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Sample records for thai research reactor-1

  1. Major update of Safety Analysis Report for Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayakul, Chanatip [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-07-01

    Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) was converted from a Material Testing Reactor in 1975 and it had been operated by Office of Atom for Peace (OAP) since 1977 until 2007. During the period, Office of Atom for Peace had two duties for the reactor, that is, to operate and to regulate the reactor. However, in 2007, there was governmental office reformation which resulted in the separation of the reactor operating organization from the regulatory body in order to comply with international standard. The new organization is called Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) which has the mission to promote peaceful utilization of nuclear technology while OAP remains essentially the regulatory body. After the separation, a new ministerial regulation was enforced reflecting a new licensing scheme in which TINT has to apply for a license to operate the reactor. The safety analysis report (SAR) shall be submitted as part of the license application. The ministerial regulation stipulates the outlines of the SAR almost equivalent to IAEA standard 35-G1. Comparing to the IAEA 35-G1 standard, there were several incomplete and missing chapters in the original SAR of TRR1/M1. The major update of the SAR was therefore conducted and took approximately one year. The update work included detail safety evaluation of core configuration which used two fuel element types, the classification of systems, structures and components (SSC), the compilation of detail descriptions of all SSCs and the review and evaluation of radiation protection program, emergency plan and emergency procedure. Additionally, the code of conduct and operating limits and conditions were revised and finalized in this work. A lot of new information was added to the SAR as well, for example, the description of commissioning program, information on environmental impact assessment, decommissioning program, quality assurance program and etc. Due to the complexity of this work, extensive knowledge was

  2. Dynamic feedback characteristics of Ghana Research Reactor-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamic experiments were performed to investigate the effects of insertions of step and ramp reactivities on Ghana Research Reactor-1. These safety performance tests of the reactor show that the reactor is inherently safe. The peak powers were found to be low and could not lead to damage of fuel meat and cladding.

  3. Reactivity feedback coefficients Pakistan research reactor-1 using PRIDE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Ali; Ahmed, Siraj-ul-Islam; Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Inam-ul-Haq [Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-15

    Results of the analyses performed for fuel, moderator and void's temperature feedback reactivity coefficients for the first high power core configuration of Pakistan Research Reactor - 1 (PARR-1) are summarized. For this purpose, a validated three dimensional model of PARR-1 core was developed and confirmed against the reference results for reactivity calculations. The ''Program for Reactor In-Core Analysis using Diffusion Equation'' (PRIDE) code was used for development of global (3-dimensional) model in conjunction with WIMSD4 for lattice cell modeling. Values for isothermal fuel, moderator and void's temperature feedback reactivity coefficients have been calculated. Additionally, flux profiles for the five energy groups were also generated.

  4. Analysis of Nigeria research reactor-1 thermal power calibration methods

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    Agbo, Sunday Arome; Ahmed, Yusuf Aminu; Ewa, Ita Okon; Jibrin, Yahaya [Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of the methods used in calibrating the thermal power of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1), a low-power miniature neutron source reactor located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The calibration was performed at three different power levels: low power (3.6 kW), half power (15 kW), and full power (30 kW). Two methods were used in the calibration, namely, slope and heat balance methods. The thermal power obtained by the heat balance method at low power, half power, and full power was 3.7 ± 0.2 kW, 15.2 ± 1.2 kW, and 30.7 ± 2.5 kW, respectively. The thermal power obtained by the slope method at half power and full power was 15.8 ± 0.7 kW and 30.2 ± 1.5 kW, respectively. It was observed that the slope method is more accurate with deviations of 4% and 5% for calibrations at half and full power, respectively, although the linear fit (slope method) on average temperature-rising rates during the thermal power calibration procedure at low power (3.6 kW) is not fitting. As such, the slope method of power calibration is not suitable at lower power for NIRR-1.

  5. Analysis of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 Thermal Power Calibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Arome Agbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the accuracy of the methods used in calibrating the thermal power of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1, a low-power miniature neutron source reactor located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The calibration was performed at three different power levels: low power (3.6 kW, half power (15 kW, and full power (30 kW. Two methods were used in the calibration, namely, slope and heat balance methods. The thermal power obtained by the heat balance method at low power, half power, and full power was 3.7 ± 0.2 kW, 15.2 ± 1.2 kW, and 30.7 ± 2.5 kW, respectively. The thermal power obtained by the slope method at half power and full power was 15.8 ± 0.7 kW and 30.2 ± 1.5 kW, respectively. It was observed that the slope method is more accurate with deviations of 4% and 5% for calibrations at half and full power, respectively, although the linear fit (slope method on average temperature-rising rates during the thermal power calibration procedure at low power (3.6 kW is not fitting. As such, the slope method of power calibration is not suitable at lower power for NIRR-1.

  6. Generating the flux map of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 for efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the main uses to which the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) will be put is neutron activation analysis. The activation analyst requires information about the flux level at various points within and around the reactor core to enable him identify the point of optimum flux (at a given operating power) for any irradiation ...

  7. Ageing management and refurbishment of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amponsahabu, Edward Oscar; Gbadago, Joseph Korbla; Addo, Moses Ankamah; Sogbadji, Robert Bright Mawuko; Odoi, Henry Cecil; Gyamfi, Kwame; Ampong, Atta Gyekye; Opate, Nicholas Sackitey [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Accra (Ghana)

    2013-07-01

    Ageing management is an essential component of the routine practices at the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) Facility. The reactor is Miniature Neutron Source Reactor with a rated power of 30 kW. GHARR-1 was installed and attained criticality on December 17, 1994 and commissioned on 8th March, 1995. It has since been in operation. The routine practices and operational procedures have been set out with clear emphasis on ageing policy at the facility. Some electronic components are changed regularly during maintenance sessions and keeping to regular purification of the reactor and pool water to mitigate against corrosion. This paper outlines the ageing management programme, mitigation practices, strategies for ageing management, periodic safety reviews, consideration of ageing during designing, design features for components and unit replacement, top beryllium shim addition, and succession planning. Information sharing with other operating organization is one of the means considered by GHARR-1 to attain excellence.

  8. Burn-up dependent steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of Pakistan research reactor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The burn-up dependent steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of Pakistan research reactor-1, reference operating core, has been carried out utilizing standard computer codes WIMS/D4, CITATION, and RELAP5/MOD3.4. Reactor codes WIMS/D4 and CITATION have been used for the calculations of neutronic parameters including peaking factors and power profiles at different burn-up considering a xenon free core and also the equilibrium xenon values. RELAP5/MOD3.4 code was utilized for the determination of peak fuel centerline, clad and coolant temperatures to ensure the safety of the reactor throughout the cycle. The calculations reveal that the reactor is safe and no nucleate boiling will commence at any part of the core throughout the cycle and that the safety margin increases with burnup as peaking factors decrease.

  9. Assessment of the reliability of neutronic parameters of Ghana Research Reactor-1 control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amponsah-Abu, E.O., E-mail: edwardabu2002@yahoo.com [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG. 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Gbadago, J.K. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG. 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Akaho, E.H.K.; Akoto-Bamford, S. [School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana (Ghana); Gyamfi, K.; Asamoah, M.; Baidoo, I.K. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG. 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The reliability of neutronics parameters of GHARR-I was assessed. • The reactor was operated at different power levels of 5–30 kW. • The pre-set flux was compared with the flux in the inner irradiation site. • Decrease in the core reactivity caused difference in flux on the meters and site. • Neutronic parameters become reliable when operation is done at reactivity of 4 mk. - Abstract: The Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) has been in operation for the past 19 years using a Micro-Computer Closed Loop System (MCCLS) and Control Console (CC) as the control systems. The two control systems were each coupled separately with a micro-fission chamber to measure the current pulses of the neutron fluxes in the core at excess reactivity of 4 mk. The MCCLS and CC meter readings at a pre-set flux of 5.0 × 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s were 6.42 × 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s and 5.0 × 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s respectively. Due to ageing and obsolescence, the MCCLS and some components that control the sensitivity and the reading mechanism of the meters were replaced. One of the fission chambers was also removed and the two control systems were coupled to one fission chamber. The reliability of the neutronic parameters of the control systems was assessed after the replacement. The results showed that when the reactor is operated at different power levels of 5–30 kW using one micro-fission chamber, the pre-set neutron fluxes at the control systems is 1.6 times the neutron fluxes obtained using a flux monitor at the inner irradiation site two of the reactor. The average percentage deviations of the obtained fluxes from the pre-set values of 1.67 × 10{sup 11}–1.0 × 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s were 36.5%. This compares very well with the decrease in core excess reactivity of 36.3% of the nominal value of 4 mk, after operating the reactor at critical neutron flux of 1.0 × 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} s.

  10. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  11. Low enriched uranium foil plate target for the production of fission Molybdenum-99 in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, Federal Area 44000 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mushtaqa@pinstech.org.pk; Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, Federal Area 44000 (Pakistan)

    2009-04-15

    Low enriched uranium foil (19.99% {sup 235}U) will be used as target material for the production of fission Molybdenum-99 in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). LEU foil plate target proposed by University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) will be irradiated in PARR-1 for the production of 100Ci of Molybdenum-99 at the end of irradiation, which will be sufficient to prepare required {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (PINSTECH) and its supply in the country. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis for the fission Molybdenum-99 production at PARR-1 has been performed. Power levels in target foil plates and their corresponding irradiation time durations were initially determined by neutronic analysis to have the required neutron fluence. Finally, the thermal hydraulic analysis has been carried out for the proposed design of the target holder using LEU foil plates for fission Molybdenum-99 production at PARR-1. Data shows that LEU foil plate targets can be safely irradiated in PARR-1 for production of desired amount of fission Molybdenum-99.

  12. Thai Pre-Service Science Teachers Engaging Action Research during Their Fifth Year Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faikhamta, Chatree; Clarke, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    As a key element in teacher education programmes, action research is a learning process in which pre-service teachers inquire, reflect on and improve their teaching practices. This qualitative study sought to understand what enhanced or hindered Thai pre-service teachers' action research projects during their student teaching. This study drew upon…

  13. Politeness Strategies in Thai Graduate Research Paper Discussions: Implications for Second/Foreign Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getkham, Kunyarut

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson's (1978, 1987) and Myers'…

  14. Highschool astronomy research workshop in Thailand and how it transforms Thai astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2017-01-01

    The National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) have launched the program "Advance Teacher Training Workshop" that aims to introduce both the students and astronomy teacher alike to the nature of critical thinking in science via hands on experience in astronomy projects. Students and accompanying teachers are participated in 5 days workshop in which each of them must select an individual astronomy research project. The project is then carried out on their own for the next 6 months, after which their works are presented in a conference. Progress is monitored and extra aid is delivered as needed via the use of social media. Over a hundred projects have been completed under this program. Follow up study have suggests that this workshop has shown to be quite successful at improving critical thinking skills in participants. As the program became more popular, other schools began to follow. To support the growing interest, we have also launched the "Thai Astronomical Society: student session", a highschool astronomy conference for anyone who participated or interested in astronomy related projects. Via these stages we are able to secure a permanent foothold in Thai astronomy education and inspire new generations to participate in astronomy projects.

  15. A Comparison of Rhetorical Move Structure of Applied Linguistics Research Articles Published in International and National Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaruk, Anchalee; Amnuai, Wirada

    2016-01-01

    The rhetorical organization of research articles has attracted extensive attention in genre study, and the focus of move-based analysis is on the textual function. The primary aim of the present study was the comparison of the rhetorical moves of English research articles in the field of Applied Linguistics written by Thai first authors and…

  16. Conversion of Molybdenum-99 production process to low enriched uranium: Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of HEU and LEU target plates for irradiation in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad, E-mail: amushtaq1@hotmail.com [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab; Muhammad, Atta [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-09-15

    Technetium-99m, the daughter product of Molybdenum-99 is the most widely needed radionuclide for diagnostic studies in Pakistan. Molybdenum-99 Production Facility has been established at PINSTECH. Highly enriched uranium (93% {sup 235}U) U/Al alloy targets have been irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) for the generation of fission Mo-99, while basic dissolution technique is used for separation of Mo-99 from target matrix activity. In line with the international objective of minimizing and eventually eliminating the use of HEU in civil commerce, national and international efforts have been underway to shift the production of medical isotopes from HEU to LEU (LEU; <20% {sup 235}U enrichment) targets. To achieve the equivalent amount of {sup 99}Mo with LEU targets, approximately 5 times uranium is needed. LEU aluminum uranium dispersion target has been developed, which may replace existing HEU aluminum/uranium alloy targets for production of {sup 99}Mo using basic dissolution technique. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations were performed for safe irradiation of targets in the core of PARR-1.

  17. Development of Neutron Imaging System for Neutron Tomography at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglee, S.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.; Liamsuwan, T.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron imaging is a powerful non-destructive technique to investigate the internal structure and provides the information which is different from the conventional X-ray/Gamma radiography. By reconstruction of the obtained 2-dimentional (2D) images from the taken different angle around the specimen, the tomographic image can be obtained and it can provide the information in more detail. The neutron imaging system at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization) has been developed to conduct the neutron tomography since 2014. The primary goal of this work is to serve the investigation of archeological samples, however, this technique can also be applied to various fields, such as investigation of industrial specimen and others. This research paper presents the performance study of a compact neutron camera manufactured by Neutron Optics such as speed and sensitivity. Furthermore, the 3-dimentional (3D) neutron image was successfully reconstructed at the developed neutron imaging system of TRR-1/M1.

  18. The thai-Australian alliance: developing a rural health management curriculum by participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggratoke, S; Briggs, David; Alexander, Christian; Taytiwat, Prawit; Cruickshank, Mary; Fraser, John; Ditton, Mary; Gaul, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Thai National Health Security Office and the Ministry of Public Health, through the Nakhonratchasima Provincial Health Office in Thailand, asked the Thai-Australian Health Alliance to identify competencies and skills for a health management curriculum for health professionals working in primary healthcare in rural Thailand. The study was conducted in Nakhonratchasima province, Thailand, utilizing questionnaires, focus group discussions and an intensive 3-day workshop involving a purposive sample of 35 participants drawn from various sectors in the health industry. Findings identified the core curriculum competencies and skills required by rural doctors, nurses and public health officers. Critical issues regarding continuing education for health professionals in primary healthcare were also examined. This study found that a primary healthcare approach should include the principles of sustainability and capacity building, and incorporate team-based, interprofessional and long-term continuous learning.

  19. A Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Model for Technological Innovation Capability Assessment: Research on Thai Automotive Parts Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumrit Detcharat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficient appraisal of technological innovation capabilities (TICs of enterprises is an important factor to enhance competitiveness. This study aims to evaluate and rank TICs evaluation criteria in order to provide a practical insight of systematic analysis by gathering the qualified experts’ opinions combined with three methods of multi-criteria decision making approach. Firstly, Fuzzy Delphi method is used to screen TICs evaluation criteria from the recent published researches. Secondly, the Analytic Hierarchy Process is utilized to compute the relative important weights. Lastly, the VIKOR method is used to rank the enterprises based on TICs evaluation criteria. An empirical study is applied for Thai automotive parts firms to illustrate the proposed methods. This study found that the interaction between criteria is essential and influences TICs; furthermore, this ranking development of TICs assessment is also one of key management tools to simply facilitate and offer a new mindset for managements of other related industries.

  20. Development of Online Courseware on Thai Food Good Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sompong, Narong; Kheerajitt, Cherdpong

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) develop the online courseware on Thai Food Good Health to support the Thai Kitchen to the world project; and 2) evaluate the courseware by the learners toward the courseware integrated using in aboard. The research sample were sampling for chefs, Thai restaurant owners, and the students who were studying…

  1. Medium of Instruction in Thai Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjavanakul, Natpat

    The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.

  2. Marketing Australian Universities to Thai Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This study examines Thai students' perceptions regarding the quality of the Australian university system. Research findings reveal that (a) it is very important to maintain and safeguard the university's superior reputation, as it is the most important factor influencing Thais to choose one university over other institutions; (b) information on…

  3. Intelligent Thai Text--Thai Sign Translation for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangsaart, Srisavakon; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Sirinaovakul, Booncharoen

    2008-01-01

    We present the Intelligent Thai text--Thai sign translation for language learning (IT[superscript 3]STL). IT[superscript 3]STL is able to translate Thai text into Thai sign language simply and conveniently anytime, anywhere. Thai sign language is the language of the deaf in Thailand. In the translation process, the distinction between Thai text…

  4. Occupational Hazards in the Thai Healthcare Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Mawn, Barbara; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Healthcare personnel work in vulnerable conditions that can adversely impact physical and/or mental health. This paper aims to synthesize the state of knowledge on work-related illnesses, injuries, and risks experienced by Thai healthcare workers. We found that Thai healthcare personnel, like others worldwide, are at risk for injury related to needle sticks and sharp instruments; infectious diseases due to biological hazards exposure such as airborne pathogens and patient secretions; muscle pain due to workload and long duration of work; and psychological disorders related to stressful working conditions. Because detailed surveillance data are limited for the Thai healthcare workforce, we recommend that additional surveillance data on Thai healthcare workers' health outcomes be collected. Future research efforts should also focus on evidence-based interventions in order to develop methods to prevent and treat occupational health injuries and illnesses acquired in the workplace for Thai healthcare sector workers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Differences in Quality between Thai and International Research Articles in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroongkhongdach, Woravut; Todd, Richard Watson; Keyuravong, Sonthida; Hall, David

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to explore potential problems of English Language Teaching (ELT) academics in Thailand in getting their research published in international journals. Using content analysis, the study analyzes and compares 100 research articles published by ELT academics in Thailand with 100 research articles published in international journals.…

  6. Katrina and the Thai Tsunami - Water Quality and Public Health Aspects Mitigation and Research Needs

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    A. J. Englande

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The South East Asian Tsunami in Thailand and Hurricane Katrina in the United States were natural disasters of different origin but of similar destruction and response. Both disasters exhibited synonymous health outcomes and similar structural damage from large surges of water, waves, and flooding. A systematic discussion and comparison of the disasters in Thailand and the Gulf Coast considers both calamities to be similar types of disaster in different coastal locations. Thus valuable comparisons can be made for improvements in response, preparedness and mitigation. Research needs are discussed and recommendations made regarding potential methologies. Recommendations are made to: (1 improve disaster response time in terms of needs assessments for public health and environmental data collection; (2 develop an access-oriented data sharing policy; and (3 prioritize natural geomorphic structures such as barrier islands, mangroves, and wetlands to help reduce the scale of future natural disasters. Based on the experiences gained opportunities to enhance disaster preparedness through research are presented.

  7. The effects of globalization on the status of music in Thai society.

    OpenAIRE

    Maryprasith, Primrose

    2000-01-01

    Globalization tends to be accompanied by two contrary processes: the one a celebration of newly opened international communications, the other, resistance to what is seen as an invasion of foreign culture. This research examines such processes in terms of perceptions of the status of music in Bangkok. The focus is on three main musical categories each of which, if vocal, uses Thai language in its lyrics: Thai classical, Thai country popular and Thai popular music. These musical...

  8. Mobile Technology in the Lives of Thai Immigrants in Germany

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    Sirima Thongsawang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile technology in the lives of Thai immigrants in Berlin. By using qualitative research methods, this research investigates how new digital and social media applications have affected the organization of Thai immigrants on both individual and institutional levels, with a particular focus on the Royal Thai Embassy in Berlin. Mobile technologies today are widely used in the diaspora, by both individuals and social institutions, to maintain relationships with the homeland and to promote national affairs. Both individual Thai immigrants and official staff of the embassy rely significantly on Internet sites, particularly on social networking sites such as Facebook, to gain information on Thailand and to expand their networks. This paper explores changes in communication and their implications for Thais and their respective institutions in Germany.

  9. Nutraceutical properties of Thai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareonchai Jeamchanya

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia Linn. is known in Thailand as "Yor" and commonly called "Noni" in Hawaii, Tahiti and USA. This paper reports the results of chemical analysis of Thai "Yor" (M. citrifolia juice extract. The juice from "Yor" fruit, was found to be high in vitamin C, vitamin B-complex contents (HPLC method, and was also high in anti-oxidants, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins and scopoletin (TLC method. Sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and selenium contents of the juice (AAS method are also reported. All the results of Thai "yor" juice are comparable to those of the commercially distributed 'Noni' juice. The Thai "Yor" juice was free of microorganisms and could safely be consumed in the recommended amount of 30 ml/day. The results of this study only apply to the Thai "Yor" juice preparation. The commercial "Noni" juice may be processed differently and may contain other ingredients.

  10. Thai nurses' perspectives on the use of complementary and alternative medicine among Thai breast cancer survivors in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchai, Ausanee; Armer, Jane M; Stewart, Bob R

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer survivors are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health and well-being than other cancer patients. The purpose of the study was to describe how Thai nurses perceive the use of CAM in Thai breast cancer survivors. An ethno-nursing research method was used. Fifteen Thai nurses who had experience in taking care of Thai breast cancer survivors who used CAM from a tertiary care referral and resource centre in the lower northern part of Thailand were interviewed. Two major themes emerged from this study: Meaning of care practices in CAM was seen as: (i) an additional beneficial choice for health; and (ii) emotional and psychological healing. Nurses should be concerned about CAM use in Thai breast cancer survivors. Open communication about CAM helps ensure that safe and holistic care is provided. Further research to enhance integration of CAM into health care is needed. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Reading Thai. A Programmed Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, David W.

    This programed text for learning to read Thai was originally designed for students having a grounding in Thai phonology and some facility with the language, but it has been made useful for students without this background by the inclusion of a summary of Thai phonology and the use of romanization. The text is organized according to the three…

  12. Trakun, politics and the Thai state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangsivek, Katja

    accounts of Thai political history being simultaneously the accounts of the royal and other elite families, little research has aimed to understand the entanglement of families and the state. The literature on Thailand after 1932 offers even less insight into Thai kinship politics. Political trakun...... these trakun’s lives and careers, such as marriages, election campaigns and funerals, will function as lenses through which to critically reassess the intersection of seemingly disparate strands: the trakun and the state. This study will argue that political trakun have taken crucial positions in the Thai...

  13. THE KEY ACTIVITIES OF GREEN LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN THE THAI AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Thanyaphat Muangpan; Mana Chaowarat; Jutaporn Neamvonk

    2016-01-01

    Thai automotive industry needs to be developed for understanding activities management on inbound logistics that is an essential element of business operations for a manufacturing firm. The purpose of research is to study the main activities of green logistics management (inbound logistics) in the Thai automotive industry. Survey research was used in this study to collect data by sampling from the people in the field of logistics and environmental management of Thai automotive industry to exa...

  14. Evidence of Nationalistic bias in MuayThai

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Tony D.; Nigel J. Balmer; Nevill, Alan M; Yahya Al-Nakeeb

    2006-01-01

    MuayThai is a combat sport with a growing international profile but limited research conducted into judging practices and processes. Problems with judging of other subjectively judged combat sports have caused controversy at major international tournaments that have resulted in changes to scoring methods. Nationalistic bias has been central to these problems and has been identified across a range of sports. The aim of this study was to examine nationalistic bias in MuayThai. Data were collect...

  15. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  16. FTIR and chemometric tools for the classification of Thai wines

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    Vannajan S. Lee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic method was developed to determine the content in wines without sample preparation or use of organic solvents. This research aimed at classifying seven Thai wines from various regions by employing both instrumental and statistical analysis. FTIR spectra in the region between 650-4000 cm-1 were characterised and used for multivariate chemometric analysis by principal component analysis (PCA, discriminant analysis (DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Application of PCA to FTIR data revealed the pattern and relationship of each brand or trademark. Thai wines were effectively distinguished by DA according to their trademarks and can be divided into four main groups according to HCA. All of the multivariate analyses yield similar conclusions that Thai wines cannot be clearly classified in terms of geographical origin. However, additional samples may provide further insight into the geographical distribution of Thai wines.

  17. Thai Ways and My Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dick L.

    Differences in Thai and American world views that point to cultural differences where misunderstandings can occur are considered. These differences reflect an alternative view of reality, not just language or verbal differences. Thailand has never been under foreign rule; most of the people are Buddhists; and 80 percent of Thai people are involved…

  18. Investigative studies on the effects of cadmium rabbits on high enriched uranium-fueled and low enriched uranium-fueled cores of Ghana Research Reactor-1 using MCNP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffie, J., E-mail: jboffie@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Science, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Akaho, E.H.K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Science, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); Nyarko, B.J.B.; Odoi, H.C.; Tuffour-Achampong, K.; Abrefah, R.G. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Science, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The operating parameters for both the HEU core and proposed LEU core were similar. • The length of the Cd in the capsules must be increased for its use in the LEU core. • Cd rabbits can emergently be used to shut down MNSRs. - Abstract: Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSRs) are noted to be among highly safe research reactors. However, because of its use of one control rod for reactivity control and shutdown purposes, alternative methods of shutting it down are important. The Ghana MNSR uses four cadmium rabbits of approximate dimensions 6.5 cm × 5.0 cm × 0.1 cm and mass of 9.48 g each to emergently shut down the reactor. The Monte Carlo N-Particle code; version 5, (MCNP5) was used to design the high enriched uranium (HEU) and low enriched uranium (LEU) cores of the MNSR with four cadmium rabbits inserted in four inner irradiation sites of each core. The operating parameters and shutdown parameters for both cores with the central control rod (CCR) either fully withdrawn or fully inserted had similar results with the HEU core having slightly better results in terms of safety. However, the results show that the four inserted cadmium rabbits make the HEU core subcritical whiles in the LEU core, it still remains critical (k{sub eff} = 1.00005 ± 0.00007). The length of the cadmium material in each cadmium rabbit must therefore be increased by at least 0.5 cm in order to attain subcriticality (k{sub eff} = 0.99989 ± 0.00006) and shutdown margin of 0.11 mk when inserted in the LEU core.

  19. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.

  20. Rapid calibration of beryllium shims of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows environment to carry out the required calibration automatically. It also facilitates rapid recalibration and verification whenever the need arises. It is shown that the scheme results in huge savings in labour and time as well as improved reliability when compared with the traditional manual method of shim calibration.

  1. Nuclear safety-related calculations for Ghana Research Reactor -1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , kinet-ic parameters and isothermal reactivity coefficients. Comparisons of some computed values with results obtain-ed using other codes, which are in good agreement, are presented. Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) , Vol.

  2. An Analysis of Errors in Written English Sentences: A Case Study of Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermsook, Kanyakorn; Liamnimit, Jiraporn; Pochakorn, Rattaneekorn

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to examine the language errors in a writing of English major students in a Thai university and to explore the sources of the errors. This study focused mainly on sentences because the researcher found that errors in Thai EFL students' sentence construction may lead to miscommunication. 104 pieces of writing…

  3. Study of Thai Language Oral Reading Problems for Students with Down Syndrome: Grade Range 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchote, Nantawan; Chongchaikit, Maturos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the Thai Language Oral Reading Problems of students with Down syndrome, Grade Range1 at Watnonsaparam School, Saraburi Thailand in favor of Web Quest Lessons Development Enhancing Oral Reading Skills of Down syndrome Students. The research instruments were the 2 observation forms on Thai Language Reading…

  4. An elaboration of Thai vocal instructors in Thai university classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantana Khochprasert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a qualitative investigation on the study of instructive methods of Thai traditional singing instructors in higher education in Thailand. The information was collected in the form of document analysis and interviews with Thai traditional music instructors from several universities across Thailand. The results of the analysis of Thai traditional singing instruction methods in higher education in Thailand revealed that there are 11 universities that offer Thai traditional singing instruction. The instruction is a part of curricula under four different governing bodies and four classifications of curriculum. The sets of practicum repertoires in every university were found to be almost identical. It was found that the instructors used several techniques. Some techniques were similar while some were different. All the techniques were transmitted orally. In order to successfully produce graduates of the desired standard, singing must be correctly taught from the basics, whether theory, pronunciation or rhyming. At the same time, creativity should also be encouraged

  5. Lessons Learnt of Thai Women Environmental Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittipong Dilokwanich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, Thai women have learned how to extent their roles from a care taker of children and a household to natural resources and environmental protection and management in local and inter-regional communities. Due to the application of National Economic and Social Development Plans, rapid resource exploitation has brought in natural resource and environmental degradation all over the country threatening communal security. For this reason, there have been a number of emerging environmental leaders who want to correct directions of national development, especially Thai woman environmental leaders who are taking a successful role of environmental guardian in their communities. This research attempts to explore why they took leadership role in environment, how they work so successful as an environmental guardian, and what their next move is. During early 2013 till mid-2014, there are 28 Thai woman leaders who received the award of Thai Environmental Conservation Mother from the Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University between 2004 and 2012. They were in-depth interviewed and collected data were preceded by content analysis. Their lessons learnt show that most leaders saved their communities' environment and natural resources from the intervention of new development activities. Most of them had their parents as a good role model in environmental management who provide knowledge of morals and environmental ethics as a good basic of leadership while some shared their husband's responsibility in the same matter. Significantly, teamwork is their working style with the assistance of public participation to hold teamwork and collaboration of the community. Almost all leaders had systematic working with talents of patience, gentleness and sensitivity. The working network also broadens their new information and knowledge between practitioners. In the same time, more than half of the leaders can prepare their

  6. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (Thai SPADI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongamwong, Chanwit; Choosakde, Apijaree

    2015-09-04

    The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a good clinical tool to evaluate patients with shoulder pain, but has not been adapted to Thai version. The objectives of this study were to translate the English version and culturally adapt the SPADI to Thai version and to evaluate the internal consistency and construct validity of the Thai SPADI among Thai participants having shoulder pain. Following the cross-cultural adaptation guidelines stated by the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) Outcome Committee, the SPADI was translated to Thai version (Thai SPASI). Thai participants with shoulder pain completed the three questionnaires, i.e., the Thai SPADI, bodily pain subscale of the Thai Short Form 36 second version (Thai SF-36 V2) and the Thai version of disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (Thai DASH). Internal consistency of the Thai SPADI was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Convergent and divergent validity was used to measure construct validity of the Thai SPADI by assessing the correlation of the Thai SPADI with the Thai DASH and bodily pain subscale of the Thai SF-36 V2. Of 44 participants, the majority of participants were female (68.2%) and had Bachelor's degree or higher education level (59.1%) with a mean age of 50.4 years (SD 14.3). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Thai SPADI in pain subscale, disability subscale and total scale was 0.92, 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The correlation of the Thai SPADI with the Thai DASH and bodily pain subscale of the Thai SF-36 V was 0.79 (p shoulder disability among Thais.

  7. UNDERSTANDING THAI CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS MANAGEMENT DURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerasak Thanasankit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.

  8. Thai Family Health Routines: scale development and psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanawetang, Jantakan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Chaiyawat, Waraporn; Wu, Yow-Wu Bill; Denham, Sharon A

    2009-05-01

    The aims of the study were to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Thai Family Health Routines (TFHR) scale, a 70-item self-report questionnaire used to measure the health of Thai families through their routine behaviors in daily life. Development of the TFHR was based on the structural domains of Denham's Family Health Model. The TFHR scale was initially composed of 85 items and tested on 1,040 families living in the central region of Thailand. The confirmatory factor analysis, with an acceptable factor structure model, yielded 70 items aligned with six factors: self-care, safety and prevention, mental health behavior, family care, family caregiving, and illness care routines. The preliminary psychometric properties demonstrated that the TFHR scale had satisfactory internal consistency, criterion validity, and construct validity. The test results suggested that the TFHR scale has potential benefits for family and community nurses to assess Thai family health for both research and clinical purposes.

  9. Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Chuan-udom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

  10. Theravada Buddhism and Thai Luxury Fashion Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ning (Mao); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Komin’s nine values cluster (Psychology of the Thai people), analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy (Han et al., 2010), integrates the Theory

  11. Establishment of a polyclonal antibody against the retinoid X receptor of the rock shell Thais clavigera and its application to rock shell tissues for imposex research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Iguchi, Taisen; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2010-03-01

    In the chain of study to further elucidate the role of retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the development of imposex caused by organotin compounds in gastropod mollusks, we established a polyclonal antibody against RXR of the rock shell Thais clavigera. Immunoblotting demonstrated that this antibody could recognize T. clavigera RXR. In males and imposex-exhibiting females, immunohistochemical staining with the antibody revealed nuclear localization of RXR protein in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells of the vas deferens and in the interstitial and epidermal cells of the penis. These results suggest that the polyclonal antibody against T. clavigera RXR can specifically recognize RXR protein in tissues of T. clavigera and therefore is useful for evaluating RXR protein localization. Furthermore, RXR may be involved in the induction of male-type genitalia (penis and vas deferens) in normal male and organotin-exposed female rock shells.

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Compendium of Physical Activity: Thai Translation and Content Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayondeja, Chutima; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Vachalathiti, Roongtiwa; Bovonsunthonchai, Sunee; Sakulsriprasert, Prasert; Kaewkhuntee, Watsinee; Bunprajun, Tipwadee; Upiriyasakul, Rujiret

    2015-06-01

    To translate the compendium physical activity (compendium) proposed by Ainsworth to Thai and to validate the Thai translated version. Five steps of cross-cultural adaption were conducted as follows: (1) forward translation, (2) group review, (3) backward translation, (4) group review and final decision and (5) a pilot study. Eight hundred and twenty-one activities ofthe compendium were translated to Thai by two independents translators. Thai translated version was considered by 23 persons who have studied physical activity for at leastfive years. Backward translation was carried out by two bilingual translators. The research team completed the final Thai translation by comparing original and translated versions. For pilot study the Thai translated version was validated by 22 allied health persons. Data was analyzed by multi-rater agreement (Fleiss's kappa) and qualitative analysis. For translations and group review, recommendations included; (a) changing to lay language with the same meaning, (b) converting the U.S. customary unit to the metric unit, and (c) using consistent language. More than 80% of 22 persons accepted the Thai translation and the Kappa agreement rangedfrom 0.187 to 0.694. Some activities demonstratedpoor multi-rater agreement and required additional definitions. Thai translated compendium physical activity was constructed to reduce the language barrier and promote physical activity in Thailand. The poor to moderate agreement of each major heading of translation may partly be due to Western culture. Many activities in the compendium were assembled but they were not recognized by Thais. Hence, Thai compendium physical activity should to be developed in afuture study.

  13. English Grammar and Thai University Students: An Insurmountable Linguistic Battle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengboon, Saksit

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating English grammar knowledge of a group of Thai university students. The three main research questions revolved around their knowledge of English grammar, the kinds of difficulties they had encountered in using the grammar as well as their perceptions of the roles of grammar in using English. The participants were…

  14. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  15. The impact of brand on Thai female consumer in purchase decision of foreign makeup product

    OpenAIRE

    Ponbamrungwong, Anantaya; Chandsawang, Sirada

    2009-01-01

    Date: 2009-06-02 Program: International Marketing Authors: Anantaya Ponbamrungwong & Sirada Chandsawang Title: The impact of brand on Thai female consumer in purchase decision of foreign makeup product Research Question: Does brand equity affect Thai female consumer in foreign makeup product purchase? Purpose: to investigate the effect of brand on consumer purchasing decision of foreign makeup product. The outcome of the research would be beneficial to marketing professionals especially i...

  16. A synopsis of Thai Nymphaeaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La-ongsri, Woranuch; Trisonthi, Chusie; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A synopsis of Nymphaeaceae from Thailand was made by means of a literature search, consultation of herbarium specimens in several Thai and European herbaria, and a survey of 47 wetlands throughout Thailand. Nymphaeaceae phylogeny, habitats and reproductive ecology are reviewed. All species...

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Thai Internalized Stigma Scale (TIS-LCH) for Care Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosangwarn, Suhathai; Clissett, Philip; Blake, Holly

    2017-01-01

    Living in a care home is a source of stigma in Thai culture, although there is currently no measurement tool in the Thai language specifically designed to assess internalized stigma in care home residents. The Thai Version of Internalized Stigma of Living in a Care Home (TIS-LCH) scale was developed and tested for its psychometric properties among Thai older residents. The Thai version of Internalized Stigma of Mental Health Illness (ISMI) Scale was revised into the TIS-LCH by replacing the word of "mental health illness" to "living in a care home." Content validity of the TIS-LCH was determined through expert review (n = 6), and reliability testing was undertaken with older care home residents (n = 128). The TIS-LCH showed good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of .87. Test-retest reliability coefficient of TIS-LCH was excellent for the full scale (ICC = .90). The Thai version of IS-LCH (TIS-LCH) is a valid and reliable measurement tool for assessing internalized stigma in Thai care home residents. The IS-LCH will be a useful research tool to assess internalized stigma in older adults living in care settings. Understanding stigma will help health and social care professionals to plan interventions aimed at reducing or preventing negative emotional reactions and negative behavioural responses toward stigma, which are known to be associated with mental illness and particularly depression among this population.

  18. Atypical Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Thai Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarurin Pitanupong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version. The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to determine the correlation and P-value. Results: 141 Thai, medical students (15.9% were reported to have atypical attitudes towards eating, and displayed abnormal eating behaviors. There was no statistically significant correlation of attitude towards eating, and their current eating behaviors according to the medical students’ gender, year of studying and Grade Point Average. However, their eating attitudes and behaviors were, associated with Body Mass index. Normal weight (BMI 18.5- 23.49 and overweight (BMI 23.5-39.9 groups could increase by 2.2 (95% CI =1.2, 4.3 and 2.3 (95% CI=1.1, 4.8 times risk depending on atypical eating attitudes and abnormal eating behaviors respectively, when compared with the underweight group (BMI<18.5. Conclusion: There was no correlated difference in concerns to the Thai medical student’s abnormal eating habits, with gender, years of their study and Grade Point Average. Only normal to over-weight BMI were associated. Overweight male, medical students significantly represented more atypical attitudes towards eating and behaviors than other groups in this population. These results may reveal the changing trends of eating attitudes and behaviors due to the current ideal body image of being more muscular. However, prospective studies are still needed.

  19. Theravada buddhism and thai luxury fashion consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); N. Mao (Ning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede's cultural dimension theory and Komin's nine values cluster, analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy, integrates the Theory of Cultural Capital, and expounds the features

  20. Enhancing Life Purpose amongst Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthip, Karnsunaphat; McSherry, Wilfred; Petchruschatachart, Usanee; Piriyakoontorn, Siriwan; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2017-01-01

    This article describes experiences that enhanced life purpose in 21 Thai adolescents living in Southern Thailand. Thailand is undergoing rapid change from technology, a globalizing economy, and shifting social norms. A phenomenological analysis of in-depth interviews and stories to better understand how Thai youth themselves experience and…

  1. Emotionality and Composition in Thai and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcharatsri, Pisarn Bee

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study examined the perceptions and experiences of nine Thai college student writers' expression of emotions in poetry, narrative, and opinionated writing written in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages: Thai and English. The study focused on the participants' perspectives in order to gain more understanding of the phenomenon…

  2. Formulation of Thai herbal Namprik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijroongrojana, K.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Namprik is a typical Thai food containing various herbs. The diversity of Namprik depends on herb composition and content, cooking method, and flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a fine, driedand granular Namprik formula for eating with rice. The ingredients included many commonly found Thai herbs. The recipe of lemon grass Namprik produced by Satree Ban-Tung group, Khaokram district, AmphurMueang, Krabi province, Thailand, was reformulated. Mixture design was applied to optimize the amounts of black pepper (10-33%, garlic (10-66.67% and shallot (10-66.67%. Contour plot of hedonic scores andthe predictive regression models were calculated. Results showed that optimal formula should have 23.33% black pepper, 66.67% garlic and 10% shallot. Optimum levels of additional mixed herbs consisting of 5-25%kaffir lime leaves and 75-95% holy basil in the formula, using the mixture design, were also investigated. The results of sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale showed no significant differences in appearance,taste and overall liking (p>0.05. However, the formula containing 4.2% kaffir lime leaves and 15.8% holy basil obtained the highest average score for aroma (p<0.05. Various amounts of dried African chili (7, 5,3% were added to determine an acceptable hot and spicy flavor, using just-about-right scale. The results revealed that the formula containing 7, 5 and 3% dried African chili were defined as just-about-right by 22, 32 and 42% of the panelists, respectively. The final product was given average hedonic scores of aroma, taste,spicy and overall liking ranging from like moderately to like very much. Appearance scores were in the range of like slightly to like moderately. This study indicated that a more nutrition and healthier Namprik containing some Thai herbs can be produced.

  3. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  4. The efficacy of traditional Thai massage for the treatment of chronic pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratitanont, Keattichai; Jensen, Mark P; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Auvichayapat, Paradee

    2015-02-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) is an alternative medicine treatment used for pain relief. The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the research about the effects of TTM on pain intensity and other important outcomes in individuals with chronic pain. We performed a systematic review of the controlled trials of the effects of TTM, using the keywords "Traditional Thai massage" or "Thai massage" with the keyword "Chronic pain." Six research articles met the inclusion criteria. All of the studies found a pre- to post-treatment pain reductions, varying from 25% to 80% and was also associated with improvements in disability, perceived muscle tension, flexibility and anxiety. The TTM benefits of pain reduction appear to maintain for up to 15 weeks. Additional research is needed to identify the moderators, mediators and to determine the long-term benefits of TTM relative to control conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Worldviews in Isan-Thai Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Jaruwan Thammawat; Pathom Hongsuwan; Wajuppa Tossa

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study aimed to investigate two-fold: To present worldviews in Isan-Thai Stories and to explain the connections between the worldviews and their societal contexts. Approach: Following the methodology of folklore studies, both oral and written versions of Isan-Thai stories were analyzed in order to find out their structures, contents, motifs and contexts. The 76 stories which were chosen fall into five types: Legends, episodes of the Buddhas birth stories, chakchak wongw...

  6. Caratterizzazione tecnica e fisiologica della Muay Thai

    OpenAIRE

    Cappai, Ivo Marcello

    2011-01-01

    La Muay Thai, comunemente detta “Boxe Thailandese” è un'arte marziale che rientra nella classificazione delle attività intermittenti con entrambi i sistemi energetici reclutati, aerobico e anaerobico, è inoltre caratterizzata dal fatto che il combattimento alla distanza si alterna alla lotta, denominata “clinch”. Nonostante la popolarità della Muay Thai, in ambito mondiale, stia progressivamente aumentando così come è in aumento il numero di atleti che la praticano, le ricerche incentra...

  7. The Effects of Online Third-party Opinions toward Consumer Purchasing Decision on Cosmetic Products in the Thai Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bubphapant, Jitpisut; Thammasaro, Ramrada

    2012-01-01

     Title:  The effects of online third-party opinions toward Consumer Purchasing Decision on cosmetics products in Thai market Seminar date: June 4th , 2012 Course: Master thesis in International marketing, 15 credits Purpose: The overall purpose of this research is to explain the understanding of the effects of online third-party opinions toward consumer purchasing decision process on cosmetics products in Thai market. This includes the investigation of effective used of online third-party opi...

