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Sample records for thalamic label patterns

  1. Grey matter volume patterns in thalamic nuclei are associated with familial risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Giulio; Trizio, Silvestro; Di Carlo, Pasquale; Taurisano, Paolo; Mancini, Marina; Amoroso, Nicola; Nettis, Maria Antonietta; Andriola, Ileana; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Rampino, Antonio; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Previous evidence suggests reduced thalamic grey matter volume (GMV) in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, it is not considered an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, possibly because previous studies did not assess the contribution of individual thalamic nuclei and employed univariate statistics. Here, we hypothesized that multivariate statistics would reveal an association of GMV in different thalamic nuclei with familial risk for schizophrenia. We also hypothesized that accounting for the heterogeneity of thalamic GMV in healthy controls would improve the detection of subjects at familial risk for the disorder. We acquired MRI scans for 96 clinically stable SCZ, 55 non-affected siblings of patients with schizophrenia (SIB), and 249 HC. The thalamus was parceled into seven regions of interest (ROIs). After a canonical univariate analysis, we used GMV estimates of thalamic ROIs, together with total thalamic GMV and premorbid intelligence, as features in Random Forests to classify HC, SIB, and SCZ. Then, we computed a Misclassification Index for each individual and tested the improvement in SIB detection after excluding a subsample of HC misclassified as patients. Random Forests discriminated SCZ from HC (accuracy=81%) and SIB from HC (accuracy=75%). Left anteromedial thalamic volumes were significantly associated with both multivariate classifications (p<0.05). Excluding HC misclassified as SCZ improved greatly HC vs. SIB classification (Cohen's d=1.39). These findings suggest that multivariate statistics identify a familial background associated with thalamic GMV reduction in SCZ. They also suggest the relevance of inter-individual variability of GMV patterns for the discrimination of individuals at familial risk for the disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. COMMUNICATION Designing a somatosensory neural prosthesis: percepts evoked by different patterns of thalamic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Ethan; Sanden, Andrew; Kiss, Zelma H. T.

    2010-12-01

    Although major advances have been made in the development of motor prostheses, fine motor control requires intuitive somatosensory feedback. Here we explored whether a thalamic site for a somatosensory neural prosthetic could provide natural somatic sensation to humans. Different patterns of electrical stimulation (obtained from thalamic spike trains) were applied in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery. Changes in pattern produced different sensations, while preserving somatotopic representation. While most percepts were reported as 'unnatural', some stimulations produced more 'natural' sensations than others. However, the additional patterns did not elicit more 'natural' percepts than high-frequency (333 Hz) electrical stimulation. These features suggest that despite some limitations, the thalamus may be a feasible site for a somatosensory neural prosthesis and different stimulation patterns may be useful in its development.

  3. Resolving the detailed structure of cortical and thalamic neurons in the adult rat brain with refined biotinylated dextran amine labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Changying; Hendrickson, Michael L; Kalil, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) has been used frequently for both anterograde and retrograde pathway tracing in the central nervous system. Typically, BDA labels axons and cell somas in sufficient detail to identify their topographical location accurately. However, BDA labeling often has proved to be inadequate to resolve the fine structural details of axon arbors or the dendrites of neurons at a distance from the site of BDA injection. To overcome this limitation, we varied several experimental parameters associated with the BDA labeling of neurons in the adult rat brain in order to improve the sensitivity of the method. Specifically, we compared the effect on labeling sensitivity of: (a) using 3,000 or 10,000 MW BDA; (b) injecting different volumes of BDA; (c) co-injecting BDA with NMDA; and (d) employing various post-injection survival times. Following the extracellular injection of BDA into the visual cortex, labeled cells and axons were observed in both cortical and thalamic areas of all animals studied. However, the detailed morphology of axon arbors and distal dendrites was evident only under optimal conditions for BDA labeling that take into account the: molecular weight of the BDA used, concentration and volume of BDA injected, post-injection survival time, and toning of the resolved BDA with gold and silver. In these instances, anterogradely labeled axons and retrogradely labeled dendrites were resolved in fine detail, approximating that which can be achieved with intracellularly injected compounds such as biocytin or fluorescent dyes.

  4. Seizures and Sleep in the Thalamus: Focal Limbic Seizures Show Divergent Activity Patterns in Different Thalamic Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Motelow, Joshua E; Ma, Chanthia; Biche, William; McCafferty, Cian; Smith, Nicholas; Liu, Mengran; Zhan, Qiong; Jia, Ruonan; Xiao, Bo; Duque, Alvaro; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2017-11-22

    The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow-wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT), and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that population firing of neurons in CL decreased during seizures while the cortex exhibited slow waves. In contrast, ANT showed a trend toward increased neuronal firing compatible with polyspike seizure discharges seen in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, VPM exhibited a remarkable increase in sleep spindles during focal seizures. Single-unit juxtacellular recordings from CL demonstrated reduced overall firing rates, but a switch in firing pattern from single spikes to burst firing during seizures. These findings suggest that different thalamic nuclei play very different roles in focal limbic seizures. While limbic nuclei, such as ANT, appear to participate directly in seizure propagation, arousal nuclei, such as CL, may contribute to depressed cortical function, whereas sleep spindles in relay nuclei, such as VPM, may interrupt thalamocortical information flow. These combined effects could be critical for controlling both seizure severity and impairment of consciousness. Further understanding of differential effects of seizures on different thalamocortical networks may lead to improved treatments directly targeting these modes of impaired function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal lobe epilepsy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Previous work suggests that the thalamus plays a critical role in thalamocortical network modulation and subcortical arousal

  5. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-01-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis. (author)

  6. Thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Wang, Lei; Cronenwett, Will; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Csernansky, John G

    2011-03-01

    Biomarkers are needed that can distinguish between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to inform the ongoing debate over the diagnostic boundary between these two disorders. Neuromorphometric abnormalities of the thalamus have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia and linked to core features of the disorder, but have not been similarly investigated in individuals with schizoaffective disorder. In this study, we examine whether individuals with schizoaffective disorder have a pattern of thalamic deformation that is similar or different to the pattern found in individuals with schizophrenia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 47), individuals with schizoaffective disorder (n = 15), and controls (n = 42). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain three-dimensional surfaces of the thalamus. Multiple analyses of variance were used to test for group differences in volume and measures of surface shape. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder have similar thalamic volumes. Thalamic surface shape deformation associated with schizophrenia suggests selective involvement of the anterior and posterior thalamus, while deformations in mediodorsal and ventrolateral regions were observed in both groups. Schizoaffective disorder had distinct deformations in medial and lateral thalamic regions. Abnormalities distinct to schizoaffective disorder suggest involvement of the central and ventroposterior medial thalamus which may be involved in mood circuitry, dorsolateral nucleus which is involved in recall processing, and the lateral geniculate nucleus which is involved in visual processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  8. Global suppression of electrocortical activity in unilateral perinatal thalamic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kharoshankaya, Liudmila

    2014-07-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression and right-sided clonic seizures in a male infant born at 40(+2) weeks\\' gestation, birthweight 3240g, with an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke. The EEG at 13 hours after birth showed a generalized very low amplitude background pattern, which progressed to frequent electrographic seizures over the left hemisphere. The interictal background EEG pattern remained grossly abnormal over the next 48 hours, showing very low background amplitudes (<10μV). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated acute left-sided thalamic infarction. This is the first description of severe global EEG suppression caused by an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke and supports the role of the thalamus as the control centre for cortical electrical activity.

  9. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  10. Unified thalamic model generates multiple distinct oscillations with state-dependent entrainment by stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshi Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To understand whether the isolated thalamus can generate multiple distinct oscillations, we developed a biophysical thalamic model to test the hypothesis that generation of and transition between distinct thalamic oscillations can be explained as a function of neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh and norepinephrine (NE and afferent synaptic excitation. Indeed, the model exhibited four distinct thalamic rhythms (delta, sleep spindle, alpha and gamma oscillations that span the physiological states corresponding to different arousal levels from deep sleep to focused attention. Our simulation results indicate that generation of these distinct thalamic oscillations is a result of both intrinsic oscillatory cellular properties and specific network connectivity patterns. We then systematically varied the ACh/NE and input levels to generate a complete map of the different oscillatory states and their transitions. Lastly, we applied periodic stimulation to the thalamic network and found that entrainment of thalamic oscillations is highly state-dependent. Our results support the hypothesis that ACh/NE modulation and afferent excitation define thalamic oscillatory states and their response to brain stimulation. Our model proposes a broader and more central role of the thalamus in the genesis of multiple distinct thalamo-cortical rhythms than previously assumed.

  11. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbel Brian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. Methods This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. Results A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p Conclusion While no favorable differences in purchasing as a result of labeling were noted, self-reported use of calorie labels was associated with some favorable behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  12. A Framework to Support Automated Classification and Labeling of Brain Electromagnetic Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen A. Frishkoff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a framework for automated classification and labeling of patterns in electroencephalographic (EEG and magnetoencephalographic (MEG data. We describe recent progress on four goals: 1 specification of rules and concepts that capture expert knowledge of event-related potentials (ERP patterns in visual word recognition; 2 implementation of rules in an automated data processing and labeling stream; 3 data mining techniques that lead to refinement of rules; and 4 iterative steps towards system evaluation and optimization. This process combines top-down, or knowledge-driven, methods with bottom-up, or data-driven, methods. As illustrated here, these methods are complementary and can lead to development of tools for pattern classification and labeling that are robust and conceptually transparent to researchers. The present application focuses on patterns in averaged EEG (ERP data. We also describe efforts to extend our methods to represent patterns in MEG data, as well as EM patterns in source (anatomical space. The broader aim of this work is to design an ontology-based system to support cross-laboratory, cross-paradigm, and cross-modal integration of brain functional data. Tools developed for this project are implemented in MATLAB and are freely available on request.

  13. Decoding thalamic afferent input using microcircuit spiking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederberg, Audrey J; Palmer, Stephanie E; MacLean, Jason N

    2015-04-01

    A behavioral response appropriate to a sensory stimulus depends on the collective activity of thousands of interconnected neurons. The majority of cortical connections arise from neighboring neurons, and thus understanding the cortical code requires characterizing information representation at the scale of the cortical microcircuit. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we densely sampled the thalamically evoked response of hundreds of neurons spanning multiple layers and columns in thalamocortical slices of mouse somatosensory cortex. We then used a biologically plausible decoder to characterize the representation of two distinct thalamic inputs, at the level of the microcircuit, to reveal those aspects of the activity pattern that are likely relevant to downstream neurons. Our data suggest a sparse code, distributed across lamina, in which a small population of cells carries stimulus-relevant information. Furthermore, we find that, within this subset of neurons, decoder performance improves when noise correlations are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Dopamine, fronto-striato-thalamic circuits and risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandash, Orwa; Pantelis, Christos; Fornito, Alex

    2017-02-01

    A series of parallel, integrated circuits link distinct regions of prefrontal cortex with specific nuclei of the striatum and thalamus. Dysfunction of these fronto-striato-thalamic systems is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of psychosis. In this review, we examine evidence from human and animal investigations that dysfunction of a specific dorsal fronto-striato-thalamic circuit, linking the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal (associative) striatum, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, is apparent across different stages of psychosis, including prior to the onset of a first episode, suggesting that it represents a candidate risk biomarker. We consider how abnormalities at distinct points in the circuit may give rise to the pattern of findings seen in patient populations, and how these changes relate to disruptions in dopamine, glutamate and GABA signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Labeling Residential Community Characteristics from Collective Activity Patterns Using Taxi Trip Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    There existing a significant social and spatial differentiation in the residential communities in urban city. People live in different places have different socioeconomic background, resulting in various geographically activity patterns. This paper aims to label the characteristics of residential communities in a city using collective activity patterns derived from taxi trip data. Specifically, we first present a method to allocate the O/D (Origin/Destination) points of taxi trips to the land use parcels where the activities taken place in. Then several indices are employed to describe the collective activity patterns, including both activity intensity, travel distance, travel time, and activity space of residents by taking account of the geographical distribution of all O/Ds of the taxi trip related to that residential community. Followed by that, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is introduced to cluster the residential communities with similar activity patterns. In the case study of Wuhan, the residential communities are clearly divided into eight clusters, which could be labelled as ordinary communities, privileged communities, old isolated communities, suburban communities, and so on. In this paper, we provide a new perspective to label the land use under same type from people's mobility patterns with the support of big trajectory data.

  16. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Dixon, L Beth; Elbel, Brian

    2011-05-27

    Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC) chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling) before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  17. Technical considerations in the study of 111In-oxine labelled platelet survival patterns in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharefkin, J.; Rich, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed technique for labelling canine platelets with 111 In-oxine for the study of platelet survival patterns in four to six dogs at a time was developed. Useful modifications of earlier methods included splitting of the platelet rich plasma into multiple aliquots to improve pelleting efficiency at low gravity forces, use of saved platelet poor plasma to flush out injection syringes, and prompt use of commercial 111 In-oxine sources 3 to 5 minutes after mixing with Ringer's Citrate Dextrose. Avoidable pitfalls of the method included excessive lengths of incubation time in plasma free medium and loss of labelling efficacy by exposure of the chelate to iron or other metal contaminants in glassware. The method was used to study changes in platelet survival time in dogs with large synthetic arterial prostheses, and gave results in good agreement with earlier studies using 51 Cr labelled platelets

  18. Language disturbances from mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarino, L.G.; Nicolai, A.; Valassi, F.; Biasizzo, E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the cases of two patients with CT-documented paramedian mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts, showing language disturbances. The first patient showed a non fluent, transcortical motor-like aphasia, the other had a fluent but severely paraphasic language disorder. The CT study disclosed that it was the dorso-median thalamic nucleus that was mostly involved in both cases. These findings agree with a few previous pathological studies suggesting that the paramedian thalamic nuclei, particlularly the dorso-median nucleus may play some role in language disturbances. However the anatomical basis for thalamic aphasia remains speculative, taking into account the importantce of cortical connections in the origin of subcortical neuropsychological disturbances. (orig.)

  19. 3H-thymidine labelling pattern of preleptotene chromosone condensation stages in the foetal sheep ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, J.M.; Devictor-Vuillet, Monique; Bezard, Jacqueline; Mauleon, P.

    1979-01-01

    A sequence of morphological events from premeiotic interphase to leptotene has been described in the ovaries of 64-day old sheep foetuses. The nuclear changes throughout the condensation and decondensation stages showed a sequential pattern. After a flash of tritiated thymidine, the labelling pattern of these figures demonstrated that those stages followed premeiotic DNA synthesis, i.e. belonged to meiotic prophase. However, with our methodology, this sequence of morphological events could not be confirmed due to a high asynchronism in the oogenetic processes

  20. Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isnaeni,; Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.

  1. Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnaeni,, E-mail: isnaeni@lipi.go.id; Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Building 442, Kawasan Puspiptek, South Tangerang,Banten 15314 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.

  2. Evaluating structural pattern recognition for handwritten math via primitive label graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanibbi, Richard; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Currently, structural pattern recognizer evaluations compare graphs of detected structure to target structures (i.e. ground truth) using recognition rates, recall and precision for object segmentation, classification and relationships. In document recognition, these target objects (e.g. symbols) are frequently comprised of multiple primitives (e.g. connected components, or strokes for online handwritten data), but current metrics do not characterize errors at the primitive level, from which object-level structure is obtained. Primitive label graphs are directed graphs defined over primitives and primitive pairs. We define new metrics obtained by Hamming distances over label graphs, which allow classification, segmentation and parsing errors to be characterized separately, or using a single measure. Recall and precision for detected objects may also be computed directly from label graphs. We illustrate the new metrics by comparing a new primitive-level evaluation to the symbol-level evaluation performed for the CROHME 2012 handwritten math recognition competition. A Python-based set of utilities for evaluating, visualizing and translating label graphs is publicly available.

  3. Intralaminar and medial thalamic influence on cortical synchrony, information transmission and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B Saalmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The intralaminar and medial thalamic nuclei are part of the higher-order thalamus, which receives little sensory input, and instead forms extensive cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. The large mediodorsal thalamic nucleus predominantly connects with the prefrontal cortex, the adjacent intralaminar nuclei connect with fronto-parietal cortex, and the midline thalamic nuclei connect with medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Taking into account this connectivity pattern, it is not surprising that the intralaminar and medial thalamus has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions, including memory processing, attention and orienting, as well as reward-based behavior. This review addresses how the intralaminar and medial thalamus may regulate information transmission in cortical circuits. A key neural mechanism may involve intralaminar and medial thalamic neurons modulating the degree of synchrony between different groups of cortical neurons according to behavioral demands. Such a thalamic-mediated synchronization mechanism may give rise to large-scale integration of information across multiple cortical circuits, consequently influencing the level of arousal and consciousness. Overall, the growing evidence supports a general role for the higher-order thalamus in the control of cortical information transmission and cognitive processing.

  4. Pathogenesis and prognosis of bilateral thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Taizen; Ogura, Naoko; Maeda, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Takashi; Kameda, Tomoaki; Sato, Yuichi; Nagata, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Only a few reports have discussed the detailed clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of bilateral thalamic infarction. The thalamus is composed of different functional nuclei and supplied by vessels containing several variations from the main arteries, leading to difficulty in the precise evaluation of bilateral thalamic infarction. In the present study, we assessed the prognosis of bilateral thalamic infarction based on the distribution of stroke lesions. From among the consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to hospital between April 2001 and March 2005, cases of acute bilateral thalamic infarction were selected for this study (n=9; 65.1±13.6 y.o.). The stroke lesions and vascular abnormalities were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography on admission. Outcome was evaluated from the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at discharge. Good outcome patients (mRS 0-2; n=5) showed memory disturbance, cognitive impairment and hypersomnia. On the other hand, quadriplegia, oculomotor disturbance and bulbar palsy were observed in the poor outcome patients (mRS≥4; n=4). The critical features of a poor outcome were the age at onset (72.0±15.3 vs. 58.2±11.9 y.o.), inclusion of brainstem lesions and total occlusion of the basilar artery. In conclusion, older age at onset and/or basilar artery occlusion may be critical factors for predicting a poor outcome in bilateral thalamic infarction cases. (author)

  5. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism in thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were studied in 20 cases of thalamic hemorrhage using positron CT and 15 O labeled gas steady-state inhalation method. CBF reduction was limited around the thalamus in the small sized hematoma. CBF were significantly diminished in the mean cortical, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and thalamic area ipsilateral and cerebellar cortex contralateral to the medium sized hematoma. There was bilateral and diffuse CBF reduction in the large sized hematoma which was caused by increased intracranial pressure. CMRO 2 value were similary changed as CBF. OEF change showed within normal limit. Diffuse CBV reduction was observed in the large sized hematoma. This reduction was the result of decreased vascular bed caused by mass effect of the hematoma and hydrocephalus. Effect of surgical treatment such as ventricular drainage and hematoma evacuation were also discussed in correlation to CBF in some case using positron and single photon ECT. (author)

  6. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  7. Thalamic changes with mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, N.P.; Jarosz, J.M.; Cox, T.C.S. [Department of Neuroradiology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Elwes, R.C.D. [Department of Neurology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Polkey, C.E. [Department of Neurosurgery, King' s College and Maudsley Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    We reviewed the preoperative images of 28 patients with pathologically proven mesial temporal sclerosis, to assess thalamic asymmetry and signal change. A further 25 nonsurgical patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and unequivocal, unilateral changes of mesial temporal sclerosis, and 20 controls, were also reviewed. None of the control group had unequivocal asymmetry of the thalamus. There was an ipsilateral asymmetrically small thalamus in five (18 %) of the surgical group and in three (12 %) of the nonsurgical patients. In four cases there was thalamic signal change. In three patients with thalamic volume loss there was ipsilateral hemiatrophy. All patients with an asymmetrically small thalamus had an asymmetrically small fornix and all but one a small ipsilateral mamillary body. (orig.)

  8. Right thalamic infarction after closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Takashi; Doi, Terushige; Katsumata, Tsuguo; Kuwayama, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    We reported a case of right thalamic infarction after a closed head injury. A 12-year-old boy was hit by an autotruck. He was semi-comatose, with left temporal scalp swelling and excoriation in the left lower limb. Three days after the accident, he exhibited left hemiparesis. CT scans on the day of the accident showed no abnormality, but on the following day, right thalamic infarction appeared. Right carotid angiography showed only an irregular vascular shadow in the cisternal segment of the right internal carotid artery. Vascular obstruction after closed head injury is rare, especially in the intracranial vessels, and several pathogeneses may be postulated. The right thalamic infarction in this case was supposed to be due to the damage of the perforators from the right posterior communicating artery and the right posterior cerebral artery, which were struck as a contre-coup by the force from the left side. (author)

  9. Dissociable Contributions of Thalamic Nuclei to Recognition Memory: Novel Evidence from a Case of Medial Dorsal Thalamic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Rachel N.; Trelle, Alexandra N.; Fidalgo, Celia; Hong, Bryan; Smith, Victoria M.; Jacob, Alexander; Ryan, Jennifer D.; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Cowell, Rosemary A.; Barense, Morgan D.

    2018-01-01

    The thalamic nuclei are thought to play a critical role in recognition memory. Specifically, the anterior thalamic nuclei and medial dorsal nuclei may serve as critical output structures in distinct hippocampal and perirhinal cortex systems, respectively. Existing evidence indicates that damage to the anterior thalamic nuclei leads to impairments…

  10. Language disturbances from mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts. Identification of thalamic nuclei by CT-reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarino, L G; Nicolai, A; Valassi, F [Ospedale Civile di Gorizia (Italy). Div. di Neurologia; Biasizzo, E [Ospedale di Udine (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradiologia

    1991-08-01

    The authors report the cases of two patients with CT-documented paramedian mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts, showing language disturbances. The first patient showed a non fluent, transcortical motor-like aphasia, the other had a fluent but severely paraphasic language disorder. The CT study disclosed that it was the dorso-median thalamic nucleus that was mostly involved in both cases. These findings agree with a few previous pathological studies suggesting that the paramedian thalamic nuclei, particlularly the dorso-median nucleus may play some role in language disturbances. However the anatomical basis for thalamic aphasia remains speculative, taking into account the importantce of cortical connections in the origin of subcortical neuropsychological disturbances. (orig.).

  11. Unilateral Thalamic Infarct Presenting as a Convulsive Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Brohi, Hazim; Mughul, Afshan

    2017-09-01

    Lesions of the thalamus and those extending into midbrain can cause various types of movement disorders such as dystonia, asterixis and ballism-chorea. Seizures are rare manifestation of thalamic disorder. Occurrence of seizures in bilateral thalamic infarct has been reported; but seizures in unilateral thalamic infarct have been reported very rarely. Literature review showed only single case of perinatal unilateral thalamic infarct presenting with seizures. We are reporting a unique case of convulsive seizure at the onset of unilateral thalamic infarct in an adult male, which has never been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  12. DISCOVERING AND LABELLING OF TEMPORAL GRANULARITY PATTERNS IN ELECTRIC POWER DEMAND WITH A BRAZILIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Servidone

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Clustering is commonly used to group data in order to represent the behaviour of a system as accurately as possible by obtaining patterns and profiles. In this paper, clustering is applied with partitioning-clustering techniques, specifically, Partitioning around Medoids (PAM to analyse load curves from a city of South-eastern Brazil in São Paulo state. A top-down approach in time granularity is performed to detect and to label profiles which could be affected by seasonal trends and daily/hourly time blocks. Time-granularity patterns are useful to support the improvement of activities related to distribution, transmission and scheduling of energy supply. Results indicated four main patterns which were post-processed in hourly blocks by using shades of grey to help final-user to understand demand thresholds according to the meaning of dark grey, light grey and white colours. A particular and different behaviour of load curve was identified for the studied city if it is compared to the classical behaviour of urban cities.

  13. Subset of Cortical Layer 6b Neurons Selectively Innervates Higher Order Thalamic Nuclei in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Hayashi, Shuichi; Upton, Louise; Nolan, Zachary; Casas-Torremocha, Diana; Grant, Eleanor; Viswanathan, Sarada; Kanold, Patrick O; Clasca, Francisco; Kim, Yongsoo; Molnár, Zoltán

    2018-05-01

    The thalamus receives input from 3 distinct cortical layers, but input from only 2 of these has been well characterized. We therefore investigated whether the third input, derived from layer 6b, is more similar to the projections from layer 6a or layer 5. We studied the projections of a restricted population of deep layer 6 cells ("layer 6b cells") taking advantage of the transgenic mouse Tg(Drd1a-cre)FK164Gsat/Mmucd (Drd1a-Cre), that selectively expresses Cre-recombinase in a subpopulation of layer 6b neurons across the entire cortical mantle. At P8, 18% of layer 6b neurons are labeled with Drd1a-Cre::tdTomato in somatosensory cortex (SS), and some co-express known layer 6b markers. Using Cre-dependent viral tracing, we identified topographical projections to higher order thalamic nuclei. VGluT1+ synapses formed by labeled layer 6b projections were found in posterior thalamic nucleus (Po) but not in the (pre)thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). The lack of TRN collaterals was confirmed with single-cell tracing from SS. Transmission electron microscopy comparison of terminal varicosities from layer 5 and layer 6b axons in Po showed that L6b varicosities are markedly smaller and simpler than the majority from L5. Our results suggest that L6b projections to the thalamus are distinct from both L5 and L6a projections.

  14. Replication labeling patterns and chromosome territories typical of mammalian nuclei are conserved in the early metazoan Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Olga; Solovei, Irina; Cremer, Thomas; David, Charles N

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the evolutionary conservation of higher order nuclear architecture previously described for mammalian cells we have analyzed the nuclear architecture of the simple polyp Hydra. These diploblastic organisms have large nuclei (8-10 microm) containing about 3x10(9) bp of DNA organized in 15 chromosome pairs. They belong to the earliest metazoan phylum and are separated from mammals by at least 600 million years. Single and double pulse labeling with halogenated nucleotides (bromodeoxyuridine, iododeoxyuridine and chlorodeoxyuridine) revealed striking similarities to the known sequence of replication labeling patterns in mammalian nuclei. These patterns reflect a persistent nuclear arrangement of early, mid-, and late replicating chromatin foci that could be identified during all stages of interphase over at least 5-10 cell generations. Segregation of labeled chromatids led after several cell divisions to nuclei with single or a few labeled chromosome territories. In such nuclei distinct clusters of labeled chromatin foci were separated by extended nuclear areas with non-labeled chromatin, which is typical of a territorial arrangement of interphase chromosomes. Our results indicate the conservation of fundamental features of higher order chromatin arrangements throughout the evolution of metazoan animals and suggest the existence of conserved mechanism(s) controlling this architecture.

  15. Label-free proteome profiling reveals developmental-dependent patterns in young barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar-Schoenefeld, Stephanie; Merx, Kathleen; Jozefowicz, Anna Maria; Hartmann, Anja; Seiffert, Udo; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-06-30

    Due to its importance as a cereal crop worldwide, high interest in the determination of factors influencing barley grain quality exists. This study focusses on the elucidation of protein networks affecting early grain developmental processes. NanoLC-based separation coupled to label-free MS detection was applied to gain insights into biochemical processes during five different grain developmental phases (pre-storage until storage phase, 3days to 16days after flowering). Multivariate statistics revealed two distinct developmental patterns during the analysed grain developmental phases: proteins showed either highest abundance in the middle phase of development - in the transition phase - or at later developmental stages - within the storage phase. Verification of developmental patterns observed by proteomic analysis was done by applying hypothesis-driven approaches, namely Western Blot analysis and enzyme assays. High general metabolic activity of the grain with regard to protein synthesis, cell cycle regulation, defence against oxidative stress, and energy production via photosynthesis was observed in the transition phase. Proteins upregulated in the storage phase are related towards storage protein accumulation, and interestingly to the defence of storage reserves against pathogens. A mixed regulatory pattern for most enzymes detected in our study points to regulatory mechanisms at the level of protein isoforms. In-depth understanding of early grain developmental processes of cereal caryopses is of high importance as they influence final grain weight and quality. Our knowledge about these processes is still limited, especially on proteome level. To identify key mechanisms in early barley grain development, a label-free data-independent proteomics acquisition approach has been applied. Our data clearly show, that proteins either exhibit highest expression during cellularization and the switch to the storage phase (transition phase, 5-7 DAF), or during storage

  16. Patterns of free amino acids in German convenience food products: marked mismatch between label information and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, M; Gonder, U; Jakobs, C; Stegemann, D; Hoffmann, G

    2010-01-01

    Free amino acids affect food palatability. As information on amino acids in frequently purchased pre-packaged food is virtually absent, we analyzed free amino acid patterns of 17 frequently purchased ready-to-serve convenience food products, and compared them with the information obtained from the respective food labels. Quantitative amino acid analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were verified using a stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The patterns of free amino acids were compared with information obtained from food labels. An obvious mismatch between free amino acid patterns and food label information was detected. Even on considering that tomatoes and cereal proteins are naturally rich in glutamate, the concentrations of free glutamate outranged the natural concentration of this amino acid in several products, and strongly suggested artificial enrichment. Free glutamate was found to be elevated even in dishes that explicitly state 'no glutamate added'. Arginine was markedly elevated in lentils. Free cysteine was generally low, possibly reflecting thermal destruction of this amino acid during food processing. The meat and brain-specific dipeptide carnosine (CARN) was present in most meat-containing products. Some products did not contain detectable amounts of CARN in spite of meat content being claimed on the food labels. We detected GABA at concentrations that contribute significantly to the taste sensation. This investigation highlights a marked mismatch between food label information and food composition.

  17. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging te...... is a disorder of the CNS in which not only is brain function abnormal, but also brain structure is undergoing significant remodeling....... a fully automated multiatlas approach. Deformation-based shape analysis was performed to localize surface abnormalities. Differences between patients with migraine and healthy subjects were assessed using an ANCOVA model. After correction for multiple comparisons, performed using the false discovery rate.......9) was observed in patients. This large-scale study indicates structural thalamic abnormalities in patients with migraine. The thalamic nuclei with abnormal volumes are densely connected to the limbic system. The data hence lend support to the view that higher-order integration systems are altered in migraine...

  18. Midline thalamic reuniens lesions improve executive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, J A; Abela, A R; Chudasama, Y

    2017-03-14

    The role of the thalamus in complex cognitive behavior is a topic of increasing interest. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the nucleus reuniens (NRe), a midline thalamic nucleus interconnected with both hippocampal and prefrontal circuitry, lead to enhancement of executive behaviors typically associated with the prefrontal cortex. Rats were tested on four behavioral tasks: (1) the combined attention-memory (CAM) task, which simultaneously assessed attention to a visual target and memory for that target over a variable delay; (2) spatial memory using a radial arm maze, (3) discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen operant platform, and (4) decision-making with delayed outcomes. Following NRe lesions, the animals became more efficient in their performance, responding with shorter reaction times but also less impulsively than controls. This change, combined with a decrease in perseverative responses, led to focused attention in the CAM task and accelerated learning in the visual discrimination task. There were no observed changes in tasks involving either spatial memory or value-based decision making. These data complement ongoing efforts to understand the role of midline thalamic structures in human cognition, including the development of thalamic stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for acquired cognitive disabilities (Schiff, 2008; Mair et al., 2011), and point to the NRe as a potential target for clinical intervention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Enlarged thalamic volumes and increased fractional anisotropy in the thalamic radiations in Veterans with suicide behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eLopez-Larson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-mortem studies have suggested a link between the thalamus, psychiatric disorders, and suicide. We evaluated the thalamus and anterior thalamic radiations (ATR in a group of Veterans with and without a history of suicidal behavior (SB to determine if thalamic abnormalities were associated with an increased risk of SB. Forty Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI and no SB (TBI-SB, 19 Veterans with mild TBI and a history of SB (TB+SB and 15 healthy controls (HC underwent MRI scanning including a structural and diffusion tensor imaging scan. Suicidal behaviors were evaluated utilizing the Columbia Suicide Rating Scale and impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Differences in thalamic volumes and ATR fractional anisotropy (FA were examined between 1 TBI+SB versus HC and 2 TBI+SB versus combined HC and TBI-SB and 2 between TBI+SB and TBI-SB. Left and right thalamic volumes were significantly increased in those with TBI+SB compared to the HC, TBI-SB and the combined group. Veterans with TBI+SB had increased FA bilaterally compared to the HC, HC and TBI-SB group, and the TBI-SB only group. Significant positive associations were found for bilateral ATR and BIS in the TBI+SB group. Our findings of thalamic enlargement and increased FA in individuals with TBI+SB suggest that this region may be a biomarker for suicide risk. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence indicating that suicide may be associated with behavioral disinhibition and frontal-thalamic-limbic dysfunction and suggest a neurobiologic mechanism that may increase vulnerability to suicide.

  20. Biodistribution patterns of native and mutant 99mTc-labelled annexin V in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, G.; Erba, P.; Pellegrino, D.; Volterrani, D.; Lazzeri, E.; Freer, G.; Bevilacqua, G.; Blankenberg, F.G.; Tait, J.F.; Strauss, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Annexin is a 36 kD protein with high binding affinity to phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid exposed on the membrane surface of cells upon activation of the enzyme caspase, the first step of apoptosis. Radiolabeled annexin V could thus be used for imaging apoptosis in-vivo. When the 319 amino acid protein is made by recombinant techniques and expressed as the human material, it can be radiolabeled with 99mTc after derivatization with a bifunctional agent such as HYNIC. Alternatively, the amino acid structure of the protein can be modified by producing annexin V mutants with an endogenous chelation site for 99mTc, the NH2 residue Ala-Gly-Gly-Cys-Gly-His-Met. Mutant annexin has similar affinity for membrane-bound PS as unmodified annexin. This study was performed to compare the biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled HYNIC annexin (HyA) to mutant annexin (MuA). 99mTc-labeling efficiency of the two annexin preparations was >99% by gel chromatography on Sephadex G10 columns. Groups of adult male mice (n 10, body weight 18-25 grams) were injected iv with either HyA or MuA (1-3 MBq, 3-9 μg/animal). Animals were sacrificed one hour later and dissected for organ biodistribution. Similar biodistribution was performed after pretreatment with cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg ip 6-15 hr prior to the study). The results of the biodistribution study showed significantly reduced (p<0.05 to p<0.01) uptake of MuA versus HyA in the kidneys (Δ- 81.4%), spleen (Δ- 58.2%), liver (Δ- 56.2%), and bone marrow (Δ- 33.7%), while it was increased in lymph nodes (Δ+ 131%, p<0.001). Pretreatment with the pro-apoptotic agent cyclophosphamide induced significantly increased uptake of MuA (p<0.05) versus baseline in the heart (Δ+ 34.7%), spleen (Δ+ 30.1%) and bowel (Δ+ 44.5%), while uptake of HyA was increased only in the spleen (Δ+ 44.1%). The marked reduction in the renal, splenic, liver, and bone marrow localization of MuA compared to HyA in control animals outlines a pattern of

  1. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO{sub 2} extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO{sub 2} observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO{sub 2} secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author).

  2. Neurological manifestations and PET studies of the thalamic vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    We divided 38 patients with cerebrovascular disease of the thalamus into 5 groups according to the site of the thalamic lesions as confirmed by X-ray CT and/or MRI. In 16 patients, we examined the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by positron emission tomography (PET). In the anteromedial thalamic lesion group, patients displayed disturbances of spontaneity, memory, reading and writing. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the dorsolateral thalamic lesion group, ataxic hemiparesis was a characteristic symptom. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in frontoparietal lobes on the side of the lesion. In the group with lesions confined to the nucleus ventralis posterioris thalami, the main symptoms were sensory disturbance, with cheiro-oral sensory syndrome being particularly evident. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the parietal lobe on the side of the lesion. In the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement, patients exhibited thalamic syndrome without thalamic pain. CBF and CMRO 2 were decreased in the frontoparietal and temporal lobes on the side of the lesion. In contrast, in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions with pulvinar involvement, all patients showed thalamic pain. The decrease in CBF and CMRO 2 extended to the inferomedial region of the temporal lobe in addition to the area of decreased CBF and CMRO 2 observed in the group with posterolateral thalamic lesions without pulvinar involvement. Based on these results, we speculate that the neurological manifestations of thalamic vascular disease are associated with a decrease in cortical CBF and CMRO 2 secondary to the thalamic lesions. (author)

  3. Clinical, neuropsychological, and pre-stimulus dorsomedial thalamic nucleus electrophysiological data in deep brain stimulation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here comprise clinical, neuropsychological, and intrathalamic electrophysiological data from 7 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and are related to the article “Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power predicts human memory formation” C.M. Sweeney-Reed, T. Zaehle, J. Voges, F.C. Schmitt, L. Buentjen, K. Kopitzki, et al. (2016 [1]. The patients participated in a memory paradigm after receiving electrodes implanted in the DMTN due to the surgical approach taken in electrode insertion for deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamic nucleus. Epilepsy duration and pre-operative neuropsychological tests provide an indication of the profile of patients receiving intrathalamic electrode implantation and the memory capabilities in such a patient group. The electrophysiological data were recorded from the right DMTN preceding stimulus presentation during intentional memory encoding. The patients viewed a series of photographic scenes, which they judged as indoors or outdoors. The 900 ms epochs prior to stimulus presentation were labeled as preceding successful or unsuccessful subsequent memory formation according to a subsequent memory test for the items. The difference between theta power preceding successful versus unsuccessful subsequent memory formation is shown against time for each patient individually. Keywords: Memory encoding, Dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, Pre-stimulus theta

  4. Sensory disturbance, CT, and somatosensory evoked potentials in thalamic hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Hisanobu; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Miyazaki, Hisaya

    1985-01-01

    Thalamic hemorrhages often lead to sensory disturbances. However, no effective method for the evaluation of their prognoses has yet been clinically utilized. The somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) has been reported as an effective method, but it remains controversial. A CT scan is eminently suitable for determining the size and position of the hemorrhage. However, the correlation between the localization of the hematoma on the CT scan and the sensory distrubance has not been investigated fully. The authors selected 20 cases with the chronic stage of a thalamic hemorrhage. Each one was clinically evaluated as to sensory disturbance; they were then classified into the following five groups: Group 1: no sensory deficit (3 cases); Group 2: complete recovery from initial deficit (2 cases); Group 3: mild hypesthesia (5 cases); Group 4: severe hypesthesia (5 cases), and Group 5: paresthesia or dysesthesia (5 cases). Also, the CT scan was investigated with regard to the localization of the hematoma and the SEP. We could thus find a characteristic pattern in each group. The results may be summarized as follows. 1. The correlation between the degree of the sensory disturbance and the size and expansion of the hematoma was clearly detected. Especially, the most severe sensory disturbance was found in the hematoma extending to the lateral nuclear and ventral nuclear regions. 2. In Group 1 and 2, each SEP component (N 1 N 2 N 3 ) was shown to be normal. In Group 3, SEP components could be detected, but not completely. In Group 4, no components at all could be found. 3. In Group 5, all cases were small hematoma localized in the lateral nuclear region of the thalamus, while the N 3 components were prolonged on the SEP findings. The authors demonstrate the results and discuss the correlation between the sensory disturbance and the CT or SEP findings. (author)

  5. Thalamic hemorrhage following carotid angioplasty and stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Jonathan A.; Kallmes, David F.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative treatment of carotid stenosis for patients poorly suited for endarterectomy. Intracerebral hemorrhage following carotid revascularization is rare and thought to be related to hyperperfusion injury in most cases. Early experience suggests an increased incidence of hemorrhage following CAS as compared to endarterectomy. We describe a patient who suffered a thalamic hemorrhage following CAS. Because this hemorrhage occurred in a vascular territory unlikely to have been supplied by the treated artery, this case suggests that the mechanism of intracerebral hemorrhage following CAS may in some cases be different from the hyperperfusion hemorrhage classically described following endarterectomy. (orig.)

  6. Sensory processing of deep tissue nociception in the rat spinal cord and thalamic ventrobasal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Shafaq; West, Steven J; McMahon, Stephen B; Bennett, David L; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2017-07-01

    Sensory processing of deep somatic tissue constitutes an important component of the nociceptive system, yet associated central processing pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a novel electrophysiological characterization and immunohistochemical analysis of neural activation in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN). These neurons show evoked activity to deep, but not cutaneous, stimulation. The evoked responses of neurons in the LSN can be sensitized to somatosensory stimulation following intramuscular hypertonic saline, an acute model of muscle pain, suggesting this is an important spinal relay site for the processing of deep tissue nociceptive inputs. Neurons of the thalamic ventrobasal complex (VBC) mediate both cutaneous and deep tissue sensory processing, but in contrast to the lateral spinal nucleus our electrophysiological studies do not suggest the existence of a subgroup of cells that selectively process deep tissue inputs. The sensitization of polymodal and thermospecific VBC neurons to mechanical somatosensory stimulation following acute muscle stimulation with hypertonic saline suggests differential roles of thalamic subpopulations in mediating cutaneous and deep tissue nociception in pathological states. Overall, our studies at both the spinal (lateral spinal nucleus) and supraspinal (thalamic ventrobasal complex) levels suggest a convergence of cutaneous and deep somatosensory inputs onto spinothalamic pathways, which are unmasked by activation of muscle nociceptive afferents to produce consequent phenotypic alterations in spinal and thalamic neural coding of somatosensory stimulation. A better understanding of the sensory pathways involved in deep tissue nociception, as well as the degree of labeled line and convergent pathways for cutaneous and deep somatosensory inputs, is fundamental to developing targeted analgesic therapies for deep pain syndromes. © 2017 University College London. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals

  7. Interactions between thalamic and cortical rhythms during semantic memory recall in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D.; Moo, Lauren R.; Kraut, Michael A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Hart, John, Jr.

    2002-04-01

    Human scalp electroencephalographic rhythms, indicative of cortical population synchrony, have long been posited to reflect cognitive processing. Although numerous studies employing simultaneous thalamic and cortical electrode recording in nonhuman animals have explored the role of the thalamus in the modulation of cortical rhythms, direct evidence for thalamocortical modulation in human has not, to our knowledge, been obtained. We simultaneously recorded from thalamic and scalp electrodes in one human during performance of a cognitive task and found a spatially widespread, phase-locked, low-frequency rhythm (7-8 Hz) power decrease at thalamus and scalp during semantic memory recall. This low-frequency rhythm power decrease was followed by a spatially specific, phase-locked, fast-rhythm (21-34 Hz) power increase at thalamus and occipital scalp. Such a pattern of thalamocortical activity reflects a plausible neural mechanism underlying semantic memory recall that may underlie other cognitive processes as well.

  8. Assessment of paramedian thalamic infarcts: MR imaging, clinical features and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidauer, Stefan; Zanella, Friedhelm E.; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Nichtweiss, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Considering the highly variable vascular supply of the thalamic nuclei, MRI and clinical syndromes can be heterogeneous in ischemic diseases. We attempt to determine MRI pattern and to analyse neurological features and prognosis of paramedian infarcts. In a prospective case series within 5 years from 1999 to 2003, MRI, MRA and clinical symptoms of 38 consecutive patients were analysed. The inferomedial (posterior thalamoperforating artery) territory was affected in 89%, and lesions in the anterolateral (tuberothalamic artery) territory occurred in 42%. However, definite attribution to anterolateral or inferomedial territories was not possible in 13%. Neurological manifestations were somnolence (87%), hemisyndromes (79%), cognitive deficits (58%), oculomotor nerve palsies (53%) and vertical gaze palsies (39%). The most common aetiologies were cardiac embolism (42%), intraarterial embolism (16%), small vessel disease (13%) and large artery arteriosclerosis (13%). Pathological MRA findings were encountered in 55%, and in 18%, lesions were only visible on diffusion-weighted imaging. Correlation of MRI pattern and neurological symptoms points out anterolateral thalamic lesions as the cause of amnestic deficits. Intracranial MRA allows a non-invasive prediction of basilar tip occlusion. Our results underline the necessity of additional diffusion-weighted imaging in detecting small thalamic and midbrain lesions. (orig.)

  9. Off-label prescribing patterns of antiemetics in children: a multicenter study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Davide; Gallelli, Luca; Rovere, Francesca; Paparazzo, Rossella; Maximova, Natalia; Lazzerini, Marzia; Reale, Antonio; Corsetti, Tiziana; Renna, Salvatore; Emanueli, Tullia; Mannelli, Francesco; Manteghetti, Francesco; Da Dalt, Liviana; Palleria, Caterina; Banchieri, Nicola; Urbino, Antonio; Miglietta, Mario; Cardoni, Giovanni; Pompilio, Adriana; Arrighini, Alberto; Lazzari, Clara; Messi, Gianni

    2013-03-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AG) represents both the main cause of acute vomiting in children under 3 years old and a major cause of access to the emergency department. Even if several drugs may be able to reduce the emesis, the pharmacological treatment of vomiting in children remains a controversial issue, and several drugs are prescribed outside their authorized drug label with respect dosage, age, indication, or route of administration and are named as off-label. The aim of present study was to assess the off-label use of antiemetic drugs in patients less than 18 years with vomiting related to AG. This study was carried out in eight pediatric emergency departments in Italy. The following data were obtained crossing the pharmacy distribution records with emergency departments' patient data: sex and age of the patients and detailed information for each drug used (indication, dose, frequency, and route of administration). We recorded that antiemetic drugs were prescribed in every year, particularly in children up to 2 years old, and compared with both literature data and data sheet; 30 % of the administered antiemetics were used off-label. In particular, domperidone was the only antiemetic used labeled for AG treatment in pediatric patients, while metoclopramide and ondansetron have been off-label for both age and indications (i.e., AG treatment). In conclusion, we documented an off-label use of antiemetics in children, and this could represents a problem of safety for the patient and a legal risk for the prescribing physician if patients have an unwanted or bad outcome from treatment.

