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Sample records for thai green curry

  1. Principles and indicators of green living families in Thai context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamkarn Yuranun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Living has been practiced in everyday life which is accepted worldwide. However, there is no concrete academic principles for Green Living. The understanding of Green Living is rather abstract. This study focuses on the academic principles and indicators of the Green Living Families in Thailand. The results from the studies will be used for further research.This qualitative study aims at proposing the principles and indicators of the Green Living Families in the Thai context. The research methodologies include the analysis and synthesis of various documents both from Thailand and foreign countries, interviews and observation of five Green Living Families. The results show that the principles consist of 1 production for one’s own consumption within the family 2 economical use of resources and 3 sharing with others and the society. The essential indicators comprise of 1 Knowledge, 2 Practice, and 3 Attitude on Green Living.

  2. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

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    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72. Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  3. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, T; Siriwong, W; Maldonado-Pérez, H L; Robson, M G

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L.) is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS). To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%). Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73), smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47), skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68), wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23), process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16), and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72). The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  4. Greening consumption at the retail outlet: the case of the Thai appliance industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.; Spaargaren, G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the decades, the Thai appliance industry has developed into a strong and export-oriented industry with rigorous strategies to improve the environmental performance of products and production. Leading producers have recently begun to develop greening strategies targeting the consumption behavior

  5. Factors Affecting Green Supply Chain Operational Performance of the Thai Auto Parts Industry

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    Korrakot Yaibuathet Tippayawong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, operational performance in the green supply chain management (SCM of the Thai auto parts industry was investigated. A green supply chain performance measurement (GSPM model was developed from the combination of various concepts including an SCM logistics scorecard, a supply chain operations reference model, a balance scorecard, and green supply chain management. The GSPM has been designed for use as a self-evaluation tool focusing on five decisive areas, or factors, and 28 sub-factors. A factor analysis was conducted using the survey results of the GSPM in order to identify significant factors that represent the green supply chain operation performance. Grouped as three major factors, namely green procurement, green transportation, and green manufacturing; reverse logistics and eco-design; and reuse and recycle of manufacturing, their significance and impact on the auto parts industry in Thailand were highlighted. Specifically, the factor of green procurement, green transportation, and green manufacturing, as major factor 1, in relation with the factor of reverse logistics and eco-design, as major factor 2, were found to have a strong positive relationship with the asset turnover ratio.

  6. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  7. Application of the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Model to Investigate Purchase Intention of Green Products among Thai Consumers

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    Kamonthip Maichum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green products are among the widely used products worldwide due to their environmental benefits. However, information on the consumers’ purchase intention towards green products in developing countries, such as Thailand, is lacking. This study aims to investigate Thai consumers who are aged over 18 years, and whose base education is high school, on purchase intention for green products by using an extended framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB. We derived and examined the model through structural equation modeling in a sample of 483 respondents in Thailand. The findings of this model indicated that consumer attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control have significant positive influences on the purchase intention for green products. Furthermore, our results indicated that environmental concerns have a significant effect on attitude, perceived behavioral control and purchase intention for green products, but subjective norm. Moreover, environmental knowledge had no significant effect on the purchase intention for green products. Instead, it had a distinct indirect effect through attitude towards purchasing green products, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. The findings from this study contribute to improving the understanding of intention to purchase green products, which could play a major role towards sustainable consumption.

  8. Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2015-02-01

    Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(®) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson's Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(®)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 μl/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The C. odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7±10.4 min. In addition, C. citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of C. quinquefasciatus for 170.0±9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0±7.1-182.0±12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against A. aegypti than C. quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that C. odorata oil and C. citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Typeful Integration of SQL into Curry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanus, Michael; Krone, Julia

    2017-01-01

    We present an extension of the declarative programming language Curry to support the access to data stored in relational databases via SQL. Since Curry is statically typed, our emphasis on this SQL integration is on type safety. Our extension respects the type system of Curry so that run-time errors due to ill-typed data are avoided. This is obtained by preprocessing SQL statements at compile time and translating them into type-safe database access operations. As a consequence, the type ch...