  8. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  9. Performance care practices in complementary and alternative medicine by Thai breast cancer survivors: an ethnonursing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchai, Ausanee; Armer, Jane M; Stewart, Bob R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Thai breast cancer survivors perform care practices in complementary and alternative medicine to promote their health and well-being. Research was conducted using an ethnonursing method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 Thai breast cancer survivors in Thailand. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using the ethnonursing analysis method. The findings showed Thai breast cancer survivors started their care practices in complementary and alternative medicine immediately following a diagnosis of breast cancer. They sought out and gathered alternative medicine information from several sources, such as the people around them, media resources, books, magazines, or newspapers. After gathering information, Thai breast cancer survivors would try out various types of complementary medicines rather than use only one type because of information from other people and their own evaluation. The findings of this study indicate the need for a conversation about complementary medicine use between healthcare providers and Thai breast cancer survivors as an on-going process throughout the cancer trajectory to ensure that safe and holistic care is provided. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Thai traditional massage: Issues causing possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2015-01-01

    Thai traditional massage is a widely used massage technique in Thailand and is presently accepted by local Thai Ministry of Public Health. The technique is promoted but not well accepted internationally. There is a concern about the effectiveness as well as safety of this local wisdom. After a recent episode of concurrent acute heart attack and Thai traditional massage in a patient, the issue of possible adverse effects of Thai traditional massage is being widely discussed.

  11. Thai traditional massage: Issues causing possible adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2015-01-01

    Thai traditional massage is a widely used massage technique in Thailand and is presently accepted by local Thai Ministry of Public Health. The technique is promoted but not well accepted internationally. There is a concern about the effectiveness as well as safety of this local wisdom. After a recent episode of concurrent acute heart attack and Thai traditional massage in a patient, the issue of possible adverse effects of Thai traditional massage is being widely discussed.

  12. Business English in Thailand: The Needs of the Thai Business Community, and Courses Taught at the Thai University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savangvarorose, Bang-Orn

    Results of a 1982-1983 survey of the Thai business community concerning its needs for English language skills and of a survey of the course offerings at Thai colleges and universities are reported and discussed. The industry survey targeted 60 of the 600 largest Thai companies in manufacturing, trading, finance, hotels and health care. The…

  13. Validation of the Thai version of Bergen Facebook addiction scale (Thai-BFAS). .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanasathit, Muthita; Manwong, Mereerat; Hanprathet, Nitt; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee

    2015-03-01

    To determine the validity ofthe Thai version ofthe Bergen FacebookAddiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) using Facebook addiction screening in Thai high school students. The original BFAS was authorized for translation and validation in Thai. After content validity and usability were approved by three Thai psychiatrists, the Thai-BFAS was adjusted again by the authors and back translated by an English expert. Thisfinal version was investigated using the internal consistency method among 874 high schools students in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, and confirmatoy factor analysis (CFA) was employed to prove that the six-component model could be representative of addiction behaviors. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed separately among 30 pilot high school students in Bangkok. The Thai-BFAS has six items, which are each scored on a 5-point scale with total score ranges from 0 to 24; the cutoff score for Facebook addition stands at least 12 points. The Cronbach s alpha coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI; 0.90, 0.92) and the inter-class correlation coefficient was 0.80 (95% CI; 0.49, 0.92). The CFA showed that the six items accurately represent the six-component model of addiction such as salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse and conflict. The Thai-BFAS is consistent as a screening testfor Facebook addiction among high school students due to good reliability and validity. It also conforms well to the original version. The six items in the Thai-BFAS are a good representation of the addiction behaviors. Further studies should be undertaken in cases of sensitivity and specificity when compared with other similar tests of addiction as well as in various additional populations and circumstances.

  14. Learning English as Thai Adult Learners: An Insight into Experience in Using Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanarak, Kasma

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to understand language learning strategies of Thai adult learners and factors affecting their strategy use. The participants are forty officers of General Service Division of the Council of State of Thailand, attending an English training course for developing their work potential. The data were collected through the…

  15. An Effect of the Co-Operative Network Model for Students' Quality in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…

  16. Professional Development and Learning by General Teachers Implementing Functional Behavioural Assessment in Thai Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is identified as a research-based approach used in many Western schools to support student behaviour. This study aimed to assist Thai classroom teachers by providing a professional development and learning programme in FBA to develop an effective and efficient process to address behaviour problems and allow…

  17. Married Thai Working Mothers: Coping with Initial Part-Time Doctoral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnam, Thanit

    2011-01-01

    Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…

  18. The Implementation of Web 2.0 Technology for Information Literacy Instruction in Thai University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawetrattanasatian, Oranuch

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology has drawn much attention recently as a fascinating tool for Information Literacy Instruction (ILI), especially in academic libraries. This research was aimed to investigate the implementation of Web 2.0 technology for ILI in Thai university libraries, in terms of information literacy skills being taught, types of Web 2.0…

  19. Modeling and Mapping Personal Learning Environment of Thai International Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali; Sawad, Buncha Panacharoen; Wongwai, Sarun

    2018-01-01

    This research article is part of a periodic study conducted to understand, model, map and to develop an integrated approach for effective and interactive self-learning phases of Thai International Hospitality and Tourism higher education students. Questionnaire containing both qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed at the beginning…

  20. The Effect of Thai Massage and Sport Massage on Decreasing Low Acids and Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Fitri Utami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference between the effectiveness of Thai and Sports massage against the decrease of lactic acid and blood glucose. The research was experimental laboratoris. The results showed the initial data retrieval on lactic acid level in treatment and control group ranged between between 1.30-3.40 mmol/l of lactate. Then on lactic acid level after activities on Sport massage group was 6.01 mmol/l, whereas the thai massage group was 5.72 mmol/l, and control group was 5.18 mmol/l. whereas in lactic acid levels after 5 minutes of physical activity on a group of sport massage namely 8.36 mmol/l , a group of thai massage 7.26 mmol/l, and the control group 5.83 mmol/l. lactic acid levels and then 10 minutes of physical activity on the group after group of sport massage namely 3.81 mmol/l, a group of thai massage 4.11 mmol/l, and the control group 4.62 mmol/l. While on initial data retrieval on the blood glucose levels between 75 – 91 mg/dL. then in blood glucose levels after activities on a group of sport massage namely 93.50 mg/dL, while the Group of thai massage 96.12 mg/dL, and the control group 88.75 mg/dL. While in blood glucose levels after 5 minutes of physical activity on a group of sport massage i.e. namely 89.75 mg/dL, a group of thai. massage 88.25 mg/dL and a control group of 88 mg/dL. Then blood glucose after 10 minutes of physical activity on the group the Group of sport massage i.e. namely 81.12 mg/dL, a group of thai massage 83.12 mg/dL, and the control group 85.00 mg/dL. Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded that there is a decrease in the levels of blood glucose and lactic acid for each experimental and control groups group after being given the treatment of Thai Massage and Sports Massage.

  1. Hymenolepis nana infection in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, C; Radomyos, P; Praevanit, R; Pojjaroen-Anant, C; Wisetsing, P

    2000-09-01

    Stool examination was performed on 2,083 Thai children from orphanages and primary schools. Hymenolepis nana infection was found only in children from orphanages with a prevalence of 13.12 per cent. Males had a statistically significant higher prevalence of infection than females. Most infected children were asymptomatic. In symptomatic infected children, the symptoms were mild and non-specific such as pruritus ani, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia, headache, and dizziness. Praziquantel in a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg body weight was effective and well tolerated in Hymenolepis nana infected Thai children.

  2. Development of the Thai breast cancer belief scale for Thai immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsuk, Suwattana; Flick, Louise H; Schneider, C S Joanne K

    2012-01-01

    Asian American women have not benefited from the decline in breast cancer mortality and have lower rates of mammography use. Understanding mammography behaviors among these Asian American women requires culturally specific measures. Champion's belief scale was translated into Thai and cultural items were added. The Thai breast cancer belief scale (TBCBS), the Suinn-Lew self-identification acculturation, and the Asian values scale-revised were administered to 250 Thai immigrants. The TBCBS was tested for face validity, construct validity, and internal consistency. Factor analysis reflected the 4 constructs of the health belief model and accounted for 45.8% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha ranged from .77 to .90. Modest correlations were observed between TBCBS subscales and acculturation scales. Results indicate that the TBCBS measures breast cancer beliefs among Thai immigrant population.

  3. Astaxanthin production from sewage of traditional Thai rice vermicelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarit, Chutinut; Rittirut, Waigoon; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Siripatana, Chairat

    2017-03-01

    This research aimed to investigate an optimal condition for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma TISTR 5730 in two different media: synthetic YM medium and the medium added with coconut water and diluted with sewage from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant (coconut water: sewage of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 ration respectively). The basic medium formulation was composed of 10 g/L glucose, 3 g/L yeast extract, 0.1 g/L K2HPO4, 0.01 g/L NaCl, 0.01 g/L MgSO4 and 0.01 g/L CaCl2 with initial pH 5.5. The cultures were cultivated on 200 rpm shaking bath at 50 °C for 120 hr. It was found that P. rhodozyma TISTR 5370 grew optimally when cultivated in a mixture of coconut water and Thai rice vermicelli sewage (ratio of 1:3), with growth of 3.23 g dry biomass/L and specific astaxanthin production of 680 μg/g dry cell respectively. When fan palm sugar was added to increase reducing sugar from 10 to 15, 20 and 25 g/L, it was demonstrated that the 15 g/L formulation produced highest both dry cell weight (9.66 g/L) and astaxanthin (810 μg/g dry cell weight). Furthermore, when 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/L citric acid was added as supplement, it was found that 1.0-g/L citric acid formulation gave the best result: 10.30 g/L dried cell weight and 930 μg/g dry cell weight astaxanthin. This study provides a promising alternative method of sewage reduction and valorization of wastewater from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant.

  4. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  5. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced

  6. Promoting Wellness for Thai College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Rodriguez, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    There are few in-depth studies of Thai college student health and mental health behaviors that focus on the cultural influences that shape such behaviors. Thus, the purposes of this study are: (1) to conduct the needs assessment survey on health and mental health issues at a public university in Thailand in order to better understand the issues…

  7. Unpolished Thai Rice Strain of Leum Phua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Additionally, phenolic content and anthocyanin pigment were also assayed. Results: Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice strain of Leum Phua showed the highest antioxidant activity. It was also highest in anthocyanin pigment. The strains of Leum Phua, Klam, Hawm Nil and Black Rose showed high levels of phenolic content: ...

  8. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  9. Multicompartment model comparison of body fat assessment in Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Deurenberg, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To examine the limits of agreement of percent body fat (%BF) assessed by different compartment models (2C and 3C compared to 4C). Fifty-one healthy Thai adolescents (25 males and 26 females) aged 16 to 19 years volunteered in the present study. Underwater weighing (UWW) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were used for measurement of %BF for 2C and 3C models. UWW was also used for body density, DEXA for bone mineral content and protein content, and deuterium oxide dilution method for total body water (TBW), used in Lohman's equation for 4C model. Body density total body water; bone mineral density, and fat free mass were significantly higher in males than in females, whereas females had significantly higher fat than males (p analysis demonstrated that UWW and DEXA tended to underestimate %BF in leaner adolescents and overestimate %BF in fatter adolescents. Percent body fat using underwater weighing (2C model) may be used interchangeable with the 4C model in both genders. However; DEXA (3C model) can only be used in males and not in females, which require further research. A regression equation to relate 2C and 3C models to 4C was developed to enable a better estimation of percent body fat in Thai adolescents.

  10. The Experience Economy in Thai Hotels and Resort Clusters: The Role of Authentic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanan Apivantanaporn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although hotels and other tourist institutions in Thailand have been making some sporadic attempts to incorporate specifically Thai food and beverage (F&B elements into their overall product offering, this has rarely been attempted in a thoughtful and systematic manner. This is despite the importance of F&B in determining overall levels of customer satisfaction and the recent importance attached to incorporating ‘Thainess’ into the hotel and tourism industry nationwide. It is, therefore, rather surprising that little if any sustained effort has been made to define authenticity with respect to Thai food (bearing in mind also regional variations or to incorporate certificates of quality to establishments providing such authentic dishes. This paper draws on qualitative research and personal observation undertaken in a wide range of Thai hotels with a view to identifying emergent value-adding clusters in the domestic hospitality sector. It describes and categorizes the uses of Thai F&B currently and identifies shortcomings in industry vision, which leads to recommendations for both hotel and resort managers and also to those responsible for national level tourism development efforts. The paper also recognizes the problematic nature of the concepts of ‘authenticity’ in this context and attempts to reconcile differing conceptions.

  11. Association between Internet addiction and depression in Thai medical students at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonvisudhi, Thummaporn; Kuladee, Sanchai

    2017-01-01

    To study the extent of Internet addiction (IA) and its association with depression in Thai medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital. Participants were first- to fifth-year medical students who agreed to participate in this study. Demographic characteristics and stress-related factors were derived from self-rated questionnaires. Depression was assessed using the Thai version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A total score of five or greater derived from the Thai version of Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction was classified as "possible IA". Then chi-square test and logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between possible IA, depression and associated factors. From 705 participants, 24.4% had possible IA and 28.8% had depression. There was statistically significant association between possible IA and depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.77, P-value Internet use (95% CI: 1.04-2.38, P-value = 0.031). Academic problems were found to be a significant predictor of both possible IA and depression. IA was likely to be a common psychiatric problem among Thai medical students. The research has also shown that possible IA was associated with depression and academic problems. We suggest that surveillance of IA should be considered in medical schools.

  12. A Unified Model of Thai Romanization and Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Aroonmanakun, Wirote; Rivepiboon, Wanchai

    2005-01-01

    Thai romanization is the way to write Thai language using roman alphabets. It could be performed on the basis of orthographic form (transliteration) or pronunciation (transcription) or both. As a result, many systems of romanization are in use. The Royal Institute has established the standard by proposing the principle of romanization on the basis of transcription. To ensure the standard, a fully automatic Thai romanization system should be publicly made available. In this paper, we discuss t...

  13. Mechanical Model of Traditional Thai Massage for Integrated Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Salinee Rattanaphan; Panya Srichandr

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a mechanical model was developed, aiming to provide standardized and programmable traditional Thai massage (TTM) therapy to patients. The TTM was modeled and integrated into a mechanical hand (MH) system, and a prototype massage chair was built and tested for user satisfaction. Three fundamental principles of Thai massage were integrated: pull, press, and pin. Based on these principles, the mechanics of Thai massage was studied and a mathematical model was developed to describe...

  14. Development of a Blended Instructional Model via Weblog to Enhance English Summary Writing Ability of Thai Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termsinsuk, Saisunee

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research and development was to develop an effective blended instructional model via weblog to enhance English summary writing ability of Thai undergraduate students. A sample group in the English program of Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University was studied in academic year 2010-2013. The research instruments were an…

  15. Lessons Learnt of Thai Women Environmental Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Sittipong Dilokwanich; Suvanee Kaewsawang; Suttirat Savatdipap; Jarinee Iochawna; Srisuphang Limganjanawat

    2015-01-01

    During the past few decades, Thai women have learned how to extent their roles from a care taker of children and a household to natural resources and environmental protection and management in local and inter-regional communities. Due to the application of National Economic and Social Development Plans, rapid resource exploitation has brought in natural resource and environmental degradation all over the country threatening communal security. For this reason, there have been a number of emerg...

  16. Customer satisfaction survey: Tiger Muay Thai

    OpenAIRE

    Jaatinen, Veera

    2015-01-01

    The fitness industry is blooming, and people are keen on healthy lifestyles. Training centers attract more and more people nowadays. Tourists travel to Phuket, Thailand for training camps lasting several weeks. A well-known training center, Tiger Muay Thai, offers a wide range of fitness classes and working out premises and in addition accommodation, recreational activities, and food services. The goals of this study are to find out the level of customer satisfaction towards the services o...

  17. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents’ Substance Use and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2011-01-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai adolescents’ substance use and delinquency, through peer deviance, to determine which neighborhood aspects are particularly important. Families (N=420) with adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from 7 districts in Bangkok, Thailand. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents’, but not parents’, perceptions of greater disorganization were related to increased rates of both minor and serious delinquency. Surprisingly, greater neighborhood cohesion was related to greater minor delinquency. Peer deviance was unrelated to neighborhood variables. Findings can inform prevention strategies for Thai adolescents, as results suggest that neighborhoods are important for adolescent behaviors regardless of culture. Further work should help communities make use of social cohesion to benefit residents. PMID:24465060

  19. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis for production of fission molybdenum-99 at Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: mushtaqa@pinstech.org.pk; Iqbal, Massod; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tariq; Mahmood, Tayyab; Ahmad, Zahoor; Zaman, Qamar [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-02-15

    Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis for the fission molybdenum-99 production at PARR-1 has been performed. Low enriched uranium foil (<20% {sup 235}U) will be used as target material. Annular target designed by ANL (USA) will be irradiated in PARR-1 for the production of 100 Ci of molybdenum-99 at the end of irradiation, which will be sufficient to prepare required {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators at PINSTECH and its supply in the country. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis were performed using various codes. Data shows that annular targets can be safely irradiated in PARR-1 for production of required amount of fission molybdenum-99.

  20. The great power game and Thai military rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    , who is going to preside over the informal - and indeed formal - institutional influence of the monarchy on the future of Thai politics and economics?  These questions are of great importance as they refer to some of the most common explanations of the re-entrance of Thai military rule. This paper...

  1. Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Compliments among Thai EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worathumrong, Sakulrat; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study compares how the native speakers of Thai (TTs) and American (AEs) as well as the Thai learners of English as a foreign language with high exposure to English (TEHs) and those with the low exposure (TELs) perform the speech acts of compliments (Cs) by taking the context of age into their consideration. The data were collected by means of…

  2. Occupational Prestige and Consonant Cluster Simplification in Bangkok Thai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Leslie

    1975-01-01

    Data is presented in support of the thesis that the sounds of Bangkok Thai can only be accurately described with a variation model. Consonant clusters were chosen to support this contention. It is asserted that Standard Thai cannot be equated with the actual speech of any specific group. (Author/RM)

  3. Conservation and Development of Central Thai Folk Music for Cultural Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Thipsuda Imjai; Ying Keeratiburana; Marisa Koseyayothin

    2013-01-01

    Folk music of Central Thailand is an artistic performance and an important cultural heritage of Thais that is in need of conservation, revitalization and development. The performance factors of all 5 folk music bands studied in the research were similar in areas of 1) performance stages. 2) Similar traditional clothing. 3) Music instruments. 4) Light and sound. 5) The amount of performers was selected according to appropriateness. The difficulties of Central Thailand folk music are 1) Declini...

  4. Core Competencies in Vocational Welder Worker: Based on Thai Welding Industry Participator Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Pakamas Choosit; Chuchai Sujivorakul; Sak Kongsuwan

    2012-01-01

    A core competency facilitates the identification of training needs and guides the design of a professional development program. Thus, this research was to explore and examine the core competencies in vocational welder worker based on Thai welding industry participator perceptions. To synthesize core competencies first used the focus group technique with 17 experts to identify their perspectives on core competencies in vocational welder worker. After that competencies questionnaire survey was ...

  5. The Differences between Thai and Indonesian Undergraduates in Pronouncing Plural Nouns and Third Singular Present Verbs due to Progressive Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofa Zakiyatul Muna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation is an important aspect in learning English and it is varied in different area. There are several types of dialect differences in speaking English and geographical dialect is one of them. In pronouncing plural verbs and third singular present verbs in English, the differences are happened. This research investigates the differences between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates in pronouncing plural nouns and third singular present verbs with s/es ending. The aim of this research are to find out the differences and similarities between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates in pronouncing plural nouns and third singular present verbs and the factors that influence it. The design of this research is case study by investigating Thai and Indonesian undergraduates of IAIN Salatiga in several period of time. Data is collected through documentation and interview. Documentation is conducted by recording respondents’ pronunciation. The recording is analyzed and combined with interview report to answer research problems. From the analysis, it is found that the differences and similarities of Thai and Indonesian undergraduates are substitution and omission of s/es suffix pronunciation. It is influenced by the geographic dialects and the existence of consonants in native language.

  6. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents' Substance Use and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai…

  7. Development of WebQuest Lesson Enhancing Thai Reading Skills for Students with Down Syndrome at Lower Elementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchote, Nantawan; Chongchaikit, Maturos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to enhancing the Thai language oral reading skills of lower elementary students with Down syndrome using WebQuest lesson. The sample groups were the 5 lower elementary students, purposively selected from Watnonsaparam public school under the Office of Saraburi Educational Service Area, Thailand. The research…

  8. The study of customer relationship management in Thai airline industry: A case of Thai travelers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Law

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers.  This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology/approach: This research paper is an attempt to study and identify the factors, including loyalty program, distribution channel, customer services, promotions and other influence causes that affected the customer preference in the airline ticket purchasing behavior in Thailand. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the sample identified through unrestricted non probability sampling technique at four major airports in Thailand. The data collected are analyzed to identify the favorable drivers that lead to customer decision on airline choice. Findings: The result from the study has demonstrated that price, and promotion has a significant impact on customer preference and positively leads to repurchase intention for their future travel. Moreover, flight schedules are also a main factor influencing the travelers’ final decision on airline choice. However, when the promotional strategies and schedule are comparable between airlines, customers are attracted by the airline amenities and services. Loyalty program (frequent-flier program flier program is showing a less attractive motivator while distribution channel demonstrates the least important affecting the travelers’ choice of airline. Originality/value: The paper begins with an overview of previous research in the area of airlines customer relationship management and then moves on to what is currently being implemented by the airlines. The authors then propose several customer relationship strategies and identify the most attractive one that

  9. Measuring quality of life in thai women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glangkarn, Sumattana; Promasatayaprot, Vorapoj; Porock, Davina; Edgley, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a commonly diagnosed disease among Thai women in the last decade, despite the fact that Thai women generally have a lower rates than their Western counterparts. With the rising incidence and survival rates, it is crucial for nurses to look at the long term quality of life of these patients. A broad range of instruments have been used in clinical trials among breast cancer patients in oncology, like the EORTC questionnaire including the general quality of life questions (QLQ-C30) and the breast cancer module (QLQ-BR23), and the FACT-B questionnaire consisting of both a generic part (FACT-G) and a breast cancer specific module. They have been shown to have good validity and reliability properties both for the English original and translations into various languages including Thai. A few studies on quality of life in Thai context exist, covering quality of life in women with breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find which standard measure of common Western quality of life scales is appropriate to assess quality of life in Thai women with breast cancer. Results revealed the Thai version of EORTC QLQ-C30 and FACT-G questionnaires to be reliable and valid to assess quality of life in general. The best fit for measuring quality of life in Thai women with breast cancer during adjuvant treatment should be the EORTC QLQ-C30/-BR23.

  10. Competencies of Thai expertise teacher and PCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantaranima, Tarntip; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was accepted by worldwide Educators that it is a ubiquitous word in the preparation of teachers in the past decade. This study uses Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) framework as a lens for classifying the guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers. Therefore, the paper tries to clarify the relationship between competencies of Thai expertise teacher and PCK elements. To promote skillful Thai teachers by offering them academic titles, the Office of the Teacher Civil Service and Education Personal Commission were developed to provide guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers (OTEPC, 2009). This article focuses on the guideline criteria which are three areas of consideration. The first area of consideration is teacher's disciplines including virtues and professional conducts. The second area of consideration is teacher's knowledge and teaching ability. The last area of consider is teacher's performance. It seemed that the OTEPC guideline pay too much attention on the first area. However, there are some issues of PCK appearing on the OTEPC teacher competency. The paper will discuss some suggestions of fill up PCK in the OTEPC guideline. The paper may have implication for Thailand teacher education.

  11. Normal clinical electroretinography parameters for poodle, Labrador retriever, Thai ridgeback, and Thai Bangkaew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussadee, Metita; Phavaphutanon, Janjira; Kornkaewrat, Kornchai; Thayananuphat, Aree

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish normal electroretinogram (ERG) parameters using 56 normal eyes of four dog breeds common in Thailand: poodle, Labrador retriever, Thai ridgeback, and Thai Bangkaew. Standard ERG findings were bilaterally recorded using a handheld multi-species ERG unit with an ERG-jet lens electrode for 28 dogs under preanesthesia with diazepam, anesthesia with propofol, and anesthesia maintenance with isoflurane. There were significant differences in the mean values of ERG amplitudes and implicit times among the four dog breeds (p dog breeds were reported. Data from the investigation supported the hypothesis that determination of breed-specific limits of normality for ERG responses is necessary for individual clinics and laboratories.

  12. Association between Internet addiction and depression in Thai medical students at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thummaporn Boonvisudhi

    Full Text Available To study the extent of Internet addiction (IA and its association with depression in Thai medical students.A cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital. Participants were first- to fifth-year medical students who agreed to participate in this study. Demographic characteristics and stress-related factors were derived from self-rated questionnaires. Depression was assessed using the Thai version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. A total score of five or greater derived from the Thai version of Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction was classified as "possible IA". Then chi-square test and logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between possible IA, depression and associated factors.From 705 participants, 24.4% had possible IA and 28.8% had depression. There was statistically significant association between possible IA and depression (odds ratio (OR 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.34-2.77, P-value <0.001. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that the odds of depression in possible IA group was 1.58 times of the group of normal Internet use (95% CI: 1.04-2.38, P-value = 0.031. Academic problems were found to be a significant predictor of both possible IA and depression.IA was likely to be a common psychiatric problem among Thai medical students. The research has also shown that possible IA was associated with depression and academic problems. We suggest that surveillance of IA should be considered in medical schools.

  13. Type 2 diabetes: how do Thai Buddhist people with diabetes practise self-management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Thrakul, Supunnee

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study of how Thai Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes practice self-management. The importance of diabetes self-management is recognized in the literature. However, research on self-care management in Thailand, in particular concerning Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes, is scarce. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Purposive convenience sampling was used, and thirty men and women with diabetes, aged 28-79 years, participated. Data were collected from June to August 2009 and analysed by use of manifest and latent content analysis. Five themes of self-management among Thai Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes were identified: cultural influence on disease control, Buddhism and Thai culture, struggle for disease control, family support and economy a high priority. Even though the Buddhist people with diabetes had certain self-management capabilities, many had poor control of their blood sugar levels and needed assistance. Reference to Buddhist moderation can be an effective means of helping the people with diabetes better manage their disease and change their lifestyles. In addition to cultural and religious traditions, family, economy and social environment should be taken into account both in the care and in interventions aimed at helping people with diabetes cope and empowering them to control their disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships.

  16. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure.

  17. Summit delegates praise Thai SchoolNet initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ".. a team of over 55 Thai delegates led by ICT Minister Surapong Suebwonglee exchanged views and showcased Thailand's achievements that addressed bridging the digital divide at the UN conference that was attended by over 40 national leaders" (1 page).

  18. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-01-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo...

  19. Learning Styles: Factors Affecting Information Behavior of Thai Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jutharat Changthong; Lampang Manmart; Chollabhas Vongprasert

    2014-01-01

      This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the different learning styles of Thai youths and their information behavior at a time where rapidly developing information and communication...

  20. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.

  1. Biodegradable agrochemicals from Thai tropical weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokpol, U.; Veerachato, G.; Tippyang, S.; Chavasiri, W.

    1999-12-16

    In the search for biodegradable agrochemical substances from Thai tropical weeds, alcoholic extract of 8 species of Thai tropical weeds were bioassayed on biological activity (plant seedling inhibition, piscicidal, antifeedant and antimicrobial). According to preliminary bioassay results, two of the most active plants have been chosen for further study. The whole plant of Trianthema portulacastrum was extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The extracts were fractionated by column chromatography, which led to the isolation of seven substances. By mean of physical properties, chemical reactions and spectroscopic data, seven isolated substances were characterized as a mixture of straight long chain esters (1), a mixture of straight long chain alcohols (C{sub 30}-C{sub 33}) (2), a mixture of stigmasterol and {beta}-sitosterol (3), 6,8-dimethey 1-5-,7-dihydroxychromone (4), a novel flavone compound (6,8-dimethey 1-2',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (5)), a mixture of stigmasteryl-3-O-{beta}-glucopyranoside and {beta}-sitostery 1-3-O-{beta}-glucopyranoside (6) and an oxalate salt (7). Only the oxalate salt shows 100% inhibition on Chinese cabbage seed at dose 0.01 g/1.5 g of cellulose. The other Thai tropical weed sphaeranthus africanus Linn. yielded eleven substances upon extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol, respectively. They were a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons (C{sub 23}, C{sub 25}, C{sub 30}, C{sub 33}) (8), a mixture of long chain esters (9), a mixture of long chain alcohols (C{sub 23}, C{sub 25}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 30}, C{sub 33}) (10), friedelan-3{beta}-ol (11), a mixture of long chain alcohols (C{sub 26}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 30}, C{sub 33}) (12), stigmasterol (13), a mixture of long chain acids(C{sub 19}-C{sub 25}) (14), stigmasteryl-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (15), chrysopleno-D (16), chrysopleno-C (17) and quercetagetin-3,7-dimethyl ether (18). The structures of these isolated compounds were established on the

  2. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Aekplakorn, W.; Satheannoppakao, W.; Putwatana, P.; Taneepanichskul, S.; Kessomboon, P.; Chongsuvivatwong, V.; Chariyalertsak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, pro...

  3. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  4. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  5. Foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kickboxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.

  6. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improvi...

  7. The validity and reliability of tinnitus handicap inventory Thai version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limviriyakul, Siriporn; Supavanich, Walop

    2012-11-01

    Demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version (THI-T), a self-report measure of tinnitus. A cross-sectional psychometric validation study was used to determine internal consistency reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version at the Otoneurology clinic at Tertiary care center The cross-cultural adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicapped Inventory English version (Newman et al, 1996) was translated into Thai version following the steps indicated by Guillemin et al. The reliability was constructed by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The validity was analyzed by the correlation between Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai version and the 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale using Spearman and Pearson test. The result showed good internal consistency reliabilities of total, functional, emotional, and catastrophic scale (a = 0.902, 0.804, 0.831 and 0.661, respectively) of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version. Spearman correlation showed the significant correlation of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory to 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version will be a vigorous tool in evaluating tinnitus patients as well as monitoring the progress of their symptoms.

  8. Defluoridation with Locally Produced Thai Bone Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yothin Mutchimadilok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride sorption ability of a locally available bone char is quantified. Both a synthetic solution and natural groundwater samples from several sites are studied and compared to Indian bone char, which is widely accepted and used successfully in India and elsewhere. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were used to quantify sorption properties. Results show that the Thai bone char is as effective as the Indian bone char for removing fluoride from contaminated water, despite the more rigid physical and social constraints found in rural Thailand. Sorption studies with fluoride-contaminated natural groundwater samples also show that chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates had little effect on the removal of fluoride by the homemade bone char.

  9. Sucrose consumption in Thai undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promdee, Limthong; Trakulthong, Jindara; Kangwantrakul, Wisut

    2007-01-01

    Highly added sugar diets have been associated with various health problems such as dental caries, dyslipidemia, obesity and poor quality of life. Unfortunately, sugar consumption, especially sucrose, has increased continuously worldwide. The purpose of the study was to examine sources of sugar consumption and amount of added sucrose consumed in Thai undergraduate students. This study was carried out at Khon Kaen University, Thailand, between the years 2004-2005. A complete 3-day record of items and amounts of sweet consumption were obtained from 202 individuals--38 male and 164 female students. Added sucrose content of each sweetened food and drinks referred to in the record was determined by an enzymatic method. Mean intakes of sucrose were calculated from the sucrose content. The average of sucrose consumption in all subjects was 69+/-38 g/day, ranged from 4 to 182 g/day or 17 teaspoons of added sucrose per day. This amount accounted for 13.8% of total daily energy intake. There was a record of 337 kinds of sweetened foods and drinks found. The major source of added sucrose consumption was sweetened beverage, which was consumed 118 g/day averagely, or 60% of daily sugar consumption. Intake of sucrose per day in both male and female was not statistically difference, neither among different BMI groups. Intake of added sugar in the students was higher than the recommendation of the World Health Organization. These data would be helpful in a health promotion campaign aimed at a reduction of sugar consumption in Thai undergraduate students.

  10. Designing Inductive Instructional Activities in a Teacher Training Program to Enhance Conceptual Understandings in Science for Thai Science and Non-Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Jeeravipoonvarn, Varanya; Pongpisanou, Kanjana; Lamb, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are viewed as the most significant factor affecting student learning. However, research in science education showed that teachers often demonstrate misunderstandings of science very similar to students. The purpose of this research was to correct conceptual difficulties in science of Thai primary school science and non-science teachers…

  11. Effect of Daily Egg Ingestion with Thai Food on Serum Lipids in Hyperlipidemic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Supanee PUTADECHAKUM; Phanachet, Pariya; Pakpeankitwattana, Varapat; Klangjareonchai, Theerawut; Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn

    2013-01-01

    Thai food is one of the healthiest foods. In fact, several Thai dishes, such as Tom Yum soup, are currently under scientific study for their incredible health benefits. Limited data are available on the effects of egg consumption with Thai food in hyperlipidemic patients. To assess the effects of daily egg consumption with Thai food, which is known as low fat diet, on serum lipids profiles in hyperlipidemic subjects without medication treatment, the randomized crossover trial of 71 hyperlipid...

  12. Examining Thai high school students' developing STEM projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenoi, Kultida; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Like others, Thailand education strongly focused on STEM education. This paper aimed to examine existing Thai high school students' integrated knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in their developing science project. The participants included 49 high school students were studying the subject of individual study (IS) in Khon Kaen wittayayon school, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The IS was provided to gradually enhance students to know how to do science project starting from getting start to do science projects, They enrolled to study the individual study of science project for three year in roll. Methodology was qualitative research. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM were interpreted through participant observation, interview, and students' science projects. The first author as participant observation has taught this group of students for 3 years. It found that 16 science projects were developed. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM could be categorized into three categories. These included (1) completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, (2) partial indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, and (3) no integration. The findings revealed that majority of science projects could be categorized as completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The paper suggested some ideas of enhancing students to applying STEM for developing science projects.

  13. Promoting Intercultural Competence of Thai University Students through Role-Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanoknate Worawong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of international communication in globalization context requires intercultural competence (IC to achieve successful communication (Crystal, 2003. Concerning this intercultural competence, non-verbal communication (NVC plays a key role to indicate the success of having intercultural competence. On the other hand, Thai Ministry of Education (MOE has launched the CEFR for the country policy in English teaching and learning (Ministry of Education, 2016. The purpose of this paper is to present major results of an investigation of intercultural competence, that is, the NVC. An innovative program implemented in this study is the CEFR and project- based activities (the CEFR-PBA. The study also examines Thai university students’ attitude towards this innovative class. This paper discusses the IC students learned from role-plays. The participants of the study were 44 students of third year English Education at a Thai Rajabhat University. Research method applies action research (Burns, 1999 and case study (Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Method, 2003. Data collection gained was from 1 videotape recordings of students’ role-play, and 2 the questionnaire. Data analysis for video recordings employed a NVC rating scale evaluated by native-speaker raters; while means, percentage, and SD were used for the questionnaire. Grounded theory’s color coding (Strauss & Cobin, 1990 will be utilized in analyzing the qualitative data from raters’ additional comment. Findings revealed students’ NVC performance were both appropriate on body movement and position as well as vocalic communication. Moreover, their attitude towards the CEFR-PBA was positive.

  14. Thai Electoral Campaigning: Vote-Canvassing Networks and Hybrid Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyarat Chattharakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence gathered through participant observation, this article illuminates the nature of vote-canvassing, previously a black box in Thai electoral studies. Offering a close-up study of the internal mechanisms of an individual Thai election campaign, this article reveals that vote-canvasser networks are underpinned by long-term dyadic relationships, both hierarchical and horizontal, between the candidate, vote-canvassers and voters. These networks continue to be the most important factor in winning elections. This article documents how candidates draw up an election campaign map and identify voters along residential lines to maximise their vote-canvassing strategy. The findings of this article challenge Anek’s 1996 concept of “two democracies”, which argues that rural voters are influenced by money, local leaders, political factions and corrupt politicians while more well-educated, urban, middle-class voters are more oriented toward the alternative policies offered by competing parties. The case study of Kom’s election campaign showed that the role of the much-vaunted middle-class voters is not decisive, even in suburban areas of Bangkok. While political marketing has grown in importance in Thai elections, it has not displaced traditional electoral practices. Thai society is, in fact, deeply fragmented and diverse – too complex to be divided in such a simplistic manner. This article suggests that rather than undergoing a linear transformation, political hybridisation is a key trend in Thai election campaigns.

  15. Pengelaman Sastra Melayu di Patani, Selatan Thai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaosan Jehwae

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengelaman sastra Melayu di Patani Selatan Thai di bawah pemerintahan yang bukan Melayu terjadi lebih dari 100 tahun lamanya. Dasar Siamisasi yang pelopori oleh Phibul Songkram dalam menyatukan seluruh bangsa jajahannya dengan dasar 1 Siam, 1 bahasa dan 1 budaya telah membunuh kekayaan seni budaya dan keindahan kesusasteraan Melayu. Namun kesusasteraan Melayu sangat penting bagi bangsa Melayu Patani kerana bahasa dan sastra merupakan jati diri dan identitas bangsa Melayu Islam di Patani. Masyarakat Patani sendiri tidak membedakan antara bahasa dan sastra. Apabila bicara tentang sastra di Patani secara tidak langsung akan membicarakan tentang bahasa Melayu. Dalam setiap upacara dan acara baik keagamaan maupun perkawinan, sastra menjadi menu wajib baik di tingkat rendah maupun di tingkat yang besar. Sastra tidak dapat dipisahkan dari hidup masyarakat Melayu di Patani sehingga sastra merupakan sebahagian keyakinan dan kehidupan orang Melayu Patani. Walaupun orang-orang Melayu Patani sudah kehilangan negeri yang berkerajaan dan mengamalkan Melayu tetapi orang Patani masih teguh dengan bahasa dan kesusastraan Melayu.

  16. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  17. Grammatical Errors in English Essays Written by Thai EFL Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilak Khumphee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to three research objectives: 1 to investigate common types of grammatical errors based on their frequency of occurrence in English essay writing of Thai EFL undergraduate students, 2 to examine the effects of L1 interference on discovered grammatical errors, in particular, to find out whether there were any of the errors influenced by the students’ mother tongue (Thai language, and 3 to provide some essential pedagogical implications for second language learning and teaching. The subjects of this study were 83 second-year students majoring in English at Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, and they were drawn by using purposive sampling method. The study procedures consisted of 2 steps: 1 the students were asked to write an English essay, and 2 the researcher of this study analyzed the students’ essays by employing the study analysis framework which was adapted from Na-ngam’s (2005 error taxonomy and Richards’ (1971 error categories. The findings indicated that ; 1 there were 26 types of grammatical errors, with the total number of 4,909 errors, occurred in the students’ written work, and the five most common types of all were punctuation, nouns, prepositions, verbs, and articles respectively ; and 2 there were 1,560 out of 4,909 errors, which were categorized into 14 types, caused by the students’ L1 interference, Thai language. The five most frequent numbers of these types of errors fell into the use of plural form of nouns, omission of punctuation, wrong structures of complex sentences, omission of some parts of a sentence, and fragments respectively.

  18. Mechanical Model of Traditional Thai Massage for Integrated Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinee Rattanaphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mechanical model was developed, aiming to provide standardized and programmable traditional Thai massage (TTM therapy to patients. The TTM was modeled and integrated into a mechanical hand (MH system, and a prototype massage chair was built and tested for user satisfaction. Three fundamental principles of Thai massage were integrated: pull, press, and pin. Based on these principles, the mechanics of Thai massage was studied and a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics and conditions for the design and prototyping of an MH. On average, it was found that users were satisfied with the treatment and felt that the treatment was similar to that performed by human hands. According to the interview results, users indicated that they were likely to utilize the MH as an alternative to traditional massage. Therefore, integrated TTM with an MH may help healthcare providers deliver standardized, programmable massage therapy to patients as opposed to variable, inconsistent human massage.

  19. Mechanical Model of Traditional Thai Massage for Integrated Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaphan, Salinee; Srichandr, Panya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a mechanical model was developed, aiming to provide standardized and programmable traditional Thai massage (TTM) therapy to patients. The TTM was modeled and integrated into a mechanical hand (MH) system, and a prototype massage chair was built and tested for user satisfaction. Three fundamental principles of Thai massage were integrated: pull, press, and pin. Based on these principles, the mechanics of Thai massage was studied and a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics and conditions for the design and prototyping of an MH. On average, it was found that users were satisfied with the treatment and felt that the treatment was similar to that performed by human hands. According to the interview results, users indicated that they were likely to utilize the MH as an alternative to traditional massage. Therefore, integrated TTM with an MH may help healthcare providers deliver standardized, programmable massage therapy to patients as opposed to variable, inconsistent human massage.

  20. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p < 0.001). There appears to be a mismatch between injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or

  1. Cloning and comparative analysis of zinc-finger protein gene on Y-chromosome (ZFY between Thai Bangkaew dog and other Thai canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukadej Boonyaprakob

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dogs, Asiatic jackals (Canis aureus and a dhole (Cuon alpinus. A 1075-bp ZFY segment from DNA samples of Thai Bangkaew dogs was found to be 100% identical to the domestic dog ZFY and (if gaps are allowed showed 81% and 92% identity to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. However, if gaps were treated as missing data, the 1045-bp ZFY sequence for the Thai Bangkaew dogs was 100% identical to domestic dog ZFY and 99.5% to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. In addition, the 959-bp Thai Bangkaew ZFX fragments were identical and showed 100% identity to domestic dog ZFX. These genetic data suggest that the Thai Bangkaew dogs still present today share a common male ancestor with modern dogs, rather than being the descendants of dhole or jackal/dog hybrids.

  2. Reliability and validity of Thai version Quality of Life Questionnaire (OSA-18) for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptanon, Teeradej; Chukumnerd, Jaruwan; Leejakpai, Anchalee; Preutthipan, Aroonwan

    2015-05-01

    instrument can be used in future research for measuring the quality of life in Thai children with OSA and assess the benefit of treatment.

  3. Effectiveness comparison between Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture for myofascial back pain in Thai military personnel: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnerddee, Wipoo

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.