  10. Nutritional value of trace elements in spaghetti sauces and their classification according to the labeled taste using pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.; Ghitakou, S.; Papaefthymiou, H.

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient trace elements chromium, iron and zinc as well as cobalt, rubidium and scandium were determined in dry spaghetti sauce samples from the Greek market by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results were evaluated according to the new US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), US Adequate Intake (AI), US Reference Values for nutrition labeling (RVNL) and European Union reference values for nutrition labeling (EURV). Moreover, the same data has been used with pattern recognition techniques in order to classify the sauce samples according to their labeled flavor. The evaluation showed that the nutrition rate depends strongly on the reference value under consideration. The spaghetti sauces studied are a good source for the covering of chromium daily AI. The same sauces are poor source for zinc daily needs of the organism (RDA, RVNL), but they are a moderate source for iron daily needs (RDA). The application of cluster analysis, of linear discriminant analysis and of the principal component analysis classified the spaghetti sauce samples according to their labeled taste successfully. In addition using the same techniques, another classification in red and white spaghetti sauces is carried out according to their tomato content. (author)

  11. Generation of thalamic neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Atsushi; Muguruma, Keiko; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    The thalamus is a diencephalic structure that plays crucial roles in relaying and modulating sensory and motor information to the neocortex. The thalamus develops in the dorsal part of the neural tube at the level of the caudal forebrain. However, the molecular mechanisms that are essential for thalamic differentiation are still unknown. Here, we have succeeded in generating thalamic neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) by modifying the default method that induces the most-anterior neural type in self-organizing culture. A low concentration of the caudalizing factor insulin and a MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor enhanced the expression of the caudal forebrain markers Otx2 and Pax6. BMP7 promoted an increase in thalamic precursors such as Tcf7l2 + /Gbx2 + and Tcf7l2 + /Olig3 + cells. mESC thalamic precursors began to express the glutamate transporter vGlut2 and the axon-specific marker VGF, similar to mature projection neurons. The mESC thalamic neurons extended their axons to cortical layers in both organotypic culture and subcortical transplantation. Thus, we have identified the minimum elements sufficient for in vitro generation of thalamic neurons. These findings expand our knowledge of thalamic development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Labeling of Pest Insects Using Radioisotopes to Study Dispersal Pattern, Migration and Estimation of Population Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2008-01-01

    To study insects behaviour in their habitat such as dispersal, migration and flight range, insects are needed to be labelled to trace their movement. One of the most promising labeling methodology for internal labeling is the use of radioisotopes. Radioisotopes that have been used for labeling insects are 3 H, 32 P, 14 Ca, 45 K, 35 S, 59 Fe, 60 Co, and 14 C. Insect labeling with isotopes has more advantages as compared to dyes due to isotopes used for labeling is bonded to the tissue such as 3 H, 32 P, 14 Ca, K, 131 I. Several consideration have to be taken to determine isotopes that will be used in line with the time consuming for experiments. This have to be carried out due to the phenomenon that several isotopes are toxic to insects such as 45 Ca, 59 Fe, 86 Rb, 110 Ag, 115 Cd, and 131 J. Precautions have to be fulfilled for insect radiolabeling which are save to insects, environment, easy to apply, materials are available and acceptable to the public. Radioisotope 32 P with a correct dose is very convenience to be used in such experiments due to its relatively short half live, which is only 14.3 days. If it is an stable isotope it can be kept for a long time so the sample analyzed can be conducted convenience for long periods of time. Stable elements such as Rb can be changed to be radioisotopes by bombardment of neutrons in a nuclear reactor or accelerator. Then the element that has been activated can be identified using solid scintillation counter, multichannel analyzer or can be detected using autoradiography. (author)

  13. Distribution pattern and migration of 131I-labelled sperma in the uterine cervix of sheep, following insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution pattern of ram sperma in the uterine cervix of inseminated sheep were determined using 131 I for labelling. Emphasis in these studies was laid on comparison between diluted native sperma and deep-frozen sperma. All results so far obtained suggested that the migration capacity of most of the ram sperms had been impaired by the freezing-melting process. The amount of deep-frozen sperms present in the cranial region of the uterine cervix, a few hours after insemination, was significantly below that of native sperms. The difference was equally high and significant between native and deep-frozen sperma regarding the presence of labelled sperma between caudal and cranial regions. Evidence was produced to unambiguous nest formation of inseminated sperma in the uterine cervix. These findings are followed by a discussion of the role played by the uterine cervix as a site of sperma selection and as sperma reservoir following insemination. (author)

  14. Fatal thalamic abscess secondary to dental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, Shadi; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay; Ferro, Ashley

    2015-12-17

    We present the case of poor neurological recovery and subsequent death secondary to a thalamic abscess in a 53-year-old man. This patient initially presented with sudden dysarthria and left hemiparesis while driving. Neuroimaging showed a multilobular abscess involving the right thalamus with oedema extending to the basal ganglionic region and brainstem. The source of the abscess was initially unknown and it required draining multiple times while the different causes were being explored. The patient's neurological state along with intubation made for a difficult and inconclusive oral examination. It was only after neuroimaging included tooth-bearing areas that it became evident that this patient had extensive periodontal disease with multiple areas of periapical radiolucencies. The patient underwent complete dental clearance alongside repeated drainage of the abscess. Despite initial postoperative improvement, the patient never recovered from the neurological damage and died 3 weeks later. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Isolated thalamic tuberculoma presenting as ataxic hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ritesh; Patil, Tushar B; Kori, Prakash; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Lacunar syndrome is a neurodeficit secondary to a deep cerebral lesion, usually because of microatheroma of small arteries. Ataxic hemiparesis (AH) is a lacunar syndrome with unilateral pyramidal weakness and ipsilateral ataxia. Thalamic tuberculoma, as a cause of AH, has not been previously described in the literature. We describe an elderly man who presented with left hemiparesis and ipsilateral ataxia. Clinical examination revealed upper motor neuron left facial paresis and left-sided hemiparesis. The patient had incoordination in left upper and lower limbs. Mantoux test was positive and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated. MRI of brain showed a conglomerated hypointense lesion in the right thalamus with a peripheral hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging and a hyperintense lesion in T2-weighted imaging with significant perilesional oedema, suggesting a tuberculoma. The patient was treated with antitubercular therapy and was symptomatically better at the 9 months follow-up. PMID:23580686

  16. CT classification of small thalamic hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Nobutaka; Kaneko, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Keisei; Muraki, Masaaki; Sato, Kengo

    1984-01-01

    The thalamus is located deep in the cerebral hemispheres, and most of its nuclei have reciprocal fiber connections with specific areas over the cerebral cortex. Localized lesions in the thalamus, therefore, can cause specific neurological deficits, depending on their locations. From this point of view, we reviewed 110 cases, admitted over the past 7 years, with thalamic hemorrhages 37 (34%) of which were small hematomas less than 2 cm in diameter. These small hematomas could be divided into 4 types depending on their locations as follows: antero-lateral type, postero-lateral type, medial type, and dorsal type. Each type had the peculiar clinical features described below: 1) Postero-lateral Type (PL type, 28 cases, 76%): The original symptom was a sudden onset of moderate to severe sensori-motor deficits in most cases. The patients were mostly alert or only slightly confused. 2) Antero-lateral Type (AL type, 4 cases, 11%): The patients of this type first presented with sensori-motor disturbance and prefrontal signs. Both were generally mild and often disappeared early. 3) Medial Type (M type, 3 cases, 8%): The main symptom at onset was either a disturbance of consciousness or dementia. 4) Dorsal Type (D type, 2 cases, 5%): One patient with a right thalamic hematoma of this type showed geographical agnosia and visuo-constructive apraxia. The other patient, with a left-sided hematoma, exhibited transient clumsiness of the right hand and mild dysphasia. In our experience, the above classification of small hematomas clearly delineated the clinical symptoms and neurological signs of the different types; therefore, the symptoms and signs in larger hematoma could be explained by a combination of those of each type. (J.P.N.)

  17. Neurochemical pathways that converge on thalamic trigeminovascular neurons: potential substrate for modulation of migraine by sleep, food intake, stress and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Noseda

    Full Text Available Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective and cognitive functions. Our overall goal is to define an anatomical framework for conceptualizing how a 'decision' is made on whether a trigeminovascular thalamic neuron fires, for how long, and at what frequency. To begin answering this question, we determine which neuropeptides/neurotransmitters are in a position to modulate thalamic trigeminovascular neurons. Using a combination of in-vivo single-unit recording, juxtacellular labeling with tetramethylrhodamine dextran (TMR and in-vitro immunohistochemistry, we found that thalamic trigeminovascular neurons were surrounded by high density of axons containing biomarkers of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin; moderate density of axons containing noradrenaline and histamine; low density of axons containing orexin and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH; but not axons containing CGRP, serotonin 1D receptor, oxytocin or vasopressin. In the context of migraine, the findings suggest that the transmission of headache-related nociceptive signals from the thalamus to the cortex may be modulated by opposing forces (i.e., facilitatory, inhibitory that are governed by continuous adjustments needed to keep physiological, behavioral, cognitive and emotional homeostasis.

  18. MRI of paramedian thalamic stroke with sleep disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, K.O.; Bassetti, C.; Mathis, J.; Schroth, G.

    1997-01-01

    The paramedian thalamus is believed to play an important role in the regulation of sleep, and disturbances of sleep regulation are known to occur in paramedian thalamic stroke (PTS). We examined 12 consecutive patients with PTS and sleep disturbance by MRI. Two distinct groups of patients could be defined: six presenting with severe hypersomnia (group 1) and six with slight sleepiness (group 2). On MRI, all patients had ischaemic lesions involving the paramedian thalamic nuclei, the centre of the lesions being the dorsomedial and centromedial thalamic nuclei. In group 1 the lesions were bilateral, butterfly-shaped infarcts involving the paramedian nuclei (three cases), or unilateral with an extension into the subthalamic nuclei. In group 2 the lesions were unilateral and limited to the paramedian nuclei, mainly the dorsomedial nucleus. Bilateral lesions can be attributed to a common origin in some cases for both paramedian thalamic arteries and the mesencephalic arteries. (orig.). With 5 figs

  19. Thalamic involvement in the regulation of alpha EEG activity in psychiatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, S.P.; Pakula, J.; Young, I.J.; Crayton, J.W.; Konopka, L.M.; Rybak, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The thalamus is considered to be an important sub-cortical system involved in modulation of cortical activities. A relationship between thalamic activity and surface EEG was recently reported. In this study we evaluated a group of patients with psychiatric disorders who presented with asymmetric perfusion of the thalamus based on brain SPECT HMPAO studies. We predicted that asymmetrical activity of the thalamus would have asymmetrically distributed surface qEEG activity patterns. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three male psychiatric patients (age 54±14) with a primary diagnosis of depression and co-morbid substance abuse (83%) were studied with qEEG and HMPAO brain SPECT. The HMPAO ligand was administered while the EEG activity was being recorded. The SPECT analysis was conducted by means of ROI and SPM. ROI regions were determined based on the Talairach atlas coordinate system. ROI locations were verified by the automated utility, Talairach Demon. QEEG data was analyzed by a standardized protocol involving the NxLink database. Correlations between SPECT findings and qEEG absolute power were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups based on thalamic perfusion patterns. Group 1 (Gr 1) had decreased perfusion to the right thalamus whereas Group 2 (Gr 2) had decreased perfusion to the left thalamus. SPM comparison of the patient groups to normal control subjects indicated significant findings. Comparison of Gr 1 to controls showed increased activity in the left temporal lobe and vermis. Decreased activity was observed in the left and right medial frontal lobes (right Brodmann 9;left Brodmann 6) as well as the left (Brodmann 30) and right (Brodmann 24) cingulate. Gr 2 comparison showed increased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann 10) and left inferior parietal lobe. Decreased activity was found in the left inferior frontal lobe (Brodmann 47). A positive correlation between alpha power and thalamic perfusion was identified in Gr

  20. Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Jessie; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-06-01

    By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu

  1. Recall deficits in stroke patients with thalamic lesions covary with damage to the parvocellular mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Giulio; Güntürkün, Onur; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene; Suchan, Boris

    2012-08-01

    The functional role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) and its cortical network in memory processes is discussed controversially. While Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested a role for recognition and not recall, Van der Werf et al. (2003) suggested that this nucleus is functionally related to executive function and strategic retrieval, based on its connections to the prefrontal cortices (PFC). The present study used a lesion approach including patients with focal thalamic lesions to examine the functions of the MD, the intralaminar nuclei and the midline nuclei in memory processing. A newly designed pair association task was used, which allowed the assessment of recognition and cued recall performance. Volume loss in thalamic nuclei was estimated as a predictor for alterations in memory performance. Patients performed poorer than healthy controls on recognition accuracy and cued recall. Furthermore, patients responded slower than controls specifically on recognition trials followed by successful cued recall of the paired associate. Reduced recall of picture pairs and increased response times during recognition followed by cued recall covaried with the volume loss in the parvocellular MD. This pattern suggests a role of this thalamic region in recall and thus recollection, which does not fit the framework proposed by Aggleton and Brown (1999). The functional specialization of the parvocellular MD accords with its connectivity to the dorsolateral PFC, highlighting the role of this thalamocortical network in explicit memory (Van der Werf et al., 2003). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Ono, Akira M.; Terauchi, Tsutomu [SAIL Technologies Co., Inc. (Japan); Kainosho, Masatsune, E-mail: kainosho@nmr.chem.metro-u.ac.j [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines ({epsilon}- and {zeta}-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine ({epsilon}-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized {delta}-SAIL Phe and {delta}-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign {delta}-{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the {delta}-, {epsilon}- or {zeta}-{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the {delta}-, {epsilon}-, and {zeta}-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of {zeta}-SAIL Phe and {epsilon}-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  3. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ono, Akira M; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-01-01

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines (epsilon- and zeta-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine (epsilon-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized delta-SAIL Phe and delta-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign delta-(13)C/(1)H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the delta-, epsilon- or zeta-(13)C/(1)H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly (13)C, (15)N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of zeta-SAIL Phe and epsilon-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  4. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ono, Akira M.; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-01-01

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines (ε- and ζ-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine (ε-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized δ-SAIL Phe and δ-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign δ- 13 C/ 1 H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the δ-, ε- or ζ- 13 C/ 1 H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the δ-, ε-, and ζ-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly 13 C, 15 N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of ζ-SAIL Phe and ε-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  5. Patterns of labeling of intraspinal reactive cells in rats injected with [3H]thymidine prior to or following sciatic axotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, S.A.; Walls, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Labeling patterns of reactive cells which occur in the spinal cord following sciatic axotomy were investigated by autoradiography following administration of [ 3 H]thymidine (2 μCi/g body weight/injection). In this investigation the labeling patterns in reactive cells were compared when [ 3 H]thymidine was injected: (1) prior to or (2) following surgery. Immature rats underwent sciatic axotomy and were killed 3 days later (20 days of age). Some of their littermates served as sham-operated controls, and others were killed on the day of surgery to evaluate intraspinal labeling at that time. In one series of animals, a single injection of [ 3 H]thymidine was administered 2 h prior to autopsy. This procedure resulted in heavy labeling of 6.2% of the cells classified as reactive cells. In the second series, 3 injections of [ 3 H]thymidine were given on the day prior to surgery. On the third post-operative day, 19.4% of the reactive cells were labeled, and the majority of these were lightly labeled, suggesting that they had undergone several cell divisions. The data from both injection protocols indicate that the magnitude of the cellular response to axotomy would be markedly underestimated, if one were to consider only labeled cells. The present investigators concluded that these particular applications of [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography provide valuable information on reactions of the central nervous system to injury but are of little value in determining origins of the reactive cells. (Auth.)

  6. Pattern of labelling of the rat brain stem after intraventricular administration of 3H-leucine; low and high resolution autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakoubek, B.; Jirmanova, I.; Soukup, T.; Krekule, I.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of labelling proteins of the periventricular grey matter was studied two hours after intraventricular administration of 3 H-leucine by low- and high-resolution autoradiography. The pattern was investigated by computer-controlled densitometry. The deposition of radioactive proteins in periventricular grey surrounding the mesencephalic part of the aquaeductus Sylvii was compared with that surrounding the fourth ventricle. In the former case, the distribution of grains was in a circular area 500 to 600 μm in diameter; the densitometric tracing revealed a homogeneous distribution of the label; in the latter case, the distribution was nonhomogeneous and was limited by the tissue components forming the wall of the fourth ventricle. A comparison of the intensity of labelling (performed by a combination of low- and high-resolution autoradiography) indicated relatively substantial labelling of proteins of ependymal cells, very sparce labelling of subependymal layers, and very high labelling of neurones adjacent to the subependymal layer. The significance of these findings for the interpretation of studies using intraventricular administration of labelled amino acids for investigating brain macromolecular metabolism is discussed. (author)

  7. Motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity alterations in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eixarch, Elisenda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Batalle, Dafnis; Gratacos, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with short- and long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Structural brain changes underlying these alterations have been described with the use of different magnetic resonance-based methods that include changes in whole structural brain networks. However, evaluation of specific brain circuits and its correlation with related functions has not been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction. In this study, we aimed to investigate differences in tractography-related metrics in cortico-striatal-thalamic and motor networks in intrauterine growth restricted children and whether these parameters were related with their specific function in order to explore its potential use as an imaging biomarker of altered neurodevelopment. We included a group of 24 intrauterine growth restriction subjects and 27 control subjects that were scanned at 1 year old; we acquired T1-weighted and 30 directions diffusion magnetic resonance images. Each subject brain was segmented in 93 regions with the use of anatomical automatic labeling atlas, and deterministic tractography was performed. Brain regions included in motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic networks were defined based in functional and anatomic criteria. Within the streamlines that resulted from the whole brain tractography, those belonging to each specific circuit were selected and tractography-related metrics that included number of streamlines, fractional anisotropy, and integrity were calculated for each network. We evaluated differences between both groups and further explored the correlation of these parameters with the results of socioemotional, cognitive, and motor scales from Bayley Scale at 2 years of age. Reduced fractional anisotropy (cortico-striatal-thalamic, 0.319 ± 0.018 vs 0.315 ± 0.015; P = .010; motor, 0.322 ± 0.019 vs 0.319 ± 0.020; P = .019) and integrity cortico-striatal-thalamic (0.407 ± 0.040 vs 0.399 ± 0.034; P = .018; motor, 0.417 ± 0.044 vs 0

  8. Feeding and stocking up: radio-labelled food reveals exchange patterns in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin, Aurélie; Denis, Damien; Van Simaeys, Gaetan; Goldman, Serge; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2009-06-17

    Food sharing is vital for a large number of species, either solitary or social, and is of particular importance within highly integrated societies, such as in colonial organisms and in social insects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of food inside a complex organizational system remain unknown. Using scintigraphy, a method developed for medical imaging, we were able to describe the dynamics of food-flow inside an ant colony. We monitored the sharing process of a radio-labelled sucrose solution inside a nest of Formica fusca. Our results show that, from the very first load that enters the nest, food present within the colony acts as negative feedback to entering food. After one hour of the experiments, 70% of the final harvest has already entered the nest. The total foraged quantity is almost four times smaller than the expected storage capacity. A finer study of the spatial distribution of food shows that although all ants have been fed rapidly (within 30 minutes), a small area representing on average 8% of the radioactive surface holds more than 25% of the stored food. Even in rather homogeneous nests, we observed a strong concentration of food in few workers. Examining the position of these workers inside the nest, we found heavily loaded ants in the centre of the aggregate. The position of the centre of this high-intensity radioactive surface remained stable for the three consecutive hours of the experiments. We demonstrate that the colony simultaneously managed to rapidly feed all workers (200 ants fed within 30 minutes) and build up food stocks to prevent food shortage, something that occurs rather often in changing environments. Though we expected the colony to forage to its maximum capacity, the flow of food entering the colony is finely tuned to the colony's needs. Indeed the food-flow decreases proportionally to the food that has already been harvested, liberating the work-force for other tasks.

  9. Response sensitivity of barrel neuron subpopulations to simulated thalamic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Rittenhouse, Cynthia D; Pinto, David J

    2010-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the relationship between neuron- and network-level processing in the context of a well-studied cortical function, the processing of thalamic input by whisker-barrel circuits in rodent neocortex. Here we focus on neuron-level processing and investigate the responses of excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons to simulated thalamic inputs applied using the dynamic clamp method in brain slices. Simulated inputs are modeled after real thalamic inputs recorded in vivo in response to brief whisker deflections. Our results suggest that inhibitory neurons require more input to reach firing threshold, but then fire earlier, with less variability, and respond to a broader range of inputs than do excitatory neurons. Differences in the responses of barrel neuron subtypes depend on their intrinsic membrane properties. Neurons with a low input resistance require more input to reach threshold but then fire earlier than neurons with a higher input resistance, regardless of the neuron's classification. Our results also suggest that the response properties of excitatory versus inhibitory barrel neurons are consistent with the response sensitivities of the ensemble barrel network. The short response latency of inhibitory neurons may serve to suppress ensemble barrel responses to asynchronous thalamic input. Correspondingly, whereas neurons acting as part of the barrel circuit in vivo are highly selective for temporally correlated thalamic input, excitatory barrel neurons acting alone in vitro are less so. These data suggest that network-level processing of thalamic input in barrel cortex depends on neuron-level processing of the same input by excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons.

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  18. Connectivity derived thalamic segmentation in deep brain stimulation for tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harith Akram

    Full Text Available The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM of the thalamus is an established surgical target for stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD and essential tremor (ET. It is centrally placed on a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network connecting the primary motor cortex, to the dentate nucleus of the contralateral cerebellum through the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT. The VIM is not readily visible on conventional MR imaging, so identifying the surgical target traditionally involved indirect targeting that relies on atlas-defined coordinates. Unfortunately, this approach does not fully account for individual variability and requires surgery to be performed with the patient awake to allow for intraoperative targeting confirmation. The aim of this study is to identify the VIM and the DRT using probabilistic tractography in patients that will undergo thalamic DBS for tremor. Four male patients with tremor dominant PD and five patients (three female with ET underwent high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI (128 diffusion directions, 1.5 mm isotropic voxels and b value = 1500 preoperatively. Patients received VIM-DBS using an MR image guided and MR image verified approach with indirect targeting. Postoperatively, using parallel Graphical Processing Unit (GPU processing, thalamic areas with the highest diffusion connectivity to the primary motor area (M1, supplementary motor area (SMA, primary sensory area (S1 and contralateral dentate nucleus were identified. Additionally, volume of tissue activation (VTA corresponding to active DBS contacts were modelled. Response to treatment was defined as 40% reduction in the total Fahn-Tolosa-Martin Tremor Rating Score (FTMTRS with DBS-ON, one year from surgery. Three out of nine patients had a suboptimal, long-term response to treatment. The segmented thalamic areas corresponded well to anatomically known counterparts in the ventrolateral

  19. Patterns of failure after multimodal treatments for high-grade glioma: effectiveness of MIB-1 labeling index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Kazuyuki; Fujii, Osamu; Soejima, Toshinori; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kohmura, Eiji; Sasaki, Ryohei; Sasayama, Takashi; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Mukumoto, Naritoshi; Akasaka, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Masamitsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the recurrence pattern of high-grade glioma treated with a multimodal treatment approach and to evaluate whether the MIB-1 labeling index (LI) could be a useful marker for predicting the pattern of failure in glioblastoma (GB). We evaluated histologically confirmed 131 patients with either anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or GB. A median dose was 60 Gy. Concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy were administered to 111 patients. MIB-1 LI was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Recurrence patterns were categorized according to the areas of recurrence as follows: central failure (recurrence in the 95% of 60 Gy); in-field (recurrence in the high-dose volume of 50 Gy; marginal (recurrence outside the high-dose volume) and distant (recurrence outside the RT field). The median follow-up durations were 13 months for all patients and 19 months for those remaining alive. Among AA patients, the 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 23.1% and 39.2%, respectively, while in GB patients, the rates were 13.3% and 27.6%, respectively. The median survival time was 20 months for AA patients and 15 months for GB patients. Among AA patients, recurrences were central in 68.7% of patients; in-field, 18.8%; and distant, 12.5%, while among GB patients, 69.0% of recurrences were central, 15.5% were in-field, 12.1% were marginal, and 3.4% were distant. The MIB-1 LI medians were 18.2% in AA and 29.8% in GB. Interestingly, in patients with GB, the MIB-1 LI had a strong effect on the pattern of failure (P = 0.014), while the extent of surgical removal (P = 0.47) and regimens of chemotherapy (P = 0.57) did not. MIB-1 LI predominantly affected the pattern of failure in GB patients treated with a multimodal approach, and it might be a useful tool for the management of the disease

  20. Communication skills and thalamic lesion: Strategies of rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaddii, Luisa; Centorrino, Santi; Cambi, Jacopo; Passali, Desiderio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the speech rehabilitation history of patients with thalamic lesions. Thalamic lesions can affect speech and language according to diverse thalamic nuclei involved. Because of the strategic functional position of the thalamus within the cognitive networks, its lesion can also interfere with other cognitive processes, such as attention, memory and executive functions. Alterations of these cognitive domains contribute significantly to language deficits, leading to communicative inefficacy. This fact must be considered in the rehabilitation efforts. Whereas evaluation of cognitive functions and communicative efficiency is different from that of aphasic disorder, treatment should also be different. The treatment must be focused on specific cognitive deficits with belief in the regaining of communicative ability, as well as it occurs in therapy of pragmatic disorder in traumatic brain injury: attention process training, mnemotechnics and prospective memory training. According to our experience: (a) there is a close correlation between cognitive processes and communication skills; (b) alterations of attention, memory and executive functions cause a loss of efficiency in the language use; and (c) appropriate cognitive treatment improves pragmatic competence and therefore the linguistic disorder. For planning a speech-therapy it is important to consider the relationship between cognitive functions and communication. The cognitive/behavioral treatment confirms its therapeutic efficiency for thalamic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage. Clinical symptoms and outcomes in 40 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Michio; Hirai, Osamu; Kaneko, Takaaki; Watanabe, Syu; Fukuma, Jun; Handa, Hajime

    1988-12-01

    In the past six years, we have had experience with 40 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhages, as verified by CT scan at our hospital within 24 hours. These patients were classified into the following three groups according to the location of the bleeding point and the size of the hematoma: (1) anteromedial (4 cases), (2) posterolateral (16 cases), and (3) massive (20 cases). The (1) and (2) hematomas were small (less than 3 cm in diameter), while those in (3) were large (more than 3 cm in diameter). Twenty cases (50% of all the thalamic hematomas) were small hematomas. The characteristic clinical symptoms of the anteromedial type were a mild disturbance of consciousness and thalamic dementia, while those of the posterolateral type were motor and sensory disturbance, and thalamic aphasia, respectively. Twenty cases (50%) were large hematomas. The clinical symptoms of these cases were mainly consciousness disturbance; 7 of them expired. Based on this experience, it may be considered that the patients whose hematoma size was larger than 3 cm had a poor prognosis and that the patients with the posterolateral type had a poor functional diagnosis.

  2. Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Davidson, Thomas J; Nakajima, Miho; Deisseroth, Karl; Halassa, Michael M

    2015-10-29

    How the brain selects appropriate sensory inputs and suppresses distractors is unknown. Given the well-established role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive function, its interactions with sensory cortical areas during attention have been hypothesized to control sensory selection. To test this idea and, more generally, dissect the circuits underlying sensory selection, we developed a cross-modal divided-attention task in mice that allowed genetic access to this cognitive process. By optogenetically perturbing PFC function in a temporally precise window, the ability of mice to select appropriately between conflicting visual and auditory stimuli was diminished. Equivalent sensory thalamocortical manipulations showed that behaviour was causally dependent on PFC interactions with the sensory thalamus, not sensory cortex. Consistent with this notion, we found neurons of the visual thalamic reticular nucleus (visTRN) to exhibit PFC-dependent changes in firing rate predictive of the modality selected. visTRN activity was causal to performance as confirmed by bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this subnetwork. Using a combination of electrophysiology and intracellular chloride photometry, we demonstrated that visTRN dynamically controls visual thalamic gain through feedforward inhibition. Our experiments introduce a new subcortical model of sensory selection, in which the PFC biases thalamic reticular subnetworks to control thalamic sensory gain, selecting appropriate inputs for further processing.

  3. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Motohiro; Chernov, Mikhail F.; Taira, Takaomi; Ochiai, Taku; Nakaya, Kotaro; Tamura, Noriko; Goto, Shinichi; Yomo, Shoji; Kouyama, Nobuo; Katayama, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoriko; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment

  4. Neuroanatomical considerations of isolated hearing loss in thalamic hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Agarwal, M.D.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Presumably, this neurological deficit was caused by a hypertensive hemorrhage in the posterior right thalamus. The following case and discussion will review the potential neuroanatomical pathways that we suggest could make isolated hearing loss be part of a “thalamic syndrome.”

  5. Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

  6. Visual Orientation and Directional Selectivity through Thalamic Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Garrett B.; Jin, Jianzhong; Wang, Yushi; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Wang, Qi; Black, Michael J.; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Thalamic neurons respond to visual scenes by generating synchronous spike trains on the timescale of 10 – 20 ms that are very effective at driving cortical targets. Here we demonstrate that this synchronous activity contains unexpectedly rich information about fundamental properties of visual stimuli. We report that the occurrence of synchronous firing of cat thalamic cells with highly overlapping receptive fields is strongly sensitive to the orientation and the direction of motion of the visual stimulus. We show that this stimulus selectivity is robust, remaining relatively unchanged under different contrasts and temporal frequencies (stimulus velocities). A computational analysis based on an integrate-and-fire model of the direct thalamic input to a layer 4 cortical cell reveals a strong correlation between the degree of thalamic synchrony and the nonlinear relationship between cortical membrane potential and the resultant firing rate. Together, these findings suggest a novel population code in the synchronous firing of neurons in the early visual pathway that could serve as the substrate for establishing cortical representations of the visual scene. PMID:22745507

  7. Disrupted thalamic prefrontal pathways in patients with idiopathic dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilha, Leonardo; de Vries, Paulien M.; Hurd, Mark W.; Rorden, Chris; Morgan, Paul S.; Besenski, Nada; Bergmann, Kenneth J.; Hinson, Vanessa K.

    There are quantifiable abnormalities in water diffusion properties of the white matter in thalamic and prefrontal areas in patients with idiopathic dystonia (ID). However, it is unclear which pathways are disrupted in these patients. Using probabilistic tractography of high resolution DTI, we

  8. Association of Thalamic Dysconnectivity and Conversion to Psychosis in Youth and Young Adults at Elevated Clinical Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Haut, Kristen; Murray, John D.; Repovs, Grega; Yang, Genevieve J.; Diehl, Caroline; McEwen, Sarah C.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Addington, Jean; Goodyear, Bradley; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Olvet, Doreen; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Belger, Aysenil; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Walker, Elaine F; Hamann, Stephan; Woods, Scott W; Qiu, Maolin; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, affect distributed neural computations. One candidate system profoundly altered in chronic schizophrenia involves the thalamocortical networks. It is widely acknowledged that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that likely affects the brain before onset of clinical symptoms. However, no investigation has tested whether thalamocortical connectivity is altered in individuals at risk for psychosis or whether this pattern is more severe in individuals who later develop full-blown illness. OBJECTIVES To determine whether baseline thalamocortical connectivity differs between individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and healthy controls, whether this pattern is more severe in those who later convert to full-blown illness, and whether magnitude of thalamocortical dysconnectivity is associated with baseline prodromal symptom severity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this multicenter, 2-year follow-up, case-control study, we examined 397 participants aged 12–35 years of age (243 individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis, of whom 21 converted to full-blown illness, and 154 healthy controls). The baseline scan dates were January 15, 2010, to April 30, 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Whole-brain thalamic functional connectivity maps were generated using individuals’ anatomically defined thalamic seeds, measured using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS Using baseline magnetic resonance images, we identified thalamocortical dysconnectivity in the 243 individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis, which was particularly pronounced in the 21 participants who converted to full-blown illness. The pattern involved widespread hypoconnectivity between the thalamus and prefrontal and cerebellar areas, which was more prominent in those who converted to full-blown illness (t173 = 3.77, P < .001, Hedge g = 0.88). Conversely, there was marked

  9. Sleep onset uncovers thalamic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Bagshaw

    Full Text Available The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE, and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC. Inter-hemispheric thalamic FC differed between patients and controls in somatosensory regions during wakefulness, and occipital regions during sleep. Intra-hemispheric thalamic FC was significantly higher in patients than controls following sleep onset, and disorder-dependent alterations to FC were seen in several thalamic regions always involving somatomotor and occipital regions. As interactions between thalamic sub-regions are indirect and mediated by the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, the results suggest abnormal TRN function in patients with IGE, with a regional distribution which could suggest a link with the thalamocortical networks involved in the generation of alpha rhythms. Intra-thalamic FC could be a more widely applicable marker beyond patients with IGE. Keywords: Functional connectivity, Generalised epilepsy, Sleep, Thalamic reticular nucleus thalamus

  10. Regional thalamic neuropathology in patients with hippocampal sclerosis and epilepsy: A postmortem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinjab, Barah; Martinian, Lillian; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Clinical, experimental, and neuroimaging data all indicate that the thalamus is involved in the network of changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in association with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), with potential roles in seizure initiation and propagation. Pathologic changes in the thalamus may be a result of an initial insult, ongoing seizures, or retrograde degeneration through reciprocal connections between thalamic and limbic regions. Our aim was to carry out a neuropathologic analysis of the thalamus in a postmortem (PM) epilepsy series, to assess the distribution, severity, and nature of pathologic changes and its association with HS. Methods Twenty-four epilepsy PM cases (age range 25–87 years) and eight controls (age range 38–85 years) were studied. HS was classified as unilateral (UHS, 11 cases), bilateral (BHS, 4 cases) or absent (No-HS, 9 cases). Samples from the left and right sides of the thalamus were stained with cresyl violet (CV), and for glial firbillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin. Using image analysis, neuronal densities (NDs) or field fraction staining values (GFAP, synaptophysin) were measured in four thalamic nuclei: anteroventral nucleus (AV), lateral dorsal nucleus (LD), mediodorsal nucleus (MD), and ventrolateral nucleus (VL). The results were compared within and between cases. Key Findings The severity, nature, and distribution of thalamic pathology varied between cases. A pattern that emerged was a preferential involvement of the MD in UHS cases with a reduction in mean ND ipsilateral to the side of HS (p = 0.05). In UHS cases, greater field fraction values for GFAP and lower values for synaptophysin and ND were seen in the majority of cases in the MD ipsilateral to the side of sclerosis compared to other thalamic nuclei. In addition, differences in the mean ND between classical HS, atypical HS, and No-HS cases were noted in the ipsilateral MD (p < 0.05), with lower values observed in

  11. Connectivity derived thalamic segmentation in deep brain stimulation for tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Harith; Dayal, Viswas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Georgiev, Dejan; Hyam, Jonathan; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; De Vita, Enrico; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Ashburner, John; Behrens, Tim; Hariz, Marwan; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2018-01-01

    The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is an established surgical target for stereotactic ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). It is centrally placed on a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network connecting the primary motor cortex, to the dentate nucleus of the contralateral cerebellum through the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT). The VIM is not readily visible on conventional MR imaging, so identifying the surgical target traditionally involved indirect targeting that relies on atlas-defined coordinates. Unfortunately, this approach does not fully account for individual variability and requires surgery to be performed with the patient awake to allow for intraoperative targeting confirmation. The aim of this study is to identify the VIM and the DRT using probabilistic tractography in patients that will undergo thalamic DBS for tremor. Four male patients with tremor dominant PD and five patients (three female) with ET underwent high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) (128 diffusion directions, 1.5 mm isotropic voxels and b value = 1500) preoperatively. Patients received VIM-DBS using an MR image guided and MR image verified approach with indirect targeting. Postoperatively, using parallel Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) processing, thalamic areas with the highest diffusion connectivity to the primary motor area (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), primary sensory area (S1) and contralateral dentate nucleus were identified. Additionally, volume of tissue activation (VTA) corresponding to active DBS contacts were modelled. Response to treatment was defined as 40% reduction in the total Fahn-Tolosa-Martin Tremor Rating Score (FTMTRS) with DBS-ON, one year from surgery. Three out of nine patients had a suboptimal, long-term response to treatment. The segmented thalamic areas corresponded well to anatomically known counterparts in the ventrolateral (VL

  12. Remote effect in patients with thalamic stroke. A study using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaba, Yuichi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashi, Akiro

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional relation between the thalamus and other cortical regions in patients with thalamic stroke from the view of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) using positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty patients with thalamic stroke (right lesion=8, left lesion=12) and 7 normal controls were studied. Five patients were diagnosed as having thalamic infarction, and 15 (patients were diagnosed) as having thalamic hemorrhage by X-CT and/or MRI scan. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen were measured by PET using C 15 O 2 and 15 O 2 steady state inhalation technique. In the left thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was significantly decreased in the left cingulate, superior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, medial occipital, and thalamic regions, compared with the normal control group. In the right thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was decreased in the left cingulate, medial occipital, right hippocampal, thalamic, and the bilateral cerebellar regions, compared with the normal control group. In the left thalamic stroke group, CBF was decreased significantly in the left cingulate, middle temporal, hippocampal, thalamic, and right cerebellar regions, compared with the normal control group. In the right thalamic stroke group, CBF was significantly decreased in the right hippocampal, thalamic and left cerebellar regions compared with the normal control group. These results indicate that CBF and CMRO 2 decrease in some distant regions from thalamic lesions, perhaps due to a disconnection of neuronal fiber. Especially in the left thalamic stroke group, CMRO 2 was decreased in the ipsilateral temporal regions. This result suggests that there are more intimate functional fiber connections between the thalamus and temporal cortex in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere. (author)

  13. Two distinct populations of projection neurons in the rat lateral parafascicular thalamic nucleus and their cholinergic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J A; Sylwestrak, E L; Cox, C L

    2009-08-04

    The lateral parafascicular nucleus (lPf) is a member of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, a collection of nuclei that characteristically provides widespread projections to the neocortex and basal ganglia and is associated with arousal, sensory, and motor functions. Recently, lPf neurons have been shown to possess different characteristics than other cortical-projecting thalamic relay neurons. We performed whole cell recordings from lPf neurons using an in vitro rat slice preparation and found two distinct neuronal subtypes that were differentiated by distinct morphological and physiological characteristics: diffuse and bushy. Diffuse neurons, which had been previously described, were the predominant neuronal subtype (66%). These neurons had few, poorly-branching, extended dendrites, and rarely displayed burst-like action potential discharge, a ubiquitous feature of thalamocortical relay neurons. Interestingly, we discovered a smaller population of bushy neurons (34%) that shared similar morphological and physiological characteristics with thalamocortical relay neurons of primary sensory thalamic nuclei. In contrast to other thalamocortical relay neurons, activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced a membrane hyperpolarization via activation of M(2) receptors in most lPf neurons (60%). In a minority of lPf neurons (33%), muscarinic agonists produced a membrane depolarization via activation of predominantly M(3) receptors. The muscarinic receptor-mediated actions were independent of lPf neuronal subtype (i.e. diffuse or bushy neurons); however the cholinergic actions were correlated with lPf neurons with different efferent targets. Retrogradely-labeled lPf neurons from frontal cortical fluorescent bead injections primarily consisted of bushy type lPf neurons (78%), but more importantly, all of these neurons were depolarized by muscarinic agonists. On the other hand, lPf neurons labeled by striatal injections were predominantly hyperpolarized by muscarinic

  14. Human Thalamic-Prefrontal Peduncle Connectivity Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Fiber Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The thalamic-prefrontal peduncle (TPP is a large bundle connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. The definitive structure and function of the TPP are still controversial. To investigate the connectivity and segmentation patterns of the TPP, we employed diffusion spectrum imaging with generalized q-sampling reconstruction to perform both subject-specific and template-based analyses. Our results confirmed the trajectory and spatial relationship of the TPP in the human brain and identified the connection areas in the prefrontal cortex. The TPP-connecting areas identified based on Brodmann areas (BAs were BAs 8–11 and 45–47. Based on the automated anatomical atlas, these areas were the medial superior frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, pars triangularis, pars orbitalis, anterior orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. In addition, we identified the TPP connection areas in the thalamus, including the anterior and medial nuclei, and the lateral dorsal/lateral posterior nuclei. TPP fibers connected the thalamus with the ipsilateral prefrontal BAs 11, 47, 10, 46, 45, 9, and 8 seriatim from medial to lateral, layer by layer. Our results provide further details of the thalamic-prefrontal peduncle structure, and may aid future studies and a better understanding of the functional roles of the TPP in the human brain.

  15. Persistence of disturbed thalamic glucose metabolism in a case of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellgiebel, Andreas; Scheurich, Armin; Siessmeier, Thomas; Schmidt, Lutz G; Bartenstein, Peter

    2003-10-30

    We report the case of a 40-year-old alcoholic male patient, hospitalized with an acute ataxia of stance and gait, ocular muscle weakness with nystagmus and a global apathetic-confusional state. After admission, an amnestic syndrome with confabulation was also observed and diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome was made. Under treatment with intravenous thiamine, the patient recovered completely from gaze weakness and ataxia, whereas a severe amnestic syndrome persisted. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) showed bilateral thalamic and severe bilateral temporal-parietal hypometabolism resembling a pattern typical for Alzheimer's disease. Longitudinal assessment of the alcohol-abstinent and thiamine-substituted patient revealed improvements of clinical state and neuropsychological performance that were paralleled by recovered cerebral glucose metabolism. In contrast to metabolic rates that increased between 7.1% (anterior cingulate, left) and 23.5% (parietal, left) in cortical areas during a 9-month remission period, thalamic glucose metabolism remained severely disturbed over time (change: left +0.2%, right +0.3%).

  16. Dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fabián; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold.

  17. Data-driven simultaneous fault diagnosis for solid oxide fuel cell system using multi-label pattern identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuanghong; Cao, Hongliang; Yang, Yupu

    2018-02-01

    Fault diagnosis is a key process for the reliability and safety of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems. However, it is difficult to rapidly and accurately identify faults for complicated SOFC systems, especially when simultaneous faults appear. In this research, a data-driven Multi-Label (ML) pattern identification approach is proposed to address the simultaneous fault diagnosis of SOFC systems. The framework of the simultaneous-fault diagnosis primarily includes two components: feature extraction and ML-SVM classifier. The simultaneous-fault diagnosis approach can be trained to diagnose simultaneous SOFC faults, such as fuel leakage, air leakage in different positions in the SOFC system, by just using simple training data sets consisting only single fault and not demanding simultaneous faults data. The experimental result shows the proposed framework can diagnose the simultaneous SOFC system faults with high accuracy requiring small number training data and low computational burden. In addition, Fault Inference Tree Analysis (FITA) is employed to identify the correlations among possible faults and their corresponding symptoms at the system component level.

  18. Understanding the logics of pheromone processing in the honeybee brain: from labeled-lines to across-fiber patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Deisig

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees employ a very rich repertoire of pheromones to ensure intraspecific communication in a wide range of behavioral contexts. This communication can be complex, since the same compounds can have a variety of physiological and behavioral effects depending on the receiver. Honeybees constitute an ideal model to study the neurobiological basis of pheromonal processing, as they are already one of the most infl uential animal models for the study of general odor processing and learning at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. Accordingly, the anatomy of the bee brain is well characterized and electro- and opto-physiological recording techniques at different stages of the olfactory circuit are possible in the laboratory. Here we review pheromone communication in honeybees and analyze the different stages of olfactory processing in the honeybee brain, focusing on available data on pheromone detection, processing and representation at these different stages. In particular, we argue that the traditional distinction between labeled-line and across-fi ber pattern processing, attributed to pheromone and general odors respectively, may not be so clear in the case of honeybees, especially for social-pheromones. We propose new research avenues for stimulating future work in this area.

