impact of long-term sequelae, and consequently enabling a better reintegration of the patient to his family. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Thalamic functional connectivity predicts seizure laterality in individual TLE patients: Application of a biomarker development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Barron

    2015-01-01

    No significant differences in functional connection strength in patient and control groups were observed with Mann-Whitney Tests (corrected for multiple comparisons. Notwithstanding the lack of group differences, individual patient difference scores (from control mean connection strength successfully predicted seizure onset zone as shown in ROC curves: discriminant analysis (two-dimensional predicted seizure onset zone with 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity; logistic regression (four-dimensional achieved 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The strongest markers in both analyses were left thalamo-hippocampal and right thalamo-entorhinal cortex functional connection strength. Thus, this study shows that thalamic functional connections are sensitive and specific markers of seizure onset laterality in individual temporal lobe epilepsy patients. This study also advances an overall strategy for the programmatic development of neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical and genetic populations: a disease model informed by coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to anatomically constrain individual patient analyses.

  19. Fluctuating drowsiness following cardiac catheterisation: artery of Percheron ischaemic stroke causing bilateral thalamic infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Daniel; Arora, Ankur; Dissanayake, Madhava; Sengupta, Nabarun

    2017-01-02

    An 81-year-old man underwent cardiac catheterisation to investigate breathlessness and left ventricular impairment of unknown cause. He had unobstructed coronary arteries. Immediately following the procedure, he became suddenly unresponsive with vertical gaze palsy, anisocoria and bilateral upgoing plantar responses. He made a rapid recovery to his premorbid state 25 min later with no residual focal neurological signs. He then had multiple unresponsive episodes, interspaced with complete resolution of symptoms and neurological signs. MRI of the brain identified bilateral medial thalamic infarcts and midbrain infarcts, consistent with an artery of Percheron territory infarction. By the time the diagnosis was reached, the thrombolysis window had elapsed. The unresponsive episodes diminished with time and the patient was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation. At 6-month review after the episode, the patient has a degree of progressive cognitive impairment. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Thalamic metabolic abnormalities in patients with Huntington's disease measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casseb, R.F.; Castellano, G., E-mail: gabriela@ifi.unicamp.br [Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Raios Cosmicos e Cronologia; D' Abreu, A.; Cendes, F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia. Lab. de Neuroimagem; Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruocco, H.H. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia. Lab. de Neuroimagem; Lopes-Cendes, I., E-mail: seixas.fk@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Genetica Medica; Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurologic disorder that is not completely understood; its fundamental physiological mechanisms and chemical effects remain somewhat unclear. Among these uncertainties, we can highlight information about the concentrations of brain metabolites, which have been widely discussed. Concentration differences in affected, compared to healthy, individuals could lead to the development of useful tools for evaluating the progression of disease, or to the advance of investigations of different/alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the thalamic concentration of metabolites in HD patients and healthy individuals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We used a 2.0-Tesla magnetic field, repetition time of 1500 ms, and echo time of 135 ms. Spectra from 40 adult HD patients and 26 control subjects were compared. Quantitative analysis was performed using the LCModel method. There were statistically significant differences between HD patients and controls in the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAA+NAAG; t-test, P,0.001), and glycerophosphocholine+phosphocholine (GPC+PCh; t-test, P=0.001) relative to creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr). The NAA+NAAG/Cr+PCr ratio was decreased by 9% and GPC+PCh/Cr+PCr increased by 17% in patients compared with controls. There were no correlations between the concentration ratios and clinical features. Although these results could be caused by T1 and T2 changes, rather than variations in metabolite concentrations given the short repetition time and long echo time values used, our findings point to thalamic dysfunction, corroborating prior evidence. (author)

  1. CT classification of small thalamic hemorrhages. Topographic localization and clinical manifestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Nobutaka; Kaneko, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Keisei; Muraki, Masaaki; Sato, Kengo (Hamamatsu Medical Center Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1984-06-01

    The thalamus is located deep in the cerebral hemispheres, and most of its nuclei have reciprocal fiber connections with specific areas over the cerebral cortex. Localized lesions in the thalamus, therefore, can cause specific neurological deficits, depending on their locations. From this point of view, we reviewed 110 cases, admitted over the past 7 years, with thalamic hemorrhages 37 (34%) of which were small hematomas less than 2 cm in diameter. These small hematomas could be divided into 4 types depending on their locations as follows: antero-lateral type, postero-lateral type, medial type, and dorsal type. Each type had the peculiar clinical features described below: 1) Postero-lateral Type (PL type, 28 cases, 76%): The original symptom was a sudden onset of moderate to severe sensori-motor deficits in most cases. The patients were mostly alert or only slightly confused. 2) Antero-lateral Type (AL type, 4 cases, 11%): The patients of this type first presented with sensori-motor disturbance and prefrontal signs. Both were generally mild and often disappeared early. 3) Medial Type (M type, 3 cases, 8%): The main symptom at onset was either a disturbance of consciousness or dementia. 4) Dorsal Type (D type, 2 cases, 5%): One patient with a right thalamic hematoma of this type showed geographical agnosia and visuo-constructive apraxia. The other patient, with a left-sided hematoma, exhibited transient clumsiness of the right hand and mild dysphasia. In our experience, the above classification of small hematomas clearly delineated the clinical symptoms and neurological signs of the different types; therefore, the symptoms and signs in larger hematoma could be explained by a combination of those of each type.

  2. Thalamic metabolic abnormalities in patients with Huntington's disease measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casseb, R.F.; Castellano, G.; Ruocco, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurologic disorder that is not completely understood; its fundamental physiological mechanisms and chemical effects remain somewhat unclear. Among these uncertainties, we can highlight information about the concentrations of brain metabolites, which have been widely discussed. Concentration differences in affected, compared to healthy, individuals could lead to the development of useful tools for evaluating the progression of disease, or to the advance of investigations of different/alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the thalamic concentration of metabolites in HD patients and healthy individuals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We used a 2.0-Tesla magnetic field, repetition time of 1500 ms, and echo time of 135 ms. Spectra from 40 adult HD patients and 26 control subjects were compared. Quantitative analysis was performed using the LCModel method. There were statistically significant differences between HD patients and controls in the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAA+NAAG; t-test, P,0.001), and glycerophosphocholine+phosphocholine (GPC+PCh; t-test, P=0.001) relative to creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr). The NAA+NAAG/Cr+PCr ratio was decreased by 9% and GPC+PCh/Cr+PCr increased by 17% in patients compared with controls. There were no correlations between the concentration ratios and clinical features. Although these results could be caused by T1 and T2 changes, rather than variations in metabolite concentrations given the short repetition time and long echo time values used, our findings point to thalamic dysfunction, corroborating prior evidence. (author)

  3. Strategic lesions in the anterior thalamic radiation and apathy in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torso

    Full Text Available Behavioural disorders and psychological symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and strongly contribute to increasing patients' disability. Using voxel-lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM, we investigated the impact of white matter lesions (WMLs on the severity of BPSD in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI.Thirty-one a-MCI patients (with a conversion rate to AD of 32% at 2 year follow-up and 26 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination at 3T, including T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery images, and T1-weighted volumes. In the patient group, BPSD was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12. After quantitative definition of WMLs, their distribution was investigated, without an a priori anatomical hypothesis, against patients' behavioural symptoms. Unbiased regional grey matter volumetrics was also used to assess the contribution of grey matter atrophy to BPSD.Apathy, irritability, depression/dysphoria, anxiety and agitation were shown to be the most common symptoms in the patient sample. Despite a more widespread anatomical distribution, a-MCI patients did not differ from controls in WML volumes. VLSM revealed a strict association between the presence of lesions in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs and the severity of apathy. Regional grey matter atrophy did not account for any BPSD.This study indicates that damage to the ATRs is strategic for the occurrence of apathy in patients with a-MCI. Disconnection between the prefrontal cortex and the mediodorsal and anterior thalamic nuclei might represent the pathophysiological substrate for apathy, which is one of the most common psychopathological symptoms observed in dementia.

  4. Requirements for effective technology transfer for engineering and project management. The views of the recipient country and the technology supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, K.W.

    1986-04-01

    Technology transfer in the area of engineering and project management for nuclear power plant projects is considered a rather complex and sophisticated matter. Therefore only within a long-term nuclear co-operation a meaningful transfer of such a multifaceted technology can reasonably be achieved. A long-term nuclear co-operation anticipates a nuclear power plant program consisting of a few nuclear power plants of a certain type and size in order to achieve the indispensable effect ''learning by doing''. The objectives of nuclear technology transfer may be in general or in particular; absorption of a foreign nuclear technology and its adaptation to the conditions and needs of the receiver's country; built-up of industrial infrastructure for planning, construction and operation of nuclear power plants; raising of the general industrial level and achieve a spin-off effect; creation of a basis for independent development of nuclear technology. The technology transfer on one side and the construction program of nuclear power plants on the other side cannot be practiced by two parallel but separated event, however, they form one unit. Contrary to the import of industrial equipment in terms of ''black box'', by means of a nuclear technology transfer the introduction of new dependencies will be prevented. The technology transfer can remarkably be facilitated by forming a joint venture engineering company in the recipient country. The required know-how potential within a certain time period determines the intensity of the technology transfer and consequently the man power to be involved. The realization of such technology transfer is demonstrated by means of practical examples. (author). 12 figs

  5. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Daniel; Barbas, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective ‘framing’ effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26828203

  6. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan J John

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective 'framing' effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Contemporary hygienic and engineering requirements to the projecting and exploitation of the positron-emission tomography in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekmarev, O.; Paltseva, A.

    2004-01-01

    The positron-emission tomography (PET) centres, attached to a large medical establishment as a rule include except PET a compact cyclotron for producing positron-radiant ultra-temporary product radionuclides (carbon-11, Nitrogen-14, oxygen-15, fluorine-18 and etc.) based on water and gaseous targets. At present there are no information about regulating and setting up such medical centres, moreover, requirements which must be presented to the Sanitary Inspection Agency at the documents examination are incompletely represented. During 2001-2003 years specialists of the Moscow Medical Centre (MMC) have been reviewing the hygienic expert examination of the 5 versions of the PET's cabinets installation in therapeutic and prophylactic offices. One of the projects for operating ultra-temporary products is submitted in this report. It foresees the usage of proton beam of the self-protected cyclotron RDS/111 (CTJ PET System (USA)). Its energy of irradiation (proton beam) is 11 MeV. The cyclotron is placed in the additional building of the radiological trunk on the territory of the Moscow Clinical hospital. The technological process of producing the ultra-temporary radionuclides is presented. The block of the radiodiagnostic research include: a treatment room for PET; an operating room; an area for information handling; a treatment room for intake of the radio-pharm-preparations; a filling room; a laboratory for express-analysis of blood before and after research; a WC for patients (with radio-pharm-preparations); and at last - an area for transient (30 - 40 min.) staying for the patients in the lay position before the research. All probable accidents, which can happen in the case of any technology violation, are discussed. There were worked out special requirements to the clarification tanks equipment for liquid radioactive waste and to the time of being a patient in the department after diagnostic researches using fluorine-18

  8. 34 CFR 350.12 - What are the general requirements for an Advanced Rehabilitation Research Training Project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... multidisciplinary, and emphasizes scientific methodology, and may involve collaboration among institutions. (3... Rehabilitation Research Training Project? 350.12 Section 350.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Projects Does the...

  9. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 570 - Guidelines and Objectives for Evaluating Project Costs and Financial Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... breakdown of all project costs and that each cost element making up the project be reviewed for... either a firm commitment of its funds or a decision not to participate in the project; and B. Equity... his/her motivation remains high to pursue the business with vigor. The amount, type and terms of the...

  10. The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project: sample preparation guidelines for reliable reporting of glycomics datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwe, Weston B; Agravat, Sanjay; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Campbell, Matthew P; Costello, Catherine E; Dell, Anne; Ten Feizi; Haslam, Stuart M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kolarich, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Novotny, Milos V; Packer, Nicolle H; Paulson, James C; Rapp, Erdmann; Ranzinger, Rene; Rudd, Pauline M; Smith, David F; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; York, William S; Zaia, Joseph; Kettner, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project was established in 2011 to provide guidelines to aid in data reporting from all types of experiments in glycomics research including mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography, glycan arrays, data handling and sample preparation. MIRAGE is a concerted effort of the wider glycomics community that considers the adaptation of reporting guidelines as an important step towards critical evaluation and dissemination of datasets as well as broadening of experimental techniques worldwide. The MIRAGE Commission published reporting guidelines for MS data and here we outline guidelines for sample preparation. The sample preparation guidelines include all aspects of sample generation, purification and modification from biological and/or synthetic carbohydrate material. The application of MIRAGE sample preparation guidelines will lead to improved recording of experimental protocols and reporting of understandable and reproducible glycomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin modulates the firing 1 properties of the reticular thalamic nucleus bursting neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albéri, Lavinia; Lintas, Alessandra; Kretz, Robert; Schwaller, Beat; Villa, Alessandro E P

    2013-06-01

    The reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) of the mouse is characterized by an overwhelming majority of GABAergic neurons receiving afferences from both the thalamus and the cerebral cortex and sending projections mainly on thalamocortical neurons. The RTN neurons express high levels of the "slow Ca(2+) buffer" parvalbumin (PV) and are characterized by low-threshold Ca(2+) currents, I(T). We performed extracellular recordings in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice in the rostromedial portion of the RTN. In the RTN of wild-type and PV knockout (PVKO) mice we distinguished four types of neurons characterized on the basis of their firing pattern: irregular firing (type I), medium bursting (type II), long bursting (type III), and tonically firing (type IV). Compared with wild-type mice, we observed in the PVKOs the medium bursting (type II) more frequently than the long bursting type and longer interspike intervals within the burst without affecting the number of spikes. This suggests that PV may affect the firing properties of RTN neurons via a mechanism associated with the kinetics of burst discharges. Ca(v)3.2 channels, which mediate the I(T) currents, were more localized to the somatic plasma membrane of RTN neurons in PVKO mice, whereas Ca(v)3.3 expression was similar in both genotypes. The immunoelectron microscopy analysis showed that Ca(v)3.2 channels were localized at active axosomatic synapses, thus suggesting that the differential localization of Ca(v)3.2 in the PVKOs may affect bursting dynamics. Cross-correlation analysis of simultaneously recorded neurons from the same electrode tip showed that about one-third of the cell pairs tended to fire synchronously in both genotypes, independent of PV expression. In summary, PV deficiency does not affect the functional connectivity between RTN neurons but affects the distribution of Ca(v)3.2 channels and the dynamics of burst discharges of RTN cells, which in turn regulate the activity in the thalamocortical circuit.

  12. Holmes’ Tremor with Shoulder Pain Treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of Unilateral Ventral Intermediate Thalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Internus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Aydın

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male was admitted with severe right arm and hand tremors after a thalamic hemorrhage caused by a traffic accident. He was also suffering from agonizing pain in his right shoulder that manifested after the tremor. Neurologic examination revealed a disabling, severe, and irregular kinetic and postural tremor in the right arm during target-directed movements. There was also an irregular ipsilateral rest tremor and dystonic movements in the distal part of the right arm. The amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements. The patient underwent left globus pallidum internus and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The patient improved by more than 80% as rated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale and Visual Analog Scale six months after surgery.