  4. Culture in medical education: comparing a Thai and a Canadian residency programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anne K

    2011-12-01

    Globalisation initiatives in medical education are premised on a universal model of medical education. This study was conducted to challenge this premise by empirically examining the impact of culture on the practice of medical education in anaesthesia residency training programmes in Thailand and Canada. Using a mixed-methods comparative case study research approach, one Thai and one Canadian anaesthesia residency training programme were examined with respect to curriculum, educational practices and teacher beliefs. Data sources included observations of academic and clinical teaching, programme document analysis, surveys and faculty interviews. Recruitment resulted in a 76% survey response rate and 13 interview participants at the Thai site and a 61% survey response rate and 16 interview participants at the Canadian site. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to compare survey responses between the two programmes. The qualitative analysis consisted of primary coding, clustering into pattern codes, and identifying themes and sub-themes. The integration of quantitative and qualitative data for each case was followed by a cross-case analysis. The two programmes were similarly organised and had similar curricular content. However, important differences emerged in curricular emphasis, educational practices, and teacher beliefs and values. Thai faculty staff emphasised knowledge and scholarship, described the faculty-resident relationship as 'familial' and focused on 'teaching methods'. Canadian faculty members emphasised clinical abilities, described the faculty-resident relationship as 'collegial' and focused on 'learning environments'. These findings were related to broader cultural differences that influenced how the curriculum was interpreted and enacted at each site. This study shows that although the scientific and knowledge base of medical education is universal, its enactment may be influenced by culture and context. Globalisation initiatives in medical

  5. The Development of Morbhasa Innovations for Solving Problems in Thai Language Pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Intrakamhaeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to solve the problems of Thai pronunciation by studying the conditions, factors and settings of language therapist (Morbhasa learning activities. The findings are that institutions are driven by different factors when setting learning activities and transmitting Morbhasa innovations. Morbhasa youth projects are aimed at developing leadership in students, particularly those students lacking adequate interpersonal skills. This is the biggest problem because the students have many other activities and burdens that make it difficult for project organizers to arrange schedules. The curriculum is inflexible in accommodating additional subjects, so the teachers have to implement activities after normal class time. They also lack budget, teaching materials, learning media and innovations for motivating students to attend the activities continuously. The teachers lack opportunities to develop their knowledge and understanding of implementation techniques and there is a lack of working staff and reinforcements. The research finds four methods of setting activities. Eight ways of transmitting the innovations were found: 1 by transmitting among friends; 2 by working together; 3 by working with a sense of beliefs and respect; 4 by creating a variety of activities; 5 by using a peer network; 6 by assignments from leaders; 7 by practicing the learning process; and 8 by integrating the seven strategies. The institutions should select appropriate ways for their own context, readiness and limitations. It is believed that the innovations of the language therapist Morbhasa should be widely transmitted in the educational circle to tackle critical problems of Thai language usage.

  6. Performance assessment of the Thai National Center for Pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpanukrungsi, Wanida; Anantachoti, Puree

    2015-01-01

    The Thai National Pharmacovigilance Center (NPVC) has operated since 1983, but its performance has never been formally assessed. The paper aimed to present the main findings of performance assessment of the Thai NPVC. A survey was conducted. Data from January 2011-December 2013 were collected. The performance was assessed through four indicator domains. The NPVC has a clear mission to guide its roles and responsibilities. The center has a well-established structure, adequate budget, qualified personnel, and good IT infrastructure, but it has no in-house IT personnel.Safety surveillance function was considered excellent. The Thai adverse drug reaction database accumulate a number of quality reports. Typically, new signals of traditional or herbal medicines could be generated from the database.The risk management process was well established and carried out. The National Drug Safety Advisory Sub-Committee was composed of qualified representatives from related disciplines. Not only do these committee members make safety decisions, but they also provide key safety messages and communicate these to their member audiences.The risk communication function was evaluated to be unsatisfactory. It was not effectively distributed to individual health care professionals. The overall performance of the Thai NPVC was considerably good. The findings suggested that risk communication should be improved. Moreover, organizational performance should be routinely evaluated. If possible, benchmarking with international pharmacovigilance centers should also be performed.

  7. Isoflavone content and antioxidant activity of Thai fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fermentation duration on isoflavone content and antioxidant activity of fermented soybeans. Capsule formulation of fermented soybeans was also studied. The Thai soybean variety, Rajamangala60, was fermented with Aspergillus oryzae. Isoflavone content and antioxidant ...

  8. The external relations of the monarchy in Thai politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The first part of the paper discusses the most important explanations of the coup. The second part is devoted to history and ideology of the king and the throne while the third develops an image of the Crown Property Bureau and the Privy council's role in Thai politics. The fourth and fifth secti...

  9. Reading in Thai: The Case of Misaligned Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Thai has its own distinctive alphabetic script with syllabic characteristics as it has implicit vowels for some consonants. Consonants are written in a linear order, but vowels can be written non-linearly above, below or to either side of the consonant. Of particular interest to the current study are that vowels can precede the consonant in…

  10. Parent-Teen Communication about Sex in Urban Thai Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Roseti, Michael J.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Atwood, Katharine; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13 – 14 were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results showed that parents were most likely to talk with their teens about body changes and dating; however, less discussion about sex-related issues, birth control and HIV/AIDS occurred. More daughters than sons reported frequent discussions with their parents about sex. Parents who believed their teens had been involved in sexual activity were more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS and the difficulty of teenagers having babies, instead of talking about sexual intercourse or when to start having sex. Multiple regression analysis indicated that sex of the child (girls), parental religiosity and parental perception of teen sexual activity were significant predictors of increased sexual communication in Thai families. The findings suggest a need for approaches designed to facilitate communication skills about sex- related issues among Thai parents. PMID:22206411

  11. Humorous Language Play in a Thai EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity, play, and language learning has been of increasing interest over the past decade, but the role of humour itself in SLL remains significantly under-explored. The present study examines humorous language play initiated by a bilingual EFL teacher and taken up by his post-beginner students in a Thai university…

  12. Parent-teen communication about sex in urban Thai families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Byrnes, Hilary F; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13-14 years were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with 1 parent and 1 teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results showed that parents were most likely to talk with their teens about body changes and dating; however, less discussion about sex-related issues, birth control, and HIV/AIDS occurred. More daughters than sons reported frequent discussions with their parents about sex. Parents who believed their teens had been involved in sexual activity were more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS and the difficulty of teenagers having babies, instead of talking about sexual intercourse or when to start having sex. Multiple regression analysis indicated that gender of the child (female), parental religiosity, and parental perception of teen sexual activity were significant predictors of increased sexual communication in Thai families. The findings suggest a need for approaches designed to facilitate communication skills about sex-related issues among Thai parents.

  13. Developing Academic and Content Area Literacy: The Thai EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charubusp, Sasima; Chinwonno, Apasara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Academic Literacy-Based Intervention (ALI) on 30 undergraduate Thai university students' English reading proficiency. Based on the English reading proficiency test, these students were sub-classified into 2 groups, 15 in the high English reading proficiency group and 15 in the low English reading proficiency…

  14. Providing Business English Instruction: Thai Instructors' Practices and Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratoomrat, Panadda; Rajprasit, Krich

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine how Business English courses are conducted in the Thai Higher Education, and to investigate students' perceptions toward the instructional management of the courses in their universities. The participants were four instructors, and one hundred and forty students enrolling in the courses of four universities in…

  15. Cytotoxic activity and apoptotic induction of some edible Thai local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate eight edible Thai local plant extracts (Camellia sinensis, Careya sphaerica, Cratoxylum formosum, Eleutherococcus trifoliatus, Ficus auriculata, Persicaria odorata, Schima wallichii, and Vaccinium sprengelii) against colon and liver cancer cell lines. Methods: The 80 % ethanol plant extracts were ...

  16. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs) to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to ...

  17. Teaching Phonological Accuracy and Communicative Fluency at Thai Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likitrattanaporn, Wannakarn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the opinions of secondary level Thai teachers who teach English. Their perspectives were collected and compared concerning phonological accuracy practice, communicative fluency activities, authentic teaching techniques and determining appropriate ways to solve the problems of phonological teaching…

  18. Improving environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production in 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil production has increased in Thailand with considerable environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to analyse possibilities to examine how the environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production can be improved in the coming decades. To this end, we integrated a sectoral and a

  19. Native Thai Speakers' Acquisition of English Word Stress Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Ratree; Landfair, David; Li, Bin; Guion, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of syllabic structure, lexical class and stress patterns of known words on the acquisition of the English stress system was investigated in ten native Thai speakers. All participants were adult learners of English with an average length of residence in the US of 1.4 years. They were asked to produce and give perceptual judgments on…

  20. Modulatory effects of Thai medicinal plant extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-y and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a are able to synergistically induce apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. The present study aimed to elucidate modulatory effects of ethanolic extracts derived from Thai traditional medicinal plants on ...

  1. Thai EFL Online Diaries: Literacy Practice and Self-Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meechai, Jiraporn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to expand the definition of literacy beyond its usual text and school-based practice. It studies the online diary as a sociocultural and literacy practice that allows people from various languages and cultures to share their personal experiences and values. The participants are five Thai English as foreign language (EFL)…

  2. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  3. The Effectiveness of Thai Massage and Joint Mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntakarn, Chantip; Prasartritha, Thavat; Petrakard, Prapoj

    2017-06-01

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem resulting from many risk factors and human behaviors. Some of these may interact synergistically and have been implicated in the cause of low back pain. Massage both traditional Thai massage and joint mobilization as a common practice has been shown to be effective for some subgroup of nonspecific LBP patients. The trial compared the effectiveness between traditional Thai massage and joint mobilization for treating nonspecific LBP. Some associated factors were included. The study was conducted at the orthopedic outpatient department, Lerdsin General Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Prospective, randomized study was developed without control group. The required sample size was estimated based on previous comparative studies for effectiveness between techniques. Two primary outcome measures were a 0 to 10 visual analog scale (VAS) of pain and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were satisfaction of patients and adverse effects of the treatment. The "intention to treat" (ITT) and per protocol approach were used to compare the significance of the difference between treatment groups. One hundred and twenty hospital outpatients, 20 (16.7%) male and 100 (83.3%) female, were randomized into traditional Thai massage and joint mobilization therapy. The average age of traditional Thai massage and joint mobilization was 50.7 years and 48.3 years, respectively. Both groups received each treatment for approximately 30 minutes twice per week over a four-week period. Total course did not exceed eight sessions. With ITT, the mean VAS of traditional Thai massage group before treatment was 5.3 (SD = 1.7) and ODI was 24.9 (SD = 14.7), while in joint mobilization groups, the mean VAS was 5.0 (SD = 1.6) and ODI was 24.6 (SD = 15). After treatment, the mean VAS and ODI were significantly reduced (VAS = 0.51 (SD = 0.89) and ODI = 8.1 (SD = 10.7) for traditional Thai massage, VAS = 0.86 (SD = 1.49) and ODI = 8

  4. Combination Welding Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Combination Welding. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for combination welding is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... Similarly, in the Thai Tsunami of 2004, 61% of the victims were identified solely by dental methods, 1.3% by DNA,19% by fingerprinting information and 18% by the combination of more than one type [14]. This was also the pattern seen when the Danish team went into Thailand after the Tsunami to help with.

  6. Consistent condom use among Thai heterosexual adult males in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janepanish, Poolsuk; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang

    2011-04-01

    Thai heterosexual males between 20 and 39 years old are at increased risk for HIV infection. Consistent condom use is effective against HIV transmission, but little is known about determinants of consistent condom use for these males. The purpose of this study is to explore determinants of consistent condom use for this population. The determinants of interest are age, educational level, marital status, income, and concepts from the theory of planned behavior: attitude toward condom use, subjective norm about consistent condom use, perceived behavioral control (PBC) of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently. We used a cross-sectional descriptive research design with a convenience sample of 400 heterosexual Thai males between 20 and 39 years. Our sample had a mean age of 28.71 years (SD = 6.33). During the last three months, 39.5% reported using condoms consistently, 23% reported using condoms inconsistently, and 37.5% reported never using condoms. The results from the regression analyses revealed that marital status, income, subjective norm about consistent condom use, PBC of consistent condom use, and intention to use condoms consistently were determinants of consistent condom use. Also the effect of subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use on consistent condom use was mediated by intention to use condoms consistently. These results suggest that interventions to increase consistent condom use should focus on enhancing intention to use condoms consistently by promoting subjective norm about consistent condom use and PBC of consistent condom use.

  7. Traditional Galactagogue Foods and Their Connection to Human Milk Volume in Thai Breastfeeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntuchai, Ganokwun; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kittipichai, Wirin; Satheannoppakao, Warapone

    2017-08-01

    Thai traditional galactagogue consumption is still observed today. However, there are few scientific studies that describe this practice. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the connection between traditional galactagogue consumption and human milk volume. Self-reported maternal surveys ( N = 36) were conducted of mothers and their infants who breastfeed exclusively. The mothers were interviewed about traditional galactagogue consumption and intake of protein-rich foods using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. They were also assessed for energy and nutrient intake using the 24-hr dietary recall method. Their infants were between 1 and 3 months of age and were test weighed for 24 hr to measure their mother's own milk volume. Partial correlation was used to test the relationship between galactagogue consumption and milk volume by controlling the infants' birth weight, weight-for-age, maternal energy, and carbohydrate intake. The results revealed that consumption of some traditional galactagogues was significantly correlated to human milk volume, including banana flower, lemon basil, Thai basil, bottle gourd, and pumpkin ( p traditional galactagogues and proteins are associated with human milk volume. However, studies related to the active ingredients in these galactagogues are required to secure a recommendation about use of traditional galactagogues among breastfeeding mothers.

  8. Quality of life assessment in Thai patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis using the SF-36 questionnaire (Thai version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnag, Chaweewan; Leurmarnkul, Watcharee; Jareoncharsri, Perapun; Tunsuriyawong, Prayuth; Assanasen, Paraya; Pawankar, Ruby

    2005-06-01

    The health related quality of life (QOL) of patients with allergic rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis (ARc) as measured by the SF-36 questionnaire, has been shown to be impaired in a similar way to that of asthmatic patients in France and several other countries. We used the SF-36 questionnaire (Thai version) to evaluate the QOL of Thai ARc patients compared to healthy subjects. The SF-36 questionnaire (Thai version) consists of 36 items covering 8 dimensions and one health transition report question. Higher scores indicated better QOL. The internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire was analysed using Cronbach's alpha-coefficient. A total of 705 healthy persons and 900 ARc patients were included in this study. The mean difference of the scores between healthy and ARc groups in each dimension showed higher scores in the healthy group. This difference was statistically significant (p Social Functioning dimension. The internal reliability of the SF-36 questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha-coefficient which was above 0.7 for seven of the dimensions; the exception was the Social Functioning dimension. Men were shown to have higher scores than women in several dimensions. In conclusion, this study has confirmed that the SF-36 questionnaire is sensitive enough to discriminate ARc patients from healthy persons with high reliability. QOL of ARc patients was significantly more impaired than healthy persons and hypertensive patients in several dimensions. These findings were similar to reports from other countries using the same instruments. Therefore the SF-36 questionnaire (Thai version) can be a useful tool in evaluating the impact of ARc on a patient's QOL and the improvement in QOL after therapeutic intervention in Thai patients.

  9. Mathematical models and qualities of shredded Thai-style instant rice under a combined gas-fired infrared and air convection drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachaisin, Mali; Teeta, Suminya; Deejing, Konlayut; Pharanat, Wanida

    2017-09-01

    Instant food is a product produced for convenience for consumer. Qualities are an important attribute of food materials reflecting consumer acceptance. The most problem of instant rice is casehardening during drying process resulted in the longer rehydration time. The objective of this research was to study the qualities of shredded Thai-style instant rice under a combined gas-fired infrared and air convection drying. Additionally, the mathematical models for gas-fired infrared assisted thin-layer drying of shredded Thai-style rice for traditional was investigated. The thin-layer drying of shredded Thai-style rice was carried out under gas-fired infrared intensities of 1000W/m2, air temperatures of 70°C and air velocities of 1 m/s. The drying occurred in the falling rate of drying period. The Page model was found to satisfactorily describe the drying behavior of shredded Thai-style rice, providing the highest R2 (0.997) and the lowest MBE and RMSE (0.01 and 0.18) respectively. A 9 point hedonic test showed in softness and color, but odor and overall acceptance were very similar.

  10. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  11. The Experience Economy in Thai Hotels and Resort Clusters: The Role of Authentic Food

    OpenAIRE

    Thanan Apivantanaporn; John Christopher Walsh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This paper explores the relevance of authentic Thai food in contributing to the experience economy in Thai hotels and resort clusters. Prior Work: Although hotels and other tourist institutions in Thailand have been making some sporadic attempts to incorporate specifically Thai food and beverage (F&B) elements into their overall product offering, this has rarely been attempted in a thoughtful and systematic manner, despite the importance of F&B in determining overall levels of cus...

  12. Attitude of Farmers towards Thai Koi Farming in Selected Upazila of Bangladesh

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    Farruk Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the study were to determine the attitude of farmers towards Thai Koi farming in a selected area of Mymensingh district. Attempt was also made to identify the problems faced by the farmers in Thai Koi farming. Data were obtained from randomly selected 70 Thai Koi farmers of Shaiod and Ahmedpur villages in Kheruajani Union under Muktagachha Upazila of Mamensingh district during April, 2015. Attitude of the farmers was measured in respect of different aspects of Thai koi production. A three-point rating scale was used to indicate the Thai koi farmers’ response against each statement. The possible score for each respondent could range from 15 to 45 and observed score ranged from 31 to 41. It is evident that ‘I believe that Thai koi farming in pond can supply protein and nutrition to the family members ranked first as a statement in attitude scale of Thai Koi farmers. Second is ‘I like Thai Koi farming because it has higher growth rate than that of other local Koi’. Most of the Thai Koi farmers had highly favourable attitude. Among the problems, ‘high sensitivity to disease of Thai Koi’ got the highest problem confrontation score and stood the first ranked problem and other problem were ‘High price of Thai koi feed’, High price of drugs’ and ‘High price of farm labour’ etc. Farmers suggested from their experiences that there should have need-based spot training on effective management of Thai Koi farming. In achieving this target, Department of Fisheries and allied NGOs may play a crucial role.

  13. Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Translating Food Menu in Thai Language to Malay Language

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Muhammad; Abd Majid, Nazatul Aini; Idrus, Bahari

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology is a technique that combines the real world and the virtual world digitally using mobile devices. Mobile AR technology is expected to help Malaysian tourists who have difficulties to understand the Thai language when visiting the country. Hence, a prototype called ARThaiMalay translator was developed to translate printed Thai food menu to Malay language. The objective of this study is to design a food menu translation framework from Thai to Malay language ba...

  14. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Thailand. The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall. In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  15. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

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    Janneke Berecki-Gisolf

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand.Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study.Thailand.The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys.Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall.In 2009, 5608(10% participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%. Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury.Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  16. The Impact of the Thai Motorcycle Transition on Road Traffic Injury: Thai Cohort Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Design Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Setting Thailand. Participants The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months’ recall. Results In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Conclusions Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted. PMID:25826214

  17. Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: an event-related potentials training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaan, Edith; Barkley, Christopher M; Bao, Mingzhen; Wayland, Ratree

    2008-06-23

    Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch) to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN) in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones). In addition, native speakers of a non-tone language (English

  18. Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: An event-related potentials training study

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    Bao Mingzhen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Results Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Conclusion Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones. In

  19. Testing a model of depression among Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanasin, Duangjai; Thapinta, Darawan; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Thungjaroenkul, Petsunee

    2012-11-01

    This predictive correlational study was designed to test a comprehensive model of depression for Thai adolescents. This sample included 800 high school students in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected using self-reported measures of depression, negative automatic thoughts, effective social problem solving, ineffective social problem solving, rumination, parental care, parental overprotection, and negative life events. Structural equation modeling revealed that negative automatic thoughts, effective and ineffective social problem solving mediated the effects of rumination, negative life events, and parental care and overprotection on adolescent depression. These findings provide new knowledge about identified factors and the mechanisms of their influence on depression among Thai adolescents, which are appropriate for targeting preventive interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiviboontham, Suchira; Phinitkhajorndech, Noppawan; Hanucharurnkul, Somchit; Noipiang, Thaniya

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale in patients with advanced cancer. This cross-sectional study was employed to investigate psychometric properties. Some 196 participants from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok and suburban Thailand were asked to complete a Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Validity was determined by known-group, concurrent, and constructs validity. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficients. Three factors were extracted: so-called existential well-being, religious well-being, and peacefulness accounted for 71.44% of total variance. The Cronbach's α coefficients for total SWB, EWB, RWB, and peacefulness were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively. These findings indicate that the Thai SWBS is a valid and reliable instrument, and it presented one more factor than the original version.

  1. Stress among medical students in a Thai medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saipanish, Ratana

    2003-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and sources of stress among Thai medical students. The questionnaires,which consisted of the Thai Stress Test (TST) and questions asking about sources of stress, were sent to all medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. A total of 686 students participated. The results showed that about 61.4% of students had some degree of stress. Seventeen students (2.4%) reported a high level of stress. The prevalence of stress is highest among third-year medical students. Academic problems were found to be a major cause of stress among all students. The most prevalent source of academic stress was the test/exam. Other sources of stress in medical school and their relationships are also discussed. The findings can help medical teachers understand more about stress among their students and guide the way to improvement in an academic context, which is important for student achievement.

  2. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

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    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  3. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

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    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  4. LEADERSHIP STYLES: A STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND THAI PUBLIC SECTORS

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    Nattavud Pimpa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.

  5. Comparative exploration of learning styles and teaching techniques between Thai and Vietnamese EFL students and instructors

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    Supalak Nakhornsri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1 to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2 to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3 to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4 to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1 undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB, Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU, Vietnam and 2 English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize

  6. How do Thai patients receiving haemodialysis cope with pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodchai, Kantaporn; Dunning, Trisha; Savage, Sally; Hutchinson, Alison M; Oumtanee, Areewan

    2014-09-01

    Pain affects peoples' well-being and quality of life and is one of the most common symptoms experienced by people receiving haemodialysis (HD). To explore how Thai people receiving HD perceive pain, the effect of pain on their lives, and how they cope with and manage pain. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants from two Thai outpatient haemodialysis facilities in Songkhla province. Face-to-face, in-depth individual interviews using open-ended questions were conducted during January and February 2012. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Ritchie and Spencer's Framework method. Twenty people receiving HD participated in the study: age range 23-77 years; 10 were females. Three main types of pain emerged: physical pain, which occurred when needles were inserted during HD treatment and vascular access operations; psychological pain due to unfulfilled hopes and dreams and changes in family roles; and social pain. Perception of pain was influenced by the general populations' perceptions of chronic kidney disease. Participants used two main coping styles to manage pain: health-adjustment and health-behaviour styles. These two coping styles encompassed four specific coping strategies: religion, spirituality, accepting pain associated with HD treatment, and social support. Coping styles and strategies were influenced by Thai culture. The study elicited information that could help nursing staff understand how Thai people manage pain and the importance of cultural beliefs to their pain experience and coping strategies, which in turn can help nurses plan appropriate pain management. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  7. Health problems among Thai tourists returning from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Wichainprasast, Pongdej; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2017-07-01

    The number of Thai tourists visiting India is increasing each year. Most studies investigating health problems among international travellers to India have focused on travellers from Europe or North America, and the applicability of these studies to Asian travellers is unknown. This cross-sectional study used data collected from Thai tourists who had recently completed a trip to India. A questionnaire on demographic data, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparation, and health problems during the trip to India was administered. All participants were also invited to answer a follow-up questionnaire 15 days after their arrival. The study included 1,304 Thai tourists returning from India between October 2014 and March 2015. Sixty-two percent were female. Overall median age was 49 years, and the median length of stay was 10.6 days. Most were package tourists, and 52% (675) reported health problems during their trip. Common health problems were cough, runny nose, and sore throat (31.1%), followed by musculoskeletal problems (21.7%), fever (12.7%), diarrhea (9.8%) and skin problems (6.6%). Other reported problems were related to the eyes/ears (2.1%), animal exposure (1.9%) and accidents (0.8%). We found that several factors may be associated with the incidence of health problems among these tourists, including travelling style and travel health preparation. In the follow-up questionnaire, 16.8% of the participants reported new or additional symptoms that developed after their return to Thailand. Respiratory symptoms were still the most common health problems during this 15-day period. Over half (52%) of Thai tourists experienced health problems during their trip to India. The most common health problem was not travellers' diarrhoea, as would be expected from published studies. Rather, respiratory and musculoskeletal problems were common symptoms. This information will be useful in pre-travel assessment and care. Our findings may indicate that health risks among

  8. Thailand, A beauty hub for everyone? : Internationalizing Thai Aesthetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinhaneti, Kantara; Pullawan, Jitmanee

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Aesthetic surgery becomes another option of beauty. Interested Patients seeking for choices offered outside their homeland for more benefits. Thailand maybe one of those choices people is now interested in. Thai aesthetic industry may prove to be one of the most wanted destinations because of its expertise and relatively low cost with impressive service. Problem: “How should Thailand improve its Aesthetic service attractiveness to drive its potential to the level of internationa...

  9. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...

  10. Applying Conjoint Analysis to Study Attitudes of Thai Government Organisations

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    Natee Suriyanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the application of choice-based conjointanalysis to analyse the attitude of Thai government organisationstowards the restriction of the contractor’s right to claimcompensation for unfavourable effects from undesirable events.The analysis reveals that the organisations want to restrict only 6out of 14 types of the claiming rights that were studied. The rightthat they want to restrict most is the right to claim for additionaldirect costs due to force majeure. They are willing to pay between0.087% - 0.210% of the total project direct cost for restricting eachtype of contractor right. The total additional cost for restrictingall six types of rights that the organisations are willing to pay is0.882%. The last section of this article applies the knowledgegained from a choice based conjoint analysis experiment to theanalysis of the standard contract of the Thai government. Theanalysis reveals three types of rights where Thai governmentorganisations are willing to forego restrictions, but the presentstandard contract does not grant such rights.

  11. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

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    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  12. Effects of Thai traditional massage on autistic children's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piravej, Krisna; Tangtrongchitr, Preeda; Chandarasiri, Parichawan; Paothong, Luksamee; Sukprasong, Saengaroon

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to access whether there were any therapeutic effects of Thai Traditional Massage (TTM) on major behavioral and emotional disturbances in Thai autistic children. This was a randomized controlled trial study. The study was conducted at the Rehabilitation Centre of the Thai Red Cross Society. A total of 60 autistic children between the ages of 3 and 10 completed this study. Standard sensory integration therapy (SI) was compared to the SI with TTM treatments. Parents and teachers assessed major behavior disturbances using the Conners' Rating Scales at 0 and 8 weeks. Sleep Diary (SD), recorded by the parents, assessed the patient's sleeping patterns every week. Sixty (60) autistic children, mean age 4.67 +/- 1.82, were recruited. No statistical differences were seen in the demographic and baseline data among both groups. From both the Conners' Teacher Questionnaire and SD, statistical improvement was detected for conduct problem, hyperactivity, inattention-passivity, hyperactivity index, and sleeping behavior. However, results from the Conners' Parent Questionnaire revealed an improvement only for anxiety (p = 0.04) in the massage group, whereas when both groups were compared, a significant improvement in conduct problem (p = 0.03) and anxiety (p = 0.01) was found. Results indicated that TTM may have a positive effect in improving stereotypical behaviors in autistic children. Over a period of 8 weeks, our findings suggested that TTM could be used as a complementary therapy for autistic children in Thailand.

  13. Situational analysis of palliative care education in thai medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak

    2013-01-01

    The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum.

  14. Risk factors for an anxiety disorder comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder: results from the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry

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    Paholpak S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Suchat Paholpak,1 Ronnachai Kongsakon,2 Wasana Pattanakumjorn,3 Roongsang Kanokvut,4 Wiroj Wongsuriyadech,5 Manit Srisurapanont6 On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Study Group1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Ratchaburi Hospital, Ratchaburi, 4Department of Psychiatry, Buddhachinaraj Hospital, Phitsanulok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Udonthani Hospital, Udonthani, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: The aim of the study was to determine in a clinical setting the risk factors for current anxiety disorder (AD comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD, being treated under the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Project (TBDR. Methods: The TBDR was a multisite naturalistic study conducted at 24 psychiatric units (ie, at university, provincial mental, and government general hospitals between February 2009 and January 2011. Participants were in- or out-patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Instruments used in this study included the Thai Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5; Thai Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS; Thai Young Mania Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impression of Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S, CGI-BP-S-mania, CGI-BP-S-depression, and CGI-BP-S-overall BP illness; and the Thai SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results: Among the 424 BD patients, 404 (95.3% had BD type I. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age of onset of mood disturbance, first diagnosis of BD, and first treatment of BD was 32.0±11.9, 36.1±12.2, and 36.2±12.2 years. The duration of illness was 10.7±9.0 years. Fifty-three (12.5% of the 424 participants had

  15. Variable Production of English Past Tense Morphology: A Case Study of a Thai-Speaking Learner of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…

  16. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  17. Thai visitors’ expectations and experiences of explainer interaction within a science museum context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ganigar; Sonchaeng, Pichai; Wilkinson, Clare; Willey, Neil; Bultitude, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Western literature, there is evidence that museum explainers offer significant potential for enhancing visitors’ learning through influencing their knowledge, content, action, behaviour and attitudes. However, little research has focused on the role of explainers in other cultural contexts. This study explored interactions between visitors and museum explainers within the setting of Thailand. Two questionnaires were distributed to 600 visitors and 41 museum explainers. The results demonstrated both potential similarities and differences with Western contexts. Explainers appeared to prefer didactic approaches, focussing on factual knowledge rather than encouraging deep learning. Two-way communication, however, appeared to be enhanced by the use of a ‘pseudo-sibling relationship’ by explainers. Traditional Thai social reserve was reduced through such approaches, with visitors taking on active learning roles. These findings have implications for training museum explainers in non-Western cultures, as well as museum communication practice more generally. PMID:24751689

  18. Thai visitors' expectations and experiences of explainer interaction within a science museum context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamolpattana, Supara; Chen, Ganigar; Sonchaeng, Pichai; Wilkinson, Clare; Willey, Neil; Bultitude, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Western literature, there is evidence that museum explainers offer significant potential for enhancing visitors' learning through influencing their knowledge, content, action, behaviour and attitudes. However, little research has focused on the role of explainers in other cultural contexts. This study explored interactions between visitors and museum explainers within the setting of Thailand. Two questionnaires were distributed to 600 visitors and 41 museum explainers. The results demonstrated both potential similarities and differences with Western contexts. Explainers appeared to prefer didactic approaches, focussing on factual knowledge rather than encouraging deep learning. Two-way communication, however, appeared to be enhanced by the use of a 'pseudo-sibling relationship' by explainers. Traditional Thai social reserve was reduced through such approaches, with visitors taking on active learning roles. These findings have implications for training museum explainers in non-Western cultures, as well as museum communication practice more generally. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Identifying Contextual Factors of Employee Satisfaction of Performance Management at a Thai State Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molraudee Saratun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been an increase in Performance Management (PM literature over the years arguing that PM perceptions are likely to be a function of PM process components and contextual factors, the actual relationship between the contextual factors and employee satisfaction of PM remains little explored. Extending previous research, this study examines relationships between contextual factors and employees’ PM satisfaction. Derived from the literature, these contextual factors are motivation and empowerment of employees, role conflict, role ambiguity, perceived or- ganisational support, procedural justice and distributive justice. Seven directional hypotheses are tested accordingly through a series of regression analyses. This article finds that these contextual factors, with the exception of role conflict, are directly predictive of enhanced employees’ PM satis- faction at the Thai state enterprise.

  20. Metabolomics and Integrative Omics for the Development of Thai Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoomrung, Sakda; Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Nookaew, Intawat; Thamsermsang, Onusa; Seubnooch, Patcharamon; Laohapand, Tawee; Akarasereenont, Pravit

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, interest in studies of traditional medicine in Asian and African countries has gradually increased due to its potential to complement modern medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of Thai traditional medicine (TTM) current development, and ongoing research activities of TTM related to metabolomics. This review will also focus on three important elements of systems biology analysis of TTM including analytical techniques, statistical approaches and bioinformatics tools for handling and analyzing untargeted metabolomics data. The main objective of this data analysis is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the system wide effects that TTM has on individuals. Furthermore, potential applications of metabolomics and systems medicine in TTM will also be discussed. PMID:28769804

  1. Grade 1 to 6 Thai students' existing ideas about light: Across-age study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horasirt, Yupaporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate Grade 1 to 6 Thai (6 - 12 years old) students' existing ideas about light, sight, vision, source of light. The participants included 36 Grade 1 to 6 students (6 students in each Grade) who studying at a primary school in Khon Kaen. The method of this study is a descriptive qualitative research design. The tools included the two-tiered test about light and open-ended question. Students' responses were categorized the students' existing ideas about light. Findings indicated that young students held various existing ideas about light that could be categorized into 6 different groups relating to sight, vision, and source of light. The paper discussed these students' existing ideas for developing constructivist learning about light in Thailand context.

  2. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  3. The Influence of Peers and Student Recruitment Agencies on Thai Students' Choices of International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2003-01-01

    Examined how peers and international student recruitment agencies (agents) influence Thai students' choices of international education and to what degree. Found that agents exert a stronger influence than peers, and that Thai students from different levels of education perceived the influence of peers and agents in a different way. (EV)

  4. The significance of uniform in establishing unity, hierarchy and conformity at Thai universities

    OpenAIRE

    Bunyawanich, S. (Sasanun)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The practice of wearing uniforms in Thai universities was implemented in the reign of King Rama V for Chulalongkorn University, the first university of Thailand. Later on the majority of universities in Thailand have adopted this practice because it has been seen to represent the ideas of politeness, honor, unity, and uniqueness of Thai culture. He...

  5. Validation of the parenting sense of competence scale in fathers: Thai version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansujarid, Tatirat; Vatanasomboon, Paranee; Gaylord, Nan; Lapvongwatana, Punyarat

    2013-09-01

    The role of the parent is a significant family factor that can impact the child cognitively, emotionally, and socially. Strengthening parents' competence improves their performance as parents. This study is the development and validation of the Thai Parenting Sense of Competence scale (Thai PSOC scale) for assessing the parenting competence of Thai fathers. The Thai PSOC scale was revised from the PSOC scale developed by Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978). The scale consists of 17 items with 2 subscales: skill/knowledge (8 items) and valuing/comfort (9 items). The scale was tested with 195 Thai fathers-to-be/ fathers. The results showed high internal consistency: 0.78 for the total scale and 0.73 and 0.80 for the skill/knowledge and valuing/comfort subscales, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) led to a revision of the Thai PSOC scale with better goodness of fit indices for the sample. In the revised scale with Item 17 was omitted, several goodness of fit indices improved significantly with a more acceptable, good fit (Chi(2)/df = 1.63; RMSEA = 0.06; GFI = 0.91; AGFI = 0.88; NFI = 0.80; TLI = 0.90; CFI = 0.91). With revision, the Thai PSOC scale is a potential instrument to measure parenting competence in Thai fathers.

  6. THAI experimental programme for containment safety assessment under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.; Freitag, M. [Becker Technologies GmbH, Eschborn (Germany); Poss, G.

    2016-05-15

    The THAI (THAI = Thermal hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols, Iodine) experimental programme aims to address open questions concerning the behavior of hydrogen, iodine and aerosols in the containment of water cooled reactors. Since its construction in 2000, THAI programme is being performed in the frame of various national projects (sponsored by German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, BMWi) and two international joint projects (under auspices of OECD/NEA). THAI experimental data have been widely used for the validation and further development of Lumped Parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes with 3D capabilities. Selected examples of code benchmark exercises performed based on the THAI data include; hydrogen distribution experiment (ISP-47 and OECD/NEA THAI code benchmark), hydrogen combustion behaviour (ISP-49), hydrogen mitigation by PARs (OECD/NEA THAI-2 code benchmark), iodine/surface interactions, iodine mass transfer, and iodine transport and multi-compartment behaviour (EU-SARNET and EU-SARNET2), thermal-hydraulic tests (German CFD-network). In the present paper, a brief overview on the THAI experiments and their role in the containment safety assessment is discussed.

  7. Thai Speech and Language Test for Children between 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathanee, Benjamas; Pongjanyakul, Amornrat; Chano, Jiraporn

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with delayed speech and language development are at considerable risk for later language impairment, social and behavioural problems, and illiteracy. Early diagnosis is needed for intervention planning and prevention. However, a speech and language test for Thai children has not been available. Aims: To establish a Thai Speech…

  8. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by

  9. Compliment Responses of Thai and Punjabi Speakers of English in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachathep, Sukchai

    2014-01-01

    This variational pragmatics (VP) study investigates the similarities and differences of compliment responses (CR) between Thai and Punjabi speakers of English in Thailand, focusing on the strategies used in CR when the microsociolinguistic variables are integrated into the Discourse Completion Task (DCT). The participants were 20 Thai and 20…

  10. Fuzzy-logic control applications to the belgian reactor 1 (BR1)

    OpenAIRE

    Da Ruan; Xiaozhong Li

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy-logic control (FLC) applications in nuclear industry present a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear industry and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations prevent a researcher from quickly introducing novel fuzzy-logic methods into this field.  On the other hand, the application of FLC  has, despite the ominous sound of the word "fuzzy" to nuclear engineers...

  11. Genetic evaluation of egg production curve in Thai native chickens by random regression and spline models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookprom, S; Boonkum, W; Kunhareang, S; Siripanya, S; Duangjinda, M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate appropriate random regression models with various covariance functions, for the genetic evaluation of test-day egg production. Data included 7,884 monthly egg production records from 657 Thai native chickens (Pradu Hang Dam) that were obtained during the first to sixth generation and were born during 2007 to 2014 at the Research and Development Network Center for Animal Breeding (Native Chickens), Khon Kaen University. Average annual and monthly egg productions were 117 ± 41 and 10.20 ± 6.40 eggs, respectively. Nine random regression models were analyzed using the Wilmink function (WM), Koops and Grossman function (KG), Legendre polynomials functions with second, third, and fourth orders (LG2, LG3, LG4), and spline functions with 4, 5, 6, and 8 knots (SP4, SP5, SP6, and SP8). All covariance functions were nested within the same additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects, and the variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML). In model comparisons, mean square error (MSE) and the coefficient of detemination (R2) calculated the goodness of fit; and the correlation between observed and predicted values [Formula: see text] was used to calculate the cross-validated predictive abilities. We found that the covariance functions of SP5, SP6, and SP8 proved appropriate for the genetic evaluation of the egg production curves for Thai native chickens. The estimated heritability of monthly egg production ranged from 0.07 to 0.39, and the highest heritability was found during the first to third months of egg production. In conclusion, the spline functions within monthly egg production can be applied to breeding programs for the improvement of both egg number and persistence of egg production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. The impact of medical tourism on Thai private hospital management: informing hospital policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Paul T J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help consolidate and understand management perceptions and experiences of a targeted group (n=7) of Vice-Presidents of international Private Thai hospitals in Bangkok regarding medical tourism impacts. The method adopted uses a small-scale qualitative inquiry. Examines the on-going development and service management factors which contribute to the establishment and strengthening of relationships between international patients and hospital medical services provision. Develops a qualitative model that attempts to conceptualize the findings from a diverse range of management views into a framework of main (8) - Hospital Management; Hospital Processes; Hospital Technology; Quality Related; Communications; Personnel; Financial; and Patients; and consequent sub-themes (22). Outcomes from small-scale qualitative inquiries cannot by design be taken outside of its topical arena. This inevitably indicates that more research of this kind needs to be carried out to understand this field more effectively. The evidence suggests that Private Thai hospital management have established views about what constitutes the impact of medical tourism on hospital policies and practices when hospital staff interact with international patients. As the private health service sector in Thailand continues to grow, future research is needed to help hospitals provide appropriate service patterns and appropriate medical products/services that meet international patient needs and aspirations. Highlights the increasing importance of the international consumer in Thailand's health industry. This study provides insights of private health service providers in Bangkok by helping to understand more effectively health service quality environments, subsequent service provision, and the integrated development and impacts of new medical technology.

  13. The role of health insurance in improving health services use by Thais and ethnic minority migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand, a universal coverage health care scheme for Thai citizens and a foreign worker health insurance program for registered foreign workers have been implemented since 2001. This study uses the 2000-2004 panel data of the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System to explore the role of health insurance in influencing the use of health care for Thai, Thai ethnic minority, and ethnic minority migrants from 2000 to 2004. The results show that health insurance plays a major role in improving the use of health care for ethnic groups, especially for Thai ethnic minorities. However, a gap still existed in 2004 between health insurance and health care use by ethnic minority migrants and by Thais. The results suggest that improving health insurance status for ethnic minority migrants should be encouraged to reduce the ethnic gap in the use of health care.

  14. Validity and reliability of quality of recovery-35 Thai version: a prospective questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitimana-Aree, Siriporn; Udompanthurak, Suthipol; Lapmahapaisan, Saowaphak; Tareerath, Matula; Wangdee, Aungsumat

    2016-08-18

    The quality of patients' recovery following surgery and anesthesia has been a matter of focus and concern over the past decade. The Quality of Recovery-40 (QoR-40) questionnaire was developed and validated for post-anesthesia patient evaluation. The QoR-40, however, is English-based and was tested and validated in Caucasian patients, a population that is culturally and behaviorally different from the Thai population. The objective of this study was to translate and modify the original English-language QoR-40 into the Thai language and evaluate the Quality of Recovery-35 Thai version for measuring health outcomes in Thai patients after surgery and anesthesia. Translation was performed according to internationally recognized translation standards to ensure the integrity of the translated version. Consistent with the recommendations of 25 anesthesiologists, five questions from the original QoR-40 were excluded. The 35-item questionnaire was then translated into the Thai language and renamed the Quality of Recovery-35 Thai version (Thai QoR-35). Overall, 43 outpatients and 53 inpatients rated their health and recovery status using three patient evaluation tools: 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale-Recovery (VAS-R), six-item Activities of Daily Living (ADL) questionnaire, and Thai QoR-35. Overall, 90 % of patients took VAS-R showed good convergent validity (r = 0.84, P validity was supported by a significant difference in mean scores for recovery among the Thai QoR-35, VAS-R, and ADL when compared between outpatients and inpatients (P valid, reliable tool for evaluating quality of recovery in Thai patients.