  19. Holmes' tremor as a delayed complication of thalamic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, William Alves; Marrone, Luiz Carlos Porcello; Fussiger, Helena; Vedana, Viviane Maria; Cristovam, Rafael do Amaral; Taietti, Marjorye Z; Marrone, Antonio Carlos Huf

    2016-04-01

    Movement disorders are not commonly associated with stroke. Accordingly, thalamic strokes have rarely been associated with tremor, pseudo-athetosis and dystonic postures. We present a 75-year-old man who developed a disabling tremor 1 year after a posterolateral thalamic stroke. This tremor had low frequency (3-4 Hz), did not disappear on focus and was exacerbated by maintaining a static posture and on target pursuit, which made it very difficult to perform basic functions. MRI demonstrated an old ischemic lesion at the left posterolateral thalamus. Treatment with levodopa led to symptom control. Lesions in the midbrain, cerebellum and thalamus may cause Holmes' tremor. Delayed onset of symptoms is usually seen, sometimes appearing 2 years after the original injury. This may be due to maturation of a complex neuronal network, leading to slow dopaminergic denervation. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of this unique disconnection syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What does a comparison of the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and thalamic infarction tell us about thalamic amnesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    In this review, the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging findings in the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and in thalamic amnesia, resulting from focal infarction, are compared. In both disorders, there is controversy over what is the critical site for anterograde amnesia to occur-damage to the anterior thalamus/mammillo-thalamic tract has most commonly been cited, but damage to the medio-dorsal nuclei has also been advocated. Both syndromes show 'core' features of an anterograde amnesic syndrome; but retrograde amnesia is generally much more extensive (going back many years or decades) in the Korsakoff syndrome. Likewise, spontaneous confabulation occurs more commonly in the Korsakoff syndrome, although seen in only a minority of chronic cases. These differences are attributed to the greater prevalence of frontal atrophy and frontal damage in Korsakoff cases. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Visuomotor signals for reaching movements in the rostro-dorsal sector of the monkey thalamic reticular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Yosuke; Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Yamagata, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Masashi; Tremblay, Léon; Takada, Masahiko; Hoshi, Eiji

    2017-05-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) collects inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and, in turn, sends inhibitory outputs to the thalamic relay nuclei. This unique connectivity suggests that the TRN plays a pivotal role in regulating information flow through the thalamus. Here, we analyzed the roles of TRN neurons in visually guided reaching movements. We first used retrograde transneuronal labeling with rabies virus, and showed that the rostro-dorsal sector of the TRN (TRNrd) projected disynaptically to the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). In other experiments, we recorded neurons from the TRNrd or PMv while monkeys performed a visuomotor task. We found that neurons in the TRNrd and PMv showed visual-, set-, and movement-related activity modulation. These results indicate that the TRNrd, as well as the PMv, is involved in the reception of visual signals and in the preparation and execution of reaching movements. The fraction of neurons that were non-selective for the location of visual signals or the direction of reaching movements was greater in the TRNrd than in the PMv. Furthermore, the fraction of neurons whose activity increased from the baseline was greater in the TRNrd than in the PMv. The timing of activity modulation of visual-related and movement-related neurons was similar in TRNrd and PMv neurons. Overall, our data suggest that TRNrd neurons provide motor thalamic nuclei with inhibitory inputs that are predominantly devoid of spatial selectivity, and that these signals modulate how these nuclei engage in both sensory processing and motor output during visually guided reaching behavior. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Hypertensive thalamic hematoma treated by CT stereotactic evacuation (with two cases reports)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongsheng; Zhu Fengqing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate new surgical method to treat hypertensive thalamic hematoma. Methods: Two medial-degree coma patients with hypertensive thalamic hematoma were treated by CT stereotactic evacuation. Results: One week after operation the two patients regained consciousness. The function of paraplegic appendage restored partly, and one patient could take care of himself. Conclusion: CT stereotactic evacuation to treat hypertensive thalamic hematoma has the advantages of small trauma, little complication and good clinical results. The authors suggest that it be selected firstly in treating hypertensive thalamic hematoma

  3. Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power predicts human memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Rugg, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Pre-stimulus theta (4-8Hz) power in the hippocampus and neocortex predicts whether a memory for a subsequent event will be formed. Anatomical studies reveal thalamus-hippocampal connectivity, and lesion, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies show that memory processing involves the dorsomedial (DMTN) and anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN). The small size and deep location of these nuclei have limited real-time study of their activity, however, and it is unknown whether pre-stimulus theta power predictive of successful memory formation is also found in these subcortical structures. We recorded human electrophysiological data from the DMTN and ATN of 7 patients receiving deep brain stimulation for refractory epilepsy. We found that greater pre-stimulus theta power in the right DMTN was associated with successful memory encoding, predicting both behavioral outcome and post-stimulus correlates of successful memory formation. In particular, significant correlations were observed between right DMTN theta power and both frontal theta and right ATN gamma (32-50Hz) phase alignment, and frontal-ATN theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling. We draw the following primary conclusions. Our results provide direct electrophysiological evidence in humans of a role for the DMTN as well as the ATN in memory formation. Furthermore, prediction of subsequent memory performance by pre-stimulus thalamic oscillations provides evidence that post-stimulus differences in thalamic activity that index successful and unsuccessful encoding reflect brain processes specifically underpinning memory formation. Finally, the findings broaden the understanding of brain states that facilitate memory encoding to include subcortical as well as cortical structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation in parkinsonian and essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limousin, P.; Speelman, J. D.; Gielen, F.; Janssens, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thalamic stimulation has been proposed to treat disabling tremor. The aims of this multicentre study were to evaluate the efficacy and the morbidity of thalamic stimulation in a large number of patients with parkinsonian or essential tremor. One hundred and eleven patients were included in the study

  5. Prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Sonobe, Makoto; Sugita, Kyoichi; Kuwayama, Naoya

    1984-01-01

    The present authors have analyzed the correlation between the clinical features and the CT findings in 66 cases of thalamic hemorrhage. Hitachi CT-H and CT-HF apparatuses (256 x 256 matrix) were used at an angle parallel to the OM line. Of the 48 patients with hematoma less than 20 ml, only four died; however, of the 18 patients with hematoma larger than 20 ml, five died. An analysis has been made of the correlation between the occurrence of brain edema in the acute stage and high density in the subthalamic area. The hematoma extending to the subthalamic area was diagnosed by means of high density at the level of 35 mm above the OM line. Of the 13 cases with hematoma in the subthalamic area, acute brain edema occurred in 9 cases. On the other hand, of the 53 cases without hematoma at the subthalamic area, brain edema occurred in only one case. It was concluded that high density in the subthalamic area is a significant index for the occurrence of acute brain edema in a thalamic hemorrhage. (author)

  6. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  7. Connectivity-based parcellation of the thalamus explains specific cognitive and behavioural symptoms in patients with bilateral thalamic infarct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Serra

    Full Text Available A novel approach based on diffusion tractography was used here to characterise the cortico-thalamic connectivity in two patients, both presenting with an isolated bilateral infarct in the thalamus, but exhibiting partially different cognitive and behavioural profiles. Both patients (G.P. and R.F. had a pervasive deficit in episodic memory, but only one of them (R.F. suffered also from a dysexecutive syndrome. Both patients had an MRI scan at 3T, including a T1-weighted volume. Their lesions were manually segmented. T1-volumes were normalised to standard space, and the same transformations were applied to the lesion masks. Nineteen healthy controls underwent a diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI scan. Their DTI data were normalised to standard space and averaged. An atlas of Brodmann areas was used to parcellate the prefrontal cortex. Probabilistic tractography was used to assess the probability of connection between each voxel of the thalamus and a set of prefrontal areas. The resulting map of corticothalamic connections was superimposed onto the patients' lesion masks, to assess whether the location of the thalamic lesions in R.F. (but not in G. P. implied connections with prefrontal areas involved in dysexecutive syndromes. In G.P., the lesion fell within areas of the thalamus poorly connected with prefrontal areas, showing only a modest probability of connection with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Conversely, R.F.'s lesion fell within thalamic areas extensively connected with the ACC bilaterally, with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and with the left supplementary motor area. Despite a similar, bilateral involvement of the thalamus, the use of connectivity-based segmentation clarified that R.F.'s lesions only were located within nuclei highly connected with the prefrontal cortical areas, thus explaining the patient's frontal syndrome. This study confirms that DTI tractography is a useful tool to examine in vivo the effect of focal

  8. Fear conditioning leads to alteration in specific genes expression in cortical and thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ira K; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    RNA transcription is needed for memory formation. However, the ability to identify genes whose expression is altered by learning is greatly impaired because of methodological difficulties in profiling gene expression in specific neurons involved in memory formation. Here, we report a novel approach to monitor the expression of genes after learning in neurons in specific brain pathways needed for memory formation. In this study, we aimed to monitor gene expression after fear learning. We retrogradely labeled discrete thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala (LA) of rats. The labeled neurons were dissected, using laser microdissection microscopy, after fear conditioning learning or unpaired training. The RNAs from the dissected neurons were subjected to microarray analysis. The levels of selected RNAs detected by the microarray analysis to be altered by fear conditioning were also assessed by nanostring analysis. We observed that the expression of genes involved in the regulation of translation, maturation and degradation of proteins was increased 6 h after fear conditioning compared to unpaired or naïve trained rats. These genes were not expressed 24 h after training or in cortical neurons that project to the LA. The expression of genes involved in transcription regulation and neuronal development was altered after fear conditioning learning in the cortical-LA pathway. The present study provides key information on the identity of genes expressed in discrete thalamic and cortical neurons that project to the LA after fear conditioning. Such an approach could also serve to identify gene products as targets for the development of a new generation of therapeutic agents that could be aimed to functionally identified brain circuits to treat memory-related disorders. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  10. From Parkinsonian thalamic activity to restoring thalamic relay using deep brain stimulation: new insights from computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, H. G. E.; Krupa, M.; Cagnan, H.; Lourens, M. A. J.; Heida, T.; Martens, H. C. F.; Bour, L. J.; van Gils, S. A.

    2011-10-01

    We present a computational model of a thalamocortical relay neuron for exploring basal ganglia thalamocortical loop behavior in relation to Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Previous microelectrode, single-unit recording studies demonstrated that oscillatory interaction within and between basal ganglia nuclei is very often accompanied by synchronization at Parkinsonian rest tremor frequencies (3-10 Hz). These oscillations have a profound influence on thalamic projections and impair the thalamic relaying of cortical input by generating rebound action potentials. Our model describes convergent inhibitory input received from basal ganglia by the thalamocortical cells based on characteristics of normal activity, and/or low-frequency oscillations (activity associated with Parkinson's disease). In addition to simulated input, we also used microelectrode recordings as inputs for the model. In the resting state, and without additional sensorimotor input, pathological rebound activity is generated for even mild Parkinsonian input. We have found a specific stimulation window of amplitudes and frequencies for periodic input, which corresponds to high-frequency DBS, and which also suppresses rebound activity for mild and even more prominent Parkinsonian input. When low-frequency pathological rebound activity disables the thalamocortical cell's ability to relay excitatory cortical input, a stimulation signal with parameter settings corresponding to our stimulation window can restore the thalamocortical cell's relay functionality.

  11. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  12. Effects of donepezil on behavioural manifestations of thalamic infarction: a single case observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eRiveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of donepezil for the treatment of cognitive and behavioural disorders associated with thalamic lesions in a 45 years old male who suffered an infarct in the left thalamus. Background: Recent studies suggest that donepezil may improve executive functions impairments due to subcortical ischemic lesionsMethod: The crossover effects of donepezil were analyzed in a single case of thalamic infarction with cognitive and behavioural alterations. Results: Significant behavioural modifications related to improved performances in executive functions were observed with the treatment. Conclusions: The results suggest that donepezil may have significant effect on executive functions that can alter behavioural outcomes after thalamic infarctions

  13. The effects of Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on speech dynamics in patients with Essential Tremor: An articulographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Mücke

    Full Text Available Acoustic studies have revealed that patients with Essential Tremor treated with thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS may suffer from speech deterioration in terms of imprecise oral articulation and reduced voicing control. Based on the acoustic signal one cannot infer, however, whether this deterioration is due to a general slowing down of the speech motor system (e.g., a target undershoot of a desired articulatory goal resulting from being too slow or disturbed coordination (e.g., a target undershoot caused by problems with the relative phasing of articulatory movements. To elucidate this issue further, we here investigated both acoustics and articulatory patterns of the labial and lingual system using Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA in twelve Essential Tremor patients treated with thalamic DBS and twelve age- and sex-matched controls. By comparing patients with activated (DBS-ON and inactivated stimulation (DBS-OFF with control speakers, we show that critical changes in speech dynamics occur on two levels: With inactivated stimulation (DBS-OFF, patients showed coordination problems of the labial and lingual system in terms of articulatory imprecision and slowness. These effects of articulatory discoordination worsened under activated stimulation, accompanied by an additional overall slowing down of the speech motor system. This leads to a poor performance of syllables on the acoustic surface, reflecting an aggravation either of pre-existing cerebellar deficits and/or the affection of the upper motor fibers of the internal capsule.

  14. Thalamic Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Orthostatic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Lehn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT was first described in 1977. It is characterized by rapid tremor of 13–18 Hz and can be recorded in the lower limbs and trunk muscles. OT remains difficult to treat, although some success has been reported with deep brain stimulation (DBS.Case Report: We report a 68-year-old male with OT who did not improve significantly after bilateral thalamic stimulation.Discussion: Although some patients were described who improved after DBS surgery, more information is needed about the effect of these treatment modalities on OT, ideally in the form of randomized trial data. 

  15. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L; Kuster, John K; Levenstein, Jacob M; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Breiter, Hans C; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  16. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff L Waugh

    Full Text Available Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia.We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7. We used (1 automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2 blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume; and (3 voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus.Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region.Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  17. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. Methods We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Results Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Conclusions Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches. PMID:27171035

  18. External pallidal stimulation improves parkinsonian motor signs and modulates neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Jerrold L; Zhang, Jianyu; Hashimoto, Takao; Russo, Gary S; Baker, Kenneth B

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are effective for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). We have shown previously that DBS of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) is associated with improvements in parkinsonian motor signs; however, the mechanism of this effect is not known. In this study, we extend our findings on the effect of STN and GPi DBS on neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network to include GPe DBS using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1.2.3.6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkey model. Stimulation parameters that improved bradykinesia were associated with changes in the pattern and mean discharge rate of neuronal activity in the GPi, STN, and the pallidal [ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)] and cerebellar [ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)] receiving areas of the motor thalamus. Population post-stimulation time histograms revealed a complex pattern of stimulation-related inhibition and excitation for the GPi and VA/VLo, with a more consistent pattern of inhibition in STN and excitation in VPLo. Mean discharge rate was reduced in the GPi and STN and increased in the VPLo. Effective GPe DBS also reduced bursting in the STN and GPi. These data support the hypothesis that therapeutic DBS activates output from the stimulated structure and changes the temporal pattern of neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network and provide further support for GPe as a potential therapeutic target for DBS in the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  20. Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects thalamic neurochemical metabolic changes in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania E. Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The multi-voxel 1H-MRS can provide an insight to the neurochemical metabolic changes occurring in both thalami in patients with MDD. Increased severity of depression is significantly related to these thalamic neurochemical changes.

  1. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging of cerebral hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kitano, Isao; Irie, Hiroyuki; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Kawashima, Masatou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of brain perfusion measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) in cerebral hemorrhages. Brain blood flow values (CBF-ASL values) for cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and segmented cerebral regions were measured by ASL-MRI in 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients in acute or subacute stages. We assessed the lateralities of CBF-ASL values and the relationships between CBF-ASL values and other imaging findings and clinical manifestations. Both the 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and the 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients had significantly low CBF-ASL values of the contralateral cerebellum in subacute stage, suggesting that ASL-MRI might delineate crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Ipsilateral low CBF-ASL values were observed in frontal lobes and thalami with a putaminal hemorrhage and lentiform nuclei, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes with a thalamic hemorrhage, suggesting that ASL-MRI showed the ipsilateral cerebral diaschisis (ICD). In the putaminal hemorrhage patients, the hematoma volume negatively affected both the bilateral cerebellar and cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. In the thalamic hemorrhage patients, a concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage caused low cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. The use of ASL-MRI is sensitive to the perfusion abnormalities and could thus be helpful to estimate functional abnormalities in cerebral hemorrhage patients. (orig.)

  2. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging of cerebral hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kitano, Isao; Irie, Hiroyuki [Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Yakushiji, Yusuke [Saga University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kawashima, Masatou [Saga University, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of brain perfusion measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) in cerebral hemorrhages. Brain blood flow values (CBF-ASL values) for cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and segmented cerebral regions were measured by ASL-MRI in 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients in acute or subacute stages. We assessed the lateralities of CBF-ASL values and the relationships between CBF-ASL values and other imaging findings and clinical manifestations. Both the 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and the 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients had significantly low CBF-ASL values of the contralateral cerebellum in subacute stage, suggesting that ASL-MRI might delineate crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Ipsilateral low CBF-ASL values were observed in frontal lobes and thalami with a putaminal hemorrhage and lentiform nuclei, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes with a thalamic hemorrhage, suggesting that ASL-MRI showed the ipsilateral cerebral diaschisis (ICD). In the putaminal hemorrhage patients, the hematoma volume negatively affected both the bilateral cerebellar and cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. In the thalamic hemorrhage patients, a concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage caused low cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. The use of ASL-MRI is sensitive to the perfusion abnormalities and could thus be helpful to estimate functional abnormalities in cerebral hemorrhage patients. (orig.)

  3. Comparative evaluation of labelling patterns and turnover of lipids, tagged by 15 (p-123I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-14C-palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake and turnover of chloroform/methanol extractable tissue lipids labelled in vivo simultaneously with 15(p- 123 I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1- 14 C-palmitic acid were compared. Lipid turnover studies were performed in fasted pentobarbital-anaesthetized Wistar rats in tissues with highly varying free fatty acid turnover rates. In all tissues investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney, both tracers labelled nearly identical lipid fractions. The main tracer uptake was found in free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides and triglycerides. A highly significant correlation of uptake and turnover in main tissue lipid fractions indicated an essentially identical metabolic pathway of both tracers in intermediary tissue lipid metabolism. Concordant tracer uptake and turnover patterns in tissue of lipids with highly varying fatty acid metabolic rates suggested that intrinsic metabolic activity of the tissue and respective lipid fraction was the major determinant of metabolic handling of both iodophenyl fatty- and palmitic acid. Thus, the feasibility of iodophenylpentadecanoic acid as free fatty acid tracer for studying tissue lipid metabolism is demonstrated. (author)

  4. Comparative evaluation of labelling patterns and turnover of lipids, tagged by 15 (p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin); Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J. (Essen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1984-06-15

    Uptake and turnover of chloroform/methanol extractable tissue lipids labelled in vivo simultaneously with 15(p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid were compared. Lipid turnover studies were performed in fasted pentobarbital-anaesthetized Wistar rats in tissues with highly varying free fatty acid turnover rates. In all tissues investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney, both tracers labelled nearly identical lipid fractions. The main tracer uptake was found in free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides and triglycerides. A highly significant correlation of uptake and turnover in main tissue lipid fractions indicated an essentially identical metabolic pathway of both tracers in intermediary tissue lipid metabolism. Concordant tracer uptake and turnover patterns in tissue of lipids with highly varying fatty acid metabolic rates suggested that intrinsic metabolic activity of the tissue and respective lipid fraction was the major determinant of metabolic handling of both iodophenyl fatty- and palmitic acid. Thus, the feasibility of iodophenylpentadecanoic acid as free fatty acid tracer for studying tissue lipid metabolism is demonstrated. 21 refs.

  5. Cerebellar Ataxia from Multiple Potential Causes: Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Thalamic Stimulation, and Essential Tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Shneyder, Natalya; Lyons, Mark K.; Driver-dunckley, Erika; Evidente, Virgilio Gerald H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Both hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) can rarely be associated with cerebellar ataxia. Severe essential tremor (ET) as well as bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) may lead to subtle cerebellar signs. Case Report: We report a 74-year-old male with hypothyroidism and a 20-year history of ET who developed cerebellar ataxia after bilateral thalamic DBS. Extensive workup revealed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroperoxidase antibody titers c...

  6. Thalamic physiology of intentional essential tremor is more like cerebellar tremor than postural essential tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, R; Lenz, FA; Hua, S; Avin, BH; Liu, CC; Mari, Z

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal physiological correlates of clinical heterogeneity in human essential tremor are unknown. We now test the hypothesis that thalamic neuronal and EMG activities during intention essential tremor are similar to those of the intention tremor which is characteristic of cerebellar lesions. Thalamic neuronal firing was studied in a cerebellar relay nucleus (ventral intermediate, Vim) and in a pallidal relay nucleus (ventral oral posterior, Vop) during stereotactic surgery for the treatm...

  7. 131I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Kaempfer, I.

    1983-01-01

    The method of 131 I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma. (author)

  8. Ammonium absorption mechanism of rice seedling roots and 15N-labelling pattern of their glutamine-amide group, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Yasuhiro; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1975-01-01

    The processes of producing glutamine and asparagine at the initial stage of the absorption and assimilation of ammonia in rice seedling roots were examined in relation to glutamic acid, aspartic acid and ammonia by 15 N-labelling method. When ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 was absorbed into the roots, 15 N concentration appeared very high in glutamine-amide radical and ammonia. It was also higher in amide radical than in amino radical in both glutamine and asparagine, while 15 N concentration in the amino radical of glutamine and asparagine were far lower than that of corresponding glutamine acid and aspartic acid. From these facts, glutamine-amide radical seems to be produced directly from the ammonia in culture media at the contact point of root cells and the culture media, while there is some possibility that asparagine-amide radical is formed from other amino compounds than ammonia. Also the amino radical of aspartic acid seems to be produced not only by the transamination from glutamic acid but also by the reductive amination of oxalautic acid by ammonium. (Kobatake, H.)

  9. Thalamic lesions in multiple sclerosis by 7T MRI: Clinical implications and relationship to cortical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel M; Oh, Jiwon; Roy, Snehashis; Wood, Emily T; Whetstone, Anna; Seigo, Michaela A; Jones, Craig K; Pham, Dzung; van Zijl, Peter; Reich, Daniel S; Calabresi, Peter A

    2015-08-01

    Pathology in both cortex and deep gray matter contribute to disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). We used the increased signal-to-noise ratio of 7-tesla (7T) MRI to visualize small lesions within the thalamus and to relate this to clinical information and cortical lesions. We obtained 7T MRI scans on 34 MS cases and 15 healthy volunteers. Thalamic lesion number and volume were related to demographic data, clinical disability measures, and lesions in cortical gray matter. Thalamic lesions were found in 24/34 of MS cases. Two lesion subtypes were noted: discrete, ovoid lesions, and more diffuse lesional areas lining the periventricular surface. The number of thalamic lesions was greater in progressive MS compared to relapsing-remitting (mean ±SD, 10.7 ±0.7 vs. 3.0 ±0.7, respectively, p < 0.001). Thalamic lesion burden (count and volume) correlated with EDSS score and measures of cortical lesion burden, but not with white matter lesion burden or white matter volume. Using 7T MRI allows identification of thalamic lesions in MS, which are associated with disability, progressive disease, and cortical lesions. Thalamic lesion analysis may be a simpler, more rapid estimate of overall gray matter lesion burden in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  10. Neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus are selective for diverse and complex visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eVaingankar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All visual signals the cortex receives are influenced by the perigeniculate sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus, which receives input from relay cells in the lateral geniculate and provides feedback inhibition in return. Relay cells have been studied in quantitative depth; they behave in a roughly linear fashion and have receptive fields with a stereotyped centre-surround structure. We know far less about reticular neurons. Qualitative studies indicate they simply pool ascending input to generate nonselective gain control. Yet the perigeniculate is complicated; local cells are densely interconnected and fire lengthy bursts. Thus, we employed quantitative methods to explore the perigeniculate, using relay cells as controls. By adapting methods of spike-triggered averaging and covariance analysis for bursts, we identified both first and second order features that build reticular receptive fields. The shapes of these spatiotemporal subunits varied widely; no stereotyped pattern emerged. Companion experiments showed that the shape of the first but not second order features could be explained by the overlap of On and Off inputs to a given cell. Moreover, we assessed the predictive power of the receptive field and how much information each component subunit conveyed. Linear-nonlinear models including multiple subunits performed better than those made with just one; further each subunit encoded different visual information. Model performance for reticular cells was always lesser than for relay cells, however, indicating that reticular cells process inputs nonlinearly. All told, our results suggest that the perigeniculate encodes diverse visual features to selectively modulate activity transmitted downstream

  11. Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Rath, Jessica M

    2015-03-01

    In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified five groups of tobacco users in a national sample of 4,236 young adults aged 18-34years: (1) little cigar/cigarillo/bidi (LCC) and hookah users (4%); (2) nonusers, open to smoking (3%); (3) daily smokers who self-identify as "smokers" (11%); (4) nondaily, light smokers who self-identify as "social or occasional smokers" (9%); and (5) nonusers closed to smoking (73%). Of the nonusers closed to smoking, 23% may be better characterized as at risk for tobacco initiation. Results indicate differences in the potential effectiveness of HWLs across classes. Compared to the daily "smokers," LCC and hookah users (RRR=2.35) and nonusers closed to smoking (RRR=2.33) were more than twice as likely to report that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking. This study supports the potential of graphic HWLs to prevent young nonusers from using tobacco products. It suggests that the extension of prominent HWLs to other tobacco products, including LCCs and hookah tobacco, may also serve a prevention function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disclosure Pattern of Self-Labeled People Living with HIV/AIDS on Chinese Social Networking Site: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Tian, Xianyun; Yu, Guang; He, Fang

    2016-08-01

    HIV/AIDS is an important public health issue in China. The number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been increasing since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA's life quality is becoming an important issue, with lack of research in China. In this study, a group of PLWHA (n = 663) was identified using HIV/AIDS relevant usernames on a Chinese social networking site (Weibo) to study their daily living situations. We found that more than 99.10% of PLWHA were male, among whom 90.80% turned out to be homosexual. They had significantly more fans and followees, but fewer postings compared to the general population. The mean age of the PLWHA was 28.96 (SD = 5.05) years old, and southwest and northwest China had a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. In addition, PLWHA's postings were coded and we found that more than half of the postings (n = 769, 51.03%) contained strong emotions. Less than one-fifth of the postings were directly related to HIV/AIDS topics (n = 269, 17.85%), while seeking emotional support, such as looking for stable partnership, was ranked as the first priority of support seeking. In summary, we found that the majority of the self-labeled PLWHA were likely to be men who have sex with men. They used Weibo to share their daily life events and seek emotional support. Implications for promoting HIV/AIDS education and prevention through Chinese social networking sites were also discussed.

  13. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  14. An experimental approach towards the development of an in vitro cortical-thalamic co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabapathi, Thirukumaran T; Massobrio, Paolo; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Martinoia, Sergio; Wadman, Wytse J; Decré, Michel M J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experimental approach to develop an in vitro dissociated cortical-thalamic co-culture model using a dual compartment neurofluidic device. The device has two compartments separated by 10 μm wide and 3 μm high microchannels. The microchannels provide a physical isolation of neurons allowing only neurites to grow between the compartments. Long-term viable co-culture was maintained in the compartmented device, neurite growth through the microchannels was verified using immunofluorescence staining, and electrophysiological recordings from the co-culture system was investigated. Preliminary analysis of spontaneous activities from the co-culture shows a distinctively different firing pattern associated with cultures of individual cell types and further analysis is proposed for a deeper understanding of the dynamics involved in the network connectivity in such a co-culture system.

  15. Reduced thalamic and pontine connectivity in Kleine-Levin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eEngström

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare sleep disorder, characterized by exceptionally long sleep episodes. The neuropathology of the syndrome is unknown and treatment is often inadequate. The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the underlying neuropathology, related to cerebral networks, in Kleine-Levin syndrome during sleep episodes. One patient with Kleine-Levin syndrome and congenital nystagmus, was investigated by resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during both asymptomatic and hypersomnic periods. Fourteen healthy subjects were also investigated as control samples. Functional connectivity was assessed from seed regions of interest in the thalamus and the dorsal pons. Thalamic connectivity was normal in the asymptomatic patient whereas the connectivity between the brain stem, including dorsal pons, and the thalamus was diminished during hypersomnia. These results suggest that the patient’s nystagmus and hypersomnia might have their pathological origin in adjacent dorsal pontine regions. This finding provides additional knowledge of the cerebral networks involved in the neuropathology of this disabling disorder. Furthermore, these findings regarding a rare syndrome have broad implications and results could be of interest to researchers and clinicians in the whole field of sleep medicine.

  16. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The thalamic reticular nucleus: structure, function and concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Didier

    2004-08-01

    On the basis of theoretical, anatomical, psychological and physiological considerations, Francis Crick (1984) proposed that, during selective attention, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls the internal attentional searchlight that simultaneously highlights all the neural circuits called on by the object of attention. In other words, he submitted that during either perception, or the preparation and execution of any cognitive and/or motor task, the TRN sets all the corresponding thalamocortical (TC) circuits in motion. Over the last two decades, behavioural, electrophysiological, anatomical and neurochemical findings have been accumulating, supporting the complex nature of the TRN and raising questions about the validity of this speculative hypothesis. Indeed, our knowledge of the actual functioning of the TRN is still sprinkled with unresolved questions. Therefore, the time has come to join forces and discuss some recent cellular and network findings concerning this diencephalic GABAergic structure, which plays important roles during various states of consciousness. On the whole, the present critical survey emphasizes the TRN's complexity, and provides arguments combining anatomy, physiology and cognitive psychology.

  18. Cerebral blood flow in patients with thalamic hemorrhage, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Mikiya; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Omiya, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Junichi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yoshitoshi; Okawara, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Takeda, Satoshi.

    1989-01-01

    In twenty-nine patients with thalamic hemorrhage, single photon emission CT (SPECT) and CT were performed in the acute stage. Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was performed by the 133-Xe inhalation method using SPECT (Tomomatic 64). CT findings such as hematoma volume, involvement of internal capsule, ventricular hematoma and topographical localization of hematoma were investigated. We studied etiological analysis of decreased CBF in the acute stage. CBF values in the group of large-volume hematoma (≥10 ml) decreased moderately on the hematoma side and mildly on the nonhematoma side. CBF values in the group of small-volume hematoma (<10 ml) decreased mildly on the hematoma side but didn't decrease on the nonhematoma side. CBF values of the former on the hematoma side decreased significantly compared with the latter. Linear correlation between hematoma volume and CBF was significant. As to topographical localization, CBF values of the group which involved medial thalamus decreased significantly compared with the other group. Factors of involvement of internal capsule and ventricular hematoma didn't affect CBF values. In conclusion, major factors which affected decreased CBF in the acute stage were hematoma volume and tomographical localization. (author)

  19. Getting signals into the brain: visual prosthetics through thalamic microstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezaris, John S; Eskandar, Emad N

    2009-07-01

    Common causes of blindness are diseases that affect the ocular structures, such as glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular degeneration, rendering the eyes no longer sensitive to light. The visual pathway, however, as a predominantly central structure, is largely spared in these cases. It is thus widely thought that a device-based prosthetic approach to restoration of visual function will be effective and will enjoy similar success as cochlear implants have for restoration of auditory function. In this article the authors review the potential locations for stimulation electrode placement for visual prostheses, assessing the anatomical and functional advantages and disadvantages of each. Of particular interest to the neurosurgical community is placement of deep brain stimulating electrodes in thalamic structures that has shown substantial promise in an animal model. The theory of operation of visual prostheses is discussed, along with a review of the current state of knowledge. Finally, the visual prosthesis is proposed as a model for a general high-fidelity machine-brain interface.

  20. Prefrontal-Thalamic Anatomical Connectivity and Executive Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Chica, Monica; Rogers, Baxter P; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Woodward, Neil D

    2018-03-15

    Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses. Forty-five healthy subjects and 62 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed a battery of tests of executive function and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Probabilistic tractography was used to quantify anatomical connectivity between six cortical regions, including PFC, and the thalamus. Thalamocortical anatomical connectivity was compared between healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia using region-of-interest and voxelwise approaches, and the association between PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity and severity of executive function impairment was examined in patients. Anatomical connectivity between the thalamus and PFC was reduced in schizophrenia. Voxelwise analysis localized the reduction to areas of the mediodorsal thalamus connected to lateral PFC. Reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity in schizophrenia correlated with impaired working memory but not cognitive flexibility and inhibition. In contrast to reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity, thalamic connectivity with somatosensory and occipital cortices was increased in schizophrenia. The results are consistent with models implicating disrupted PFC-thalamic connectivity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity may be an important target for procognitive interventions. Further work is needed to determine the implications of increased thalamic connectivity with sensory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Society of

  1. Pathways for Emotions: Specializations in the Amygdalar, Mediodorsal Thalamic, and Posterior Orbitofrontal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Clare; Barbas, Helen

    2015-08-26

    The primate amygdala projects to posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) directly and possibly indirectly through a pathway to the magnocellular mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDmc), which may convey signals about the significance of stimuli. However, because MDmc receives input from structures in addition to the amygdala and MDmc projects to areas in addition to pOFC, it is unknown whether amygdalar pathways in MDmc innervate pOFC-bound neurons. We addressed this issue using double- or triple-labeling approaches to identify pathways and key cellular and molecular features in rhesus monkeys. We found that amygdalar terminations innervated labeled neurons in MDmc that project to pOFC. Projection neurons in MDmc directed to pOFC included comparatively fewer "core" parvalbumin neurons that project focally to the middle cortical layers and more "matrix" calbindin neurons that project expansively to the upper cortical layers. In addition, a small and hitherto unknown pathway originated from MDmc calretinin neurons and projected to pOFC. Further, whereas projection neurons directed to MDmc and to pOFC were intermingled in the amygdala, none projected to both structures. Larger amygdalar neurons projected to MDmc and expressed the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), which is found in highly efficient "driver" pathways. In contrast, smaller amygdalar neurons directed to pOFC expressed VGLUT1 found in modulatory pathways. The indirect pathway from the amygdala to pOFC via MDmc may provide information about the emotional significance of events and, along with a parallel direct pathway, ensures transfer of signals to all layers of pOFC. The amygdala-the brain's center for emotions-is strongly linked with the orbital cortex, a region associated with social interactions. This study provides evidence that a robust pathway from the amygdala reaches neurons in the thalamus that link directly with the orbital cortex, forming a tight tripartite network. The dual pathways from

  2. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Ceschin, Rafael C.; Choi, So Young; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Painter, Michael J.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Blueml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  3. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  4. Thalamic diffusion differences related to cognitive function in white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andújar, Marina; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Cáceres, Cynthia; Bargalló, Núria; Barrios, Maite; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Clemente, Imma; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are related to cognitive deficits, probably due to a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits. We explored thalamic diffusion differences related to white matter lesions (WMLs) and their association with cognitive function in middle-aged individuals. Ninety-six participants from the Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study were included. Participants were classified into groups based on low grade and high grade of periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to study thalamic diffusion differences between groups. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in significant areas were calculated for each subject and correlated with cognitive performance. Participants with high-grade PVHs and DWMHs showed lower FA thalamic values compared to those with low-grade PVHs and DWMHs, respectively. Decreased FA thalamic values in high-grade DWMHs, but not high-grade PVH, were related to lower levels of performance in psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, and visuospatial skills. Thalamic diffusion differences are related to lower cognitive function only in participants with high-grade DWMHs. These results support the hypothesis that fronto-subcortical disruption is associated with cognitive function only in DWMHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of in vivo MRI detectable thalamic amyloid plaques from APP/PS1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenain, M. [URA CEA CNRS 2210, I2BM, SHFJ, 4 Place du General Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [U759 INSERM, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guegan, M.; Delatour, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid-CSIC, 8, Isaac Newton, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Amyloid deposits are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies, in transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease showed that, using in vivo, contrast agent-free, MRI, thalamic amyloid plaques are more easily detected than other plaques of the brain. Our study evaluated the characteristics of these thalamic plaques in a large population of APP/PS1, PS1 and C57BL/6 mice. Thalamic spots were detected in all mice but with different frequency and magnitude. Hence, the prevalence and size of the lesions were higher in APP/PS1 mice. However, even in APP/PS1 mice, thalamic spots did not occur in all the old animals. In APP/PS1 mice, spots detection was related to high iron and calcium load within amyloid plaques and thus reflects the ability of such plaque to capture large amounts of minerals. Interestingly, calcium and iron was also detected in extra-thalamic plaques but with a lower intensity. Hypointense lesions in the thalamus were not associated with the iron load in the tissue surrounding the plaques, nor with micro-hemorrhages, inflammation, or a neuro-degenerative context. (authors)

  6. Effect of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Gait in a Patient with Thalamic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arito Yozu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic pain is a central neuropathic pain disorder which occurs after stroke. Its severe chronic pain is often intractable to pharmacotherapies and affects the patients’ activities of daily living (ADL and quality of life (QOL. Recently, spinal cord stimulation (SCS has been reported to be effective in relieving the pain of thalamic pain; however, the effect of SCS on gait performance in patients is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the gait performance before and after SCS in a case with thalamic pain. A 73-year-old male with thalamic pain participated in this study. We evaluated the gait of the patient two times: before SCS insertion and after 6 days of SCS. At the second evaluation, we measured the gait in three conditions: stimulation off, comfortable stimulation, and strong stimulation. SCS succeeded in improving the pain from 7 to 2 on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Step frequency and the velocity of gait tended to increase between pre- and poststimulation periods. There were no apparent differences in gait among the three stimulation conditions (off, comfortable, and strong at the poststimulation period. SCS may be effective on gait in patients with thalamic pain.

  7. Differential impact of thalamic versus subthalamic deep brain stimulation on lexical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugel, Lea K; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes O; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-10-01

    Roles of subcortical structures in language processing are vague, but, interestingly, basal ganglia and thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation can go along with reduced lexical capacities. To deepen the understanding of this impact, we assessed word processing as a function of thalamic versus subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Ten essential tremor patients treated with thalamic and 14 Parkinson׳s disease patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation performed an acoustic Lexical Decision Task ON and OFF stimulation. Combined analysis of task performance and event-related potentials allowed the determination of processing speed, priming effects, and N400 as neurophysiological correlate of lexical stimulus processing. 12 age-matched healthy participants acted as control subjects. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation prolonged word decisions and reduced N400 potentials. No comparable ON-OFF effects were present in patients with subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. In the latter group of patients with Parkinson' disease, N400 amplitudes were, however, abnormally low, whether under active or inactive Deep Brain Stimulation. In conclusion, performance speed and N400 appear to be influenced by state functions, modulated by thalamic, but not subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, compatible with concepts of thalamo-cortical engagement in word processing. Clinically, these findings specify cognitive sequels of Deep Brain Stimulation in a target-specific way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thalamic control of human attention driven by memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bourbon-Teles, José; Bentley, Paul; Koshino, Saori; Shah, Kushal; Dutta, Agneish; Malhotra, Paresh; Egner, Tobias; Husain, Masud; Soto, David

    2014-05-05

    The role of the thalamus in high-level cognition-attention, working memory (WM), rule-based learning, and decision making-remains poorly understood, especially in comparison to that of cortical frontoparietal networks [1-3]. Studies of visual thalamus have revealed important roles for pulvinar and lateral geniculate nucleus in visuospatial perception and attention [4-10] and for mediodorsal thalamus in oculomotor control [11]. Ventrolateral thalamus contains subdivisions devoted to action control as part of a circuit involving the basal ganglia [12, 13] and motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortices [14], whereas anterior thalamus forms a memory network in connection with the hippocampus [15]. This connectivity profile suggests that ventrolateral and anterior thalamus may represent a nexus between mnemonic and control functions, such as action or attentional selection. Here, we characterize the role of thalamus in the interplay between memory and visual attention. We show that ventrolateral lesions impair the influence of WM representations on attentional deployment. A subsequent fMRI study in healthy volunteers demonstrates involvement of ventrolateral and, notably, anterior thalamus in biasing attention through WM contents. To further characterize the memory types used by the thalamus to bias attention, we performed a second fMRI study that involved learning of stimulus-stimulus associations and their retrieval from long-term memory to optimize attention in search. Responses in ventrolateral and anterior thalamic nuclei tracked learning of the predictiveness of these abstract associations and their use in directing attention. These findings demonstrate a key role for human thalamus in higher-level cognition, notably, in mnemonic biasing of attention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accelerated forgetting of contextual details due to focal medio-dorsal thalamic lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicong eTu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of thalamic nuclei damage and related white matter tracts on memory performance are still debated. This is particularly evident for the medio-dorsal thalamus which has been less clear in predicting amnesia than anterior thalamus changes. The current study addresses this issue by assessing 7 thalamic stroke patients with consistent unilateral lesions focal to the left medio-dorsal nuclei for immediate and delayed memory performance on standard visual and verbal tests of anterograde memory, and over the long-term (> 24 hrs on an object-location associative memory task. Thalamic patients showed selective impairment to delayed recall, but intact recognition memory. Patients also showed accelerated forgetting of contextual information after a 24 hour delay, compared to controls. Importantly, the mammillothalamic tract was intact in all patients, which suggests a role for the medio-dorsal nuclei in recall and early consolidation memory processes.

  10. Cerebellar Ataxia from Multiple Potential Causes: Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Thalamic Stimulation, and Essential Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Shneyder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT can rarely be associated with cerebellar ataxia. Severe essential tremor (ET as well as bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS may lead to subtle cerebellar signs. Case Report: We report a 74-year-old male with hypothyroidism and a 20-year history of ET who developed cerebellar ataxia after bilateral thalamic DBS. Extensive workup revealed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroperoxidase antibody titers confirming the diagnosis of HT. Discussion: Our case demonstrates multiple possible causes of cerebellar ataxia in a patient, including hypothyroidism, HT, chronic ET, and bilateral thalamic DBS. Counseling of patients may be appropriate when multiple risk factors for cerebellar ataxia coexist in one individual.

  11. Frontotemporal dementia with severe thalamic involvement : a clinical and neuropathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanovic Márcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is the third-leading cause of cortical dementia after Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia, and is characterized by a dementia where behavioral disturbances are prominent and appear early in the course of the disease. We report the case of a 58 year-old man affected by dementia with behavioral disturbances, in addition to rigid-hypokinetic and a lower motor neuron syndrome that were present at later stages of the illness. Neuroimaging studies showed frontotemporal atrophy. Neuropathological studies revealed intense thalamic neuronal loss and astrocytic gliosis, as well as moderate frontotemporal neuronal loss, astrocytosis and spongiform degeneration. Thalamic degeneration has previously been described among the wide group of neuropathological features of FTD. The aim of the present study is to show the clinical and neuropathological aspects of thalamic degeneration in FTD, along with its role in behavioral disturbances, a common finding in this condition.