  13. How Does Transformational Leadership Promote Innovation in Construction? The Mediating Role of Innovation Climate and the Multilevel Moderation Role of Project Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation plays a critical role in the sustainable development of the construction industry. This research aims at examining transformational leadership’s role in shaping employees’ innovative behavior by analyzing the mediating effect of innovation climate and the cross-level moderating effect of innovativeness as a project requirement. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 300 construction industry professionals in China and 251 valid replies were received. Data collected by the questionnaire were analyzed using the method of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM. The results showed that transformational leaders could nurture a mutual climate for innovation to motivate employees’ innovative behaviors. In addition, innovativeness as a project requirement at the project level strengthens the indirect link amongst transformational leadership and innovative behavior via the innovation climate. Therefore, in the presence of higher innovativeness as a project requirement, transformational leadership is more prone to exert a positive influence upon an individual’s innovative behavior via the perceived innovation climate. The research findings improve understanding of the roles of leadership and innovation climate in affecting individual behavioral outcomes, and could help project managers and leaders encourage innovative ideas within project organizations.

  14. A retrospective review of required projects in systems-based practice in a single anesthesiology residency: a 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tetsuro; Emerick, Trent D; Patel, Rita M

    2015-09-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has emphasized in its core competencies and more recently, in its Milestones Project, that residents understand the importance of systems-based practice (SBP). The objectives of the study are to evaluate the quality of residents' SBP projects and to determine the degrees that were subsequently implemented. A retrospective educational observational study. A university-based anesthesiology training institution. One hundred forty-nine anesthesiology residents in their final (postgraduate year 4) year of training who completed SBP projects for the last 10 years (2004-2013). A structured SBP course was provided for postgraduate year 4 anesthesiology residents with deadlines set such as project identification, data collection, and proposal draft. Each resident's written SBP proposal received inputs by 2 members of the department executive steering committee. The SBP projects concluded with oral presentations by each resident to the department executive steering committee, who provided overall scores. All SBP projects were categorized into 7 categories: safety initiatives, economic analysis, process analysis, policy change recommendations, education initiatives, teamwork/communication, and operating room efficiency. Evaluation scores using a Likert scale (1-9, where 9 is the best) were analyzed. The rate of implementation of project ideas within the department based on the presentations to the executive committee was examined. Of 149 projects, policy change recommendations was the most frequently chosen category (46 projects; 30.9%), followed by process analysis (36 projects; 24.2%). The overall evaluation score was 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± SD). A total of 53 projects (35.6%) were implemented in the department. There was no statistical difference between SBPs with implementation vs SBPs without implementation in terms of evaluation scores, year of the presentation, or categories. This SBP project has given residents the

  15. High Field fMRI Reveals Thalamocortical Integration of Segregated Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Mediodorsal and Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C. D.; Eckert, U.; Steiner, J.; Sartorius, A.; Buchmann, J. E.; Stadler, J.; Tempelmann, C.; Speck, O.; Bogerts, B.; Abler, B.; Walter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions, and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non-invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive–emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla. Using an event-related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo–striato–cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behavior such as sexual processing. PMID:21088699

  16. High field fMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Danielle Metzger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla.Using an event related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex (CM/PF. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behaviour such as sexual

  17. High field FMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C D; Eckert, U; Steiner, J; Sartorius, A; Buchmann, J E; Stadler, J; Tempelmann, C; Speck, O; Bogerts, B; Abler, B; Walter, M

    2010-01-01

    Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions, and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non-invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla. Using an event-related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behavior such as sexual processing.

  18. Neuronal responses to tactile stimuli and tactile sensations evoked by microstimulation in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus (ventral caudal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Anne-Christine; Chien, Jui-Hong; Greenspan, Joel D; Garonzik, Ira; Weiss, Nirit; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick Arthur

    2016-06-01

    The normal organization and plasticity of the cutaneous core of the thalamic principal somatosensory nucleus (ventral caudal, Vc) have been studied by single-neuron recordings and microstimulation in patients undergoing awake stereotactic operations for essential tremor (ET) without apparent somatic sensory abnormality and in patients with dystonia or chronic pain secondary to major nervous system injury. In patients with ET, most Vc neurons responded to one of the four stimuli, each of which optimally activates one mechanoreceptor type. Sensations evoked by microstimulation were similar to those evoked by the optimal stimulus only among rapidly adapting neurons. In patients with ET, Vc was highly segmented somatotopically, and vibration, movement, pressure, and sharp sensations were usually evoked by microstimulation at separate sites in Vc. In patients with conditions including spinal cord transection, amputation, or dystonia, RFs were mismatched with projected fields more commonly than in patients with ET. The representation of the border of the anesthetic area (e.g., stump) or of the dystonic limb was much larger than that of the same part of the body in patients with ET. This review describes the organization and reorganization of human Vc neuronal activity in nervous system injury and dystonia and then proposes basic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Evidence for thalamic involvement in the thermal grill illusion: an FMRI study.

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    Fredrik Lindstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold. The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. AIM: To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. METHODS: We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41°C, cold(18°C and interleaved(41°C+18°C = TGI temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational ("unpleasantness" and sensory-disciminatory ("pain-intensity" dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected α-level <0.05. RESULTS: The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness (rho = 0.31. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity

  20. Posterior Thalamic Nucleus Modulation of Tactile Stimuli Processing in Rat Motor and Primary Somatosensory Cortices

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    Diana Casas-Torremocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF and motor (M1wk cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM. Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po. However, Po axons may convey, in addition to direct sensory signals, the dynamic output of computations between whisker signals and descending motor commands. It has been proposed that this input may be relevant for adjusting cortical responses to predicted vs. unpredicted whisker signals, but the effects of Po input on M1wk and S1BF function have not been directly tested or compared in vivo. Here, using electrophysiology, optogenetics and pharmacological tools, we compared in adult rats M1wk and S1BF in vivo responses in the whisker areas of the motor and primary somatosensory cortices to passive multi-whisker deflection, their dependence on Po activity, and their changes after a brief intense activation of Po axons. We report that the latencies of the first component of tactile-evoked local field potentials in M1wk and S1BF are similar. The evoked potentials decrease markedly in M1wk, but not in S1BF, by injection in Po of the GABAA agonist muscimol. A brief high-frequency electrical stimulation of Po decreases the responsivity of M1wk and S1BF cells to subsequent whisker stimulation. This effect is prevented by the local application of omega-agatoxin, suggesting that it may in part depend on GABA release by fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV-expressing cortical interneurons. Local optogenetic activation of Po synapses in different

  1. Site specific statutory compliance planning for the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Requirements, strategy, and status: Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This document and the requirements and actions it presents are addressed to the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. The proposed actions upon which the plan is based are those described in Chapters 4 and 5 of the final EA for the site. Similarly, the environmental and health and safety requirements covered in the plan are those identified in the EA as being potentially applicable to the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith site. 12 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Association of Thalamic Dysconnectivity and Conversion to Psychosis in Youth and Young Adults at Elevated Clinical Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Haut, Kristen; Murray, John D.; Repovs, Grega; Yang, Genevieve J.; Diehl, Caroline; McEwen, Sarah C.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Addington, Jean; Goodyear, Bradley; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Olvet, Doreen; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Belger, Aysenil; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Walker, Elaine F; Hamann, Stephan; Woods, Scott W; Qiu, Maolin; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, affect distributed neural computations. One candidate system profoundly altered in chronic schizophrenia involves the thalamocortical networks. It is widely acknowledged that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that likely affects the brain before onset of clinical symptoms. However, no investigation has tested whether thalamocortical connectivity is altered in individuals at risk for psychosis or whether this pattern is more severe in individuals who later develop full-blown illness. OBJECTIVES To determine whether baseline thalamocortical connectivity differs between individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and healthy controls, whether this pattern is more severe in those who later convert to full-blown illness, and whether magnitude of thalamocortical dysconnectivity is associated with baseline prodromal symptom severity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this multicenter, 2-year follow-up, case-control study, we examined 397 participants aged 12–35 years of age (243 individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis, of whom 21 converted to full-blown illness, and 154 healthy controls). The baseline scan dates were January 15, 2010, to April 30, 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Whole-brain thalamic functional connectivity maps were generated using individuals’ anatomically defined thalamic seeds, measured using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS Using baseline magnetic resonance images, we identified thalamocortical dysconnectivity in the 243 individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis, which was particularly pronounced in the 21 participants who converted to full-blown illness. The pattern involved widespread hypoconnectivity between the thalamus and prefrontal and cerebellar areas, which was more prominent in those who converted to full-blown illness (t173 = 3.77, P < .001, Hedge g = 0.88). Conversely, there was marked

  3. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT thalamic blood flow study in migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijian; Steiner, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The changes of blood flow in the thalamic of migraineurs by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging are investigated. 60 cases with migraine were performed by Novo 810 high-resolution SPECT 30 minutes after injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO. The quantitative analysis of SPECT data was based on the irregular ROI% uptake normalized to total slice method. There were significantly increased mean % uptake values in migraine with aura (259.1 +-17.1), and more significantly in those who experienced hemisensory symptoms and hemiparesis during aura (263.8 +- 17.2), compared to that of migraine without aura (249.1 +- 14.9), but there were not statistically significant difference between migraine with only visual disturbance during aura (255.1 +- 16.4) and without aura. The possible explanations for the increased mean % uptake values in migraineurs who experienced hemisensory symptoms and hemiparesis during aura are: (1) the reactive postischemic hyperemia. (2) excepting thalamus, the regional blood flow was decreased. (3) the secondary phenomenon to the various neurogenic and chemical stimuli

  4. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage. A study by Western Aphasia Battery and single photon emission CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro

    1984-07-01

    A report is given of 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months) in which language disorders were examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and cerebral blood flow was measured by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in the left temporooccipital region and low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similar to the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia there was a wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. In all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus.

  5. Amygdalar, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes in youth at high risk for development of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchemskiy, Asya; Garrett, Amy; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Simeonova, Diana I; Alegria, Dylan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki

    2011-12-30

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and symptoms of depression or mania, are at significantly high risk for developing BD. As we have previously shown amygdalar reductions in pediatric BD, the current study examined amygdalar volumes in offspring of parents (BD offspring) who have not yet developed a full manic episode. Youth participating in the study included 22 BD offspring and 22 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, handedness, and IQ. Subjects had no history of a manic episode, but met criteria for ADHD and moderate mood symptoms. MRI was performed on a 3T GE scanner, using a 3D volumetric spoiled gradient echo series. Amygdalae were manually traced using BrainImage Java software on positionally normalized brain stacks. Bipolar offspring had similar amygdalar volumes compared to the control group. Exploratory analyses yielded no differences in hippocampal or thalamic volumes. Bipolar offspring do not show decreased amygdalar volume, possibly because these abnormalities occur after more prolonged illness rather than as a preexisting risk factor. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether amygdalar volumes change during and after the development of BD. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ophthalmoplegic migraine with reversible thalamic ischemia by Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Dong Jin; Kang, Sung Soo [Gachon Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Two patients presented with ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) underwent EEG, Brain-MRI, cerebral angiography, and Tc-99m ECD SPECT during an attack. Follow-up SPECT was performed after neurologic symptoms resolved. In both cases, SPECT during an attack of ophthalmoplegia and headache demonstrated a significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus to the side of ophthalmoplegia, which was normalized on the follow-up SPECT during a symptom free recovery phase (Lesion to Non-lesion thalamic ratio=1.19 to 0.96 and 1.16 to 0.98, respectively). The other roentgenographic and laboratory findings were normal. These findings are suggestive the ischemia in the perforators of PCA results in third nerve palsy because the portion of oculomotor nerve behind the cavernous sinus derives its blood supply from small perforating branches of the basilar and PCA. Matched ictal hypoperfusion of the thalamus to the site of ophthalmoplegic migraine is suggestive of the ischemic neuropathy as an etiology of OM.

  7. Thalamic reticular impairment underlies attention deficit in Ptchd1(Y/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael F; Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Feng, Guoping; Halassa, Michael M

    2016-04-07

    Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood. Here we report that during early post-natal development, mouse Ptchd1 is selectively expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a group of GABAergic neurons that regulate thalamocortical transmission, sleep rhythms, and attention. Ptchd1 deletion attenuates TRN activity through mechanisms involving small conductance calcium-dependent potassium currents (SK). TRN-restricted deletion of Ptchd1 leads to attention deficits and hyperactivity, both of which are rescued by pharmacological augmentation of SK channel activity. Global Ptchd1 deletion recapitulates learning impairment, hyper-aggression, and motor defects, all of which are insensitive to SK pharmacological targeting and not found in the TRN-restricted deletion mouse. This study maps clinically relevant behavioural phenotypes onto TRN dysfunction in a human disease model, while also identifying molecular and circuit targets for intervention.

  8. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: I. Operant Responding for Sucrose and Corn Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Freet, Christopher S.; Grigson, Patricia S; Norgren, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The reward strength of orosensory sucrose and corn oil was measured using fixed and progressive ratio operant schedules. Because the orosensory effects of the stimuli were of interest, Experiment 1 compared operant responses for sucrose in sham and real feeding rats. The results demonstrated that rats would work for sucrose solutions without the accompanying postingestive effects. Furthermore, the break points for high concentrations of sucrose (1.0 M or 2.0 M) were significantly higher in sham feeding rats than in real feeding controls. Experiment 2 investigated the role of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and of the thalamic orosensory area (TOA) in sucrose and corn oil reward. During free access, rats with PBN lesions (PBNx) licked significantly less sucrose solution than their controls, but both groups ingested a similar volume of corn oil emulsion. When an operant was imposed, these same PBNx rats failed to respond for sucrose and continued only modestly for corn oil. In contrast, the TOA lesioned rats (TOAx) showed no impairment in responding for sucrose or corn oil during either the free access or operant sessions. Furthermore, rats with TOA lesions demonstrated significantly higher break points for sucrose than did their controls. Together, the data imply that the PBN but not the TOA is critical for the perception of, or responding to the reward value of sucrose and corn oil. PMID:21703290

  9. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhuret, Sébastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Bal, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-)correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus. PMID:26733818

  10. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhuret, Sébastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Bal, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-)correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus.

  11. Gait Balance Disorder by Thalamic Infarction with the Disorder of Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Wada, K.; Nagaoka, M.

    2011-01-01

    The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients. PMID:21769260

  12. Gait Balance Disorder by Thalamic Infarction with the Disorder of Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients.

  13. Distinct Thalamic Reticular Cell Types Differentially Modulate Normal and Pathological Cortical Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Clemente-Perez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers. We dissociated the connectivity, physiology, and circuit functions of neurons within rodent nRT, based on parvalbumin (PV and somatostatin (SOM expression, and validated the existence of such populations in human nRT. We found that PV, but not SOM, cells are rhythmogenic, and that PV and SOM neurons are connected to and modulate distinct thalamocortical circuits. Notably, PV, but not SOM, neurons modulate somatosensory behavior and disrupt seizures. These results provide a conceptual framework for how nRT may gate incoming information to modulate brain-wide rhythms.