  15. STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION STYLES OF MALAYSIAN, THAI AND HUNGARIAN MIDDLE MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar P. Joshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for more comparative empirical research that examines middle manager roles in strategic change. This paper reports a study of middle managers in two dynamic settings: the Asia/Pacific region – Malaysia and Thailand; and Central/Eastern Europe – Hungary. Results of 213 respondents across three countries indicate that middle managers from all three tend toward use of authoritarian management styles even in proactive strategic change situations. However, Hungarians are less likely to use these styles than Thai and Malaysian middle managers. For all three countries, managers with less work experience were found to have lower tendencies to use an authoritarian style of implementation. When top managers exhibit an aggressive strategic posture, middle-managers from all three countries are also less likely to use an authoritarian style.Firms that want to stay competitive in the global market place must continuously evolve by successfully accomplishing strategic change (Struckman & Yammarino 2003. Although senior managers are critical in leading the strategic change process, even the best-planned strategic changes will not achieve their full potential unless they are well implemented. Part of the strategic leadership responsibility, therefore, includes establishing a climate in which the organization's rank and file will experience both a positive attitude about change and the confidence to actively seek change opportunities (Kanter 2003. Research attention is bringing more insight into the important roles of middle-managers in this process of implementing strategic change (Balogun & Jenkins 2003; Floyd & Wooldridge, 1992, 1994; Wooldridge & Floyd 1990. Although there is little doubt that active support by middle managers is critical for the strategies to be well implemented (Guth & MacMillan 1986, there remain many important questions with regard to how middle managers participate in this process (Balogun 2003.The need for research

  16. A qualitative study of DRG coding practice in hospitals under the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winch Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Thai Universal Coverage health insurance scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group-based retrospective payment, for which quality of the diagnosis and procedure codes is crucial. However, there has been limited understandings on which health care professions are involved and how the diagnosis and procedure coding is actually done within hospital settings. The objective of this study is to detail hospital coding structure and process, and to describe the roles of key hospital staff, and other related internal dynamics in Thai hospitals that affect quality of data submitted for inpatient care reimbursement. Methods Research involved qualitative semi-structured interview with 43 participants at 10 hospitals chosen to represent a range of hospital sizes (small/medium/large, location (urban/rural, and type (public/private. Results Hospital Coding Practice has structural and process components. While the structural component includes human resources, hospital committee, and information technology infrastructure, the process component comprises all activities from patient discharge to submission of the diagnosis and procedure codes. At least eight health care professional disciplines are involved in the coding process which comprises seven major steps, each of which involves different hospital staff: 1 Discharge Summarization, 2 Completeness Checking, 3 Diagnosis and Procedure Coding, 4 Code Checking, 5 Relative Weight Challenging, 6 Coding Report, and 7 Internal Audit. The hospital coding practice can be affected by at least five main factors: 1 Internal Dynamics, 2 Management Context, 3 Financial Dependency, 4 Resource and Capacity, and 5 External Factors. Conclusions Hospital coding practice comprises both structural and process components, involves many health care professional disciplines, and is greatly varied across hospitals as a result of five main factors.

  17. Metabolic syndrome in obese Thai children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamopas, Orawan; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in Thailand is increasing. Obese children are at risk of metabolic syndrome. To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese Thai children with various degrees of obesity and its association with severity of obesity, insulin resistance and C-reactive protein. A cross-sectional study of 89 obese Thai children and adolescents was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University. Family histories of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia were assessed. Anthropometry and cardiovascular risks including levels of fasting blood sugar, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile were determined. Metabolic syndrome was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria adjusted for age and sex. Univariate and logistic regression analysis were used for identification of the independent associated factors. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the present study was 16.9%. The percentages of metabolic syndrome in subjects with moderate, severe and morbid obesity were 10.5, 23.1 and 22.2 respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that metabolic syndrome had a statistically significant association with insulin level over 25 microIU/mL, homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) equal to 3.16 or more and CRP over 3 mg/L. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only insulin level over 25 microIU/mL was independently associated with metabolic syndrome (OR 7.24; 95% CI: 2.01-26.10). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among obese Thai children and adolescents. Prevention and proper management of metabolic syndrome including treatment of obesity should be considered in obese children.

  18. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-10-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (p< or =0.01). Soft tissue trauma was the most common type of injury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (p< or =0.05). Annual injury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.

  19. Salivary Lysozyme in Relation to Dental Caries among Thai Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsirivorakul, J; Petsongkram, B; Chaiyarit, P; Klaynongsruang, S; Pitiphat, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze salivary lysozyme levels and activities in Thai preschoolers with different dental caries status. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 64 preschoolers, divided into a caries free group (n = 32) and a severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) group (n = 32). Both groups were similar regarding gender, age, dental caries status, salivary flow rate, and salivary protein concentrations. No differences were also in the caregivers' characteristics, oral health behaviors, and feeding habits. Only professional fluoride application was less frequently found in the S-ECC group (p caries free group (pcaries.

  20. Family background in upbringing, experience of violence, and authority relationship among married, Thai, Muslim couples in Pattani province experiencing domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasetchai Laeheem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate family background in upbringing, experience of violence, and authority relationship among married, Thai, Muslim couples in Pattani province experiencing domestic violence. The informants of this study consisted of 20 spouses experiencing domestic violence, 20 parents and 20 relatives of the spouses. The data were collected through discussions and in-depth interviews, and then analyzed using comparative logic of concepts, theories, research reports, and context. The study found that married, Thai, Muslim couples in Pattani province experiencing domestic violence had had a strict upbringing, experienced violence in witnessing their parents quarreling and beating each other, had experienced severe punishment in childhood, believed that women have an inferior status to men, and that men are dominant.

  1. Declaration of nutrition information on and nutritional quality of Thai ready-to-eat packaged food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongutta, Suladda; Chongwatpol, Pitipa; Tantayapirak, Parwin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2018-01-10

    The present study assessed the nutrition information displayed on ready-to-eat packaged foods and the nutritional quality of those food products in Thailand. In March 2015, the nutrition information panels and nutrition and health claims on ready-to-eat packaged foods were collected from the biggest store of each of the twelve major retailers, using protocols developed by the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS). The Thai Nutrient Profile Model was used to classify food products according to their nutritional quality as 'healthier' or 'less healthy'. In total, information from 7205 food products was collected across five broad food categories. Out of those products, 5707 (79·2 %), 2536 (35·2 %) and 1487 (20·6 %) carried a nutrition facts panel, a Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) label and health-related claims, respectively. Only 4691 (65·1 %) and 2484 (34·5 %) of the products that displayed the nutrition facts or a GDA label, respectively, followed the guidelines of the Thai Food and Drug Administration. In total, 4689 products (65·1 %) could be classified according to the Thai Nutrient Profile Model, of which 432 products (9·2 %) were classified as healthier. Moreover, among the 1487 products carrying health-related claims, 1219 (82·0 %) were classified as less healthy. Allowing less healthy food products to carry claims could mislead consumers and result in overconsumption of ready-to-eat food products. The findings suggest effective policies should be implemented to increase the relative availability of healthier ready-to-eat packaged foods, as well as to improve the provision of nutrition information on labels in Thailand.

  2. Immediate Effects of Traditional Thai Massage on Psychological Stress as Indicated by Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels in Healthy Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripongngam, Thanarat; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Tangvoraphonkchai, Kamonwan; Chanaboon, Sutin

    2015-10-05

    BACKGROUND Stress can cause psychological and physiological changes. Many studies revealed that massage can decrease stress. However, traditional Thai massage has not been well researched in this regard. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on salivary alpha-amylase levels (sAA), heart rate variability (HRV), autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, and plasma renin activity (PRA). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-nine healthy participants were randomly allocated into either a traditional Thai massage (TTM) group or Control (C) group, after which they were switched to the other group with a 2-week wash-out period. Each of them was given a 10-minute mental arithmetic test to induce psychological stress before a 1-hour session of TTM or rest. RESULTS Within-groups comparison revealed that sAA was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the TTM group but not in the C group. HRV and ANS function were significantly increased (p<0.05) and PRA was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in both groups. However, low frequency per high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) and ANS balance status were not changed. Only sAA was found to be significantly different between groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS We conclude that both TTM and rest can reduce psychological stress, as indicated by decreased sAA levels, increased parasympathetic activity, decreased sympathetic activity, and decreased PRA. However, TTM may have a modest effect on stress reduction as indicated by a reduced sAA.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Thai translation (Thai PPS Adult Suandok) of the Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewaskulyong, Busyamas; Sapinun, Ladarat; Downing, G Michael; Intaratat, Prapai; Lesperance, Mary; Leautrakul, Suntree; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Leerapun, Thaninit

    2012-12-01

    the Thai PPS Adult Suandok tool was translated from the Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2) and had been used in Chiang Mai, Thailand for several years. to test the reliability and validity of the Thai translation of PPSv2. a set of 22 palliative cases were used to determine a PPS score on Time-1, and repeated two weeks later as Time-2. A survey questionnaire was also completed for qualitative analysis. a total of 70 nurses and physicians from Maharaj Nakorn Hospital in Chiang Mai participated. The Time-1 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for absolute agreement is 0.911 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) and for consistency is 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.96). The Time-2 ICC for agreement is 0.905 (95% CI 0.85-0.95) and for consistency is 0.912 (95% CI 0.86-0.96). These findings indicate good agreement among participants and also were somewhat higher in the Time-2 re-test phase. Cohen's kappa score is 0.55, demonstrating a moderate agreement. Thematic analysis from the surveys showed that 91% felt PPS to be a valuable clinical tool overall, with it being 'very useful' or 'useful' in several areas, including care planning (78% and 20%), disease monitoring (69% and 27%) and prognostication (61% and 31%), respectively. Some respondents noted difficulty in determining appropriate scores in paraplegic patients or those with feeding tubes, while others found the instructions long or difficult. the Thai PPS Adult Suandok translated tool has good inter- and intra-rater reliability and can be used regularly for clinical care.

  4. Prevalence and management of diabetes and metabolic risk factors in Thai adults: the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes in Thai adults in 2009 and examine the extent of changes in proportions of diagnosis, treatment, and control for blood glucose, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol between 2004 and 2009. Data from the multistage cross-sectional National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV of 18,629 Thai adults aged ≥20 years conducted in 2009 were used to analyze and compare with the data from NHES III in 2004. The prevalence of IFG and diabetes was 10.6 and 7.5%, respectively. Of all diabetes diagnoses, 35.4% were not previously diagnosed, and the proportion was higher in men than in women (47.3 vs. 23.4%, P < 0.05). Compared with those in year 2004, the proportions of individuals with diabetes and concomitant hypertension did not significantly decrease in 2009 in both sexes, but the proportions of women with diabetes who were abdominally obese or had high total cholesterol (≥5.2 mmol/L) significantly increased in 2009 by 18.0 and 23.5%, respectively (all P < 0.01). The rates of treatment and control of blood glucose, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol were favorably improved in 2009. However, in substantial proportions of individuals with diabetes these concomitants were still controlled suboptimally. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG remained high in Thai adults. Improvement in detection and control of diabetes and associated metabolic risk factors, particularly obesity and high serum cholesterol, are necessary.

  5. Effectiveness of aromatherapy with light thai massage for cellular immunity improvement in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiewkhern, Santisith; Promthet, Supannee; Sukprasert, Aemkhea; Eunhpinitpong, Wichai; Bradshaw, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer are usually treated with chemotherapy, which reduces the number of blood cells, especially white blood cells, and consequently increases the risk of infections. Some research studies have reported that aromatherapy massage affects the immune system and improves immune function by, for example, increasing the numbers of natural killer cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, there has been no report of any study which provided good evidence as to whether aromatherapy with Thai massage could improve the immune system in patients with colorectal cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the use of aromatherapy with light Thai massage in patients with colorectal cancer, who have received chemotherapy, can result in improvement of the cellular immunity and reduce the severity of the common symptoms of side effects. Sixty-six patients with colorectal cancer in Phichit Hospital, Thailand, were enrolled in a single-blind, randomised-controlled trial. The intervention consisted of three massage sessions with ginger and coconut oil over a 1-week period. The control group received standard supportive care only. Assessments were conducted at pre-assessment and at the end of one week of massage or standard care. Changes from pre-assessment to the end of treatment were measured in terms of white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio and also the severity of self-rated symptom scores. The main finding was that after adjusting for pre-assessment values the mean lymphocyte count at the post-assessment was significantly higher (P=0.04) in the treatment group than in the controls. The size of this difference suggested that aromatherapy with Thai massage could boost lymphocyte numbers by 11%. The secondary outcomes were that at the post assessment the symptom severity scores for fatigue, presenting symptom, pain and stress were significantly lower in the massage group than in the

  6. Assessment of Environmental Impact of Thai Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Tikul, Nachawit; Srichandr, Panya

    2011-01-01

    Building and construction has consumed a lot of various resources and emitted pollution.  These cause environmental problems, especially global warming.  The buildings and constructions in various regions and different styles will lead to different environmental problems and levels of seriousness.   The objective of this research is to assess the global warming impact from the use of construction materials in residential buildings since this type of buildin...

  7. Severe Irukandji-like jellyfish stings in Thai waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Peter J; Lippmann, John

    2009-09-01

    Over recent years, there have been more widely-reported sightings of chirodropids and carybdeids in Thailand. There has also been an increased awareness and documentation of fatal and severe non-fatal jellyfish stings occurring in Thai waters. Although the victims are usually swimming or wading in shallow water, divers are also at risk. Despite generally wearing some protective coverings while diving in the tropics, parts of a diver's body often remain exposed and divers can and do sustain severe and/or life-threatening jellyfish stings. In December 2007 and January 2008, two serious cases of envenomation in divers in Thailand were reported to Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP). Both of these victims displayed some typical symptoms of an irukandji-like syndrome. Similar to Australia, appropriate measures need to be taken by the Thai authorities to warn locals and tourists alike of the possible presence of dangerous jellyfish, and suitable prevention and management strategies need to be established and implemented to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  8. Self-Care Behaviors among Thai Primigravida Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthumas, Suphawadee; Kittipichai, Wirin; Pitikultang, Supachai; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictive factors of the self-care behaviors among Thai teenagers with primigravida. The samples of 206 primigravida teenagers attending ANC clinics of six hospitals in the North-Eastern region of Thailand were included. Data collection was done through self administered-questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.72 – 0.92. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the percentage-mean score of overall self-care behavior was 76.91. The percentage-mean scores of self-care behaviors in specific trimester were found that the score in the second trimester was lower than the scores in the first and third trimesters (57.58, 60.45, and 64.65, respectively). Factors associated with overall self-care behavior were perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support from family, knowledge on self-care during pregnancy, accessibility to health services, self-esteem and age (r = 0.47, 0.34, 0.28, 0.24, 0.19, and 0.15, respectively). Perceived self-efficacy and knowledge on self-care during pregnancy were the two considerable predictors accounted for 25% of the variance in the self-care behaviors of Thai teenagers with primigravida. PMID:22980240

  9. Dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome in thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, W; Satheannoppakao, W; Putwatana, P; Taneepanichskul, S; Kessomboon, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Chariyalertsak, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30-59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  10. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  11. Carotenoids intake and asthma prevalence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.

  12. Family health consequences of modernisation programmes in Black Thai communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna; Nguyen, Thi Huong

    2011-12-01

    Southeast Asian governments implement ambitious programmes to reduce population growth and maternal mortality in areas with large minority ethnic populations. Although some of these programmes introduce new social and health practices that meet their broader aims, they may pay inadequate attention to the protective and medically beneficial aspects of traditional practices. This study examined the decline of temporary matrilocality (zu kuay) among the Black Thai in Dien Bien, Vietnam, as a response to policies adopted under the government programme of Doi Moi ('modernisation'). The patrilocal, patrilinear cultural norms of the majority ethnic Kinh people were promoted and zu kuay discouraged at a time when heroin availability increased dramatically but harm reduction programmes were not yet in place. This historical coincidence appears to have heightened certain Thai women's vulnerability to marriages with HIV-positive injecting drug users. Policies and guidelines on marriage and reproductive health should take into account the role of minority ethnic traditions, as well as local health-seeking practices, in order not only to improve reproductive programmes but also to reduce HIV vulnerability.

  13. Triphala: The Thai traditional herbal formulation for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Thai herbal plants are widely accepted in alternative medicine for treatment patients suffering deleterious diseases such as cancer. Having a variety of indications, several herbal formulas including Triphala have been routinely used as health tonic in Thai traditional and Ayurvedic medicines. The formulation of Triphala is a mixture of fruits of three plants: Phyllanthus emblica Linn., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn. Roxb., all of which were reported to inhibit the growth and induce the death of cancer cells effectively. Therefore, anticancer activities inevitably turn out to be one of the essential properties of Triphala formula as well. It is likely that a number of active compounds in the formula, especially tannins, are the key agents that induce the apoptotic cell death via free radical production in cancer cells. On the other hand, all three fruits of these plants also contain high levels of antioxidants, capable of protecting normal cells from any free radical-mediated injuries effectively. Thus, the paradoxical role of Triphala is cell-type specific and becomes an advantage for usage of this formulation. Furthermore, Triphala has high potentials for inhibition and prevention of mutagenesis and metastasis of cancer cells. Finally, studies in the mechanism of action of Triphala and the product development as well as safety evaluation of the standard herbal extract are definitely required for future pharmacological applications of Triphala as anticancer agents for cancer therapy.

  14. TRANSFER OF MARKETING KNOWLEDGE IN THAI INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.

  15. Identification of predominant odorants in thai desserts flavored by smoking with "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa

    2009-02-11

    "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.

  16. Thai students' mental model of chemical bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarawan, Supawadee; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This Research was finding the viewing about concept of chemical bonding is fundamental to subsequent learning of various other topics related to this concept in chemistry. Any conceptions about atomic structures that students have will be shown their further learning. The purpose of this study is to interviews conceptions held by high school chemistry students about metallic bonding and to reveal mental model of atomic structures show according to the educational level. With this aim, the questionnaire prepared making use of the literature and administered for analysis about mental model of chemical bonding. It was determined from the analysis of answers of questionnaire the 10th grade, 11th grade and 12th grade students. Finally, each was shown prompts in the form of focus cards derived from curriculum material that showed ways in which the bonding in specific metallic substances had been depicted. Students' responses revealed that learners across all three levels prefer simple, realistic mental models for metallic bonding and reveal to chemical bonding.

  17. Body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents: the moderating role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Taephant, Nattasuda; Attasaranya, Ploychompoo

    2014-01-01

    Body image satisfaction significantly influences self-esteem in female adolescents. Increased reports of lowered satisfaction in this population have raised concerns regarding their compromised self-esteem. This research study, therefore, sought to identify a culturally significant moderator of the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents. Orientation toward self-compassion, found to be particularly high in Thailand, was examined. A total of 302 Thai female undergraduates from three large public and private universities in the Bangkok metropolitan area responded to a set of questionnaires, which measured demographic information, body image satisfaction, self-compassion, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. Although its effect was relatively small, self-compassion significantly moderated the positive relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. The relationship became less stringent for those with high self-compassion. The cultivation of self-compassion was recommended in female adolescents. In addition to moderating the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem, the benefits to health and well-being of generalizing this cultivation are discussed.

  18. Time is money, but how much? The monetary value of response time for Thai ambulance emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaldell, Henrik; Lebnak, Prachaksvich; Amornpetchsathaporn, Anurak

    2014-07-01

    To calculate the monetary value of the time factor per minute and per year for emergency services. The monetary values for ambulance emergency services were calculated for two different time factors, response time, which is the time from when a call is received by the emergency medical service call-taking center until the response team arrives at the emergency scene, and operational time, which includes the time to the hospital. The study was performed in two steps. First, marginal effects of reduced fatalities and injuries for a 1-minute change in the time factors were calculated. Second, the marginal effects and the monetary values were put together to find a value per minute. The values were found to be 5.5 million Thai bath/min for fatality and 326,000 baht/min for severe injury. The total monetary value for a 1-minute improvement for each dispatch, summarized over 1 year, was 1.6 billion Thai baht using response time. The calculated values could be used in a cost-benefit analysis of an investment reducing the response time. The results from similar studies could for example be compared to the cost of moving an ambulance station or investing in a new alarm system. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  20. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and

  1. Framework based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Translating Food Menu in Thai Language to Malay Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Pu; Nazatul Aini Abd Majid; Bahari Idrus

    2017-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to design a food menu translation framework from Thai to Malay language based on mobile AR, develop a translator application and to test the effectiveness of the translator application...

  2. "Thais" muusika on fenomenaalne / Veronika Džiojeva ; intervjueerinud Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Džiojeva, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastab 22. mail Pärnu Endla teatris esietenduva Jules Massenet' ooperi "Thais" nimiosatäitja, 2007. aastal toimunud Klaudia Taevi nim. rahvusvahelise ooperilauljate konkursi laureaat Veronika Džiojeva

  3. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    ... elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized...

  4. Rate and factors affecting non-exclusive breastfeeding among Thai women under the breastfeeding promotion program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buttham S; Kongwattanakul K; Jaturat N; Soontrapa S

    2017-01-01

    ... University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the rate of non-exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors among Thai women under the Breastfeeding Promotion Program.Methods...

  5. Temporal analysis of national level Muay-Thai matches: Effects of competitive phase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio; Jerônimo Jaspe Rodrigues Silva; Charles Bartel Farias

    2015-01-01

    .... With this procedure, we can recreate the efforts in specific training. However, up to date have no information concerning temporal analysis considering competitive level in Muay-Thai. Objective...

  6. A comparative chromosome analysis of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornnarong Siripiyasing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is the first comparative chromosome analysis report of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and its relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Blood samples of the Thai wild boar were taken from two males and two females kept in Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 oC for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and airdried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Thai wild boar was 2n (diploid = 38, and the fundamental numbers (NF were 62 in the male and female. The type of autosomes were 12 metacentric, 14 submetacentric, 4 acrocentric and 6 telocentric chromosomes, with X and Y chromosomes being metacentric chromosomes. We found that chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, X and Y had the same Gbanding and high-resolution technique patterns as those of domestic pig chromosomes. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 are similar to those of domestic pig chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Thai wild boar and the domestic pig.

  7. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kriweradechachai Suntree; Mo-suwan Ladda; Chuthapisith Jariya; Ruangdaraganon Nichara; Udomsubpayakul Umaporn; Choprapawon Chanpen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age < 2 years), (b) investigate the association between time spent on television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), < 2 hours per day) and language development in Thai 2-year-old children, and (c) explore parental perceptions on television to...

  8. Temporal analysis of national level Muay-Thai matches: Effects of competitive phase

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio; Jerônimo Jaspe Rodrigues Silva; Charles Bartel Farias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Temporal analysis of matches allows the study of fighting patterns in combat sports. With this procedure, we can recreate the efforts in specific training. However, up to date have no information concerning temporal analysis considering competitive level in Muay-Thai. Objective: To investigate temporal characteristics of Muay-Thai athletes in official competition from national level, considering round, and to compare preliminary combats with those that had medal disputes. Materi...

  9. Repression, Civil Conflict and Leadership Tenure: The Thai Case Study: 2006-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-30

    has reported that the Thai military has helped Rohingya Muslims escape Myanmar , but in so doing have demanded bribes (Szep and Grudgings: 2013). The...Report: Thai authorities Implicated in Rohingya Muslim Smuggling Network,” Reuters, 7/17/2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/07/17/us- myanmar ...ethnic Rohingya families. The government also discriminates against Chinese and Vietnamese immigrates who reside in 13 northeastern provinces. Under

  10. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti−Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Jiraporn Leanpolchareanchai; Patchreenart Saparpakorn

    2009-01-01

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose−dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular do...

  11. Physical performance in recently aged adults after 6 weeks traditional Thai dance: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Laophosri, Maneepun; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly. Methods This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST), and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Results There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls), with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011), FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P dance group than the control group. Conclusion Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly) female adults. PMID:23950640

  12. Psychometric Validity and Reliability of the Thai Version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euasobhon, Pramote; Soonthornkes, Neranchala; Rushatamukayanunt, Pranee; Wangnamthip, Suratsawadee; Jirachaipitak, Sukunya; Maneekut, Nattawut; Laurujisawat, Janravee; Srirojanakul, Wanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI-T) in Thai patients with neuropathic pain. Although the Thai version of Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI-T) has been linguistically validated, the tool has to be psychometrically validated before applying to neuropathic pain patients in daily practice. Forty Thai patients with diagnosis of neuropathic pain were enrolled to the study and were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), the Thai version of Neuropathic Pain Diagnostic Questionnaire (DN4-T) and NPSI-T questionnaires. Four hours later the patients were asked to perform retest NPSI-T and to evaluate the understanding of each NPSI-T question. The total score of NPSI-T questionnaire was statistically correlated to visual analog scale (VAS) (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.599, p 0.8) and good agreement (ICC 0.6-0.8) were presented in 30% and 70% of the questionnaire, respectively. The study demonstrated validity and reliability of the NPSI-T for assessing the neuropathic pain in Thai patients.

  13. Prevalence of Facebook Addiction and Related Factors Among Thai High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Mereerat Manwong; Hanprathet, Nitt; Phanasathit, Muthita

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence ofFacebook (FB) addiction and its related factors among Thai high school students. This cross-sectional study was performed among 972 high school students in four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administrative questionnaire was produced composing of three parts; demographic data, a Thai version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) and the Thai version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 items. Multivariate analysis was employed to analyze thefactors associated with FB addiction. The prevalence ofFB addiction amongst Thai adolescents was 41.8% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2). Related factors included gender school location, sufficiency ofpersonalfinance, devices ofFB access, duration ofstaying online via FB, andFB usage during holidays. In addition, every 1-hour increase in usage enhanced the risk for FB addiction (OR = 1.12, 95% CI; 1.05, 1.19). The prevalence of FB addiction in Thai high school students was found to be higher than in many other countries. Relatedfactors should be controlled in order to reduce FB addiction and its detrimental impacts, such as behavior modification and the promotion of healthier free-time activities. Further studies are recommended to understand why FB addiction is so high in Thailand.

  14. Sex estimation from the scapula in a contemporary Thai population: Applications for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Scott, Shelby; Meek, Susan; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2017-07-01

    The impact of climate change is estimated to be particularly severe in Thailand. Overall, the country faces an increase in surface temperatures, severe storms and floods, and a possible increase in the number of mass disasters in the region. It is extremely important that forensic scientists have access to sex estimation methods developed for use on a Thai population. The goal of this project is to evaluate the accuracy of sex estimation discriminant functions, created using contemporary Mexican and Greek populations, when applied to a contemporary Thai sample. The length of the glenoid cavity (LGC) and breadth of the glenoid cavity (BGC) were measured. The sample included 191 individuals (95 males and 96 females) with age ranges from 19 to 96years old. Overall, when the Mexican and Greek discriminant functions were applied to the Thai sample they showed higher accuracy rates for sexing female scapulae (83% to 99%) than for sexing male scapulae (53% to 92%). Size comparisons were made to Chilean, Mexican, Guatemalan, White American, and Greek populations. Overall, in males and females of the Thai sample, the scapulae were smaller than in the Chilean, Mexican, White American, and Greek populations. However, the male and female Thai scapulae were larger than in the Guatemalan sample. Population-specific discriminant functions were created for the Thai population with an overall sex classification accuracy rate of 83% to 88%. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations among Spirituality, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Depression in Pre-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: An Exploratory Analysis in Thai Buddhist Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Saisunantararom

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies of quality of life (QOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients; however, there are a few studies of spirituality and its association with QOL. Previous studies were done focusing on Western cultures; thus, the study of CKD patients in Eastern cultures would reveal interesting insights. This study was conducted to explore the spirituality, QOL, and depression of Thai CKD patients, and the associations between spirituality, QOL, and depression. This cross-sectional descriptive study using structured questionnaires was approved by the Khon Kaen University Ethics Committee in Human Research, Thailand. A total of 63 pre-dialysis CKD stage V patients who visited the kidney diseases clinic as appointed at the outpatient department in a community hospital in northeastern Thailand were recruited. The patients were asked for consent and then interviewed. Spirituality was assessed by using the WHOQOL Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp. The 9-item Thai Health Status Assessment Instrument (9-THAI was used to assess QOL. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to evaluate the depression. The study patients had high WHOQOL-SRPB and FACIT-Sp spirituality scores (median = 18.0, and 44.0, respectively. The 9-THAI QOL scores were within the normal range of the Thai general, healthy population (physical health score [PHS]; median = 48.0, mental health score [MHS]; median = 32.0. Based on BDI-II scores, most patients were in the minimal depression group (63.5%. The Spearman rho correlation coefficients (rs of PHS and WHOQOL-SRPB and FACIT-Sp were moderate with 0.34 for both spirituality measures. Similarly, also the mental health scores (MHS correlated moderately with WHOQOL-SRPB (rs = 0.46 and FACIT-Sp (rs = 0.37. Depressive symptoms (BDI-II strongly negatively correlated with WHOQOL-SRPB (rs = −0.58 and

  16. Maxent modelling for predicting the potential distribution of Thai Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Overgaard, Anne Blach

    2011-01-01

    on presence data. The aim was to identify potential hot spot areas, assess the determinants of palm distribution ranges, and provide a firmer knowledge base for future conservation actions. We focused on a relatively small number of climatic, environmental and spatial variables in order to avoid......Increasingly species distribution models are being used to address questions related to ecology, biogeography and species conservation on global and regional scales. We used the maximum entropy approach implemented in the MAXENT programme to build a habitat suitability model for Thai palms based...... overprediction of species distribution ranges. The models with the best predictive power were found by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). Here, we provide examples of contrasting predicted species distribution ranges as well as a map of modeled palm diversity...

  17. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of Thai error correction system by memetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krit Somkantha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient technique for improving the efficiency of Thai error correction system by using memetic algorithm. In this paper, the token passing algorithm is used for constructing word graph and the language model is used checking the correct sentence. The correction process starts with word graph construction from token passing algorithm, then the correct sentence are searched by memetic algorithm with the best fitness function from language model. For a long sentence from the token passing algorithm, a search space is very huge which can be resolved by using memetic algorithm. The memetic algorithm is used for searching the correct sentence in order to reduce the analysis time. The performance of the proposed method are evaluated and compared to the full search and genetic algorithm. From the experimental results show that the proposed method performs very well and yields better performance more than the compared method. The proposed method can search the best sentence accurately and quickly.

  19. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-08-01

    Three polyphenolic principles, 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (PGG), methyl gallate (MG), and gallic acid (GA), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) ( MANGIFERA INDICA L. cv. "Fahlun") and quantified using a TLC scanning densitometric method. The MSKE and its isolates were investigated by studying their antioxidant capacities using four different methods, by determining their IN VITRO anti-inflammatory activities, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl (4)). The hepatoprotective effect of MSKE is clearly supported by its polyphenolic nature of the main principle, PGG, which exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  20. Seasonal variation in imposex intensity of Thais clavigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengyan

    2005-06-01

    Imposex, specifically caused by TBT pollution, refers to the superimposition of male sexual characteristics in gastropod females. Seasonal variation of imposex intensity in Thais clavigera from both slightly and severely contaminated sites in Hong Kong waters was studied from 1988 to 1999. The male penis length showed significant difference between both sites and seasons. It was shortest during late autumn and early winter (October to December) and longest during spring and early summer (February to June). Female penis length also showed significant difference between sites. It did not change seasonally, however. The RPS (Relative Penis Size) index was the highest during autumn and early winter, and the lowest during spring and early summer. The VDS (Vas Deferens Sequence) index remained stable throughout the sampling period. This study showed that VDS index is a better indicator when we compare relative intensity of imposex. The comparison can only be meaningful provided the samples from different locations are taken during the same season.

  1. Thai Osteoporosis Foundation (TOPF position statements on management of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Songpatanasilp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjusted incidence rate of hip fracture in Thailand has increased more than 31% from 1997 to 2006. Mortality and morbidity after hip fracture are also high. One year mortality after a hip fracture has increased from 18% in 1999 to 21% in 2007. The Thai Osteoporosis Foundation (TOPF developed the first Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG in 2002 and keeps updating the CPG since then. This latest version of the CPG is our attempt to provide comprehensive positional statement on the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in Thailand. The study group who revised this position statement contains experts from the TOPF, Four Royal Colleges of Thailand, includes the Orthopaedic Surgeons, Gynecologists and Obstetricians, Physiatrists, Radiologists and 2 Associations of Endocrinologists and Rheumatologists which have involved in the management of patients with osteoporosis.

  2. An investigation of atmospheric turbidity of Thai sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiwiwatworakul, P.; Chirarattananon, S. [Energy Programme, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2004-07-01

    An investigation of atmospheric turbidity has been undertaken for tropical Thai sky. Values of turbidity indices, namely, Linke factor (T{sub L}), Angstrom coefficient ({beta}) and illuminance turbidity factor (T{sub il}) are derived directly from measurements taken by pyrheliometer, Volz sun photometer and beam illuminance meter. Monthly mean values and frequency of occurrence of the value of each turbidity index are used to characterize variations of atmospheric turbidity. Simple polynomial equations are developed for computing values of Linke factor and illuminance turbidity factor as functions of solar altitude angle. Using the values of Linke factor and illuminance turbidity factor obtained from the models developed, values of beam normal irradiance and illuminance can be calculated accurately under clear sky conditions. Values of daylight illuminance are useful for daylighting application that contributes to energy conservation for buildings. Knowledge of the size of beam normal irradiance is useful for calculation of cooling load in air-conditioning buildings in tropical climate. (author)

  3. Sustainable leadership in a Thai healthcare services provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantabutra, Sooksan

    2011-01-01

    Rhineland leadership practices contrast sharply with the prevailing Anglo/US business model of short-term maximization of profitability, and are said to lead to greater corporate sustainability, at least in highly developed economies. However, the applicability of Rhineland leadership to less developed economies has not yet been demonstrated. This paper sets out to compare the business practices of a social enterprise that delivers healthcare services in Thailand and Avery's 19 sustainable leadership practices derived from Rhineland enterprises. Adopting a case study approach, multi-data collection methods included non-participant observations made during visits to the enterprise, and reference to internal and published documentation and information. Semi-structured interview sessions were held with many stakeholders, including top management, staff, patients and a former consultant. In the Thai healthcare organization studied, evidence was found for compliance with 15 of Avery's 19 sustainable leadership elements, but to varying degrees. The elements were grouped into six core sets of practices: adopting a long-term perspective, staff development, organizational culture, innovation, social responsibility, and ethical behavior. One element was found to be not applicable, and no evidence was found for conformity with Rhineland principles on the remaining three sustainable practices. The paper concludes that Avery's 19 Rhineland practices provide a useful framework for evaluating the corporate sustainability of this Thai enterprise. Healthcare enterprises in Thailand and possibly in other Asian countries that wish to sustain their organizational success could adopt Avery's 19 Sustainable Leadership Grid elements to examine their leadership practices, and adjust them to become more sustainable. The relevance of Rhineland sustainable leadership principles to enterprises in less developed economies remains to be investigated. This study attempts to uncover this unknown.

  4. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Hengcrawit, Wiriya; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Luangwedchakam, Voravich

    2011-12-01

    Patients with Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass deficiency may suffer from recurrent infections, mainly sino-pulmonary infection. To determine the epidemiology of IgG subclass deficiency in Thai children at a tertiary care hospital and to compare the differences between children who were diagnosed with IgG subclass deficiency by using low level criteria [less than 2 standard deviation (SD) of normal levels for age] and by using low percentage criteria (proportion of each IgG subclasses/total IgG). The study was a descriptive study of 55 children up to 15 years old with recurrent infections diagnosed as having IgG subclass deficiency but no acquired or other primary immune deficiencies except for IgA and/or IgM deficiency. Isolated IgG3 subclass deficiency was the most common IgG subclass deficiency (56.4%). IgG3 subclass deficiency, either isolated or combined with other IgG subclass deficiency, was found in 85.5% of the cases. The common age of onset was between birth and five years of age. The most common presenting symptom was recurrent sinusitis (83.6%). Majority of the cases (89.3%) were diagnosed by low percentage criteria while 12.7% were diagnosed by low level criteria. All cases with low levels of IgG subclass antibodies also had low percentages. There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical manifestations and management methods between the children who were diagnosed by low level and low percentage. IgG3 subclass deficiency was the most common IgG subclass deficiency in Thai children. The most common presenting symptom was recurrent sinusitis. Although the diagnosis could be made in the patients with recurrent upper respiratory infection by using low level criteria, but the diagnosis should be considered when the low percentage criteria are met.

  5. Effects of the culturally-sensitive comprehensive sex education programme among Thai secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, R; Jenkins, R A; Dusitsin, N

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports on a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally-sensitive comprehensive sex education programme among Thai secondary school students. Increasing number of adolescents in Thailand have been engaging in premarital sex. No theory-based, abstinence-oriented models of sex education have been evaluated in this population. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2006-2007. Outcome measures included sexual behaviour, condom use, intention to refuse sex, intention to use condoms, and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections/human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and pregnancy. Students in the experimental group had lower levels of reported sexual intercourse at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, compared with those in control group (P sex in the future across time than controls (P Sexually active adolescents participating in the programme reported significantly lower frequencies of sexual intercourse across time than controls (P 0.05), although the intervention was associated with increased intention to use condoms (P sexually transmitted infections/human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and pregnancy among students in the intervention group was significantly greater than that of the controls (P sex education programme. For nurse researchers, it would be useful to extend this research by considering alternative ways to foster condom use in the non-commercial partnerships that have become common among adolescents.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term.

  7. Effects of A Thai Traditional Music Listening Program on Acute Pain Alleviation and Early Ambulation among Patients during the First 48 hours after Open Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanicha Phosida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the effects of listening to a Thai traditional music program on acute pain alleviation among patients during the first 48 hours after open abdominal surgery. Objective: A cross over research design in adult patients’ aged 18-60 years at Siriraj Hospital. Methods: The sample was selected by purposive sampling based on inclusion criteria and assigned into the following two groups by simple random sampling: the group receiving the Thai traditional music program (experimental group and the group receiving routine care (control group. This study employed a cross over design with 44 samples in a private surgical ward at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok. Pain was assessed before and after the intervention. Data were collected by the following three sets of instruments: 1 the demographic and treatment background form; 2 the Thai Short - Form McGill Pain Questionnaire with the vital sign form and 3 the post abdominal surgery early ambulation form. Results: The patients in the experimental group had lower mean pain descriptor scores, mean present pain intensity scores and mean Visual Analog Scale scores after the Thai traditional music program than before the intervention at 48 hours after abdominal surgery with statistical significance (t = 14.11, t = 17.41 and t = 16.47 (p < .001, respectively. When compared between groups, the patients in the experimental group had lower mean pain descriptor scores, mean present pain intensity scores and mean Visual Analog Scale scores than the control group at 48 hours with statistical significance (F = 138.71, F = 170 and F = 298.97 (p < .001, respectively. Furthermore, on the first and second postoperative days as well as the sum of both days, the experimental group was also found to have better early ambulation mean scores than the control group with statistical significance (F = 10.67, p < .002, F = 41.36, p < .001, F = 44.47, p < .001, respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a Thai

  8. Prevalence of Vitamin D insufficiency and low bone mineral density in elderly Thai nursing home residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruavit Anuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous emerging data from research on osteoporosis among Asians found differences from Caucasians. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and osteoporosis in elderly participants from two nursing homes in Thailand, a country located near the equator. Methods The subjects of this cross-sectional study comprised 93 elderly Thai women who were living in institutional long-term nursing homes for the aged. Demographic data, daily food and calcium intake, physical activity, and sunlight exposure were measured. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical levels including serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and bone turnover markers were assessed. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as 25(OHD level  Results The mean age of subjects was 75.2 ± 6.0 (SD years. Dietary calcium intake was low (322 ± 158 mg/day The mean 25(OHD level was 64.3 ± 14.9 nmol/L and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 38.7% (95% CI: 28.8%, 49.4%. There was no correlation between serum 25(OHD concentrations and age (r = −.11, p = 0.3. The mean BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were 0.92 ± 0.19 and 0.65 ± 0.10 g/cm2, respectively. Nearly a half of the subjects had osteopenia (44.1%, 95% CI: 33.8%, 54.8% and osteoporosis (47.3%, 95% CI: 36.9%, 57.9%. Circulating C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx level correlated significantly with both lumbar spine (r = −0.26, p = 0.01 and femoral neck BMD (r = −0.25, p = 0.02. Conclusions More than one-third of Thai elderly women residing in nursing homes had vitamin D insufficiency. Almost all nursing home residents had osteoporosis and/or osteopenia.

  9. A Comparison of the Twelve Core Values of Thai People Defined by the Head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) Found in Thai Private and Public University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngammuk, Patariya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the twelve core values of Thai people found in Thai university students. The twelve values consist of the following attributes: 1.Upholding the nation, the religions and the Monarchy 2. Being honest, sacrificial and patient with positive attitude for the common good of the public 3. Being grateful to the parents,…

  10. Research improves hospitals' approach to children's pain in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More than 200 global health researchers gathered in Ottawa to share research results from the 7-year Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership. Canadian and Thai researchers focused on treating children's pain. Research that has enabled hospitals in Thailand to better treat children's pain provides a valuable ...

  11. Empirical Evaluation Indicators in Thai Higher Education: Theory-Based Multidimensional Learners’ Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawisa Sritanyarat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed empirical indicators which can be validated and adopted in higher education institutions to evaluate quality of teaching and learning, and to serve as an evaluation criteria for human resource management and development of higher institutions in Thailand. The main purpose of this study was to develop empirical indicators of a theoretically-based multidimensional learners’ evaluation in Thai higher education adopting the National Institute of Development Administration as a case study. Research method of this study was developed based on Dubin’s Theory Building Model. Units, which are basic building blocks of newly developed concept, were developed qualitatively and quantitatively by triangulating data obtained from the systematic literature review, the qualitative data collection, and the Likert-scale survey. Patterson’s (in Holton and Lowe, 2007 criterion was used to evaluate the conceptual framework. Questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha analysis were used to analyse the collected data in order to develop empirical indicators.

  12. Pronunciation Problems of Thai Students Learning English Phonetics: A Case Study at Kalasin University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattra Sahatsathatsana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were: 1 to investigate the students’ opinions on problems in phonetics learning, and 2 to find out factors causing the problems in phonetics learning of students. The samples were 12 undergraduate English for International Communication students studying an English Phonetics course of which 6 of them were purposively selected for an interview. The research instruments used were a questionnaire and a semi-interview form. The results from the students’ opinion reflected that some sounds especially [θ], [ð], and [ʤ] caused students’ serious problems of phonetics learning in the segmental level. Linking was also reported that it caused serious problems of phonetics learning in suprasegmental level. Besides, phonetic ability was reported as the factor mostly caused problems in phonetics learning. It could be concluded that the opinion of difference of sound system between English and Thai and some factors including phonetic ability, native language, prior English pronunciation learning, instruction, and motivation caused the students’ problem in phonetics learning as well.

  13. An Investigation of Women Engineers in Non-Traditional Occupations in the Thai Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuanthip Kaewsri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, the public and the private sectors have carried out research aimed at attracting women engineers to the construction industry and retaining them. However, studies on women engineers working in other types of construction-related businesses apart from contractor companies such as consultancies, developers, etc., have not been many. This paper aims to examine the experiences of women engineers in non-traditional careers and the implications for their turnover. A literature search on women’s careers in construction was performed in conjunction with semi-structured interviews with a sampling of 141 individuals. Results from three viewpoints, viz those of professional men and women engineers in contractor companies, and women engineers in non-contractor companies, were found to differ in many respects, including their opinions about career advancement, career path and the difficulties involved. It was also found that women engineers in contractor companies were much more affected by problems such as sexual harassment, work-life conflicts and equal opportunity than women engineers in non-contractor companies. Turnover rates of women engineers and their reasons for leaving were examined. Women engineers, particularly those in contractor companies, had to confront more barriers in non-traditional careers than their male counterparts.  Nonetheless, working in non-contractor companies provides a viable alternative for women engineers who want to have successful careers in the Thai construction industry.