  12. The Effect of Thalamic Stimulation on Memory and Language Processing in Parkinsonian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahrasadat Ghoreishi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS is reported to be successful in Parkinson patients with motor symptoms resistant to medication as a treatment procedure. Despite evidence of cortico-subcortico-cortical circuit involvement in motor control, the role of this neural circuitry on higher cognitive functions such as language is still controversial. In particular, research evidence pertaining to the impact of ventrolateral thalamic stimulation on linguistic processing is scarce. This paper investigates the effect of right and left thalamus-DBS on memory and language processing in Parkinson patients. Materials & Methods: In this paper as a case series research we measured memory and language processing in six Parkinson patients (2 left, 2right, 2 bilateral underwent implantation of deep brain stimulating electrode in ventrolateral thalamic nucleus. The data were collected in two “on” and “off” positions, with at least 40 days time interval in between. The patients were assessed using Wechsler memory test, verbal fluency and some sub-tests of Farsi version of Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT. Results: The findings of this research are suggesting an improvement on grammar comprehension and a decline in sentence production and verbal fluency in “on” position versus “off” position, in both groups. The Wechsler memory scores in left thalamus group improved but declined in right thalamus group. Conclusion: The results indicate that thalamic DBS did not cause any deficit on grammar comprehension and even improved the level of comprehension. On the contrary a decrease in verbal fluency and sentence production, as two high level linguistic processing tasks, was observed. The results confirmed contemporary theories of thalamic participation on language processing and did not confirm a laterality effect on language skills. Although observed difference after thalamic DBS between right and left group on memory score can confirm laterality

  13. Impairments of thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Yu-Chen [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Feng, Xu [Department of Otolaryngology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Yang, Ming; Liu, Bin; Qian, Cheng [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Jian [Department of Physiology, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); School of Human Communication Disorders, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Salvi, Richard [Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Teng, Gao-Jun, E-mail: gjteng@vip.sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Tinnitus patients have aberrant thalamic connectivity to many brain regions. • Decreased thalamic connectivity is linked with tinnitus characteristics. • Thalamocortical connectivity disturbances can reflect tinnitus-related networks. - Abstract: Purpose: The phantom sound of tinnitus is believed to arise from abnormal functional coupling between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the degree of thalamocortical functional connectivity in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Materials and methods: Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 31 chronic tinnitus patients and 33 well-matched healthy controls. Thalamocortical functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The resulting thalamic functional connectivity measures were correlated with other clinical data. Results: We found decreased functional connectivity between the seed region in left thalamus and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right middle orbitofrontal cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and bilateral calcarine cortex. Decreased functional connectivity was detected between the seed in the right thalamus and the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), left amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus. Tinnitus distress correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in right MTG; tinnitus duration correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in left STG. Increased functional connectivity between the bilateral thalamus and a set of regions were also observed. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted thalamocortical functional connectivity to selected brain regions which is associated with specific tinnitus characteristics. Resting-state thalamic functional connectivity disturbances may play an important role in

  14. Dissociation of Recognition and Recency Memory Judgments After Anterior Thalamic Nuclei Lesions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Julie R.; Aggleton, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei form part of a network for episodic memory in humans. The importance of these nuclei for recognition and recency judgments remains, however, unclear. Rats with anterior thalamic nuclei lesions and their controls were tested on object recognition, along with two types of recency judgment. The spontaneous discrimination of a novel object or a novel odor from a familiar counterpart (recognition memory) was not affected by anterior thalamic lesions when tested after retention delays of 1 and 60 min. To measure recency memory, rats were shown two familiar objects, one of which had been explored more recently. In one condition, rats were presented with two lists (List A, List B) of objects separated by a delay, thereby creating two distinct blocks of stimuli. After an additional delay, rats were presented with pairs of objects, one from List A and one from List B (between-block recency). No lesion-induced deficit was apparent for recency discriminations between objects from different lists, despite using three different levels of task difficulty. In contrast, rats with anterior thalamic lesions were significantly impaired when presented with a continuous list of objects and then tested on their ability to distinguish between those items early and late in the same list (within-block recency). The contrasting effects on recognition and recency support the notion that interlinked hippocampal–anterior thalamic interconnections support aspects of both spatial and nonspatial learning, although the role of the anterior thalamic nuclei may be restricted to a subclass of recency judgments (within-block). PMID:23731076

  15. Neonatal thalamic hemorrhage is strongly associated with electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; de Vries, Linda S; Leijten, Frans S S; Braun, Kees P J; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; Jansen, Floor E

    2013-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhage has been associated with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), especially when the straight sinus is involved, and often presents with neonatal seizures. Early thalamic injury has previously been shown to predispose to epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-induced epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and postneonatal epilepsy after neonatal thalamic hemorrhage associated with CSVT, in the absence of more widespread cerebral damage. Between 2003 and 2008 15 neonates were diagnosed with a thalamic hemorrhage due to suspected or proven CSVT. Neurodevelopment and the history of seizures were assessed at follow-up in the outpatient clinic in all 14 survivors (age 2-9 years). Whole-night or sleep-deprived EEG recordings were obtained to assess the prevalence of interictal epileptiform activity (EA) and calculate a sleep-induced spike and wave index (SWI). Three children were diagnosed with classic ESES (SWI >85%). Two children had ESES spectrum disorder (SWI between 50% and 85%), and in two children significant sleep-induced epileptiform activity (SIEA) was noted (SWI between 25% and 50%). Two other children were diagnosed with focal epilepsy, in the absence of sleep-induced epileptiform EEG abnormalities. Five children (age 2-7 years) had normal EEG recordings at follow-up. Deficits in neurodevelopment were seen significantly more often in children with ESES, ESES spectrum, or SIEA. Neonates with thalamic hemorrhage associated with straight sinus thrombosis, without evidence of more widespread cerebral damage, are at high risk of developing ESES (spectrum) disorder (35%), SIEA (14%), or focal epilepsy (14%). Electrographic abnormalities may already be present prior to recognition of cognitive deficits. Early diagnosis may guide parents and caregivers, and subsequent treatment may improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Routine

  16. Impairments of thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yu-Chen; Feng, Xu; Yang, Ming; Liu, Bin; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Jian; Salvi, Richard; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tinnitus patients have aberrant thalamic connectivity to many brain regions. • Decreased thalamic connectivity is linked with tinnitus characteristics. • Thalamocortical connectivity disturbances can reflect tinnitus-related networks. - Abstract: Purpose: The phantom sound of tinnitus is believed to arise from abnormal functional coupling between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the degree of thalamocortical functional connectivity in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Materials and methods: Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 31 chronic tinnitus patients and 33 well-matched healthy controls. Thalamocortical functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method. The resulting thalamic functional connectivity measures were correlated with other clinical data. Results: We found decreased functional connectivity between the seed region in left thalamus and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right middle orbitofrontal cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and bilateral calcarine cortex. Decreased functional connectivity was detected between the seed in the right thalamus and the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), left amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus. Tinnitus distress correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in right MTG; tinnitus duration correlated negatively with thalamic functional connectivity in left STG. Increased functional connectivity between the bilateral thalamus and a set of regions were also observed. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted thalamocortical functional connectivity to selected brain regions which is associated with specific tinnitus characteristics. Resting-state thalamic functional connectivity disturbances may play an important role in

  17. Lucid dreams, an atypical sleep disturbance in anterior and mediodorsal thalamic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnier, S; Coulon, P; Chaufton, C; Poli, M; Debruxelles, S; Renou, P; Rouanet, F; Olindo, S; Sibon, I

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive, affective, and behavioural disturbances are commonly reported following thalamic strokes. Conversely, sleep disorders are rarely reported in this context. Herein, we report the cases of two young patients admitted for an ischemic stroke located in the territories of the left pre-mammillary and paramedian arteries. Together with aphasia, memory complaint, impaired attention and executive functions, they reported lucid dreams with catastrophic content or conflicting situations. Lucid dreams are an atypical presentation in thalamic strokes. These cases enlarge the clinical spectrum of sleep-wake disturbances potentially observed after an acute cerebrovascular event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Localization of Basal Ganglia and Thalamic Damage in Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R; Waugh, Jeff L

    2016-01-01

    Dyskinetic cerebral palsy affects 15%-20% of patients with cerebral palsy. Basal ganglia injury is associated with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, but the patterns of injury within the basal ganglia predisposing to dyskinetic cerebral palsy are unknown, making treatment difficult. For example, deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna improves dystonia in only 40% of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Basal ganglia injury heterogeneity may explain this variability. To investigate this, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of basal ganglia and thalamic damage in dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Reviews and articles primarily addressing genetic or toxic causes of cerebral palsy were excluded yielding 22 studies (304 subjects). Thirteen studies specified the involved basal ganglia nuclei (subthalamic nucleus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, or lentiform nuclei, comprised by the putamen and globus pallidus). Studies investigating the lentiform nuclei (without distinguishing between the putamen and globus pallidus) showed that all subjects (19 of 19) had lentiform nuclei damage. Studies simultaneously but independently investigating the putamen and globus pallidus also showed that all subjects (35 of 35) had lentiform nuclei damage (i.e., putamen or globus pallidus damage); this was followed in frequency by damage to the putamen alone (70 of 101, 69%), the subthalamic nucleus (17 of 25, 68%), the thalamus (88 of 142, 62%), the globus pallidus (7/35, 20%), and the caudate (6 of 47, 13%). Globus pallidus damage was almost always coincident with putaminal damage. Noting consistent involvement of the lentiform nuclei in dyskinetic cerebral palsy, these results could suggest two groups of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy: those with putamen-predominant damage and those with panlenticular damage involving both the putamen and the globus pallidus. Differentiating between these groups could help predict response to therapies such as deep brain

  19. Neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus are selective for diverse and complex visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaingankar, Vishal; Soto-Sanchez, Cristina; Wang, Xin; Sommer, Friedrich T.; Hirsch, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    All visual signals the cortex receives are influenced by the perigeniculate sector (PGN) of the thalamic reticular nucleus, which receives input from relay cells in the lateral geniculate and provides feedback inhibition in return. Relay cells have been studied in quantitative depth; they behave in a roughly linear fashion and have receptive fields with a stereotyped center-surround structure. We know far less about reticular neurons. Qualitative studies indicate they simply pool ascending input to generate non-selective gain control. Yet the perigeniculate is complicated; local cells are densely interconnected and fire lengthy bursts. Thus, we employed quantitative methods to explore the perigeniculate using relay cells as controls. By adapting methods of spike-triggered averaging and covariance analysis for bursts, we identified both first and second order features that build reticular receptive fields. The shapes of these spatiotemporal subunits varied widely; no stereotyped pattern emerged. Companion experiments showed that the shape of the first but not second order features could be explained by the overlap of On and Off inputs to a given cell. Moreover, we assessed the predictive power of the receptive field and how much information each component subunit conveyed. Linear-non-linear (LN) models including multiple subunits performed better than those made with just one; further each subunit encoded different visual information. Model performance for reticular cells was always lesser than for relay cells, however, indicating that reticular cells process inputs non-linearly. All told, our results suggest that the perigeniculate encodes diverse visual features to selectively modulate activity transmitted downstream. PMID:23269915

  20. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation for parkinsonian tremor: a 6 year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hariz, M. I.; Krack, P.; Alesch, F.; Augustinsson, L.-E.; Bosch, A.; Ekberg, R.; Johansson, F.; Johnels, B.; Meyerson, B. A.; N'Guyen, J.-P.; Pinter, M.; Pollak, P.; von Raison, F.; Rehncrona, S.; Speelman, J. D.; Sydow, O.; Benabid, A.-L.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the results of ventral intermediate (Vim) thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with tremor predominant Parkinson's disease (PD) at 6 years post surgery. This was a prolonged follow-up study of 38 patients from eight centres who participated in a multicentre study, the 1 year

  1. A case of thalamic hemorrhage presenting high density on CT in a long time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Takeda, Yoshio; Sugai, Yukio; Umetsu, Akemi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    We presented a thalamic hemorrhage in a 29-year-old woman with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy showing a high density lesion at least for 50 days on CT. From beginning of the illness, this condition was considered to continue for 3 months by chronic bleeding or recurrent hemorrhage. (author)

  2. Aphasia and unilateral spatial neglect due to acute thalamic hemorrhage: clinical correlations and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Aiko; Maeshima, Shinichiro

    2016-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhages are associated with a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is well known that such cognitive changes constitute a limiting factor of recovery of the activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and hematomas is unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aphasia/neglect and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. One hundred fifteen patients with thalamic hemorrhage (70 men and 45 women) were studied. Their mean age was 68.9 ± 10.3 years, and patients with both left and right lesions were included. We calculated hematoma volume and examined the presence or absence of aphasia/neglect and the relationships between these dysfunctions and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. Fifty-nine patients were found to have aphasia and 35 were found to have neglect. Although there was no relationship between hematoma type and cognitive dysfunction, hematoma volume showed a correlation with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The ADL score and ratio of patient discharge for patients with aphasia/neglect were lower than those for patients without aphasia/neglect. We observed a correlation between the hematoma volume in thalamic hemorrhage and cognitive dysfunction. Aphasia/neglect is found frequently in patients with acute thalamic hemorrhage and may influence the ADL.

  3. Distinct molecular components for thalamic- and cortical-dependent plasticity in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Brandalise, Federico; Bohacek, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to be a cellular substrate for the extinction of fear memory. The LA receives converging inputs from the sensory thalamus and neocortex that are weakened following fear extinction. Combining field and patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation can induce a robust LTD at thalamic and cortical inputs to LA, and we identify different underlying molecular components at these pathways. We show that while LTD depends on NMDARs and activation of the protein phosphatases PP2B and PP1 at both pathways, it requires NR2B-containing NMDARs at the thalamic pathway, but NR2C/D-containing NMDARs at the cortical pathway. LTD appears to be induced post-synaptically at the thalamic input but presynaptically at the cortical input, since post-synaptic calcium chelation and NMDAR blockade prevent thalamic but not cortical LTD. These results highlight distinct molecular features of LTD in LA that may be relevant for traumatic memory and its erasure, and for pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  4. Schizophrenia; from structure to function with special focus on the mediodorsal thalamic prefrontal loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkenberg, B.; Scheel-Kruger, J.; Kristiansen, L.V.

    2009-01-01

    studies in postmortem brain from patients with schizophrenia have reported divergent and often opposing findings in the total number of neurons and volume of the mediodorsal (MD) thalamic nucleus, and to a lesser degree in its reciprocally associated areas of the prefrontal cortex. Similarly, quantitative...

  5. Distinct molecular components for thalamic- and cortical-dependent plasticity in the lateral amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eMirante

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR-dependent long-term depression (LTD in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to be a cellular substrate for the extinction of fear memory. The LA receives converging inputs from the sensory thalamus and neocortex that are weakened following fear extinction. Combining field and patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that a paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation can induce a robust LTD at thalamic and cortical inputs to LA, and we identify different underlying molecular components at these pathways. We show that while LTD depends on NMDARs and activation of the protein phosphatases PP2B and PP1 at both pathways, it requires NR2B-containing NMDARs at the thalamic pathway, but NR2C/D-containing NMDARs at the cortical pathway. LTD appears to be induced postsynaptically at the thalamic input but presynaptically at the cortical input, since postsynaptic calcium chelation and NMDAR blockade prevent thalamic but not cortical LTD. These results highlight distinct molecular features of LTD in LA that may be relevant for traumatic memory and its erasure, and for pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

  6. Acute Korsakoff-like amnestic syndrome resulting from left thalamic infarction following a right hippocampal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, R; Moussa, R; Awada, A; Ibrahim, I; Ali, Y; Maarrawi, J; Rizk, T; Nohra, G; Okais, N; Samaha, E

    2007-04-01

    Korsakoff-like amnestic syndromes have been rarely described following structural lesions of the central nervous system. In this report, we describe a case of acute Korsakoff-like syndrome resulting from the combination of a left anteromedian thalamic infarct and a right hippocampal hemorrhage. We also review the literature relevant to the neuropathology and pathophysiology of Korsakoff syndrome and anterograde amnesia.

  7. Complex neurological symptoms in bilateral thalamic stroke due to Percheron artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Paola; Manganotti, Paolo; Moretti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma), vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance. The presentation is similar to the "top of the basilar syndrome", and early recognition should be prompted. We describe the case of a young female with this vessel variant who experienced a bilateral thalamic stroke. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral thalamic infarcts and a truncated artery of Percheron. Occlusion of the vessel was presumably due to embolism from a patent foramen ovale. Thrombolysis was performed, with incomplete symptom remission, cognitive impairment, and persistence of speech disorders. Early recognition and treatment of posterior circulation strokes is mandatory, and further investigation for underlying stroke etiologies is needed.

  8. A stereological study of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, A S; Korbo, S; Uylings, H B M

    2014-01-01

    The total number of neurons and glial cells in the mediodorsal thalamic (MDT) nucleus of four aged females with Down syndrome (DS; mean age 69years) was estimated and compared to six age- and sex-matched controls. The MDT nucleus was delineated on coronal sections, and cell numbers (large and small...

  9. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  10. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rongfeng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  11. Thalamic neuron models encode stimulus information by burst-size modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henry Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic neurons have been long assumed to fire in tonic mode during perceptive states, and in burst mode during sleep and unconsciousness. However, recent evidence suggests that bursts may also be relevant in the encoding of sensory information. Here we explore the neural code of such thalamic bursts. In order to assess whether the burst code is generic or whether it depends on the detailed properties of each bursting neuron, we analyzed two neuron models incorporating different levels of biological detail. One of the models contained no information of the biophysical processes entailed in spike generation, and described neuron activity at a phenomenological level. The second model represented the evolution of the individual ionic conductances involved in spiking and bursting, and required a large number of parameters. We analyzed the models' input selectivity using reverse correlation methods and information theory. We found that n-spike bursts from both models transmit information by modulating their spike count in response to changes to instantaneous input features, such as slope, phase, amplitude, etc. The stimulus feature that is most efficiently encoded by bursts, however, need not coincide with one of such classical features. We therefore searched for the optimal feature among all those that could be expressed as a linear transformation of the time-dependent input current. We found that bursting neurons transmitted 6 times more information about such more general features. The relevant events in the stimulus were located in a time window spanning ~100 ms before and ~20 ms after burst onset. Most importantly, the neural code employed by the simple and the biologically realistic models was largely the same, implying that the simple thalamic neuron model contains the essential ingredients that account for the computational properties of the thalamic burst code. Thus, our results suggest the n-spike burst code is a general property of

  12. Thalamic neuron models encode stimulus information by burst-size modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elijah, Daniel H; Samengo, Inés; Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2015-01-01

    Thalamic neurons have been long assumed to fire in tonic mode during perceptive states, and in burst mode during sleep and unconsciousness. However, recent evidence suggests that bursts may also be relevant in the encoding of sensory information. Here, we explore the neural code of such thalamic bursts. In order to assess whether the burst code is generic or whether it depends on the detailed properties of each bursting neuron, we analyzed two neuron models incorporating different levels of biological detail. One of the models contained no information of the biophysical processes entailed in spike generation, and described neuron activity at a phenomenological level. The second model represented the evolution of the individual ionic conductances involved in spiking and bursting, and required a large number of parameters. We analyzed the models' input selectivity using reverse correlation methods and information theory. We found that n-spike bursts from both models transmit information by modulating their spike count in response to changes to instantaneous input features, such as slope, phase, amplitude, etc. The stimulus feature that is most efficiently encoded by bursts, however, need not coincide with one of such classical features. We therefore searched for the optimal feature among all those that could be expressed as a linear transformation of the time-dependent input current. We found that bursting neurons transmitted 6 times more information about such more general features. The relevant events in the stimulus were located in a time window spanning ~100 ms before and ~20 ms after burst onset. Most importantly, the neural code employed by the simple and the biologically realistic models was largely the same, implying that the simple thalamic neuron model contains the essential ingredients that account for the computational properties of the thalamic burst code. Thus, our results suggest the n-spike burst code is a general property of thalamic neurons.

  13. Flexible Use of Predictive Cues beyond the Orbitofrontal Cortex: Role of the Submedius Thalamic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Fabien; Marchand, Alain R; Vidal, Elisa; Guillou, Alexandre; Faugère, Angélique; Coutureau, Etienne; Wolff, Mathieu

    2015-09-23

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is known to play a crucial role in learning the consequences of specific events. However, the contribution of OFC thalamic inputs to these processes is largely unknown. Using a tract-tracing approach, we first demonstrated that the submedius nucleus (Sub) shares extensive reciprocal connections with the OFC. We then compared the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the Sub or the OFC on the ability of rats to use outcome identity to direct responding. We found that neither OFC nor Sub lesions interfered with the basic differential outcomes effect. However, more specific tests revealed that OFC rats, but not Sub rats, were disproportionally relying on the outcome, rather than on the discriminative stimulus, to guide behavior, which is consistent with the view that the OFC integrates information about predictive cues. In subsequent experiments using a Pavlovian contingency degradation procedure, we found that both OFC and Sub lesions produced a severe deficit in the ability to update Pavlovian associations. Altogether, the submedius therefore appears as a functionally relevant thalamic component in a circuit dedicated to the integration of predictive cues to guide behavior, previously conceived as essentially dependent on orbitofrontal functions. Significance statement: In the present study, we identify a largely unknown thalamic region, the submedius nucleus, as a new functionally relevant component in a circuit supporting the flexible use of predictive cues. Such abilities were previously conceived as largely dependent on the orbitofrontal cortex. Interestingly, this echoes recent findings in the field showing, in research involving an instrumental setup, an additional involvement of another thalamic nuclei, the parafascicular nucleus, when correct responding requires an element of flexibility (Bradfield et al., 2013a). Therefore, the present contribution supports the emerging view that limbic thalamic nuclei may contribute critically to

  14. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  15. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  16. Seasonal patterns of carbon allocation to respiratory pools in 60-yr-old deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees assessed via whole-tree stable carbon isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptz, Daniel; Fleischmann, Frank; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-07-01

    • The CO(2) efflux of adult trees is supplied by recent photosynthates and carbon (C) stores. The extent to which these C pools contribute to growth and maintenance respiration (R(G) and R(M), respectively) remains obscure. • Recent photosynthates of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) trees were labeled by exposing whole-tree canopies to (13) C-depleted CO(2). Label was applied three times during the year (in spring, early summer and late summer) and changes in the stable C isotope composition (δ(13) C) of trunk and coarse-root CO(2) efflux were quantified. • Seasonal patterns in C translocation rate (CTR) and fractional contribution of label to CO(2) efflux (F(Label-Max)) were found. CTR was fastest during early summer. In beech, F(Label-Max) was lowest in spring and peaked in trunks during late summer (0.6 ± 0.1, mean ± SE), whereas no trend was observed in coarse roots. No seasonal dynamics in F(Label-Max) were found in spruce. • During spring, the R(G) of beech trunks was largely supplied by C stores. Recent photosynthates supplied growth in early summer and refilled C stores in late summer. In spruce, CO(2) efflux was constantly supplied by a mixture of stored (c. 75%) and recent (c. 25%) C. The hypothesis that R(G) is exclusively supplied by recent photosynthates was rejected for both species. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  18. Dynamics of epileptic activity in a peculiar case of childhood absence epilepsy and correlation with thalamic levels of GABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Leal

    2016-01-01

    Significance: In a clinical case of CAE with EEG and fMRI-BOLD manifestations restricted to one hemisphere, we found an associated increase in thalamic GABA concentration consistent with a role for this abnormality in human CAE.

  19. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE → TC → Cortex . Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 → TC 1 → Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 → Cortex 2

  20. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE→TC→Cortex. Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 →TC 1 →Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 →Cortex 2 →Cortex 3

  1. A unique combination of anatomy and physiology in cells of the rat paralaminar thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip H.; Bartlett, Edward L.; Kowalkowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The medial geniculate body (MGB) has three major subdivisions - ventral (MGV), dorsal (MGD) and medial (MGM). MGM is linked with paralaminar nuclei that are situated medial and ventral to MGV/MGD. Paralaminar nuclei have unique inputs and outputs when compared with MGV and MGD and have been linked to circuitry underlying some important functional roles. We recorded intracellularly from cells in the paralaminar nuclei in vitro. We found that they possess an unusual combination of anatomical and physiological features when compared to those reported for “standard” thalamic neurons seen in the MGV/MGD and elsewhere in the thalamus. Compared to MGV/MGD neurons, anatomically, 1) paralaminar cell dendrites can be long, branch sparingly and encompass a much larger area. 2) their dendrites may be smooth but can have well defined spines and 3) their axons can have collaterals that branch locally within the same or nearby paralaminar nuclei. When compared to MGV/MGD neurons physiologically 1) their spikes are larger in amplitude and can be shorter in duration and 2) can have dual afterhyperpolarizations with fast and slow components and 3) they can have a reduction or complete absence of the low threshold, voltage-sensitive calcium conductance that reduces or eliminates the voltage-dependent burst response. We also recorded from cells in the parafascicular nucleus, a nucleus of the posterior intralaminar nuclear group, because they have unusual anatomical features that are similar to some of our paralaminar cells. Like the labeled paralaminar cells, parafascicular cells had physiological features distinguishing them from typical thalamic neurons. PMID:16566009

  2. Classification and risk assessment of individuals with familial polyposis, Gardner's syndrome, and familial non-polyposis colon cancer from [3H]thymidine labeling patterns in colonic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, M.; Blattner, W.A.; Gardner, E.J.; Burt, R.W.; Lynch, H.; Deschner, E.; Winawer, S.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis has been developed to assist the binary classification and risk assessment of members of familial colon cancer kindreds. The analysis is based on the microautoradiographic observation of [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled epithelial cells in colonic mucosa of the kindred members. From biopsies of colonic mucosa which are labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine in vitro, the degree of similarity of each subject's cell-labeling pattern measured over entire crypts was automatically compared to the labeling patterns of high-risk and low-risk reference populations. Each individual was then presumptively classified and assigned to one of the reference populations, and a degree of risk for the classification was provided. In carrying out the analysis, a linear score was calculated for each individual relative to each of the reference populations, and the classification was based on the polarity of the score difference; the degree of risk was then quantitated from the magnitude of the score difference. When the method was applied to kindreds having either familial polyposis or familial non-polyposis colon cancer, it effectively segregated individuals affected with disease from others at low risk, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 71 to 92%. Further application of the method to asymptomatic family members believed to be at 50% risk on the basis of pedigree evaluation revealed a biomodal distribution to nearly zero or full risk. The accuracy and simplicity of this approach and its capability of revealing early stages of abnormal colonic epithelial cell development indicate potential for preclinical screening of subjects at risk in cancer-prone kindreds and for assisting the analysis of modes of inheritance

  3. Thalamo–cortical network underlying deep brain stimulation of centromedian thalamic nuclei in intractable epilepsy: a multimodal imaging analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Seong Hoon Kim,1 Sung Chul Lim,1 Dong Won Yang,1 Jeong Hee Cho,1 Byung-Chul Son,2 Jiyeon Kim,3 Seung Bong Hong,4 Young-Min Shon4 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 4Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM can be an alternative treatment option for intractable epilepsy patients. Since CM may be involved in widespread cortico-subcortical networks, identification of the cortical sub-networks specific to the target stimuli may provide further understanding on the underlying mechanisms of CM DBS. Several brain structures have distinguishing brain connections that may be related to the pivotal propagation and subsequent clinical effect of DBS.Methods: To explore core structures and their connections relevant to CM DBS, we applied electroencephalogram (EEG and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to 10 medically intractable patients – three generalized epilepsy (GE and seven multifocal epilepsy (MFE patients unsuitable for resective surgery. Spatiotemporal activation pattern was mapped from scalp EEG by delivering low-frequency stimuli (5 Hz. Structural connections between the CM and the cortical activation spots were assessed using DTI.Results: We confirmed an average 72% seizure reduction after CM DBS and its clinical efficiency remained consistent during the observation period (mean 21 months. EEG data revealed sequential source propagation from the anterior cingulate, followed by the frontotemporal regions bilaterally. In addition, maximal activation was found in the left cingulate gyrus and the right medial frontal cortex during the right and left CM stimulation, respectively

  4. Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in a Large Bilateral Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs in the basal ganglia and thalamus have a more aggressive natural history with a higher morbidity and mortality than AVMs in other locations. Optimal treatment—complete obliteration without new neurological deficits—is often challenging. We present a patient with a large bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVM successfully treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HFSRS with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT. Methods. The patient was treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to 30 Gy at margin in 5 fractions of 9 static fields with a minimultileaf collimator and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Results. At 10 months following treatment, digital subtraction angiography showed complete obliteration of the AVM. Conclusions. Large bilateral thalamic and basal ganglia AVMs can be successfully treated with complete obliteration by HFSRS with IMRT with relatively limited toxicity. Appropriate caution is recommended.

  5. A Case of Midbrain and Thalamic Infarction Involving Artery of Percheron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Almamun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood supply to the thalamus and brainstem have frequent anatomic variations. One of these is where all the perforators to the above areas arise from a single branch of the posterior cerebral artery commonly known as the artery of Percheron. Infarction involving this artery leading to bilateral thalamic and midbrain lesions is not uncommon, but can cause diagnostic difficulties due to the varying clinical presentations possible and the wide differentials. Early brain imaging and diagnosis is important for initiating appropriate treatment. In this case report, we discuss a patient who presented with an artery of Percheron related stroke affecting the mid brain and paramedian thalamic areas. We also discuss the differentials of presentations with similar symptoms.

  6. Thalamic structures and associated cognitive functions: Relations with age and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, with its cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar connections, is a critical node in networks supporting cognitive functions known to decline in normal aging, including component processes of memory and executive functions of attention and information processing. The macrostructure, microstructure, and neural connectivity of the thalamus changes across the adult lifespan. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated, regional thalamic volume shrinkage and microstructural degradation, with anterior regions generally more compromised than posterior regions. The integrity of selective thalamic nuclei and projections decline with advancing age, particularly those in thalamofrontal, thalamoparietal, and thalamolimbic networks. This review presents studies that assess the relations between age and aging and the structure, function, and connectivity of the thalamus and associated neural networks and focuses on their relations with processes of attention, speed of information processing, and working and episodic memory. PMID:25862940

  7. Thalamic deactivation at sleep onset precedes that of the cerebral cortex in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Michel; Rey, Marc; Bastuji, Hélène; Guillemant, Philippe; Mauguière, François; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Thalamic and cortical activities are assumed to be time-locked throughout all vigilance states. Using simultaneous intracortical and intrathalamic recordings, we demonstrate here that the thalamic deactivation occurring at sleep onset most often precedes that of the cortex by several minutes, whereas reactivation of both structures during awakening is synchronized. Delays between thalamus and cortex deactivations can vary from one subject to another when a similar cortical region is considered. In addition, heterogeneity in activity levels throughout the cortical mantle is larger than previously thought during the descent into sleep. Thus, asynchronous thalamo-cortical deactivation while falling asleep probably explains the production of hypnagogic hallucinations by a still-activated cortex and the common self-overestimation of the time needed to fall asleep. PMID:20142493

  8. Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis

  9. [Motor neglect of thalamic origin: report on two cases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplane, D; Escourolle, R; Degos, J D; Sauron, B; Massiou, H

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of thalamic lesions with motor neglect are presented. The syndrome of motor neglect was complete in those cases with a) underutilization of left limbs, but good utilization upon verbal orders, b) loss of placement reaction, c) weakness of movement when hand was approaching the target, d) weakness of motor reaction to nociceptive stimuli. Those cases confirm that motor neglect exists after thalamic lesions and bring pathologic clues for topographic discussion. Motor neglect seems to be a particular case of partial unilateral neglect throwing some doubt on the hypothesis of a global trouble of hemispheric activation. Prevalence of left motor neglects suggests some linkage between propositional motility and language. One may suppose that in the right hemisphere language is able to have a vicarious action when spontaneous activation is lost; at the opposite, in the left hemisphere language and motility would be too linked to let this dissociation be generally possible.

  10. Surgical management of thalamic gliomas: case selection, technical considerations, and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Thakar, Sumit; Dadlani, Ravi; Mohan, Dilip; Furtado, Sunil Valentine; Ghosal, Nandita; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify (1) the thalamic gliomas suitable for surgical resection and (2) the appropriate surgical approach based on their location and the displacement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC). A retrospective study over a 5-year period (from 2006 to 2010) was performed in 41 patients with thalamic gliomas. The mean age of these patients was 20.4 years (range, 2-65 years). Twenty (49 %) tumors were thalamic, 19 (46 %) were thalamopeduncular, and 2 (5 %) were bilateral. The PLIC, based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance axial sections, was displaced anterolaterally in 23 (56 %) cases and laterally in 6 (14 %) cases. It was involved by lesion in eight (20 %) cases and could not be identified in four (10 %) cases. Resection, favored in patients with well-defined, contrast-enhancing lesions, was performed in 34 (83 %) cases, while a biopsy was resorted to in 7 (17 %) cases. A gross total resection or near total resection (>90 %) could be achieved in 26 (63 %) cases. The middle temporal gyrus approach, used when the PLIC was displaced anterolaterally, was the commonly used approach (63.5 %). Common pathologies were pilocytic astrocytoma (58 %) in children and grade III/IV astrocytomas (86 %) in adults. Preoperative motor deficits improved in 64 % of the patients with pilocytic lesions as compared to 0 % in patients with grade III/IV lesions (P value, 0.001). Postoperatively, two patients (5 %) had marginal worsening of motor power, two patients developed visual field defects, and one patient developed a third nerve paresis. Radical resection of thalamic gliomas is a useful treatment modality in a select subset of patients and is the treatment of choice for pilocytic astrocytomas. Tailoring the surgical approach, depending on the relative position of the PLIC, has an important bearing on outcome.

  11. Passive accessory joint mobilization in the multimodal management of chronic dysesthesia following thalamic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kristina; O'Hearn, Michael; Franck, Carla C; Courtney, Carol A

    2018-03-20

    Case Report. Stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability. Dysesthesia, an unpleasant sensory disturbance, is common following thalamic stroke and evidence-based interventions for this impairment are limited. The purpose of this case report was to describe a decrease in dysesthesia following manual therapy intervention in a patient with history of right lacunar thalamic stroke. A 66-year-old female presented with tingling and dysesthesia in left hemisensory distribution including left trunk and upper/lower extremities, limiting function. Decreased left shoulder active range of motion, positive sensory symptoms but no sensory loss in light touch was found. She denied pain and moderate shoulder muscular weakness was demonstrated. Laterality testing revealed right/left limb discrimination deficits and neglect-like symptoms were reported. Passive accessory joint motion assessment of glenohumeral and thoracic spine revealed hypomobility and provoked dysesthesia. Interventions included passive oscillatory joint mobilization of glenohumeral joint, thoracic spine, ribs and shoulder strengthening. After six sessions, shoulder function, active range of motion, strength improved and dysesthesia decreased. Global Rating of Change Scale was +5 and QuickDASH score decreased from 45% to 22% disability. Laterality testing was unchanged. Manual therapy may be a beneficial intervention in management of thalamic stroke-related dysesthesia. Implications for Rehabilitation While pain is common following thalamic stroke, patients may present with chronic paresthesia or dysesthesia, often in a hemisensory distribution. Passive movement may promote inhibition of hyperexcitable cortical pathways, which may diminish aberrant sensations. Passive oscillatory manual therapy may be an effective way to treat sensory disturbances such as paresthesias or dysesthesia.

  12. Increased thalamic resting-state connectivity as a core driver of LSD-induced hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P; Lang, U; Schmidt, A; Liechti, M; Borgwardt, S

    2017-12-01

    It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches. Correlation analyses were used to explore relationships between thalamic connectivity to regions involved in auditory and visual hallucinations and subjective ratings on auditory and visual drug effects. LSD caused significant alterations in all dimensions of the 5D-ASC scale and significantly increased thalamic functional connectivity to various cortical regions. Furthermore, LSD-induced functional connectivity measures between the thalamus and the right fusiform gyrus and insula correlated significantly with subjective auditory and visual drug effects. Hallucinogenic drug effects might be provoked by facilitations of cortical excitability via thalamocortical interactions. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs and provide further insight into the role of the 5-HT 2A -receptor in altered states of consciousness. © 2017 The Authors Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Model-based iterative learning control of Parkinsonian state in thalamic relay neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Li, Huiyan; Xue, Zhiqin; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2014-09-01

    Although the beneficial effects of chronic deep brain stimulation on Parkinson's disease motor symptoms are now largely confirmed, the underlying mechanisms behind deep brain stimulation remain unclear and under debate. Hence, the selection of stimulation parameters is full of challenges. Additionally, due to the complexity of neural system, together with omnipresent noises, the accurate model of thalamic relay neuron is unknown. Thus, the iterative learning control of the thalamic relay neuron's Parkinsonian state based on various variables is presented. Combining the iterative learning control with typical proportional-integral control algorithm, a novel and efficient control strategy is proposed, which does not require any particular knowledge on the detailed physiological characteristics of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop and can automatically adjust the stimulation parameters. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed control strategy to restore the fidelity of thalamic relay in the Parkinsonian condition. Furthermore, through changing the important parameter—the maximum ionic conductance densities of low-threshold calcium current, the dominant characteristic of the proposed method which is independent of the accurate model can be further verified.

  14. The neurobiology of thalamic amnesia: Contributions of medial thalamus and prefrontal cortex to delayed conditional discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Robert G; Miller, Rikki L A; Wormwood, Benjamin A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Onos, Kristen D; Gibson, Brett M

    2015-07-01

    Although medial thalamus is well established as a site of pathology associated with global amnesia, there is uncertainty about which structures are critical and how they affect memory function. Evidence from human and animal research suggests that damage to the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior, mediodorsal (MD), midline (M), and intralaminar (IL) nuclei contribute to different signs of thalamic amnesia. Here we focus on MD and the adjacent M and IL nuclei, structures identified in animal studies as critical nodes in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-related pathways that are necessary for delayed conditional discrimination. Recordings of PFC neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed non-matching-to position (DNMTP) task revealed discrete populations encoding information related to planning, execution, and outcome of DNMTP-related actions and delay-related activity signaling previous reinforcement. Parallel studies recording the activity of MD and IL neurons and examining the effects of unilateral thalamic inactivation on the responses of PFC neurons demonstrated a close coupling of central thalamic and PFC neurons responding to diverse aspects of DNMTP and provide evidence that thalamus interacts with PFC neurons to give rise to complex goal-directed behavior exemplified by the DNMTP task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contralateral Supracerebellar-Infratentorial Approach for Resection of Thalamic Cavernous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitelli, Justin; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Gandhi, Sirin; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-02-26

    Surgical resection of cavernous malformations (CM) in the posterior thalamus, pineal region, and midbrain tectum is technically challenging owing to the presence of adjacent eloquent cortex and critical neurovascular structures. Various supracerebellar infratentorial (SCIT) approaches have been used in the surgical armamentarium targeting lesions in this region, including the median, paramedian, and extreme lateral variants. Surgical view of a posterior thalamic CM from the traditional ipsilateral vantage point may be obscured by occipital lobe and tentorium. To describe a novel surgical approach via a contralateral SCIT (cSCIT) trajectory for resecting posterior thalamic CMs. From 1997 to 2017, 75 patients underwent the SCIT approach for cerebrovascular/oncologic pathology by the senior author. Of these, 30 patients underwent the SCIT approach for CM resection, and 3 patients underwent the cSCIT approach. Historical patient data, radiographic features, surgical technique, and postoperative neurological outcomes were evaluated in each patient. All 3 patients presented with symptomatic CMs within the right posterior thalamus with radiographic evidence of hemorrhage. All surgeries were performed in the sitting position. There were no intraoperative complications. Neuroimaging demonstrated complete CM resection in all cases. There were no new or worsening neurological deficits or evidence of rebleeding/recurrence noted postoperatively. This study establishes the surgical feasibility of a contralateral SCIT approach in resection of symptomatic thalamic CMs It demonstrates the application for this procedure in extending the surgical trajectory superiorly and laterally and maximizing safe resectability of these deep CMs with gravity-assisted brain retraction.

  16. Long-term outcome of thalamic deep brain stimulation in two patients with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermans, Linda; Duits, Annelien; Temel, Yasin; Winogrodzka, Ania; Peeters, Frenk; Beuls, Emile A M; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle

    2010-10-01

    Thalamic deep brain stimulation for intractable Tourette Syndrome was introduced in 1999 by Vandewalle et al. In this follow-up study, the authors report on the long-term (6 and 10 years) outcome in terms of tic reduction, cognition, mood and side effects of medial thalamic deep brain stimulation in two previously described Tourette patients. The authors compared the outcome of two patients at 6 and 10 years after surgery with their preoperative status and after 8 months and 5 years of treatment, respectively. Standardised video recordings were scored by three independent investigators. Both patients underwent (neuro)psychological assessment at all time points of follow-up. Tic improvement observed at 5 years in patient 1 (90.1%) was maintained at 10 years (92.6%). In patient 2, the tic improvement at 8 months (82%) was slightly decreased at 6 years (78%). During follow-up, case 1 revealed no changes in cognition, but case 2 showed a decrease in verbal fluency and learning which was in line with his subjective reports. Case 2 showed a slight decrease in depression, but overall psychopathology was still high at 6 years after surgery with an increase in anger and aggression together with difficulties in social adaptation. Besides temporary hardware-related complications, no distressing adverse effects were observed. Bilateral thalamic stimulation may provide sustained tic benefit after at least 6 years, but to maximise overall outcome, attention is needed for postoperative psychosocial adaptation, already prior to surgery.

  17. Disrupted Auto-Activation, Dysexecutive and Confabulating Syndrome Following Bilateral Thalamic and Right Putaminal Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve De Witte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical, neuropsychological, structural and functional neuroimaging results are reported in a patient who developed a unique combination of symptoms after a bi-thalamic and right putaminal stroke. The symptoms consisted of dysexecutive disturbances associated with confabulating behavior and auto-activation deficits. Background: Basal ganglia and thalamic lesions may result in a variety of motor, sensory, neuropsychological and behavioral syndromes. However, the combination of a dysexecutive syndrome complicated at the behavioral level with an auto-activation and confabulatory syndrome has never been reported. Methods: Besides clinical and neuroradiological investigations, an extensive set of standardized neuropsychological tests was carried out. Results: In the post-acute phase of the stroke, a dysexecutive syndrome was found in association with confabulating behavior and auto-activation deficits. MRI showed focal destruction of both thalami and the right putamen. Quantified ECD SPECT revealed bilateral hypoperfusions in the basal ganglia and thalamus but no perfusion deficits were found at the cortical level. Conclusion: The combination of disrupted auto-activation, dysexecutive and confabulating syndrome in a single patient following isolated subcortical damage renders this case exceptional. Although these findings do not reveal a functional disruption of the striato-ventral pallidal-thalamic-frontomesial limbic circuitry, they add to the understanding of the functional role of the basal ganglia in cognitive and behavioral syndromes.

  18. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  19. Prefrontal cortex-projecting glutamatergic thalamic paraventricular nucleus-excited by hypocretin: a feedforward circuit that may enhance cognitive arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ghosh, Prabhat; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2006-03-01

    The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) receives one of the most dense innervations by hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons, which play important roles in sleep-wakefulness, attention, and autonomic function. The PVT projects to several loci, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a cortical region involved in associative function and attention. To study the effect of Hcrt on excitatory PVT neurons that project to the mPFC, we used a new line of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the vesicular glutamate-transporter-2 promoter. These neurons were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit B that had been microinjected into the mPFC. Membrane characteristics and responses to hypocretin-1 and -2 (Hcrt-1 and -2) were studied using whole cell recording (n > 300). PVT neurons showed distinct membrane properties including inward rectification, H-type potassium currents, low threshold spikes, and spike frequency adaptation. Cortically projecting neurons were depolarized and excited by Hcrt-2. Hcrt-2 actions were stronger than those of Hcrt-1, and the action persisted in TTX and in low calcium/high magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid, consistent with direct actions mediated by Hcrt receptor-2. Two mechanisms of Hcrt excitation were found: an increase in input resistance caused by closure of potassium channels and activation of nonselective cation channels. The robust excitation evoked by Hcrt-2 on cortically projecting glutamate PVT neurons could generate substantial excitation in multiple layers of the mPFC, adding to the more selective direct excitatory actions of Hcrt in the mPFC and potentially increasing cortical arousal and attention to limbic or visceral states.

  20. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  1. Accurate Determination of Leucine and Valine Side-chain Conformations using U-[15N/13C/2H]/[1H-(methine/methyl)-Leu/Val] Isotope Labeling, NOE Pattern Recognition, and Methine Cγ-Hγ/Cβ-Hβ Residual Dipolar Couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chun; Iwahara, Junji; Clore, G. Marius

    2005-01-01

    An isotope labeling scheme is described in which specific protonation of methine and methyl protons of leucine and valine is obtained on a 15 N/ 13 C labeled background with uniform deuteration of all other non-exchangeable protons. The presence of a protonated methine group has little effect on the favorable relaxation properties of the methyl protons of Leu and Val. This labeling scheme permits the rotameric state of leucine side-chains to be readily determined by simple inspection of the pattern of Hγ(i)-H N (i) and Hγ(i)-H N (i+1) NOEs in a 3D 15 N-separated NOE spectrum free of complications arising from spectral overlap and spin-diffusion. In addition, one-bond residual dipolar couplings for the methine 13 C- 1 H bond vectors of Leu and Val can be accurately determined from an intensity J-modulated constant-time HCCH-COSY experiment and used to accurately orient the side-chains of Leu and Val. Incorporation of these data into structure refinement improves the accuracy with which the conformations of Leu and Val side-chains can be established. This is important to ensure optimal packing both within the protein core and at intermolecular interfaces. The impact of the method on protein structure determination is illustrated by application to enzyme IIA Chitobiose , a 34 kDa homotrimeric phosphotransferase protein

  2. Cortically-controlled population stochastic facilitation as a plausible substrate for guiding sensory transfer across the thalamic gateway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Béhuret

    Full Text Available The thalamus is the primary gateway that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex. While a single recipient cortical cell receives the convergence of many principal relay cells of the thalamus, each thalamic cell in turn integrates a dense and distributed synaptic feedback from the cortex. During sensory processing, the influence of this functional loop remains largely ignored. Using dynamic-clamp techniques in thalamic slices in vitro, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to implement a realistic hybrid retino-thalamo-cortical pathway mixing biological cells and simulated circuits. The synaptic bombardment of cortical origin was mimicked through the injection of a stochastic mixture of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, resulting in a gradable correlation level of afferent activity shared by thalamic cells. The study of the impact of the simulated cortical input on the global retinocortical signal transfer efficiency revealed a novel control mechanism resulting from the collective resonance of all thalamic relay neurons. We show here that the transfer efficiency of sensory input transmission depends on three key features: i the number of thalamocortical cells involved in the many-to-one convergence from thalamus to cortex, ii the statistics of the corticothalamic synaptic bombardment and iii the level of correlation imposed between converging thalamic relay cells. In particular, our results demonstrate counterintuitively that the retinocortical signal transfer efficiency increases when the level of correlation across thalamic cells decreases. This suggests that the transfer efficiency of relay cells could be selectively amplified when they become simultaneously desynchronized by the cortical feedback. When applied to the intact brain, this network regulation mechanism could direct an attentional focus to specific thalamic subassemblies and select the appropriate input lines to the cortex according to the descending

  3. The jellyfish and its polyp: a comparative study of gene expression monitored by the protein patterns using two-dimensional gels with double-label autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, Andreas; Schmid, Volker

    1988-01-01

    The life cycle of Podocoryne carnea (Coelenterata. Anthomedusae) shows several distinct stages which differ considerably in terms of their ecology, morphology, cellular composition and ultra structure. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and a new method of double-label autoradiography, we show here for the first time for metagenic hydrozoans that only minor differences in gene expression exist between the various life cycle stages. Our results demonstrate the high resolution power of these techniques and show that the different life stages of P. carnea remain rather similar on the protein level (author)

  4. Changes in carbon uptake and allocation patterns in Quercus robur seedlings in response to elevated CO2 and water stress: an evaluation with 13C labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivin, P.; Guehl, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    A semi-closed (CO2)-C-13 labelling system (1.5% C-13) was used to assess both carbon uptake and allocation within pedunculate oak seedlings (Quercus robur L) grown under ambient (350 vpm) and elevated (700 vpm) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and in either well-watered or droughted conditions. Pulse-chase C-13 labelling data highlighted the direct positive effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthetic carbon acquisition. Consequently, in well-watered conditions, CO2-enriched plants produced 1.52 times more biomass (dry mass at harvest) and 1.33 times more dry root matter (coarse plus fine roots) over the 22-week growing period than plants grown under ambient [CO2]. The root/shoot biomass ratio was decreased both by drought and [CO2], despite lower N concentrations in CO2-enriched plants. However, both long-term and short-term C allocation to fine roots were not altered by CO2, and relative specific allocation (RSA), a parameter expressing sink strength, was hip her in all plant organs under 700 vpm compared to 350 vpm. Results showed that C availability for growth and metabolic processes was greater in fine roots of oaks grown under an elevated CO2 atmosphere irrespective of soil water availability [fr

  5. Dotriacontane-16,17-14C distribution pattern in the respiratory system of two hamster species after passive exposure to radioactive labelled smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmoch, N.; Mohr, U.