  10. A Typeful Integration of SQL into Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hanus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an extension of the declarative programming language Curry to support the access to data stored in relational databases via SQL. Since Curry is statically typed, our emphasis on this SQL integration is on type safety. Our extension respects the type system of Curry so that run-time errors due to ill-typed data are avoided. This is obtained by preprocessing SQL statements at compile time and translating them into type-safe database access operations. As a consequence, the type checker of the Curry system can spot type errors in SQL statements at compile time. To generate appropriately typed access operations, the preprocessor uses an entity-relationship (ER model describing the structure of the relational data. In addition to standard SQL, SQL statements embedded in Curry can include program expressions and also relationships specified in the ER model. The latter feature is useful to avoid the error-prone use of foreign keys. As a result, our SQL integration supports a high-level and type-safe access to databases in Curry programs.

  11. Revisiting Currie -- how low can you go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, Christian; Jerome, Simon; Woods, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Over the years many different formulae have been proposed to derive the 'limits of detection' for radiometric measurements. With the ever increasing employment of quality systems within the radioanalytical laboratory, it is vital that the term 'limit of detection' is well understood and defined in the documentation in use within the laboratory. This paper reviews the various formulae used to derive a limit of detection, most of which claim to be derived from Currie's landmark paper of 1968, which set out in detail the means by which the analyst can arrive at a limit of detection and limit of determination. However, with the vastly increased computing power available to the analyst, coupled with the off-the-shelf availability of low and zero background detectors, it is now more straightforward to arrive at exact solutions to define limits of detection and determination. Finally, we set out some examples of decision making at these limits and how this may inform the way in which detector time is allocated for the measurement of samples containing low levels of radioactivity

  12. LAUCHLIN CURRIE: DESARROLLO, POBREZA Y DESIGUALDAD DEL INGRESO

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    Blanca Cecilia Zuluaga

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el pensamiento de Lauchlin Currie acerca de la pobreza y la distribución del ingreso. Currie fue un economista colombiano que dedicó buena parte de su tiempo al análisis de los problemas sociales y económicos de Colombia, ofreció numerosas y novedosas propuestas para superar el problema de la pobreza en la nación y propició una interesante discusión acerca de la desigualdad entre países. Ambos temas serán tratados en este artículo.

  13. On a Roll: Term Contracts at Curry College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John E.

    1985-01-01

    The faculty of Curry College in 1974 voted unanimously to replace tenure with a type of term contract. Faculty perceptions of the good and bad aspects of the term contract system are presented. Academic freedom, job security, motivation, promotion criteria, and financial benefits are discussed. (MLW)

  14. Presentación del homenaje al profesor Lauchlin Currie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Jiménez Alcides

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Conferencia dictada en la Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango con ocasión del homenaje a Lauchlin Currie, Organizada por la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Nacional y la Fundación Fines.

  15. Currie detection limits in gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, L.-E. de

    2004-01-01

    Currie Hypothesis testing is applied to gamma-ray spectral data, where an optimum part of the peak is used and the background is considered well known from nearby channels. With this, the risk of making Type I errors is about 100 times lower than commonly assumed. A programme, PeakMaker, produces random peaks with given characteristics on the screen and calculations are done to facilitate a full use of Poisson statistics in spectrum analyses. Short technical note summary: The Currie decision limit concept applied to spectral data is reinterpreted, which gives better consistency between the selected error risk and the observed error rates. A PeakMaker program is described and the few count problem is analyzed

  16. Lauchlin Currie: Desarrollo y crecimiento económico

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    Álvaro Montenegro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una guía de las ideas de Lauchlin Currie sobre los procesos de desarrollo y de crecimiento económico. El crecimiento es una condición necesaria para el desarrollo y un mínimo de ley y orden es una condición necesaria para el crecimiento. Para Currie, la causa del crecimiento no son los factores tradicionales sino la interacción social que provoca en los individuos el deseo de tener lo que otros tienen. Ese deseo los impulsa a trabajar más, abrir nuevos mercados, inventar productos, recortar gastos; todo lo cual aumenta la producción per cápita