  14. Thai Elephant-Assisted Therapy Programme in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiansukpong, Nuntanee; Pongsaksri, Maethisa; Sasat, Daranee

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of the Thai Elephant-Assisted Therapy Programme for children with Down syndrome (DS) (TETP-D) on balance, postural control and visual motor integration (VMI). A quasi-experimental design with blind control was used. Sixteen children with DS from grades 1 to 6, in a Thailand, public school were recruited for this study. The participants were divided voluntarily into two groups: control and experimental. These both groups received regular school activities, but the experimental group had added treatment, which consisted of TETP-D twice a week for 2 months. The balance subtest of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2, the postural control record form and Beery VMI were applied as outcome measure 1 week before and after the TETP-D. The results showed no significant difference in balance or postural control. However, a significant difference of VMI was shown between the two groups (z = 13.5, p = .04). Children with DS benefited from the TETP-D as it improved their VMI. The TETP-D could improve balance and postural control if provided within a suitable frequency and duration. Further research is needed to test this hypothesis. The limitations of this study are the significant differences in some aspects of the groups at pre-test such as gender and supine flexion of postural control. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durongritichai, Vanida

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people.

  16. Quality of cold storage drugs transportation and delivery to Thai hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooksriwong, Cha-Oncin; Bussaparoek, Woranut

    2009-12-01

    In Thailand there is no regulation and standard guideline to control the quality of drug transportation, including cold storage drugs. To explore the condition of cold storage drugs transportation and delivery to general public hospitals, community hospitals and private hospitals. This is a cross-sectional survey research. There were 301 questionnaires returned from 720 questionnaires sent (41.8% response rate) The serious problems of cold storage drugs on delivery were (1) Cold storage drugs (2 degrees C - 8 degrees C) were delivered to the hospitals without controlled temperature boxes, was found in private, public and community hospitals at the rate of 46.7%, 48.3% and 72.9% respectively. (2) Cold storage drugs (-20 "C), i.e., polio vaccine came to the hospitals with a temperature higher than 8C or ice melting in the box, was found in private, public and community hospitals at the rate of 22.9%, 12.7% and 35.0% respectively. There are differences in quality of cold storage drug transportation and delivery among types of hospitals. It is highly recommended that Thai FDA should develop a standard and implement the control system for logistics management of cold storage drugs.

  17. Application of Kansei engineering and data mining in the Thai ceramic manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittidecha, Chaiwat; Yamada, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Ceramic is one of the highly competitive products in Thailand. Many Thai ceramic companies are attempting to know the customer needs and perceptions for making favorite products. To know customer needs is the target of designers and to develop a product that must satisfy customers. This research is applied Kansei Engineering (KE) and Data Mining (DM) into the customer driven product design process. KE can translate customer emotions into the product attributes. This method determines the relationships between customer feelings or Kansei words and the design attributes. Decision tree J48 and Class association rule which implemented through Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) software are used to generate a predictive model and to find the appropriate rules. In this experiment, the emotion scores were rated by 37 participants for training data and 16 participants for test data. 6 Kansei words were selected, namely, attractive, ease of drinking, ease of handing, quality, modern and durable. 10 mugs were selected as product samples. The results of this study indicate that the proposed models and rules can interpret the design product elements affecting the customer emotions. Finally, this study provides useful understanding for the application DM in KE and can be applied to a variety of design cases.

  18. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  19. Grade 10 Thai students' scientific argumentation in learning about electric field through science, technology, and society (STS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnork, Amporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The research aimed to enhance Grade 10 Thai students' scientific argumentation in learning about electric field through science, technology, and society (STS) approach. The participants included 45 Grade 10 students who were studying in a school in Nongsonghong, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The intervention was the force unit which was provided based on Yuenyong (2006) STS approach. Students learned about the STS electric field unit for 4 weeks. The students' scientific argumentation was interpreted based on Toulmin's argument pattern or TAP. The TAP provided six components of argumentation including data, claim, warrants, qualifiers, rebuttals and backing. Tools of interpretation included students' activity sheets, conversation, journal writing, classroom observation and interview. The findings revealed that students held the different pattern of argumentation. Then, they change pattern of argumentation close to the TAP. It indicates that the intervention of STS electric field unit enhance students to develop scientific argumentation. This finding may has implication of further enhancing scientific argumentation in Thailand.

  20. Why Thai parents do not discuss sex with their children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Pfeil, Michael; Crozier, Kenda

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative article explores the attitudes of Thai adolescents and parents concerning the barriers that prevent parents providing sex education to their adolescent children. Focus groups were conducted with 30 parents and 36 adolescents in rural north-eastern Thailand and were analyzed by using thematic analysis. The results showed that most Thai parents have not taught their children about sex education issues. Five themes emerged in relation to the limitations in providing sex education in Thai families. These were: restrictions imposed by traditional Thai culture; sex education is not a parental duty; parental limitations; the generation gap; and better not bring it up. We conclude that the core values in Thai society restrict the discussion of sex, resulting in youth missing the opportunity to acquire the knowledge that is needed about sexual issues from their family. This article provides evidence of how parents' knowledge and perceptions are linked to their ability and willingness to discuss sexual matters with their teenagers. Therefore, future sex education policies could be greatly enhanced by empowering parents to take part in the sex education of their teenage children. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. A prospective study of injuries sustained during competitive Muay Thai kickboxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Sam; Malik, Mohammad Hammad; Lovell, Martyn

    2005-01-01

    To investigate prospectively the type and rate of injuries sustained during amateur Muay Thai competition. Prospective cohort study collection of data following clinical examination. Amateur Muay Thai competitions in the United Kingdom organized by the International Amateur Muay Thai Federation. Amateur Muay Thai boxers. Both sexes. Lightweight to super heavyweight. There were 92 participants, 12 females and 82 males. The average age was 17.3 years, and the average previous number of bouts was 3.9. A total of 588.5 minutes of competition time was assessed during a total of 10 events. Injury rates were 1.3 injuries per 100 minutes of competition in the lightweight category, 2.25 per 100 minutes of competition in the middleweight category, 30 per 100 minutes of competition in the heavyweight category, and 2.54 per 100 minutes of competition in the super heavyweight category. Compared with other reported martial arts, the injury rates are higher in Muay Thai. The head was shown to be the most common site of injury in amateur fighters, but there was an almost complete absence of lower limb injuries, which again is at variance with reported figures for other martial arts.

  2. Thai traditional massage increases biochemical markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetung, Sunee; Chailurkit, La-Or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

    2013-03-25

    The effect of massage therapy on bone metabolism in adults has only scarcely been explored. In a randomized crossover trial, we investigated the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover. Forty-eight postmenopausal women participated in the study. All volunteers were randomized to a 2-hour session of Thai traditional massage twice a week for 4 weeks and a 4-week control period after a 2-week washout, or vice versa. Twenty-one subjects were allocated to receiving Thai traditional massage first, followed by the control period, while 27 were initially allocated to the control period. Serum P1NP increased significantly after Thai traditional massage (P women whose ages were in the middle and higher tertiles and whose heights were in the lower and middle tertiles (n = 22) had a 14.8 ± 3.3% increase in P1NP after massage (P women (n = 26). Thai traditional massage results in an increase in bone formation as assessed by serum P1NP, particularly in postmenopausal women who are older and have a smaller body build. Future studies with larger samples and additional design features are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01627028.

  3. A preliminary study on identification of Thai rice samples by INAA and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsri, S.; Kukusamude, C.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the elemental compositions in 93 Thai rice samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and to identify rice according to their types and rice cultivars using statistical analysis. As, Mg, Cl, Al, Br, Mn, K, Rb and Zn in Thai jasmine rice and Sung Yod rice samples were successfully determined by INAA. The accuracy and precision of the INAA method were verified by SRM 1568a Rice Flour. All elements were found to be in a good agreement with the certified values. The precisions in term of %RSD were lower than 7%. The LODs were obtained in range of 0.01 to 29 mg kg-1. The concentration of 9 elements distributed in Thai rice samples was evaluated and used as chemical indicators to identify the type of rice samples. The result found that Mg, Cl, As, Br, Mn, K, Rb, and Zn concentrations in Thai jasmine rice samples are significantly different but there was no evidence that Al is significantly different from concentration in Sung Yod rice samples at 95% confidence interval. Our results may provide preliminary information for discrimination of rice samples and may be useful database of Thai rice.

  4. Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An Anthropological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailadda Kaewma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84% was much greater than that of female (1.94% compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type.

  5. Effects of Thai Dancing on Median Neurodynamic Response During 4-Hour Computer Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhora, Keerin; Septham, Chatdao; Jalayondeja, Wattana

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of Thai dancing on median neurodynamic response during 4-hour computer use. Twenty-four healthy participants aged 20-30 years performed 5 minutes of Thai dancing including Prom See Na, Yoong Fon Hang, Sod Soy Mala, Lor Keaw and Cha Nee Rai Mai during a 10-minute break of 4-hour computer use. All participants were assessed for nerve tension by elbow range of motion ofupper limb neurodynamic test 1 (ULNT1) and components of quick test. The discomfort was measured by visual analogue discomfort scale (VADS). These measurements were assessed before and after computer work. The statistical analyses employed paired t-test for continuous outcome and Friedman's test. The median nerve tension (indicated by elbow range of motion) was significantly reduced at before and after work, when 5 minutes of Thai dancing was introduced during the break. While components of the quick test emphasized that Thai dance immediately helped reduce the median nerve tension. The VADS in eight body areas increased over the period of 4 hours, but decreased after performing Thai dancing (pdancing helped relieve median nerve tension and body discomfort. It may be recommended as an exercise during break for computer users who continuously work to prevent WMSDs.

  6. Performance of Indonesian EFL Learners and Thai EFL Learners on Compliment Responses in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payung Cedar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultures carry norms and expectations on how speech acts are performed. On the other hand, responding to compliments is challenging in nature for not only it involves an internal conflict, but also is subject to cultures and other factors. This study investigated how Indonesian and Thai English major students respond to English compliments and the effect of compliment topics in their CRs (Compliment Responses. The study made use of a set of DCT questionnaire distributed to 35 Indonesian and 35 Thai university students majoring in English in their first year. Employing Tran’s (2007 Continua of CRs, the findings demonstrated significant differences in the CRs between Indonesians and Thais triggered by cultural differences of the two groups of subjects and different preferences of compliment topics. In general, Indonesians were found to be more prone to deny compliments while Thais tended to accept compliments. In relation to compliment topics, Indonesians were observed to be most positive towards compliments on ability and most negative towards compliments on possession. On the other hand, Thais tended to be most positive towards possession and most negative towards appearance. In addition, the results of the study also offered methodological and pedagogical implications.

  7. SoSTI Course: An Elective Science Course for Thai Upper Secondary School Non-Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruekpramool, Chaninan; Phonphok, Nason; White, Orvil L.; Musikul, Kusalin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to develop the interdisciplinary SoSTI (science of sound in traditional Thai musical instruments) course for Thai non-science upper secondary school students to study the students' attitudes toward science before and after studying from the course. The SoSTI course development is based on the interdisciplinary concept model and…

  8. Effects of thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy: a randomized parallel-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Plandee, Piyawan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-04-20

    BACKGROUND Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complications of diabetic patients and leads to loss of plantar cutaneous sensation, movement perception, and body balance. Thai foot massage is an alternative therapy to improve balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned into either the Thai foot massage or control groups. The Thai foot massage group received a modified Thai traditional foot massage for 30 min, 3 days per week for 2 weeks. We measured timed up and go (TUG), one leg stance: OLS), the range of motion (ROM) of the foot, and foot sensation (SWMT) before treatment, after the first single session, and after the 2-week treatment. RESULTS After the single treatment session, only the Thai foot massage group showed a significant improvement in TUG. After the 2-week treatment, both Thai foot massage and control groups showed a significant improvement of TUG and OLS (Pfoot massage group showed better improvement in TUG than the control group (pfoot massage group also showed significant improvements in ROM and SWMT after the 2-week treatment. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that Thai foot massage is a viable alternative treatment for balance performance, ROM of the foot, and the foot sensation in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.

  9. Effects of Thai Foot Massage on Balance Performance in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy: A Randomized Parallel-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Plandee, Piyawan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complications of diabetic patients and leads to loss of plantar cutaneous sensation, movement perception, and body balance. Thai foot massage is an alternative therapy to improve balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Material/Methods Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned into either the Thai foot massage or control groups. The Thai foot massage group received a modified Thai traditional foot massage for 30 min, 3 days per week for 2 weeks. We measured timed up and go (TUG), one leg stance: OLS), the range of motion (ROM) of the foot, and foot sensation (SWMT) before treatment, after the first single session, and after the 2-week treatment. Results After the single treatment session, only the Thai foot massage group showed a significant improvement in TUG. After the 2-week treatment, both Thai foot massage and control groups showed a significant improvement of TUG and OLS (Pmassage group showed better improvement in TUG than the control group (pmassage group also showed significant improvements in ROM and SWMT after the 2-week treatment. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that Thai foot massage is a viable alternative treatment for balance performance, ROM of the foot, and the foot sensation in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25892354

  10. Should we use the shorter Thai-version quality of life and symptoms questionnaires in women with overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavejchevin, Suvit; Liao, Limin; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Choo, Myung-Soo; Rabbani, Khalid Javed; Havanond, Piyalamporn

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test: (i) the validation and reliability of the Thai versions of overactive bladder (OAB) questionnaires (the 8-item and 3-item Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score questionnaires [OAB-v8 and OAB-v3, respectively] and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire [OAB-q]); and (ii) the correlation of the OAB-v8, OAB-v3, and the single-question Quality of Life Questionnaire (1-QoL) to the OAB-q in Thai women with OAB. During January to March 2011, 36 Thai women with OAB attending a urogynecology clinic at Chulalongkorn Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand were recruited. All questionnaires were given as a psychometric test twice, 2 weeks apart. Cronbach's alpha of the OAB-v8 was higher (and above 0.7) than OAB-v3 at both week 0 and week 2. The intraclass correlations (ricc ) were 0.64, 0.85, and 0.97 for the OABV8, OAB-v3, and OAB-q, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of OAB-v3 and OAB-q at weeks 0 and 2 (0.40 and 0.49) were lower than those for OAB-v8 and OAB-q at weeks 0 and 2 (0.62 and 0.62). All questions on the OAB-v3 had a lower weighted kappa than OAB-v8. There was no statistically significant difference in the OAB-q score in each level of 1-QoL score at week 0 (P = 0.12) and at week 2 (P = 0.29). The reliability of the OAB-v3 is poorer than that of the OAB-v8. The OAB-v3 is poorer correlated to the OAB-q than to the OAB-v8. A short questionnaire, such as the OAB-v3 and the 1-QoL, has poor reliability and is poorly correlated to the OAB-q and is not recommended as a replacement for the standard questionnaires, such as the OAB-q and the OAB-v8. The OAB-v3 should only be used in large screening populations where there are time limits. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Superstitious Beliefs and Problem Gambling Among Thai Lottery Gamblers: The Mediation Effects of Number Search and Gambling Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravichai, Sunisa; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2015-12-01

    Thai lottery gamblers won prizes after betting on numbers they obtained from newspaper stories. We hypothesized that Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs were related to their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. In a study among 380 Thai lottery gamblers, superstitious beliefs were operationally defined as the beliefs in events or objects that seemed to reveal numbers, number search as an attempt to identify numbers to bet, gambling intensity as the frequency and amounts of lottery gambling, and problem gambling as the symptoms of problems relating to lottery gambling. Results support the hypotheses. There is a statistically significant indirect relationship between Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs and their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. Thai lottery gamblers need to be reminded that their superstitious beliefs and number search are precursors of their problem gambling.

  12. Transthoracic echocardiography in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriyapong, Tapawas; Dharmasaroja, Pompatr A; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Piyayotai, Dilok; Hutayanon, Pisit

    2012-01-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is routinely performed to look for the cardiac sources of emboli in many Western stroke centers. Due to a limitation of resources in Thailand, echocardiography is done in only some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the need for cardiac investigations, especially TTE, in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke. Two-hundred and seven patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), who had TTE results during August 2006 to November 2008, were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups by the risk of cardioembolism: low- versus high-risk groups. All echocardiography results were reviewed and classified by the need for management change following the echocardiography. Abnormal TTE results indicating a need for change in management were found in 4% (4/102) and 18% (18/105) in low- and high- risk patients, respectively The results of ECG alone led to change in management in 17% (36 patients). Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolism, which was found in 35 patients (17%). Because of limited resources in Thailand, ECG should be routinely performed on all ischemic stroke patients and TTE in patients with high risk for cardioembolism. However larger studies are still needed to clarify the benefits of echocardiography in low-risk patients.

  13. Clinical diagnosis of malaria on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K K; Maung, C; Katz, D L

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the prevailing practice of presumptively diagnosing malaria in all cases of febrile illness in a clinic serving a refugee population on the Thai-Myanmar border A retrospective review of 3,506 patient charts from December 1993 through June 1994 at the MaeSot medical clinic to compare clinical signs of malaria to blood smear findings. Patients presenting without fever were assumed not to have malaria; the remaining 2,111 patients presenting with fever had blood smears examined for malaria infection. Fever alone sufferedfrom poorpositive predictive value (54.7 percent) and specificity (59.3 percent). When fever was combined with hepatosplenomegaly and anemia, the positive predictive value and specificity improved (84.5 percent and 98.5 percent, respectively). However, this combination also resulted in an unacceptably poor sensitivity (16.5 percent) and false negative error rate (835/1,000). CONCLUSIONS. In this nonimmune refugee population, severe complications of falciparum malaria occur quickly and commonly; aggressive chemotherapy is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. Until laboratory facilities are made available, all cases offever should continue to be treated presumptively as malaria.

  14. Alternative anthropometric measurements for the Thai elderly: Mindex and Demiquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assantachai, Prasert; Yamwong, Preyanuj; Lekhakula, Somsong

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between alternative anthropometric indices and the nutritional and metabolic status of the Thai elderly. Four rural communities, each from the 4 main regions of Thailand were surveyed. A total of 2,324 subjects, 60 years old and over were included in the study. Mindex and Demiquet had a very strong relationship to body mass index with the r values of 0.93 and 0.88, respectively. Fat weight had the highest correlation with body mass index in older women, r = 0.94 (PQuetelet indices, r = 0.76-0.87 (PQuetelet indices. All three Quetelet indices had nearly the same pattern of relationship to various nutritional parameters. The cut-off points of Mindex denoting under-nutrition, overweight and obesity I in women were 55.95, 69.55 and 75.60 kilogram/metre, respectively. At the same time, the cut-off points of Demiquet denoting under-nutrition, overweight and obesity I in men were 75.60, 93.98 and 102.16 kilogram/metre2, respectively. All this information supports the benefit of using Mindex and Demiquet as alternatives to body mass index for nutritional assessment in older Asian people, especially for the malnourished ones.

  15. Technical Efficiency of Thai Manufacturing SMEs: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Charoenrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.

  16. Psychological Stress Can Be Decreased by Traditional Thai Massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripongngam, Thanarat; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Tangvoraphonkchai, Kamonwan; Chanaboon, Sutin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on psychological stress and heart rate variability (HRV). Thirty healthy participants were randomly allocated in two groups, a TTM group (n = 15) who received a 1-hour session with moderate pressure of whole body TTM or a control group (n=15) who rested on the bedfor 1 hour All ofthem were given a 10-minute mental arithmetic test to induce psychological stress after which they received a 1-hour session of TTM or bed rest. Psychological stress and HR V were measured at baseline and immediately after mental arithmetic test, and immediately after TTM or bed rest. The studyfound that psychological stress was signficantly increased (p<0.05) after mental arithmetic test in both groups. Comparison on these measures between immediately after mental arithmetic test and after TTM or bed rest revealed that psychological stress was significantly decreased (p<0.05) and HR Vwas significantly increased (p<0.05) in both groups. Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and low frequency were significantly increased (p<0.05) only in the TTM group. However; all of these measures were found without significant difference when groups were compared. TTM and bed rest could decrease psychological stress and HRV

  17. Visual analogue scale foot and ankle: validity and reliability of Thai version of the new outcome score in subjective form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha; Suntharapa, Thongchai; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays, measuring score in the form of subjective questionnaires is the important tool for clinical evaluation of the foot and ankle-related problems. VisualAnalogue Scale-Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) is the newly developed subjective questionnaire, which has sufficiency of validity and reliability from a previous study Translate the original English version of VAS-FA into the Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai VAS-FA in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. According to the forward-backward translation protocol, original VAS-FA was translated into the Thai version. Thai VAS-FA and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were distributed to 42 Thai patients to complete. For validation, Thai VAS-FA scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. For reliability, the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. Thai VAS-FA score demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP) domains, and total score of SF-36 (statistically significant with p 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.995 from test-retest study. The internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha: 0.995. The original VAS-FA score is a well-validated, subjective, visual-analogue-scale based outcome score. The Thai version of VAS-FA form maintained the validity and reliability of the original version. This newly translated-validated score can be distributed for the evaluation of the functions, symptoms, and limitation of activities in Thai patients with foot and ankle problems.

  18. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanaku, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination...... by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from...... coffee beans were capable of producing fumonisins B2 (FB2) and B4 when grown on Czapek Yeast Agar with 5% NaCl. Small amounts (1-9.7 ng g-1) of FB2 were detected in seven of 12 selected coffee samples after ion-exchange purification and LC-MS/MS detection. Two samples also contained FB4...

  19. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis in British Columbia associated with imported Thai basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, L M N; Fyfe, M; Ong, C; Harb, J; Champagne, S; Dixon, B; Isaac-Renton, J

    2005-02-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of cyclosporiasis, a common cause of protracted diarrhoea in underdeveloped countries, are often undetected and undiagnosed in industrial countries. In May 2001, an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis gastroenteritis was identified in British Columbia, Canada, with 17 reported cases. We conducted a case-control study involving 12 out of the 17 reported and confirmed case patients. Eleven (92%) of the patients had consumed Thai basil, an essential ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine, compared to 3 out of 16 (19%) of the control patients (P = 0.003). Trace-back investigations implicated Thai basil imported via the United States as the vehicle for this outbreak. This is the first documented sporadic outbreak of cyclosporiasis linked to Thai basil in Canada, and the first outbreak of cyclosporiasis identified in an ethnic immigrant population. This outbreak provides the opportunity to increase our understanding of this emerging pathogen and improve on our prevention and control for future outbreaks.

  20. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanarong Vorapun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. Methods The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. Results The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95 years. 689(34.9% are men and 1284(65.1% are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20 kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003. The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952 had highest level gait disorders. 39

  1. Towards a cosmopolitan criticality? Relational aesthetics, Rirkrit Tiravanija and transnational encounters with pad thai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Dohmen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marsha Meskimmon and Nikos Papastergiadis have responded to contemporary art’s concern with transculturalism, audience participation and intersubjectivity by re-articulating the cosmopolitan in relation to both aesthetics and globalisation. Dohmen investigates how their cosmopolitanism translates into a mode of critical address and probes this question with regard to the work of Rirkrit Tiravanija, a key proponent of relational aesthetics, an art movement of the 1990s championing audience participation and the intersubjective. Even though Tiravanija expressly draws attention to his Thai background by cooking pad thai in the gallery, Dohmen detects a striking disavowal of cultural alterity at the heart of relational aesthetics, which she regards as untenable within the context of the art world’s increasing internationalisation. Dohmen demonstrates how relational aesthetics appropriated key aspects of Tiravanija’s Thai-derived outlook while asking how a cosmopolitan outlook might redress and repair this marked critical Eurocentricity.

  2. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the PHQ-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipanish Ratana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most depression screening tools in Thailand are lengthy. The long process makes them impractical for routine use in primary care. This study aims to examine the reliability and validity of a Thai version Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 as a screening tool for major depression in primary care patients. Methods The English language PHQ-9 was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the pre-final version, as well as final adjustments. The PHQ-9 was then administered among 1,000 patients in family practice clinic. Of these 1,000 patients, 300 were further assessed by the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and the Thai version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. These tools served as gold-standards for diagnosing depression and for assessing symptom severity, respectively. In the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed. Results Complete data were obtained from 924 participants and 279 interviewed respondents. The mean age of the participants was 45.0 years (SD = 14.3 and 73.7% of them were females. The mean PHQ-9 score was 4.93 (SD = 3.75. The Thai version of the PHQ-9 had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79 and showed moderate convergent validity with the HAM-D (r = 0.56; P Conclusion The Thai version of the PHQ-9 has acceptable psychometric properties for screening for major depression in general practice with a recommended cut-off score of nine or greater.

  3. The Thai version of the PSS-10: An Investigation of its psychometric properties

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    Wongpakaran Tinakon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10 with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. Methods A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [χ2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p r = 0.60, p r = 0.55, p r = -0.46, p Conclusions The Thai version of the PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  4. A multi-center Thai university-based surgical intensive care units study (THAI-SICU study): methodology and ICU characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Chaiwat, Onuma; Morakul, Sunthiti; Pipanmekaporn, Tanyong; Thawitsri, Thammasak; Wacharasint, Petch; Fuengfoo, Pusit; Chatmongkolchart, Sunisa; Akaraborworn, Osaree; Pathonsamit, Chompunoot; Poopipatpab, Sujaree; Chanthawong, Sarinya; Chau-In, Waraporn; Kusumaphanyo, Chaiyapruk; Buppha, Phakapan; Somrat, Charuluxananan; Kongsayreepong, Suneerat

    2014-01-01

    Although there were two large intra-operative observational studies on Thai surgical patients (THAI and THAI-AIMS), there has been no available study on critically ill surgical patients regarding their adverse events and outcomes. A THAI-Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) study has been established for monitoring the occurrence of these adverse events and outcomes in the SICU. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology of the THAI-SICU study and participating SICUs' characteristics as well as the early recruitment results on patients enrolled in the present study. The present study is designed as a multi-center, prospective, observational study. This report describes the method of case record form development and summarizes their collected parameters as well as the adverse event surveillance variables. All of nine SICU characteristics are described regarding their management systems, physicians' and nurses' work patterns. The final group of enrolled patients is reported. A total of nine university-based SICUs were included in the present study. All participating hospitals are residency training centers. Four of the SICUs, fulltime directors are anesthesiologists. Only one hospital's SICU is directed by a surgeon. Two SICUs were closed ICUs, three were mandatory consulting units, one was an elective consultation unit and the remaining three ICUs had no directors. Most of the participating SICUs had heterogeneity of surgical specialty patients. Six SICUs had regular resident rotations and only two of the SICUs had critical care fellowship training. There were significant differences regarding the nursing workload among the ICUs. The patient to registered nurse ratio ranged from 0.9-2.0. After a total of 19.7 months of a recruitment period, the total number of patient admissions was 6,548 (1,894 patients were excluded). A total cohort of 4,654 patients was included for further analytical processes. There were differences in ICU management systems

  5. The current status of nuclear research reactor in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittichai, C.; Kanyukt, R.; Pongpat, P. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    Since 1962, the Thai Research Reactor has been serving for various kinds of activities i.e. the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and research and development on nuclear science and technology, for more than three decades. The existing reactor site should be abandoned and relocated to the new suitable site, according to Thai cabinet`s resolution on the 27 December 1989. The decommissioning project for the present reactor as well as the establishment of new nuclear research center were planned. This paper discussed the OAEP concept for the decommissioning programme and the general description of the new research reactor and some related information were also reported. (author)

  6. Patrones de consumo, estado nutricional y suplementos dietarios en el Muay Thai

    OpenAIRE

    Cañadas, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    El Muay Thai es un arte marcial tailandés considerado hoy uno de los mejores deportes de contacto en el mundo porque trabaja todas las extremidades del cuerpo, y permite un elevado desarrollo de la aptitud física, de concentración y la confianza. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar cuáles son los patrones de consumo alimentario, el estado nutricional y el consumo de suplementos dietarios en deportistas que practican la disciplina de Muay Thai en la ciudad de Mar del ...

  7. Survey on heavy metals contaminated soils in Thai Nguyen and Hung Yen provinces in Northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2012-01-01

    In Vietnam, soil contamination with lead and cadmium at very high level was investigated anddiscovered in the surrounding areas of zinc-lead mining and processing factory in Tan Long (Dong Hy district, Thai Nguyen province) and around the lead-recycling smelter in Chi Dao (Van Lam district, Hung Yen province). The survey on soil contaminated by arsenic due to the tin mining and sifting activities in Ha Thuong (Dai Tu district, Thai Nguyen province) was also carried out. In Tan Long, the conc...

  8. Vulnerability of Thai rice production to simultaneous climate and socioeconomic changes: a double exposure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangpenchan, R.

    2011-12-01

    This research explores the vulnerability of Thai rice production to simultaneous exposure by climate and socioeconomic change -- so-called "double exposure." Both processes influence Thailand's rice production system, but the vulnerabilities associated with their interactions are unknown. To understand this double exposure, I adopts a mixed-method, qualitative-quantitative analytical approach consisting of three phases of analysis involving a Vulnerability Scoping Diagram, a Principal Component Analysis, and the EPIC crop model using proxy datasets collected from secondary data sources at provincial scales.The first and second phases identify key variables representing each of the three dimensions of vulnerability -- exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indicating that the greatest vulnerability in the rice production system occurs in households and areas with high exposure to climate change, high sensitivity to climate and socioeconomic stress, and low adaptive capacity. In the third phase, the EPIC crop model simulates rice yields associated with future climate change projected by CSIRO and MIROC climate models. Climate change-only scenarios project the decrease in yields by 10% from the current productivity during 2016-2025 and 30% during 2045-2054. Scenarios applying both climate change and improved technology and management practices show that a 50% increase in rice production is possible, but requires strong collaboration between sectors to advance agricultural research and technology and requires strong adaptive capacity in the rice production system characterized by well-developed social capital, social networks, financial capacity, and infrastructure and household mobility at the local scale. The vulnerability assessment and climate and crop adaptation simulations used here provide useful information to decision makers developing vulnerability reduction plans in the face of concurrent climate and socioeconomic change.

  9. Ratio of ovarian stroma and total ovarian area by ultrasound in prediction of hyperandrogenemia in reproductive-aged Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerasiri, Pichai; Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of ovarian stromal area to total ovarian area (S/A) ratio for the prediction of biochemical hyperandrogenism in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A cross-sectional study was performed in 222 reproductive-aged Thai women with PCOS attending the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit (GEU), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital from May 2007 to January 2009. The patients were interviewed for medical history and examined for anthropometry and clinical hyperandrogenism. Venous blood samples were obtained for androgen profiles. An ovarian ultrasonogram was obtained via transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonography. The prevalences of clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism were 48.6% and 81.1%, respectively. The S/A ratio at a cut-off point of 0.33 had modest predictability for hyperandrogenism, namely, 0.537 area under the receiver-operator curve, 36.6% sensitivity, 72.1% specificity, 83.8% positive predictive value (PPV) and 20.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The combination of clinical hyperandrogenism and S/A ratio improved the predictability for biochemical hyperandrogenism, with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 72.1%, 58.1%, 87.8% and 33.3%, respectively. The S/A ratio alone is not a good predictor for biochemical hyperandrogenism in Thai PCOS women attending GEU for menstrual dysfunction. The combination of S/A ratio and clinical hyperandrogenism has better performance than the S/A ratio alone to predict biochemical hyperandrogenism. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Annual changes in fecal sex hormones with corresponding changes in reproductive behaviors in Thai sarus crane, black-headed Ibis, and Lesser Adjutant Stork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Poothong, Songklod; Taksintum, Wut; Suekkhachat, Hataitip; Kanchanabanca, Pongvarut; Suwapat, Phongpipat

    2013-12-01

    We monitored annual fecal sex hormones and reproductive displays of five individuals of males and females Thai sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii), a flock of five males and females black-headed Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), and five pair bonded lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus), all maintained in captivity at Bangprha Waterbird Breeding Research Center. Reproductive behaviors were observed during 0600-1800 h, for four days during the second week of each month and feces were collected monthly to determine annual male total testosterone (mTT) and female estradiol (fE2) levels by radioimmunoassay. Thai sarus crane exhibited a peak mTT in August following a fE2, with a surge in July. Black-headed ibis demonstrated a peak mTT in January prior to a fE2 with a surge in March. Lesser adjutant stork showed a maximal mTT coincidently with fE2 with a surge in October. Thai sarus crane frequently displayed courtship in May-October, corresponding well with higher mTT rather than fE2 levels. Black-headed ibis showed courtship-copulation displays in January, simultaneously with mTT, but not with fE2 surge. Lesser adjutant stork often displayed courtship-copulation in October-January, seemingly corresponded with higher mTT and fE2 levels during October-December and October-November, respectively. Male and female lesser adjutant stork displayed egg-incubation and chick-rearing behaviors in November-January and December-June, respectively. We suggest that mTT and/or fE2 apparently played an important role in regulation of courtship-copulation displays but did not relate to both egg-incubation and chickrearing behaviors.

  11. Spirituality and Dignity of Thai Adolescents Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnsunaphat Balthip

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Adolescents are a key asset and resource for the social and economic development of any country, with the potential to make a significant contribution to their families, communities and countries. Healthy and educated adolescents are important. However, there are still significant rates of death, illness and disease among adolescents in some countries, where HIV is one of the most prevalent causes of death in this group. Adolescents living with HIV may experience and encounter social restrictions and physiological limitations. Therefore, this investigation explored whether the concepts of spirituality and dignity had any relevance to participants sense of meaning and purpose and whether these had any impact upon their health and well-being (2 Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used involving twenty-two adolescents living with HIV attending one regional hospital in Southern Thailand. One to one interviews and descriptive diaries were used to collect the data and thematic analysis enabled the identification of attributes of spirituality and dignity. (3 Results: The findings revealed that spirituality and dignity were present in the lives of Thai adolescents living with HIV expressed in the main category of living life responsibly. This comprised of six themes: (a Understanding the disease and accepting the truth about life, (b Maintaining hope for a cure, (c Focusing on life’s purposes, (d Making life choices, (e Caring for oneself and (f Responsibility towards other. (4 Conclusions: The findings provide helpful insights for parents, nurses, and other health professionals supporting adolescents living with HIV to obtain a holistic, dignified approach to care that includes attention to the spiritual dimension.

  12. Thai venous stroke prognostic score: TV-SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungvarin, Niphon; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Ratanakorn, Disya; Towanabut, Somchai; Tantirittisak, Tassanee; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Phanthumchinda, Kamman; Tiamkoa, Somsak; Chankrachang, Siwaporn; Nidhinandana, Samart; Laptikultham, Somsak; Limsoontarakul, Sansern; Udomphanthuruk, Suthipol

    2009-11-01

    Prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has never been studied in Thailand. A simple prognostic score to predict poor prognosis of CVST has also never been reported. The authors are aiming to establish a simple and reliable prognostic score for this condition. The medical records of CVST patients from eight neurological training centers in Thailand who received between April 1993 and September 2005 were reviewed as part of this retrospective study. Clinical features included headache, seizure, stroke risk factors, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood pressure on arrival, papilledema, hemiparesis, meningeal irritation sign, location of occluded venous sinuses, hemorrhagic infarction, cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure, treatment options, length of stay, and other complications were analyzed to determine the outcome using modified Rankin scale (mRS). Poor prognosis (defined as mRS of 3-6) was determined on the discharge date. One hundred ninety four patients' records, 127 females (65.5%) and mean age of 36.6 +/- 14.4 years, were analyzed Fifty-one patients (26.3%) were in the poor outcome group (mRS 3-6). Overall mortality was 8.4%. Univariate analysis and then multivariate analysis using SPSS version 11.5 revealed only four statistically significant predictors influencing outcome of CVST They were underlying malignancy, low GCS, presence of hemorrhagic infarction (for poor outcome), and involvement of lateral sinus (for good outcome). Thai venous stroke prognostic score (TV-SPSS) was derived from these four factors using a multiple logistic model. A simple and pragmatic prognostic score for CVST outcome has been developed with high sensitivity (93%), yet low specificity (33%). The next study should focus on the validation of this score in other prospective populations.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of a Cardanol from Thai Apis mellifera Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsai, Pattaraporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Chanchao, Chanpen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a sticky, dark brown resinous residue made by bees that is derived from plant resins. It is used to construct and repair the nest, and in addition possesses several diverse bioactivities. Here, propolis from Apis mellifera from Nan province, Thailand, was tested for antibacterial activity against Gram+ve (Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae) and Gram-ve (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Materials and methods: The three bacterial isolates were confirmed for species designation by Gram staining and analysis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Propolis was sequentially extracted by methanol, dichloromethane and hexane. The antibacterial activity was determined by agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assays using streptomycin as a positive control. The most active crude extract was further purified by quick column and adsorption chromatography. The apparent purity of each bioactive fraction was tested by thin layer chromatography. The chemical structure of the isolated bioactive compound was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results: Crude methanol extract of propolis showed the best antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 5 mg/mL for S. aureus and E. coli and 6.25 mg/mL for P. larvae. After quick column chromatography, only three active fractions were inhibitory to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 6.25 and 31.3 µg/mL, respectively. Further adsorption chromatography yielded one pure bioactive fraction (A1A) with an IC50 value of 0.175 µg/mL for E. coli and 0.683 µg/mL for P. larvae, and was determined to be cardanol by NMR analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed unusual shaped (especially in dividing cells), damaged and dead cells in cardanol-treated E. coli. Conclusion: Thai propolis contains a promising antibacterial agent. PMID:24578609

  14. Lingual frenulum and effect on breastfeeding in Thai newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngerncham, Sopapan; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wongvisutdhi, Thidaratana; Ritjaroen, Yupin; Painpichan, Nipa; Hakularb, Pussara; Gunnaleka, Panidaporn; Chaturapitphothong, Penpaween

    2013-05-01

    Breastfeeding has abundant biological and psychological benefits. Effective breastfeeding requires good latching on, which is possible when the infant is able to cup around the maternal areola with his tongue. One of the most common conditions resulting in poor latching on is tongue-tie. To determine the prevalence of tongue-tie with subsequent breastfeeding difficulties and other factors affecting the success of breastfeeding in newborn infants. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of healthy Thai infants without contraindications for breastfeeding. Physical examination of the infants and mothers and their breastfeeding practices were assessed between 24 and 48 hours of life. 2679 mother-infant dyads were recruited. The study detected a prevalence of 16% for severe tongue-tie, 37.9% of which was associated with breastfeeding difficulties. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, moderate (adjusted OR 13.3, 95% CI 7.2-24.5) and severe (adjusted OR 62, 95% CI 34.1-112.8) tongue-tie, short nipples (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), mothers feeling the infant's tongue on the nipple area (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2-5.2) and mothers' inability to feel the infant's tongue (adjusted OR 11.8, 95% CI 4.3-32.4) independently increased the risk of breastfeeding difficulties. Tongue-tie is not uncommon and is associated with breastfeeding difficulty in newborn infants. Mothers of infants with severe tongue-tie should be closely and individually coached during breastfeeding and followed up, especially during the first critical weeks of the infant's life.

  15. Changes in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Thai population, 2004-2009: Thai National Health Examination Survey III-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Sangthong, Rassamee; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sritara, Piyamitr; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2012-09-01

    To determine the changes in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and their metabolic risk factors in Thai population between 2004 and 2009. The Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) in 2004 and 2009 data were used. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were performed. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension of Thai population aged at least 15 years were calculated. Analyses were weighted to the probability of sampling. The prevalence of hypertension in 2004 and 2009 were relatively stable at approximately 21.0%. There was improvement in awareness of hypertension, from 18.2% for men and 33.0% for women in 2004 to 39.5 and 59.4% in 2009, respectively. The high blood pressure control rates improved from 4.8 to 14.4% for men and from 10.8 to 27.2% for women, respectively (all P < 0.05). The improvement in awareness, treatment and control of hypertension was also observed in individuals with diabetes, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. However, among hypertensive individuals, there were increases in proportions of obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) between two surveys: from 39.1 to 47.5% in men and from 54.6 to 62.9% in women, respectively (all P < 0.05). Despite improvement in awareness and control of hypertension in Thai population, a large proportion of hypertensive individuals remained suboptimally controlled. Strengthening measures to control high blood pressure and metabolic risk factors, especially obesity and hypercholesterolemia, in individuals with hypertension are needed.

  16. Estimating Price Effects in an Almost Ideal Demand Model of Outbound Thai Tourism to East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T. Khamkaew (Tanchanok); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the responsiveness of Thai outbound tourism to East Asian destinations, namely China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and Korea, to changes in effective relative price of tourism, total real total tourism expenditure, and one-off events. The nonlinear and linear Almost Ideal

  17. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei sepsis in a HIV-positive Thai woman in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Højlyng, Niels; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection, in a 32-y-old HIV positive Thai woman, in Denmark. Untreated it is a life-threatening infection. Therefore it is extremely important to consider P. marneffei in patients who are immunocompromized and who have been travelling...

  18. Thai EFL Students' Writing Errors in Different Text Types: The Interference of the First Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharapunyawong, Somchai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing writing errors caused by the interference of the Thai language, regarded as the first language (L1), in three writing genres, namely narration, description, and comparison/contrast. 120 English paragraphs written by 40 second year English major students were analyzed by using Error Analysis (EA).The results revealed…

  19. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthanaracht, Natsalil; Yanarojana, Somchai; Pinthong, Darawan; Unchern, Supeenun; Thithapandha, Amnuay; Assantachai, Prasert; Supavilai, Porntip

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K) and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai community-dwelling patients. One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman's method. The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12%) was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%), suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity. Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.

  20. CORI: Explicit Reading Instruction to Enhance Informational Text Comprehension and Reading Engagement for Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongkrachang, Salila; Chinwonno, Apasara

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effect of explicit reading instruction as an approach to Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework on EFL students' informational text comprehension and engagement. The explicit reading instruction was implemented with 39 first-year Thai undergraduate students over a 10-week period. It was found that the…

  1. Thai Grade 11 Students' Alternative Conceptions for Acid-Base Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artdej, Romklao; Ratanaroutai, Thasaneeya; Coll, Richard Kevin; Thongpanchang, Tienthong

    2010-01-01

    This study involved the development of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess Thai high school students' understanding of acid-base chemistry. The acid-base diagnostic test (ABDT) comprising 18 items was administered to 55 Grade 11 students in a science and mathematics programme during the second semester of the 2008 academic year. Analysis of…

  2. Survey of health status and physical fitness in Royal Thai Naval Aircraft Carrier personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supanitayanon, Thanawat; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Canals, ML

    2011-01-01

    Background: In naval personnel, health status and physical fitness may be affected by work in confined spaces, stressful events, mission fulfillment, and long periods of time away from home on board ship. The aircraft carrier "H.T.M.S. Chakrinaruebet" is the flagship of the Royal Thai Navy, suppo...