    1974-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative distribution of 14 C labeled dotriacontane (DOT- 14 C) determined by liquid scintillation counting and autoradiography in the respiratory system, the digestive tract, liver and kidneys of Syrian golden and European hamsters, males and females, is described after they had been exposed to radioactive labeled cigarette smoke. The different DOT- 14 C distributions are discussed in detail with special attention given to the respiratory tract, related species differences and the topographic subdivisions of apex nasi, fundus nasi, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs. It is apparent that the absolute amount of activity in the respiratory tract related to body size of the Syrian golden hamster is greater than in the European hamster but that the percentual distribution exhibits a greater filtering action of the upper respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamster than of the European hamster so that a larger percentual amount of total inhaled particulate matter reaches the lungs. The European hamster might be a more useful model for the investigation of respiratory tract carcinogenesis due to the possibility of a longer life time exposure and a higher sensitivity to respiratory tract carcinogens

  6. A computational relationship between thalamic sensory neural responses and contrast perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaoguang; Purushothaman, Gopathy; Casagrande, Vivien A

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the relationship between sensory neural responses and perceptual decisions remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. Decades of experimental and modeling work in the sensory cortex have demonstrated that a perceptual decision pool is usually composed of tens to hundreds of neurons, the responses of which are significantly correlated not only with each other, but also with the behavioral choices of an animal. Few studies, however, have measured neural activity in the sensory thalamus of awake, behaving animals. Therefore, it remains unclear how many thalamic neurons are recruited and how the information from these neurons is pooled at subsequent cortical stages to form a perceptual decision. In a previous study we measured neural activity in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) during a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) contrast detection task, and found that single LGN neurons were significantly correlated with the monkeys' behavioral choices, despite their relatively poor contrast sensitivity and a lack of overall interneuronal correlations. We have now computationally tested a number of specific hypotheses relating these measured LGN neural responses to the contrast detection behavior of the animals. We modeled the perceptual decisions with different numbers of neurons and using a variety of pooling/readout strategies, and found that the most successful model consisted of about 50-200 LGN neurons, with individual neurons weighted differentially according to their signal-to-noise ratios (quantified as d-primes). These results supported the hypothesis that in contrast detection the perceptual decision pool consists of multiple thalamic neurons, and that the response fluctuations in these neurons can influence contrast perception, with the more sensitive thalamic neurons likely to exert a greater influence.

  7. Thalamic functional connectivity predicts seizure laterality in individual TLE patients: application of a biomarker development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel S; Fox, Peter T; Pardoe, Heath; Lancaster, Jack; Price, Larry R; Blackmon, Karen; Berry, Kristen; Cavazos, Jose E; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive markers of brain function could yield biomarkers in many neurological disorders. Disease models constrained by coordinate-based meta-analysis are likely to increase this yield. Here, we evaluate a thalamic model of temporal lobe epilepsy that we proposed in a coordinate-based meta-analysis and extended in a diffusion tractography study of an independent patient population. Specifically, we evaluated whether thalamic functional connectivity (resting-state fMRI-BOLD) with temporal lobe areas can predict seizure onset laterality, as established with intracranial EEG. Twenty-four lesional and non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. No significant differences in functional connection strength in patient and control groups were observed with Mann-Whitney Tests (corrected for multiple comparisons). Notwithstanding the lack of group differences, individual patient difference scores (from control mean connection strength) successfully predicted seizure onset zone as shown in ROC curves: discriminant analysis (two-dimensional) predicted seizure onset zone with 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity; logistic regression (four-dimensional) achieved 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The strongest markers in both analyses were left thalamo-hippocampal and right thalamo-entorhinal cortex functional connection strength. Thus, this study shows that thalamic functional connections are sensitive and specific markers of seizure onset laterality in individual temporal lobe epilepsy patients. This study also advances an overall strategy for the programmatic development of neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical and genetic populations: a disease model informed by coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to anatomically constrain individual patient analyses.

  8. Thalamic metabolic alterations with cognitive dysfunction in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: a multivoxel spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Faxiu; Ma, Shaohui; Guo, Chenguang; Jin, Chenwang; Zhang, Ming [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Li, Dan [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-08-15

    Although abnormalities in metabolite compositions in the thalamus are well described in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN), differences in distinct thalamic subregions have not been measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), and whether there are correlations between thalamic metabolites and cognitive function still remain unknown. Multivoxel MRS was recorded to investigate the metabolic alterations in the thalamic subregions of patients with ITN. The regions of interest were localized in the anterior thalamus (A-Th), intralaminar portion of the thalamus (IL-Th), posterior lateral thalamus (PL-Th), posterior medial thalamus (PM-Th), and medial and lateral pulvinar of the thalamus (PuM-Th and PuL-Th). The N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline to creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were measured in the ITN and control groups. Scores of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were analyzed to correlate with the neuroradiological findings. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected side of PM-Th and PL-Th in ITN patients was statistically lower than that in the corresponding regions of the thalamus in controls. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected PM-Th was negatively associated with VAS and disease duration. Furthermore, decreases of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were detected in the affected side of IL-Th, and lower Cho/Cr was positively correlated with MoCA values in the ITN group. Our result of low level of NAA/Cr in the affected PM-Th probably serves as a marker of the pain-rating index, and decreased Cho/Cr in IL-Th may be an indicator of cognitive disorder in patients with ITN. (orig.)

  9. Thalamic gap junctions control local neuronal synchrony and influence macroscopic oscillation amplitude during EEG alpha rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart eHughes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although EEG alpha ( (8-13 Hz rhythms are often considered to reflect an ‘idling’ brain state, numerous studies indicate that they are also related to many aspects of perception. Recently, we outlined a potential cellular substrate by which such aspects of perception might be linked to basic  rhythm mechanisms. This scheme relies on a specialized subset of rhythmically bursting thalamocortical (TC neurons (high-threshold bursting cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN which are interconnected by gap junctions (GJs. By engaging GABAergic interneurons, that in turn inhibit conventional relay-mode TC neurons, these cells can lead to an effective temporal framing of thalamic relay-mode output. Although the role of GJs is pivotal in this scheme, evidence for their involvement in thalamic  rhythms has thus far mainly derived from experiments in in vitro slice preparations. In addition, direct anatomical evidence of neuronal GJs in the LGN is currently lacking. To address the first of these issues we tested the effects of the GJ inhibitors, carbenoxolone (CBX and 18-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-GA, given directly to the LGN via reverse microdialysis, on spontaneous LGN and EEG  rhythms in behaving cats. We also examined the effect of CBX on  rhythm-related LGN unit activity. Indicative of a role for thalamic GJs in these activities, 18-GA and CBX reversibly suppressed both LGN and EEG  rhythms, with CBX also decreasing neuronal synchrony. To address the second point, we used electron microscopy to obtain definitive ultrastructural evidence for the presence of GJs between neurons in the cat LGN. As interneurons show no phenotypic evidence of GJ coupling (i.e. dye-coupling and spikelets we conclude that these GJs must belong to TC neurons. The potential significance of these findings for relating macroscopic changes in  rhythms to basic cellular processes is discussed.

  10. Practical CT classification for thalamic hemorrhage. Relationship between localization of hematoma and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Hiroki; Furuya, Kazuhide; Segawa, Hiromu; Taniguchi, Tamiki; Sano, Keiji [Fuji Brain Inst. and Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    1994-06-01

    The study was designed to establish CT classification for predicting prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage. A retrospective analysis was made on CT scans from 100 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage less than 4 cm. Four lines were drawn on axial CT scans at the level of the pineal body: (A) line between the lateral edge of the anterior horn and the midpoint of the third ventricle; (B) vertebral line to the sagittal line from the midpoint of the third ventricle; (C) line between the lateral edge of the trigone and the midpoint of the third ventricle; and (D) line between the lateral edge of the anterior horn and the lateral edge of the trigone. According to the lateral extension, the location of hematoma fell into three types: anterior type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines A and B (type A); posterior type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines B and C and external margin of hematoma was localized medial to line D (type P); postero-lateral type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines B and C and showed lateral extension beyond line D (type PL). Severe hemiparesis was observed in 15.3% for type A, 21.8% for type P, and 59.3% for type PL. Good prognosis was seen in 84.7% for type A, 70.9% for type P, and 12.5% for type PL. Acute disturbance of consciousness was significantly observed in patients with medial extension of hematoma (86.4%) as compared with those without it (21.4%). These results indicated that CT classification is a simple means for predicting functional outcome of motor paresis and consciousness disturbance in patients with thalamic hemorrhage. (N.K.).

  11. Practical CT classification for thalamic hemorrhage. Relationship between localization of hematoma and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroki; Furuya, Kazuhide; Segawa, Hiromu; Taniguchi, Tamiki; Sano, Keiji; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki.

    1994-01-01

    The study was designed to establish CT classification for predicting prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage. A retrospective analysis was made on CT scans from 100 patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage less than 4 cm. Four lines were drawn on axial CT scans at the level of the pineal body: (A) line between the lateral edge of the anterior horn and the midpoint of the third ventricle; (B) vertebral line to the sagittal line from the midpoint of the third ventricle; (C) line between the lateral edge of the trigone and the midpoint of the third ventricle; and (D) line between the lateral edge of the anterior horn and the lateral edge of the trigone. According to the lateral extension, the location of hematoma fell into three types: anterior type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines A and B (type A); posterior type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines B and C and external margin of hematoma was localized medial to line D (type P); postero-lateral type in which the center of hematoma was located between lines B and C and showed lateral extension beyond line D (type PL). Severe hemiparesis was observed in 15.3% for type A, 21.8% for type P, and 59.3% for type PL. Good prognosis was seen in 84.7% for type A, 70.9% for type P, and 12.5% for type PL. Acute disturbance of consciousness was significantly observed in patients with medial extension of hematoma (86.4%) as compared with those without it (21.4%). These results indicated that CT classification is a simple means for predicting functional outcome of motor paresis and consciousness disturbance in patients with thalamic hemorrhage. (N.K.)

  12. Capsular and thalamic infarction caused by tentorial herniation subsequent to head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Ichikawa, F.; Miyasaka, Y.; Yada, K.; Ohwada, T.

    1991-01-01

    Five patients (4 male and 1 female) were observed to have capsular and thalamic infarction ascribed to descending transtentorial herniation (DTH) caused by head injury. A lucid interval immediately after the trauma and the presence of an epidural hematoma (EDH) characterized all five case. The low attenuation implicated the perforating arteries, that is the anterior thalamoperforating and anterior choroidal arteries, suggesting infarcted regions caused by occlusion of these arteries. Findings in the present study suggest that arterial occlusion in closed head injury may result from DTH. Moreover, infarction may be attributed to the delayed effects of injury. (orig./GDG)

  13. Thalamic Massa Intermedia Duplication in a Dysmorphic 14 month-old Toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew T

    2015-06-01

    The massa intermedia is an inconstant parenchymal band connecting the medial thalami. It may be thickened in various disease processes such as Chiari II malformation or absent in other disease states. However, the massa intermedia may also be absent in up to 30% of normal human brains. To the best of my knowledge, detailed imaging findings of massa intermedia duplication have only been described in a single case report. An additional case of thalamic massa intermedia duplication discovered on a routine brain MR performed for dysmorphic facial features is reported herein.

  14. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with [3H]choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following [ 3 H]choline application in their zone of termination. [ 3 H]Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After [ 3 H]choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic

  15. Comprehensive in vivo mapping of the human basal ganglia and thalamic connectome in individuals using 7T MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Lenglet

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia circuits are affected in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD, essential tremor, dystonia and Tourette syndrome. Understanding the structural and functional connectivity of these circuits is critical for elucidating the mechanisms of the movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and is vital for developing new therapeutic strategies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS. Knowledge about the connectivity of the human basal ganglia and thalamus has rapidly evolved over recent years through non-invasive imaging techniques, but has remained incomplete because of insufficient resolution and sensitivity of these techniques. Here, we present an imaging and computational protocol designed to generate a comprehensive in vivo and subject-specific, three-dimensional model of the structure and connections of the human basal ganglia. High-resolution structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired with a 7-Tesla magnet. Capitalizing on the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and enriched contrast obtained at high-field MRI, detailed structural and connectivity representations of the human basal ganglia and thalamus were achieved. This unique combination of multiple imaging modalities enabled the in-vivo visualization of the individual human basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei, the reconstruction of seven white-matter pathways and their connectivity probability that, to date, have only been reported in animal studies, histologically, or group-averaged MRI population studies. Also described are subject-specific parcellations of the basal ganglia and thalamus into sub-territories based on their distinct connectivity patterns. These anatomical connectivity findings are supported by functional connectivity data derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI. This work demonstrates new capabilities for studying basal ganglia circuitry, and opens new avenues of investigation into the movement and neuropsychiatric

  16. Consistent phosphenes generated by electrical microstimulation of the visual thalamus. An experimental approach for thalamic visual neuroprostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fivos ePanetsos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Most work on visual prostheses has centred on developing retinal or cortical devices. However, when retinal implants are not feasible, neuroprostheses could be implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN, the intermediate relay station of visual information from the retina to the visual cortex (V1. The objective of the present study was to determine the types of artificial stimuli that when delivered to the visual thalamus can generate reliable responses of the cortical neurons similar to those obtained when the eye perceives a visual image. Visual stimuli {Si} were presented to one eye of an experimental animal and both, the thalamic {RThi} and cortical responses {RV1i} to such stimuli were recorded. Electrical patterns {RThi*} resembling {RThi} were then injected into the visual thalamus to obtain cortical responses {RV1i*} similar to {RV1i}. Visually- and electrically-generated V1 responses were compared.Results: During the course of this work we: (i characterised the response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli according to response magnitude, duration, spiking rate and the distribution of interspike intervals; (ii experimentally tested the dependence of V1 responses on stimulation parameters such as intensity, frequency, duration, etc. and determined the ranges of these parameters generating the desired cortical activity; (iii identified similarities between responses of V1 useful to compare the naturally and artificially generated neuronal activity of V1; and (iv by modifying the stimulation parameters, we generated artificial V1 responses similar to those elicited by visual stimuli.Generation of predictable and consistent phosphenes by means of artificial stimulation of the LGN is important for the feasibility of visual prostheses. Here we proved that electrical stimuli to the LGN can generate V1 neural responses that resemble those elicited by natural visual stimuli.

  17. Thalamocortical Projection Neuron and Interneuron Numbers in the Visual Thalamic Nuclei of the Adult C57BL/6 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelio, Marian; García-Amado, María; Clascá, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    A key parameter to constrain predictive, bottom-up circuit models of a given brain domain is the number and position of the neuronal populations involved. These include not only the neurons whose bodies reside within the domain, but also the neurons in distant regions that innervate the domain. The mouse visual cortex receives its main subcortical input from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the lateral posterior (LP) complex of the thalamus. The latter consists of three different nuclei: lateral posterior lateral (LPL), lateral posterior medial rostral (LPMR), and lateral posterior medial caudal (LPMC), each exhibiting specific patterns of connections with the various visual cortical areas. Here, we have determined the number of thalamocortical projection neurons and interneurons in the LP complex and dLGN of the adult C57BL/6 male mouse. We combined Nissl staining and histochemical and immunolabeling methods for consistently delineating nuclei borders, and applied unbiased stereological cell counting methods. Thalamic interneurons were identified using GABA immunolabeling. The C57BL/6 dLGN contains ∼21,200 neurons, while LP complex contains ∼31,000 total neurons. The dLGN and LP are the only nuclei of the mouse dorsal thalamus containing substantial numbers GABA-immunoreactive interneurons. These interneurons, however, are scarcer than previously estimated; they are 5.6% of dLGN neurons and just 1.9% of the LP neurons. It can be thus inferred that the dLGN contains ∼20,000 and the LP complex ∼30,400 thalamocortical projection neurons (∼12,000 in LPL, 15,200 in LPMR, and 4,200 in LPMC). The present dataset is relevant for constraining models of mouse visual thalamocortical circuits, as well as for quantitative comparisons between genetically modified mouse strains, or across species.

  18. Anterior Thalamic High Frequency Band Activity Is Coupled with Theta Oscillations at Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-frequency coupling (CFC between slow and fast brain rhythms, in the form of phase–amplitude coupling (PAC, is proposed to enable the coordination of neural oscillatory activity required for cognitive processing. PAC has been identified in the neocortex and mesial temporal regions, varying according to the cognitive task being performed and also at rest. PAC has also been observed in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN during memory processing. The thalamus is active during the resting state and has been proposed to be involved in switching between task-free cognitive states such as rest, in which attention is internally-focused, and externally-focused cognitive states, in which an individual engages with environmental stimuli. It is unknown whether PAC is an ongoing phenomenon during the resting state in the ATN, which is modulated during different cognitive states, or whether it only arises during the performance of specific tasks. We analyzed electrophysiological recordings of ATN activity during rest from seven patients who received thalamic electrodes implanted for treatment of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. PAC was identified between theta (4–6 Hz phase and high frequency band (80–150 Hz amplitude during rest in all seven patients, which diminished during engagement in tasks involving an external focus of attention. The findings are consistent with the proposal that theta–gamma coupling in the ATN is an ongoing phenomenon, which is modulated by task performance.

  19. Feedforward inhibitory control of sensory information in higher-order thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Philippe; Urbain, Nadia; Dufresne, Caroline; Bokor, Hajnalka; Acsády, László; Deschênes, Martin

    2005-08-17

    Sensory stimuli evoke strong responses in thalamic relay cells, which ensure a faithful relay of information to the neocortex. However, relay cells of the posterior thalamic nuclear group in rodents, despite receiving significant trigeminal input, respond poorly to vibrissa deflection. Here we show that sensory transmission in this nucleus is impeded by fast feedforward inhibition mediated by GABAergic neurons of the zona incerta. Intracellular recordings of posterior group neurons revealed that the first synaptic event after whisker deflection is a prominent inhibition. Whisker-evoked EPSPs with fast rise time and longer onset latency are unveiled only after lesioning the zona incerta. Excitation survives barrel cortex lesion, demonstrating its peripheral origin. Electron microscopic data confirm that trigeminal axons make large synaptic terminals on the proximal dendrites of posterior group cells and on the somata of incertal neurons. Thus, the connectivity of the system allows an unusual situation in which inhibition precedes ascending excitation resulting in efficient shunting of the responses. The dominance of inhibition over excitation strongly suggests that the paralemniscal pathway is not designed to relay inputs triggered by passive whisker deflection. Instead, we propose that this pathway operates through disinhibition, and that the posterior group forwards to the cerebral cortex sensory information that is contingent on motor instructions.

  20. Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouchedi, M; Galanaud, D; Delmaire, C; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Messé, A; Mesmoudi, S; Oulebsir Boumghar, F; Pélégrini-Issac, M; Puybasset, L; Benali, H; Perlbarg, V

    2015-07-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized mainly by diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). The cortico-subcortical disconnections induced by such fiber disruption play a central role in consciousness recovery. We hypothesized that these cortico-subcortical deafferentations inferred from diffusion MRI data could differentiate between TBI patients with favorable or unfavorable (death, vegetative state, or minimally conscious state) outcome one year after injury. Cortico-subcortical fiber density maps were derived by using probabilistic tractography from diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in 24 severe TBI patients and 9 healthy controls. These maps were compared between patients and controls as well as between patients with favorable (FO) and unfavorable (UFO) 1-year outcome to identify the thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways involved in the maintenance of consciousness. Thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical fiber density was significantly lower in TBI patients than in healthy controls. Comparing FO and UFO TBI patients showed thalamo-cortical deafferentation associated with unfavorable outcome for projections from ventral posterior and intermediate thalamic nuclei to the associative frontal, sensorimotor and associative temporal cortices. Specific ponto-thalamic deafferentation in projections from the upper dorsal pons (including the reticular formation) was also associated with unfavorable outcome. Fiber density of cortico-subcortical pathways as measured from diffusion MRI tractography is a relevant candidate biomarker for early prediction of one-year favorable outcome in severe TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep spindles are related to schizotypal personality traits and thalamic glutamine/glutamate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Pugin, Fiona; Tüshaus, Laura; Wehrle, Flavia; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether sleep spindles and Glx levels are related to schizotypal personality traits in healthy subjects. Twenty young male subjects underwent 2 all-night sleep electroencephalography recordings (128 electrodes). Sleep spindles were detected automatically. After those 2 nights, thalamic Glx levels were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects completed a magical ideation scale to assess schizotypy. Sleep spindle density was negatively correlated with magical ideation (r = -.64, P .1). The common relationship of sleep spindle density with schizotypy and thalamic Glx levels indicates a neurobiological overlap between nonclinical schizotypy and schizophrenia. Thus, sleep spindle density and magical ideation may reflect the anatomy and efficiency of the thalamo-cortical system that shows pronounced impairment in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation for support of forebrain arousal regulation in the minimally conscious state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT/DBS) to support arousal regulation mechanisms in the minimally conscious state (MCS). CT/DBS for selected patients in a MCS is first placed in the historical context of prior efforts to use thalamic electrical brain stimulation to treat the unconscious clinical conditions of coma and vegetative state. These previous studies and a proof of concept result from a single-subject study of a patient in a MCS are reviewed against the background of new population data providing benchmarks of the natural history of vegetative and MCSs. The conceptual foundations for CT/DBS in selected patients in a MCS are then presented with consideration of both circuit and cellular mechanisms underlying recovery of consciousness identified from empirical studies. Directions for developing future generalizable criteria for CT/DBS that focus on the integrity of necessary brain systems and behavioral profiles in patients in a MCS that may optimally response to support of arousal regulation mechanisms are proposed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical appraisal of stereotactic hematoma aspiration surgery for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koji; Matsumoto, Keizo

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage were managed by medical treatment, ventricular drainage, or CT-controlled stereotactic aspiration surgery (AS). The therapeutic results of the 6-month outcome were analyzed and correlated with the volume of the hematoma. A hematoma volume of 20 ml was thought to be the critical size in determining whether the outcome would be favorable or unfavorable. Indications for AS are suggested as follows. In patients with a small-sized hematoma having a volume of less than 10 ml use of AS should be restricted to patients with severe paralysis or other neurological complications and the elderly (aged 70 years or older). For patients with a medium-sized hematoma having a volume between 10 ml and 20 ml, AS is indicated for patients having severe paralysis and disturbances of consciousness. For patients with a large-sized hematoma having a volume of 20 ml or more, AS increases not only the survival rate of patients but also reduces the number of bedridden patients. We conclude that AS opens up a new avenue of surgical treatment for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage, which has been no indication for hematoma evacuation by conventional craniotomy. (author)

  4. Case of herpes simplex encephalitis(HSE) with a thalamic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, K; Koike, R; Yuasa, T; Miyatake, T; Ito, J

    1987-02-01

    A case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) with thalamic involvement was reported. The patient, a 27-year-old man, was admitted because of abnormal behavior and fever. He exhibited a disturbance of consciousness, meningial signs, and hyperreflexia. A CT scan of the head revealed diffuse brain edema. Acute encephalitis, especially HSE, was suspected, and so the intravenous administration of acyclovir and steroid therapy were started. The titer of herpes simplex Type 1 virus, as measured by CF and ELISA, was found to have increased amounts of serum and cerebrospinal fluid. 5 days after the onset, his consciousness worsened. He could not tell his name and scarely opened his eyes upon pain stimulation. A CT scan at this time showed low-density lesions in the left thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and the posterior portion of the putamen. About 5 days later, his consciousness level was increased, but he was mute. This symptom was thought to be thalamic aphasia, which might be correlative with the low-density lesions shown in the left thalamus by the CT scan. About 30 days after the onset of the disease, his speech became normal, and a CT scan at 51 hospital days showed no abnormality. The etiology of low-density lesions of the left thalamus in the CT scan is speculated to be as follows: firstly, vascular damage of circulation disturbance, and secondly a special affinity of herpes simplex Type 1 virus to the thalamus.

  5. Thalamic synaptic transmission of sensory information modulated by synergistic interaction of adenosine and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Hu, Chun-Chang; Huang, Chen-Syuan; Chou, Pei-Yu

    2014-03-01

    The thalamic synapses relay peripheral sensory information to the cortex, and constitute an important part of the thalamocortical network that generates oscillatory activities responsible for different vigilance (sleep and wakefulness) states. However, the modulation of thalamic synaptic transmission by potential sleep regulators, especially by combination of regulators in physiological scenarios, is not fully characterized. We found that somnogen adenosine itself acts similar to wake-promoting serotonin, both decreasing synaptic strength as well as short-term depression, at the retinothalamic synapse. We then combined the two modulators considering the coexistence of them in the hypnagogic (sleep-onset) state. Adenosine plus serotonin results in robust synergistic inhibition of synaptic strength and dramatic transformation of short-term synaptic depression to facilitation. These synaptic effects are not achievable with a single modulator, and are consistent with a high signal-to-noise ratio but a low level of signal transmission through the thalamus appropriate for slow-wave sleep. This study for the first time demonstrates that the sleep-regulatory modulators may work differently when present in combination than present singly in terms of shaping information flow in the thalamocortical network. The major synaptic characters such as the strength and short-term plasticity can be profoundly altered by combination of modulators based on physiological considerations. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. A case of herpes simplex encephalitis(HSE) with a thalamic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Katsuya; Koike, Ryoko; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Miyatake, Tadashi; Ito, Jusuke.

    1987-01-01

    A case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) with thalamic involvement was reported. The patient, a 27-year-old man, was admitted because of abnormal behavior and fever. He exhibited a disturbance of consciousness, meningial signs, and hyperreflexia. A CT scan of the head revealed diffuse brain edema. Acute encephalitis, especially HSE, was suspected, and so the intravenous administration of acyclovir and steroid therapy were started. The titer of herpes simplex Type 1 virus, as measured by CF and ELISA, was found to have increased amounts of serum and cerebrospinal fluid. 5 days after the onset, his consciousness worsened. He could not tell his name and scarely opened his eyes upon pain stimulation. A CT scan at this time showed low-density lesions in the left thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and the posterior portion of the putamen. About 5 days later, his consciousness level was increased, but he was mute. This symptom was thought to be thalamic aphasia, which might be correlative with the low-density lesions shown in the left thalamus by the CT scan. About 30 days after the onset of the disease, his speech became normal, and a CT scan at 51 hospital days showed no abnormality. The etiology of low-density lesions of the left thalamus in the CT scan is speculated to be as follows: firstly, vascular damage of circulation disturbance, and secondly a special affinity of herpes simplex Type 1 virus to the thalamus. (author)

  7. Intraoperative neurophysiological responses in epileptic patients submitted to hippocampal and thalamic deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukiert, Arthur; Cukiert, Cristine Mella; Argentoni-Baldochi, Meire; Baise, Carla; Forster, Cássio Roberto; Mello, Valeria Antakli; Burattini, José Augusto; Lima, Alessandra Moura

    2011-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used in an increasing frequency for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Acute deep brain macrostimulation intraoperative findings were sparsely published in the literature. We report on our intraoperative macrostimulation findings during thalamic and hippocampal DBS implantation. Eighteen patients were studied. All patients underwent routine pre-operative evaluation that included clinical history, neurological examination, interictal and ictal EEG, high resolution 1.5T MRI and neuropsychological testing. Six patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were submitted to hippocampal DBS (Hip-DBS); 6 patients with focal epilepsy were submitted to anterior thalamic nucleus DBS (AN-DBS) and 6 patients with generalized epilepsy were submitted to centro-median thalamic nucleus DBS (CM-DBS). Age ranged from 9 to 40 years (11 males). All patients were submitted to bilateral quadripolar DBS electrode implantation in a single procedure, under general anesthesia, and intraoperative scalp EEG monitoring. Final electrode's position was checked postoperatively using volumetric CT scanning. Bipolar stimulation using the more proximal and distal electrodes was performed. Final standard stimulation parameters were 6Hz, 4V, 300μs (low frequency range: LF) or 130Hz, 4V, 300μs (high frequency range: HF). Bilateral recruiting response (RR) was obtained after unilateral stimulation in all patients submitted to AN and CM-DBS using LF stimulation. RR was widespread but prevailed over the fronto-temporal region bilaterally, and over the stimulated hemisphere. HF stimulation led to background slowing and a DC shift. The mean voltage for the appearance of RR was 4V (CM) and 3V (AN). CM and AN-DBS did not alter inter-ictal spiking frequency or morphology. RR obtained after LF Hip-DBS was restricted to the stimulated temporal lobe and no contralateral activation was noted. HF stimulation yielded no visually recognizable EEG modification. Mean intensity for initial

  8. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  9. Functional characterization and expression of thalamic GABA(B) receptors in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groote, C; Wullner, U; Loschmann, PA; Luiten, PGM; Klockgether, T

    1999-01-01

    Increased GABAergic neurotransmission of the basal ganglia output nuclei projecting to the motor thalamus is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. We investigated the functional role of thalamic GABA(B) receptors in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. First, we

  10. Thalamic glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy measured with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N; Leenders, KL; Hajek, M; Maguire, P; Missimer, J; Wieser, HG

    1997-01-01

    Thalamic glucose metabolism has been studied in 24 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using interictal F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). A total of 17 patients had a unilateral TL seizure onset, 11 of these patients had a mesial temporal lobe

  11. MM2-thalamic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: neuropathological, biochemical and transmission studies identify a distinctive prion strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Suardi, Silvia; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Indaco, Antonio; Limido, Lucia; Vimercati, Chiara; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Langeveld, Jan; Terruzzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Antonio; Zerbi, Pietro; Fociani, Paolo; Bishop, Matthew T; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-09-01

    In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrP(Sc) are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrP(Sc) . Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrP(Sc) , a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  12. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    The learned helplessness paradigm has been repeatedly shown to correlate with neurobiological aspects of depression in humans. In this model, rodents are exposed inescapable foot-shock in order to reveal susceptibility to escape deficit, defined as 'learned helplessness' (LH). Few methods are available to probe the neurobiological aspects underlying the differences in susceptibility in the living animal, thus far being limited to studies examining regional neurochemical changes with microdialysis. With the widespread implementation of small animal neuroimaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to explore the living brain on a systems level to define regional changes that may correlate with vulnerability to stress. In this study, 12 wild type Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 minutes of inescapable foot-shock followed by metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) 1 hour later. The escape test was performed on these rats 48 hours later (to accommodate radiotracer decay), where they were given the opportunity to press a lever to shut off the shock. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to investigate potential correlations (Pearson Regression Coefficients) between regional 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock and subsequent learned helpless behavior (time to finish the test; number of successful lever presses within 20 seconds of shock onset). ROI analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between time to finish and 18-FDG uptake, and a negative correlation between lever presses and uptake, in the medial thalamic area (p=0.033, p=0.036). This ROI included the paraventricular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and the habenula. In an effort to account for possible spillover artifact, the posterior thalamic area (including ventral medial and lateral portions) was also evaluated but did not reveal significant correlations (p=0.870, p=0.897). No other significant correlations were found

  13. Serotonin gating of cortical and thalamic glutamate inputs onto principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ji-Dong; O'Flaherty, Brendan M; Rainnie, Donald G

    2017-11-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key site for crossmodal association of sensory stimuli and an important relay in the neural circuitry of emotion. Indeed, the BLA receives substantial glutamatergic inputs from multiple brain regions including the prefrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei. Modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the BLA regulates stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) also plays an important role in regulating stress-related behavior through activation of both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT receptors. Multiple 5-HT receptors are expressed in the BLA, where 5-HT has been reported to modulate glutamatergic transmission. However, the 5-HT receptor subtype mediating this effect is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to use patch-clamp recordings from BLA neurons in an ex vivo slice preparation to examine 1) the effect of 5-HT on extrinsic sensory inputs, and 2) to determine if any pathway specificity exists in 5-HT regulation of glutamatergic transmission. Two independent input pathways into the BLA were stimulated: the external capsule to mimic cortical input, and the internal capsule to mimic thalamic input. Bath application of 5-HT reversibly reduced the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) induced by stimulation of both pathways. The decrease was associated with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio and coefficient of variation of eEPSC amplitude, suggesting 5-HT acts presynaptically. Moreover, the effect of 5-HT in both pathways was mimicked by the selective 5-HT 1B receptor agonist CP93129, but not by the 5-HT 1A receptor agonist 8-OH DPAT. Similarly the effect of exogenous 5-HT was blocked by the 5-HT 1B receptor antagonist GR55562, but not affected by the 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 or the 5-HT 2 receptor antagonists pirenperone and MDL 100907. Together these data suggest 5-HT gates cortical and thalamic glutamatergic inputs into the BLA by activating presynaptic 5-HT 1B receptors

  14. Syntheses of several 99mTc and 131I labeled neoglycoalbumins and their differential uptake patterns in animal biodistribution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Himadri S.; Sen, Asish K.; Mukherjee, Manasi; Banerji, Nilima; Banerjee, Somenath

    1995-01-01

    Several glycoconjugates, α-d-mannopyranosyl, β-l-fucopyranosyl, α-l-rhamnopyranosyl, β-d-glucopyranosyl and β-d-galactopyranosyl human serum albumin, were synthesized using C 9 -tether and radiolabeled with 99m Tc and 131 I. Both 99m Tc and 131 I radiolabeled neoglycoalbumins had considerable stability and exhibited similar biodistribution patterns within the experimental limits. The results of biodistribution studies can be explained from the in vitro observations that 99m Tc-β-d-galactopyranosyl albumin binds to hepatic binding protein in liver in a dose-dependent fashion. The radiolabeled glycoalbumins derived from d-mannopyranose and l-fucopyranose also bind in a dose-dependent fashion to the receptors present in the liver sinusoidal cells and spleen macrophages. The β-d-glucopyranosyl and α-l-rhamnopyranosyl neoglycoalbumins accumulate nonspecifically in liver and spleen

  15. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  16. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract

  17. Altered cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity in relation to spatial working memory capacity in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD captures a heterogeneous group of children, who are characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Previous resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI studies have sought to understand the neural correlates of ADHD by comparing connectivity measurements between those with and without the disorder, focusing primarily on cortical-striatal circuits mediated by the thalamus. To integrate the multiple phenotypic features associated with ADHD and help resolve its heterogeneity, it is helpful to determine how specific circuits relate to unique cognitive domains of the ADHD syndrome. Spatial working memory has been proposed as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Methods: We correlated the rs-fcMRI of five thalamic regions of interest with spatial span working memory scores in a sample of 67 children aged 7-11 years (ADHD and typically developing children; TDC. In an independent dataset, we then examined group differences in thalamo-striatal functional connectivity between 70 ADHD and 89 TDC (7-11 years from the ADHD-200 dataset. Thalamic regions of interest were created based on previous methods that utilize known thalamo-cortical loops and rs-fcMRI to identify functional boundaries in the thalamus.Results/Conclusions: Using these thalamic regions, we found atypical rs-fcMRI between specific thalamic groupings with the basal ganglia. To identify the thalamic connections that relate to spatial working memory in ADHD, only connections identified in both the correlational and comparative analyses were considered. Multiple connections between the thalamus and basal ganglia, particularly between medial and anterior dorsal thalamus and the putamen, were related to spatial working memory and also altered in ADHD. These thalamo-striatal disruptions may be one of multiple atypical neural and cognitive mechanisms that relate to the ADHD clinical phenotype.

  18. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Yannes, Michael Paul; Nardone, Raffaele; Bailey, Ariel; Goldstein, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. [Thalamic Stroke and Associated Behavior Disorders. Possibilities for Integral Management: Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Loida Camargo; Sánchez, Katherine Parra

    2012-06-01

    Since ancient Greece, cerebrovascular accidents have been described with no variation. Even today, they are still a catastrophic event in the lives of patients with a high risk of disabling sequelae. Case report of a 56-year male patient with thalamic ischemia. The intervention with integral strategies involving pharmacological management and cognitive interventions was decisive for the satisfactory evolution of the patient. The management of patients with cerebrovascular accidents cannot be limited to the emergency room. Pharmacological advances in programs and cognitive intervention methods provide intervention tools from the very beginning of the stroke thus reducing the impact of long-term sequelae, and consequently enabling a better reintegration of the patient to his family. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. [Deficit of verbal recall caused by left dorso-lateral thalamic infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, M; Cabaret, M; Benaim, C; Steinling, M

    1995-01-01

    A case of amnesia with preferential disorder of verbal recall, associated to a limited infarct of the left superior, external and anterior thalamus, is reported. This lesion involved the anterior and middle dorso-lateral nuclei and the centrolateral nucleus, sparing most of the structures classically incriminated in diencephalic amnesia. At the initial stage, the patient presented discrete language impairment and severe deficit of semantic processing, which later recovered. At the late stage, the anterograde and retrograde amnesia principally concerned the recall of verbal information used in daily life, verbal learning using short-term and long-term recall, questionnaires evaluating retrograde memory and requiring the evocation of proper names. Verbal priming was also affected. Verbal recognition was preserved. Evocation of the most recent events of the personal life was also impaired. Confrontation of this case with others previously reported suggests that various thalamic amnesias may be described, associated to different cognitive deficits, in relation with the preferential situation of lesions.

  1. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Thalamic functional connectivity predicts seizure laterality in individual TLE patients: Application of a biomarker development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Barron

    2015-01-01

    No significant differences in functional connection strength in patient and control groups were observed with Mann-Whitney Tests (corrected for multiple comparisons. Notwithstanding the lack of group differences, individual patient difference scores (from control mean connection strength successfully predicted seizure onset zone as shown in ROC curves: discriminant analysis (two-dimensional predicted seizure onset zone with 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity; logistic regression (four-dimensional achieved 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The strongest markers in both analyses were left thalamo-hippocampal and right thalamo-entorhinal cortex functional connection strength. Thus, this study shows that thalamic functional connections are sensitive and specific markers of seizure onset laterality in individual temporal lobe epilepsy patients. This study also advances an overall strategy for the programmatic development of neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical and genetic populations: a disease model informed by coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to anatomically constrain individual patient analyses.

  3. Fluctuating drowsiness following cardiac catheterisation: artery of Percheron ischaemic stroke causing bilateral thalamic infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Daniel; Arora, Ankur; Dissanayake, Madhava; Sengupta, Nabarun

    2017-01-02

    An 81-year-old man underwent cardiac catheterisation to investigate breathlessness and left ventricular impairment of unknown cause. He had unobstructed coronary arteries. Immediately following the procedure, he became suddenly unresponsive with vertical gaze palsy, anisocoria and bilateral upgoing plantar responses. He made a rapid recovery to his premorbid state 25 min later with no residual focal neurological signs. He then had multiple unresponsive episodes, interspaced with complete resolution of symptoms and neurological signs. MRI of the brain identified bilateral medial thalamic infarcts and midbrain infarcts, consistent with an artery of Percheron territory infarction. By the time the diagnosis was reached, the thrombolysis window had elapsed. The unresponsive episodes diminished with time and the patient was discharged to inpatient rehabilitation. At 6-month review after the episode, the patient has a degree of progressive cognitive impairment. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Thalamic metabolic abnormalities in patients with Huntington's disease measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casseb, R.F.; Castellano, G., E-mail: gabriela@ifi.unicamp.br [Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Dept. de Raios Cosmicos e Cronologia; D' Abreu, A.; Cendes, F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia. Lab. de Neuroimagem; Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruocco, H.H. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia. Lab. de Neuroimagem; Lopes-Cendes, I., E-mail: seixas.fk@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Genetica Medica; Cooperacao Interinstitucional de Apoio a Pesquisas sobre o Cerebro (Programa CInAPCe), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurologic disorder that is not completely understood; its fundamental physiological mechanisms and chemical effects remain somewhat unclear. Among these uncertainties, we can highlight information about the concentrations of brain metabolites, which have been widely discussed. Concentration differences in affected, compared to healthy, individuals could lead to the development of useful tools for evaluating the progression of disease, or to the advance of investigations of different/alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the thalamic concentration of metabolites in HD patients and healthy individuals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We used a 2.0-Tesla magnetic field, repetition time of 1500 ms, and echo time of 135 ms. Spectra from 40 adult HD patients and 26 control subjects were compared. Quantitative analysis was performed using the LCModel method. There were statistically significant differences between HD patients and controls in the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAA+NAAG; t-test, P,0.001), and glycerophosphocholine+phosphocholine (GPC+PCh; t-test, P=0.001) relative to creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr). The NAA+NAAG/Cr+PCr ratio was decreased by 9% and GPC+PCh/Cr+PCr increased by 17% in patients compared with controls. There were no correlations between the concentration ratios and clinical features. Although these results could be caused by T1 and T2 changes, rather than variations in metabolite concentrations given the short repetition time and long echo time values used, our findings point to thalamic dysfunction, corroborating prior evidence. (author)

  5. CT classification of small thalamic hemorrhages. Topographic localization and clinical manifestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Nobutaka; Kaneko, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Keisei; Muraki, Masaaki; Sato, Kengo (Hamamatsu Medical Center Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1984-06-01

    The thalamus is located deep in the cerebral hemispheres, and most of its nuclei have reciprocal fiber connections with specific areas over the cerebral cortex. Localized lesions in the thalamus, therefore, can cause specific neurological deficits, depending on their locations. From this point of view, we reviewed 110 cases, admitted over the past 7 years, with thalamic hemorrhages 37 (34%) of which were small hematomas less than 2 cm in diameter. These small hematomas could be divided into 4 types depending on their locations as follows: antero-lateral type, postero-lateral type, medial type, and dorsal type. Each type had the peculiar clinical features described below: 1) Postero-lateral Type (PL type, 28 cases, 76%): The original symptom was a sudden onset of moderate to severe sensori-motor deficits in most cases. The patients were mostly alert or only slightly confused. 2) Antero-lateral Type (AL type, 4 cases, 11%): The patients of this type first presented with sensori-motor disturbance and prefrontal signs. Both were generally mild and often disappeared early. 3) Medial Type (M type, 3 cases, 8%): The main symptom at onset was either a disturbance of consciousness or dementia. 4) Dorsal Type (D type, 2 cases, 5%): One patient with a right thalamic hematoma of this type showed geographical agnosia and visuo-constructive apraxia. The other patient, with a left-sided hematoma, exhibited transient clumsiness of the right hand and mild dysphasia. In our experience, the above classification of small hematomas clearly delineated the clinical symptoms and neurological signs of the different types; therefore, the symptoms and signs in larger hematoma could be explained by a combination of those of each type.