  14. Neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus are selective for diverse and complex visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eVaingankar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All visual signals the cortex receives are influenced by the perigeniculate sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus, which receives input from relay cells in the lateral geniculate and provides feedback inhibition in return. Relay cells have been studied in quantitative depth; they behave in a roughly linear fashion and have receptive fields with a stereotyped centre-surround structure. We know far less about reticular neurons. Qualitative studies indicate they simply pool ascending input to generate nonselective gain control. Yet the perigeniculate is complicated; local cells are densely interconnected and fire lengthy bursts. Thus, we employed quantitative methods to explore the perigeniculate, using relay cells as controls. By adapting methods of spike-triggered averaging and covariance analysis for bursts, we identified both first and second order features that build reticular receptive fields. The shapes of these spatiotemporal subunits varied widely; no stereotyped pattern emerged. Companion experiments showed that the shape of the first but not second order features could be explained by the overlap of On and Off inputs to a given cell. Moreover, we assessed the predictive power of the receptive field and how much information each component subunit conveyed. Linear-nonlinear models including multiple subunits performed better than those made with just one; further each subunit encoded different visual information. Model performance for reticular cells was always lesser than for relay cells, however, indicating that reticular cells process inputs nonlinearly. All told, our results suggest that the perigeniculate encodes diverse visual features to selectively modulate activity transmitted downstream

  15. Neural signal for counteracting pre-action bias in the centromedian thalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi eMinamimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of our daily actions are selected and executed involuntarily under familiar situations by the guidance of internal drives, such as motivation. The behavioral tendency or biasing towards one over others reflects the action-selection process in advance of action execution (i.e., pre-action bias. Facing unexpected situations, however, pre-action bias should be withdrawn and replaced by an alternative that is suitable for the situation (i.e., counteracting bias. To understand the neural mechanism for the counteracting process, we studied the neural activity of the thalamic centromedian (CM nucleus in monkeys performing GO-NOGO task with asymmetrical or symmetrical reward conditions. The monkeys reacted to GO signal faster in large-reward condition, indicating behavioral bias toward large reward. In contrast, they responded slowly in small-reward condition, suggesting a conflict between internal drive and external demand. We found that neurons in the CM nucleus exhibited phasic burst discharges after GO and NOGO instructions especially when they were associated with small reward. The small-reward preference was positively correlated with the strength of behavioral bias toward large reward. The small-reward preference disappeared when only NOGO action was requested. The timing of activation predicted the timing of action opposed to bias. These results suggest that CM signals the discrepancy between internal pre-action bias and external demand, and mediates the counteracting process — resetting behavioral bias and leading to execution of opposing action.

  16. Isolated amnesia following a bilateral paramedian thalamic infarct. Possible etiologic role of a whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, F; Maurri, S

    1992-04-01

    A previously healthy 45 years old carpenter suffered a whiplash injury in a road accident on July, 18th, 1990. He continued to work in spite of occipital headache, episodic sweatening and slight hypersomnia. On August, 8th, 1990 while parking his car into the deck of a ferry-boat he was found slightly confuse and markedly amnestic. A post-traumatic subdural haematoma was suspected. As a CT-scan of the brain was normal, a toxic encephalopathy or an hysterical amnesia were proposed. However, a MRI performed on August, 22th, 1990, apart from a small infarct in the white matter of the left occipital lobe, showed two small bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts. The last lesions usually follow a thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the "basilar communicating artery" (BCA) belonging to the vertebro-basilar system. The possible etiologic relationship between this syndrome and the previous whiplash injury has been considered. Six months later, while a control MRI showed a reduction of the brain lesions, a neuropsychological examination revealed a slight improvement of memory dysfunction evident also at a distance of further 6 months. This case is interesting because it tests the high sensitivity of MRI in amnestic syndromes and because of the possible role of a whiplash injury in the etiology of BPTI.

  17. The slow oscillation in cortical and thalamic networks: mechanisms and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During even the most quiescent behavioral periods, the cortex and thalamus express rich spontaneous activity in the form of slow (<1 Hz, synchronous network state transitions. Throughout this so-called slow oscillation, cortical and thalamic neurons fluctuate between periods of intense synaptic activity (Up states and almost complete silence (Down states. The two decades since the original characterization of the slow oscillation in the cortex and thalamus have seen considerable advances in deciphering the cellular and network mechanisms associated with this pervasive phenomenon. There are, nevertheless, many questions regarding the slow oscillation that await more thorough illumination, particularly the mechanisms by which Up states initiate and terminate, the functional role of the rhythmic activity cycles in unconscious or minimally conscious states, and the precise relation between Up states and the activated states associated with waking behavior. Given the substantial advances in multineuronal recording and imaging methods in both in vivo and in vitro preparations, the time is ripe to take stock of our current understanding of the slow oscillation and pave the way for future investigations of its mechanisms and functions. My aim in this Review is to provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms and functions of the slow oscillation, and to suggest avenues for further exploration.

  18. Simple cortical and thalamic neuron models for digital arithmetic circuit implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya eNanami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade-off between reproducibility of neuronal activities and computational efficiency is one ofcrucial subjects in computational neuroscience and neuromorphic engineering. A wide variety ofneuronal models have been studied from different viewpoints. The digital spiking silicon neuron(DSSN model is a qualitative model that focuses on efficient implementation by digital arithmeticcircuits. We expanded the DSSN model and found appropriate parameter sets with which itreproduces the dynamical behaviors of the ionic-conductance models of four classes of corticaland thalamic neurons. We first developed a 4-variable model by reducing the number of variablesin the ionic-conductance models and elucidated its mathematical structures using bifurcationanalysis. Then, expanded DSSN models were constructed that reproduce these mathematicalstructures and capture the characteristic behavior of each neuron class. We confirmed thatstatistics of the neuronal spike sequences are similar in the DSSN and the ionic-conductancemodels. Computational cost of the DSSN model is larger than that of the recent sophisticatedIntegrate-and-Fire-based models, but smaller than the ionic-conductance models. This modelis intended to provide another meeting point for above trade-off that satisfies the demand forlarge-scale neuronal network simulation with closer-to-biology models.

  19. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eBéhuret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus.

  20. 77 FR 6560 - Notice of a Project Waiver of the Buy American Requirement of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... purchase of ten (10) vertical linear motion mixers for the Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) Hornsby... specific project circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the review... Administration and Resources Management has concurred [[Page 6561

  1. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Requirements Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE requirements definition is to assess the activities that results in the specification, documentation, and review of the requirements that the software product must satisfy, including functionality, performance, design constraints, attributes and external interfaces. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production. IV&V reviewed the requirements specified in the NRC Form 189s to verify these requirements were included in SAPHIRE’s Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP).

  2. Renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India: projected levels of dissemination, energy delivery and investment requirements using available diffusion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallav Purohit; Kandpal, T.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2005-12-01

    Using the past diffusion trends of four renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India (SPV pumps, windmill pumps and biogas/producer gas driven dual fuel engine pumps), results of an attempt to project their future dissemination levels, have been presented in this study. The likely contribution of the renewable energy options considered in the study to the projected energy demand for irrigation water pumping in India has been estimated. Estimates of the associated investment requirements taking into account the learning effect have also been presented. (author)

  3. Bilateral thalamic stroke due to occlusion of the artery of Percheron in a patient with patent foramen ovale: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Serna Raúl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral thalamic infarcts are rare presentations of stroke. They are the result of a complex combination of risk factors and a predisposing vessel distribution. The artery of Percheron, characterized by a single arterial trunk that irrigates both paramedian thalamic regions, can be occluded as a result of embolic diseases leading to bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts. Clinical and image findings of this uncommon form of posterior circulation infarct are presented along with their anatomic and pathophysiologic correlates. Case presentation A 27-year-old Mexican man with no relevant medical history was admitted to hospital after he was found deeply stuporous. On admission, an urgent neuroimaging protocol for stroke, including magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging angiography, was performed. The scans revealed symmetric bilateral hyperintense paramedian thalamic lesions consistent with acute ischemic events. The posterior circulation was patent including the tip of the basilar artery and both posterior cerebral arteries, making the case compatible with occlusion of the artery of Percheron. Further evaluation with an aim to define the etiology revealed a patent foramen ovale as the cause of embolism. Conclusion Bilateral thalamic infarcts are unusual presentations of posterior circulation stroke; once they are diagnosed by an adequate neuroimaging protocol, a further evaluation to define the cause is necessary. Cardioembolism should always be considered in relatively young patients. A complete evaluation should be conducted by an interdisciplinary team including neurologists, cardiologists and neurosurgeons.

  4. Neurochemical pathways that converge on thalamic trigeminovascular neurons: potential substrate for modulation of migraine by sleep, food intake, stress and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Noseda

    Full Text Available Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective and cognitive functions. Our overall goal is to define an anatomical framework for conceptualizing how a 'decision' is made on whether a trigeminovascular thalamic neuron fires, for how long, and at what frequency. To begin answering this question, we determine which neuropeptides/neurotransmitters are in a position to modulate thalamic trigeminovascular neurons. Using a combination of in-vivo single-unit recording, juxtacellular labeling with tetramethylrhodamine dextran (TMR and in-vitro immunohistochemistry, we found that thalamic trigeminovascular neurons were surrounded by high density of axons containing biomarkers of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin; moderate density of axons containing noradrenaline and histamine; low density of axons containing orexin and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH; but not axons containing CGRP, serotonin 1D receptor, oxytocin or vasopressin. In the context of migraine, the findings suggest that the transmission of headache-related nociceptive signals from the thalamus to the cortex may be modulated by opposing forces (i.e., facilitatory, inhibitory that are governed by continuous adjustments needed to keep physiological, behavioral, cognitive and emotional homeostasis.

  5. Specific Advice on Fulfilling Information Requirements for Nanomaterials under REACH (RIP-oN 2) – Final Project Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hankin, S. M.; Peters, S. A. K.; Poland, C. A.

    The European Commission (EC) began in 2009 a Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Implementation Project on Nanomaterials (RIPoN), which it intended to provide advice on key aspects of the implementation of REACH with regard to nanomaterials....

  6. 34 CFR 379.10 - What types of project activities are required of each grantee under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... placement and career advancement opportunities; (b) Provide job development, job placement, and career... are necessary to permit them to maintain the employment and career advancement for which they have... job and career availability within the community, consistent with the current and projected local...

  7. Requirements for future control room and visualisation features in the Web-of-Cells framework defined in the ELECTRA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinell, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    project, that proposes a new Web-of-Cell (WoC) power system control architecture. Dedicated visualisation features are proposed, aimed to support the control room operators activities in a WoC-oriented approach. Furthermore, the work takes into account the point of view of network operators about future...

  8. 75 FR 67966 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...'') for the purchase of 40 lb/yd American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) crane railing, which is part... waiver based on the specific project circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this... EPA's Office of Administration and Resources Management has concurred on this decision to make an...

  9. 75 FR 82389 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... quality] to the Buffalo Island Regional Water District (``District'') for the purchase of a 15 horsepower... specific project circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the review... Administration and Resources Management has concurred on this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of...

  10. 75 FR 30828 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... satisfactory quality] to the Canaan Valley Public Service District (CVPSD) for the purchase of a membrane... project circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the review and... EPA's Office of Administration and Resources Management has concurred on this decision to make an...

  11. 75 FR 66373 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of ARRA. This action permits the purchase of membrane... quality] to the Newport Borough Water Authority (NBWA) for the purchase of membrane filtration cassettes... based on the specific project circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination...

  12. 75 FR 5585 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... quality] to the Albany County Sewer District (ACSD), New York for the purchase of a foreign manufactured... the project specific circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on... Administration and Resources Management has concurred on this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of...

  13. 75 FR 5586 - Notice of a Regional Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... quantities and of a satisfactory quality] to the WMTMUA, New Jersey, for the purchase of a membrane bio... project specific circumstances. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the... and Resources Management has concurred on this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of ARRA...

  14. 76 FR 11193 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirements) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... consultants, it was determined that the HVAC equipment that will meet the County's design and performance... repair of a public building or public work unless all of the iron, steel, and manufactured goods used in... designers of record evaluated the various technologies based on the following factors: The project...

  15. 75 FR 9207 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... the purchase of a GrundFos SQ Flex 6 SQF- 2 solar powered submersible pump system with control and solar panels (pump system) manufactured in Denmark by GrundFos. This is a project specific waiver and... powered submersible pump system with control and solar panels (pump system) manufactured in Denmark by...

  16. Localization of Basal Ganglia and Thalamic Damage in Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R; Waugh, Jeff L

    2016-01-01

    Dyskinetic cerebral palsy affects 15%-20% of patients with cerebral palsy. Basal ganglia injury is associated with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, but the patterns of injury within the basal ganglia predisposing to dyskinetic cerebral palsy are unknown, making treatment difficult. For example, deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna improves dystonia in only 40% of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Basal ganglia injury heterogeneity may explain this variability. To investigate this, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of basal ganglia and thalamic damage in dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Reviews and articles primarily addressing genetic or toxic causes of cerebral palsy were excluded yielding 22 studies (304 subjects). Thirteen studies specified the involved basal ganglia nuclei (subthalamic nucleus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, or lentiform nuclei, comprised by the putamen and globus pallidus). Studies investigating the lentiform nuclei (without distinguishing between the putamen and globus pallidus) showed that all subjects (19 of 19) had lentiform nuclei damage. Studies simultaneously but independently investigating the putamen and globus pallidus also showed that all subjects (35 of 35) had lentiform nuclei damage (i.e., putamen or globus pallidus damage); this was followed in frequency by damage to the putamen alone (70 of 101, 69%), the subthalamic nucleus (17 of 25, 68%), the thalamus (88 of 142, 62%), the globus pallidus (7/35, 20%), and the caudate (6 of 47, 13%). Globus pallidus damage was almost always coincident with putaminal damage. Noting consistent involvement of the lentiform nuclei in dyskinetic cerebral palsy, these results could suggest two groups of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy: those with putamen-predominant damage and those with panlenticular damage involving both the putamen and the globus pallidus. Differentiating between these groups could help predict response to therapies such as deep brain

  17. Neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus are selective for diverse and complex visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaingankar, Vishal; Soto-Sanchez, Cristina; Wang, Xin; Sommer, Friedrich T.; Hirsch, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    All visual signals the cortex receives are influenced by the perigeniculate sector (PGN) of the thalamic reticular nucleus, which receives input from relay cells in the lateral geniculate and provides feedback inhibition in return. Relay cells have been studied in quantitative depth; they behave in a roughly linear fashion and have receptive fields with a stereotyped center-surround structure. We know far less about reticular neurons. Qualitative studies indicate they simply pool ascending input to generate non-selective gain control. Yet the perigeniculate is complicated; local cells are densely interconnected and fire lengthy bursts. Thus, we employed quantitative methods to explore the perigeniculate using relay cells as controls. By adapting methods of spike-triggered averaging and covariance analysis for bursts, we identified both first and second order features that build reticular receptive fields. The shapes of these spatiotemporal subunits varied widely; no stereotyped pattern emerged. Companion experiments showed that the shape of the first but not second order features could be explained by the overlap of On and Off inputs to a given cell. Moreover, we assessed the predictive power of the receptive field and how much information each component subunit conveyed. Linear-non-linear (LN) models including multiple subunits performed better than those made with just one; further each subunit encoded different visual information. Model performance for reticular cells was always lesser than for relay cells, however, indicating that reticular cells process inputs non-linearly. All told, our results suggest that the perigeniculate encodes diverse visual features to selectively modulate activity transmitted downstream. PMID:23269915