  3. Numerical analysis of Thai members of the Eugenia-Syzygium group (Myrtaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parnell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different analyses of Thai Syzygium show, with very small discrepancies, that one smaller monophyletic and one larger polyphyletic group can be recognised. The smaller monophyletic group warrants sectional rank as Syzygium section Jambosa and consists of S. anacardiifolium, S. aqueum, S.

  4. Effect of daily egg ingestion with thai food on serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putadechakum, Supanee; Phanachet, Pariya; Pakpeankitwattana, Varapat; Klangjareonchai, Theerawut; Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn

    2013-01-01

    Thai food is one of the healthiest foods. In fact, several Thai dishes, such as Tom Yum soup, are currently under scientific study for their incredible health benefits. Limited data are available on the effects of egg consumption with Thai food in hyperlipidemic patients. To assess the effects of daily egg consumption with Thai food, which is known as low fat diet, on serum lipids profiles in hyperlipidemic subjects without medication treatment, the randomized crossover trial of 71 hyperlipidemic adults (8 men, 63 women) were randomly to one of the two sequences of one and three eggs/day for 4 weeks. Each treatment was separated by a four-week washout period (egg-free). Our data indicated that one or three eggs/day consumption were significantly increases total serum cholesterol (221.54 ± 42.54 and 225.31 ± 45.06 versus 211.57 ± 39.98 mg/dL) and LDL-C levels (141.38 ± 38.23 and 145.48 ± 39.33 versus 133.44 ± 34.52 mg/dL) as compared to egg-free period. No significant change of serum TG, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C levels was observed after 1 or 3 eggs consumption daily in this study.

  5. Professor John Rohr to travel to Thailand to continue Thai government analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2006-01-01

    In June, John A. Rohr, a professor in the Center for Public Administration and Policy, in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies' School of Public and International Affairs, will travel to Thailand for the third time to continue his analysis of the Thai government under its fledgling constitution.

  6. Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools Located along the Thai-Cambodian Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitratporn, Poonsook; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools located along the Thai-Cambodian borders. The study intended to measure the relationship between the two underlying variables quality of work life and organizational climate. Simple random sample of 384 respondents were administrators and teachers…

  7. Orthographic and Phonological Parafoveal Processing of Consonants, Vowels, and Tones when Reading Thai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Four eye movement experiments investigated whether readers use parafoveal input to gain information about the phonological or orthographic forms of consonants, vowels, and tones in word recognition when reading Thai silently. Target words were presented in sentences preceded by parafoveal previews in which consonant, vowel, or tone information was…

  8. Healthy life expectancy of Thai elderly: did it improve during the soap-bubble economic period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitapunkul, S; Chayovan, N

    2000-08-01

    Healthy life expectancy (HLE) of Thai elderly was studied to clarify the health benefit for the elderly population in Thailand during the soap-bubble economic period by comparing their HLE and life expectancy (LE) in 1986 and 1995. The information on the perceived health status of Thai elderly, aged 60 and over, from two national surveys in 1986 and 1995 and the life tables of correspondent years were used for calculating healthy life expectancy. Both life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) of Thai elderly have markedly increased between 1986 and 1995. Regardless of sex, the HLE-LE ratios of nearly all age groups increased from 1986 to 1995. This suggests that the unhealthy life duration had been compressed. Women spend more years than men both active and inactive at every age; however, the proportion of life that is expected to be active is less for women. In conclusion, health and well-being of Thai elderly population significantly improved during the soap-bubble economic period (1989-1996) of Thailand.

  9. The Prevalence and Related Factors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Used in Thai Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songtish, Dolrudee; Akranurakkul, Prinya; Chaiaroon, Wanna

    2015-11-01

    This study's aim is to identify the prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used among Thai breast cancer patients and investigate the factors influencing the use of CAM by these patients. We interviewed 220 Thai breast cancer patients who visited the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center and the Maha Vajiralongkorn Cancer Center during the period from October 2008 to September 2010 and collected data about their socio-economic status, history of cancer treatments and complications, the cancer staging, their Quality of life (QoL) and types and reasons of CAM used. The prevalence of CAM usage in Thai breast cancer patients was 560 in every 1,000 patients. Factors which influenced CAM usage were; the patients' educational level, amount of income per month, the duration of the individuals' breast cancer diagnoses, menopausal status, the type of axillary surgery used in the course of their treatment, the incidences of systemic recurrence and physical components as measured by the SF-36. The results have shown that most Thai breast cancer patients used CAM for the treatment of their breast cancer and had used CAM after being diagnosed with breast cancer Healthcare providers should recognize and provide pros and cons to patients and their family if CAM were used during breast cancer treatment.

  10. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Marginalized Population on the Thai-Myanmar Border : A study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielemans, Laurence; Trip-Hoving, Margreet; Bancone, Germana; Turner, Claudia; Simpson, Julie A.; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Rheenen, Patrick; Paw, Moo Kho; Nosten, Francois; McGready, Rose; Carrara, Verena I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aims to identify risk factors and the neurodevelopmental impact of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a limited-resource setting among a refugee and migrant population residing along the Thai-Myanmar border, an area with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate

  11. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Marginalized Population on the Thai-Myanmar Border: a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielemans, Laurence; Trip-Hoving, Margreet; Bancone, Germana; Turner, Claudia; Simpson, Julie A.; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; van Hensbroek, Michaël Boele; van Rheenen, Patrick; Paw, Moo Kho; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose; Carrara, Verena I.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify risk factors and the neurodevelopmental impact of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a limited-resource setting among a refugee and migrant population residing along the Thai-Myanmar border, an area with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficiency. This

  12. Sustainability and Productivity Indicators with Sensitivity Truth Table for Unskilled Thai Labour Reverse Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaingvait, Poj; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Sureephong, Paradorn; Nimmonrat, Acrapol

    2014-01-01

    Thailand, a developing country, had labours migrating from the agriculture into the industrial due to higher pay in the past. However the economic force has made the government policy to focus on creativity and developing technology towards automatic production. Unskilled Thai labours are facing a big challenge after retirement, which is called…

  13. The Benefits of the Proprioceptive Method Used in Learning English via Facebook by Thai Government Officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar, Payung; Singhara, Itdharom Mitsuvan

    2017-01-01

    Good listening and pronunciation skills lead to successes in foreign language learning. The main purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of adopting the Proprioceptive Method in learning English by Thai local government officials with the help of Facebook. A seventeen-day training course was implemented, comprising two days of…

  14. Discovery of Predicate-Oriented Relations among Named Entities Extracted from Thai Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtep, Nattapong; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    Extracting named entities (NEs) and their relations is more difficult in Thai than in other languages due to several Thai specific characteristics, including no explicit boundaries for words, phrases and sentences; few case markers and modifier clues; high ambiguity in compound words and serial verbs; and flexible word orders. Unlike most previous works which focused on NE relations of specific actions, such as work_for, live_in, located_in, and kill, this paper proposes more general types of NE relations, called predicate-oriented relation (PoR), where an extracted action part (verb) is used as a core component to associate related named entities extracted from Thai Texts. Lacking a practical parser for the Thai language, we present three types of surface features, i.e. punctuation marks (such as token spaces), entity types and the number of entities and then apply five alternative commonly used learning schemes to investigate their performance on predicate-oriented relation extraction. The experimental results show that our approach achieves the F-measure of 97.76%, 99.19%, 95.00% and 93.50% on four different types of predicate-oriented relation (action-location, location-action, action-person and person-action) in crime-related news documents using a data set of 1,736 entity pairs. The effects of NE extraction techniques, feature sets and class unbalance on the performance of relation extraction are explored.

  15. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  16. Perception and multimeaning analysis of graphic symbols for Thai picture-based communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompoobutr, Sarinya; Potibal, Puttachart; Boriboon, Monthika; Phantachat, Wantanee

    2013-03-01

    Graphic symbols are a vital part of most augmentative and alternative communication systems. Communication fluency of graphic symbol user depends on how well the relationship between symbols and its referents are learnt. The first aim of this study is to survey the perception of the selected graphic symbols across seven age groups of participants with different educational background. Sixty-five individuals identified themselves as Thai and ranged in age from 10 to 50 years participated in the investigation used 64 graphic symbols. The last aim of this study is to demonstrate the analysis of multimeaning graphic symbols, which will be used in Thai Picture-based communication system. The twenty graphic symbols with 9-14 meanings are analyzed in both syntactic and semantic aspects. The meanings are divided into five categories: noun, verb/adjective, size, color and shape. Respect to the first aim, the results suggest that the participants under investigation with different sexes, age groups, as well as various educational levels perceive the features or inherent characteristics of such graphic symbols similarly. The results of the analysis of multimeaning of graphic symbols indicate that the foundation of Minspeak, polysemy and redundancy of the words illustrates the inherit meanings of the real-life objects, and it also conveys that the Thai graphic symbols are influenced by numerous factors in Thai circumstance such as ability, motivation, experience, worldview and culture.

  17. Low dose lopinavir/ritonavir tablet achieves adequate pharmacokinetic parameters in HIV-infected Thai adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinklom, A.; Puthanakit, T.; Gorowara, M.; Phasomsap, C.; Kerr, S.; Sriheara, C.; Ananworanich, J.; Burger, D.M.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Pancharoen, C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an effective and commonly used protease inhibitor in HIV-infected adolescents. Previous data showed high plasma concentrations of LPV in Thai patients. This study determined the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of a low-dose LPV/r tablet (70% of standard

  18. Forensic Applicability of Femur Subtrochanteric Shape to Ancestry Assessment in Thai and White American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Sean D; Winburn, Allysha P

    2015-09-01

    Ancestry assessment from the postcranial skeleton presents a significant challenge to forensic anthropologists. However, metric dimensions of the femur subtrochanteric region are believed to distinguish between individuals of Asian and non-Asian descent. This study tests the discriminatory power of subtrochanteric shape using modern samples of 128 Thai and 77 White American males. Results indicate that the samples' platymeric index distributions are significantly different (p≤0.001), with the Thai platymeric index range generally lower and the White American range generally higher. While the application of ancestry assessment methods developed from Native American subtrochanteric data results in low correct classification rates for the Thai sample (50.8-57.8%), adapting these methods to the current samples leads to better classification. The Thai data may be more useful in forensic analysis than previously published subtrochanteric data derived from Native American samples. Adapting methods to include appropriate geographic and contemporaneous populations increases the accuracy of femur subtrochanteric ancestry methods. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. An Exploratory Study of Thai University Students' Understanding of World Englishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengboon, Saksit

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the perceptions of Thai university students towards World Englishes (WEs). One hundred and ninety-eight students from three universities in Bangkok were administered a questionnaire inquiring about definitions of WEs, the Kachruvian concentric circles, the concepts of standard and ownership of English, Thai…

  20. Relationships between Psychological Wellbeing of Thai College Students, Goal Orientations, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J.; Chun, Jae Uk; Koul, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined the direct and interaction effects of students' learning and performance-avoidance goal orientations on their psychological wellbeing and a moderating role of students' gender in these relationships. Using 564 self-reports of freshman college students in a Thai university, we found students' psychological wellbeing to be…

  1. Participant- and Discourse-Related Code-Switching by Thai-English Bilingual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanseawrassamee, Supamit; Shin, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to show ways in which two Thai brothers (aged 9 and 13) living temporarily in the United States, employ bilingual code-switching to organize their conversation. Using the sequential analysis developed by Auer (1984, 1995), this paper describes how the two boys employ code-switching to negotiate the language for the interaction…

  2. Magnetism Teaching Sequences Based on an Inductive Approach for First-Year Thai University Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Cowie, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the impact on student motivation and understanding of magnetism of teaching sequences based on an inductive approach. The study was conducted in large lecture classes. A pre- and post-Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism was conducted with just fewer than 700 Thai undergraduate science students, before and after…

  3. The effect of increasing sediment accretion on the seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.; Vermaat, J.E.; Terrados, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Three to four-month-old seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species (Avicennia officinalis L., Rhizophora mucronata Lamk and Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler) were experimentally buried using six sediment accretion levels (0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 cm) in a randomized block design. Avicennia was

  4. Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe…

  5. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised for Thai College Students and Asian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsameemonthon, L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The four dimensions (2x2) of achievement goal are the latest versión of achievement goal questionnaire to explain reasons or purposes of individuals pursuing their goal. In Thailand the 2x2 framework of achievement goal questionnaire to examine a student's achievement goal in the Thai Language version may not have been sufficiently…

  6. Acute changes in biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation after Thai traditional massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetung, Sunee; Chailurkit, La-or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

    2010-07-01

    Mechanical loadings by active exercise or passive low amplitude vibration have been demonstrated to enhance bone mass or delay bone loss. Traditional Thai massage can be anabolic to bone due to the application of physical loading on the body in a rhythmic fashion. To explore the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover immediately after the massage. Subjects consisted of 30 healthy females aged 20-40 years. Each subject received Thai traditional massage for 2 hours by a single masseuse. Bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx-I) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. There was a 4.8% increase in serum P1NP concentrations after massage (median 43.4 ng/ml vs. 41.3 ng/ml, p massage (median 2-hour vs. baseline 0.29 ng/ml vs. 0.31 ng/ml, p traditional massage induces acute changes in bone formation and resorption markers. Study on the more prolonged effects of Thai traditional massage is warranted to explore its implication in the enhancement of bone health.

  7. Orofacial pain and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in Finnish and Thai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Kirsi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Mitrirattanakul, Somsak; Sitthisomwong, Panupen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lahti, Satu

    2015-07-01

    Cultural or ethnic factors may play an important role in subjects' pain reports. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms between Finnish and Thai populations. The Finnish study population comprised the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 5696 subjects participated in the present study. The Thai sample consisted of 1501 randomly selected people living in 10 different districts in Bangkok. Data on orofacial pain was collected based on questionnaires. After adjusting for age, gender and education, the logistic regression analysis showed that Thai subjects had an increased risk for reporting oral pain (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.7-5.4), tooth pain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) and pain in the face (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7). It can be concluded that Thai people report more orofacial pain symptoms than Finnish subjects. Cross-cultural factors exist in the background of reporting pain symptoms in the oral and facial area.

  8. Household ecology and out-migration among ethnic Karen along the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local migration in developing-world settings, particularly among rural populations, is an important yet understudied demographic process. Research on migration in such populations can help us test and inform anthropological and demographic theory. Furthermore, it can lead to a better understanding of modern population distributions and epidemiologic landscapes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationships between household- and individual-level factors on out-migration among Karen villagers along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods: We used a random effects hazard model to investigate the relationship of household consumer-producer (C/P ratios, the number of household members, and an individual's sex on the odds of outmigration. We then used simulations in order to test the sensitivity of our model to our C/P ratio weighting scheme. Results: We found that the number of household members is predictive of increased out-migration. Household C/P ratios were positively associated with out-migration in children but negatively associated with out-migration in working age adults. Finally, adult males were much more likely to move out of the household than were adult females. Conclusions: While household-level factors are important with regard to out-migration, the relationships between such household-level factors and out-migration are complex and vary by the individual's age and sex. Our study offers two novel concepts to household demography and migration studies. First, this study offers a new approach to evaluating weighting schemes for C/P ratios. Second, we show that household level factors are important at units of time (two-week intervals that are not normally studied by demographers.

  9. Rehabilitation of stroke patients using traditional Thai massage, herbal treatments and physical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbritt, David; van der Riet, Pamela; Dedkhard, Saowapa; Srithong, Kannapatch

    2012-07-01

    To determine quantitatively if a unique rehabilitation program using traditional Thai massage, herbal treatments and physical therapies could improve activities of daily living, mood and sleep patterns, and pain intensity of stroke patients over time. This was a prospective cohort study, conducted over a three-month period. Patients were recruited from a 42-bed rehabilitation centre in Northern Thailand, which admits mainly stroke, head injury and spinal patients for rehabilitation. There were 62 patients enrolled in the study, with 55% being male. The average age of patients was 59 years and 63% were married. The average time since the initial stroke was 15 months. At baseline, the average Barthel Index score was 50.7, and the average emotion, pain and sleep scores were 2.6, 3.1, and 3.2, respectively. After adjusting for age, gender and time since initial stroke in the longitudinal model, the Barthel Index significantly improved by 6.1 points after one month (P<0.01) and by 14.2 points after three months (P<0.01); emotion significantly improved by 0.7 points after one month (P<0.01) and by 0.9 points after three months (P<0.01); pain significantly improved by 0.5 points after one month (P<0.01) and by 0.5 points after three months (P<0.01); sleep significantly improved by 0.5 points after one month (P<0.01) and by 0.6 points after three months (P<0.01). This unique stroke rehabilitation program has produced significant improvements in activities of daily living, mood, pain and sleep patterns of stroke patients. These findings warrant the need for further research to compare patients undergoing this program of rehabilitation with patients undergoing more conventional rehabilitation programs.

  10. New equations for age estimation using four permanent mandibular teeth in Thai children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangto, P; Janhom, A; Prasitwattanaseree, S; Iamaroon, A

    2018-03-03

    The purposes of this study were to generate new age estimation equations using two four-teeth methods and to test the accuracy of the resulting equations in comparison with Demirjian and Goldstein four-teeth methods in a Thai population. A sample of 720 digital panoramic radiographs of Thai individuals (360 males and 360 females), aged between 7 and 15 years was randomly selected and assessed for age estimation. The new equations were developed using quadratic regression analysis. The results showed the Thai population-specific equations had a strong relationship between the dental maturity score and the chronological age in both sexes (r = 0.946-0.956). The new equations revealed no statistically significant differences between the estimated and the chronological ages in either sex. On the other hand, Demirjian and Goldstein four-teeth methods showed statistically significant differences between the estimated and the chronological ages in both sexes. Moreover, we found slight differences in the mean absolute error between Demirjian and Goldstein methods and our new equations (0.01 years for males and 0.03 years for females in method I and 0.04 years for males and 0.02 years for females in method II) and the root mean square error between Demirjian and Goldstein methods and our new equations (0.02 years for males and 0.04 years for females in method I and 0.00 years for males and 0.04 years for females in method II). In summary, although Thai population-specific equations provide a slightly increased accuracy in age estimation in Thai children and adolescents, Demirjian and Goldstein methods are still relevant.

  11. Characters of physician and nurse staffing in Thai intensive care units (ICU-Resource I study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun; Thongchai, Chaweewan

    2014-01-01

    There have been no data available on physicians and nurses who are vital human resources in Thailand. The objective of this study is to describe these characteristics as well as their working patterns in Thai ICUs. Data were retrieved from the ICU RESOURCE I study. Physician and nurse characteristics, working patterns and workloads in participating ICUs were recorded. After hour consultations, nurse staff years of experience, nurse specialist training and patient to bedside nurse ratios (PNR) were collected. One hundred and fifty-five hospitals are included in this study. Intensivists are available in 53 hospitals with a median of 0-1 intensivist per unit. Most intensivists are working in academic ICUs. The two specialties most involved in surgical ICUs were in critical care (34.1%) and surgical recovery (47.7%). Almost all pediatric ICUs were covered by pediatricians and only a quarter of them had been staffed with critical care pediatricians (28.6%). Less than 30 percent of Thai ICUs are covered by intensivists. About 42.3% of Thai ICUs have no night shift physician and the units contact the attending physicians directly. Experienced (more than 5 years) nurses staffing ICUs are at 62.5 percent. A total of 85.2% of the ICUs have certificated critical care nurses. Only 23.2% of all ICUs have an advance practice nurse (APN). The median PNR was 2.1 with an exception in academic ICUs. Intensivists continue to be only scarcely available in Thai ICUs. Nurse workloads in non-academic ICUs were higher than those in academic ICUs. Specialty training for certified critical care nurses is in place for only one-third of the total number of ICU nurses. APNs are available in 25% of participating ICUs (Thai Clinical Trial Registry: TCTR201200005).

  12. Physiological responses and energy cost during a simulation of a Muay Thai boxing match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Vitelli, Stefano; Cappai, Ivo; Milia, Raffaele; Tocco, Filippo; Melis, Franco; Concu, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Muay Thai is a martial art that requires complex skills and tactical excellence for success. However, the energy demand during a Muay Thai competition has never been studied. This study was devised to obtain an understanding of the physiological capacities underlying Muay Thai performance. To that end, the aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of anaerobic metabolism were assessed in 10 male athletes during a simulation match of Muay Thai. Subjects were studied while wearing a portable gas analyzer, which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and heart rate (HR). The excess of CO2 production (CO2 excess) was also measured to obtain an index of anaerobic glycolysis. During the match, group energy expenditure was, on average (mean +/- standard error of the mean), 10.75 +/- 1.58 kcal.min-1, corresponding to 9.39 +/- 1.38 metabolic equivalents. Oxygen uptake and HRs were always above the level of the anaerobic threshold assessed in a preliminary incremental test. CO2 excess showed an abrupt increase in the first round, and reached a value of 636 +/- 66.5 mL.min-1. This parameter then gradually decreased throughout the simulation match. These data suggest that Muay Thai is a physically demanding activity with great involvement of both the aerobic metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis. In particular, it appears that, after an initial burst of anaerobic glycolysis, there was a progressive increase in the aerobic energy supply. Thus, training protocols should include exercises that train both aerobic and anaerobic energetic pathways.

  13. Tuberculosis treatment in a refugee and migrant population: 20 years of experience on the Thai-Burmese border

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minetti, A; Camelique, O; Hsa Thaw, K; Thi, S; Swaddiwudhipong, W; Hewison, C; Pinoges, L; Bonnet, M; Guerin, P J

    2010-01-01

    .... To describe results and experiences over 20 years at a TB programme in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border in Tak Province, Thailand, and to identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes (e.g...

  14. The effectiveness of Swedish massage and traditional Thai massage in treating chronic low back pain: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netchanok, Sritoomma; Wendy, Moyle; Marie, Cooke; Siobhan, O'Dwyer

    2012-11-01

    To review the effectiveness of Swedish and traditional Thai massage in treating chronic low back pain. Thai and Swedish massage both appear to relieve lower back pain but their relative effectiveness has not been clearly established. A literature review of nine databases were searched and 13 papers found. Six papers meet the inclusion criteria and were summarised and reviewed. Both Thai and Swedish massages are reported to relieve chronic low back pain by enhancing physical functions; providing pain relief, improving disability and range of motion, improving psychological functions; reducing anxiety and improving mood. Although based on different theoretical frameworks, they appear to be equally effective in relieving chronic low back pain. Despite some evidence for the use of massage to relieve low back pain, methodological limitations highlight the need for further studies that compare Thai massage and Swedish massage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Development of Qualitative Classroom Action Research Workshop for In-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2016-01-01

    In-service science teachers in Thailand are mandated to conduct classroom research, which can be quantitative and qualitative research, to improve teaching and learning. Comparing to quantitative research, qualitative research is a research approach that most of the Thai science teachers are not familiar with. This situation impedes science…

  16. Polymorphism patterns in Duffy-binding protein among Thai Plasmodium vivax isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaecher Kurt E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Duffy-binding protein II of Plasmodium vivax (PvDBPII has been considered as an attractive target for vaccine-mediated immunity despite a possible highly polymorphic nature. Among seven PvDBP domains, domain II has been shown to exhibit a high rate of nonsynonymous polymorphism, which has been suggested to be a potential immune (antibody binding evasion mechanism. This study aimed to determine the extent of genetic polymorphisms and positive natural selection at domain II of the PvDBP gene among a sampling of Thai P. vivax isolates. Methods The PvDBPII gene was PCR amplified and the patterns of polymorphisms were characterized from 30 Thai P. vivax isolates using DNA cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences and positive selection were done using DnaSP ver 4.0 and MEGA ver 4.0 packages. Results This study demonstrated a high rate of nonsynonymous polymorphism. Using Sal I as the reference strain, a total of 30 point-mutations were observed in the PvDBPII gene among the set of Thai P. vivax isolates, of which 25 nonsynonymous and five synonymous were found. The highest frequency of polymorphism was found in five variant amino acids (residues D384G, R390H, L424I, W437R, I503K with the variant L424I having the highest frequency. The difference between the rates of nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations estimated by the Nei and Gojobori's method suggested that PvDBPII antigen appears to be under selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis of PvDBPII Thai P. vivax isolates to others found internationally demonstrated six distinct allele groups. Allele groups 4 and 6 were unique to Thailand. Conclusion Polymorphisms within PvDBPII indicated that Thai vivax malaria parasites are genetically diverse. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences using the Neighbour-Joining method demonstrated that Thai isolates shared distinct alleles with P. vivax isolates from different geographical areas. The study reported here

  17. Cross Cultural Logistics and Supply Chain Management Towards Organizational Effectiveness within the Asean/Thai Automotive Industries: A Sem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansomboon Suwaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a manufacturing, logistics and supply chain hub within ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Thailand holds the 12th spot in global vehicle production for an estimated 2,355 Thai and multinational automotive industry enterprises. Within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Thailand ranks number one in automotive production contributing $US11.4 billion to the Thai economy and 12 percent to Thailand’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product, with the automotive industry being Thailand’s leading export sector. However, the automotive companies envisage the difficulty of cultural diversity to manage and coordinate. Therefore, cultural values from the milieu are inducted into the workplace and have a strong impact on both individual behavior and organizational effectiveness and must be direction at all levels for cross-cultural, organizational effectiveness to be achieved. It also became evident that natural disasters are frequent and highly disruptive to the global automotive supply chain and paces must be taken to countervailing the notable and continuing loss to economic growth and organizational effectiveness to both sector units and the global industry. The implementation of strategically placed, environmentally ‘habituated’, automotive parts logistics cache might be one solution to the problem. Given the crucial importance of this sector to the economy of the region and the global supply chain, the researchers surveyed 220 managers using a 7-point Likert scale questionnaire within the multinational industrial clusters of Thailand’s ‘Detroit of Asia’ Eastern Seaboard region. Using Structural Equation Modelling to test the 11 variables on Logistics Management, Supply Chain Management and Organizational Effectiveness in a cross-cultural context, it was determined that collaboration within the supply chain and the exchange of information can reduce uncertainty, with trust being a key ingredient to a JV’s success

  18. Stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV among general adult Thai population: Results from the 5th Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2017-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination is a significant driver of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. UNAIDS encourages all nations to monitor progress toward elimination of this problem. This study measured the level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLHIV) among Thai adults in the general population using recommended global tools. Data from the 5th National Health Examination Survey, conducted in 2014 were used. The survey utilized six questions recommended by the Global Stigma and Discrimination Indicator Working Group and was administered to participants aged 20-59 years old. All analyses were weighted to take into account of the probability of sampling the same-age Thai population. Factors related to a discriminatory attitude according to UNAIDS, defined as agreed to at least one of the two discriminatory issues, were evaluated using Chi square tested and multivariable logistic regression. Of the 10,522 respondents, the most prevalent stigmatizing attitude was anticipated stigma (76.9%), followed by perceived stigma (69.2%), fear of HIV infection (57.0%), and social judgment (38.2%). Fifty-eight point six percent had discriminatory attitudes according to the UNAIDS global indicator. Independent predictors were being female (AOR = 1.21: 95% CI 1.14-1.29), aged 20-39 (AOR = 1.19: 95% CI 1.09-1.30) or 50-59 (AOR = 1.18: 95%CI 1.12-1.26), being Muslim (AOR = 2.03: 95%CI 1.55-2.66), earning < 10,000 Baht/month (AOR = 0.93: 95%CI 0.88-0.99), and living in the Northeast (AOR = 1.67: 95%CI 1.39-2.00) or in Bangkok (AOR = 1.73: 95%CI 1.45-2.07). More than half of the general adult Thai population had stigmatizing attitudes toward PLHIV. The study provided valuable baseline information which could be used as comparison for follow-up surveys with other countries. Interventions to improve Thai society's knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS are urgently needed.

  19. Effect of an Empowerment Intervention on Antiretroviral Drug Adherence in Thai Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihin, Ratchaneekorn; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Chitreechuer, Jittaporn; Grimes, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to determine effects of an empowerment intervention on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among Thai youth living with HIV/AIDS. It compared two groups of 23 young persons (15-24 years) who receive ART from AIDS clinics at two community hospitals. One hospital's patients served as the experimental group, and the other as a control group. The experimental groups attended five sessions that empowered them to take control of their own health. The control group received the standard of care. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square statistics. Before the empowerment, no one from the experimental group or the control group had ART adherence ≥ 95%. After the intervention, the 82.6% of the experimental group had ≥ 95% adherence compared to the control group, which had 21.7% adherence (p ART adherence among Thai youth.

  20. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee; Mangmool, Supachoke

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla , Averrhoa bilimbi , Malpighia glabra , Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape , Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  1. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  2. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti−Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimolpan Pithayanukul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’ (Anacardiaceae and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose exhibited potent and dose−dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs. The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc−binding motif and could chelate the Zn2+ atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis.

  3. Preliminary results of consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident using Thai meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.

    2017-06-01

    Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.

  4. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  5. Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-08-27

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis.

  6. DVI System International: software assisting in the Thai tsunami victim identification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen Torpet, L

    2005-06-01

    DVI System International is software that operates on the PC-Windows platform. It is capable of managing aspects of identification in day-to-day cases and major disasters, where it has particular advantages when victims of several nationalities are involved. The system uses Interpol forms as standard protocols for input and transfer of antemortem and postmortem information. Following the Thai Tsunami Disaster of 26 December 2004, Interpol recommended that its member country Thailand use DVI System International software, as it is one of the few internationally approved systems. This paper focuses on the concepts upon which the dental forms, F1 and F2, of the DVI System International are designed, describes how it works and some of the adjustments implemented during the ongoing Thai Tsunami Victim Identification process.

  7. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  8. Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men‟s Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bumrungkitjareon, Tipaporn; Tanasansopin, Suveera

    2011-01-01

    Title: Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men's Skin Care Products Problem: Men concern more about their image than ever before. This behavior is becoming a new trend in cosmetic market. Moreover, Thailand is one of the fast growing cosmetics industry, particularly male skin care market within countries in Asia-Pacific region. However, most of the literatures have just studied on women cosmetic products. There are a few studies within male cosmetic market, despite the demands of...

  9. Physicochemical properties and biological activities of Thai plant mucilages for artificial saliva preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Pattamapun, Kassara; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Kietthanakorn, Bang-on; Issarangporn, Witchapong; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-01-01

    Plant mucilages can be found in various parts of several Thai plants, which can be used as thickening, moisturizing, and lubricating agents in artificial saliva formulations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties, biological activity, and cytotoxicity of Thai plant mucilages. The mucilages from Thai plants were extracted by various processes (temperature and pH variation, microwave oven, steam, and Tris-HCl buffer extraction). The viscosity and the rheology were evaluated using viscometer. Antioxidative activities including DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating activities were investigated. The mucilages were determined for cytotoxicity on normal human gingival fibroblasts and anti-adherent activity of Streptococcus mutans. Mucilages from Ocimum citriodorum Vis. (Lamiaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench. (Malvaceae), and Basella alba Linn. (Basellaceae) exhibited pseudoplastic non-Newtonian rheology. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging and metal-chelating activities were observed in the mucilages from B. alba (microwave, 3 min) and A. esculentus (microwave, 1 min) with the SC50 and MC50 values (50% of scavenging activity and 50% of metal chelating activity, respectively) of 0.71 ± 0.32 and 1.11 ± 0.52 mg/ml, respectively. Most mucilages exhibited no cytotoxicity to normal human gingival fibroblasts. The mucilage from A. esculentus (microwave, 5 min) gave the shortest wetting time of 2.75 ± 0.51 min. The highest S. mutans adhesion inhibition was observed in A. esculentus (pH 11) of 5.39 ± 9.70%. This study has indicated the suitable physicochemical and biological properties and the potential application of mucilages from Thai plants for artificial saliva preparation.

  10. A novel PCCB mutation in a Thai patient with propionic acidemia identified by exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2015-01-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an inborn error of metabolism, caused by mutations in either the PCCA or PCCB gene, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of propionyl-CoA and its by-products. Here we report a 6-year-old Thai boy with PA who was born to consanguineous parents. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous frameshift insertion (c.379_380insA; p.T127NfsX160) in the PCCB gene, expanding its mutational spectrum.

  11. The impact of finance on the performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Amornkitvikai, Yot; Charles HARVIE

    2016-01-01

    This study sheds light on small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) financing and its performance in Thailand. It elaborates on the key sources of finance existing for Thai manufacturing SMEs and their importance for SME performance as measured by technical efficiency, export performance, and technological innovation. This study also examines the key factors enhancing SME access to external finance. Our results confirm that retained earnings are crucial to increase SME technical efficiency, but...

  12. Improvement of early cell adhesion on Thai silk fibroin surface by low energy plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Mongkolnavin, Rattachat; Kanokpanont, Sorada; Panpranot, Joongjai; Wong, Chiow San; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn

    2013-11-01

    Low energy plasma has been introduced to treat the surface of Thai silk fibroin which should be enhanced for cell adhesion due to its native hydrophobic surface. Plasma surface treatment could introduce desirable hydrophilic functionalities on the surface without using any chemicals. In this work, nitrogen glow discharge plasma was generated by a low energy AC50Hz power supply system. The plasma operating conditions were optimized to reach the highest nitrogen active species by using optical emission spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that amine, hydroxyl, ether, and carboxyl groups were induced on Thai silk fibroin surface after plasma treatment. The results on Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma treated effects were only on the outermost layer since there was no change in the bulk chemistry. The surface topography was insignificantly changed from the detection with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The plasma-treated effects were the improved surface wettability and cell adhesion. After a 90-s treatment, the water contact angle was at 20°, while the untreated surface was at 70°. The early cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblast was accelerated. L929 cells only took 3h to reach 100% cell adhesion on 90 s N2 plasma-treated surface, while there was less than 50% cell adhesion on the untreated Thai silk fibroin surface after 6h of culture. The cell adhesion results were in agreement with the cytoskeleton development. L929 F-actin was more evident on 90 s N2 plasma-treated surface than others. It could be concluded that a lower energy AC50Hz plasma system enhanced early L929 mouse fibroblast adhesion on Thai silk fibroin surface without any significant change in surface topography and bulk chemistry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Facebook Addiction and Its Relationship with Mental Health among Thai High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanprathet, Nitt; Manwong, Mereerat; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Phanasathit, Muthita

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between Facebook addiction and mental health among high school students. This cross-sectional analytic study was performed among 972 high school students from four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, ChiangMai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. Facebook addiction was assessed using the Thai version of the Bergen-Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS), while a Thai version ofthe General Health Questionnaire (Thai GHQ-28) was used for mental health evaluation. The relationship between Facebook addiction and mental health was analyzed through multiple logistic regressions. The prevalence of Facebook addiction and abnormal mental health were 41.9% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2), and 21.9% (95% CI; 19.2, 24.8), respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors (sufficiency of household income, school location, level of education, GPAX learning deficits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), the individuals identified as having Facebook addiction were discovered to be at a high risk of developing abnormal general mental health (ORadj = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), somatic symptoms (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.7), anxiety and insomnia (ORadj = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.8), social dysfunction (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1) and severe depression (ORadj = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). Moreover; there were pronounced trends of increasing risk according to the level of Facebook addiction (Ptrend Facebook addiction among high school students could be associated with abnormal, general mental health status, somatic symptoms, anxiety & insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Therefore, it is essential that the relevant authorities educate young people about the mental health impacts linked with Facebook addictive usage and impose appropriate public health policies by screening Facebook addiction and mental health issues in risk groups.

  14. Supply chain collaboration and responsiveness : a comparison between Thai automotive and electronics industries

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors that promote firms to develop supply chain collaborations (SCC) with their partners and relationships between SCC and supply chain operational performances (SCOP), using a questionnaire survey on Thai automotive and electronics industries in 2012. This paper also carries out a comparative study on these questions between the electronics and automotive industries. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions verifY that supplier evaluation and audit is a foundation fo...

  15. Numerical analysis of Thai members of the Eugenia-Syzygium group (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different analyses of Thai Syzygium show, with very small discrepancies, that one smaller monophyletic and one larger polyphyletic group can be recognised. The smaller monophyletic group warrants sectional rank as Syzygium section Jambosa and consists of S. anacardiifolium, S. aqueum, S. diospyrifolium, S. formosum, S. foxworthianum, S. jambos, S. lakshanakarae, S. malaccense, S. megacarpum, S. papillosum, S. pseudoformosum, S. pycnanthum, S. samarangense, S. scortechinii and S. siamense.

  16. ?I rarely read the label?: Factors that Influence Thai Consumer Responses to Nutrition Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kirk, Martyn; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background: This qualitative study employed the Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour (KAB) model and Health Belief Model (HBM) to investigate factors influencing Thai consumer decision making about use of nutrition labels. Labels include both Nutrition Information Panels (1998-) and Guideline Daily Amounts labels (2011-). Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 participants representing two socio-demographic extremes in Thailand ? ?urban Bangkok? (university educated consumers) and ?provin...

  17. Screening for antibacterial and antibiofilm activity in Thai medicinal plant extracts against oral microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Teanpaisan, Rawee; Kawsud, Pajaree; Pahumunto, Nuntiya; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 12 ethanol extracts of Thai traditional herb against oral pathogens. The antibacterial activities were assessed by agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill methods. Antibiofilm activity was investigated using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting, and TLC-bioautography were used to determine the active ...

  18. Anomie, Racial Wage, and Critical Aesthetics: Understanding the Negative Externalities of Japanese and Thai Social Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Otto F. von Feigenblatt

    2009-01-01

    This short paper concentrates on three powerful ideas introducedby three important theorists, namely, Merton’s interpretation of anomie in America, Fromm’s critical aesthetics regarding man’s consciousness in relation to nature, and finally Du Bois’ concept of the “racial wage” (Lemert, 2004, pp. 218-240). Those theories are then applied to the Japanese phenomenon of the “compensated date” and the Thai “sex industry”.

  19. Daytime Sleepiness, Circadian Preference, Caffeine Consumption and Use of Other Stimulants among Thai College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Jason; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Pensuksan, Wipawan C.; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; GELAYE, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence of daytime sleepiness and evening chronotype, and to assess the extent to which both are associated with the use of caffeinated stimulants among 3,000 Thai college students. Demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire were used to evaluate prevalence of daytime sleepiness and circadian preference....

  20. THE MOTIVATION OF FOREIGN-EDUCATED THAIS WITH FAMILY BUSINESS BACKGROUND, IN BECOMING ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthaiyanont, Nattaphol

    2011-01-01

    From interviewing 18 Thai participants (14 males and 4 females) with family business background and educated abroad. There are a few points can be concluded from the interviews. 1) They think that with their family business background make them more likely and more readily to become entrepreneurs. 2) The bond between family business and the next generation of the founder is still strong. 3) The most affected factor from the current family firm is the income of the family firm. 4) Surprisingly...

  1. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Patchreenart Saparpakorn; Rapepol Bavovada; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Saruth Nithitanakool

    2009-01-01

    The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear coppe...

  2. Anti-Streptococcus mutans efficacy of Thai herbal formula used as a remedy for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joycharat, Nantiya; Limsuwan, Surasak; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Pratumwan, Saranyabhong; Madahin, Idris; Nuankaew, Wanlapa; Promsawat, Atchariya

    2012-08-01

    Traditional knowledge of herbal remedies plays an important role in the search for more effective alternative treatment of a variety of disorders. The ethnobotanical surveys in southern Thailand have revealed that 35 Thai herbal formulas have been used by Thai traditional healers against dental caries. However, the scientific evaluation to confirm their rational uses is scarce. To test in vitro anti-Streptococcus mutans activity of Thai herbal formulas used against dental caries (THF-DC). Ethanol extracts of Thai herbal formulas were evaluated for antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Agar disc diffusion was employed as a preliminary screening assay, followed by broth microdilution assay to assess minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Furthermore, medicinal plants contained in the most active THF-DC were investigated for their phytochemicals. Eleven THF-DC extracts exhibited clear inhibition zones of 7.0-22.5 mm against S. mutans. Subsequent determination of their MIC revealed that the formula containing Albizia myriophylla Benth. (Leguminosae), Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. (Zingiberaceae), Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (Acanthaceae), and Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) was the most active, with MIC at 250 µg/mL. Among these medicinal plants, A. myriophylla gave the strongest activity with MIC at 3.9 µg/mL, followed by A. marina with MIC at 62.5 µg/mL. Various classes of bioactive phytochemicals including tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids were found in these extracts. Anti-S. mutans activity of THF-DC extracts was established. Further investigations may be required for the isolation and chemical characterization of the active ingredients in A. myriophylla.

  3. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Putwatana, Panwadee; Sritara, Piyamitr; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20 yr and over were included. Mean (SE) levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03), 46.9 (0.34), 128.7 (1.09), and 131.4 (2.20) mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp.) but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.). Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C.

  4. Further Lunar Occultations from the 2.4 m Thai National Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richichi, A.; Tasuya, O.; Irawati, P.; Yadav, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    We present the latest lunar occultation (LO) results obtained at the 2.4 m Thai National Telescope, continuing a program started in 2014. We report on 21 LO events for 20 stellar sources, yielding 7 binary stars, 1 angular diameter, and 1 star with extended circumstellar emission. These results, some of which are obtained for the first time, are discussed in the context of previous observations when available.

  5. Effects of Muay Thai training frequency on body composition and physical fitness in healthy untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.

  6. Success factors of a networked government: learning from Thai Health Promotion Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    K. Phusavat; Anussornnitisarn, P.; Rassameethes, B.; Janssens, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on the study sponsored by the Office of the Public sector Development Commission (OPDC). It aims to identify the critical success factors for an effective networked government. The network concept represents a new way for a public agency to work with its stakeholders. The organisation under study is Thai Health Promotion Foundation (THPF) with the focus on its road accidents prevention campaign during the New Year. This campaign has drastically reduced road accidents. The s...