  6. Thalamic connections of the core auditory cortex and rostral supratemporal plane in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Fukushima, Makoto; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    In the primate auditory cortex, information flows serially in the mediolateral dimension from core, to belt, to parabelt. In the caudorostral dimension, stepwise serial projections convey information through the primary, rostral, and rostrotemporal (AI, R, and RT) core areas on the supratemporal plane, continuing to the rostrotemporal polar area (RTp) and adjacent auditory-related areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STGr) and temporal pole. In addition to this cascade of corticocortical connections, the auditory cortex receives parallel thalamocortical projections from the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). Previous studies have examined the projections from MGN to auditory cortex, but most have focused on the caudal core areas AI and R. In this study, we investigated the full extent of connections between MGN and AI, R, RT, RTp, and STGr using retrograde and anterograde anatomical tracers. Both AI and R received nearly 90% of their thalamic inputs from the ventral subdivision of the MGN (MGv; the primary/lemniscal auditory pathway). By contrast, RT received only ∼45% from MGv, and an equal share from the dorsal subdivision (MGd). Area RTp received ∼25% of its inputs from MGv, but received additional inputs from multisensory areas outside the MGN (30% in RTp vs. 1-5% in core areas). The MGN input to RTp distinguished this rostral extension of auditory cortex from the adjacent auditory-related cortex of the STGr, which received 80% of its thalamic input from multisensory nuclei (primarily medial pulvinar). Anterograde tracers identified complementary descending connections by which highly processed auditory information may modulate thalamocortical inputs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Astrocytes potentiate GABAergic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus via endozepine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Catherine A; Huguenard, John R

    2013-12-10

    Emerging evidence indicates that diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) mediates an endogenous benzodiazepine-mimicking (endozepine) effect on synaptic inhibition in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT). Here we demonstrate that DBI peptide colocalizes with both astrocytic and neuronal markers in mouse nRT, and investigate the role of astrocytic function in endozepine modulation in this nucleus by testing the effects of the gliotoxin fluorocitrate (FC) on synaptic inhibition and endozepine signaling in the nRT using patch-clamp recordings. FC treatment reduced the effective inhibitory charge of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in WT mice, indicating that astrocytes enhance GABAAR responses in the nRT. This effect was abolished by both a point mutation that inhibits classical benzodiazepine binding to GABAARs containing the α3 subunit (predominant in the nRT) and a chromosomal deletion that removes the Dbi gene. Thus, astrocytes are required for positive allosteric modulation via the α3 subunit benzodiazepine-binding site by DBI peptide family endozepines. Outside-out sniffer patches pulled from neurons in the adjacent ventrobasal nucleus, which does not contain endozepines, show a potentiated response to laser photostimulation of caged GABA when placed in the nRT. FC treatment blocked the nRT-dependent potentiation of this response, as did the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil. When sniffer patches were placed in the ventrobasal nucleus, however, subsequent treatment with FC led to potentiation of the uncaged GABA response, suggesting nucleus-specific roles for thalamic astrocytes in regulating inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that astrocytes are required for endozepine actions in the nRT, and as such can be positive modulators of synaptic inhibition.

  8. Thalamic metabolic abnormalities in patients with Huntington's disease measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casseb, R.F.; Castellano, G.; Ruocco, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurologic disorder that is not completely understood; its fundamental physiological mechanisms and chemical effects remain somewhat unclear. Among these uncertainties, we can highlight information about the concentrations of brain metabolites, which have been widely discussed. Concentration differences in affected, compared to healthy, individuals could lead to the development of useful tools for evaluating the progression of disease, or to the advance of investigations of different/alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the thalamic concentration of metabolites in HD patients and healthy individuals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We used a 2.0-Tesla magnetic field, repetition time of 1500 ms, and echo time of 135 ms. Spectra from 40 adult HD patients and 26 control subjects were compared. Quantitative analysis was performed using the LCModel method. There were statistically significant differences between HD patients and controls in the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAA+NAAG; t-test, P,0.001), and glycerophosphocholine+phosphocholine (GPC+PCh; t-test, P=0.001) relative to creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr). The NAA+NAAG/Cr+PCr ratio was decreased by 9% and GPC+PCh/Cr+PCr increased by 17% in patients compared with controls. There were no correlations between the concentration ratios and clinical features. Although these results could be caused by T1 and T2 changes, rather than variations in metabolite concentrations given the short repetition time and long echo time values used, our findings point to thalamic dysfunction, corroborating prior evidence. (author)

  9. Strategic lesions in the anterior thalamic radiation and apathy in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torso

    Full Text Available Behavioural disorders and psychological symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and strongly contribute to increasing patients' disability. Using voxel-lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM, we investigated the impact of white matter lesions (WMLs on the severity of BPSD in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI.Thirty-one a-MCI patients (with a conversion rate to AD of 32% at 2 year follow-up and 26 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination at 3T, including T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery images, and T1-weighted volumes. In the patient group, BPSD was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12. After quantitative definition of WMLs, their distribution was investigated, without an a priori anatomical hypothesis, against patients' behavioural symptoms. Unbiased regional grey matter volumetrics was also used to assess the contribution of grey matter atrophy to BPSD.Apathy, irritability, depression/dysphoria, anxiety and agitation were shown to be the most common symptoms in the patient sample. Despite a more widespread anatomical distribution, a-MCI patients did not differ from controls in WML volumes. VLSM revealed a strict association between the presence of lesions in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATRs and the severity of apathy. Regional grey matter atrophy did not account for any BPSD.This study indicates that damage to the ATRs is strategic for the occurrence of apathy in patients with a-MCI. Disconnection between the prefrontal cortex and the mediodorsal and anterior thalamic nuclei might represent the pathophysiological substrate for apathy, which is one of the most common psychopathological symptoms observed in dementia.

  10. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  11. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin modulates the firing 1 properties of the reticular thalamic nucleus bursting neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albéri, Lavinia; Lintas, Alessandra; Kretz, Robert; Schwaller, Beat; Villa, Alessandro E P

    2013-06-01

    The reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) of the mouse is characterized by an overwhelming majority of GABAergic neurons receiving afferences from both the thalamus and the cerebral cortex and sending projections mainly on thalamocortical neurons. The RTN neurons express high levels of the "slow Ca(2+) buffer" parvalbumin (PV) and are characterized by low-threshold Ca(2+) currents, I(T). We performed extracellular recordings in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice in the rostromedial portion of the RTN. In the RTN of wild-type and PV knockout (PVKO) mice we distinguished four types of neurons characterized on the basis of their firing pattern: irregular firing (type I), medium bursting (type II), long bursting (type III), and tonically firing (type IV). Compared with wild-type mice, we observed in the PVKOs the medium bursting (type II) more frequently than the long bursting type and longer interspike intervals within the burst without affecting the number of spikes. This suggests that PV may affect the firing properties of RTN neurons via a mechanism associated with the kinetics of burst discharges. Ca(v)3.2 channels, which mediate the I(T) currents, were more localized to the somatic plasma membrane of RTN neurons in PVKO mice, whereas Ca(v)3.3 expression was similar in both genotypes. The immunoelectron microscopy analysis showed that Ca(v)3.2 channels were localized at active axosomatic synapses, thus suggesting that the differential localization of Ca(v)3.2 in the PVKOs may affect bursting dynamics. Cross-correlation analysis of simultaneously recorded neurons from the same electrode tip showed that about one-third of the cell pairs tended to fire synchronously in both genotypes, independent of PV expression. In summary, PV deficiency does not affect the functional connectivity between RTN neurons but affects the distribution of Ca(v)3.2 channels and the dynamics of burst discharges of RTN cells, which in turn regulate the activity in the thalamocortical circuit.

  12. Holmes’ Tremor with Shoulder Pain Treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of Unilateral Ventral Intermediate Thalamic Nucleus and Globus Pallidus Internus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Aydın

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male was admitted with severe right arm and hand tremors after a thalamic hemorrhage caused by a traffic accident. He was also suffering from agonizing pain in his right shoulder that manifested after the tremor. Neurologic examination revealed a disabling, severe, and irregular kinetic and postural tremor in the right arm during target-directed movements. There was also an irregular ipsilateral rest tremor and dystonic movements in the distal part of the right arm. The amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements. The patient underwent left globus pallidum internus and ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The patient improved by more than 80% as rated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale and Visual Analog Scale six months after surgery.

  13. High Field fMRI Reveals Thalamocortical Integration of Segregated Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Mediodorsal and Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C. D.; Eckert, U.; Steiner, J.; Sartorius, A.; Buchmann, J. E.; Stadler, J.; Tempelmann, C.; Speck, O.; Bogerts, B.; Abler, B.; Walter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions, and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non-invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive–emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla. Using an event-related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo–striato–cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behavior such as sexual processing. PMID:21088699

  14. High field fMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Danielle Metzger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla.Using an event related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex (CM/PF. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behaviour such as sexual

  15. High field FMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C D; Eckert, U; Steiner, J; Sartorius, A; Buchmann, J E; Stadler, J; Tempelmann, C; Speck, O; Bogerts, B; Abler, B; Walter, M

    2010-01-01

    Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions, and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non-invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla. Using an event-related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behavior such as sexual processing.

  16. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yeon Eom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections. This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8–Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS.

  17. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Bayazitov, Ildar T; Anderson, Kara; Yu, Jing; Zakharenko, Stanislav S

    2017-05-23

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8-Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for thalamic involvement in the thermal grill illusion: an FMRI study.

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    Fredrik Lindstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold. The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. AIM: To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. METHODS: We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41°C, cold(18°C and interleaved(41°C+18°C = TGI temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational ("unpleasantness" and sensory-disciminatory ("pain-intensity" dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected α-level <0.05. RESULTS: The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness (rho = 0.31. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity

  19. Posterior Thalamic Nucleus Modulation of Tactile Stimuli Processing in Rat Motor and Primary Somatosensory Cortices

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    Diana Casas-Torremocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF and motor (M1wk cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM. Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po. However, Po axons may convey, in addition to direct sensory signals, the dynamic output of computations between whisker signals and descending motor commands. It has been proposed that this input may be relevant for adjusting cortical responses to predicted vs. unpredicted whisker signals, but the effects of Po input on M1wk and S1BF function have not been directly tested or compared in vivo. Here, using electrophysiology, optogenetics and pharmacological tools, we compared in adult rats M1wk and S1BF in vivo responses in the whisker areas of the motor and primary somatosensory cortices to passive multi-whisker deflection, their dependence on Po activity, and their changes after a brief intense activation of Po axons. We report that the latencies of the first component of tactile-evoked local field potentials in M1wk and S1BF are similar. The evoked potentials decrease markedly in M1wk, but not in S1BF, by injection in Po of the GABAA agonist muscimol. A brief high-frequency electrical stimulation of Po decreases the responsivity of M1wk and S1BF cells to subsequent whisker stimulation. This effect is prevented by the local application of omega-agatoxin, suggesting that it may in part depend on GABA release by fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV-expressing cortical interneurons. Local optogenetic activation of Po synapses in different

  20. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  1. Mixed Map Labeling

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    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  2. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT thalamic blood flow study in migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijian; Steiner, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The changes of blood flow in the thalamic of migraineurs by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging are investigated. 60 cases with migraine were performed by Novo 810 high-resolution SPECT 30 minutes after injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO. The quantitative analysis of SPECT data was based on the irregular ROI% uptake normalized to total slice method. There were significantly increased mean % uptake values in migraine with aura (259.1 +-17.1), and more significantly in those who experienced hemisensory symptoms and hemiparesis during aura (263.8 +- 17.2), compared to that of migraine without aura (249.1 +- 14.9), but there were not statistically significant difference between migraine with only visual disturbance during aura (255.1 +- 16.4) and without aura. The possible explanations for the increased mean % uptake values in migraineurs who experienced hemisensory symptoms and hemiparesis during aura are: (1) the reactive postischemic hyperemia. (2) excepting thalamus, the regional blood flow was decreased. (3) the secondary phenomenon to the various neurogenic and chemical stimuli

  3. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage. A study by Western Aphasia Battery and single photon emission CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro

    1984-07-01

    A report is given of 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months) in which language disorders were examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and cerebral blood flow was measured by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in the left temporooccipital region and low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similar to the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia there was a wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. In all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus.

  4. Amygdalar, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes in youth at high risk for development of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchemskiy, Asya; Garrett, Amy; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Simeonova, Diana I; Alegria, Dylan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki

    2011-12-30

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and symptoms of depression or mania, are at significantly high risk for developing BD. As we have previously shown amygdalar reductions in pediatric BD, the current study examined amygdalar volumes in offspring of parents (BD offspring) who have not yet developed a full manic episode. Youth participating in the study included 22 BD offspring and 22 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, handedness, and IQ. Subjects had no history of a manic episode, but met criteria for ADHD and moderate mood symptoms. MRI was performed on a 3T GE scanner, using a 3D volumetric spoiled gradient echo series. Amygdalae were manually traced using BrainImage Java software on positionally normalized brain stacks. Bipolar offspring had similar amygdalar volumes compared to the control group. Exploratory analyses yielded no differences in hippocampal or thalamic volumes. Bipolar offspring do not show decreased amygdalar volume, possibly because these abnormalities occur after more prolonged illness rather than as a preexisting risk factor. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether amygdalar volumes change during and after the development of BD. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ophthalmoplegic migraine with reversible thalamic ischemia by Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Dong Jin; Kang, Sung Soo [Gachon Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Two patients presented with ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) underwent EEG, Brain-MRI, cerebral angiography, and Tc-99m ECD SPECT during an attack. Follow-up SPECT was performed after neurologic symptoms resolved. In both cases, SPECT during an attack of ophthalmoplegia and headache demonstrated a significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus to the side of ophthalmoplegia, which was normalized on the follow-up SPECT during a symptom free recovery phase (Lesion to Non-lesion thalamic ratio=1.19 to 0.96 and 1.16 to 0.98, respectively). The other roentgenographic and laboratory findings were normal. These findings are suggestive the ischemia in the perforators of PCA results in third nerve palsy because the portion of oculomotor nerve behind the cavernous sinus derives its blood supply from small perforating branches of the basilar and PCA. Matched ictal hypoperfusion of the thalamus to the site of ophthalmoplegic migraine is suggestive of the ischemic neuropathy as an etiology of OM.

  6. Thalamic reticular impairment underlies attention deficit in Ptchd1(Y/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael F; Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Feng, Guoping; Halassa, Michael M

    2016-04-07

    Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood. Here we report that during early post-natal development, mouse Ptchd1 is selectively expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a group of GABAergic neurons that regulate thalamocortical transmission, sleep rhythms, and attention. Ptchd1 deletion attenuates TRN activity through mechanisms involving small conductance calcium-dependent potassium currents (SK). TRN-restricted deletion of Ptchd1 leads to attention deficits and hyperactivity, both of which are rescued by pharmacological augmentation of SK channel activity. Global Ptchd1 deletion recapitulates learning impairment, hyper-aggression, and motor defects, all of which are insensitive to SK pharmacological targeting and not found in the TRN-restricted deletion mouse. This study maps clinically relevant behavioural phenotypes onto TRN dysfunction in a human disease model, while also identifying molecular and circuit targets for intervention.

  7. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: I. Operant Responding for Sucrose and Corn Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Freet, Christopher S.; Grigson, Patricia S; Norgren, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The reward strength of orosensory sucrose and corn oil was measured using fixed and progressive ratio operant schedules. Because the orosensory effects of the stimuli were of interest, Experiment 1 compared operant responses for sucrose in sham and real feeding rats. The results demonstrated that rats would work for sucrose solutions without the accompanying postingestive effects. Furthermore, the break points for high concentrations of sucrose (1.0 M or 2.0 M) were significantly higher in sham feeding rats than in real feeding controls. Experiment 2 investigated the role of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and of the thalamic orosensory area (TOA) in sucrose and corn oil reward. During free access, rats with PBN lesions (PBNx) licked significantly less sucrose solution than their controls, but both groups ingested a similar volume of corn oil emulsion. When an operant was imposed, these same PBNx rats failed to respond for sucrose and continued only modestly for corn oil. In contrast, the TOA lesioned rats (TOAx) showed no impairment in responding for sucrose or corn oil during either the free access or operant sessions. Furthermore, rats with TOA lesions demonstrated significantly higher break points for sucrose than did their controls. Together, the data imply that the PBN but not the TOA is critical for the perception of, or responding to the reward value of sucrose and corn oil. PMID:21703290

  8. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhuret, Sébastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Bal, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-)correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus. PMID:26733818

  9. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhuret, Sébastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Bal, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-)correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus.

  10. Gait Balance Disorder by Thalamic Infarction with the Disorder of Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Wada, K.; Nagaoka, M.

    2011-01-01

    The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients. PMID:21769260

  11. Gait Balance Disorder by Thalamic Infarction with the Disorder of Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients.

  12. Distinct Thalamic Reticular Cell Types Differentially Modulate Normal and Pathological Cortical Rhythms

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    Alexandra Clemente-Perez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers. We dissociated the connectivity, physiology, and circuit functions of neurons within rodent nRT, based on parvalbumin (PV and somatostatin (SOM expression, and validated the existence of such populations in human nRT. We found that PV, but not SOM, cells are rhythmogenic, and that PV and SOM neurons are connected to and modulate distinct thalamocortical circuits. Notably, PV, but not SOM, neurons modulate somatosensory behavior and disrupt seizures. These results provide a conceptual framework for how nRT may gate incoming information to modulate brain-wide rhythms.

  13. Quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic deep brain stimulation in patients with essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Holmberg, Björn; Johnels, Bo; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a safe and efficient method for treatment of disabling tremor in patient with essential tremor (ET). However, successful tremor suppression after surgery requires careful selection of stimulus parameters. Our aim was to examine the possible use of certain quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic DBS in ET patients in clinical practice, and to compare these methods with traditional clinical tests. We examined 22 patients using the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) and quantitative assessment of tremor with the stimulator both activated and deactivated. We used an accelerometer (CATSYS tremor Pen) for quantitative measurement of postural tremor, and a eurythmokinesimeter (EKM) to evaluate kinetic tremor in a rapid pointing task. The efficacy of DBS on tremor suppression was prominent irrespective of the method used. The agreement between clinical rating of postural tremor and tremor intensity as measured by the CATSYS tremor pen was relatively high (rs = 0.74). The agreement between kinetic tremor as assessed by the ETRS and the main outcome variable from the EKM test was low (rs = 0.34). The lack of agreement indicates that the EKM test is not comparable with the clinical test. Quantitative methods, such as the CATSYS tremor pen, could be a useful complement to clinical tremor assessment in evaluating the efficacy of DBS in clinical practice. Future studies should evaluate the precision of these methods and long-term impact on tremor suppression, activities of daily living (ADL) function and quality of life.

  14. Neural signal for counteracting pre-action bias in the centromedian thalamic nucleus

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    Takafumi eMinamimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of our daily actions are selected and executed involuntarily under familiar situations by the guidance of internal drives, such as motivation. The behavioral tendency or biasing towards one over others reflects the action-selection process in advance of action execution (i.e., pre-action bias. Facing unexpected situations, however, pre-action bias should be withdrawn and replaced by an alternative that is suitable for the situation (i.e., counteracting bias. To understand the neural mechanism for the counteracting process, we studied the neural activity of the thalamic centromedian (CM nucleus in monkeys performing GO-NOGO task with asymmetrical or symmetrical reward conditions. The monkeys reacted to GO signal faster in large-reward condition, indicating behavioral bias toward large reward. In contrast, they responded slowly in small-reward condition, suggesting a conflict between internal drive and external demand. We found that neurons in the CM nucleus exhibited phasic burst discharges after GO and NOGO instructions especially when they were associated with small reward. The small-reward preference was positively correlated with the strength of behavioral bias toward large reward. The small-reward preference disappeared when only NOGO action was requested. The timing of activation predicted the timing of action opposed to bias. These results suggest that CM signals the discrepancy between internal pre-action bias and external demand, and mediates the counteracting process — resetting behavioral bias and leading to execution of opposing action.

  15. Isolated amnesia following a bilateral paramedian thalamic infarct. Possible etiologic role of a whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, F; Maurri, S

    1992-04-01

    A previously healthy 45 years old carpenter suffered a whiplash injury in a road accident on July, 18th, 1990. He continued to work in spite of occipital headache, episodic sweatening and slight hypersomnia. On August, 8th, 1990 while parking his car into the deck of a ferry-boat he was found slightly confuse and markedly amnestic. A post-traumatic subdural haematoma was suspected. As a CT-scan of the brain was normal, a toxic encephalopathy or an hysterical amnesia were proposed. However, a MRI performed on August, 22th, 1990, apart from a small infarct in the white matter of the left occipital lobe, showed two small bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts. The last lesions usually follow a thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the "basilar communicating artery" (BCA) belonging to the vertebro-basilar system. The possible etiologic relationship between this syndrome and the previous whiplash injury has been considered. Six months later, while a control MRI showed a reduction of the brain lesions, a neuropsychological examination revealed a slight improvement of memory dysfunction evident also at a distance of further 6 months. This case is interesting because it tests the high sensitivity of MRI in amnestic syndromes and because of the possible role of a whiplash injury in the etiology of BPTI.

  16. The slow oscillation in cortical and thalamic networks: mechanisms and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During even the most quiescent behavioral periods, the cortex and thalamus express rich spontaneous activity in the form of slow (<1 Hz, synchronous network state transitions. Throughout this so-called slow oscillation, cortical and thalamic neurons fluctuate between periods of intense synaptic activity (Up states and almost complete silence (Down states. The two decades since the original characterization of the slow oscillation in the cortex and thalamus have seen considerable advances in deciphering the cellular and network mechanisms associated with this pervasive phenomenon. There are, nevertheless, many questions regarding the slow oscillation that await more thorough illumination, particularly the mechanisms by which Up states initiate and terminate, the functional role of the rhythmic activity cycles in unconscious or minimally conscious states, and the precise relation between Up states and the activated states associated with waking behavior. Given the substantial advances in multineuronal recording and imaging methods in both in vivo and in vitro preparations, the time is ripe to take stock of our current understanding of the slow oscillation and pave the way for future investigations of its mechanisms and functions. My aim in this Review is to provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms and functions of the slow oscillation, and to suggest avenues for further exploration.

  17. Simple cortical and thalamic neuron models for digital arithmetic circuit implementation

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    Takuya eNanami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade-off between reproducibility of neuronal activities and computational efficiency is one ofcrucial subjects in computational neuroscience and neuromorphic engineering. A wide variety ofneuronal models have been studied from different viewpoints. The digital spiking silicon neuron(DSSN model is a qualitative model that focuses on efficient implementation by digital arithmeticcircuits. We expanded the DSSN model and found appropriate parameter sets with which itreproduces the dynamical behaviors of the ionic-conductance models of four classes of corticaland thalamic neurons. We first developed a 4-variable model by reducing the number of variablesin the ionic-conductance models and elucidated its mathematical structures using bifurcationanalysis. Then, expanded DSSN models were constructed that reproduce these mathematicalstructures and capture the characteristic behavior of each neuron class. We confirmed thatstatistics of the neuronal spike sequences are similar in the DSSN and the ionic-conductancemodels. Computational cost of the DSSN model is larger than that of the recent sophisticatedIntegrate-and-Fire-based models, but smaller than the ionic-conductance models. This modelis intended to provide another meeting point for above trade-off that satisfies the demand forlarge-scale neuronal network simulation with closer-to-biology models.

  18. Corticothalamic Synaptic Noise as a Mechanism for Selective Attention in Thalamic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eBéhuret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A reason why the thalamus is more than a passive gateway for sensory signals is that two-third of the synapses of thalamocortical neurons are directly or indirectly related to the activity of corticothalamic axons. While the responses of thalamocortical neurons evoked by sensory stimuli are well characterized, with ON- and OFF-center receptive field structures, the prevalence of synaptic noise resulting from neocortical feedback in intracellularly recorded thalamocortical neurons in vivo has attracted little attention. However, in vitro and modeling experiments point to its critical role for the integration of sensory signals. Here we combine our recent findings in a unified framework suggesting the hypothesis that corticothalamic synaptic activity is adapted to modulate the transfer efficiency of thalamocortical neurons during selective attention at three different levels: First, on ionic channels by interacting with intrinsic membrane properties, second at the neuron level by impacting on the input-output gain, and third even more effectively at the cell assembly level by boosting the information transfer of sensory features encoded in thalamic subnetworks. This top-down population control is achieved by tuning the correlations in subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations and is adapted to modulate the transfer of sensory features encoded by assemblies of thalamocortical relay neurons. We thus propose that cortically-controlled (de-correlation of subthreshold noise is an efficient and swift dynamic mechanism for selective attention in the thalamus.

  19. Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices? Analysis of label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Blakely, Tony

    2018-02-01

    There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score -0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to -0.26). In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Individual mediodorsal thalamic neurons project to multiple areas of the rat prefrontal cortex: A single neuron-tracing study using virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Eriko; Pan, Shixiu; Furuta, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro R; Iwai, Haruki; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Ohno, Sachi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Goto, Tetsuya; Hioki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has an important role in a variety of cognitive and executive processes, and is generally defined by its reciprocal connections with the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD). The rat MD is mainly subdivided into three segments, the medial (MDm), central (MDc), and lateral (MDl) divisions, on the basis of the cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture. The MD segments are known to topographically project to multiple prefrontal areas at the population level: the MDm mainly to the prelimbic, infralimbic, and agranular insular areas; the MDc to the orbital and agranular insular areas; and the MDl to the prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas. However, it is unknown whether individual MD neurons project to single or multiple prefrontal cortical areas. In the present study, we visualized individual MD neurons with Sindbis virus vectors, and reconstructed whole structures of MD neurons. While the main cortical projection targets of MDm, MDc, and MDl neurons were generally consistent with those of previous results, it was found that individual MD neurons sent their axon fibers to multiple prefrontal areas, and displayed various projection patterns in the target areas. Furthermore, the axons of single MD neurons were not homogeneously spread, but were rather distributed to form patchy axon arbors approximately 1 mm in diameter. The multiple-area projections and patchy axon arbors of single MD neurons might be able to coactivate cortical neuron groups in distant prefrontal areas simultaneously. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity of the projection patterns is likely, to recruit the different sets of cortical neurons, and thus contributes to a variety of prefrontal functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:166-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  2. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  3. Bilateral thalamic stroke due to occlusion of the artery of Percheron in a patient with patent foramen ovale: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Serna Raúl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral thalamic infarcts are rare presentations of stroke. They are the result of a complex combination of risk factors and a predisposing vessel distribution. The artery of Percheron, characterized by a single arterial trunk that irrigates both paramedian thalamic regions, can be occluded as a result of embolic diseases leading to bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts. Clinical and image findings of this uncommon form of posterior circulation infarct are presented along with their anatomic and pathophysiologic correlates. Case presentation A 27-year-old Mexican man with no relevant medical history was admitted to hospital after he was found deeply stuporous. On admission, an urgent neuroimaging protocol for stroke, including magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging angiography, was performed. The scans revealed symmetric bilateral hyperintense paramedian thalamic lesions consistent with acute ischemic events. The posterior circulation was patent including the tip of the basilar artery and both posterior cerebral arteries, making the case compatible with occlusion of the artery of Percheron. Further evaluation with an aim to define the etiology revealed a patent foramen ovale as the cause of embolism. Conclusion Bilateral thalamic infarcts are unusual presentations of posterior circulation stroke; once they are diagnosed by an adequate neuroimaging protocol, a further evaluation to define the cause is necessary. Cardioembolism should always be considered in relatively young patients. A complete evaluation should be conducted by an interdisciplinary team including neurologists, cardiologists and neurosurgeons.

  4. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  5. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  6. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  7. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  8. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  9. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  10. Lesions of reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei impair radial maze win-shift performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrook, Jacqueline R; Mair, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei are major sources of thalamic input to hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. We compared effects of lesions in ReRh and other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex on tasks affected by lesions in terminal fields innervated by these nuclei, including: visuospatial reaction time (VSRT), a measure of sensory guided responding; serial VSRT, a measure of action sequence learning; and win/shift radial arm maze (RAM) measures of spatial memory. ReRh lesions affected RAM, but not VSRT or serial VSRT performance. The effects of caudal intralaminar lesions were doubly dissociated from ReRh lesions, affecting VSRT, but not RAM or serial VSRT performance. Rostral intralaminar lesions did not produce significant impairments, other than a subgroup with larger lesions that were impaired performing a delayed RAM task. Combined lesions damaging all three sites produced RAM deficits comparable to ReRh lesions and VSRT deficits comparable to caudal intralaminar lesions. Thus there was no indication that deficits produced by lesions in one site were exacerbated significantly by the cumulative effect of damage in other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex. The effects of ReRh lesions provide evidence that these nuclei affect memory functions of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The double dissociation observed between the effects of ReRh and caudal intralaminar nuclei provides evidence that different nuclei within the midline-intralaminar complex affect distinct aspects of cognition consistent with the effects of lesions in the terminal fields they innervate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for neuropathic pain after amputation or brachial plexus avulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Boccard, Sandra G; Linhares, Paulo; Chamadoira, Clara; Rosas, Maria José; Abreu, Pedro; Rebelo, Virgínia; Vaz, Rui; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2013-09-01

    Fifteen hundred patients have received deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacotherapy over the last half-century, but few during the last decade. Deep brain stimulation for neuropathic pain has shown variable outcomes and gained consensus approval in Europe but not the US. This study prospectively evaluated the efficacy at 1 year of DBS for phantom limb pain after amputation, and deafferentation pain after brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), in a single-center case series. Patient-reported outcome measures were collated before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) score, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and University of Washington Neuropathic Pain Score (UWNPS). Twelve patients were treated over 29 months, receiving contralateral, ventroposterolateral sensory thalamic DBS. Five patients were amputees and 7 had BPAs, all from traumas. A postoperative trial of externalized DBS failed in 1 patient with BPA. Eleven patients proceeded to implantation and gained improvement in pain scores at 12 months. No surgical complications or stimulation side effects were noted. In the amputation group, after 12 months the mean VAS score improved by 90.0% ± 10.0% (p = 0.001), SF-36 by 57.5% ± 97.9% (p = 0.127), UWNPS by 80.4% ± 12.7% (p stimulation demonstrated efficacy at 1 year for chronic neuropathic pain after traumatic amputation and BPA. Clinical trials that retain patients in long-term follow-up are desirable to confirm findings from prospectively assessed case series.

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Dentato-Rubro-Thalamic Tract: Outcomes of Direct Targeting for Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoy, Albert J; Schiess, Mya C

    2017-07-01

    Targeting the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTt) has been suggested to be efficacious in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for tremor suppression, both in case reports and post-hoc analyses. This prospective observational study sought to analyze outcomes after directly targeting the DRTt in tremor patients. 20 consecutively enrolled intention tremor patients obtained pre-operative MRI with diffusion tensor (dTi) sequences. Mean baseline tremor amplitude based on The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale was recorded. The DRTt was drawn for each individual on StealthViz software (Medtronic) using the dentate nucleus as the seed region and the ipsilateral pre-central gyrus as the end region and then directly targeted during surgery. Intraoperative testing confirmed successful tremor control. Post-operative analysis of electrode position relative to the DRTt was performed, as was post-operative assessment of tremor improvement. The mean age of patients was 66.8 years; mean duration of tremor was 16 years. Mean voltage for the L electrode = 3.4 V; R = 2.6 V. Mean distance from the center of the active electrode contact to the DRTt was 0.9 mm on the L, and 0.8 mm on the R. Improvement in arm tremor amplitude from baseline after DBS was significant (P tremor suppression. Accounting for hardware, software, and model limitations, depiction of the DRTt allows for placement of electrode contacts directly within the fiber tract for modulation despite any anatomical variation, which reproducibly resulted in good tremor control. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Chronological changes in the CT appearance of experimental radiofrequency thalamic lesions in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisutani, Daizo; Makino, Akira; Matsumoto, Keizo; Ii, Kunio

    1987-01-01

    The location and extent of thalamic lesions following thalamotomy have been determined by the monopolar radiofrequency method. They can sometimes be identified in CT images as low-density areas, but also exceptionally high-density areas. However, this low-density area changes with time from a larger one in the acute stage to a smaller spot in the chronic stage, and sometimes it disappears within three months after the operation. It is the purpose of this study to elucidate the proper timing for the scanning for the anatomical mapping of the lesion in chronologically varying images of the lesions. Stereotactic experimental radiofrequency lesions were created in the thalamus of 35 mongrel dogs at 70 deg C for 120 sec. CT images of the brain were obtained at Days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 60. The lesions of the specimens and CT images tended to grow from Day 0 to Day 3, and then to grow smaller to Day 60. The area of the thalamus was measured in each specimen by means of coronal cutting. The thalamus of the lesion side was swollen from Day 0 to Day 10, but it became almost equal to that of the non-lesion side between Day 14 and Day 21. Then, the thalamus of the lesion side became atrophic. The mass effects with a ventricular deformity and a midline shift on CT images were diminished at Day 14 in most cases. The lesion areas at Day 14 corresponded to the contrast-enhanced area more than to that of the plain CT histologically. These results suggest that a lesion demonstrated by CE-CT scans at Day 14 would be suitable for anatomical mapping. (author)

  14. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor Also Reduces Voice Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Schrock, Lauren; Davis, Tyler; House, Paul A

    2017-12-12

    Voice tremor is a common feature of essential tremor (ET) that is difficult to treat medically and significantly affects quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) of the thalamus is effective in improving contralateral distal limb tremor and has been shown in limited studies to affect voice tremor. Our objective was to retrospectively evaluate whether Vim-DBS used to treat patients with essential motor tremor also effectively treated underlying concurrent voice tremor and assess whether particular lead locations were favorable for treating vocal tremor. In this retrospective cohort study, patients had unilateral or bilateral lead placement and were monitored for up to 12 months. We used the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM) subscore to assess vocal tremor. Changes in vocal tremor before and after stimulation and over several sessions were assessed. Of the 77 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were treated for essential tremor, 20 (26%) patients had vocal tremor prior to stimulation. Active Vim-DBS decreased the amplitude of voice tremor by 80% (p centroid of stimulation showed that Vim thalamic stimulation that is more anterior on average yielded better voice tremor control, significantly so on the left side (p < 0.05). Additionally, there was improvement in head, tongue, and face tremor scores (p < 0.05). Unilateral and bilateral Vim-DBS targeted to treat the motor component of essential tremor also dramatically decreased the amplitude of voice tremor in this group of patients, suggesting a potential benefit of this treatment for affected patients. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. Active action potential propagation but not initiation in thalamic interneuron dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Amanda E.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus modulate the activity of thalamocortical cells in response to excitatory input through the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter from both axons and dendrites. The exact mechanisms by which release can occur from dendrites are, however, not well understood. Recent experiments using calcium imaging have suggested that Na/K based action potentials can evoke calcium transients in dendrites via local active conductances, making the back-propagating action potential a candidate for dendritic neurotransmitter release. In this study, we employed high temporal and spatial resolution voltage-sensitive dye imaging to assess the characteristics of dendritic voltage deflections in response to Na/K action potentials in interneurons of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. We found that trains or single action potentials elicited by somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation led to action potentials that rapidly and actively back-propagated throughout the entire dendritic arbor and into the fine filiform dendritic appendages known to release GABAergic vesicles. Action potentials always appeared first in the soma or proximal dendrite in response to somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation, and the rapid back-propagation into the dendritic arbor depended upon voltage-gated sodium and TEA-sensitive potassium channels. Our results indicate that thalamic interneuron dendrites integrate synaptic inputs that initiate action potentials, most likely in the axon initial segment, that then back-propagate with high-fidelity into the dendrites, resulting in a nearly synchronous release of GABA from both axonal and dendritic compartments. PMID:22171033

  16. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  17. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  18. Leukemic cell labeling with indium-111-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.; Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Yui, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kimura, H.; Kariyone, S.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemic cells were labeled with In-111-oxine in patients with acute leukemia. In vitro labeling studies revealed that labeling efficiency reached maximum 80.8 +- 3.6% (mean +- 1SD) by 2 times washes after 20 minutes incubation time. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test and in vitro culture of leukemic cells, which showed no cellular damage during labeling procedure. Elution of In-111 from the labeled cells was 10.0 +- 1.2% at 12 hours after labeling. For in vivo leukemic cell kinetic studies, more than 10/sup 8/ leukemic cells separated from Ficoll-Hypacque sedimentation were labeled by 30 minutes of In-111-oxine incubation and two times washes at 37 0 C. In vivo studies were performed in 7 patients with acute myeloblastic, lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. Labeled leukemic cells disappeared in single exponential fashion with half life of 9.6 to 31.8 hours. Total leukemic cell pool in peripheral circulation was calculated, which correlated well with peripheral leukemic cell counts (r=0.99). No relationship was observed between total leukemic cell pool and leukemic cell turnover rate. Migration patterns of labeled leukemic cells showed that pulmonary uptake was evident within 15 minutes after the infusion and returned to base-line. Splenic and hepatic uptake showed gradual increase up to 24 hours. Bone marrow accumulation was shown only in 2 cases. Presently, there are no suitable radionuclides for leukemic cell labeling. In-111-oxine labeled leukemic cells would overcome this difficulty

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  11. Low thalamic NAA-concentration corresponds to strong neural activation in working memory in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigren, Patrick; Tisell, Anders; Engström, Maria; Karlsson, Thomas; Leinhard Dahlqvist, Olof; Lundberg, Peter; Landtblom, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Kleine Levin Syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder of periodic hypersomnia and behavioural disturbances in young individuals. It has previously been shown to be associated with disturbances of working memory (WM), which, in turn, was associated with higher activation of the thalamus with increasing WM load, demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this study we aimed to further elucidate how these findings are related to the metabolism of the thalamus. fMRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied while performing a WM task. Standard metabolites were examined: n-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol, choline, creatine and glutamate-glutamine. Fourteen KLS-patients and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. The patients with active disease were examined in asymptomatic periods. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between thalamic fMRI-activation and thalamic NAA, i.e., high fMRI-activation corresponded to low NAA-levels. This correlation was not seen in healthy controls. Thalamic levels of NAA in patients and controls showed no significant differences between the groups. None of the other metabolites showed any co-variation with fMRI-activation. This study shows negative correlation between NAA-levels and fMRI-activity in the left thalamus of KLS-patients while performing a WM task. This correlation could not be found in healthy control subjects, primarily interpreted as an effect of increased effort in the patient group upon performing the task. It might indicate a disturbance in the neuronal networks responsible for WM in KLS patients, resulting in higher effort at lower WM load, compared with healthy subjects. The general relationship between NAA and BOLD-signal is also discussed in the article.

  12. Prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage with special reference to the level of consciousness and CT findings on admission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tanahashi, Norio; Nara, Masaharu; Takenaka, Nobuo

    1991-01-01

    The prognosis of thalamic hemorrhage was studied on the basis of neurological gradings on admission, mode of extension and hematoma size on brain CT. The subjects were 126 patients with thalamic hemorrhage who were admitted to Ashikaga Red Cross Hospital during the past ten years. Among the subjects, 120 patients (ages 64±10 yr; mean ±SD) were treated with conservative therapy, and 6 patients (ages 59±10 yr) with surgical therapy (ventricular drainage). Brain CT scans were done within 48 hours after onset in all patients. Neurological gradings, brain CT classification and prognosis were investigated according to the criteria of the Japanese Conference on Surgery for Cerebral Stroke. The results of conservative therapy were as follows: (1) In the grade I group on the neurological gradings, 29 of the 39 patients (74%) recovered to full work or an independent life, and none of them died. In the grade IV and V groups, mortality rate was 86%. (2) The prognosis was more unfavorable in type III than in types I and II on the CT classification. Twenty-six of the 36 patients (73%) with type I-a recovered to full work or an independent life. Twenty-five of the 34 patients (74%) with the type III-b died. (3) Only 4 of the 75 patients (5%) with less than 10 ml of hematoma volume died. In contrast, all 14 patients with more than 25 ml of hematoma volume died. (4) The mortality rate among patients with ventricular rupture (47%) was significantly higher than that among patients without ventricular rupture (2%) (p<0.001). (5) The mortality rate of patients with acute hydrocephalus (83%) was significantly higher than that of patients without acute hydrocephalus (20%) (p<0.001). From the above results, it is suggested that neurological grading, brain CT classification, hematoma volume, ventricular rupture and acute hydrocephalus are important prognostic factors for thalamic hemorrhage. (author)

  13. Analysis of correlation between white matter changes and functional responses in thalamic stroke: a DTI & EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Adil Deniz; Duru, Dilek Göksel; Yumerhodzha, Sami; Bebek, Nerses

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows in vivo structural brain mapping and detection of microstructural disruption of white matter (WM). One of the commonly used parameters for grading the anisotropic diffusivity in WM is fractional anisotropy (FA). FA value helps to quantify the directionality of the local tract bundle. Therefore, FA images are being used in voxelwise statistical analyses (VSA). The present study used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) of FA images across subjects, and computes the mean skeleton map to detect voxelwise knowledge of the tracts yielding to groupwise comparison. The skeleton image illustrates WM structure and shows any changes caused by brain damage. The microstructure of WM in thalamic stroke is investigated, and the VSA results of healthy control and thalamic stroke patients are reported. It has been shown that several skeleton regions were affected subject to the presence of thalamic stroke (FWE, p EEG (qEEG) scores and neurophysiological tests with the FA skeleton for the entire test group is also investigated. We compared measurements that are related to the same fibers across subjects, and discussed implications for VSA of WM in thalamic stroke cases, for the relationship between behavioral tests and FA skeletons, and for the correlation between the FA maps and qEEG scores.Results obtained through the regression analyses did not exceed the corrected statistical threshold values for multiple comparisons (uncorrected, p EEG, cingulum bundle and corpus callosum were found to be related. These areas are parts of the Default Mode Network (DMN) where DMN is known to be involved in resting state EEG theta activity. The relation between the EEG alpha band power values and FA values of the skeleton was found to support the cortico-thalamocortical cycles for both subject groups. Further, the neurophysiological tests including Benton Face Recognition (BFR), Digit Span test (DST), Warrington Topographic Memory test (WTMT

  14. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with traumatic brain injury: evaluating distribution of hypoperfusion and assessment of cognitive and behavioral impairment in relation to thalamic hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the distribution of hypoperfusion in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the relationship of thalamic hypoperfusion to severity of cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Tc-99m ECD SPECT and MRI were performed in 103 patients (M/F=81/22, mean age 34.7{+-} 15.4 yrs) from 0.5 to 55 months (mean 10.3 months) after TBI. The patients were divided into three groups showing no abnormalities (G1), focal (G2) and diffuse injury (G3) on MRI. Psychometric tests assessed 11 cognitive or behavioral items. In all patients, we evaluated the distribution of hypoperfused areas in SPECT, and in 57/103 patients, neuropsychological (NP) abnormalities in patients with thalamic hypoperfusion were compared with those of patients without thalamic hypoperfusion. The perfusion dificits were most frequently located in the frontal lobe (G1, 42.3%: G2 34.5%: G3 33.3%), temporal lobe (24{approx}26%) thalami (21{approx}22.4%), parietal and occipital lobe ({<=}10%). Numbers of NP abnormalities in the cases of cortical hypoperfusion with or without concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion were following: the former 4.7{+-}1.5 and the latter 3.2{+-}1.4 in G1, 5.0{+-}1.1 and 4.8{+-}1.2 in G2, 6.8{+-}1.8 and 6.3{+-}1.1 in G3, respectively. This difference according to thalamic hypoperfusion was significant in G1 (p=0.002), but was not significant in G2 or G3. SPECT in patients with TBI had demonstrated hypoperfusion mostly involving the frontal, temporal and thalami. In normal group on MRI, frontal hypoperfusion was more prominent than that of any other group, Furthermore in this group, SPECT could predict severity of NP outcome by concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion with cerebral cortical abnormalities.