  18. Lesions of reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei impair radial maze win-shift performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrook, Jacqueline R; Mair, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei are major sources of thalamic input to hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. We compared effects of lesions in ReRh and other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex on tasks affected by lesions in terminal fields innervated by these nuclei, including: visuospatial reaction time (VSRT), a measure of sensory guided responding; serial VSRT, a measure of action sequence learning; and win/shift radial arm maze (RAM) measures of spatial memory. ReRh lesions affected RAM, but not VSRT or serial VSRT performance. The effects of caudal intralaminar lesions were doubly dissociated from ReRh lesions, affecting VSRT, but not RAM or serial VSRT performance. Rostral intralaminar lesions did not produce significant impairments, other than a subgroup with larger lesions that were impaired performing a delayed RAM task. Combined lesions damaging all three sites produced RAM deficits comparable to ReRh lesions and VSRT deficits comparable to caudal intralaminar lesions. Thus there was no indication that deficits produced by lesions in one site were exacerbated significantly by the cumulative effect of damage in other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex. The effects of ReRh lesions provide evidence that these nuclei affect memory functions of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The double dissociation observed between the effects of ReRh and caudal intralaminar nuclei provides evidence that different nuclei within the midline-intralaminar complex affect distinct aspects of cognition consistent with the effects of lesions in the terminal fields they innervate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for neuropathic pain after amputation or brachial plexus avulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Boccard, Sandra G; Linhares, Paulo; Chamadoira, Clara; Rosas, Maria José; Abreu, Pedro; Rebelo, Virgínia; Vaz, Rui; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2013-09-01

    Fifteen hundred patients have received deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacotherapy over the last half-century, but few during the last decade. Deep brain stimulation for neuropathic pain has shown variable outcomes and gained consensus approval in Europe but not the US. This study prospectively evaluated the efficacy at 1 year of DBS for phantom limb pain after amputation, and deafferentation pain after brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), in a single-center case series. Patient-reported outcome measures were collated before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) score, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and University of Washington Neuropathic Pain Score (UWNPS). Twelve patients were treated over 29 months, receiving contralateral, ventroposterolateral sensory thalamic DBS. Five patients were amputees and 7 had BPAs, all from traumas. A postoperative trial of externalized DBS failed in 1 patient with BPA. Eleven patients proceeded to implantation and gained improvement in pain scores at 12 months. No surgical complications or stimulation side effects were noted. In the amputation group, after 12 months the mean VAS score improved by 90.0% ± 10.0% (p = 0.001), SF-36 by 57.5% ± 97.9% (p = 0.127), UWNPS by 80.4% ± 12.7% (p stimulation demonstrated efficacy at 1 year for chronic neuropathic pain after traumatic amputation and BPA. Clinical trials that retain patients in long-term follow-up are desirable to confirm findings from prospectively assessed case series.

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Dentato-Rubro-Thalamic Tract: Outcomes of Direct Targeting for Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoy, Albert J; Schiess, Mya C

    2017-07-01

    Targeting the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTt) has been suggested to be efficacious in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for tremor suppression, both in case reports and post-hoc analyses. This prospective observational study sought to analyze outcomes after directly targeting the DRTt in tremor patients. 20 consecutively enrolled intention tremor patients obtained pre-operative MRI with diffusion tensor (dTi) sequences. Mean baseline tremor amplitude based on The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale was recorded. The DRTt was drawn for each individual on StealthViz software (Medtronic) using the dentate nucleus as the seed region and the ipsilateral pre-central gyrus as the end region and then directly targeted during surgery. Intraoperative testing confirmed successful tremor control. Post-operative analysis of electrode position relative to the DRTt was performed, as was post-operative assessment of tremor improvement. The mean age of patients was 66.8 years; mean duration of tremor was 16 years. Mean voltage for the L electrode = 3.4 V; R = 2.6 V. Mean distance from the center of the active electrode contact to the DRTt was 0.9 mm on the L, and 0.8 mm on the R. Improvement in arm tremor amplitude from baseline after DBS was significant (P tremor suppression. Accounting for hardware, software, and model limitations, depiction of the DRTt allows for placement of electrode contacts directly within the fiber tract for modulation despite any anatomical variation, which reproducibly resulted in good tremor control. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  1. Chronological changes in the CT appearance of experimental radiofrequency thalamic lesions in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisutani, Daizo; Makino, Akira; Matsumoto, Keizo; Ii, Kunio

    1987-01-01

    The location and extent of thalamic lesions following thalamotomy have been determined by the monopolar radiofrequency method. They can sometimes be identified in CT images as low-density areas, but also exceptionally high-density areas. However, this low-density area changes with time from a larger one in the acute stage to a smaller spot in the chronic stage, and sometimes it disappears within three months after the operation. It is the purpose of this study to elucidate the proper timing for the scanning for the anatomical mapping of the lesion in chronologically varying images of the lesions. Stereotactic experimental radiofrequency lesions were created in the thalamus of 35 mongrel dogs at 70 deg C for 120 sec. CT images of the brain were obtained at Days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 60. The lesions of the specimens and CT images tended to grow from Day 0 to Day 3, and then to grow smaller to Day 60. The area of the thalamus was measured in each specimen by means of coronal cutting. The thalamus of the lesion side was swollen from Day 0 to Day 10, but it became almost equal to that of the non-lesion side between Day 14 and Day 21. Then, the thalamus of the lesion side became atrophic. The mass effects with a ventricular deformity and a midline shift on CT images were diminished at Day 14 in most cases. The lesion areas at Day 14 corresponded to the contrast-enhanced area more than to that of the plain CT histologically. These results suggest that a lesion demonstrated by CE-CT scans at Day 14 would be suitable for anatomical mapping. (author)

  2. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor Also Reduces Voice Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Schrock, Lauren; Davis, Tyler; House, Paul A

    2017-12-12

    Voice tremor is a common feature of essential tremor (ET) that is difficult to treat medically and significantly affects quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) of the thalamus is effective in improving contralateral distal limb tremor and has been shown in limited studies to affect voice tremor. Our objective was to retrospectively evaluate whether Vim-DBS used to treat patients with essential motor tremor also effectively treated underlying concurrent voice tremor and assess whether particular lead locations were favorable for treating vocal tremor. In this retrospective cohort study, patients had unilateral or bilateral lead placement and were monitored for up to 12 months. We used the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM) subscore to assess vocal tremor. Changes in vocal tremor before and after stimulation and over several sessions were assessed. Of the 77 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were treated for essential tremor, 20 (26%) patients had vocal tremor prior to stimulation. Active Vim-DBS decreased the amplitude of voice tremor by 80% (p centroid of stimulation showed that Vim thalamic stimulation that is more anterior on average yielded better voice tremor control, significantly so on the left side (p < 0.05). Additionally, there was improvement in head, tongue, and face tremor scores (p < 0.05). Unilateral and bilateral Vim-DBS targeted to treat the motor component of essential tremor also dramatically decreased the amplitude of voice tremor in this group of patients, suggesting a potential benefit of this treatment for affected patients. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Active action potential propagation but not initiation in thalamic interneuron dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Amanda E.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus modulate the activity of thalamocortical cells in response to excitatory input through the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter from both axons and dendrites. The exact mechanisms by which release can occur from dendrites are, however, not well understood. Recent experiments using calcium imaging have suggested that Na/K based action potentials can evoke calcium transients in dendrites via local active conductances, making the back-propagating action potential a candidate for dendritic neurotransmitter release. In this study, we employed high temporal and spatial resolution voltage-sensitive dye imaging to assess the characteristics of dendritic voltage deflections in response to Na/K action potentials in interneurons of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. We found that trains or single action potentials elicited by somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation led to action potentials that rapidly and actively back-propagated throughout the entire dendritic arbor and into the fine filiform dendritic appendages known to release GABAergic vesicles. Action potentials always appeared first in the soma or proximal dendrite in response to somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation, and the rapid back-propagation into the dendritic arbor depended upon voltage-gated sodium and TEA-sensitive potassium channels. Our results indicate that thalamic interneuron dendrites integrate synaptic inputs that initiate action potentials, most likely in the axon initial segment, that then back-propagate with high-fidelity into the dendrites, resulting in a nearly synchronous release of GABA from both axonal and dendritic compartments. PMID:22171033

  4. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  5. Low thalamic NAA-concentration corresponds to strong neural activation in working memory in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigren, Patrick; Tisell, Anders; Engström, Maria; Karlsson, Thomas; Leinhard Dahlqvist, Olof; Lundberg, Peter; Landtblom, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Kleine Levin Syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder of periodic hypersomnia and behavioural disturbances in young individuals. It has previously been shown to be associated with disturbances of working memory (WM), which, in turn, was associated with higher activation of the thalamus with increasing WM load, demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this study we aimed to further elucidate how these findings are related to the metabolism of the thalamus. fMRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied while performing a WM task. Standard metabolites were examined: n-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol, choline, creatine and glutamate-glutamine. Fourteen KLS-patients and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. The patients with active disease were examined in asymptomatic periods. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between thalamic fMRI-activation and thalamic NAA, i.e., high fMRI-activation corresponded to low NAA-levels. This correlation was not seen in healthy controls. Thalamic levels of NAA in patients and controls showed no significant differences between the groups. None of the other metabolites showed any co-variation with fMRI-activation. This study shows negative correlation between NAA-levels and fMRI-activity in the left thalamus of KLS-patients while performing a WM task. This correlation could not be found in healthy control subjects, primarily interpreted as an effect of increased effort in the patient group upon performing the task. It might indicate a disturbance in the neuronal networks responsible for WM in KLS patients, resulting in higher effort at lower WM load, compared with healthy subjects. The general relationship between NAA and BOLD-signal is also discussed in the article.

  6. Connectivity-based parcellation of the thalamus explains specific cognitive and behavioural symptoms in patients with bilateral thalamic infarct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Serra

    Full Text Available A novel approach based on diffusion tractography was used here to characterise the cortico-thalamic connectivity in two patients, both presenting with an isolated bilateral infarct in the thalamus, but exhibiting partially different cognitive and behavioural profiles. Both patients (G.P. and R.F. had a pervasive deficit in episodic memory, but only one of them (R.F. suffered also from a dysexecutive syndrome. Both patients had an MRI scan at 3T, including a T1-weighted volume. Their lesions were manually segmented. T1-volumes were normalised to standard space, and the same transformations were applied to the lesion masks. Nineteen healthy controls underwent a diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI scan. Their DTI data were normalised to standard space and averaged. An atlas of Brodmann areas was used to parcellate the prefrontal cortex. Probabilistic tractography was used to assess the probability of connection between each voxel of the thalamus and a set of prefrontal areas. The resulting map of corticothalamic connections was superimposed onto the patients' lesion masks, to assess whether the location of the thalamic lesions in R.F. (but not in G. P. implied connections with prefrontal areas involved in dysexecutive syndromes. In G.P., the lesion fell within areas of the thalamus poorly connected with prefrontal areas, showing only a modest probability of connection with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Conversely, R.F.'s lesion fell within thalamic areas extensively connected with the ACC bilaterally, with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and with the left supplementary motor area. Despite a similar, bilateral involvement of the thalamus, the use of connectivity-based segmentation clarified that R.F.'s lesions only were located within nuclei highly connected with the prefrontal cortical areas, thus explaining the patient's frontal syndrome. This study confirms that DTI tractography is a useful tool to examine in vivo the effect of focal

  7. Prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage with special reference to the level of consciousness and CT findings on admission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tanahashi, Norio; Nara, Masaharu; Takenaka, Nobuo

    1991-01-01

    The prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage was studied on the basis of neurological gradings on admission, mode of extension and hematoma size on brain CT. The subjects were 126 patients with thalamic hemorrhage who were admitted to Ashikaga Red Cross Hospital during the past ten years. Among the subjects, 120 patients (ages 64±10 yr; mean ±SD) were treated with conservative therapy, and 6 patients (ages 59±10 yr) with surgical therapy (ventricular drainage). Brain CT scans were done within 48 hours after onset in all patients. Neurological gradings, brain CT classification and prognosis were investigated according to the criteria of the Japanese Conference on Surgery for Cerebral Stroke. The results of conservative therapy were as follows: (1) In the grade I group on the neurological gradings, 29 of the 39 patients (74%) recovered to full work or an independent life, and none of them died. In the grade IV and V groups, mortality rate was 86%. (2) The prognosis was more unfavorable in type III than in types I and II on the CT classification. Twenty-six of the 36 patients (73%) with type I-a recovered to full work or an independent life. Twenty-five of the 34 patients (74%) with the type III-b died. (3) Only 4 of the 75 patients (5%) with less than 10 ml of hematoma volume died. In contrast, all 14 patients with more than 25 ml of hematoma volume died. (4) The mortality rate among patients with ventricular rupture (47%) was significantly higher than that among patients without ventricular rupture (2%) (p<0.001). (5) The mortality rate of patients with acute hydrocephalus (83%) was significantly higher than that of patients without acute hydrocephalus (20%) (p<0.001). From the above results, it is suggested that neurological grading, brain CT classification, hematoma volume, ventricular rupture and acute hydrocephalus are important prognostic factors for thalamic hemorrhage. (author)

  8. Project Waiver of American Iron and Steel Requirements to the Napa Sanitation District for 24-Inch Diameter Butterfly Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiver approval by EPA pursuant to the American Iron and Steel Requirements of the Clean Water Act Section 608 to the Napa Sanitation District in California for the purchase of 24-inch butterfly valves.

  9. Synthesis of the european national requirements and practices for recycling in HMA and WMA (DIRECT_MAT PROJECT)

    OpenAIRE

    IPAVEC , Aleksander; Marsac , Paul; Mollenhauer , Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the 2009-2011 European project DIsmantling and RECycling Techniques for road MATerials is to contribute to the waste minimization in road maintenance and construction by sharing and disseminating, at a European level, the national know-how and sustainable practices regarding the dismantling of the pavements and the recycling of the reclaimed materials. In the framework of the DIRECT_MAT subproject Asphalt materials, the present paper gives a broad overview of the European polic...