  7. Effect of television viewing on social-emotional competence of young Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intusoma, Utcharee; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Panyayong, Benjaporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-12-01

    Exposure time, program content and cultural context may affect the impact of television (TV) on the social-emotional competence (SEC) of children. This study examined the effects of TV viewing on the SEC of Thai infants. The study was based on a Thai birth cohort study from which duration and content of TV viewing and data from the Modified Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment instrument at 1 and 3 years of age were available. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine whether scores below the 10th national percentile were associated with TV viewing duration. The relationship between viewing duration and SEC risk was quadratic rather than linear. Viewing duration of 30-120 min/day was associated with a decreased risk of low overall SEC compared to non-viewers after adjustments for confounding factors. However, the beneficial effect diminished when the duration exceeded 120 min/day. Viewing educational programs was associated with a risk reduction of having low overall SEC compared to non-educational programs. These results suggest that a short period of TV viewing may be beneficial for the SEC of Thai infants, especially if the programs are educational. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thai people living with tuberculosis and how they adhere to treatment: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2017-12-01

    To develop a conceptual framework of adherence to treatment among Thai people living with tuberculosis, a grounded theory approach was used. A purposive sample of 20 Thai people living with tuberculosis, aged from 23 to 85 years, was interviewed. From the participants' perspective, a core category of social belonging was highlighted, with three categories of conditions connected: personal barriers, personal resilience, and social facilitation. Personal barriers encompassed fear of stigma, concealing the illness, and lack of knowledge and motivation to complete the treatment regime. Personal resilience encompassed positive thinking and self-awareness. Social facilitation encompassed the ease of access to health services, continuity in the health service's ability to choose a directly-observed therapy observer, and social support. This study contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of Thai people living with tuberculosis with regards to adherence to tuberculosis treatment. It might improve how local healthcare workers provide tuberculosis care, and inspire them to tailor care to people living with tuberculosis in a local community to increase personal resilience and reduce stigma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Periodontitis associated with tobacco smoking among rural Khon Kaen Thai males: analysis of two data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Ratanasiri, Amornrat

    2009-11-01

    Periodontitis is a common disease-related reason for tooth extraction. Although several studies have related tobacco smoking to periodontitis among other populations, not many investigations concerning the relationship between tobacco smoking and periodontitis among rural northeastern Thai people have been conducted although tobacco smoking is a common practice among these Thai people. The present study used two existing data sets to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and periodontitis among rural Khon Kaen Thai males. Cross-sectional analytic study. The study populations for phase I and phase II comprised a total of 625 males, aged 30-89 years, residing in five districts of Khon Kaen province, Thailand during 1990-91 and 1,218 males, aged 33-86 years, residing in Chonnabot district, Khon Kaen province, Thailand during 1992-94, respectively. The data were obtained through oral examination and interview. The analyses employed descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable logistic regression. Findings from final multivariable logistic regression models identified tobacco smoking as a risk indicator for periodontitis in the presence of several factors in the final models including age, gingival bleeding, debris deposits, and missing teeth. It is evident that tobacco smoking is a risk indicator for periodontitis and that tobacco smoking, which is directly associated with periodontitis among these populations, could enhance the possibility of increasing periodontitis and tooth extraction. Therefore, targeted interventions aimed at encouraging people to quit smoking tobacco would help in maintain favorable oral health.

  10. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Thai Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongsara, Sara; Boonpol, Sakulrat; Prompalad, Nussaree; Jeenduang, Nutjaree

    2017-09-01

    Although, the effect of Ramadan fasting on the risks for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies, the results were inconsistent. In addition, the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in Thai subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometry, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. A total of 65 healthy subjects (21 men and 44 women) aged between 19-24 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometry, blood pressure, FBG, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), and body composition were measured before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. There were no changes in anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profiles and body composition in both genders before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. Nevertheless, FBG levels were significantly increased after one month of Ramadan compared with baseline (5.09±0.50 versus 4.83±0.38 mmol/L, p=0.016, respectively) in women. The Ramadan fasting did not affect the lipid, anthropometric and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. However, the increased FBG levels after one month of Ramadan were observed in women. To improve the favourable biochemical parameters after Ramadan fasting, the lifestyle modifications such as, increased intake of healthy diets and increased physical activity should be recommended.

  11. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p energy came from dairy products, grains and starchy products. The major carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  12. Does tonal information affect the early stages of visual-word processing in Thai?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Thai offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of lexical tone processing during visual-word recognition, as tone is explicitly expressed in its script. In order to investigate the contribution of tone at the orthographic/phonological level during the early stages of word processing in Thai, we conducted a masked priming experiment-using both lexical decision and word naming tasks. For a given target word (e.g., ห้อง/hᴐ:ŋ2/, room), five priming conditions were created: (a) identity (e.g., ห้อง/hᴐ:ŋ2/), (b) same initial consonant, but with a different tone marker (e.g., ห่อง/hᴐ:ŋ1/), (c) different initial consonant, but with the same tone marker (e.g., ศ้อง/sᴐ:ŋ2/), (d) orthographic control (different initial consonant, different tone marker; e.g., ศ่อง/sᴐ:ŋ1/), and (e) same tone homophony, but with a different initial consonant and different tone marker (e.g., ธ่อง/t(h)ᴐ:ŋ2/). Results of the critical comparisons revealed that segmental information (i.e., consonantal information) appears to be more important than tone information (i.e., tone marker) in the early stages of visual-word processing in alphabetic, tonal languages like Thai. Thus, these findings may help constrain models of visual-word recognition and reading in tonal languages.

  13. Introducing Union Representation and Its Complexities – A Case Study of the Royal Thai Civil Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Pontier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the result of the recognition under the ILO Conventions 87 and 98 of the freedom of association and subsequent introduction of union representation in the Royal Thai civil service. As a consequence, the Royal Thai Government has changed the Constitution to allow for union representation in its civil service. A decree has been drafted and focus groups have been interviewed to establish the views of a cross-section of civil servants on their expectations and desires in being allowed to form and join a union. The paper discusses the approach taken to union representation in terms of collective bargaining versus joint consultation and centralization versus decentralization and the discourse that has surfaced as a result of the interviews between the policy makers and civil servants, particularly with regard to its context of a high power distance culture. The analysis provides the best practice and effective approach to the introduction of union representation within the Thai Civil Service.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative ... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, ... AITRP was to develop HIV research leaders at the University of ..... Wellcome-Trust.

  15. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Chuthapisith, Jariya; Mo-suwan, Ladda; Kriweradechachai, Suntree; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Choprapawon, Chanpen

    2009-05-22

    Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), development in Thai 2-year-old children, and (c) explore parental perceptions on television toward their child's development. Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS), and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively). On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 +/- 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 +/- 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male) was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5-31.3). Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (>or= 2 hours per day

  16. New prediction models for dental age estimation in Thai children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangto, Phuwadon; Janhom, Apirum; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Iamaroon, Anak

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to develop new prediction models for dental age estimation and to test the accuracy of the resulting models in comparison with the Demirjian et al. and the Willems et al. methods in Thai children and adolescents. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1,134 Thai individuals (487 males and 647 females) aged from 6 to 15 years were selected and evaluated for dental age estimation. Quadratic regression was used to generate new models. The results showed that the new prediction models indicated a strong correlation coefficient between the dental maturity score and the chronological age in both sexes (r=0.951 for males, r=0.945 for females). The new age prediction models were: y=0.006297x(2) - 0.804930x+32.591843 for males and y=0.010677x(2) - 1.538823x+61.955056 for females, where y is the dental age, x is the dental maturity score according to Demirjian et al. Moreover, these new models were tested showing the greatest accuracy for estimating the age in Thai samples using the mean difference values between the dental and the chronological ages (-0.04 years for males, 0.02 years for females) when compared with the Demirjian et al. and the Willems et al. In addition, the new models revealed a high percentage of accuracy in the absolute difference values between the dental and the chronological ages within 1 year (76.26% and 74.49% for males and females, respectively). Furthermore, our results in mean difference values indicated that the Demirjian et al. method (0.11 and 0.10 years for males and females, respectively) was more accurate than the Willems et al. method (-0.37 and -0.39 years for males and females, respectively) in Thai samples. In conclusion, the new age prediction models in this study provide accurate age estimation in both sexes, suggesting that these models be applied for forensic age estimation, especially in Thai children and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for safety improvements of traditional Thai fermented meat and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are very important in converting of agricultural products into safe, delicious and shelf stable foods for human consumption. The preservative activity of LAB in foods is mainly attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites such as organic acids and bacteriocins which enables them to grow and control the growth of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Besides ensuring safety, bacteriocin-producing LAB with their probiotic potentials could also be emerging as a means to develop functional meat products with desirable health benefits. Nevertheless, to be qualified as a candidate probiotic culture, other prerequisite probiotic properties of bacteriocin-producing LAB have to be assessed according to regulatory guidelines for probiotics. Nham is an indigenous fermented sausage of Thailand that has gained popularity and acceptance among Thais. Since Nham is made from raw meat and is usually consumed without cooking, risks due to undesirable microorganisms such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, are frequently observed. With an ultimate goal to produce safer and healthier product, our research attempts on the development of a variety of new Nham products are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of a Nutrition Program Reduced Post-Discharge Growth Restriction in Thai Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japakasetr, Suchada; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chindavijak, Busba; Kagawa, Masaharu; Nokdee, Somjai

    2016-12-17

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program to reduce post-discharge growth restriction in Thai VLBW preterm infants. A prospective, non-randomized interventional cohort study was undertaken to assess the growth of 22 VLBW preterm infants who received the PIN program and compared them with 22 VLBW preterm infants who received conventional nutrition services. Infant's growth was recorded monthly until the infants reached six months' corrected age (6-moCA). Intervention infants had significantly greater body weights (p = 0.013) and head circumferences (p = 0.009). Also, a greater proportion of the intervention group recovered their weight to the standard weight at 4-moCA (p = 0.027) and at 6-moCA (p = 0.007) and their head circumference to the standard head circumference at 6-moCA (p = 0.004) compared to their historical comparison counterparts. Enlistment in the PIN program thus resulted in significantly reduced post-discharge growth restriction in VLBW preterm infants. Further research on longer term effects of the program on infant's growth and development is warranted.

  19. The development of a handbook from heritable literature for desirable characteristics among Thai youths in schools in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mali Mokaramanee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was deigned to develop a teacher’s handbook for desirable characteristic creation from heritable literature for Thai youth in schools in Bangkok. The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing four pieces of heritable literature: Ramayana (King Rama I Issue, I-nao (King Rama II Issue, Khun Chang – Khun Phan (National Library Issue and Phra Aphai Mani (Sunthorn Phu Issue. The research results found that there are nine current problems that need to be overcome in order to develop desirable characteristics for youths in schools. There are additionally eight desirable characteristics that need to be developed among youths, based on the statement of the Office of the Basic Education Commission. The investigation found that families, social media, community and religious leaders and schools all have an important role in promoting or creating desirable characteristics for youths. The content analysis found that all but one piece of heritable literature analysed contained content according to the eight desirable characteristics for youths. The handbook developed from the four pieces of heritable literature could be divided into four books for each piece of literature, which can be used as classroom teaching materials to create desirable characteristics for youths.

  20. ‘For me… it’s a miracle’: injecting beauty among kathoeis in a provincial Thai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poompruek, Panoopat; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Thai term kathoei refers to non-gender-normative females, males and intersexual individuals at different stages of the transitional spectrum with recognized social and cultural roles in society. Nevertheless, kathoeis are only tolerated in Thai society. Many kathoeis seek social acceptance through beauty and turn to the off-label injection of various ‘beauty drugs’. Methods The first author conducted an ethnographic study of injection parties at a wedding studio in a Central Thai provincial city between April and September 2011. Data were gathered through participant observation, focus group discussions and narrative interviews with six participants. All data were collected and analyzed in Thai, and later translated. Findings While injection parties provide opportunities for kathoeis to socialize, bond, and share experiential knowledge on chemically-assisted transformation, they also reproduce ideologies of gender, beauty and sexuality that reinforce the notion that if a kathoei is to maintain her beauty, she must use medicines more frequently and in higher doses. Conclusion Injection parties among Thai kathoeis feature drug use that is entirely reasonable in terms of their own lay knowledge. Empowering kathoeis, by providing accessible information on chemicals and health in a way that reflects the complexity and diversity of their practices, would be one way to reduce health risks. Society must give more long-term options to kathoeis to build their sense of self, based on things besides being beautiful. PMID:25047007

  1. Exploring science and mathematics teaching experiences in Thailand using reflective journals of an internship program between Vietnamese and Thai students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruekpramool, Chaninan; Kanyaprasith, Kamonwan; Phonphok, Nason; Diem, Huynh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    An internship program between Vietnamese student teachers from Cantho University and Thai graduate students from Srinakharinwirot University has occurred in June 2016. There were six Vietnamese student teachers and four Thai graduate students participated in this program with the help of science teachers from two schools in Sa Kaeo and Chachoengsao Provinces of Thailand. To explore Vietnamese and Thai students' life experiences and their perceptions in science and Mathematics teaching, reflective journals were used to record their progress as team teaching in primary and lower secondary classrooms in the form of the online format via social media in English language. The data were collected from 54 reflective journals from their eight days experiences at the schools. The data were analyzed qualitatively using Van Manen's level of reflectivity which composed of three levels; 1) Technical Rationality (TR), 2) Practical Action (PA) and 3) Critical Reflection (CR). The results explicitly revealed that the three levels of reflectivity have appeared in the reflective journals. Besides, Vietnamese and Thai students have learned more from each other and can exchange their educational experiences and culture. Certainly, this was the first time for them to teach science and mathematics in English to Thai students. Moreover, they have shared their impressions toward schools, teachers and also students in the schools in their reflective journal as well.

  2. Red Cell Genotyping by Multiplex PCR Identifies Antigen-Matched Blood Units for Transfusion-Dependent Thai Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intharanut, Kamphon; Bejrachandra, Sasitorn; Nathalang, Siriporn; Leetrakool, Nipapan; Nathalang, Oytip

    2017-01-01

    Background Antigen-negative red cell transfusion is required for transfusion-dependent patients. We developed multiplex PCR for red cell genotyping and calculated the possibility of finding compatible predicted phenotypes in Thai blood donor populations according to red cell alloantibodies found among Thai patients. Methods 600 DNA samples obtained from unrelated healthy central and northern Thai blood donors were tested with the newly developed multiplex PCR for FY*A, FY*B, JK*A, JK*B, RHCE*e, RHCE*E, DI*A and GYP*Hut, GYP*Mur, GYP*Hop, GYP*Bun, and GYP*HF allele detections. Additionally, the possibility of finding compatible predicted phenotypes in two Thai blood donor populations was calculated to estimate the minimal number of tests needed to provide compatible blood. Results The validity of multiplex PCR using known DNA controls and the phenotyping and genotyping results obtained by serological and PCR-SSP techniques were in agreement. The possibility of finding at least one compatible blood unit for patients with multiple antibodies was comparable in Thai populations. Conclusions The multiplex PCR for red cell genotyping simultaneously interprets 7 alleles and 1 hybrid GP group. Similar strategies can be applied in other populations depending on alloantibody frequencies in transfusion-dependent patients, especially in a country with limited resources. PMID:29070981

  3. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences: five decades of collaborative medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur; Nitayaphan, Sorachai

    2011-05-01

    The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) is a 50-year-old joint institute of the US and Royal Thai Army Medical Departments located in Bangkok, Thailand. Investigators from the Institute have carried out research in Thailand and the region, in collaboration with many partners, focused on a large number of tropical infectious diseases. In celebration of the 50th anniversary, this paper summarizes highlights of this research, focusing on malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, diarrhea and HIV. In addition, research done in support of the medical problems of refugees and of the health of Thai peace-keeping forces are summarized. The research carried out by AFRIMS and added to the scientific literature has contributed significantly to advancement in multiple areas of tropical infectious disease.

  4. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was aimed at improving the current practice of radiation safety training of radiographers and was, therefore, considered action research.[18] The processes of action and research was integrated because the teaching activities and assessment were developed after the Delphi survey and aligned with the ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the Western Cape (UWC), Cape Town, South Africa the students are exposed to research in various modules where they are trained in epidemiology, research methods and literature appraisal. In addition, they personally conduct a research project, performing relevant statistical analyses. The relevant modules for.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Systems (SEEDS)-INDEPTH Network Accra, Ghana, 3KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, The Centre of Geographical Medicine Research-. Coast, Kilifi, Kenya, 4Population Health Sciences/Research Support Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University- East Africa, Nairobi,. Kenya ...

  8. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; Psexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, Pminority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  9. Effects of paliperidone extended release on hostility among Thai patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariyavilas A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apichat Jariyavilas,1 Nuntika Thavichachart,2 Ronnachai Kongsakon,3 Sunanta Chantakarn,4 Suwanna Arunpongpaisal,5 Vasu Chantarasak,6 Piyadit Jaroensook,7 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,8 Osot Nerapusee9 1Srithanya Hospital, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 6Somdetchaopraya Institute of Psychiatry, Bangkok, 7Prasrimahabhodhi Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, 8Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 9Medical Affairs, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: This open-label prospective study investigated the effects of paliperidone extended release (ER on hostility in Thai patients with schizophrenia. Background: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be hostile or exhibit aggressive behavior, which can occasion their admission to psychiatric hospital. Antipsychotic medications are often used to treat hostility and aggression in such patients. Paliperidone ER is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, there are no data available for paliperidone ER with regard to its efficacy on hostility and aggression among Thai patients. This study was a part of the PERFEcT study, a 6-month, open-label, multicenter, multicountry, prospective trial to explore the safety, efficacy, and functionality of paliperidone ER tablets. The current study included only the data obtained from Thai participants. Materials and methods: Flexible dosing of paliperidone ER in a range of 3–12 mg/day was used, allowing investigators to adjust the dosage of each subject individually. The 199 Thai patients had a stable Clinical Global Impression – severity score before enrollment. Demographic

  10. The study of anterior cruciate ligament footprint in Thai population: a human cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkamthom, Nattha; Arkasihayuth, Auttaphon; Charakorn, Korakot; Chaimut, Manop; Reeboonlap, Nitis

    2012-10-01

    Identification of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint is critical for an anatomical ACL reconstruction. The osseous landmarks of the ACL footprint is one of the methods that can be used to determine the ACL insertion site. The size of ACL footprint on femur and tibia are also important for surgical decision. The purposes of the present study represent the existing of osseous landmarks and size of ACL footprint in Thai population. Study the presence of the osseous landmarks and the size of ACL footprint both at femur and Tibia in Thai population. 77 knees from 39 cadavers (38 paired and 1 unpaired) from Department of Anatomy, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine were dissected to identify bony landmarks of ACL at both tibia and femoral attachment. The resident's ridge and lateral bifurcate ridge were identified. The metallic markers were then inserted into the defined anatomic footprint points and size of ACL footprint on tibia and femur were measured and recorded in length and width. The present study found resident's ridge in 75/77 knees (97.40%) and lateral bifurcate ridge (bony landmark between anteromedial and posterolateral bundle), 50/77 knees (64.94%). The average ACL length and width at the femoral attachment were 12.01 +/- 1.66 mm and 9.52 +/- 1.37 mm respectively. At the tibial attachment, the average length was 15.36 +/- 2.33 mm and the width was 11.03 +/- 1.77 mm. However, when performed an analysis between male and female footprint, there were significant difference in length and width of both Femoral and tibial attachment. In male, the size of ACL at femoral attachment, average length was 12.68 +/- 1.48 mm and average width was 9.99 +/- 1.38 mm. At tibial attachment, average length was 16.84 +/- 1.07 mm and width was 11.32 +/- 1.43 mm. In female, the size of ACL at right femur attachment, average length and width were 10.68 +/- 1.1 mm, 8.64 +/- 0.79 mm respectively. At tibial attachment, average length and width were 12.48 +/- 1.08 mm and 10

  11. Potent anti-proliferative effects against oral and cervical cancers of Thai medicinal plants selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

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    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Pattamapun, Kassara; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-07-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.

  12. Duration of neutralizing antibody persisting in Thai individuals after childhood vaccination against smallpox.

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    Kwanchum, Kannikar; Ampol, Silawun; Thongput, Anchalee; Horthongkham, Navin; Udomphunthurak, Suthiphol; Siritantikorn, Sontana; Kantakamalakul, Wannee

    2017-06-01

    Although smallpox was completely eliminated by 1980, it remains possible that variola virus could be intentionally released in an act of bioterrorism. Thus, several studies have been performed to detect antibody levels after smallpox vaccination of the current population in various countries to indicate the duration of maintenance of immunological memory. Our study endeavored to investigate the level of neutralizing (Nt) antibody responses of Thai individuals who had been immunized with smallpox vaccine during childhood. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was used to study vaccinia Nt antibody responses in sera of individuals ranging in age from 35-4, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84 and > 84 years old, referred to as groups 1-6, respectively. Each group included 200 sera: 100 male sera and 100 female sera. An incubation time of 15 hours for sera and vaccinia virus was confirmed to be the optimal incubation period for PRNT. Positive Nt antibody titers (≥32) were detected in 135 (11.25%) of 1,200 sera: 81 (6.75%) male sera and 54 (4.5%) female sera. There were 4 (2%), 11 (5.5%), 19 (9.5%), 16 (8%), 33 (16.5%), and 52 (26%) positive sera in groups 1-6, respectively. Interestingly, the oldest individual with positive Nt antibody was a 98-year-old female. Two males aged 96 and 91 years old had the highest Nt antibody titers. Our data suggests that the vaccinia-specific Nt antibody response in the current Thai population could be maintained for more than 90 years after vaccination. However, the majority of the Thai population aged ≥35-74 years old is still highly susceptible to infection.

  13. Accuracy and precision evaluation of Thai plastic microhematocrit tubes: the first product from Thailand.

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    Wongkrajang, Preechaya; Opartkiattikul, Nisarat; Chinswangwatanakul, Wimol; Areewatana, Somsak

    2012-06-01

    In Thailand, the spun microhematocrit method is usually performed using glass microhematocrit tubes even though broken glass tube during use may result in a risk of injury and blood-borne infection. The main reason is that the safer product alternatives such as plastic microhematocrit tubes are more expensive. Now, plastic tubes for hematocrit determination can be produced in Thailand at a much cheaper price. However precision and accuracy studies are necessary before being able to use them. To compare the accuracy and precision of Thai plastic microhematocrit tubes against the routinely used glass microhematocrit tubes and imported plastic microhematocrit tubes using spun microhematocrit method. One hundred residual EDTA blood samples from the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand along with the three level hematology control materials were measured with spun microhematocrit values using three different types of plastic microhematocrit tubes. This was compared to the routinely used glass microhematocrit tubes as a gold standard. The repeated measures one-way ANOVA found no significant difference between the hematocrit values from each type of tubes with an F(1,99) = 0.667 and p-value = 0.574. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between four types of microhematocrit tubes ranged from 0.996-0.998 (p-value plastic microhematocrit tubes ranged from 1.44 to 2.17% compared to 1.39 to 4.01% of the imported plastic microhematocrit tubes. The hematocrit values determined by all plastic microhematocrit tubes can be considered relatively equivalent to those of glass microhematocrit tubes in terms of accuracy and precision. The Thai plastic microhematocrit tubes are economical and with the cost-benefit over other plastic tubes of about 12 to 16 times. Therefore, the Thai plastic microhematocrit tubes should be the choice for glass tube replacement.

  14. Morphology and head morphometric characters of sperm in Thai native crossbred stallions

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    Laikul Aree

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the semen quality parameters use to determine fertility is the percentage of sperm that express normal morphology. Sperm head morphometry is also correlated with fertility. The objectives of this study were 1 to investigate the sperm morphology and normal sperm head morphometry of Thai native crossbred stallions, and 2 to compare our results with the characteristics of proven fertile sperm from purebred stallions. Methods Semen samples were collected monthly from nine stallions, of which five were Thai native crossbred (T and four were purebred of proven fertility (F: F1 was a Standard-bred; F2 was a Warm-blood; F3 and F4 were Thoroughbreds. All the animals were aged between 5 and 12 years. Sperm morphological examination was performed using formaldehyde-fixed samples under phase-contrast microscopy (1000×. Normal sperm head morphometry characteristics were measured by Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (Hamilton Thorne, USA. after applying the Harris' haematoxylin staining technique. Results The percentages of morphologically normal and abnormal sperm varied among individual stallions in both the T and F groups. The mean percentage of morphologically normal sperm was not significantly different (P > 0.05 between T and F stallions (mean ± SE, 49.7 ± 1.3 and 48.1 ± 2.8, respectively. A comparison between the T and F sperm heads revealed that all the dimensional parameters were significantly different (P Conclusion We found variability in the percentage of morphologically normal and abnormal sperm, as well as in sperm head dimensions among Thai native crossbred stallions, and these results were similar to those of purebred stallions. Our findings demonstrate that the heads of the T sperm specimens were larger and rounder than that of the F sperm. Perimeter, shape factor 1 and shape factor 3 could be used as parameters for the identification of individual T stallions based on a sperm sample.

  15. The Effect of English Language on Multiple Choice Question Scores of Thai Medical Students.

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    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Muangkaew, Wayuda; Assanasen, Jintana; Kunavisarut, Tada; Thongngarm, Torpong; Ruchutrakool, Theera; Kobwanthanakun, Surapon; Dejsomritrutai, Wanchai

    2016-04-01

    Universities in Thailand are preparing for Thailand's integration into the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by increasing the number of tests in English language. English language is not the native language of Thailand Differences in English language proficiency may affect scores among test-takers, even when subject knowledge among test-takers is comparable and may falsely represent the knowledge level of the test-taker. To study the impact of English language multiple choice test questions on test scores of medical students. The final examination of fourth-year medical students completing internal medicine rotation contains 120 multiple choice questions (MCQ). The languages used on the test are Thai and English at a ratio of 3:1. Individual scores of tests taken in both languages were collected and the effect of English language on MCQ was analyzed Individual MCQ scores were then compared with individual student English language proficiency and student grade point average (GPA). Two hundred ninety five fourth-year medical students were enrolled. The mean percentage of MCQ scores in Thai and English were significantly different (65.0 ± 8.4 and 56.5 ± 12.4, respectively, p language. Students were classified into six grade categories (A, B+, B, C+, C, and D+), which cumulatively measured total internal medicine rotation performance score plus final examination score. MCQ scores from Thai language examination were more closely correlated with total course grades than were the scores from English language examination (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.73 (p languages was higher in borderline students than in the excellent student group (11.2 ± 11.2 and 7.1 ± 8.2, respectively, p language MCQ examination scores were more highly associated with GPA than with English language proficiency. The use of English language multiple choice question test may decrease scores of the fourth-year internal medicine post-rotation final examination, especially those of borderline

  16. Thai and American doctors on medical ethics: religion, regulation, and moral reasoning across borders.

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    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent scholarship argues that successful international medical collaboration depends crucially on improving cross-cultural understanding. To this end, this study analyzes recent writings on medical ethics by physicians in two countries actively participating in global medicine, Thailand and the United States. Articles (133; published 2004-2008) from JAMA, the New England Journal of Medicine, and the Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand are analyzed to inductively build a portrait of two discursive ethical cultures. Frameworks of moral reasoning are identified across and within the two groups, with a focus on what authority (religion, law, etc.) is invoked to define and evaluate ethical problems. How might similarities and differences in ethical paradigms reflect the countries' historical "semicolonial" relationship, shed light on debates about Eastern vs. Western bioethics, and facilitate or hinder contemporary cross-national communication? Findings demonstrate substantial overlap in Thai and American doctors' vocabulary, points of reference, and topics covered, though only Thai doctors emphasize national interests and identity. American authors display a striking homogeneity in styles of moral reasoning, embracing a secular, legalistic, deontological ethics that generally eschews discussion of religion, personal character, or national culture. Among Thai authors, there is a schism in ethical styles: while some hew closely to the secular, deontological model, others embrace a virtue ethics that liberally cites Buddhist principles and emphasizes the role of doctors' good character. These two approaches may represent opposing reactions-assimilation and resistance, respectively-to Western influence. The current findings undermine the stereotype of Western individualism versus Eastern collectivism. Implications for cross-national dialog are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in Thai nondiabetic hypertensive patients

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    Pongsathorn Gojaseni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pongsathorn Gojaseni1, Angkana Phaopha1, Worawon Chailimpamontree1, Thaweepong Pajareya1, Anutra Chittinandana21Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Education, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in nondiabetic hypertensive patients in Thailand.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed during January to December 2007 at outpatients departments of Bhumibol Adulyadej hospital. Nondiabetic hypertensive patients without a history of pre-existing kidney diseases participated in this study. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on demographics, lifestyle, and family history of cardiovascular and kidney disease. Spot morning urine samples were collected for albuminuria estimation. Albuminuria thresholds were evaluated and defined using albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR.Results: A total of 559 hypertensive patients (283 males, 276 females, aged 58.0 ± 11.6 years were enrolled in this study. Microalbuminuria (ACR 17 to 299 mg/g in males and 25 to 299 mg/g in females was found in 93 cases (16.6% [15.0%‑18.2%]. The independent determinants of elevated urinary albumin excretion in a multiple logistic regression model were; body mass index ≥30 (odds ratio (OR = 2.24, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.33–3.76 and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DCCB use (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.22‑3.02.Conclusion: In Thai nondiabetic hypertensive patients, microalbuminuria was not uncommon. Obesity and use of dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker were found to be the important predictors. Prognostic value of the occurrence of microalbuminuria in this population remains to be determined in prospective cohort studies.Keywords: microalbuminuria, hypertension, obesity, calcium channel blocker, metabolic

  18. Provocation proven drug allergy in Thai children with adverse drug reactions.

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    Indradat, Somying; Veskitkul, Jittima; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2016-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a common healthcare problem. The drug provocation test (DPT) is a gold standard for ADR diagnosis. To evaluate a correlation between history of ADRs, skin prick test (SPT), intradermal test (ID) and DPT in Thai children. This was a retrospective review of 211 children under 16 years of age who had a history of ADRs and underwent DPT from January 2006 to December 2012. Two hundred and thirty six (236) DPTs were performed in 211 children with a history of ADRs. The median age at which DPTs were performed was 4 years. Thirty-four children (14.4%) had positive DPT. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio (LR) + and LR- of SPT were 50, 85.7, 6.9, 98.8%, 5.8 and 0.9, respectively. The PPV, NPV, sensitivity, specificity, LR+ and LR- of ID were 33.3, 84.6, 20, 91.7%, 2.4 and 0.9, respectively. Different presentation of symptoms (maculopapular rashes, urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis) did not predict SPT, ID and DPT results. Positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but not atopy, was a risk in the present scope of evaluation for drug allergy (odds ratio 11.44, 95% confidence interval 2.60-50.41). Drug allergy, denoted by positive DPT, was present in 14.4% of Thai children with a history of ADRs. Antibiotics were the most common cause of ADRs. Both SPT and ID had high NPV and specificity but did not predict DPT results. HIV positivity is a risk factor of drug allergy in Thai children.

  19. Isolated Thrombocytopenia in Thai Children: Etiology and Result of Bone Marrow Aspiration Study

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    Kamon Phuakpet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolated thrombocytopenia (IT refers to an entity of low platelet count without abnormalities of other lineages. Previous studies revealed that the main cause of IT in children without atypical features i.e. hepa- tosplenomegaly or adenopathy was immune thrombocytopenia (ITP, while acute leukemia and aplastic anemia (AA were other possible causes. However, there was no previous study in Thailand to identify the cause of IT. Objective: To study the bone marrow aspiration (BMA result in Thai children with IT and to identify the cause of IT in Thai children. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of children younger than 15 years old with IT who were diag- nosed at Siriraj Hospital during January 1996 to December 2010. All patients had BMA to identify the cause of thrombocytopenia. Demographic data, clinical manifestation, laboratory results including BMA finding, diagnosis and initial treatment were collected and analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine patients were enrolled to the study. All patients had normal or increased megakaryocytes in their bone marrow, and none of them had more than 5% of blast cells. Most patients (97.7% were diagnosed as acute ITP while 2.3% were diagnosed with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. None of the patients had acute leukemia or AA. Conclusion: The BMA result of most patients in this study was compatible to that of ITP, that is none of the patients had acute leukemia or AA. The most common cause of IT in Thai children is acute ITP. This result sug- gested that BMA in children with IT before starting treatment is not necessary.

  20. Ovarian follicular dynamics and hormones throughout the estrous cycle in Thai native (Bos indicus) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasombat, Jakkhaphan; Nagai, Takashi; Parnpai, Rangsun; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have been reported regarding the reproductive physiology of female Thai native cattle. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the follicular dynamics and concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) during the estrous cycle in Thai native heifers (TNH) and to compare obtained results with those of European and Indian cattle breeds previously reported. For the detection of estrus, ovaries of all 20 heifers were examined twice daily (12 h intervals) by ultrasonography for three consecutive estrous cycles. From data of 60 estrous cycles (n = 60 estrous cycles from 20 heifers), it was found that 14 (70%) and 6 heifers (30%) had two (42 estrous cycles collected from 14 heifers) and three follicular waves (18 estrous cycles collected from 6 heifers), respectively. The days when estrus was detected, interovulatory intervals, life-spans of corpus lutea (CL), and days for growing and regression of CLs were shorter in the two follicular waves than those in the three follicular waves (P growth rates of the dominant follicle (DF) in an ovulatory wave were observed than those of the preceding waves without ovulation (P growth in each follicular wave. In addition, the FSH and E2 peak concentrations during the ovulatory wave were higher than those of the anovulation waves (P cattle breeds, the diameter of the largest preovulatory follicle (OF), subordinate follicles (SF) and CLs were smaller than those in European and Indian cattle breeds. In conclusion, when compared with European and some breeds of Indian cattle, the length of interovulatory intervals was shorter, and the sizes of dominant SF and CLs were smaller in Thai native heifers. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. The efficacy of traditional Thai massage in decreasing spasticity in elderly stroke patients

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    Thanakiatpinyo T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thanitta Thanakiatpinyo,1 Supakij Suwannatrai,2 Ueamphon Suwannatrai,2 Phanitanong Khumkaew,2 Dokmai Wiwattamongkol,2 Manmas Vannabhum,2 Somluck Pianmanakit,1 Vilai Kuptniratsaikul1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2Center of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To study the efficacy of traditional Thai massage (TTM versus conventional physical therapy (PT programs in treating muscle spasticity, functional ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL in Thai stroke patients.Methods: This randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor was carried out at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand. The study included 50 stroke (onset ≥3 months outpatients experiencing spasticity at the elbow or knee muscles at a grade of ≥1+ on the modified Ashworth Scale who were ≥50 years old and able to communicate. The subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment group receiving TTM (24 subjects or the control group receiving the PT program (26 subjects. Both groups received treatment (either TTM or PT twice a week for 6 weeks. Spasticity grade, functional ability, anxiety, depression, and QoL were measured at Week 0 and Week 6.Results: At Week 6, the percentage of patients whose modified Ashworth Scale score had decreased by at least one grade was not statistically significant between the two groups. Both TTM and PT groups experienced a significant increase in functional ability and QoL, but no difference was found between the groups. Anxiety and depression scores showed a decreasing trend in the TTM group.Conclusion: This preliminary report showed no evidence that TTM differed from the PT program in decreasing spasticity. However, both interventions may relieve spasticity, increase functional ability, and improve QoL after 6 weeks. Only TTM can decrease anxiety and depression scores. Further studies with

  2. Nutritional anemia predominant form of anemia in educated young Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimson, Sirikalaya; Suwanwong, Yaneenart; Brimson, James M

    2017-07-01

    Anaemia is one of the most common health problems worldwide, with a high prevalence in Africa and South East Asia, including Thailand. Thai women of childbearing age have an increased risk of anaemia due to several factors including underlying health problems, lifestyles and poor diet. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of anaemia among female students of Chulalongkorn University (aged 18-22) and categorized causes of the anaemia. 400 Thai female student-volunteers, without known underlying diseases were subjected to blood tests; complete blood count, Haemoglobin typing and serum ferritin level. Bloods, having haemoglobin under 12 g/dl and hematocrit under 36%, were designated as anaemia. Then causes of anaemia are categorized into 3 groups; Iron deficiency, Thalassemia and Others. We found that 21% of the volunteers were anaemic. In 85 anaemic volunteers, they were classified as Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA); with low serum ferritin levels 42.4%, Thalassemia; total of 6 types 25.9%, IDA and Thalassemia 2.3% and Others 29.4% in which haemoglobin typing and serum ferritin level were normal. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the major cause of anaemia in Thai female students in our study. Several students were gradually developing anaemia where their haematocrit (Hct) and haemaglobin (Hb) were within reference range but mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemaglobin (MCH) and serum ferritin fell below reference range, indicating latent iron deficiency. A few volunteers had both IDA and Thalassemia and also Thalassemia with iron overloaded where health can be deteriorated without knowledge of having these conditions or proper health care. To improve their health, universities or public organizations should provide education and/or screen for anaemia. With the knowledge and understanding of their health issues or underling diseases, students themselves can prevent serious health conditions, improve university performances, and improve their quality

  3. Temporal analysis of national level Muay-Thai matches: Effects of competitive phase

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    Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporal analysis of matches allows the study of fighting patterns in combat sports. With this procedure, we can recreate the efforts in specific training. However, up to date have no information concerning temporal analysis considering competitive level in Muay-Thai. Objective: To investigate temporal characteristics of Muay-Thai athletes in official competition from national level, considering round, and to compare preliminary combats with those that had medal disputes. Material and methods: Were recorded 65 matches in a Brazilian championship. We conducted in loco recording. To time-motion analysis, Software Kinovea™ was used. Were considered Observation, Preparation and Interaction periods, as well as high intensity and low intensity ratio (HI:LI. The average duration of the rounds between competitive phases (preliminary or finals was compared with a t test. A generalized linear model was applied considering effort duration as dependent variable and competitive level, round and effort type as independent. Significant level was set in 5%. Results: Were registered 7 to 8 s of Observation, near from 3 s of Preparation and 4 to 5.5 s of Interaction effort type, and the duration of Observation effort was significantly superior the others. Significant differences were observed in the Interaction between preliminary and finals (respectively 5.5 ± 0.3 s and 3.7 ± 0.5 s; p < 0.05. Pooling the Observation and Preparation time as low intensity (LI, and Interaction as high intensity (HI efforts, the HI:LI ratio was 1:2in eliminatory and 1:3 in the final matches. Conclusions: Muay-Thai is an intermittent combat sport, the duration of Interaction effort type is lower in final in comparison to preliminary matches.

  4. Prevalence and management of poststroke spasticity in Thai stroke patients: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajpratham, Piyapat; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai; Kovindha, Apichana; Kuptniratsaikul, Patcharawimol Srisa-an; Dejnuntarat, Kalaya

    2009-10-01

    To study the prevalence, associated factors and management of poststroke spasticity in two muscle groups namely elbow flexor and knee flexor. The Thai stroke rehabilitation registry (TSRR) was conducted among 9 rehabilitation centers. All subjects received the conventional rehabilitation program until they reached their rehabilitation goals or discharge criteria. The Brunnstrom motor recovery stage, Barthel Index, Thai Mental State Examination, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), and WHOQOL-BREF-Thai (26 items) questionnaires were used to assess the motor recovery, functional disability, cognition, spasticity and quality of life on admission respectively. The management of spasticity was also recorded. There were 327 patients with a mean age of 62.2-years-old participating in the study. The prevalence of poststroke spasticity was 41.6%. Among these the prevalences of spasticity of both elbow and knee flexors was 31.2% and of either elbow or knee flexor were 4.9% and 5.5% respectively. Spasticity with MAS grade 1 was found in the majority. The patients with spasticity had a significantly longer time to rehabilitation admission interval after the stroke (p = 0.049), had the Brunnstrom motor recovery stages of arm (p spasticity group. The factor associated with spasticity was Brunnstrom motor recovery stage 2 and 3 of the arm with the odds ratio being 6.1 (95% CI = 2.5-14.9) and 3.5 respectively (95% CI = 1.3-9.2). Management of spasticity was demonstrated in 83 patients (25.4%). Therapeutic exercise, oral antispastic medication and assistive device were the first three managements frequently prescribed respectively. Spasticity was a common complication after stroke. Although the prevalence was quite high, spasticity with MAS grade 1 was found in the majority of cases. The associated factor was the Brunnstrom motor recovery stage of the arm. Therapeutic exercise was the mainstay of the management.

  5. Molecular Identification of Trichinella papuae from a Thai Patient with Imported Trichinellosis

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    Intapan, Pewpan M.; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Sanpool, Oranuch; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported the presence of imported trichinellosis in a Thai worker returning from Malaysia, who presented with progressive generalized muscle hypertrophy and weakness after eating wild boar meat. This work analyzed a partial small subunit of a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene of Trichinella larvae isolated from the patient. The results showed complete identity with a mitochondrial RNA gene of Trichinella papuae (GenBank accession no. EF517130). This is the first report of imported trichinellosis in Thailand caused by T. papuae. It is possible that T. papuae is widely distributed in the wildlife of Southeast Asia. PMID:21633039

  6. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Susanne; Leonhardt, Åsa; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Carlen, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins) and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins). MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001) more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral infections and complaints

  7. Promoting universal financial protection: how the Thai universal coverage scheme was designed to ensure equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Prakongsai, Phusit; Sumalee, Hathaichanok; Tosanguan, Jiraboon; Mills, Anne

    2013-08-06

    Empirical evidence demonstrates that the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) has improved equity of health financing and provided a relatively high level of financial risk protection. Several UCS design features contribute to these outcomes: a tax-financed scheme, a comprehensive benefit package and gradual extension of coverage to illnesses that can lead to catastrophic household costs, and capacity of the National Health Security Office (NHSO) to mobilise adequate resources. This study assesses the policy processes related to making decisions on these features. The study employs qualitative methods including reviews of relevant documents, in-depth interviews of 25 key informants, and triangulation amongst information sources. Continued political and financial commitments to the UCS, despite political rivalry, played a key role. The Thai Rak Thai (TRT)-led coalition government introduced UCS; staying in power 8 of the 11 years between 2001 and 2011 was long enough to nurture and strengthen the UCS and overcome resistance from various opponents. Prime Minister Surayud's government, replacing the ousted TRT government, introduced universal renal replacement therapy, which deepened financial risk protection.Commitment to their manifesto and fiscal capacity pushed the TRT to adopt a general tax-financed universal scheme; collecting premiums from people engaged in the informal sector was neither politically palatable nor technically feasible. The relatively stable tenure of NHSO Secretary Generals and the chairs of the Financing and the Benefit Package subcommittees provided a platform for continued deepening of financial risk protection. NHSO exerted monopsonistic purchasing power to control prices, resulting in greater patient access and better systems efficiency than might have been the case with a different design.The approach of proposing an annual per capita budget changed the conventional line-item programme budgeting system by basing negotiations between the

  8. Promoting universal financial protection: how the Thai universal coverage scheme was designed to ensure equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence demonstrates that the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) has improved equity of health financing and provided a relatively high level of financial risk protection. Several UCS design features contribute to these outcomes: a tax-financed scheme, a comprehensive benefit package and gradual extension of coverage to illnesses that can lead to catastrophic household costs, and capacity of the National Health Security Office (NHSO) to mobilise adequate resources. This study assesses the policy processes related to making decisions on these features. Methods The study employs qualitative methods including reviews of relevant documents, in-depth interviews of 25 key informants, and triangulation amongst information sources. Results Continued political and financial commitments to the UCS, despite political rivalry, played a key role. The Thai Rak Thai (TRT)-led coalition government introduced UCS; staying in power 8 of the 11 years between 2001 and 2011 was long enough to nurture and strengthen the UCS and overcome resistance from various opponents. Prime Minister Surayud’s government, replacing the ousted TRT government, introduced universal renal replacement therapy, which deepened financial risk protection. Commitment to their manifesto and fiscal capacity pushed the TRT to adopt a general tax-financed universal scheme; collecting premiums from people engaged in the informal sector was neither politically palatable nor technically feasible. The relatively stable tenure of NHSO Secretary Generals and the chairs of the Financing and the Benefit Package subcommittees provided a platform for continued deepening of financial risk protection. NHSO exerted monopsonistic purchasing power to control prices, resulting in greater patient access and better systems efficiency than might have been the case with a different design. The approach of proposing an annual per capita budget changed the conventional line-item programme budgeting system by

  9. Automatic Transformation of the Thai Categorial Grammar Treebank to Dependency Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Ruangrajitpakorn, Taneth; Boonkwan, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    A method for deriving an approximately labeled dependency treebank from the Thai Categorial Grammar Treebank has been implemented. The method involves a lexical dictionary for assigning dependency directions to the CG types associated with the grammatical entities in the CG bank, falling back...... training set achieves 76.5% label accuracy. In the process, a number of annotation errors in the CG bank were identified and corrected. Although rather limited in its coverage, excluding e.g. long-distance dependencies, topicalisations and longer sentences, the resulting treebank is believed to be sound...