  15. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with traumatic brain injury: evaluating distribution of hypoperfusion and assessment of cognitive and behavioral impairment in relation to thalamic hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution of hypoperfusion in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the relationship of thalamic hypoperfusion to severity of cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Tc-99m ECD SPECT and MRI were performed in 103 patients (M/F=81/22, mean age 34.7± 15.4 yrs) from 0.5 to 55 months (mean 10.3 months) after TBI. The patients were divided into three groups showing no abnormalities (G1), focal (G2) and diffuse injury (G3) on MRI. Psychometric tests assessed 11 cognitive or behavioral items. In all patients, we evaluated the distribution of hypoperfused areas in SPECT, and in 57/103 patients, neuropsychological (NP) abnormalities in patients with thalamic hypoperfusion were compared with those of patients without thalamic hypoperfusion. The perfusion dificits were most frequently located in the frontal lobe (G1, 42.3%: G2 34.5%: G3 33.3%), temporal lobe (24∼26%) thalami (21∼22.4%), parietal and occipital lobe (≤10%). Numbers of NP abnormalities in the cases of cortical hypoperfusion with or without concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion were following: the former 4.7±1.5 and the latter 3.2±1.4 in G1, 5.0±1.1 and 4.8±1.2 in G2, 6.8±1.8 and 6.3±1.1 in G3, respectively. This difference according to thalamic hypoperfusion was significant in G1 (p=0.002), but was not significant in G2 or G3. SPECT in patients with TBI had demonstrated hypoperfusion mostly involving the frontal, temporal and thalami. In normal group on MRI, frontal hypoperfusion was more prominent than that of any other group, Furthermore in this group, SPECT could predict severity of NP outcome by concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion with cerebral cortical abnormalities

  16. Impaired visual short-term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm-born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaux, Aurore; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Bäuml, Josef G; Müller, Hermann J; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Finke, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired. We hypothesized distinct associations between vSTM capacity and the structural integrity of cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connections, respectively, in preterm-born adults. A whole-report paradigm of briefly presented letter arrays based on the computationally formalized Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) was used to quantify parameter vSTM capacity in 26 preterm- and 21 full-term-born adults. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of posterior thalamic radiations and the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained by diffusion tensor imaging were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics and used as proxies for cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical structural connectivity. The relationship between vSTM capacity and cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connectivity, respectively, was significantly modified by prematurity. In full-term-born adults, the higher FA in the right posterior thalamic radiation the higher vSTM capacity; in preterm-born adults this FA-vSTM-relationship was inversed. In the splenium, higher FA was correlated with higher vSTM capacity in preterm-born adults, whereas no significant relationship was evident in full-term-born adults. These results indicate distinct associations between cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical integrity and vSTM capacity in preterm-and full-term-born adults. Data suggest compensatory cortico-cortical fiber re-organization for attention deficits after preterm delivery

  17. Strong, reliable and precise synaptic connections between thalamic relay cells and neurones of the nucleus reticularis in juvenile rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentet, Luc J; Ulrich, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) is composed entirely of GABAergic inhibitory neurones that receive input from pyramidal cortical neurones and excitatory relay cells of the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus (VB). It plays a major role in the synchrony of thalamic networks, yet the synaptic connections it receives from VB cells have never been fully physiologically characterised. Here, whole-cell current-clamp recordings were obtained from 22 synaptically connected VB-nRT cell pairs in slices of juvenile (P14–20) rats. At 34–36 °C, single presynaptic APs evoked unitary EPSPs in nRT cells with a peak amplitude of 7.4 ± 1.5 mV (mean ± s.e.m.) and a decay time constant of 15.1 ± 0.9 ms. Only four out of 22 pairs showed transmission failures at a mean rate of 6.8 ± 1.1 %. An NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated component was significant at rest and subsequent EPSPs in a train were depressed. Only one out of 14 pairs tested was reciprocally connected; the observed IPSPs in the VB cell had a peak amplitude of 0.8 mV and were completely abolished in the presence of 10 μm bicuculline. Thus, synaptic connections from VB cells to nRT neurones are mainly ‘drivers’, while a small subset of cells form closed disynaptic loops. PMID:12563005

  18. Nonlinear predictive control for adaptive adjustments of deep brain stimulation parameters in basal ganglia-thalamic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Wang, Jiang; Niu, Shuangxia; Li, Huiyan; Deng, Bin; Liu, Chen; Wei, Xile

    2018-02-01

    The efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) depends in part on the post-operative programming of stimulation parameters. Closed-loop stimulation is one method to realize the frequent adjustment of stimulation parameters. This paper introduced the nonlinear predictive control method into the online adjustment of DBS amplitude and frequency. This approach was tested in a computational model of basal ganglia-thalamic network. The autoregressive Volterra model was used to identify the process model based on physiological data. Simulation results illustrated the efficiency of closed-loop stimulation methods (amplitude adjustment and frequency adjustment) in improving the relay reliability of thalamic neurons compared with the PD state. Besides, compared with the 130Hz constant DBS the closed-loop stimulation methods can significantly reduce the energy consumption. Through the analysis of inter-spike-intervals (ISIs) distribution of basal ganglia neurons, the evoked network activity by the closed-loop frequency adjustment stimulation was closer to the normal state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  20. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving population density functions of cortical pyramidal and thalamic neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Hsu; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-02-01

    Compared with the Monte Carlo method, the population density method is efficient for modeling collective dynamics of neuronal populations in human brain. In this method, a population density function describes the probabilistic distribution of states of all neurons in the population and it is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation. In the past, the problem was mainly solved by using the finite difference method. In a previous study, a continuous Galerkin finite element method was found better than the finite difference method for solving the hyperbolic partial differential equation; however, the population density function often has discontinuity and both methods suffer from a numerical stability problem. The goal of this study is to improve the numerical stability of the solution using discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. To test the performance of the new approach, interaction of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons and a population of thalamic neurons was simulated. The numerical results showed good agreement between results of discontinuous Galerkin finite element and Monte Carlo methods. The convergence and accuracy of the solutions are excellent. The numerical stability problem could be resolved using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which has total-variation-diminishing property. The efficient approach will be employed to simulate the electroencephalogram or dynamics of thalamocortical network which involves three populations, namely, thalamic reticular neurons, thalamocortical neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical appraisal of stereotactic hematoma aspiration surgery for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage; With respect to volume of the hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Koji; Matsumoto, Keizo (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Three hundred and four patients with hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage were managed by medical treatment, ventricular drainage, or CT-controlled stereotactic aspiration surgery (AS). The therapeutic results of the 6-month outcome were analyzed and correlated with the volume of the hematoma. A hematoma volume of 20 ml was thought to be the critical size in determining whether the outcome would be favorable or unfavorable. Indications for AS are suggested as follows. In patients with a small-sized hematoma having a volume of less than 10 ml use of AS should be restricted to patients with severe paralysis or other neurological complications and the elderly (aged 70 years or older). For patients with a medium-sized hematoma having a volume between 10 ml and 20 ml, AS is indicated for patients having severe paralysis and disturbances of consciousness. For patients with a large-sized hematoma having a volume of 20 ml or more, AS increases not only the survival rate of patients but also reduces the number of bedridden patients. We conclude that AS opens up a new avenue of surgical treatment for hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage, which has been no indication for hematoma evacuation by conventional craniotomy. (author).

  2. Longitudinal development of thalamic and internal capsule microstructure in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kristine; Travers, Brittany G; Dadalko, Olga I; Dean, Douglas C; Tromp, Do; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel; Freeman, Abigail; Prigge, Molly D; Froehlich, Alyson; Duffield, Tyler C; Zielinski, Brandon A; Bigler, Erin D; Lange, Nicholas; Anderson, Jeff S; Alexander, Andrew L; Lainhart, Janet E

    2018-03-01

    childhood, thalamic microstructure was distinct in the ASD group compared to the typically developing group. However, these group differences appeared to narrow with age, suggesting that the thalamus continues to dynamically change in ASD into adulthood. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    -frontal cortex, inferior frontal, temporo-parietal junction, medial temporal and frontal pole also had enhanced structural connectivity with the striatum and thalamus in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In addition, the cortico-striatal pathways were characterized by elevated fractional anisotropy and diminished radial diffusivity, suggesting microstructural axonal abnormalities of white matter in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. These changes were more prominent in females with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to males and were not related to the current medication status. Taken together, our data showed widespread structural abnormalities in cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic white matter pathways in patients with Gilles de la Tourette, which likely result from abnormal brain development in this syndrome. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  4. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Hatano, Taku; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Satoh, Katsuya; Kimura, Akio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of autopsy-verified MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 46-year-old patient with a 16-month history of abnormal behavior, progressive dementia, insomnia, and speech disturbances without family history. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, insomnia, speech disturbance, gait disturbance and bilaterally exaggerated tendon reflexes. Both brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, including 14-3-3 protein, yielded normal results. An easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis for (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata. PRNP gene analysis revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Neuropathological examinations revealed severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. A slight depletion of Purkinje cells was observed. PrP immunostaining showed no obvious PrP deposits in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, or brainstem; however, mild synaptic-type PrP deposits with some smaller plaque-like structures were only partially observed in the localized region of the frontal lobe with the spongiform change. Western blot analyses of protease-resistant PrP showed a type 2 pattern. In conclusion, eZIS analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images is useful for detecting both thalamic and medullary lesions. This is the first case of medullary lesions detected in a live patient with MM2-thalamic-type sCJD using SPECT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Social cognitive and neurocognitive deficits in inpatients with unilateral thalamic lesions — pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkos E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Wilkos,2 Timothy JB Brown,3 Ksenia Slawinska,1 Katarzyna A Kucharska2,3 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroses, Personality and Eating Disorders Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Medical Education, Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK Background: The essential role of the thalamus in neurocognitive processes has been well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about its involvement in social cognitive processes such as recognition of emotion, mentalizing, or empathy. The aim of the study: This study was designed to compare the performance of eight patients (five males, three females, mean age ± SD: 63.7±7.9 years at early stage of unilateral thalamic lesions and eleven healthy controls (six males, five females, 49.6±12.2 years in neurocognitive tests (CogState Battery: Groton Maze Learning Test, GML; Groton Maze Learning Test-Delayed Recall, GML-DR; Detection Task, DT; Identification Task, IT; One Card Learning Task, OCLT; One Back Task, OBT; Two Back Task, TBT; Set-Shifting Task, S-ST and other well-known tests (Benton Visual Retention Test, BVRT; California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT; The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCF; Trail Making Test, TMT part A and B; Color – Word Stroop Task, CWST; Verbal Fluency Test, VFT, and social cognitive tasks (The Penn Emotion Recognition Test, ER40; Penn Emotion Discrimination Task, EmoDiff40; The Penn Emotional Acuity Test, PEAT40; Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version II; Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20. Methods: Thalamic-damaged subjects were included if they experienced a single-episode ischemic stroke localized in right or left thalamus. The patients were examined at 3 weeks after the stroke onset. All were right handed. In addition, the following clinical scales were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II. An inclusion

  6. Distonia virtual por infarto talâmico posterolateral ventral: relato de caso Virtual dystonia due to a posteroventrolateral thalamic infarct: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo De Oliveira-Souza

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata o caso de um diabético hipertenso acometido de uma forma fragmentária da síndrome de Dejerine-Roussy e "sensação de câimbra dolorosa" nos artelhos quando se deitava ou removia o pé do contato com o chão. A propriocepção estava acentuadamente comprometida nos artelhos que abrigavam a câimbra. Seu relato se adequava ao padrão das distonias fixas, não transcrita, todavia, como deformidade motora visível, razão pela qual designamos o fenômeno de "distonia virtual". A RNM mostrou imagem de infarto do núcleo lateral posterior do tálamo (VPL e degeneração walleríana de projeções VPL-corticais. O SPECT, exclusão do tálamo e hipoperfusão do córtex parietal dorsal ipsilateral e dos núcleos da base bilateralmente. Sugerimos que, em decorrência da interrupção de aferentes propríoceptivos no tálamo, o córtex somestésico (S-I originou atividade topograficamente ordenada, que emergiu sob a forma de distonia como representação mental subjetiva. Sugerimos que a distonia virtual represente o análogo somestésico das alucinoses unimodais, cujo exemplo mais conhecido é a síndrome de Bonnet.Behaviors, actions and movements may take place as purely mental events, as in the obsessions of obsessive-compulsive disorder, phantom limbs or sensory tics. In the present paper we report on the case of a 43-year-old diabetic hypertensive man who developed an incomplete form of the Dejerine-Roussy syndrome. Whenever he lay down or withdrew the leg from the ground, he experienced the illusion that the left intermediate toes painfully twisted and mounted each other. Conversely, as he stood up or firm pressure was artificially exerted against the sole, there was a dramatic relief from the "cramp" whose illusory character could he be certain of only by looking down at the foot. By passively moving his toes into the referred position we realized that the experienced deformity conformed to the pattern of a fixed

  7. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  8. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  9. The Medial Dorsal Thalamic Nucleus and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of the Rat Function Together to Support Associative Recognition and Recency but Not Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Laura; Brown, Malcolm W.; Aggleton, John P.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2013-01-01

    In humans recognition memory deficits, a typical feature of diencephalic amnesia, have been tentatively linked to mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) damage. Animal studies have occasionally investigated the role of the MD in single-item recognition, but have not systematically analyzed its involvement in other recognition memory processes. In…

  10. The Activity of Thalamic Nucleus Reuniens Is Critical for Memory Retrieval, but Not Essential for the Early Phase of "Off-Line" Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hao; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Eschenko, Oxana

    2018-01-01

    Spatial navigation depends on the hippocampal function, but also requires bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus (HPC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cross-regional communication is typically regulated by critical nodes of a distributed brain network. The thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both HPC and…

  11. The role of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and reticular thalamic nucleus in pathogenesis of genetically determined absence epilepsy in rats : A lesion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdiev, R. K.; Chepurnov, S. A.; Veening, J. G.; Chepurnova, N. E.; van Luiftelaar, G.

    2007-01-01

    The role of cholinergic nucleus basalis (of Meynert) and the reticular thalamic nucleus in mechanisms of the generation spontaneous spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) was investigated in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Selective lesions were affected by local unilateral intraparenchymal

  12. Different expressions of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel types in the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus of the absence epileptic WAG/Rij rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkamp-Janssen, M.C. van de; Scheenen, W.J.J.M.; Kuijpers-Kwant, F.J.; Kozicz, L.T.; Veening, J.G.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; McEnery, M.W.; Roubos, E.W.

    2004-01-01

    In the WAG/Rij rat, a model for human absence epilepsy, spike-wave discharges (SWD) and absence epileptic behavior develop after the age of 3 months. The rostral part of the reticular thalamic nucleus (rRTN) is involved in SWD. Ca(2+) channels play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of

  13. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  14. The origins of thalamic inputs to grasp zones in frontal cortex of macaque monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbawie, Omar A.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Kaas, Jon H.

    2015-01-01

    The hand representation in primary motor cortex (M1) is instrumental to manual dexterity in primates. In Old World monkeys, rostral and caudal aspects of the hand representation are located in the precentral gyrus and the anterior bank of the central sulcus, respectively. We previously reported the organization of the cortico-cortical connections of the grasp zone in rostral M1. Here we describe the organization of thalamocortical connections that were labeled from the same tracer injections....

  15. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  16. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  17. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  18. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  1. Accurate Determination of Leucine and Valine Side-chain Conformations using U-[{sup 15}N/{sup 13}C/{sup 2}H]/[{sup 1}H-(methine/methyl)-Leu/Val] Isotope Labeling, NOE Pattern Recognition, and Methine C{gamma}-H{gamma}/C{beta}-H{beta} Residual Dipolar Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun; Iwahara, Junji; Clore, G. Marius [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)], E-mail: mariusc@intra.niddk.nih.gov

    2005-10-15

    An isotope labeling scheme is described in which specific protonation of methine and methyl protons of leucine and valine is obtained on a {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C labeled background with uniform deuteration of all other non-exchangeable protons. The presence of a protonated methine group has little effect on the favorable relaxation properties of the methyl protons of Leu and Val. This labeling scheme permits the rotameric state of leucine side-chains to be readily determined by simple inspection of the pattern of H{gamma}(i)-H{sub N}(i) and H{gamma}(i)-H{sub N}(i+1) NOEs in a 3D {sup 15}N-separated NOE spectrum free of complications arising from spectral overlap and spin-diffusion. In addition, one-bond residual dipolar couplings for the methine {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H bond vectors of Leu and Val can be accurately determined from an intensity J-modulated constant-time HCCH-COSY experiment and used to accurately orient the side-chains of Leu and Val. Incorporation of these data into structure refinement improves the accuracy with which the conformations of Leu and Val side-chains can be established. This is important to ensure optimal packing both within the protein core and at intermolecular interfaces. The impact of the method on protein structure determination is illustrated by application to enzyme IIA{sup Chitobiose}, a 34 kDa homotrimeric phosphotransferase protein.

  2. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lieshout, P.; Renier, W.; Eling, P.; de Bot, K.; Slis, I.

    1990-01-01

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area

  3. On the genesis of spike-wave oscillations in a mean-field model of human thalamic and corticothalamic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Serafim; Terry, John R.; Breakspear, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the genesis of spike-wave activity-a hallmark of many generalized epileptic seizures-is investigated in a reduced mean-field model of human neural activity. Drawing upon brain modelling and dynamical systems theory, we demonstrate that the thalamic circuitry of the system is crucial for the generation of these abnormal rhythms, observing that the combination of inhibition from reticular nuclei and excitation from the cortical signal, interplay to generate the spike-wave oscillation. The mechanism revealed provides an explanation of why approaches based on linear stability and Heaviside approximations to the activation function have failed to explain the phenomena of spike-wave behaviour in mean-field models. A mathematical understanding of this transition is a crucial step towards relating spiking network models and mean-field approaches to human brain modelling

  4. Thalamic VPM nucleus in the behaving monkey. III. Effects of reversible inactivation by lidocaine on thermal and mechanical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G H; Bushnell, M C; Oliveras, J L; Bastrash, N; Tremblay, N

    1993-11-01

    1. The present study evaluates the necessity of the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM) for discrimination of the intensity of noxious heating, innocuous cooling, and innocuous tactile (airpuff) stimulation of the maxillary skin. 2. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to detect small differences (Lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) was microinjected into regions of thalamus where single-unit recordings had identified neuronal responses to the noxious heating and/or cooling stimuli. The effectiveness of the anesthetic blockade was monitored by multiunit recordings using microelectrodes positioned 1-3 mm from the orifice of the injection cannula. The monkey's ability to detect near-threshold changes in stimulus intensity was compared before and after each injection. 3. During six experimental sessions, single injections of 1-4 microliters lidocaine near the dorsomedial border of VPM did not significantly alter the monkey's ability to detect small changes in the intensity of noxious heat, cool, airpuff, or visual stimuli despite neurophysiological evidence that spontaneous neuronal activity was blocked within parts of VPM. 4. During three experiments, dual simultaneous microinjections of lidocaine (delivered through 2 microcannulae separated by approximately 1 mm) resulted in profound deficits in noxious heat discrimination, with lesser deficits in cool and airpuff discrimination; visual discrimination was never altered. Monitoring of adjacent microelectrodes revealed that although activity ventral to the injection sites was blocked, activity in medial thalamic nuclei, implicated in nociceptive processing, was probably not altered by these injections. 5. These data suggest that VPM is important for the perception of noxious and innocuous thermal stimuli as well as for the perception of tactile stimuli. However, considering the ineffectiveness of small single microinjections of lidocaine, it appears that some critical proportion of VPM must be inactivated to disrupt

  5. Control of Somatosensory Cortical Processing by Thalamic Posterior Medial Nucleus: A New Role of Thalamus in Cortical Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castejon

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of thalamocortical interaction comes mainly from studying lemniscal thalamic systems. Less is known about paralemniscal thalamic nuclei function. In the vibrissae system, the posterior medial nucleus (POm is the corresponding paralemniscal nucleus. POm neurons project to L1 and L5A of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 in the rat brain. It is known that L1 modifies sensory-evoked responses through control of intracortical excitability suggesting that L1 exerts an influence on whisker responses. Therefore, thalamocortical pathways targeting L1 could modulate cortical firing. Here, using a combination of electrophysiology and pharmacology in vivo, we have sought to determine how POm influences cortical processing. In our experiments, single unit recordings performed in urethane-anesthetized rats showed that POm imposes precise control on the magnitude and duration of supra- and infragranular barrel cortex whisker responses. Our findings demonstrated that L1 inputs from POm imposed a time and intensity dependent regulation on cortical sensory processing. Moreover, we found that blocking L1 GABAergic inhibition or blocking P/Q-type Ca2+ channels in L1 prevents POm adjustment of whisker responses in the barrel cortex. Additionally, we found that POm was also controlling the sensory processing in S2 and this regulation was modulated by corticofugal activity from L5 in S1. Taken together, our data demonstrate the determinant role exerted by the POm in the adjustment of somatosensory cortical processing and in the regulation of cortical processing between S1 and S2. We propose that this adjustment could be a thalamocortical gain regulation mechanism also present in the processing of information between cortical areas.

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  7. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  8. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  9. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  10. Lung transit of /sup 111/Indium-labelled granulocytes. Relationship to labelling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Peters, A.M.; Danpure, H.J.; Reavy, H.J.; Osman, S.; Lavender, J.P. (Hammersmith Hospital, London, England)

    1983-01-01

    The early in vivo distribution of /sup 111/Indium-labelled granulocytes, recorded by dynamic imaging using a gamma camera and computer, varied according to the separation and labelling technique. Following i.v. bolus injection, 4 kinetic patterns could be identified: (A) rapid transit through the pulmonary vasculature, (B) delayed transit through the lung with clearance by about 30 min, (C) complete retention by the lung, for up to 10 min, followed by slow release over a period of 1 to 2 h, (D) delayed transit through the lung with a similar time course to (B) but with subsequent heavy liver uptake. Granulocytes labelled with /sup 111/In-tropolonate and maintained in plasma throughout the labelling procedure, whether injected as a 'pure' (separated by plasma-enriched density gradient centrifugation) or 'crude' (seprated by differential centrifugation) preparation, displayed type A kinetics, thought to most closely represent the normal behaviour of granulocytes. 'Crude' cells labelled in saline with /sup 111/In-acetylacetonate displayed type B kinetics. 'Pure' cells isolated on Percoll-saline and labelled in saline with /sup 111/In-acetylacetonate displayed type C kinetics, thought to represent granulocyte 'stimulation' and/or damage, or type D kientics, thought to represent severe damage. The importance is stressed of labelling granulocytes for kinetic studies with a technique that results in minimal alteration of cell behaviour.

  11. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  12. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  13. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  14. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  15. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  16. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...

  17. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  18. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  19. Comparative Analysis of Baby Food Labelling in Hungary and in Romania: Consumers’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Noémi Hajdú; Katalin Lipták; Zsuzsa Săplăcan

    2018-01-01

    Baby food represents a growing segment of the food industry; the baby food labelling issues affect more and more mothers who want to make better and safer nutritional choices. In a continuously improving food labelling regulation environment consumer studies regarding the baby food labelling are very limited. Present article has an exploratory nature and aims to find specific patterns of baby food buying behaviour and labelling preference in Romania and Hungary, and also to rev...

  20. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  1. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-01-01

    . The labelling yield was 98%. Stability and biodistribution studies were performed showing that the complex was very stable, however an undesirable pattern of biodistribution, possibly caused by a high protein binding, was found. (author)

  2. Radiopharmaceutical labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies

  3. Intracellular postsynaptic cannabinoid receptors link thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors to TRPC-like channels in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Kolaj, M; Renaud, L P

    2015-12-17

    In rat thalamic paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances excitability via concurrent decrease in G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK)-like and activation of transient receptor potential cation (TRPC)4/5-like cationic conductances. An exploration of intracellular signaling pathways revealed the TRH-induced current to be insensitive to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitors, but reduced by D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific PLC (PC-PLC). A corresponding change in the I-V relationship implied suppression of the cationic component of the TRH-induced current. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a product of the hydrolysis of PC. Studies focused on the isolated cationic component of the TRH-induced response revealed a reduction by RHC80267, an inhibitor of DAG lipase, the enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of DAG to the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Further investigation revealed enhancement of the cationic component in the presence of either JZL184 or WWL70, inhibitors of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of 2-AG. A decrease in the TRH-induced response was noted in the presence of rimonabant or SR144528, membrane permeable CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists, respectively. A decrease in the TRH-induced current by intracellular, but not by bath application of the membrane impermeable peptide hemopressin, selective for CB1 receptors, suggests a postsynaptic intracellular localization of these receptors. The TRH-induced current was increased in the presence of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) or JWH133, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, respectively. The PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, known to inhibit TRPC translocation, decreased the response to TRH. In addition, a TRH-induced enhancement of the low-threshold spike was prevented by both rimonabant, and SR144528. TRH had no influence on excitatory or inhibitory miniature

  4. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  5. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  6. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  7. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  8. The effect of unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation on the vocal dysfunction in a patient with spasmodic dysphonia: interrogating cerebellar and pallidal neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poologaindran, Anujan; Ivanishvili, Zurab; Morrison, Murray D; Rammage, Linda A; Sandhu, Mini K; Polyhronopoulos, Nancy E; Honey, Christopher R

    2018-02-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a neurological disorder of the voice where a patient's ability to speak is compromised due to involuntary contractions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Since the 1980s, SD has been treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX) injections into the throat. This therapy is limited by the delayed-onset of benefits, wearing-off effects, and repeated injections required every 3 months. In a patient with essential tremor (ET) and coincident SD, the authors set out to quantify the effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on vocal function while investigating the underlying motor thalamic circuitry. A 79-year-old right-handed woman with ET and coincident adductor SD was referred to our neurosurgical team. While primarily treating her limb tremor, the authors studied the effects of unilateral, thalamic DBS on vocal function using the Unified Spasmodic Dysphonia Rating Scale (USDRS) and voice-related quality of life (VRQOL). Since dystonia is increasingly being considered a multinodal network disorder, an anterior trajectory into the left thalamus was deliberately chosen such that the proximal contacts of the electrode were in the ventral oralis anterior (Voa) nucleus (pallidal outflow) and the distal contacts were in the ventral intermediate (Vim) nucleus (cerebellar outflow). In addition to assessing on/off unilateral thalamic Vim stimulation on voice, the authors experimentally assessed low-voltage unilateral Vim, Voa, or multitarget stimulation in a prospective, randomized, doubled-blinded manner. The evaluators were experienced at rating SD and were familiar with the vocal tremor of ET. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to study the pre- and posttreatment effect of DBS on voice. Unilateral left thalamic Vim stimulation (DBS on) significantly improved SD vocal dysfunction compared with no stimulation (DBS off), as measured by the USDRS (p dysphonia. A Phase 1 pilot trial (DEBUSSY; clinical trial no. NCT02558634, clinicaltrials.gov) is

  9. Efficacy of T2*-Weighted Gradient-Echo MRI in Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unilateral Thalamic Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Mitaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is an uncommon cause of stroke with diverse etiologies and varied clinical presentations. Because of variability in clinical presentation and neuroimaging, CVT remains a diagnostic challenge. Recently, some studies have highlighted the value of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI (T2*WI in the diagnosis of CVT. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with CVT due to a hypercoagulable state associated with cancer. On the initial T2-weighted image (T2WI, there was a diffuse high-intensity lesion in the right thalamus, extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule and midbrain. T2*WI showed diminished signal and enlargement of the right basilar vein and the vein of Galen. Even though there is a wide range of differential diagnoses in unilateral thalamic lesions, and a single thalamus lesion is a rare entity of CVT, based on T2*WI findings we could make an early diagnosis and perform treatment. Our case report suggests that T2*WI could detect thrombosed veins and be a useful method of early diagnosis in CVT.

  10. The short- and long-term proteomic effects of sleep deprivation on the cortical and thalamic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Attila; Györffy, Balázs András; Gulyássy, Péter; Völgyi, Katalin; Tóth, Vilmos; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kis, Viktor; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Szabó, Zoltán; Janáky, Tamás; Drahos, László; Juhász, Gábor; Kékesi, Katalin Adrienna

    2017-03-01

    Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8h of total SD by gentle handling and 16h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively. The SD efficiency was verified by electrophysiology. Protein abundance alterations of the synaptosomes were analyzed by fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and by tandem mass spectrometry. As several altered proteins were found to be involved in synaptic strength regulation, our data can support the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis function of sleep and highlight the long-term influence of SD after the recovery sleep period, mostly on cortical synapses. Furthermore, the large-scale and brain area-specific protein network change in the synapses may support both ideas of sleep-related synaptogenesis and molecular maintenance and reorganization in normal rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The correlation of the thalamic lesions on MRI with cerebral cortical blood flow in patients with lacunar infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatame, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsuda, Minoru; Fujimoto, Naoki; Fukuyama, Hidenao.

    1995-01-01

    We performed MRI and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 123 I-IMP SPECT microsphere model in twenty three right-handed patients with lacunar infarction. Twelve of 23 patients showed chronic deterioration of dysarthria and gait disturbance. The mental function of the patients was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State (MMS) examination. The area of high intensity on T2-weighted images was quantitatively analyzed in the cerebral white matter (WM), lenticular nucleus (LN) and thalamus (THA). The score of MMS was positively correlated with the local CBF in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.05). Also, the area of high intensity in the left THA showed a significant negative correlation with local CBF of the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices (p<0.001). The high intensity areas of the bilateral LN, right WM and right THA had a significant but weaker negative correlation with local CBF of some cortices. These findings suggest that thalamic lesions on the dominant side play an important role in the reduction of cortical blood flow and the deterioration of mental functions in patients with lacunar infarction. (author)

  12. Occipital transtentorial/falcine approach, a "cross-court" trajectory to accessing contralateral posterior thalamic lesions: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Kenichiro; Fujii, Masazumi; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Surgical treatment of lesions in the posterior thalamus, especially those extending laterally, is technically challenging because of a deep surgical field, narrow operative corridor, and the surrounding critical neurovascular structures. The authors describe an occipital transtentorial/falcine approach (OTFA) that was successfully used in the treatment of a cavernous malformation (CM) extending laterally from thalamus to midbrain. A 40-year-old man complained of progressive right hemiparesis and numbness. Radiological evaluation revealed a large CM in the left thalamus, surfacing on the pulvinar thalami, and extending 4 cm laterally from the midline. In addition to the usual procedures of a right-sided occipital transtentorial approach, the authors incised the falx cerebri to expand the operative corridor to the left thalamus. They achieved generous exposure of the left thalamus through a "cross-court" oblique trajectory while avoiding excessive retraction on the occipital lobe. The CM was completely removed, and no newly developed or worsening deficits were detected postoperatively. To better understand the OTFA and its application, the authors performed a cadaveric dissection. The OTFA provides increased exposure of the posterior thalamus without cortical incision and facilitates lateral access to this area through the "cross-court" operative corridor. This approach adds to the armamentarium for neurosurgeons treating thalamic lesions.

  13. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  14. The Language of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  15. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  17. Effect of reagent charge on the labeling of erythrocyte membrane proteins by photoactivated reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, J.C.; Hakimian, R.; Shimer, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Leaky erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with 3 H-[2-(4-azido-2-nitroanilino)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (cationic label) or 3 H-N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-β-alanine (anionic label). After the membranes were thoroughly washed, seven times as much cationic label was associated with the membranes as anionic label at 5 μM, whereas at 50 μM the cationic label was favored 15-fold. The distribution of label in the membrane proteins was ascertain by SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. At 50 μM cationic label, erythrocyte membrane protein bands 1,2,3,4.2, and 5 were intensely labeled, while band 6 was labeled weakly. At 5 μM cationic label, bands 1 and 4.2 were heavily labeled, while 2,3 and 5 were labeled less well. At both 50 μM and 5 μM anionic label, bands 1 and 6 were most prominently labeled. Bands 2,3,4.2 and 5 were labeled also at 50 μM, but they were labeled only very weakly at 5 μM. Band 4.1 was labeled very poorly if at all by either reagent. A mixture of the reagents gave an additive pattern. Thus, the charge and concentration of these reagents appear to play a major role in their ability to label membrane proteins indiscriminately. Because these reagents contain the same chromophore, 4-azido-2-nitroaniline, and differ mainly only in their charge, they may prove useful in assessing the location of charged sites on proteins in supramolecular complexes

  18. What can Google Trends data tell us about dialect labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: first of all it sets out to explore the usefulness of Google Trends to the study of language and the perception of variants and, secondly, it investigates the social realities of dialect labels as reflected in searches on the Internet search engine Google...... for some of the patterns of search volume over time and the differences between the three dialect labels are sought by considering the impact of popular culture and TV shows....

  19. Myelin-associated proteins labelled by slow axonal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, P.P.; DuBois, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of protein metabolism and provides evidence that the neuronal contribution to myelin metabolism may be restricted to lipids only. On the other hand this line of research led to the partial characterization of a group of neuronal proteins probably involved in axo-glial interactions subserving the onset of myelination and the structural maintenance of the mature myelin sheath. Intraocular injection of radioactive amino acids allows the study of the anterograde transport of labelled proteins along retinofugal fibres which are well myelinated. Myelin extracted from the optic nerve and tract under these conditions also contains labelled proteins. Three hypotheses are available to explain this phenomenon. To offer an explanation for this phenomenon the work was planned as follows. a) Characterization of the spatio-temporal pattern of labelling of myelin, in order to define the experimental conditions (survival time and region of the optic pathway to be studied) necessary to obtain maximal labelling. b) Characterization (by gel electrophoresis) of the myelin-associated proteins which become labelled by axonal transport, in order to work on a consistent pattern of labelling. c) Investigation of the possible mechanism responsible for the labelling of myelin-associated proteins. (Auth.)

  20. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  1. Spiking in auditory cortex following thalamic stimulation is dominated by cortical network activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Bryan M.; Raz, Aeyal; Uhlrich, Daniel J.; Smith, Philip H.; Banks, Matthew I.

    2014-01-01

    The state of the sensory cortical network can have a profound impact on neural responses and perception. In rodent auditory cortex, sensory responses are reported to occur in the context of network events, similar to brief UP states, that produce “packets” of spikes and are associated with synchronized synaptic input (Bathellier et al., 2012; Hromadka et al., 2013; Luczak et al., 2013). However, traditional models based on data from visual and somatosensory cortex predict that ascending sensory thalamocortical (TC) pathways sequentially activate cells in layers 4 (L4), L2/3, and L5. The relationship between these two spatio-temporal activity patterns is unclear. Here, we used calcium imaging and electrophysiological recordings in murine auditory TC brain slices to investigate the laminar response pattern to stimulation of TC afferents. We show that although monosynaptically driven spiking in response to TC afferents occurs, the vast majority of spikes fired following TC stimulation occurs during brief UP states and outside the context of the L4>L2/3>L5 activation sequence. Specifically, monosynaptic subthreshold TC responses with similar latencies were observed throughout layers 2–6, presumably via synapses onto dendritic processes located in L3 and L4. However, monosynaptic spiking was rare, and occurred primarily in L4 and L5 non-pyramidal cells. By contrast, during brief, TC-induced UP states, spiking was dense and occurred primarily in pyramidal cells. These network events always involved infragranular layers, whereas involvement of supragranular layers was variable. During UP states, spike latencies were comparable between infragranular and supragranular cells. These data are consistent with a model in which activation of auditory cortex, especially supragranular layers, depends on internally generated network events that represent a non-linear amplification process, are initiated by infragranular cells and tightly regulated by feed-forward inhibitory

  2. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  3. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  4. Transductive Pattern Learning for Information Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLernon, Brian; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    .... We present TPLEX, a semi-supervised learning algorithm for information extraction that can acquire extraction patterns from a small amount of labelled text in conjunction with a large amount of unlabelled text...

  5. A therapeutic dose of zolpidem reduces thalamic GABA in healthy volunteers: a proton MRS study at 4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C; Jensen, J Eric; Penetar, David M; Prescot, Andrew P; Lukas, Scott E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2009-05-01

    Zolpidem is a nonbenzodiazepine sedative/hypnotic that acts at GABA(A) receptors to influence inhibitory neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system. A great deal is known about the behavioral effects of this drug in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about zolpidem's specific effects on neurochemistry in vivo. We evaluated how acute administration of zolpidem affected levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and other brain metabolites. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 4 T was employed to measure the effects of zolpidem on brain chemistry in 19 healthy volunteers. Participants underwent scanning following acute oral administration of a therapeutic dose of zolpidem (10 mg) in a within-subject, single-blind, placebo-controlled, single-visit study. In addition to neurochemical measurements from single voxels within the anterior cingulate (ACC) and thalamus, a series of questionnaires were administered periodically throughout the experimental session to assess subjective mood states. Zolpidem reduced GABA levels in the thalamus, but not the ACC. There were no treatment effects with respect to other metabolite levels. Self-reported ratings of "dizzy," "nauseous," "confused," and "bad effects" were increased relative to placebo, as were ratings on the sedation/intoxication (PCAG) and psychotomimetic/dysphoria (LSD) scales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the decrease in GABA and "dizzy." Zolpidem engendered primarily dysphoric-like effects and the correlation between reduced thalamic GABA and "dizzy" may be a function of zolpidem's interaction with alpha1GABA(A) receptors in the cerebellum, projecting through the vestibular system to the thalamus.

  6. A therapeutic dose of zolpidem reduces thalamic GABA in healthy volunteers: A proton MRS study at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Jensen, J. Eric; Penetar, David M.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Lukas, scott E.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine sedative/hypnotic that acts at GABAA receptors to influence inhibitory neurotransmission throughout the central nervous system. A great deal is known about the behavioral effects of this drug in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about zolpidem’s specific effects on neurochemistry in vivo. Objectives We evaluated how acute administration of zolpidem affected levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and other brain metabolites. Methods Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 4 Tesla was employed to measure the effects of zolpidem on brain chemistry in 19 healthy volunteers. Participants underwent scanning following acute oral administration of a therapeutic dose of zolpidem (10 mg) in a within-subject, single-blind, placebo-controlled, single-visit study. In addition to neurochemical measurements from single voxels within the anterior cingulate (ACC) and thalamus, a series of questionnaires were administered periodically throughout the experimental session to assess subjective mood states. Results Zolpidem reduced GABA levels in the thalamus, but not the ACC. There were no treatment effects with respect to other metabolite levels. Self-reported ratings of “dizzy”, “nauseous”, “confused”, and “bad effects” were increased relative to placebo, as were ratings on the sedation/intoxication (PCAG) and psychotomimetic/dysphoria (LSD) scales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the decrease in GABA and “dizzy”. Conclusions Zolpidem engendered primarily dysphoric-like effects and the correlation between reduced thalamic GABA and “dizzy” may be a function of zolpidem’s interaction with α1GABAA receptors in the cerebellum, projecting through the vestibular system to the thalamus. PMID:19125238

  7. Thalamic volume deficit contributes to procedural and explicit memory impairment in HIV infection with primary alcoholism comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2014-12-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes.

  8. A thalamic-fronto-parietal structural covariance network emerging in the course of recovery from hand paresis after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eAbela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe structural covariance networks of grey matter volume (GMV change in 28 patients with first-ever stroke to the primary sensorimotor cortices, and to investigate their relationship to hand function recovery and local GMV change.Methods: Tensor based morphometry maps derived from high resolution structural images were subject to principal component analyses to identify the networks. We calculated correlations between network expression and local GMV change, sensorimotor hand function and lesion volume. To verify which of the structural covariance networks of GMV change have a significant relationship to hand function we performed an additional multivariate regression approach.Results: Expression of the second network, explaining 9.1% of variance, correlated with GMV increase in the medio-dorsal (md thalamus and hand motor skill. Patients with positive expression coefficients were distinguished by significantly higher GMV-increase of this structure during stroke recovery. Significant nodes of this network were located in md thalamus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and higher order sensorimotor cortices. Parameter of hand function had a unique relationship to the network and depended on an interaction between network expression and lesion volume. Inversely network expression is limited in patients with large lesion volumes.Conclusions: Chronic phase of sensorimotor cortical stroke has been characterized by a large scale covarying structural network in the ipsilesional hemisphere associated specifically with sensorimotor hand skill. Its expression is related to GMV-increase of md thalamus, one constituent of the network, and correlated with the cortico-striato-thalamic loop involved in control of motor execution and higher order sensorimotor cortices. A close relation between expression of this network with degree of recovery might indicate reduced compensatory resources in the impaired subgroup.

  9. Role of the thalamic nucleus reuniens in mediating interactions between the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex during spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the neural mechanisms of spatial working memory remain poorly understood. Although the dorsal hippocampus is known to be critical for memory-guided behavior, experimental evidence suggests that spatial working memory depends not only on the hippocampus itself, but also on the circuit comprised of the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Disruption of hippocampal-mPFC interactions may result in failed transfer of spatial and contextual information processed by the hippocampus to the circuitry in mPFC responsible for decision making and goal-directed behavior. Oscillatory synchrony between the hippocampus and mPFC has been shown to increase in tasks with high spatial working memory demand. However, the mechanisms and circuitry supporting hippocampal-mPFC interactions during these tasks is unknown. The midline thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE is reciprocally connected to both the hippocampus and the mPFC and has been shown to be critical for a variety of working memory tasks. Therefore, it is likely that hippocampal-mPFC oscillatory synchrony is modulated by RE activity. This article will review the anatomical connections between the hippocampus, mPFC and RE along with the behavioral studies that have investigated the effects of RE disruption on working memory task performance. The article will conclude with suggestions for future directions aimed at identifying the specific role of the RE in regulating functional interactions between the hippocampus and the PFC and investigating the degree to which these interactions contribute to spatial working memory.

  10. Role of thalamic projection in NMDA receptor-induced disruption of cortical slow oscillation and short-term plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás eKiss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptor (NMDAR antagonists, such as phencyclidine, ketamine or dizocilpine (MK-801 are commonly used in psychiatric drug discovery in order to model several symptoms of schizophrenia, including psychosis and impairments in working memory. In spite of the widespread use of NMDAR antagonists in preclinical and clinical studies, our understanding of the mode of action of these drugs on brain circuits and neuronal networks is still limited. In the present study spontaneous local field potential (LFP, multi- (MUA and single unit activity, and evoked potential, including paired-pulse facilitation (PPF in response to electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral subiculum were carried out in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in urethane anesthetized rats. Systemic administration of MK-801 (0.05~mg/kg, i.v. decreased overall MUA, with a diverse effect on single unit activity, including increased, decreased or unchanged firing, and in line with our previous findings shifted delta frequency power of the LFP and disrupted PPF (Kiss et al., Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010. In order to provide further insight to the mechanisms of action of NMDAR antagonists, MK-801 was administered intracranially into the mPFC and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD. Microinjections of MK-801, but not physiological saline, localized into the MD evoked changes in both LFP parameters and PPF similar to the effects of systemically administered MK-801. Local microinjection of MK-801 into the mPFC was without effect on these parameters. Our findings indicate that the primary site of the action of systemic administration of NMDA receptor antagonists is unlikely to be the cortex. We presume that multiple neuronal networks, involving thalamic nuclei contribute to disrupted behavior and cognition following NMDA receptor blockade.

  11. Thalamic Volume Deficit Contributes to Procedural and Explicit Memory Impairment in HIV Infection with Primary Alcoholism Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2014-01-01

    Component cognitive and motor processes contributing to diminished visuomotor procedural learning in HIV infection with comorbid chronic alcoholism (HIV+ALC) include problems with attention and explicit memory processes. The neural correlates associated with this constellation of cognitive and motor processes in HIV infection and alcoholism have yet to be delineated. Frontostriatal regions are affected in HIV infection, frontothalamocerebellar regions are affected in chronic alcoholism, and frontolimbic regions are likely affected in both; all three of these systems have the potential of contributing to both visuomotor procedural learning and explicit memory processes. Here, we examined the neural correlates of implicit memory, explicit memory, attention, and motor tests in 26 HIV+ALC (5 with comorbidity for nonalcohol drug abuse/dependence) and 19 age-range matched healthy control men. Parcellated brain volumes, including cortical, subcortical, and allocortical regions, as well as cortical sulci and ventricles, were derived using the SRI24 brain atlas. Results indicated that smaller thalamic volumes were associated with poorer performance on tests of explicit (immediate and delayed) and implicit (visuomotor procedural) memory in HIV+ALC. By contrast, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower scores on explicit, but not implicit memory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that volumes of both the thalamus and the hippocampus were each unique independent predictors of explicit memory scores. This study provides evidence of a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory tasks in HIV+ALC, with selective relationships observed between hippocampal volume and explicit but not implicit memory, and highlights the relevance of the thalamus to mnemonic processes. PMID:24421067

  12. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation to promote recovery from chronic posttraumatic minimally conscious state: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacino, Joseph; Fins, Joseph J; Machado, Andre; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2012-07-01

    Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) may have therapeutic potential to improve behavioral functioning in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its use remains experimental. Current research suggests that the central thalamus plays a critical role in modulating arousal during tasks requiring sustained attention, working memory, and motor function. The aim of the current article is to review the methodology used in the CT-DBS protocol developed by our group, outline the challenges we encountered and offer suggestions for future DBS trials in this population. RATIONAL FOR CT-DBS IN TBI:  CT-DBS may therefore be able to stimulate these functions by eliciting action potentials that excite thalamocortical and thalamostriatal pathways. Because patients in chronic minimally conscious state (MCS) have a very low probability of regaining functional independence, yet often have significant sparing of cortical connectivity, they may represent a particularly appropriate target group for CT-DBS. PIlOT STUDY RESULTS:  We have conducted a series of single-subject studies of CT-DBS in patients with chronic posttraumatic MCS, with 24-month follow-up. Outcomes were measured using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised as well as a battery of secondary outcome measures to capture more granular changes. Findings from our index case suggest that CT-DBS can significantly increase functional communication, motor performance, feeding, and object naming in the DBS on state, with performance in some domains remaining above baseline even after DBS was turned off. The use of CT-DBS in patients in MCS, however, presents challenges at almost every step, including during surgical planning, outcome measurement, and postoperative care. Additionally, given the difficulties of obtaining informed consent from patients in MCS and the experimental nature of the treatment, a robust, scientifically rooted ethical framework is resented for pursuing this line of work. © 2012

  13. Mediodorsal Thalamic Neurons Mirror the Activity of Medial Prefrontal Neurons Responding to Movement and Reinforcement during a Dynamic DNMTP Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rikki L A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Gibson, Brett M; Mair, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al., 2016). Criterion event-related responses were observed for 22% (254/1179) of neurons recorded in MD, 237 (93%) of which exhibited activity consistent with mPFC response types. More MD than mPFC neurons exhibited responses related to movement (45% vs. 29%) and reinforcement (51% vs. 27%). MD had few responses related to lever presses, and none related to preparation or memory delay, which constituted 43% of event-related activity in mPFC. Comparison of averaged normalized population activity and population response times confirmed the broad similarity of common response types in MD and mPFC and revealed differences in the onset and offset of some response types. Our results show that MD represents information about actions and outcomes essential for decision-making during dDNMTP, consistent with evidence from lesion studies that MD supports reward-based learning and action-selection. These findings support the hypothesis that MD reinforces task-relevant neural activity in PFC that gives rise to adaptive behavior.