  17. Do Steph Curry and Klay Thompson Have Hot Hands?

    OpenAIRE

    Daks, Alon; Desai, Nishant; Goldberg, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    Star Golden State Warriors Steph Curry, Klay Thompson, and Kevin Durant are great shooters but they are not streak shooters. Only rarely do they show signs of a hot hand. This conclusion is based on an empirical analysis of field goal and free throw data from the 82 regular season and 17 postseason games played by the Warriors in 2016--2017. Our analysis is inspired by the iconic 1985 hot-hand study by Thomas Gilovitch, Robert Vallone and Amos Tversky, but uses a permutation test to automatic...

  18. Raudtee uus tegevjuht lubab pikki ronge ja rohkem tonne / Earl Currie ; interv. Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Currie, Earl

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Raudtee juhatuse esimees Earl Currie raudtee eelmise juhtkonna tegutsemisest, uue juhtkonna seisukohast läbirääkimistel ametiühingutega muutustest ER-i juhtimises, olulisematest investeeringutest jm. Earl Currie eluloost. Vt. samas "Rask näeb Savisaare avalduses kommunismi"

  19. Curcumins-rich curry diet and pulmonary function in Asian older adults.

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    Tze Pin Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on the effects of dietary nutrients on respiratory health in human populations have not investigated curcumin, a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound present principally in turmeric used in large amounts in Asian curry meals. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of curry intake with pulmonary function among smokers and non-smokers. DESIGN: The frequency of curry intake, respiratory risk factors and spirometry were measured in a population-based study of 2,478 Chinese older adults aged 55 and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. RESULTS: Curry intake (at least once monthly was significantly associated with better FEV(1 (b = 0.045±0.018, p = 0.011 and FEV(1/FVC (b = 1.14±0.52, p = 0.029 in multivariate analyses that controlled simultaneously for gender, age, height, height-squared, smoking, occupational exposure and asthma/COPD history and other dietary or supplementary intakes. Increasing levels of curry intake ('never or rarely', 'occasional', 'often', 'very often' were associated with higher mean adjusted FEV(1 (p for linear trend = 0.001 and FEV(1/FVC% (p for linear trend = 0.048. Significant effect modifications were observed for FEV(1 (curry* smoking interaction, p = 0.028 and FEV(1/FVC% (curry*smoking interaction, p = 0.05. There were significantly larger differences in FEV(1 and FEV(1/FVC% between curry intake and non-curry intake especially among current and past smokers. The mean adjusted FEV(1 associated with curry intake was 9.2% higher among current smokers, 10.3% higher among past smokers, and 1.5% higher among non-smokers. CONCLUSION: The possible role of curcumins in protecting the pulmonary function of smokers should be investigated in further clinical studies.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of Nam Prig Noom, a Thai green-chili paste, following ultra-high pressure and thermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Srisajjalertwaja, Siriwan; Chaikham, Pittaya; Hirun, Sathira

    2013-03-01

    A study of processing green-chili pastes (Nam Prig Noom) by pressurization (100-600 MPa/30-50°C/20 min), pasteurization (90°C/3-5 min) or sterilization (121°C/4 min), subsequently, their physical, biochemical and microbiological qualities as well as the sensory acceptance were assessed. It was found that pressure at low levels (100-300 MPa) could improve activities of enzyme peroxidase (POD), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and lypoxygenase (LOX) in the chili paste by more than 100%, while pressures above 500 or 300 MPa combined with heat would significantly inactivate these enzyme activities. Both color parameters and enzyme activities illustrated that though some enzymatic browning occurred with the pressurized products indicated by b* (yellowish) parameter, the magnitude of these browning was still milder than those thermally treated products indicated by-a* (greenness) and L (lightness) parameters, presumably as a consequence of the Maillard reaction. Moreover, the sensory scores were found in accordance with color parameters, firmness and capsaicin contents.