  10. Molecular docking studies and anti-tyrosinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-01-07

    The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear copper active site. The results indicated a possible mechanism for their anti-tyrosinase activity which may involve an ability to chelate the copper atoms which are required for the catalytic activity of tyrosinase.

  11. In vitro antimalarial drug susceptibility in Thai border areas from 1998–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungthin Mathirut

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodia borders have been historically linked with the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. Indeed, the areas are often described as harbouring multi-drug resistant parasites. These areas of Thailand have experienced significant changes in antimalarial drug exposure patterns over the past decade. This study describes the in vitro antimalarial susceptibility patterns of 95 laboratory-adapted P. falciparum isolates, collected between 1998 and 2003,. Methods Ninety five P. falciparum isolates were collected from five sites in Thailand between 1998 and 2003. After laboratory adaptation to in vitro culture, the susceptibility of these parasites to a range of established antimalarial drugs (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine [MQ], quinine [QN] and dihydroartemisinin [DHA] was determined by the isotopic microtest. Results Mefloquine (MQ sensitivity remained poorest in areas previously described as MQ-resistant areas. Sensitivity to MQ of parasites from this area was significantly lower than those from areas reported to harbour moderate (p = 0.002 of low level MQ resistance (p = 000001. Importantly for all drugs tested, there was a considerable range in absolute parasite sensitivities. There was a weak, but statistically positive correlation between parasite sensitivity to CQ and sensitivity to both QN and MQ and a positive correlation between MQ and QN. In terms of geographical distribution, parasites from the Thai-Cambodia were tended to be less sensitive to all drugs tested compared to the Thai-Myanmar border. Parasite sensitivity to all drugs was stable over the 6-year collection period with the exception of QN. Conclusion This study highlights the high degree of variability in parasite drug sensitivity in Thailand. There were geographical differences in the pattern of resistance which might reflect differences in drug usage in each area. In contrast to many

  12. Renal function parameters of Thai vegans compared with non-vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-01-01

    In Asia, vegetarianism is a well-established eating behavior. It appears that the adoption of a vegan diet leads to a lessening of several health risk factors. Although vegetarianism has some notable effects on the hematological system, the effect on the nephrological system has not been well clarified. The pattern of renal function parameters was studied in 25 Thai vegans compared with 25 non-vegetarians. Of the studied parameters, it was found that urine protein was significantly different (p vegans and controls. Vegans had significantly lower urine protein level.

  13. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Blomqvist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins. MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results: While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001 more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions: S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral

  14. Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Three emergent themes were identified from the results of this study: a lack of standardised guidelines for nurse academics to effectively supervise postgraduate research; the pressure that nurse academics experience regarding postgraduate research supervision; other demanding roles of an academic, such as a ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    first time, on the findings of a research study on the implementation of field trips in a management module in the BPharm curriculum and to conclude whether this intervention changed pharmacy students' perception of the module. Method. A mixed-method sequential exploratory research design was followed,.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Anonymity of respondents was assured by concealing their identity and research data was kept confidential for research purposes only. The study was conducted by full adherence of the ..... Samwel K. Misoi, Richard K. Rotich, Anthony K. Mwanthi and George. M. Mwita for their moderation throughout the ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interview guide approach was implemented in face-to-face in-depth interviews ... Dependability of the data collected was ensured through an audit trail. The main researcher and supervisor served as peer .... [16] A growing body of research reports that students with high academic resilience and self-efficacy are more ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. 108 September 2017, Vol. 9, No. 3 AJHPE. Methods. This is a qualitative descriptive study that explored nursing students' experiences. ..... Challenges and lessons learned. Clin. Simulation Nursing 2013;9(5):e157-e162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2011.11.011. 12. Creswell JW. Research Design. 4th ed.

  20. Speaking Anxiety in English Conversation Classrooms among Thai Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on a part of a larger research project concerning the conceptualisation of English language speaking-in-class anxiety, attitudes to speaking English in class and self-ratings of English-speaking ability, and perceived sources of this situation-specific anxiety. Methodology: The participants in this study were 282 Thai…

  1. Strategies for Better Learning of English Grammar: Chinese vs. Thais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supakorn, Patnarin; Feng, Min; Limmun, Wanida

    2018-01-01

    The success of language learning significantly depends on multiple sets of complex factors; among these are language-learning strategies of which learners in different countries may show different preferences. Needed areas of language learning strategy research include, among others, the strategy of grammar learning and the context-based approach…

  2. Teachers' Performance Motivation System in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasathang, Sarojn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sataphonwong, Pattananusron

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to: 1) study the present conditions and desirable condition of the motivation systems as well as how to find methods for motivating the performance of teachers in primary schools, 2) develop a motivation system for the performance of teachers in primary schools, 3) study the effects of using the motivation system for compliance…

  3. Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832) (Gastropoda, Thaididae) in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile/ Parametros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832) (Gastropoda, Thaididae), en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cantillanez, Marcela; Avendano, Miguel; Rojo, Manuel; Olivares, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    ... Aulacomya ater, Tagelus dombeii, y el caracol carnivoro Thais chocolata (Ortiz et al., 2009a). Estudios recientes han demostrado que el area de la reserva marina que ocupa una superficie de 350 ha, esta sujeta a flujos alternados de corriente que resultan en una corriente predominante dirigida hacia el norte, pero que se encuentra con la barrera impues...

  4. Cultural Insiders and Research Fieldwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusanee Suwankhong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of the insider and outsider is an important concept for cross-cultural research. Being a cultural insider is recognized as a strength that allows the researcher to take part in the everyday lives of local people and to get closer to the participants. We explore these issues using examples from our own research with Thai people in southern Thailand and in Melbourne, Australia. We suggest that insider status has an impact on whether the researchers can conduct successful fieldwork and obtain in-depth understanding of the phenomenon being investigated. Being an insider enables a researcher to conduct research more sensitively. It helps in gaining a deeper understanding of the sociocultural contexts of the research setting. However, there are also challenges associated with insider status. These include the need to reestablish our position in a community, our assumptions about what the participants tell us, and participants’ expectations about us. This article provides case examples for researchers who are interested in conducting research, particularly within the Thai context. It should contribute to a conceptual understanding of real life experiences in a cross-cultural context in general.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... Traumatology, Umraniye Research and Education Hospital, 34899 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons .... and major complication such as pain, seroma, dog ears, widening of.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that should promote basic capabilities and functionings as well as academic achievement. ... for development and wellbeing on an educational, personal and social level.[2] ... Research indicates that academic stressors, living circumstances, working conditions and where students undertake leisure activities affect.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-28

    Aug 28, 2015 ... Ethiopia, 2Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department ... of Public Health, 4Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious .... active ingredient x 10,000 dilution rate of product): 0.1%.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Background: For many women in Kenya, their husbands act as ... and researching whether men are translating this knowledge into action ..... older participants, and participants with multiparous wives, reflecting personal.

  9. Volumen 6 Número 10: The Efficiency in Thai Financial Sector after the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachet Chansarn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the efficiency in Thai financial sector after the financial crisis (1998 – 2004 by looking at the total factor productivity (TFP growth. Furthermore, the study also investigate the efficiency in commercial bank sector, finance and securities company sector and insurance company sector, and the efficiency in domestic and foreign financial companies. Based on the sample of 12 commercial banks, 13 finance and securities companies and 20 insurance companies listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET over the period of 1998 – 2204, our finding reveals that the efficiency in Thai financial sector, commercial bank sector and finance and securities company sector was diminishing over the period of 1998 – 2004, while the efficiency in insurance company sector remained unchanged over the same period. However, the sharp decrease in efficiency in these three sectors occurred only over the period of 1998 – 1999, while the efficiency was decreasing very slightly over the period of 1999 – 2004. The study also suggests that, in overall, domestic financial companies are more efficient than foreign ones. Domestic finance and securities companies are also more efficient than foreign ones, whereas domestic and foreign commercial banks are not different in efficiency. Moreover, domestic and foreign insurance companies are not different in efficiency as well.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immunity status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major health problems among HIV seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. In this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed. Methods A study of stool samples from 60 Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Each patient was examined for CD4 count and screened for diarrheal symptoms. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among the HIV-infected patients in this study was 50 %. Non- opportunistic intestinal parasite infections such as hookworms, Opisthorchis viverrini and Ascaris lumbricoides were commonly found in HIV-infected people regardless of immune status with or without diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic intestinal parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia and Strongyloides stercoralis infection were significantly more frequent in the low immunity group with diarrhea. Conclusion Therefore, opportunistic intestinal parasite infection should be suspected in any HIV infected patient with advanced disease presenting with diarrhea. The importance of tropical epidemic non-opportunistic intestinal parasite infections among HIV-infected patients should not be neglected.

  11. Molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus genotype 6 subtypes in Thai blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistayanarain, Anchalee; Chaiwong, Suriya

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is important for identifying effective antiviral therapy, evaluating pathogenic severity, and tracking transmission routes. In Thailand, HCV genotypes 3 and 1 are the most common. We have previously demonstrated an increasing appearance of genotype 6 in HCV infections in Thailand. However, only limited epidemiological data on genotype 6 in Thailand are available. This study aimed to characterize HCV genotype 6 among apparently healthy Thai blood donors. In total, 240 blood samples were collected from Phitsanulok Regional Blood Center, Phitsanulok, Thailand. RNA was reverse transcribed and amplified by the nested polymerase chain reaction. HCV genotyping was performed by direct sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis of core sequences. Amino acid polymorphism of various subtypes of HCV genotype 6 was investigated. Of the 240 samples, 192 were successfully sequenced for the core region and 84 were determined to be of HCV genotype 6 by phylogenetic analysis. The most prevalent HCV-6 subtypes were 6f > 6n > 6c > 6i. Amino acid sequences of the partial core region among these four subtypes differed by one to seven residues. For HCV-6, the subtype 6f was commonly found in Thai blood donors. Comparison of core protein from various HCV-6 subtypes showed substantial polymorphisms, which may form the basis of future studies using samples from patients with clear HCV histories. This feature can be applied to therapies tailored to particular genotype variants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effectiveness of Medium Chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet in Thai Children with Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomtho, Krisnachai; Suteerojntrakool, Orapa; Chomtho, Sirinuch

    2016-02-01

    To determine the efficacy, side effects and feasibility of Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet (KD) in Thai children with intractable epilepsy. Children with intractable epilepsy were recruited. Baseline seizure frequency was recorded over 4 weeks before starting MCT KD. Average seizure frequency was assessed at 1 month and 3 months, compared to the baseline using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Side effects and feasibility were also assessed by blood tests and an interview. Sixteen subjects were recruited with mean seizure frequency of 0.35-52.5 per day. After treatment, there was a significant reduction in seizure frequency, ranging from 12% to 100% (p = 0.002 at 1 month, and 0.001 at 3 months). 64.3% of the subjects achieved more than 50% seizure reduction at 3 months and 28.6% of the patients were seizure-free. Common adverse effects were initial weight loss (37.5%) and nausea (25%). 87.5% of subjects and parents were satisfied with the MCT KD with 2 cases dropping-out due to diarrhea and non-compliance. MCT ketogenic diet is effective and feasible in Thai children with intractable epilepsy. Despite modification against Asian culinary culture, the tolerability and maintenance rate was still satisfactory. A larger study is required.

  13. Structure-property relationships of Thai silk-microcrystalline cellulose biocomposite materials fabricated from ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrates, Kelsey; Markiewicz, Theodore; Callaway, Kayla; Xue, Ye; Stanton, John; Salas-de la Cruz, David; Hu, Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Biomaterials made from natural proteins and polysaccharides have become increasingly popular in the biomedical field due to their good biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. However, the low miscibility of polysaccharides with proteins presents challenges in the creation of protein-polysaccharide composite materials. In this study, neat 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) ionic liquid was used to regenerate Thailand gold Bombyx mori silk and microcrystalline cellulose blended films. This solvent was found to not only effectively dissolve both natural polymers, but also preserve the structure and integrity of the polymers. A single glass transition temperature for each blend was found in DSC curves, indicating good miscibility between the Thai silk and cellulose molecules. The structural composition as well as the morphology and thermal stability of blend films were then determined using FTIR, SEM and TGA. It was found that by varying the ratio of Thai silk to cellulose, the thermal and physical properties of the material could be tuned. Blended films tended to be more thermally stable which could be due to the presence of hydrophobic-hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions between the silk and cellulose. These studies offered a new pathway to understand the tunable properties of protein-polysaccharide composite biomaterials with controllable physical and biological properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of allergic rhinitis and asthma on the quality of life in young Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritipsukho, Paskorn; Satdhabudha, Araya; Nanthapisal, Sira

    2015-09-01

    Despite an increasing recognition that both asthma and allergic rhinitis are serious health disorders in Thailand, their combined effects on patients' quality of life in the Thai population has not been reported. The study aimed to evaluate the impacts of allergic rhinitis and asthma on the quality of life of young adolescents in Thailand. A total of 1,440 pupils, aged 12-14 years, were randomly recruited from 4 schools located in Bangkok and Pathum Thani Province. Allergic rhinitis and asthmatic symptoms were identified by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire was used to evaluate their quality of life. There were 1,230 completed questionnaires for analysis. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis alone, asthma alone and diseases co-occurrence was 32.8%, 7.2%, and 12.7% respectively. Pupils with respiratory allergy had significantly lower PedsQL mean scores than healthy pupils, for all dimensions (p allergic rhinitis, those who were also affected with asthma had significantly lower mean scores, for all quality of life domains (all p allergic rhinitis, asthma significantly reduced PedsQL mean scores in almost all domains (p Allergic rhinitis and asthma have a significant influence on the quality of life in young Thai adolescents, in particular regarding emotional functioning. Asthma has stronger negative effects on life quality than allergic rhinitis, especially regarding psychosocial health.

  15. Thai Finger-Spelling Recognition Using a Cascaded Classifier Based on Histogram of Orientation Gradient Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittasil Silanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand posture recognition is an essential module in applications such as human-computer interaction (HCI, games, and sign language systems, in which performance and robustness are the primary requirements. In this paper, we proposed automatic classification to recognize 21 hand postures that represent letters in Thai finger-spelling based on Histogram of Orientation Gradient (HOG feature (which is applied with more focus on the information within certain region of the image rather than each single pixel and Adaptive Boost (i.e., AdaBoost learning technique to select the best weak classifier and to construct a strong classifier that consists of several weak classifiers to be cascaded in detection architecture. We collected 21 static hand posture images from 10 subjects for testing and training in Thai letters finger-spelling. The parameters for the training process have been adjusted in three experiments, false positive rates (FPR, true positive rates (TPR, and number of training stages (N, to achieve the most suitable training model for each hand posture. All cascaded classifiers are loaded into the system simultaneously to classify different hand postures. A correlation coefficient is computed to distinguish the hand postures that are similar. The system achieves approximately 78% accuracy on average on all classifier experiments.

  16. Breast Cancer Treatment: Experiences of Changes and Social Stigma Among Thai Women in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2016-01-01

    Women with breast cancer receive different forms of treatment. Although treatment can save the lives of women, they can result in adverse physical, psychological, and social effects that can impact the women's quality of life. The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of breast cancer treatment among Thai women in southern Thailand. This study used qualitative methods (in-depth interviewing and drawings) with 20 Thai women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Three themes emerged: (a) being a breast cancer patient: visible signs and adverse effects of therapy, (b) experiencing emotional chaos, and (c) experiencing social dysfunction. The women had to deal with physical body changes, emotional burden, treatment-related social stigma, and being marginalized within their own social context. Women experienced changes including social stigma after receiving breast cancer treatments. They had to manage stigma and difficulties themselves without sufficient professional support. It is important for nurses to understand such experiences so that they may support appropriate coping strategies suited to each woman. Community health nurses need to view each woman with breast cancer as a unique person and appreciate how to provide appropriate care and support based on each woman's experience with her illness and treatment.

  17. Association between vision impairment and health among a national cohort of 87,134 Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-03-01

    To date, more than 300 million people worldwide live with low vision and blindness, imposing social and economic burdens on individuals and families. This study analyzes a cohort of 87 134 Thai adults, reporting odds ratios (ORs) and calculating population attributable fractions (PAFs). PAF estimates the proportion of the disease or condition that would not occur if no one in the population had the risk factor. Approximately 28% and 8% reported having refractive errors and vision impairment not correctable by visual aids. Both types of vision impairment were positively associated with poor self-assessed health (adjusted ORs = 1.23 to 2.03) and poor psychological health (adjusted ORs = 1.13 to 1.63). PAFs show that refractive errors explain 6.1% of poor self-assessed health, 3.5% of poor psychological health, and 2.2% of falls in the last year. PAFs for vision impairment not correctable by visual aids explain 7.5%, 4.7%, and 3.1%, respectively. Incorporating early detection and prevention of vision impairment at the primary health care level will contribute to promoting the health of Thais. © 2012 APJPH.

  18. Geography has more influence than language on maternal genetic structure of various northeastern Thai ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Ghirotto, Silvia; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Srithawong, Suparat; Srithongdaeng, Kanokpohn; Pontham, Nattapon; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2014-09-01

    Several literatures have shown the influence of geographic and linguistic factors in shaping genetic variation patterns, but their relative impact, if any, in the very heterogeneous northeastern region of Thailand has not yet been studied. This area, called Isan, is geographically structured in two wide basins, the Sakon Nakorn Basin and the Korat Basin, serving today as home to diverse ethnicities encompassing two different linguistic families, that is, the Austro-Asiatic; Suay (Kui), Mon, Chaobon (Nyahkur), So and Khmer, and the Tai-Kadai; Saek, Nyaw, Phu Tai, Kaleung and Lao Isan. In this study, we evaluated the relative role of geographic distance and barriers as well as linguistic differences as possible causes affecting the maternal genetic distances among northeastern Thai ethnicities. A 596-bp segment of the hypervariable region I mitochondrial DNA was utilized to elucidate the genetic structure and biological affinity from 433 individuals. Different statistical analyses agreed in suggesting that most ethnic groups in the Sakon Nakorn Basin are closely related. Mantel test revealed that genetic distances were highly associated to geographic (r = 0.445, P0.01) distances. Three evolutionary models were compared by Approximate Bayesian Computation. The posterior probability of the scenario, which assumed an initial population divergence possibly related to reduced gene flow among basins, was equal or higher than 0.87. All analyses exhibited concordant results supporting that geography was the most relevant factor in determining the maternal genetic structure of northeastern Thai populations.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in Thai swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruennarong, N; Wongpanit, K; Sakulthaew, C; Giorgi, M; Klangkaew, N; Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin (AMX) in Thai swamp buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, following single intramuscular administration at two dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected at assigned times up to 48 h. The plasma concentrations of AMX were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentrations of AMX in the plasma were determined up to 24 h after i.m. administration at both dosages. The Cmax values of AMX were 3.39 ± 0.18 μg/mL and 6.16 ± 0.18 μg/mL at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. The AUClast values increased in a dose-dependent fashion. The half-life values were 5.56 ± 0.40 h and 4.37 ± 0.23 h at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD index (T > MIC), i.m. administration of AMX at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible Mannheimia haemolytica infection in Thai swamp buffaloes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A note on clinical presentations of amebic liver abscess: an overview from 62 Thai patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amebic liver abscess is a tropical disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Given the often nonspecific nature of the complaints related to amebic abscess, a retrospective review of patients with confirmed disease to recognize the most common patterns of presentation is useful. Here, we study the clinical presentations of 62 Thai patients with amebic liver abscess. We also compare the clinical presentations of Anti HIV seronegative and Anti HIV seropositive patients. Methods A retrospective case review was carried out for 62 Thai patients who had been diagnosed with amebic liver abscess. Clinical information was collected, including symptoms and signs, location and number of abscesses. The Anti HIV serology laboratory investigation was also reviewed. Results According to our study, the common clinical symptoms and signs are abdominal pain (85.5 %, fever and chills (74.2 %, and abdominal tenderness (69.4 %. The location of the abscess was predominantly in the right lobe (74.2 %, and most of patients had a single abscess (77.4 %. Similar trends in clinical presentations were observed in both Anti HIV seropositive and Anti HIV seronegative subjects. Conclusions In conclusion, the clinical presentations of our amebic liver abscess patients were similar to those in previous reports. A similarity to those in the pyogenic liver abscess patients can be observed. Nevertheless, we could not detect important significant differences in the clinical presentations between Anti HIV seropositive and Anti HIV seronegative groups of patients.

  1. Pursuing meaning and purpose in life among Thai adolescents living with HIV: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthip, Quantar; Purnell, Marguerite J

    2014-01-01

    This grounded theory study aimed to understand how Thai adolescents living with HIV pursued meaning and purpose in life. Data were gathered from 11 adolescents in southern Thailand who were between ages 18 and 20 years, and who had lived with HIV for 2 or more years. Purposive and theoretical sampling techniques were used to recruit the participants. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observations, and field notes. Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory method guided data analysis. The core category of "pursuing meaning and purpose in life among Thai adolescents living with HIV" emerged out of a recursive process of uncertainty, inferiority, self-realization, and growth that comprised three categories: (a) condition: realizing self-value, (b) strategy: being connected to prolonging life, and (c) consequence: achieving peace and calm. The findings enhance knowledge that would benefit nurses helping adolescents living with HIV find meaning and purpose in life. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. All rights reserved.

  2. Glutaminase-producing Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii isolated from Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryuman, Phichayaphorn; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Assavanig, Apinya

    2015-01-02

    In this study, 34 yeast isolates were obtained from koji and moromi samples of Thai soy sauce fermentation. However, the most interesting yeast strain was isolated from the enriched 2 month-old (M2) moromi sample and identified as Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii EM2Y61. This strain is a salt-tolerant yeast that could tolerate up to 20% (w/v) NaCl and produce extracellular and cell-bound glutaminases. Interestingly, its glutaminases were more active in 18% (w/v) NaCl which is a salt concentration in moromi. The extracellular glutaminase's activity was found to be much higher than that of cell-bound glutaminase. The highest specific activity and stability of the extracellular glutaminase were found in 18% (w/v) NaCl at pH4.5 and 37°C. A challenge test by adding partially-purified extracellular glutaminase from M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 into 1 month-old (M1) moromi sample showed an increased conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid. This is the first report of glutaminase producing M. guilliermondii isolated from the moromi of Thai soy sauce fermentation. The results suggested the potential application of M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 as starter yeast culture to increase l-glutamic acid during soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on loin (Longissimus dorsi quality in Brahman x Thai native cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkawattana, P.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study effects of vitamin E supplementation on physical, chemical and eating quality of longissimus dorsi muscle of Brahman x Thai native cattle. Four groups of three Brahman x Thai native steers, weighing 150-160 kg, were fed with concentrate supplemented with vitamin E at 0, 100, 200, 400 ppm before and after grazing in the pasture. The experiment lasted 120 days. At the end of the feeding trial all cattle were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi muscles were collected to determine various meat quality aspects. The results showed that the lowest shear force value of meat in the 400-ppm group indicated a more tender in comparison to the others. All supplementation levels had no effect on pH of the meat. Water holding capacity of the meat (after chilled for 24 hours from the 100-ppm group, was significantly different (P0.05 either triobarbituric acid (TBA value or eating quality (tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall acceptability.

  4. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C. albicans using the agar disk diffusion method followed by broth micro-dilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration. The oils with potent antifungal effects against planktonic fungi were then assessed for their effect against sessile fungus (adherent organisms and established biofilm culture). MIC of the oils against sessile C. albicans was evaluated by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. All selected culinary herbs and spices, except galangal, garlic, and turmeric, exhibited inhibitory effects on planktonic yeast cells. Cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf essential oils exhibited potent fungicidal effect on planktonic and sessile fungus. Sessile MICs were 8-16 times higher than planktonic MICs. Consequently, both cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices. (J Oral Sci 58, 365-371, 2016).

  5. Identification and characterization of the aroma-impact components of Thai fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-03-18

    Comprehensive analysis of the potent odorants in Thai premium fish sauce samples was accomplished by use of complementary volatile isolation methods combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry. Odorants of intermediate and low volatility were determined by direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Meanwhile, static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (H-SPME) were used to determine the highly volatile odorants. Results of AEDA indicated the importance (log3FD factor≥6) of five acidic odorants (butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-phenylacetic acid) and four neutral/basic odorants (3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, phenylacetaldehyde, and o-aminoacetophone). Results of SHDA indicated the predominant (log3FD factors≥5) headspace odorants were methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid. Concentrations for 21 odorants were determined by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), and their odor-activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Among these, methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid had the highest OAVs (>500). Results of aroma recombination and omission studies revealed the importance of acids, aldehydes, and sulfur-containing compounds to the overall aroma of the Thai fish sauce.

  6. Longitudinal study of Thai people media exposure, knowledge, and behavior on dengue fever prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kachentawa, Kirati; Limpavithayakul, Manasanun; Prachansri, Anan

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is transmitted through a bite by a dengue -infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was first reported in the mid -20th century in Thailand, and since then its epidemiology has been of great concern and has spread all across the country. The alarming incidence of dengue posed a serious threat to human health in all major cities of Thailand. This study was aimed at identifying the level of awareness of dengue fever in Thai population knowledge for prevention and control, and most importantly contribution of media in educating masses for dengue control measures. It is longitudinal in nature and was conducted in 25 provinces of Thailand during 2013-2015. Approximately 7772 respondents participated in this study, with the selection of provinces based on considerations like population, prevalence and demography. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information relevant to study participants' demographic profile, pre-existing knowledge about dengue fever and its reinforcement through media, and population attitudes toward prevention and control. Over the period of three years, a positive trend was revealed relevant to the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue, without any uniformity or powerful campaigns. Based on the results drawn from this study, we conclude that despite the measures undertaken to prevent dengue fever, there is insufficient media exposure. An interdisciplinary approach involving the community participation, media, and government is needed to overcome dengue threat in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting satisfaction of Thai senior citizens living with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanakitsakul, M

    1999-07-01

    Globalization has greatly affected both socioeconomic and cultural changes. It has affected family structures, faiths, values, and living arrangements of the people in Thailand, especially senior citizens that are familiar with the old ways. In this article, a study analyzing living arrangements, living satisfaction, and factors affecting satisfaction for senior citizens living with their children is presented. Using descriptive and inferential statistics, data from the 1994 Survey of the Elderly in Thailand were analyzed. Findings of the analysis showed that a large majority of Thai senior citizens lived with their children (73%), indicating that co-residence between senior citizens and their children is a prominent phenomenon in Thai society. Indicators of high living satisfaction included obedience of the children and happiness, while neglect and child complaints were negative indicators. In addition, presence of a spouse could affect the satisfaction of senior citizens. Factors affecting living satisfaction included support from children, income sufficiency, marital status of senior citizen, health status, need to be cared for by children, and education. Sustained filial duty of children, social participation of senior citizens, and further studies on the factors affecting satisfaction are recommended.

  8. HIV type 1 Thai subtype E is predominant in South Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, E; Truong, T X; Lafon, M E; Nguyen, T H; Müller-Trutwin, M C; Nguyen, T T; Deslandres, A; Chaouat, G; Duong, Q T; Ha, B K; Fleury, H J; Barré-Sinoussi, F

    1996-05-01

    Samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 50 HIV-1-infected individuals in South Vietnam were analyzed to determine with which HIV-1 subtype the subjects were infected. Participants were from Ho Chi Minh city and five surrounding provinces; 16 samples from female prostitutes, 32 from IV drug users, and one each from a man and woman not in any HIV risk group. 32 individuals were therefore most likely infected by IV drug use and the rest through sexual contacts. PCR amplification and heteroduplex mobility assay found all but one case to be infected with HIV-1 subtype E. The only nonsubtype E infection was HIV-1 subtype B in a woman sexually infected by her seropositive partner who was most likely exposed to the virus in Europe. HIV-1 subtype E strongly predominates in South Vietnam. The homogeneous geographic distribution of subtype E suggests the recent introduction of the virus into the country. A Thai origin can be considered given the genetic relationship between the Thai and Vietnamese subtypes E. It may be assumed that subtype E infections of Vietnamese prostitutes are related to the progressive entry and spread of HIV-1 subtype E from Thailand to Cambodia and then to southern Vietnam.

  9. Antilisterial effects of ethanolic extracts of some edible Thai plants on refrigerated cooked pork

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    Siriporn Stonsaovapak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis.Effective methods for reducing L. monocytogenes in foods would reduce the likelihood of foodborneoutbreaks of listeriosis and decrease economic losses to the food industry. Crude ethanolic extracts from 50 edible Thai plants were screened for inhibitory effects on isolated strains and type strains of L.monocytogenes by the well assay technique. Ethanolic extracts of Micromelum minutum, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper retrofractum and Cucurbita moschata, which showed listerial growth inhibition,were applied to cooked pork to determine their antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. Pork was cooked to an internal temperature of 85C, allowed to cool to 8C and then treated by surface application with the plant extracts. Low (102 cfu g-1 or high (105 cfu g-1 population of L.monocytogenes were applied and samples were stored at 4C for up to 7 days. M. minutum and A.heterophyllus extracts were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. These results suggested that some edible Thai plant extracts might be useful as antimicrobials in cooked, ready-to-eatpork.

  10. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, M.; Sophanodora, P.

    2002-01-01

    Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7...

  11. Thai Pre-Service Music Educators and Their Future in Music Education and Its Role in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindsey R.; Trakarnrung, Somchai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to acquire a better understanding of the decision-making process of Thai pre-service music education students and their expectations of their post-graduation professional activities. Demographic data was gathered as well as self-reported participant influences regarding choosing to major in music education. A…

  12. Developing a Problem-Based Course Based on Needs Analysis to Enhance English Reading Ability of Thai Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosuwon, Takwa; Woodrow, Lindy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a needs analysis underlying a proposed business English reading course using a problem-based learning approach designed to enhance English reading abilities of Thai undergraduate students. As part of a work in progress, the needs analysis survey was done prior to the course design with the major stakeholders in business and…

  13. Thai SF-36 health survey: tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and validity in healthy men and women

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    Sleigh Adrian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its translation to Thai in 2000, the SF-36 Health Survey has been used extensively in many different clinical settings in Thailand. Its popularity has increased despite the absence of published evidence that the translated instrument satisfies scoring assumptions, the psychometric properties required for valid interpretation of the SF-36 summated ratings scales. The purpose of this paper was to examine these properties and to report on the reliability and validity of the Thai SF-36 in a non-clinical general population. Methods 1345 distance-education university students who live in all areas of Thailand completed a questionnaire comprising the Thai SF-36 (Version 1. Median age was 31 years. Psychometric tests recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment Project were used. Results Data quality was satisfactory: questionnaire completion rate was high (97.5% and missing data rates were low ( Conclusion The summated ratings method can be used for scoring the Thai SF-36. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid for use in a general non-clinical population. Version 2 of the SF-36 could improve ceiling and floor effects in the role functioning scales. Further work is warranted to refine items that measure the concepts of social functioning, vitality and mental health to improve the reliability and discriminant validity of these scales.

  14. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

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    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  15. Images as a Resource for Supporting Vocabulary Learning: A Multimodal Analysis of Thai EFL Tablet Apps for Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vungthong, Sompatu; Djonov, Emilia; Torr, Jane

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, the Thai government introduced a national project, One Tablet per Child (OTPC), with the aim of supporting students' learning in the digital world. The project commenced with Grade 1 in 2012 and Grade 2 in 2013. The applications embedded in the OTPC tablet given to each child feature multimedia teaching applications (apps) on various…

  16. The Role of Narrative Structure in the Acquisition of English Tense-Aspect Morphology by Thai Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiravate, Boonjeera

    2011-01-01

    As regards the acquisition of L2 verbal morphology, one of the universal tendencies as elucidated by the Interlanguage Discourse Hypothesis (Bardovi-Harlig, 1994, p.43) is that language learners use emerging verbal morphology to distinguish foreground and background in narratives. This present study examines whether Thai EFL learners' use of…

  17. Pharmacokinetics and 48-week safety and efficacy of generic lopinavir/ritonavir in Thai HIV-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramautarsing, R.A.; Lugt, J. van der; Gorowara, M.; Sophonphan, J.; Ananworanich, J.; Lange, J.M.A.; Burger, D.M.; Phanuphak, P.; Ruxthungtham, K.; Avihingsanon, A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic products reduce the costs of HIV treatment. Few generic second-line antiretroviral products are available. We assessed pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of generic lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) produced by the Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO) of Thailand in Thai

  18. Pharmacokinetics and 48-week safety and efficacy of generic lopinavir/ritonavir in Thai HIV-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramautarsing, Reshmie A.; van der Lugt, Jasper; Gorowara, Meena; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Lange, Joep M. A.; Burger, David M.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxthungtham, Kiat; Avihingsanon, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Generic products reduce the costs of HIV treatment. Few generic second-line antiretroviral products are available. We assessed pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of generic lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) produced by the Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO) of Thailand in Thai

  19. Thai Perspectives on the Internationalization of Higher Education in Thailand: A Mixed Methods Analysis and Three Mini-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Karen Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study is a sequential mixed methods study that also includes three mini-case studies for the purpose of portraying contemporary Thai views on the internationalization of higher education in Thailand and reflections on its status as an international education hub in the Southeast Asian region. An inductive analysis technique is used whereby…

  20. Higher prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive than HIV-negative Thai men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Pankam, Tippawan; Rodbamrung, Piyanee; Naorungroj, Supawadee; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-positive and HIV-negative Thai men and women. Participants including men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual women were enrolled at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic in Bangkok. History taking and oral examination were performed by three independent dentists after calibration. HPV infection was evaluated from oral rinse with mouthwash collected at the time of examination. HPV typing was performed by PCR and nucleic acid hybridization to detect thirty-seven HPV DNA genotypes using Linear Array(®) HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular System, Inc.). 244 subjects were enrolled in the study, consisted of 187 HIV-positive (51.9% women and 48.1% MSM) and 57 HIV-negative (21.0% women and 79.0% MSM) Thai subjects. The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 17.2% in HIV-positive subjects whereas only 5.3% of HIV-negative cases had HPV detected in their oral rinses (p=0.0346). Among HIV positive subjects, MSM had higher chance of having HPV infection than females (25% vs. 9.4%, p=0.0074). HIV-positive Thai MSM and women had higher prevalence of oral HPV infection than those without HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Luminescence and density banding patterns in massive Porites corals around the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanzil, J.T.I.; Lee, J.N.; Brown, B.E.; Quax, R.; Kaandorp, J.A.; Lough, J.M.; Todd, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    We characterized the annual luminescent and skeletal density banding patterns in 51 massive Porites corals from 15 reefs from six locations around the Thai-Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia, and explored the seasonal environmental cues/drivers of band formation. Location-specific recurrent annual

  2. Prevalence and trends of obesity and association with socioeconomic status in Thai adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and II (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) in Thai adults aged ≥20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6 kg/m(2) in men and 22.8 kg/m(2) in women in 1991 to 23.3 kg/m(2) and 24.4 kg/m(2) in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991-2009.

  3. Competencies Needed in Oral Communication in English among Thai Undergraduate Public Relations Students: A Substantial Gap between Expectations and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanapichet, Fasawang; Chinokul, Sumalee

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the competencies needed for oral communication in English among Thai undergraduate public relations students for handling public relations job interviews and performing entry-level public relations work. To identify these competencies, the study identified and involved all of the stakeholders in the data reliability…

  4. The Effects of Multimedia Learning on Thai Primary Pupils' Achievement in Size and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjit, Mathukorn

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to obtain more insight regarding the effect of multimedia learning on third grade of Thai primary pupils' achievement in Size and Depth Vocabulary of English. A quasi-experiment is applied using "one group pretest-posttest design" combined with "time series design," as well as data triangulation. The sample…

  5. The Influence of Parents' Backgrounds, Beliefs about English Learning, and a Dialogic Reading Program on Thai Kindergarteners' English Lexical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchprasert, Anongnad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated parents' backgrounds and their beliefs about English language learning, and compared the receptive English vocabulary development of three to six year-old-Thai children before and after participating in a parent-child reading program with the dialogic reading (DR) method. Fifty-four single parents of 54 children voluntarily…

  6. An Investigation into the Impact of Facebook Group Usage on Students' Affect in Language Learning in a Thai Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananuraksakul, Noparat

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the way in which Facebook Group used as a learning management system can enhance Thai students' effective language learning (positive attitude and motivation) in a private university in the vicinity of Bangkok. These two variables are seen to influence learners' achievement in language learning, and they also interdependently…

  7. Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire Thai version

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    Waleeprakhon P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Punjaporn Waleeprakhon,1 Pichai Ittasakul,1 Manote Lotrakul,1 Pattarabhorn Wisajun,1 Sudawan Jullagate,1 Terence A Ketter2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ has been translated to many languages and has been used in many countries as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder. The main objective of this study was to evaluate validity of the Thai version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric outpatient sample, and to determine its optimum question #1 item threshold value for bipolar disorder.Methods: The English language Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the prefinal version, as well as final adjustments. Two hundred and fifty major depressive disorder outpatients were further assessed by the Thai version of the MDQ and the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. During the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis were performed.Results: The Thai version of the MDQ screening had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha =0.791, omega total =0.68, and omega hierarchical =0.69. The optimal question #1 item threshold value was at least five positive items, which yielded adequate sensitivity (76.5%, specificity (72.7%, positive predictive value (74.3%, and negative predictive value (75.0%. The ROC area under the curve (AUC for this study was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.90.Conclusion: The Thai version of the MDQ had some useful psychometric properties for screening for bipolar disorder in a mood disorder clinic setting, with a recommended question #1 item

  8. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

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    Linda Aurpibul

    Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  9. Evaluation of transplantation procedures acceptance among students of Thai, American, and Polish origin who finished a basic didactic course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban, A; Ziaja, J; Budziński, G; Król, R; Oczkowicz, G; Wystrychowski, W; Mąka, B; Badura, J; Cierniak, T; Cierpka, L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare acceptance of basic transplantation procedures as displayed among students from Poland, Thailand, and the United States who finished their education in our clinic. The research concerned a group of 110 fifth year students of the medical department, including 42 citizens of Poland (group 1), 41 citizens of Thailand (group 2), and 27 citizens of the United States (group 3). The average age of the respondents was 25.4 years and 58% were women. After completing a number of clinical transplantation classes, we performed an anonymous poll that consisted of 12 questions related to attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation from dead of living donors. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the relationship between expressed opinions and demographic data. The majority of students accepted organ donation from either dead (92% "definitely yes") or living (81%) donors. The smallest percentage (58%) was expressed by group 2. Some insignificant differences were also observed in connection with the question of whether "brain death" is equivalent to death of a person. Students' responses were diverged with regard to consideration of implied consent as a factor to condition organ procurement from dead donors. Amid Thai students, acceptance was definitely lower (23%) than Polish (67%) or American (58%) ones. At the same time, organ donation was mostly dependent on the consent of a deceased person's family. Similar to other groups, the great majority of students declared their consent to both organ procurement after their own death, to donating a kidney to their relatives, or to persons with whom they are emotionally connected. Interestingly, 16% accepted organ donation for money. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... 1University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana, 2Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan, 3School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa, 4Japan Overseas Christian Medical Co-operative Services, C/o Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tabora,. Private Bag ...

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    212-218. [http:// dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2]. 22. Pepper C. 'There's a lot of learning going on but NOT much teaching!': Student perceptions of problem-based learning in science. Higher Education Research & Development 2010 ...

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    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... 26 March 2017, Vol. 9, No. 1 AJHPE. Research were distributed among varying levels of advancement within the EM training programme (Table 1). Responses to the qualitative section of the survey were categorised into major themes, providing insight into the overall acceptability of small-group education.

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    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 189. Community-based education (CBE) is a learning approach that enables students to acquire skills by means of ... of CBE include early contact with the community, improved teamwork of ... A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Zimbabwe.

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    ebutamanya

    2015-08-06

    Aug 6, 2015 ... permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR=1.72, 95%CI = 1.02 - 3.05), women's occupation (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11 -. 3.58), number of live .... NGO's and presence of different Medias in the area. The result of this .... Social and Behavior Change Communication. Research Brief.

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    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... (SD) age of the male subjects was 38.4(14.9) years and that of the females was 40.8(13.9) years (p> 0.05). The overall ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net) ... Trained research assistants administered questionnaires and obtained the ...

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    YouTube, TED and other podcast websites. Other researchers have also documented their procedures. Corl et al.[5] describe the basic process of producing a podcast, and Jham et al.[6] list a number of universities actively doing podcasts. Besides the lecture podcasts, we have also captured numerous clinical.

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    2015-01-05

    Jan 5, 2015 ... Methods: this was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random ..... 14. Saunders MNK, Lewis P and Thornhill A. Research methods for business students. FT Prentice Hall. (2003); 3rd Edition. Harlow. Google Scholar. 15. Allen K ...

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    raoul

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes. 2000; 50: 79-211. 13. Montano DE and Kasprzyk D. The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour Glanz, K Lewis, FM Rimer, BK eds. Health Behaviour and Health Education, Theory, Research and Practice: Jossy Bass ...

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    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... 1National Reference Center in Neonatology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco, 2Research Team on Health and ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons .... were globally performed in older mothers with a mean age of 31.5.

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    the standard of future practice. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare educators to understand the issues students face in their everyday fieldwork practice and equip them to deal with these ethical issues. Objectives. The objective of this research was to determine the issues that students face in their fieldwork practice and ...