  14. Association of familial risk for schizophrenia with thalamic and medial prefrontal functional connectivity during attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Linda A; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Quarto, Tiziana; Porcelli, Annamaria; Mancini, Marina; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Caforio, Grazia; Pergola, Giulio; Popolizio, Teresa; Bertolino, Alessandro; Blasi, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Anomalies in behavioral correlates of attentional processing and related brain activity are crucial correlates of schizophrenia and associated with familial risk for this brain disorder. However, it is not clear how brain functional connectivity during attentional processes is key for schizophrenia and linked with trait vs. state related variables. To address this issue, we investigated patterns of functional connections during attentional control in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia, who share with probands genetic features but not variables related to the state of the disorder. 356 controls, 55 patients with schizophrenia on stable treatment with antipsychotics and 40 healthy siblings of patients with this brain disorder underwent the Variable Attentional Control (VAC) task during fMRI. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is allowed to identify independent components (IC) of BOLD signal recorded during task performance. Results indicated reduced connectivity strength in patients with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings in left thalamus within an attentional control component and greater connectivity in right medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) within the so-called Default Mode Network (DMN) compared to healthy individuals. These results suggest a relationship between familial risk for schizophrenia and brain functional networks during attentional control, such that this biological phenotype may be considered a useful intermediate phenotype in order to link genes effects to aspects of the pathophysiology of this brain disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Orientação nutricional de crianças e adolescentes e os novos padrões de consumo: propagandas, embalagens e rótulos Nutritional guidance for children and adolescents and the new consumption patterns: advertising, packaging and labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Elias Pontes

    2009-03-01

    published over the last ten years in Portuguese and English using the keywords "child", "marketing", "eating habits", "television", "health education". Also, books, recent texts and articles considered relevant for the present review were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: The present article discusses the food marketing according to propaganda, packaging and labeling. This review also approaches the influence of TV advertising on building of children and adolescents' eating habits; the nutrition quality of advertised foods and alternatives that parents and teachers could use to deal with these new patterns of consumption. Additionally, it is discussed packaging as a communication tool between manufacturer and consumer. Regarding labeling, the "Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária" (Anvisa new rules on Regulatory Nutritional Labeling as well as the importance of proper label reading for healthy choices are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The present article is intended to be a tool for updating health professionals and encouraging them to act more effectively in health education and nutrition. It is urgent to adopt prevention practices enlightening parents and relatives whose children actively participate in the consumption society in order to minimize the harmful effects of the obesogenic foods routine ingestion.

  16. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  17. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  18. The role of the thalamic nuclei in recognition memory accompanied by recall during encoding and retrieval: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Giulio; Ranft, Alexander; Mathias, Klaus; Suchan, Boris

    2013-07-01

    The present functional imaging study aimed at investigating the contribution of the mediodorsal nucleus and the anterior nuclei of the thalamus with their related cortical networks to recognition memory and recall. Eighteen subjects performed associative picture encoding followed by a single item recognition test during the functional magnetic resonance imaging session. After scanning, subjects performed a cued recall test using the formerly recognized pictures as cues. This post-scanning test served to classify recognition trials according to subsequent recall performance. In general, single item recognition accompanied by successful recall of the associations elicited stronger activation in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and in the prefrontal cortices both during encoding and retrieval compared to recognition without recall. In contrast, the anterior nuclei of the thalamus were selectively active during the retrieval phase of recognition followed by recall. A correlational analysis showed that activation of the anterior thalamus during retrieval as assessed by measuring the percent signal changes predicted lower rates of recognition without recall. These findings show that the thalamus is critical for recognition accompanied by recall, and provide the first evidence of a functional segregation of the thalamic nuclei with respect to the memory retrieval phase. In particular, the mediodorsal thalamic-prefrontal cortical network is activated during successful encoding and retrieval of associations, which suggests a role of this system in recall and recollection. The activity of the anterior thalamic-temporal network selectively during retrieval predicts better memory performances across subjects and this confirms the paramount role of this network in recall and recollection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. At the centre of neuronal, synaptic and axonal pathology in murine prion disease: degeneration of neuroanatomically linked thalamic and brainstem nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Renata; Hennessy, Edel; Murray, Caoimhe; Griffin, Éadaoin W.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The processes by which neurons degenerate in chronic neurodegenerative diseases remain unclear. Synaptic loss and axonal pathology frequently precede neuronal loss and protein aggregation demonstrably spreads along neuroanatomical pathways in many neurodegenerative diseases. The spread of neuronal pathology is less studied. Methods We previously demonstrated severe neurodegeneration in the posterior thalamus of multiple prion disease strains. Here we used the ME7 model of prion disease to examine the nature of this degeneration in the posterior thalamus and the major brainstem projections into this region. Results We objectively quantified neurological decline between 16 and 18 weeks post‐inoculation and observed thalamic subregion‐selective neuronal, synaptic and axonal pathology while demonstrating relatively uniform protease‐resistant prion protein (PrP) aggregation and microgliosis across the posterior thalamus. Novel amyloid precursor protein (APP) pathology was particularly prominent in the thalamic posterior (PO) and ventroposterior lateral (VPL) nuclei. The brainstem nuclei forming the major projections to these thalamic nuclei were examined. Massive neuronal loss in the PO was not matched by significant neuronal loss in the interpolaris (Sp5I), while massive synaptic loss in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) did correspond with significant neuronal loss in the principal trigeminal nucleus. Likewise, significant VPL synaptic loss was matched by significant neuronal loss in the gracile and cuneate nuclei. Conclusion These findings demonstrate significant spread of neuronal pathology from the thalamus to the brainstem in prion disease. The divergent neuropathological features in adjacent neuronal populations demonstrates that there are discrete pathways to neurodegeneration in different neuronal populations. PMID:25727649

  20. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of tremor due to multiple sclerosis: a prospective study of tremor and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Caglar; Carr, Jason; Sinden, Marci; Martzke, Jeff; Honey, Christopher R

    2002-10-01

    In several studies a significant reduction in tremor after thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It has not been determined if this results in an improved quality of life. In this study the authors prospectively evaluated the effects of thalamic DBS on tremor and quality of life. Videotapes of the patients' tremor were made preoperatively and 2 and 12 months postoperatively, and tremor was scored by a neurologist blinded to the treatment. Patients were tested pre- and postoperatively to measure any changes in their reported ability to perform selected activities of daily living and in their health-related quality of life. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their satisfaction with the surgery. Postoperative changes were examined using paired t-tests. There were significant reductions in postural, action, and overall tremor at 2 and 12 months postoperatively. The patients' reported ability to feed themselves was significantly improved 2 months after surgery (p = 0.01). There were short-term trends toward improvement in reported dressing ability, personal hygiene, and writing. There were no significant changes in the SF-36 subscales or total score. In this cohort of patients with MS who suffered from tremor, thalamic DBS significantly improved their tremor and ability to feed themselves. Patient satisfaction with the procedure, however, was variable. Preoperative patient education about what functions might (and might not) be improved is crucial to avoid unrealistic expectations. Our results indicate that younger patients with MS tremor who had a shorter disease duration and no superimposed ataxia benefited most from this surgery.

  1. Thalamic Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Associations With Patient-Reported Outcomes and Neuropsychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah D; Coronado, Rogelio A; Clemons, Lori R; Abraham, Christine M; Pruthi, Sumit; Conrad, Benjamin N; Morgan, Victoria L; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Archer, Kristin R

    2016-08-01

    (1) To examine differences in patient-reported outcomes, neuropsychological tests, and thalamic functional connectivity (FC) between patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and individuals without mTBI and (2) to determine longitudinal associations between changes in these measures. Prospective observational case-control study. Academic medical center. A sample (N=24) of 13 patients with mTBI (mean age, 39.3±14.0y; 4 women [31%]) and 11 age- and sex-matched controls without mTBI (mean age, 37.6±13.3y; 4 women [36%]). Not applicable. Resting state FC (3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner) was examined between the thalamus and the default mode network, dorsal attention network, and frontoparietal control network. Patient-reported outcomes included pain (Brief Pain Inventory), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), posttraumatic stress disorder ([PTSD] Checklist - Civilian Version), and postconcussive symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire). Neuropsychological tests included the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Tower test, Trails B, and Hotel Task. Assessments occurred at 6 weeks and 4 months after hospitalization in patients with mTBI and at a single visit for controls. Student t tests found increased pain, depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and postconcussive symptoms; decreased performance on Trails B; increased FC between the thalamus and the default mode network; and decreased FC between the thalamus and the dorsal attention network and between the thalamus and the frontoparietal control network in patients with mTBI as compared with controls. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated that increased FC between the thalamus and the dorsal attention network from baseline to 4 months was associated with decreased pain and postconcussive symptoms (corrected P<.05). Findings suggest that alterations in thalamic FC occur after mTBI, and improvements in pain and postconcussive symptoms are correlated with

  2. Labelling of leucocytes with colloidal technetium-99m-SnF2: an investigation of the labelling process by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puncher, M.R.B.; Blower, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Autoradiography of smears and frozen sections of labelled cell suspensions was used to study the distribution of radioactivity in and among blood cells labelled in either whole blood or leucocyte-rich plasma (LRP) with technetium-99m-SnF 2 colloid. The tracer proved selective for neutrophils: the labelling probability (relative to that for erythrocytes) for each cell type in LRP (mean of five samples) was: neutrophils, 9.4; lymphocytes, 3.7; monocytes, 3.0; eosinophils 1.4; erythrocytes, 1.0. When labelling was carried out in whole blood (five samples), 74.5%±8.3% of the cell-bound radioactivity was bound to erythrocytes, 13.6%±6.5% to neutrophils, and 11.9%±2.1% to lymphocytes, whereas in LRP (in which the leucocytes were only slightly outnumbered by erythrocytes), 76.5%±14.9% of radioactivity was neutrophil bound. Labelled cells in smear autoradiographs exhibited two distinct silver grain patterns, ''diffuse'', consistent with an intracellular radioactive particle (in neutrophils), and ''focal'', consistent with a cell surface-adhering particle in direct contact with the emulsion (in other leucocyte types and erythrocytes). The phagocytic inhibitor cytochalasin B neither reduced the proportion of labelled neutrophils nor altered the labelling pattern. Neutrophils were able to scavenge radioactivity from the surface of erythrocytes. It is concluded that neutrophils bind 99m Tc-SnF 2 intracellularly by phagocytosis, with high affinity; other cells become labelled at the cell surface reversibly and with lower affinity. This selectivity is high enough to permit predominantly leucocyte labelling in LRP but not in whole blood. (orig.)

  3. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use......This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...

  5. Manufacture of anti-bogus label by track-etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiangming; Wan Chunrong

    2006-01-01

    Anti-bogus label is manufactured by the track-etching technique. The apparent pattern on the label consists of track-etched pores on the membrane. The manufacture of the label depends on the intricate technology and the state strictly controls the sensitive nuclear facilities, ensuring that the label is not copied. The pattern on the label is specially characterized by permeability of liquid in order to distinguish it from a forged one. A genuine label can be distinguished from a sham one by a transparent liquid (e.g. water) or a colorful pen. Nowadays, the products of more than 100 famous brands (trade mark) have been protected from forgery by this technology in the market of China. This is a new method for the utilization of a research reactor

  6. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  7. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  8. Thalamic inputs to dorsomedial striatum are involved in inhibitory control: evidence from the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Jasjot; Dautan, Daniel; Rostron, Claire; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2017-08-01

    Corticostriatal circuits are widely implicated in the top-down control of attention including inhibitory control and behavioural flexibility. However, recent neurophysiological evidence also suggests a role for thalamic inputs to striatum in behaviours related to salient, reward-paired cues. Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to investigate the role of parafascicular (Pf) thalamic inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) in rats. The 5CSRTT requires sustained attention in order to detect spatially and temporally distributed visual cues and provides measures of inhibitory control related to impulsivity (premature responses) and compulsivity (perseverative responses). Rats underwent bilateral Pf injections of the DREADD vector, AAV2-CaMKIIa-HA-hM4D(Gi)-IRES-mCitrine. The DREADD agonist, clozapine N-oxide (CNO; 1 μl bilateral; 3 μM) or vehicle, was injected into DMS 1 h before behavioural testing. Task parameters were manipulated to increase attention load or reduce stimulus predictability respectively. We found that inhibition of the Pf-DMS projection significantly increased perseverative responses when stimulus predictability was reduced but had no effect on premature responses or response accuracy, even under increased attentional load. Control experiments showed no effects on locomotor activity in an open field. These results complement previous lesion work in which the DMS and orbitofrontal cortex were similarly implicated in perseverative responses and suggest a specific role for thalamostriatal inputs in inhibitory control.

  9. A Preliminary Experience with Use of Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Thalamic Glioma Surgery: A Case Series of 38 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Xu, Xinghua; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Qun; Ma, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaolei; Sun, Guochen; Zhang, Jiashu; Jiang, Jinli; Xu, Bainan; Zhang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Thalamic gliomas are rare tumors that constitute 1%-5% of all central nervous system tumors. Despite advanced techniques and equipment, surgical resection remains challenging because of the vital structures adjacent to the tumor. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might play an active role during brain tumor surgery because it compensates for brain shift or operation-induced hemorrhage, which are challenging issues for neurosurgeons. We reviewed 38 patients treated surgically under intraoperative MRI guidance between January 2008 and July 2015 at our center. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative MRI scans were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative motor power, morbidity and mortality, resection rate, surgical approach, pathologic results, and patient demographics were also reviewed. Mean patient age was 37 years ± 18; 12 patients were included in the low-grade group, and 26 patients were included in the high-grade group. Under intraoperative MRI guidance, the gross total resection rate was increased from 16 (42.1%) to 26 (68.4%), and the near-total or subtotal resection rate was increased from 5 (13.2%) to 9 (23.7%). Hematoma formation was discovered in 3 patients on intraoperative MRI scan; each patient underwent a hemostatic operation immediately. With improvements in neurosurgical techniques and equipment, surgical resection is considered feasible in patients with thalamic gliomas. Intraoperative MRI may be helpful in achieving the maximal resection rate with minimal surgical-related morbidity. However, because of severe disease progression, the overall prognosis is unfavorable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  11. Increased thalamic perfusion as a characteristic finding with brain SPECT in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mut, F.; Beretta, M.; Nunez, M.; Zamora, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively frequent psychiatric condition affecting most commonly young patients. Correct diagnosis and follow-up is essential in order to apply effective therapy. However, some common characteristics have been reported with brain SPECT for OCD and depression, with several brain structures belonging to the limbic system involved in both conditions: frontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and hippocampus, among others. The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative findings of brain SPECT in OCD compared to other psychiatric conditions such as depression and dementia. Material and Methods: We studied 33 patients, 22 women, ages 39.3±10.9 years. Fifteen patients had clinical diagnosis of OCD (8 women, 21∫8 ys.), 13 of bipolar or unipolar depression (11 women, 28±15 ys.) and 5 of senile dementia (3 women, 69±10 ys). All were injected in the basal state with a standard dose of 925 MBq (25 mCi) of 99mTc-ECD. Brain SPECT was performed with a dual-head camera equipped with a high-resolution collimator using 360 0 rotation, 120 angular steps and 15 sec/step in a 64x64 matrix with 1.5 x magnification. Reconstruction of transaxial tomograms was performed using filtered backprojection with a Metz filter. Attenuation correction was applied according to Chang's method. In order to calculate uptake ratios, regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on the right and left frontal cortex (RFron, LFron), anterior or posterior cingulate gyrus (Cing) according to the site of highest uptake recorded, both caudate nucleus (RCau, LCau), thalamus (Thal) and cerebellum (cer). Results: The findings are presented. Conclusion: Cingulate gyrus hyperactivity has been reported in patients with OCD and confirmed in our series, however not significantly different from that observed in depressed patients. The only distinct finding was higher thalamic activity in OCD patients compared to the other groups, suggesting that this

  12. Causal role of thalamic interneurons on brain state transitions: a study using a neural mass model implementing synaptic kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN of mammals and rodents show that the inhibitory interneurons (IN receive around 47.1% of their afferents from the retinal spiking neurons, and constitute around 20 - 25% of the LGN cell population. However, there is a definite gap in knowledge about the role and impact of IN on thalamocortical dynamics in both experimental and model-based research. We use a neural mass computational model of the LGN with three neural populations viz. IN, thalamocortical relay (TCR, thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, to study the causality of IN on LGN oscillations and state-transitions. The synaptic information transmission in the model is implemented with kinetic modelling, facilitating the linking of low-level cellular attributes with high-level population dynamics. The model is parameterised and tuned to simulate both Local Field Potential (LFP of LGN and electroencephalogram (EEG of visual cortex in an awake resting state with eyes closed and dominant frequency within the alpha (8-13 Hz band. The results show that: First, the response of the TRN is suppressed in the presence of IN in the circuit; disconnecting the IN from the circuit effects a dramatic change in the model output, displaying high amplitude synchronous oscillations within the alpha band in both TCR and TRN. These observations conform to experimental reports implicating the IN as the primary inhibitory modulator of LGN dynamics in a cognitive state, and that reduced cognition is achieved by suppressing the TRN response. Second, the model validates steady state visually evoked potential response in humans corresponding to periodic input stimuli; however, when the IN is disconnected from the circuit, the output power spectra do not reflect the input frequency. This agrees with experimental reports underpinning the role of IN in efficient retino-geniculate information transmission. Third, a smooth transition from alpha to theta band is

  13. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  14. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  15. Photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning characteristics of the coconut palm as observed by carbon-14 labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, K.S.; Jayaswkara, K.S.; Bowen, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    A technique was developed on the use of carbon dioxide(carbon-14 labelled) rapid labelling of foliage and to ascertain photosynthesis and partitioning characteristics of labelled assimilate into other parts of the coconut palm. An eight-year-old Tall x Tall young coconut palm growing under field conditions at Bandirippuwa Estate and with six developing bunches , was selected for this study. The labelling was carried out on a bright sunny day and soil was at field capacity. Seventh leaf from the youngest open leaf was used for labelling with 5 mCi of sodium bi carbonate (Carbon-14 labelled). The results revealed that within 24 hours, 60% of the labelled assimilate was partitioned into other parts of the palm and at the end of the seventh day about 18% of the labelled assimilate still remained in the labelled leaf. Among the developing bunches fifth and sixth bunches from the youngest developing bunch received more labelled assimilate than young developing bunches above them. It was revealed that partitioning of assimilate into various ''sinks'' is determined by the developmental stage or activeness of the ''sink''. The proportion of C-14 labelled carbon assimilate, partitioned into developing bunches was substantially low compared to the total amount of labelled carbon fixed by the labelled leaf. Further, it was observed that partitioning of assimilated labelled carbon into the young leaves above, as well as the mature leaves below the labelled leaf. The complex vascular anatomy of the palms could be attributed to this pattern of partitioning of assimilates into upper and lower leaves from the labelled leaf

  16. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  17. Consumer Understanding and Use of Food and Nutrition Labeling in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besler, Halit Tanju; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Uyar, Muhemmed Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine patterns of food and nutrition labels use by Turkish consumers, and examine constraints on the use of this information. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Twenty-six regions of Turkey. Participants: Consumers (n = 1,536), aged 12-56 years. Variables measured: Level of interest in food and nutrition labels, the…

  18. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  19. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-01

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface

  1. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  2. Your emotion or mine: Labeling feelings alters emotional face perception- An ERP study on automatic and intentional affect labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eHerbert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests that words are powerful regulators of emotion processing. Although a number of studies have used words as contextual cues for emotion processing, the role of what is being labeled by the words (i.e. one’s own emotion as compared to the emotion expressed by the sender is poorly understood. The present study reports results from two experiments which used ERP methodology to evaluate the impact of emotional faces and self- versus sender-related emotional pronoun-noun pairs (e.g. my fear vs. his fear as cues for emotional face processing. The influence of self- and sender-related cues on the processing of fearful, angry and happy faces was investigated in two contexts: an automatic (experiment 1 and intentional affect labeling task (experiment 2, along with control conditions of passive face processing. ERP patterns varied as a function of the label’s reference (self vs. sender and the intentionality of the labelling task (experiment 1 vs. experiment 2. In experiment 1, self-related labels increased the motivational relevance of the emotional faces in the time-window of the EPN component. Processing of sender-related labels improved emotion recognition specifically for fearful faces in the N170 time-window. Spontaneous processing of affective labels modulated later stages of face processing as well. Amplitudes of the late positive potential (LPP were reduced for fearful, happy, and angry faces relative to the control condition of passive viewing. During intentional regulation (experiment 2 amplitudes of the LPP were enhanced for emotional faces when subjects used the self-related emotion labels to label their own emotion during face processing, and they rated the faces as higher in arousal than the emotional faces that had been presented in the label sender’s emotion condition or the passive viewing condition. The present results argue in favor of a differentiated view of language-as-context for emotion processing.

  3. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  4. 49 CFR 172.450 - EMPTY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EMPTY label. 172.450 Section 172.450... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.450 EMPTY label. (a) Each EMPTY label, except for size, must be as follows....) in height. (2) The label must be white with black printing. (b) [Reserved] ...

  5. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  6. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CORROSIVE label. 172.442 Section 172.442... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label must... CORROSIVE label must be white in the top half and black in the lower half. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66259, Dec...

  7. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must... chart. Labels for these products must state the minimum net weight of the insulation in the package. You...

  8. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FISSILE label. 172.441 Section 172.441... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be... FISSILE label must be white. [69 FR 3669, Jan. 26, 2004] ...

  9. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OXIDIZER label. 172.426 Section 172.426... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be... OXIDIZER label must be yellow. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ...

  10. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  11. Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, J

    1976-12-01

    Labeling of lectin receptors during the cell cycle. (Localizabión de receptores para lectinas durante el ciclo celular). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 100-104, 1976. The topographic distribution of specific cell surface receptors for concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin was studied by ultrastructural labeling in the course of the cell cycle. C12TSV5 cells were synchronized by double thymidine block or mechanical selection (shakeoff). They were labeled by means of lectin-peroxidase techniques while in G1 S, G2 and M phases of the cycle. The results obtained were similar for both lectins employed. Interphase cells (G1 S, G2) present a stlihtly discontinous labeling pattern that is similar to the one observed on unsynchronized cells of the same line. Cells in mitosis, on the contrary, present a highly discontinous distribution of reaction product. This pattern disappears after the cells enters G1 and is not present on mitotic cells fixed in aldehyde prior to labeling.

  12. Variable Action Potential Backpropagation during Tonic Firing and Low-Threshold Spike Bursts in Thalamocortical But Not Thalamic Reticular Nucleus Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, William M; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Errington, Adam C

    2017-05-24

    Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) are indispensable in dendritic signaling. Conflicting Ca 2+ -imaging data and an absence of dendritic recording data means that the extent of backpropagation in thalamocortical (TC) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons remains unknown. Because TRN neurons signal electrically through dendrodendritic gap junctions and possibly via chemical dendritic GABAergic synapses, as well as classical axonal GABA release, this lack of knowledge is problematic. To address this issue, we made two-photon targeted patch-clamp recordings from rat TC and TRN neuron dendrites to measure bAPs directly. These recordings reveal that "tonic"' and low-threshold-spike (LTS) "burst" APs in both cell types are always recorded first at the soma before backpropagating into the dendrites while undergoing substantial distance-dependent dendritic amplitude attenuation. In TC neurons, bAP attenuation strength varies according to firing mode. During LTS bursts, somatic AP half-width increases progressively with increasing spike number, allowing late-burst spikes to propagate more efficiently into the dendritic tree compared with spikes occurring at burst onset. Tonic spikes have similar somatic half-widths to late burst spikes and undergo similar dendritic attenuation. In contrast, in TRN neurons, AP properties are unchanged between LTS bursts and tonic firing and, as a result, distance-dependent dendritic attenuation remains consistent across different firing modes. Therefore, unlike LTS-associated global electrical and calcium signals, the spatial influence of bAP signaling in TC and TRN neurons is more restricted, with potentially important behavioral-state-dependent consequences for synaptic integration and plasticity in thalamic neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In most neurons, action potentials (APs) initiate in the axosomatic region and propagate into the dendritic tree to provide a retrograde signal that conveys information about the level of

  13. An autopsy-verified case of FTLD-TDP type A with upper motor neuron-predominant motor neuron disease mimicking MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Takekoshi, Akira; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Mimuro, Maya; Kimura, Akio; Satoh, Katsuya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Here we report an autopsy-verified case of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-transactivation responsive region (TAR) DNA binding protein (TDP) type A with upper motor neuron-predominant motor neuron disease mimicking MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). A 69-year-old woman presented with an 11-month history of progressive dementia, irritability, insomnia, and gait disturbance without a family history of dementia or prion disease. Neurological examination revealed severe dementia, frontal signs, and exaggerated bilateral tendon reflexes. Periodic sharp-wave complexes were not observed on the electroencephalogram. Brain diffusion MRI did not reveal abnormal changes. An easy Z score (eZIS) analysis for 99m Tc-ECD-single photon emission computed tomography ( 99m Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed a bilateral decrease in thalamic regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). PRNP gene analysis demonstrated methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed normal levels of both 14-3-3 and total tau proteins. Conversely, prion protein was slowly amplified in the CSF by a real-time quaking-induced conversion assay. Her symptoms deteriorated to a state of akinetic mutism, and she died of sudden cardiac arrest, one year after symptom onset.  Despite the SPECT results supporting a clinical diagnosis of MM2-thalamic-type sCJD, a postmortem assessment revealed that this was a case of FTLD-TDP type A, and excluded prion disease. Thus, this case indicates that whereas a bilateral decreasing thalamic rCBF detected by 99m Tc-ECD-SPECT can be useful for diagnosing MM2-thalamic-type sCJD, it is not sufficiently specific. Postmortem diagnosis remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of this condition.

  14. Monoclonal anti-elastin antibody labelled with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Silva, Claudia R. da; Araujo, Adriano C. de; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Porto, Luis Cristovao M.S.; Gutfilen, Bianca; Souza, J.E.Q.; Frier, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) is widely employed in nuclear medicine due to its desirable physical, chemical and biological properties. Moreover, it is easily available and normally is inexpensive. A reducing agent is necessary to label cells and molecules with 99m Tc and stannous chloride (Sn C L 2 ) is usually employed. Elastin is the functional protein component of the elastic fiber and it is related with some diseases such as arteriosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema and others. The present study refers to the preparation of the 99m Tc labeled monoclonal anti-elastin antibody. The monoclonal antibody was incubated with an excess of 2-iminothiolane. The free thiol groups created, were capable of binding with the reduced technetium. Labeling was an exchange reaction with 99m Tc-glucoheptonate. The labeled preparation was left at 4 deg C for one hour. Then, it was passed through a Sephadex G50 column. Various fractions were collected and counted. A peak corresponding to the radiolabeled antibody was obtained. Stability studies of the labelled anti-elastin were performed at 0,3 6, 24 hours, at both 4 deg C or room temperature. The biodistribution pattern of the 99m Tc-anti-elastin was studied in healthy male Swiss mice. The immunoreactivity was also determined. An useful labeled-anti-elastin was obtained to future immunoscintigraphic investigations. (author)

  15. Fate of thymic radioactivity after local labeling with 125Iododeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissue, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Cottier, H.; Cronkite, E.P.; Joel, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    The thymic cortex was locally labeled with 125 Iododeoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR) in young adult mice in an attempt to provide a simple quantitative assessment of the fate of cortical thymocytes. Similarly operated and nonoperated mice given 125 IUdR intravenously were used for comparison. Analogous experiments were performed in adrenalectomized animals. More than 90 percent of thymic activity present 1 day after labeling had been lost by day 8. That proportion of radioactivity contributed to a given organ by accumulation of labeled thymic migrants was estimated by comparison of values obtained after local labeling with those acquired after systemic labeling. Thymic cell accumulation was apparent in the intestine, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and femurs of locally labeled mice; however, only a few percent of the total activity lost from the thymus was accounted for in these lymphoid organs. The pattern of fecal and urinary elimination of 125 I did not markedly differ in the various experimental groups, the bulk of the activity being recovered in the urine. The intestine could not be ruled out as a major site of thymocyte loss. Since significant radiation or pharmacologic toxicity was unlikely with the doses of 125 IUdR used, the data indicated that the vast majority of newly formed thymocytes dies after a short life and only a small fraction of thymic migrants is longer lived

  16. Photoaffinity labeling of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Weidong; Tsipouras, Athanasios; Ok, Hyun; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Gawinowicz, M.A.; Nakanishi, Koji

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Labeled optically pure 3S- and 3R-(diazoacetoxy)-all-trans-retinals were incorporated separately into bacterioopsin to reconstitute functional bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues, 3S- and 3R-diazo-bRs. UV irradiation at 254 nm generated highly reactive carbenes, which cross-linked the radiolabeled retinals to amino acid residues in the vicinity of the β-ionone ring. The 3S- and 3R-diazo analogues were found to cross-link, respectively, to cyanogen bromide fragments CN 7/CN 9 and CN 8/CN 9. More specifically, Thr121 and Gly122 in fragment CN 7 were found to be cross-linked to the 3S-diazo analogue. The identification of cross-linked residues and fragments favors assignments of the seven helices A-G-F-E-D-C-B or B-C-D-E-F-G-A to helices 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 in the two-dimensional electron density map. The present results show that the chromophore chain is oriented with the ionone ring inclined toward the outside of the membrane (the 9-methyl group also faces the extracellular side of the membrane)

  17. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  18. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View ...

  20. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  1. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  2. Selective backbone labelling of ILV methyl labelled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bonachera, Fanny; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Adding the 13 C labelled 2-keto-isovalerate and 2-oxobutanoate precursors to a minimal medium composed of 12 C labelled glucose instead of the commonly used ( 2 D, 13 C) glucose leads not only to the 13 C labelling of (I, L, V) methyls but also to the selective 13 C labelling of the backbone C α and CO carbons of the Ile and Val residues. As a result, the backbone ( 1 H, 15 N) correlations of the Ile and Val residues and their next neighbours in the (i + 1) position can be selectively identified in HN(CA) and HN(CO) planes. The availability of a selective HSQC spectrum corresponding to the sole amide resonances of the Ile and Val residues allows connecting them to their corresponding methyls by the intra-residue NOE effect, and should therefore be applicable to larger systems

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  10. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial..., CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline labels. The label is 3″ (7.62 cm) wide × 21/2″ (6.35 cm) long. The...

  11. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  12. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  13. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  14. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  15. Probabilistic vs. deterministic fiber tracking and the influence of different seed regions to delineate cerebellar-thalamic fibers in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaier, Juergen R; Beer, Anton L; Faltermeier, Rupert; Fellner, Claudia; Steib, Kathrin; Lange, Max; Greenlee, Mark W; Brawanski, Alexander T; Anthofer, Judith M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared tractography approaches for identifying cerebellar-thalamic fiber bundles relevant to planning target sites for deep brain stimulation (DBS). In particular, probabilistic and deterministic tracking of the dentate-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) and differences between the spatial courses of the DRTT and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) tract were compared. Six patients with movement disorders were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including two sets of diffusion-weighted images (12 and 64 directions). Probabilistic and deterministic tractography was applied on each diffusion-weighted dataset to delineate the DRTT. Results were compared with regard to their sensitivity in revealing the DRTT and additional fiber tracts and processing time. Two sets of regions-of-interests (ROIs) guided deterministic tractography of the DRTT or the CTC, respectively. Tract distances to an atlas-based reference target were compared. Probabilistic fiber tracking with 64 orientations detected the DRTT in all twelve hemispheres. Deterministic tracking detected the DRTT in nine (12 directions) and in only two (64 directions) hemispheres. Probabilistic tracking was more sensitive in detecting additional fibers (e.g. ansa lenticularis and medial forebrain bundle) than deterministic tracking. Probabilistic tracking lasted substantially longer than deterministic. Deterministic tracking was more sensitive in detecting the CTC than the DRTT. CTC tracts were located adjacent but consistently more posterior to DRTT tracts. These results suggest that probabilistic tracking is more sensitive and robust in detecting the DRTT but harder to implement than deterministic approaches. Although sensitivity of deterministic tracking is higher for the CTC than the DRTT, targets for DBS based on these tracts likely differ. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Golgi-type I and Golgi-type II neurons in the ventral anterior thalamic nucleus of the adult human: morphological features and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussain Bani Hani, Saleh M; El-Dwairi, Qasim A; Bataineh, Ziad M; Al-Haidari, Mohammad S; Al-Alami, Jamil

    2008-05-01

    The morphological and quantitative features of neurons in the adult human ventral anterior thalamic nucleus were studied in Golgi preparations. Two neuronal types were found and their quantitative features were studied. Golgi-type I neurons were medium to large cells with dense dendritic trees and dendritic protrusions and short hair-like appendages. They have somatic mean diameter of 30.8 microm (+/-9.4, n = 85). They have an average 100.3 dendritic branches, 48.97 dendritic branching points, and 58.85 dendritic tips. The mean diameters of their primary, secondary, and tertiary dendrites were 3.1 microm (+/-1, n = 80), 1.85 microm (+/-0.8, n = 145), and 1.5 microm (+/-0.4, n = 160), respectively. Golgi-type II neurons were small to medium cells with few sparsely branching dendrites and dendritic stalked appendages with or without terminal swellings. They have somatic mean diameters of 22.2 microm (+/-5.8, n = 120). They have an average 33.76 dendritic branches, 16.49 dendritic branching points, and 21.97 dendritic tips. The mean diameters of their primary, secondary, and tertiary dendrites were 1.6 microm (+/-0.86, n = 70), 1.15 microm (+/-0.55, n = 118), and 1 microm (+/-0.70, n = 95), respectively. These quantitative data may form the basis for further quantitative studies involving aging or some degenerative diseases that may affect cell bodies and/or dendritic trees of the Golgi-type I and/or Golgi-type II thalamic neurons.

  17. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback of the mediodorsal and anterior thalamus enhances correlation between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Phillips, Raquel; Wong, Chung Ki; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2018-02-01

    Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) with simultaneous EEG allows volitional modulation of BOLD activity of target brain regions and investigation of related electrophysiological activity. We applied this approach to study correlations between thalamic BOLD activity and alpha EEG rhythm. Healthy volunteers in the experimental group (EG, n = 15) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the target region consisting of the mediodorsal (MD) and anterior (AN) thalamic nuclei using rtfMRI-nf during retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. Healthy subjects in the control group (CG, n = 14) were provided with a sham feedback. The EG participants were able to significantly increase BOLD activities of the MD and AN. Functional connectivity between the MD and the inferior precuneus was significantly enhanced during the rtfMRI-nf task. Average individual changes in the occipital alpha EEG power significantly correlated with the average MD BOLD activity levels for the EG. Temporal correlations between the occipital alpha EEG power and BOLD activities of the MD and AN were significantly enhanced, during the rtfMRI-nf task, for the EG compared to the CG. Temporal correlations with the alpha power were also significantly enhanced for the posterior nodes of the default mode network, including the precuneus/posterior cingulate, and for the dorsal striatum. Our findings suggest that the temporal correlation between the MD BOLD activity and posterior alpha EEG power is modulated by the interaction between the MD and the inferior precuneus, reflected in their functional connectivity. Our results demonstrate the potential of the rtfMRI-nf with simultaneous EEG for noninvasive neuromodulation studies of human brain function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Delimitação dos núcleos talâmicos pela eletrofisiologia estereotáxica Delimitation of the thalamic nuclei by stereotaxic electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Luís Latuf

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Os limites da área destruída durante a cirurgia estereotáxica são descritos levando em consideração as complicações decorrentes de lesões determinadas erroneamente. São comentados os métodos empregados com a finalidade de controlar a delimitação do alvo, sendo descrita a técnica usada em 23 talamotomias com derivação da atividade elétrica celular dos núcleos talâmicos atravessados e a pesquisa de potenciais evocados, graças à somatotopia da representação táctil no núcleo ventral posterior. Com este método reduz-se de mais ou menos 1 mm o erro radiológico, prescisando-se o alvo terapêutico talâmico nos três planos de espaço.The limits of the area to be destroyed during the stereotaxic surgery for the treatment of tremors are described taking into account the complications due to lesions erroneously performed. The method applied is commented in order to control the accuracy of the target delimitation, describing the technique employed in 23 thalamotomies, recording the electrical activity of the thalamic nuclei acrossed and researching evoked potentials thanks to the somatotopic tactil representation in the ventral posterior nuclei. The method permits to reduce radiologic errors giving more accuracy for the delimitation of thalamic target in the three planes of space.

  19. Five-months-postoperative neuropsychological outcome from a pilot prospective randomized clinical trial of thalamic deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Maddux, Brian N; Riley, David E; Whitney, Christina M; Ogrocki, Paula K; Gould, Deborah; Maciunas, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder presenting with motor and/or sonic tics associated with frontostriatal dysfunction. This study provided pilot data of the neuropsychological safety of bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat medication-refractory TS in adults. This study used a repeated-measures design with pretest and 3-month follow-up from start of continuous bilateral DBS. Five male patients underwent DBS surgery for medically refractory TS. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate for any change in neuropsychological test scores, employing a false discovery rate. Outcome measures included 14 neuropsychological tests assessing psychomotor speed, attention, memory, language, visuoconstructional, and executive functions, as well as subjective mood ratings of depression and anxiety. Average age was 28.2 years (SD = 7.5) with 12-17 years of education. Participants were disabled by tics, with a tic frequency of 50-80 per minute before surgery. At baseline, subjects' cognitive function was generally average, although mild deficits in sequencing and verbal fluency were present, as were clinically mild obsessive-compulsive symptoms. At 3 months of continuous DBS (5 months after implantation), 3 of 5 participants had clinical reductions in motor and sonic tics. Cognitive scores generally remained stable, but declines of moderate to large effect size (Cohen's d > 0.6) in verbal fluency, visual immediate memory, and reaction time were observed. Fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as fewer obsessions and compulsions, were reported after 3 months of continuous high-frequency DBS. Bilateral centromedian-parafascicular thalamic DBS for medically refractory TS shows promise for treatment of medically refractory TS without marked neuropsychological morbidity. Symptoms of depression and anxiety improved. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  20. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  1. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  2. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  3. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  4. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  5. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  6. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  7. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arno; Mensh, Brett; Ghosh, Satrajit; Tourville, Jason; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  8. 21 CFR 332.31 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 332.31 Section 332.31 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIFLATULENT PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 332.31 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may...

  9. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food... HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.80 Professional labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but...

  10. 21 CFR 341.90 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 341.90 Section 341.90 Food... HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.90 Professional labeling. The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage information for...

  11. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the...

  12. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  13. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements of...

  14. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  15. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 309.17 Section 309.17 Commercial... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications § 309.17 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout: (1) Non-liquid...

  16. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  17. Are food labels effective as a means of health prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Claudia Viviana Viola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases related to unbalanced and unhealthy eating habits have definitely become one of the major issues of modern age, not only in western countries but also in those ones where rapid economic growth has increased global prosperity levels. In order to avoid medical systems to collapse under excessive costs, International and Public Organizations strongly support health policies that aim to make people shift towards wholesome dietary patterns, also encouraging the use of food-labels to choose healthier products. To evaluate the consumers’ knowledge and perception about food-labels a brief questionnaire was developed and shared on Facebook between January-March 2016. Most of the participants were young adults with higher education. They declared to do their shopping at least once a week, reading the foodlabels quite often. Despite owing limited knowledge in basic nutrition principles and food-labelling they were generally able to recognize healthier products looking over their nutritional fact tables. Anyway, on average, what they care the most about the products they purchase is the global quality level rather than the nutritional values. In order to induce the whole population to use food label as an effective self-protection tool, more efforts should be done to improve their knowledge on nutrition fundamentals and basics about food labelling, because that would make them able to take safer and more conscious choices as regards their own health.

  18. Quality control of technetium-labelled lung imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervu, L.R.; Vallabhajosula, S.R.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of the labelling of macroaggregated albumin particles (MAA) with sup(99m)Tc using three commercial kits, and the results compared with those obtained with albumin microspheres. The tagging efficiency was measured by three different methods, and the chemistry and radiochemical nature of the sup(99m)Tc-MAA supernates or eluates were also investigated. The total body distribution of the sup(99m)Tc-MAA supernates was determined in mice after tail-vein injection. The results indicated that technetium-labelled MAA preparations may contain sup(99m)Tc-tagged albumin, similar to human serum albumin in solution. The nature of labelling pattern of MAA and the albumin microspheres indicated that the macroaggregates and microspheres were not completely or uniformly labelled during a one-step addition of pertechnetate. The lung aggregates had a large residual labelling capacity. Consideration is given to the significance of these results in lung perfusion studies. (U.K.)

  19. French-speaking Children's Freely Produced Labels for Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem eMaassarani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the labeling of facial expressions in French-speaking children. The participants were 137 French-speaking children, between the ages of 5 and 11 years, recruited from three elementary schools in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The facial expressions included expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Participants were shown one facial expression at a time, and asked to say what the stimulus person was feeling. Participants’ responses were coded by two raters who made judgments concerning the specific emotion category in which the responses belonged. Five- and 6-year-olds were quite accurate in labeling facial expressions of happiness, anger, and sadness but far less accurate for facial expressions of fear, surprise, and disgust. An improvement in accuracy as a function of age was found for fear and surprise only. Labeling facial expressions of disgust proved to be very difficult for the children, even for the 11-year-olds. In order to examine the fit between the model proposed by Widen and Russell (2003 and our data, we looked at the number of participants who had the predicted response patterns. Overall, 88.52% of the participants did. Most of the participants used between 3 and 5 labels, with correspondence percentages varying between 80.00% and 100.00%. Our results suggest that the model proposed by Widen and Russell is not limited to English-speaking children, but also accounts for the sequence of emotion labeling in French-Canadian children.

  20. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  1. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Lyu, Siwei; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some

  2. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Jia, Fan; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some

  3. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  4. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  5. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  6. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  7. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  8. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The 18 F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography

  9. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  10. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  11. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, I; Kovacheva, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Katedra po Rentgenologiya i Radiologiya

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 32}P-DP, {sup 111}In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), {sup 99m}Tc (reduced {sup 99m}Tc, lypophyl {sup 99m}Tc-complexes and {sup 99m}Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization.

  12. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  13. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  14. A proof-of-principle simulation for closed-loop control based on preexisting experimental thalamic DBS-enhanced instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Fu; Yang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Pan, Han-Chi; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chen, Hsu-Yan; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wun-Jhu; Chen, You-Yin

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption. However, when the association between the biomarkers of the model and stimulation is unclear, it is difficult to develop an optimal control scheme for other DBS applications, i.e., DBS-enhanced instrumental learning. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of closed-loop DBS control for cognition function, such as instrumental skill learning, and have been implemented in simulation environments. In this paper, we proposed a proof-of-principle design for a closed-loop DBS system, cognitive-enhancing DBS (ceDBS), which enhanced skill learning based on in vivo experimental data. The ceDBS acquired local field potential (LFP) signal from the thalamic central lateral (CL) nuclei of animals through a neural signal processing system. A strong coupling of the theta oscillation (4-7 Hz) and the learning period was found in the water reward-related lever-pressing learning task. Therefore, the theta-band power ratio, which was the averaged theta band to averaged total band (1-55 Hz) power ratio, could be used as a physiological marker for enhancement of instrumental skill learning. The on-line extraction of the theta-band power ratio was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). An autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX)-based predictor was designed to construct a CL-thalamic DBS model and forecast the future physiological marker according to the past physiological marker and applied DBS. The prediction could further assist the design of

  15. Labelling of leucocytes with colloidal technetium-99m-SnF{sub 2}: an investigation of the labelling process by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puncher, M.R.B. [Biological Lab., Canterbury Univ. (United Kingdom); Blower, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    Autoradiography of smears and frozen sections of labelled cell suspensions was used to study the distribution of radioactivity in and among blood cells labelled in either whole blood or leucocyte-rich plasma (LRP) with technetium-99m-SnF{sub 2} colloid. The tracer proved selective for neutrophils: the labelling probability (relative to that for erythrocytes) for each cell type in LRP (mean of five samples) was: neutrophils, 9.4; lymphocytes, 3.7; monocytes, 3.0; eosinophils 1.4; erythrocytes, 1.0. When labelling was carried out in whole blood (five samples), 74.5%{+-}8.3% of the cell-bound radioactivity was bound to erythrocytes, 13.6%{+-}6.5% to neutrophils, and 11.9%{+-}2.1% to lymphocytes, whereas in LRP (in which the leucocytes were only slightly outnumbered by erythrocytes), 76.5%{+-}14.9% of radioactivity was neutrophil bound. Labelled cells in smear autoradiographs exhibited two distinct silver grain patterns, ``diffuse``, consistent with an intracellular radioactive particle (in neutrophils), and ``focal``, consistent with a cell surface-adhering particle in direct contact with the emulsion (in other leucocyte types and erythrocytes). The phagocytic inhibitor cytochalasin B neither reduced the proportion of labelled neutrophils nor altered the labelling pattern. Neutrophils were able to scavenge radioactivity from the surface of erythrocytes. It is concluded that neutrophils bind {sup 99m}Tc-SnF{sub 2} intracellularly by phagocytosis, with high affinity; other cells become labelled at the cell surface reversibly and with lower affinity. This selectivity is high enough to permit predominantly leucocyte labelling in LRP but not in whole blood. (orig.)

  16. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  17. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  18. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  19. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  20. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...