  10. PROJECTS ON AIRPORTS, AIRFIELDS, HELICOPTER AERODROMES AND LANDING GROUNDS SANITARY PROTECTION AREAS AS THE BASIS OF THEIR ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE ASSESSMENT TO ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Kartyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years experience of the development of domestic airports sanitary protection zones projects in civil aviation based on Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.2.1/2.1.1.1200-03 requirements is analyzed, the reasons of loss of quality of project works and delaying of coordination terms at the last stage of the development are established. It is shown that among the main reasons for current negative situation with projects development and coordination are: absence of a check algorithm of settlement borders of areas and contours of aviation noise with the use of natural researches methods in Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.2.1/2.1.1.1200-03; absence of methods of amendment in projects and regulations of establishment of the airport sanitary protection zones final dimensions. Examples of oversized and undersized noise areas and ones of the polluting substances dispersion as well as the reasons of local authorities’ interests in it are given.Conceptional strategies which should be used in the edition of a new Russian conservancy normative document regulating the development of projects on sanitary protection areas. New document will allow to consider various factors of negative environmental impact of the airports, airfields, helicopter aerodromes and landing grounds activities.It is offered to introduce the concept of "aviation noise set index operational card", which will solve the legitimation problem of the aviation noise account in the State Immovable Property Cadaster. Suggestions on equivalent and maximum level magnitude of the sound made at the residential territory of cities and urban-type settlements by flights and aircraft ground operation are given.Standards are supposed to be harmonized with similar international rules and have to provide zone gradation by 5 dBA.Suggestions on the considerations of the revealed deficiencies are made, requirements to project sections structure of sanitary protection zones are formulated, proposals on the

  11. Projections of costs, financing, and additional resource requirements for low- and lower middle-income country immunization programs over the decade, 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gian; Lydon, Patrick; Cornejo, Santiago; Brenzel, Logan; Wrobel, Sandra; Chang, Hugh

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan has outlined a set of ambitious goals to broaden the impact and reach of immunization across the globe. A projections exercise has been undertaken to assess the costs, financing availability, and additional resource requirements to achieve these goals through the delivery of vaccines against 19 diseases across 94 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2011-2020. The exercise draws upon data from existing published and unpublished global forecasts, country immunization plans, and costing studies. A combination of an ingredients-based approach and use of approximations based on past spending has been used to generate vaccine and non-vaccine delivery costs for routine programs, as well as supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Financing projections focused primarily on support from governments and the GAVI Alliance. Cost and financing projections are presented in constant 2010 US dollars (US$). Cumulative total costs for the decade are projected to be US$57.5 billion, with 85% for routine programs and the remaining 15% for SIAs. Delivery costs account for 54% of total cumulative costs, and vaccine costs make up the remainder. A conservative estimate of total financing for immunization programs is projected to be $34.3 billion over the decade, with country governments financing 65%. These projections imply a cumulative funding gap of $23.2 billion. About 57% of the total resources required to close the funding gap are needed just to maintain existing programs and scale up other currently available vaccines (i.e., before adding in the additional costs of vaccines still in development). Efforts to mobilize additional resources, manage program costs, and establish mutual accountability between countries and development partners will all be necessary to ensure the goals of the Decade of Vaccines are achieved. Establishing or building on existing mechanisms to more comprehensively track resources and

  12. Analysis of correlation between white matter changes and functional responses in thalamic stroke: a DTI & EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Adil Deniz; Duru, Dilek Göksel; Yumerhodzha, Sami; Bebek, Nerses

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows in vivo structural brain mapping and detection of microstructural disruption of white matter (WM). One of the commonly used parameters for grading the anisotropic diffusivity in WM is fractional anisotropy (FA). FA value helps to quantify the directionality of the local tract bundle. Therefore, FA images are being used in voxelwise statistical analyses (VSA). The present study used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) of FA images across subjects, and computes the mean skeleton map to detect voxelwise knowledge of the tracts yielding to groupwise comparison. The skeleton image illustrates WM structure and shows any changes caused by brain damage. The microstructure of WM in thalamic stroke is investigated, and the VSA results of healthy control and thalamic stroke patients are reported. It has been shown that several skeleton regions were affected subject to the presence of thalamic stroke (FWE, p EEG (qEEG) scores and neurophysiological tests with the FA skeleton for the entire test group is also investigated. We compared measurements that are related to the same fibers across subjects, and discussed implications for VSA of WM in thalamic stroke cases, for the relationship between behavioral tests and FA skeletons, and for the correlation between the FA maps and qEEG scores.Results obtained through the regression analyses did not exceed the corrected statistical threshold values for multiple comparisons (uncorrected, p EEG, cingulum bundle and corpus callosum were found to be related. These areas are parts of the Default Mode Network (DMN) where DMN is known to be involved in resting state EEG theta activity. The relation between the EEG alpha band power values and FA values of the skeleton was found to support the cortico-thalamocortical cycles for both subject groups. Further, the neurophysiological tests including Benton Face Recognition (BFR), Digit Span test (DST), Warrington Topographic Memory test (WTMT

  13. A case study of translating ACGME practice-based learning and improvement requirements into reality: systems quality improvement projects as the key component to a comprehensive curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomolo, A M; Lawrence, R H; Aron, D C

    2009-10-01

    In 2002, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced a new requirement: residents must demonstrate competency in Practice-Based Learning and Improvement (PBLI). Training in this domain is still not consistently integrated into programmes, with few, if any, adequately going beyond knowledge of basic content and addressing all components of the requirement. To summarise the implementation of a PBLI curriculum designed to address all components of the requirement and to evaluate the impact on the practice system. A case-study approach was used for identifying and evaluating the steps for delivering the curriculum, along with the Model for Improvement's successive Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles (July 2004-May 2006). Notes from curriculum development meetings, notes and presentation slides made by teams about their projects, resident curriculum exit evaluations curriculum and interviews. Residents reported high levels of comfort by applying PBLI-related knowledge and skills and that the curriculum improved their ability to do various PBLI tasks. The involvement of multiple stakeholders increased. Twelve of the 15 teams' suggestions with practical systems-relevant outcomes were implemented and sustained beyond residents' project periods. While using the traditional PDSA cycles was helpful, there were limitations. A PBLI curriculum that is centred around practice-based quality improvement projects can fulfil the objectives of this ACGME competency while accomplishing sustained outcomes in quality improvement. A comprehensive curriculum is an investment but offers organisational rewards. We propose a more realistic and informative representation of rapid PDSA cycle changes.

  14. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with traumatic brain injury: evaluating distribution of hypoperfusion and assessment of cognitive and behavioral impairment in relation to thalamic hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the distribution of hypoperfusion in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the relationship of thalamic hypoperfusion to severity of cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Tc-99m ECD SPECT and MRI were performed in 103 patients (M/F=81/22, mean age 34.7{+-} 15.4 yrs) from 0.5 to 55 months (mean 10.3 months) after TBI. The patients were divided into three groups showing no abnormalities (G1), focal (G2) and diffuse injury (G3) on MRI. Psychometric tests assessed 11 cognitive or behavioral items. In all patients, we evaluated the distribution of hypoperfused areas in SPECT, and in 57/103 patients, neuropsychological (NP) abnormalities in patients with thalamic hypoperfusion were compared with those of patients without thalamic hypoperfusion. The perfusion dificits were most frequently located in the frontal lobe (G1, 42.3%: G2 34.5%: G3 33.3%), temporal lobe (24{approx}26%) thalami (21{approx}22.4%), parietal and occipital lobe ({<=}10%). Numbers of NP abnormalities in the cases of cortical hypoperfusion with or without concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion were following: the former 4.7{+-}1.5 and the latter 3.2{+-}1.4 in G1, 5.0{+-}1.1 and 4.8{+-}1.2 in G2, 6.8{+-}1.8 and 6.3{+-}1.1 in G3, respectively. This difference according to thalamic hypoperfusion was significant in G1 (p=0.002), but was not significant in G2 or G3. SPECT in patients with TBI had demonstrated hypoperfusion mostly involving the frontal, temporal and thalami. In normal group on MRI, frontal hypoperfusion was more prominent than that of any other group, Furthermore in this group, SPECT could predict severity of NP outcome by concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion with cerebral cortical abnormalities.

  15. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with traumatic brain injury: evaluating distribution of hypoperfusion and assessment of cognitive and behavioral impairment in relation to thalamic hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of hypoperfusion in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the relationship of thalamic hypoperfusion to severity of cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Tc-99m ECD SPECT and MRI were performed in 103 patients (M/F=81/22, mean age 34.7± 15.4 yrs) from 0.5 to 55 months (mean 10.3 months) after TBI. The patients were divided into three groups showing no abnormalities (G1), focal (G2) and diffuse injury (G3) on MRI. Psychometric tests assessed 11 cognitive or behavioral items. In all patients, we evaluated the distribution of hypoperfused areas in SPECT, and in 57/103 patients, neuropsychological (NP) abnormalities in patients with thalamic hypoperfusion were compared with those of patients without thalamic hypoperfusion. The perfusion dificits were most frequently located in the frontal lobe (G1, 42.3%: G2 34.5%: G3 33.3%), temporal lobe (24∼26%) thalami (21∼22.4%), parietal and occipital lobe (≤10%). Numbers of NP abnormalities in the cases of cortical hypoperfusion with or without concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion were following: the former 4.7±1.5 and the latter 3.2±1.4 in G1, 5.0±1.1 and 4.8±1.2 in G2, 6.8±1.8 and 6.3±1.1 in G3, respectively. This difference according to thalamic hypoperfusion was significant in G1 (p=0.002), but was not significant in G2 or G3. SPECT in patients with TBI had demonstrated hypoperfusion mostly involving the frontal, temporal and thalami. In normal group on MRI, frontal hypoperfusion was more prominent than that of any other group, Furthermore in this group, SPECT could predict severity of NP outcome by concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion with cerebral cortical abnormalities

  16. 76 FR 38164 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    .... Paul, Minnesota, for the purchase of one Parkson StrainPress SC-4 pressurized in-line sludge screen to..., and meets MCES's performance specifications and requirements. The Regional Administrator is making... Administration and Resources Management has concurred on this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of...

  17. 76 FR 38163 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of ARRA. This action permits the purchase of four... United States of a satisfactory quality] to MCES of St. Paul, Minnesota, for the purchase of four... requirements. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the review and recommendations...

  18. 75 FR 25244 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Warren County for the purchase of a Trojan UV 4000 Plus medium-pressure, high-intensity ultraviolet... specifications and requirements. The Acting Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the... Management has concurred on this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of ARRA. This action permits...

  19. 75 FR 364 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... requirements. The Acting Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the review and... Management has concurred on this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of ARRA. This action permits the purchase of the Zenon ZeeWeed 1000 membrane filter for the Surface Water Treatment Plant upgrades...

  20. 76 FR 38162 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... concurred on this decision to make an exception to Section 1605 of ARRA. This action permits the purchase of... United States of a satisfactory quality] to Wayne County for the purchase of Link-Pipe PVC products in... specifications and requirements. The Regional Administrator is making this determination based on the review and...

  1. Knowledge Base for an Intelligent System in order to Identify Security Requirements for Government Agencies Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Beltrán G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been evidenced that one of the most common causes in the failure of software security is the lack of identification and specification of requirements for information security, it is an activity with an insufficient importance in the software development or software acquisition We propose the knowledge base of CIBERREQ. CIBERREQ is an intelligent knowledge-based system used for the identification and specification of security requirements in the software development cycle or in the software acquisition. CIBERREQ receives functional software requirements written in natural language and produces non-functional security requirements through a semi-automatic process of risk management. The knowledge base built is formed by an ontology developed collaboratively by experts in information security. In this process has been identified six types of assets: electronic data, physical data, hardware, software, person and service; as well as six types of risk: competitive disadvantage, loss of credibility, economic risks, strategic risks, operational risks and legal sanctions. In addition there are defined 95 vulnerabilities, 24 threats, 230 controls, and 515 associations between concepts. Additionally, automatic expansion was used with Wikipedia for the asset types Software and Hardware, obtaining 7125 and 5894 software and hardware subtypes respectively, achieving thereby an improvement of 10% in the identification of the information assets candidates, one of the most important phases of the proposed system.

  2. 75 FR 25246 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... requirements of cross correlation functionality for pinpointing leaks throughout its water distribution system... asset management program, and leak detection is critical to better management of its water system assets... for exactly pinpointing leaks throughout the water distribution system. The ABCWUA had received four...

  3. Leukotriene synthesis is required for hedgehog-dependent neurite projection in neuralized embryoid bodies but not for motor neuron differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold; Roelink, Henk

    The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is required for many developmental processes,. as well as for adult homeostasis. Although all known effects of Hh signaling affecting patterning and differentiation are mediated by members of the Gli family of zinc ringer transcription factors, we demonstrate that the

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented

  5. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  6. Impaired visual short-term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm-born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaux, Aurore; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Bäuml, Josef G; Müller, Hermann J; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Finke, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired. We hypothesized distinct associations between vSTM capacity and the structural integrity of cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connections, respectively, in preterm-born adults. A whole-report paradigm of briefly presented letter arrays based on the computationally formalized Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) was used to quantify parameter vSTM capacity in 26 preterm- and 21 full-term-born adults. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of posterior thalamic radiations and the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained by diffusion tensor imaging were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics and used as proxies for cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical structural connectivity. The relationship between vSTM capacity and cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connectivity, respectively, was significantly modified by prematurity. In full-term-born adults, the higher FA in the right posterior thalamic radiation the higher vSTM capacity; in preterm-born adults this FA-vSTM-relationship was inversed. In the splenium, higher FA was correlated with higher vSTM capacity in preterm-born adults, whereas no significant relationship was evident in full-term-born adults. These results indicate distinct associations between cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical integrity and vSTM capacity in preterm-and full-term-born adults. Data suggest compensatory cortico-cortical fiber re-organization for attention deficits after preterm delivery

  7. Strong, reliable and precise synaptic connections between thalamic relay cells and neurones of the nucleus reticularis in juvenile rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentet, Luc J; Ulrich, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) is composed entirely of GABAergic inhibitory neurones that receive input from pyramidal cortical neurones and excitatory relay cells of the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus (VB). It plays a major role in the synchrony of thalamic networks, yet the synaptic connections it receives from VB cells have never been fully physiologically characterised. Here, whole-cell current-clamp recordings were obtained from 22 synaptically connected VB-nRT cell pairs in slices of juvenile (P14–20) rats. At 34–36 °C, single presynaptic APs evoked unitary EPSPs in nRT cells with a peak amplitude of 7.4 ± 1.5 mV (mean ± s.e.m.) and a decay time constant of 15.1 ± 0.9 ms. Only four out of 22 pairs showed transmission failures at a mean rate of 6.8 ± 1.1 %. An NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated component was significant at rest and subsequent EPSPs in a train were depressed. Only one out of 14 pairs tested was reciprocally connected; the observed IPSPs in the VB cell had a peak amplitude of 0.8 mV and were completely abolished in the presence of 10 μm bicuculline. Thus, synaptic connections from VB cells to nRT neurones are mainly ‘drivers’, while a small subset of cells form closed disynaptic loops. PMID:12563005

  8. The effects of Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on speech dynamics in patients with Essential Tremor: An articulographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Mücke

    Full Text Available Acoustic studies have revealed that patients with Essential Tremor treated with thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS may suffer from speech deterioration in terms of imprecise oral articulation and reduced voicing control. Based on the acoustic signal one cannot infer, however, whether this deterioration is due to a general slowing down of the speech motor system (e.g., a target undershoot of a desired articulatory goal resulting from being too slow or disturbed coordination (e.g., a target undershoot caused by problems with the relative phasing of articulatory movements. To elucidate this issue further, we here investigated both acoustics and articulatory patterns of the labial and lingual system using Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA in twelve Essential Tremor patients treated with thalamic DBS and twelve age- and sex-matched controls. By comparing patients with activated (DBS-ON and inactivated stimulation (DBS-OFF with control speakers, we show that critical changes in speech dynamics occur on two levels: With inactivated stimulation (DBS-OFF, patients showed coordination problems of the labial and lingual system in terms of articulatory imprecision and slowness. These effects of articulatory discoordination worsened under activated stimulation, accompanied by an additional overall slowing down of the speech motor system. This leads to a poor performance of syllables on the acoustic surface, reflecting an aggravation either of pre-existing cerebellar deficits and/or the affection of the upper motor fibers of the internal capsule.

  9. Nonlinear predictive control for adaptive adjustments of deep brain stimulation parameters in basal ganglia-thalamic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Wang, Jiang; Niu, Shuangxia; Li, Huiyan; Deng, Bin; Liu, Chen; Wei, Xile

    2018-02-01

    The efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) depends in part on the post-operative programming of stimulation parameters. Closed-loop stimulation is one method to realize the frequent adjustment of stimulation parameters. This paper introduced the nonlinear predictive control method into the online adjustment of DBS amplitude and frequency. This approach was tested in a computational model of basal ganglia-thalamic network. The autoregressive Volterra model was used to identify the process model based on physiological data. Simulation results illustrated the efficiency of closed-loop stimulation methods (amplitude adjustment and frequency adjustment) in improving the relay reliability of thalamic neurons compared with the PD state. Besides, compared with the 130Hz constant DBS the closed-loop stimulation methods can significantly reduce the energy consumption. Through the analysis of inter-spike-intervals (ISIs) distribution of basal ganglia neurons, the evoked network activity by the closed-loop frequency adjustment stimulation was closer to the normal state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  11. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving population density functions of cortical pyramidal and thalamic neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Hsu; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-02-01

    Compared with the Monte Carlo method, the population density method is efficient for modeling collective dynamics of neuronal populations in human brain. In this method, a population density function describes the probabilistic distribution of states of all neurons in the population and it is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation. In the past, the problem was mainly solved by using the finite difference method. In a previous study, a continuous Galerkin finite element method was found better than the finite difference method for solving the hyperbolic partial differential equation; however, the population density function often has discontinuity and both methods suffer from a numerical stability problem. The goal of this study is to improve the numerical stability of the solution using discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. To test the performance of the new approach, interaction of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons and a population of thalamic neurons was simulated. The numerical results showed good agreement between results of discontinuous Galerkin finite element and Monte Carlo methods. The convergence and accuracy of the solutions are excellent. The numerical stability problem could be resolved using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which has total-variation-diminishing property. The efficient approach will be employed to simulate the electroencephalogram or dynamics of thalamocortical network which involves three populations, namely, thalamic reticular neurons, thalamocortical neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical appraisal of stereotactic hematoma aspiration surgery for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage; With respect to volume of the hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Koji; Matsumoto, Keizo (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Three hundred and four patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage were managed by medical treatment, ventricular drainage, or CT-controlled stereotactic aspiration surgery (AS). The therapeutic results of the 6-month outcome were analyzed and correlated with the volume of the hematoma. A hematoma volume of 20 ml was thought to be the critical size in determining whether the outcome would be favorable or unfavorable. Indications for AS are suggested as follows. In patients with a small-sized hematoma having a volume of less than 10 ml use of AS should be restricted to patients with severe paralysis or other neurological complications and the elderly (aged 70 years or older). For patients with a medium-sized hematoma having a volume between 10 ml and 20 ml, AS is indicated for patients having severe paralysis and disturbances of consciousness. For patients with a large-sized hematoma having a volume of 20 ml or more, AS increases not only the survival rate of patients but also reduces the number of bedridden patients. We conclude that AS opens up a new avenue of surgical treatment for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage, which has been no indication for hematoma evacuation by conventional craniotomy. (author).

  13. Sim1 is required for the migration and axonal projections of V3 interneurons in the developing mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklaws, Jake; Deska-Gauthier, Dylan; Jones, Christopher T; Petracca, Yanina L; Liu, Mingwei; Zhang, Han; Fawcett, James P; Glover, Joel C; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    V3 spinal interneurons (INs) are a group of excitatory INs that play a crucial role in producing balanced and stable gaits in vertebrate animals. In the developing mouse spinal cord, V3 INs arise from the most ventral progenitor domain and form anatomically distinctive subpopulations in adult spinal cords. They are marked by the expression of transcription factor Sim1 postmitotically, but the function of Sim1 in V3 development remains unknown. Here, we used Sim1(Cre) ;tdTomato mice to trace the fate of V3 INs in a Sim1 mutant versus control genetic background during development. In Sim1 mutants, V3 INs are produced normally and maintain a similar position and organization as in wild types before E12.5. Further temporal analysis revealed that the V3 INs in the mutants failed to migrate properly to form V3 subgroups along the dorsoventral axis of the spinal cord. At birth, in the Sim1 mutant the number of V3 INs in the ventral subgroup was normal, but they were significantly reduced in the dorsal subgroup with a concomitant increase in the intermediate subgroup. Retrograde labeling at lumbar level revealed that loss of Sim1 led to a reduction in extension of contralateral axon projections both at E14.5 and P0 without affecting ipsilateral axon projections. These results demonstrate that Sim1 is essential for proper migration and the guidance of commissural axons of the spinal V3 INs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Longitudinal development of thalamic and internal capsule microstructure in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kristine; Travers, Brittany G; Dadalko, Olga I; Dean, Douglas C; Tromp, Do; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel; Freeman, Abigail; Prigge, Molly D; Froehlich, Alyson; Duffield, Tyler C; Zielinski, Brandon A; Bigler, Erin D; Lange, Nicholas; Anderson, Jeff S; Alexander, Andrew L; Lainhart, Janet E

    2018-03-01

    childhood, thalamic microstructure was distinct in the ASD group compared to the typically developing group. However, these group differences appeared to narrow with age, suggesting that the thalamus continues to dynamically change in ASD into adulthood. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    -frontal cortex, inferior frontal, temporo-parietal junction, medial temporal and frontal pole also had enhanced structural connectivity with the striatum and thalamus in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In addition, the cortico-striatal pathways were characterized by elevated fractional anisotropy and diminished radial diffusivity, suggesting microstructural axonal abnormalities of white matter in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. These changes were more prominent in females with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to males and were not related to the current medication status. Taken together, our data showed widespread structural abnormalities in cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic white matter pathways in patients with Gilles de la Tourette, which likely result from abnormal brain development in this syndrome. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  16. Social cognitive and neurocognitive deficits in inpatients with unilateral thalamic lesions — pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkos E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Wilkos,2 Timothy JB Brown,3 Ksenia Slawinska,1 Katarzyna A Kucharska2,3 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroses, Personality and Eating Disorders Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Medical Education, Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK Background: The essential role of the thalamus in neurocognitive processes has been well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about its involvement in social cognitive processes such as recognition of emotion, mentalizing, or empathy. The aim of the study: This study was designed to compare the performance of eight patients (five males, three females, mean age ± SD: 63.7±7.9 years at early stage of unilateral thalamic lesions and eleven healthy controls (six males, five females, 49.6±12.2 years in neurocognitive tests (CogState Battery: Groton Maze Learning Test, GML; Groton Maze Learning Test-Delayed Recall, GML-DR; Detection Task, DT; Identification Task, IT; One Card Learning Task, OCLT; One Back Task, OBT; Two Back Task, TBT; Set-Shifting Task, S-ST and other well-known tests (Benton Visual Retention Test, BVRT; California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT; The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCF; Trail Making Test, TMT part A and B; Color – Word Stroop Task, CWST; Verbal Fluency Test, VFT, and social cognitive tasks (The Penn Emotion Recognition Test, ER40; Penn Emotion Discrimination Task, EmoDiff40; The Penn Emotional Acuity Test, PEAT40; Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version II; Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20. Methods: Thalamic-damaged subjects were included if they experienced a single-episode ischemic stroke localized in right or left thalamus. The patients were examined at 3 weeks after the stroke onset. All were right handed. In addition, the following clinical scales were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II. An inclusion

  17. NUMO-RMS: a practical requirements management system for the long-term management of the deep geological disposal project - 16304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Satoru; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Oyamada, Kiyoshi; Yashio, Shoko; White, Matt; Wilmot, Roger

    2009-01-01

    NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) has the responsibility for implementing deep geological disposal of high-level (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the Japanese nuclear programme. A formal Requirements Management System (RMS) is planned to efficiently and effectively support the computerised implementation of the management strategy and the methodology required to drive the step-wise siting processes, and the following repository operational phase,. The RMS will help in the comprehensive management of the decision-making processes in the geological disposal project, in change management as the disposal system is optimised, in driving projects such as the R and D programme efficiently, and in maintaining structured records regarding past decisions, all of which lead to soundness of the project in terms of long-term continuity. The system is planned to have information handling and management functions using a database that includes the decisions/requirements in the programme under consideration, the way in which these are structured in terms of the decision-making process and other associated information. A two-year development programme is underway to develop and enhance an existing trial RMS to a practical system. Functions for change management, history management and association with the external timeline management system are being implemented in the system development work. The database format is being improved to accommodate the requirements management data relating to the facility design and to safety assessment of the deep geological repository. This paper will present an outline of the development work with examples to demonstrate the system's practicality. In parallel with the system/database developments, a case research of the use of requirements management in radioactive waste disposal projects was undertaken to identify key issues in the development of an RMS for radioactive waste disposal and specify a number of

  18. The Paradox of "Structured" Methods for Software Requirements Management: A Case Study of an e-Government Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Kieran; Lang, Michael

    This chapter outlines the alternative perspectives of "rationalism" and "improvisation" within information systems development and describes the major shortcomings of each. It then discusses how these shortcomings manifested themselves within an e-government case study where a "structured" requirements management method was employed. Although this method was very prescriptive and firmly rooted in the "rational" paradigm, it was observed that users often resorted to improvised behaviour, such as privately making decisions on how certain aspects of the method should or should not be implemented.

  19. The expression and activity of β-catenin in the thalamus and its projections to the cerebral cortex in the mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratt Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian thalamus relays sensory information from the periphery to the cerebral cortex for cognitive processing via the thalamocortical tract. The thalamocortical tract forms during embryonic development controlled by mechanisms that are not fully understood. β-catenin is a nuclear and cytosolic protein that transduces signals from secreted signaling molecules to regulate both cell motility via the cytoskeleton and gene expression in the nucleus. In this study we tested whether β-catenin is likely to play a role in thalamocortical connectivity by examining its expression and activity in developing thalamic neurons and their axons. Results At embryonic day (E15.5, the time when thalamocortical axonal projections are forming, we found that the thalamus is a site of particularly high β-catenin mRNA and protein expression. As well as being expressed at high levels in thalamic cell bodies, β-catenin protein is enriched in the axons and growth cones of thalamic axons and its growth cone concentration is sensitive to Netrin-1. Using mice carrying the β-catenin reporter BAT-gal we find high levels of reporter activity in the thalamus. Further, Netrin-1 induces BAT-gal reporter expression and upregulates levels of endogenous transcripts encoding β-actin and L1 proteins in cultured thalamic cells. We found that β-catenin mRNA is enriched in thalamic axons and its 3'UTR is phylogenetically conserved and is able to direct heterologous mRNAs along the thalamic axon, where they can be translated. Conclusion We provide evidence that β-catenin protein is likely to be an important player in thalamocortcial development. It is abundant both in the nucleus and in the growth cones of post-mitotic thalamic cells during the development of thalamocortical connectivity and β-catenin mRNA is targeted to thalamic axons and growth cones where it could potentially be translated. β-catenin is involved in transducing the Netrin-1 signal to

  20. Distonia virtual por infarto talâmico posterolateral ventral: relato de caso Virtual dystonia due to a posteroventrolateral thalamic infarct: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo De Oliveira-Souza

    1996-09-01

    dystonia not outwardly expressed through the motor system. There was severe proprioceptive loss in the same toes that harbored the cramp. MRI showed the appropriate lesion in the posteroventrolateral thalamus (VPL and wallerian degeneration of thalamo-cortical projections. SPECT showed hypoperfusion of the overlying ipsilateral parietal cortex as well as of the basal nuclei bilaterally, besides the expected image of thalamic exclusion. We hypothesize that the infarct disconnected the somatic sensory cortex (S-I from critical proprioceptive input with relative sparing of superficial sensibility. Lifting the foot deprived S-I of tonic inputs conveyed by undamaged contact-pressure pathways, a functional effect promptly reversed by placing the foot back against the ground. The case illustrates how a capricious deafferentation of S-I by a discrete VPL thalamic infarct might facilitate the emergence of autochthonous activity in the primary somesthetic cortex and give rise to a purely mental abnormal involuntary movement akin to the unimodal hallucinoses of which the syndrome of Bonnet is the best-known example. Virtual abnormal involuntary movements may be concealed more often than appreciated by complaints such as pains or cramps in patients with nervous system lesions.

  1. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  2. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  3. The Medial Dorsal Thalamic Nucleus and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of the Rat Function Together to Support Associative Recognition and Recency but Not Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Laura; Brown, Malcolm W.; Aggleton, John P.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2013-01-01

    In humans recognition memory deficits, a typical feature of diencephalic amnesia, have been tentatively linked to mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) damage. Animal studies have occasionally investigated the role of the MD in single-item recognition, but have not systematically analyzed its involvement in other recognition memory processes. In…

  4. The role of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and reticular thalamic nucleus in pathogenesis of genetically determined absence epilepsy in rats : A lesion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdiev, R. K.; Chepurnov, S. A.; Veening, J. G.; Chepurnova, N. E.; van Luiftelaar, G.

    2007-01-01

    The role of cholinergic nucleus basalis (of Meynert) and the reticular thalamic nucleus in mechanisms of the generation spontaneous spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) was investigated in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Selective lesions were affected by local unilateral intraparenchymal

  5. Different expressions of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel types in the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus of the absence epileptic WAG/Rij rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkamp-Janssen, M.C. van de; Scheenen, W.J.J.M.; Kuijpers-Kwant, F.J.; Kozicz, L.T.; Veening, J.G.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; McEnery, M.W.; Roubos, E.W.

    2004-01-01

    In the WAG/Rij rat, a model for human absence epilepsy, spike-wave discharges (SWD) and absence epileptic behavior develop after the age of 3 months. The rostral part of the reticular thalamic nucleus (rRTN) is involved in SWD. Ca(2+) channels play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of

  6. Technical safety requirments for the South Tank Farm Remediation Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-02-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks that were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLLW) System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Although the last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, they have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program, which includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance

  7. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lieshout, P.; Renier, W.; Eling, P.; de Bot, K.; Slis, I.

    1990-01-01

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area

  8. On the genesis of spike-wave oscillations in a mean-field model of human thalamic and corticothalamic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Serafim; Terry, John R.; Breakspear, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the genesis of spike-wave activity-a hallmark of many generalized epileptic seizures-is investigated in a reduced mean-field model of human neural activity. Drawing upon brain modelling and dynamical systems theory, we demonstrate that the thalamic circuitry of the system is crucial for the generation of these abnormal rhythms, observing that the combination of inhibition from reticular nuclei and excitation from the cortical signal, interplay to generate the spike-wave oscillation. The mechanism revealed provides an explanation of why approaches based on linear stability and Heaviside approximations to the activation function have failed to explain the phenomena of spike-wave behaviour in mean-field models. A mathematical understanding of this transition is a crucial step towards relating spiking network models and mean-field approaches to human brain modelling

  9. An experimental approach towards the development of an in vitro cortical-thalamic co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T; Massobrio, Paolo; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J; Decré, Michel M J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experimental approach to develop an in vitro dissociated cortical-thalamic co-culture model using a dual compartment neurofluidic device. The device has two compartments separated by 10 μm wide and 3 μm high microchannels. The microchannels provide a physical isolation of neurons allowing only neurites to grow between the compartments. Long-term viable co-culture was maintained in the compartmented device, neurite growth through the microchannels was verified using immunofluorescence staining, and electrophysiological recordings from the co-culture system was investigated. Preliminary analysis of spontaneous activities from the co-culture shows a distinctively different firing pattern associated with cultures of individual cell types and further analysis is proposed for a deeper understanding of the dynamics involved in the network connectivity in such a co-culture system.

  10. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  11. External pallidal stimulation improves parkinsonian motor signs and modulates neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Jerrold L; Zhang, Jianyu; Hashimoto, Takao; Russo, Gary S; Baker, Kenneth B

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are effective for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). We have shown previously that DBS of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) is associated with improvements in parkinsonian motor signs; however, the mechanism of this effect is not known. In this study, we extend our findings on the effect of STN and GPi DBS on neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network to include GPe DBS using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1.2.3.6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkey model. Stimulation parameters that improved bradykinesia were associated with changes in the pattern and mean discharge rate of neuronal activity in the GPi, STN, and the pallidal [ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)] and cerebellar [ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)] receiving areas of the motor thalamus. Population post-stimulation time histograms revealed a complex pattern of stimulation-related inhibition and excitation for the GPi and VA/VLo, with a more consistent pattern of inhibition in STN and excitation in VPLo. Mean discharge rate was reduced in the GPi and STN and increased in the VPLo. Effective GPe DBS also reduced bursting in the STN and GPi. These data support the hypothesis that therapeutic DBS activates output from the stimulated structure and changes the temporal pattern of neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network and provide further support for GPe as a potential therapeutic target for DBS in the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thalamic VPM nucleus in the behaving monkey. III. Effects of reversible inactivation by lidocaine on thermal and mechanical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G H; Bushnell, M C; Oliveras, J L; Bastrash, N; Tremblay, N

    1993-11-01

    1. The present study evaluates the necessity of the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM) for discrimination of the intensity of noxious heating, innocuous cooling, and innocuous tactile (airpuff) stimulation of the maxillary skin. 2. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to detect small differences (Lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) was microinjected into regions of thalamus where single-unit recordings had identified neuronal responses to the noxious heating and/or cooling stimuli. The effectiveness of the anesthetic blockade was monitored by multiunit recordings using microelectrodes positioned 1-3 mm from the orifice of the injection cannula. The monkey's ability to detect near-threshold changes in stimulus intensity was compared before and after each injection. 3. During six experimental sessions, single injections of 1-4 microliters lidocaine near the dorsomedial border of VPM did not significantly alter the monkey's ability to detect small changes in the intensity of noxious heat, cool, airpuff, or visual stimuli despite neurophysiological evidence that spontaneous neuronal activity was blocked within parts of VPM. 4. During three experiments, dual simultaneous microinjections of lidocaine (delivered through 2 microcannulae separated by approximately 1 mm) resulted in profound deficits in noxious heat discrimination, with lesser deficits in cool and airpuff discrimination; visual discrimination was never altered. Monitoring of adjacent microelectrodes revealed that although activity ventral to the injection sites was blocked, activity in medial thalamic nuclei, implicated in nociceptive processing, was probably not altered by these injections. 5. These data suggest that VPM is important for the perception of noxious and innocuous thermal stimuli as well as for the perception of tactile stimuli. However, considering the ineffectiveness of small single microinjections of lidocaine, it appears that some critical proportion of VPM must be inactivated to disrupt

  13. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  14. Organization of ascending spinal projections in Caiman crocodilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesson, S O; Goodman, D C

    1981-01-01

    Ascending spinal projections in the caiman (Caiman crocodilus) were demonstrated with Nauta and Fink-Heimer methods following hemisections of the third spinal segment in a series of twelve animals. These results were compared with earlier data in the literature obtained from a turtle, a snake, and a lizard using the same experimental and histological procedures. The results show remarkable similarities considering that each species represents a different reptilian order with different evolutionary history and habitat. However, the caiman displays several important peculiarities. Although the dorsal funiculus of the caiman contains the largest number of ascending spinal projections of the four species examined, this funiculus has not differentiated into cuneate and gracile fasciculi as is the case in the tegu lizard. The ventro-lateral ascending spinal projections follow a fundamentally similar general morphologic pattern in the four species with only minor variations. The anatomical arrangement in the caiman and tegu lizard appears most similar in the high cervical and the medullary regions; however, this is not the case in midbrain and thalamic regions where considerably more extensive projections are seen in the caiman. In the caiman an extensive spinal connection to the ventro-lateral nucleus of the dorsal thalamus is present; this connection is reminiscent of the mammalian spinal projection to the ventro-basal complex. The caiman has in common with the other three reptilian species a small projection to another dorsal thalamic region that is apparently homologous to the mammalian intralaminar nuclei, which are the destination of the mammalian paleospinothalamic tract.

  15. Intracellular postsynaptic cannabinoid receptors link thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors to TRPC-like channels in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Kolaj, M; Renaud, L P

    2015-12-17

    In rat thalamic paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances excitability via concurrent decrease in G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK)-like and activation of transient receptor potential cation (TRPC)4/5-like cationic conductances. An exploration of intracellular signaling pathways revealed the TRH-induced current to be insensitive to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitors, but reduced by D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific PLC (PC-PLC). A corresponding change in the I-V relationship implied suppression of the cationic component of the TRH-induced current. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a product of the hydrolysis of PC. Studies focused on the isolated cationic component of the TRH-induced response revealed a reduction by RHC80267, an inhibitor of DAG lipase, the enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of DAG to the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Further investigation revealed enhancement of the cationic component in the presence of either JZL184 or WWL70, inhibitors of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of 2-AG. A decrease in the TRH-induced response was noted in the presence of rimonabant or SR144528, membrane permeable CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists, respectively. A decrease in the TRH-induced current by intracellular, but not by bath application of the membrane impermeable peptide hemopressin, selective for CB1 receptors, suggests a postsynaptic intracellular localization of these receptors. The TRH-induced current was increased in the presence of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) or JWH133, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, respectively. The PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, known to inhibit TRPC translocation, decreased the response to TRH. In addition, a TRH-induced enhancement of the low-threshold spike was prevented by both rimonabant, and SR144528. TRH had no influence on excitatory or inhibitory miniature

  16. Thalamo–cortical network underlying deep brain stimulation of centromedian thalamic nuclei in intractable epilepsy: a multimodal imaging analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Seong Hoon Kim,1 Sung Chul Lim,1 Dong Won Yang,1 Jeong Hee Cho,1 Byung-Chul Son,2 Jiyeon Kim,3 Seung Bong Hong,4 Young-Min Shon4 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 4Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM can be an alternative treatment option for intractable epilepsy patients. Since CM may be involved in widespread cortico-subcortical networks, identification of the cortical sub-networks specific to the target stimuli may provide further understanding on the underlying mechanisms of CM DBS. Several brain structures have distinguishing brain connections that may be related to the pivotal propagation and subsequent clinical effect of DBS.Methods: To explore core structures and their connections relevant to CM DBS, we applied electroencephalogram (EEG and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to 10 medically intractable patients – three generalized epilepsy (GE and seven multifocal epilepsy (MFE patients unsuitable for resective surgery. Spatiotemporal activation pattern was mapped from scalp EEG by delivering low-frequency stimuli (5 Hz. Structural connections between the CM and the cortical activation spots were assessed using DTI.Results: We confirmed an average 72% seizure reduction after CM DBS and its clinical efficiency remained consistent during the observation period (mean 21 months. EEG data revealed sequential source propagation from the anterior cingulate, followed by the frontotemporal regions bilaterally. In addition, maximal activation was found in the left cingulate gyrus and the right medial frontal cortex during the right and left CM stimulation, respectively

  17. Seizures and Sleep in the Thalamus: Focal Limbic Seizures Show Divergent Activity Patterns in Different Thalamic Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Motelow, Joshua E; Ma, Chanthia; Biche, William; McCafferty, Cian; Smith, Nicholas; Liu, Mengran; Zhan, Qiong; Jia, Ruonan; Xiao, Bo; Duque, Alvaro; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2017-11-22

    The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow-wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT), and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that population firing of neurons in CL decreased during seizures while the cortex exhibited slow waves. In contrast, ANT showed a trend toward increased neuronal firing compatible with polyspike seizure discharges seen in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, VPM exhibited a remarkable increase in sleep spindles during focal seizures. Single-unit juxtacellular recordings from CL demonstrated reduced overall firing rates, but a switch in firing pattern from single spikes to burst firing during seizures. These findings suggest that different thalamic nuclei play very different roles in focal limbic seizures. While limbic nuclei, such as ANT, appear to participate directly in seizure propagation, arousal nuclei, such as CL, may contribute to depressed cortical function, whereas sleep spindles in relay nuclei, such as VPM, may interrupt thalamocortical information flow. These combined effects could be critical for controlling both seizure severity and impairment of consciousness. Further understanding of differential effects of seizures on different thalamocortical networks may lead to improved treatments directly targeting these modes of impaired function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal lobe epilepsy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Previous work suggests that the thalamus plays a critical role in thalamocortical network modulation and subcortical arousal

  18. Efficacy of T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo MRI in Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unilateral Thalamic Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Mitaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an uncommon cause of stroke with diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Because of variability in clinical presentation and neuroimaging, CVT remains a diagnostic challenge. Recently, some studies have highlighted the value of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI (T2*WI in the diagnosis of CVT. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with CVT due to a hypercoagulable state associated with cancer. On the initial T2-weighted image (T2WI, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the right thalamus, extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule and midbrain. T2*WI showed diminished signal and enlargement of the right basilar vein and the vein of Galen. Even though there is a wide range of differential diagnoses in unilateral thalamic lesions, and a single thalamus lesion is a rare entity of CVT, based on T2*WI findings we could make an early diagnosis and perform treatment. Our case report suggests that T2*WI could detect thrombosed veins and be a useful method of early diagnosis in CVT.

  19. Resolving the detailed structure of cortical and thalamic neurons in the adult rat brain with refined biotinylated dextran amine labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Changying; Hendrickson, Michael L; Kalil, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) has been used frequently for both anterograde and retrograde pathway tracing in the central nervous system. Typically, BDA labels axons and cell somas in sufficient detail to identify their topographical location accurately. However, BDA labeling often has proved to be inadequate to resolve the fine structural details of axon arbors or the dendrites of neurons at a distance from the site of BDA injection. To overcome this limitation, we varied several experimental parameters associated with the BDA labeling of neurons in the adult rat brain in order to improve the sensitivity of the method. Specifically, we compared the effect on labeling sensitivity of: (a) using 3,000 or 10,000 MW BDA; (b) injecting different volumes of BDA; (c) co-injecting BDA with NMDA; and (d) employing various post-injection survival times. Following the extracellular injection of BDA into the visual cortex, labeled cells and axons were observed in both cortical and thalamic areas of all animals studied. However, the detailed morphology of axon arbors and distal dendrites was evident only under optimal conditions for BDA labeling that take into account the: molecular weight of the BDA used, concentration and volume of BDA injected, post-injection survival time, and toning of the resolved BDA with gold and silver. In these instances, anterogradely labeled axons and retrogradely labeled dendrites were resolved in fine detail, approximating that which can be achieved with intracellularly injected compounds such as biocytin or fluorescent dyes.

  20. The short- and long-term proteomic effects of sleep deprivation on the cortical and thalamic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Attila; Györffy, Balázs András; Gulyássy, Péter; Völgyi, Katalin; Tóth, Vilmos; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kis, Viktor; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Szabó, Zoltán; Janáky, Tamás; Drahos, László; Juhász, Gábor; Kékesi, Katalin Adrienna

    2017-03-01

    Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8h of total SD by gentle handling and 16h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively. The SD efficiency was verified by electrophysiology. Protein abundance alterations of the synaptosomes were analyzed by fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and by tandem mass spectrometry. As several altered proteins were found to be involved in synaptic strength regulation, our data can support the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis function of sleep and highlight the long-term influence of SD after the recovery sleep period, mostly on cortical synapses. Furthermore, the large-scale and brain area-specific protein network change in the synapses may support both ideas of sleep-related synaptogenesis and molecular maintenance and reorganization in normal rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The correlation of the thalamic lesions on MRI with cerebral cortical blood flow in patients with lacunar infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatame, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsuda, Minoru; Fujimoto, Naoki; Fukuyama, Hidenao.

    1995-01-01

    We performed MRI and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 123 I-IMP SPECT microsphere model in twenty three right-handed patients with lacunar infarction. Twelve of 23 patients showed chronic deterioration of dysarthria and gait disturbance. The mental function of the patients was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State (MMS) examination. The area of high intensity on T2-weighted images was quantitatively analyzed in the cerebral white matter (WM), lenticular nucleus (LN) and thalamus (THA). The score of MMS was positively correlated with the local CBF in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.05). Also, the area of high intensity in the left THA showed a significant negative correlation with local CBF of the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.001). The high intensity areas of the bilateral LN, right WM and right THA had a significant but weaker negative correlation with local CBF of some cortices. These findings suggest that thalamic lesions on the dominant side play an important role in the reduction of cortical blood flow and the deterioration of mental functions in patients with lacunar infarction. (author)

  2. Occipital transtentorial/falcine approach, a "cross-court" trajectory to accessing contralateral posterior thalamic lesions: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Kenichiro; Fujii, Masazumi; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Surgical treatment of lesions in the posterior thalamus, especially those extending laterally, is technically challenging because of a deep surgical field, narrow operative corridor, and the surrounding critical neurovascular structures. The authors describe an occipital transtentorial/falcine approach (OTFA) that was successfully used in the treatment of a cavernous malformation (CM) extending laterally from thalamus to midbrain. A 40-year-old man complained of progressive right hemiparesis and numbness. Radiological evaluation revealed a large CM in the left thalamus, surfacing on the pulvinar thalami, and extending 4 cm laterally from the midline. In addition to the usual procedures of a right-sided occipital transtentorial approach, the authors incised the falx cerebri to expand the operative corridor to the left thalamus. They achieved generous exposure of the left thalamus through a "cross-court" oblique trajectory while avoiding excessive retraction on the occipital lobe. The CM was completely removed, and no newly developed or worsening deficits were detected postoperatively. To better understand the OTFA and its application, the authors performed a cadaveric dissection. The OTFA provides increased exposure of the posterior thalamus without cortical incision and facilitates lateral access to this area through the "cross-court" operative corridor. This approach adds to the armamentarium for neurosurgeons treating thalamic lesions.

  3. The genetic interaction network of CCW12, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for cell wall integrity during budding and formation of mating projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    12p. A compensatory response, culminating in cell wall remodelling and transport/recycling pathways is required to buffer the loss of CCW12. Moreover, the enrichment of Ccw12p in bud, septum and mating projection is consistent with a role of Ccw12p in preserving cell wall integrity at sites of active growth. The microarray data produced in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database and GSE22649 record was assigned. PMID:21320323

  4. Report and recommendations of the Pingston Hydroelectric Project Committee with respect to the issuance of a project approval certificate pursuant to the Environmental Assessment Act, R.S.B.C. 1966, c.119 and fulfilling the requirements for a screening report pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 1992 c.37, V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    A final application was submitted in March 1998 by Canadian Hydro Developers (CHD) with the intent of obtaining a Project Approval certificate under the Act for development of the Project. The purpose of the project committee report is to summarize the application and project report, to describe the potential environmental, economic, social, cultural, heritage and health effects of the project and measures required to mitigate significant adverse effects and to document the recommendations of the committee. The Project is composed of five main parts including the headworks, tunnel, penstock, powerhouse and transmission line. The potential environmental effects of the Project relate mainly to fisheries resources including entrainment at the intake, instream flow needs downstream from the headworks, alteration of fish habitat, sedimentation, and blockage of fish passage. CHD expects to minimize these effects through facility design modifications, operational changes and monitoring programs as required. Other concerns such as alteration of creek temperature, generation of methyl mercury in reservoirs, greenhouse gas flux in reservoirs and total gas pressures have been examined in light of the Project's size and operational schenarios, and the proponent expects these effects to be of minor concern. The Project Committee concluded that the project, with successful implementation and compliance of mitigation and compensation strategies, is not expected to cause significant adverse effects

  5. Role of participants in nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polliart, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    In this article staffing requirements for nuclear projects (Turnkey Contract) and the owner's staff requirements, project planning, project implementation, and plant construction and commissioning are treated. (HK) [de

  6. Auditory thalamic circuits and GABAA receptor function: Putative mechanisms in tinnitus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, Donald M; Llano, Daniel A

    2017-06-01

    Tinnitus is defined as a phantom sound (ringing in the ears), and can significantly reduce the quality of life for those who suffer its effects. Ten to fifteen percent of the general adult population report symptoms of tinnitus with 1-2% reporting that tinnitus negatively impacts their quality of life. Noise exposure is the most common cause of tinnitus and the military environment presents many challenging high-noise situations. Military noise levels can be so intense that standard hearing protection is not adequate. Recent studies suggest a role for inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction in response to noise-induced peripheral deafferentation as a key element in the pathology of tinnitus. The auditory thalamus, or medial geniculate body (MGB), is an obligate auditory brain center in a unique position to gate the percept of sound as it projects to auditory cortex and to limbic structures. Both areas are thought to be involved in those individuals most impacted by tinnitus. For MGB, opposing hypotheses have posited either a tinnitus-related pathologic decrease or pathologic increase in GABAergic inhibition. In sensory thalamus, GABA mediates fast synaptic inhibition via synaptic GABA A receptors (GABA A Rs) as well as a persistent tonic inhibition via high-affinity extrasynaptic GABA A Rs and slow synaptic inhibition via GABA B Rs. Down-regulation of inhibitory neurotransmission, related to partial peripheral deafferentation, is consistently presented as partially underpinning neuronal hyperactivity seen in animal models of tinnitus. This maladaptive plasticity/Gain Control Theory of tinnitus pathology (see Auerbach et al., 2014; Richardson et al., 2012) is characterized by reduced inhibition associated with increased spontaneous and abnormal neuronal activity, including bursting and increased synchrony throughout much of the central auditory pathway. A competing hypothesis suggests that maladaptive oscillations between the MGB and auditory cortex

  7. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  8. Thalamic volume deficit contributes to procedural and explicit memory impairment in HIV infection with primary alcoholism comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2014-12-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes.

  9. A thalamic-fronto-parietal structural covariance network emerging in the course of recovery from hand paresis after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eAbela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe structural covariance networks of grey matter volume (GMV change in 28 patients with first-ever stroke to the primary sensorimotor cortices, and to investigate their relationship to hand function recovery and local GMV change.Methods: Tensor based morphometry maps derived from high resolution structural images were subject to principal component analyses to identify the networks. We calculated correlations between network expression and local GMV change, sensorimotor hand function and lesion volume. To verify which of the structural covariance networks of GMV change have a significant relationship to hand function we performed an additional multivariate regression approach.Results: Expression of the second network, explaining 9.1% of variance, correlated with GMV increase in the medio-dorsal (md thalamus and hand motor skill. Patients with positive expression coefficients were distinguished by significantly higher GMV-increase of this structure during stroke recovery. Significant nodes of this network were located in md thalamus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and higher order sensorimotor cortices. Parameter of hand function had a unique relationship to the network and depended on an interaction between network expression and lesion volume. Inversely network expression is limited in patients with large lesion volumes.Conclusions: Chronic phase of sensorimotor cortical stroke has been characterized by a large scale covarying structural network in the ipsilesional hemisphere associated specifically with sensorimotor hand skill. Its expression is related to GMV-increase of md thalamus, one constituent of the network, and correlated with the cortico-striato-thalamic loop involved in control of motor execution and higher order sensorimotor cortices. A close relation between expression of this network with degree of recovery might indicate reduced compensatory resources in the impaired subgroup.

  10. Comprehensive in vivo mapping of the human basal ganglia and thalamic connectome in individuals using 7T MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Lenglet

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia circuits are affected in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD, essential tremor, dystonia and Tourette syndrome. Understanding the structural and functional connectivity of these circuits is critical for elucidating the mechanisms of the movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and is vital for developing new therapeutic strategies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS. Knowledge about the connectivity of the human basal ganglia and thalamus has rapidly evolved over recent years through non-invasive imaging techniques, but has remained incomplete because of insufficient resolution and sensitivity of these techniques. Here, we present an imaging and computational protocol designed to generate a comprehensive in vivo and subject-specific, three-dimensional model of the structure and connections of the human basal ganglia. High-resolution structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired with a 7-Tesla magnet. Capitalizing on the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and enriched contrast obtained at high-field MRI, detailed structural and connectivity representations of the human basal ganglia and thalamus were achieved. This unique combination of multiple imaging modalities enabled the in-vivo visualization of the individual human basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei, the reconstruction of seven white-matter pathways and their connectivity probability that, to date, have only been reported in animal studies, histologically, or group-averaged MRI population studies. Also described are subject-specific parcellations of the basal ganglia and thalamus into sub-territories based on their distinct connectivity patterns. These anatomical connectivity findings are supported by functional connectivity data derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI. This work demonstrates new capabilities for studying basal ganglia circuitry, and opens new avenues of investigation into the movement and neuropsychiatric

  11. Role of the thalamic nucleus reuniens in mediating interactions between the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex during spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the neural mechanisms of spatial working memory remain poorly understood. Although the dorsal hippocampus is known to be critical for memory-guided behavior, experimental evidence suggests that spatial working memory depends not only on the hippocampus itself, but also on the circuit comprised of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Disruption of hippocampal-mPFC interactions may result in failed transfer of spatial and contextual information processed by the hippocampus to the circuitry in mPFC responsible for decision making and goal-directed behavior. Oscillatory synchrony between the hippocampus and mPFC has been shown to increase in tasks with high spatial working memory demand. However, the mechanisms and circuitry supporting hippocampal-mPFC interactions during these tasks is unknown. The midline thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE is reciprocally connected to both the hippocampus and the mPFC and has been shown to be critical for a variety of working memory tasks. Therefore, it is likely that hippocampal-mPFC oscillatory synchrony is modulated by RE activity. This article will review the anatomical connections between the hippocampus, mPFC and RE along with the behavioral studies that have investigated the effects of RE disruption on working memory task performance. The article will conclude with suggestions for future directions aimed at identifying the specific role of the RE in regulating functional interactions between the hippocampus and the PFC and investigating the degree to which these interactions contribute to spatial working memory.

  12. Thalamic Volume Deficit Contributes to Procedural and Explicit Memory Impairment in HIV Infection with Primary Alcoholism Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2014-01-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes. PMID:24421067

  13. Consistent phosphenes generated by electrical microstimulation of the visual thalamus. An experimental approach for thalamic visual neuroprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fivos ePanetsos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Most work on visual prostheses has centred on developing retinal or cortical devices. However, when retinal implants are not feasible, neuroprostheses could be implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN, the intermediate relay station of visual information from the retina to the visual cortex (V1. The objective of the present study was to determine the types of artificial stimuli that when delivered to the visual thalamus can generate reliable responses of the cortical neurons similar to those obtained when the eye perceives a visual image. Visual stimuli {Si} were presented to one eye of an experimental animal and both, the thalamic {RThi} and cortical responses {RV1i} to such stimuli were recorded. Electrical patterns {RThi*} resembling {RThi} were then injected into the visual thalamus to obtain cortical responses {RV1i*} similar to {RV1i}. Visually- and electrically-generated V1 responses were compared.Results: During the course of this work we: (i characterised the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli according to response magnitude, duration, spiking rate and the distribution of interspike intervals; (ii experimentally tested the dependence of V1 responses on stimulation parameters such as intensity, frequency, duration, etc. and determined the ranges of these parameters generating the desired cortical activity; (iii identified similarities between responses of V1 useful to compare the naturally and artificially generated neuronal activity of V1; and (iv by modifying the stimulation parameters, we generated artificial V1 responses similar to those elicited by visual stimuli.Generation of predictable and consistent phosphenes by means of artificial stimulation of the LGN is important for the feasibility of visual prostheses. Here we proved that electrical stimuli to the LGN can generate V1 neural responses that resemble those elicited by natural visual stimuli.

  14. The role of the thalamic nuclei in recognition memory accompanied by recall during encoding and retrieval: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Giulio; Ranft, Alexander; Mathias, Klaus; Suchan, Boris

    2013-07-01

    The present functional imaging study aimed at investigating the contribution of the mediodorsal nucleus and the anterior nuclei of the thalamus with their related cortical networks to recognition memory and recall. Eighteen subjects performed associative picture encoding followed by a single item recognition test during the functional magnetic resonance imaging session. After scanning, subjects performed a cued recall test using the formerly recognized pictures as cues. This post-scanning test served to classify recognition trials according to subsequent recall performance. In general, single item recognition accompanied by successful recall of the associations elicited stronger activation in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and in the prefrontal cortices both during encoding and retrieval compared to recognition without recall. In contrast, the anterior nuclei of the thalamus were selectively active during the retrieval phase of recognition followed by recall. A correlational analysis showed that activation of the anterior thalamus during retrieval as assessed by measuring the percent signal changes predicted lower rates of recognition without recall. These findings show that the thalamus is critical for recognition accompanied by recall, and provide the first evidence of a functional segregation of the thalamic nuclei with respect to the memory retrieval phase. In particular, the mediodorsal thalamic-prefrontal cortical network is activated during successful encoding and retrieval of associations, which suggests a role of this system in recall and recollection. The activity of the anterior thalamic-temporal network selectively during retrieval predicts better memory performances across subjects and this confirms the paramount role of this network in recall and recollection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of tremor due to multiple sclerosis: a prospective study of tremor and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Caglar; Carr, Jason; Sinden, Marci; Martzke, Jeff; Honey, Christopher R

    2002-10-01

    In several studies a significant reduction in tremor after thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It has not been determined if this results in an improved quality of life. In this study the authors prospectively evaluated the effects of thalamic DBS on tremor and quality of life. Videotapes of the patients' tremor were made preoperatively and 2 and 12 months postoperatively, and tremor was scored by a neurologist blinded to the treatment. Patients were tested pre- and postoperatively to measure any changes in their reported ability to perform selected activities of daily living and in their health-related quality of life. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their satisfaction with the surgery. Postoperative changes were examined using paired t-tests. There were significant reductions in postural, action, and overall tremor at 2 and 12 months postoperatively. The patients' reported ability to feed themselves was significantly improved 2 months after surgery (p = 0.01). There were short-term trends toward improvement in reported dressing ability, personal hygiene, and writing. There were no significant changes in the SF-36 subscales or total score. In this cohort of patients with MS who suffered from tremor, thalamic DBS significantly improved their tremor and ability to feed themselves. Patient satisfaction with the procedure, however, was variable. Preoperative patient education about what functions might (and might not) be improved is crucial to avoid unrealistic expectations. Our results indicate that younger patients with MS tremor who had a shorter disease duration and no superimposed ataxia benefited most from this surgery.

  16. Thalamic Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Associations With Patient-Reported Outcomes and Neuropsychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah D; Coronado, Rogelio A; Clemons, Lori R; Abraham, Christine M; Pruthi, Sumit; Conrad, Benjamin N; Morgan, Victoria L; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Archer, Kristin R

    2016-08-01

    (1) To examine differences in patient-reported outcomes, neuropsychological tests, and thalamic functional connectivity (FC) between patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and individuals without mTBI and (2) to determine longitudinal associations between changes in these measures. Prospective observational case-control study. Academic medical center. A sample (N=24) of 13 patients with mTBI (mean age, 39.3±14.0y; 4 women [31%]) and 11 age- and sex-matched controls without mTBI (mean age, 37.6±13.3y; 4 women [36%]). Not applicable. Resting state FC (3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner) was examined between the thalamus and the default mode network, dorsal attention network, and frontoparietal control network. Patient-reported outcomes included pain (Brief Pain Inventory), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), posttraumatic stress disorder ([PTSD] Checklist - Civilian Version), and postconcussive symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire). Neuropsychological tests included the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Tower test, Trails B, and Hotel Task. Assessments occurred at 6 weeks and 4 months after hospitalization in patients with mTBI and at a single visit for controls. Student t tests found increased pain, depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and postconcussive symptoms; decreased performance on Trails B; increased FC between the thalamus and the default mode network; and decreased FC between the thalamus and the dorsal attention network and between the thalamus and the frontoparietal control network in patients with mTBI as compared with controls. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated that increased FC between the thalamus and the dorsal attention network from baseline to 4 months was associated with decreased pain and postconcussive symptoms (corrected P<.05). Findings suggest that alterations in thalamic FC occur after mTBI, and improvements in pain and postconcussive symptoms are correlated with

  17. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  18. Risks management in project planning

    OpenAIRE

    Stankevičiūtė, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Project management consists of two very important aspects – managing the right project and managing the project right. To know that you are managing the right project you need to ensure that your project is based on an actual requirement and that your project goal is relevant and beneficial. And professional project planning assists in managing project the right way. The project planning process is very time consuming and is one of the most important parts of the project management process. T...

  19. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  20. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)