  1. The Thai evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-08-01

    The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered.

  2. The Thai evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered

  3. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry — a heritage meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, V.; Dushyanthan, K.; Das, Arun K.

    2010-01-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a FO value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force value...

  4. Carotenoids retention in processed curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Varnashree Boraiah; Subban, Nagarajan

    2013-02-01

    Lutein content and β-carotene content of dried curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng) by various methods [microwave, combo, infrared (IR), hot air oven, freeze drying, cross flow tray drying, sun and shade drying] have been evaluated. The dried leaves were treated with ice-cold acetone to get the extracts (0.69-3.64% w/w) on dry weight basis. Lutein content and β-carotene content of all these extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using an established method and found in the range of 8.2-99.5 mg/100 g and 2.9-19.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The results indicated that the microwave processed leaves contain higher levels of lutein (99.4 mg/100 g) and β-carotene (19.2 mg/100 g) compared with other drying methods. The cross flow dried (8.2 mg/100 g and 3.5 mg/100 g) and IR dried samples (23 mg/100 g and 2.9 mg/100 g) retained minimum amount of lutein and β-carotene, respectively.

  5. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  6. Thin layer drying characteristics of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii in an indirect solar dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Selvaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the thin layer drying characteristics of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii has been studied in an indirect forced convection solar dryer with constant air mass flow rate of 0.0636 kg/s. Twelve thin layer drying models were tested for its suitability to describe the drying characteristics of curry leaves. The dryer has reduced the initial moisture content of curry leaves from 67.3% (wet basis to the final moisture content of 4.75% (wet basis in 3.5 hours. The pickup efficiency of indirect solar dryer for drying curry leaves was varied between 4.9% and 23.02%. Based on the statistical parameters, the Modified Henderson and Pabis model and Wang and Singh model were selected for predicting the drying characteristics of curry leaves. The payback period for the solar dryer was evaluated as 8 months, which is found to be much lower when compared with the entire life span of 15 years. The payback evaluation confirms that the solar dryer is economically viable in rural applications.

  7. Thai Teenage Prostitution Online

    OpenAIRE

    Somdech Rungsrisawat

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to investigate Thai teens’ attitude toward prostitution on the internet, to discover the causes of teenage prostitution and to study the relationship between teenage promiscuity and the causes of teenage prostitution. This study is a mixed research which utilized both qualitative and quantitative approach. The population of this study included teenagers and early adults between 14-21 years old who were studying in high schools, colleges, or universities. A to...

  8. Trace elemental composition of curry by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, A; Armenta, S; De La Guardia, M

    2008-01-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted acid digestion was developed to determine the content of traces elements in curry samples from the Spanish market. The methodology was validated in terms of accuracy by the analysis of citrus and tomato leaf reference materials achieving comparable results with the certified values. The trace metal content of curry samples was compared with data available from previously published reports concerning Indian samples, especially in terms of heavy metal composition, in order to guarantee the quality of the commercially available spices in the European countries. Values found for the analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium were significantly lower than the maximum limit allowed by European Union statutory limits for heavy metals and lower than those obtained for Indian curry leaves reported by Indian research teams by using neutron activation and γ-ray analysis.

  9. Bio-fortification and shelf-life extension of idli batter using curry leaves (Murraya koenigii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U

    2016-06-01

    Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C.

  10. The nature and incidence of injuries in a Currie Cup rugby team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the type and occurrence of injuries in a South African Currie Cup rugby team over 3 consecutive seasons (2001 - 2003), during which time strategies to reduce injuries were introduced by the management team consisting of the coaching and medical support staff. Design. A retrospective, descriptive ...

  11. Becoming through Revolutionary Pedagogy: An Interview with Curry Malott and Derek R. Ford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubbena, Zane C.

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Curry Malott and Derek R. Ford discuss their new book, "Marx, Capital, and Education: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Becoming." The interview begins with a general inquiry into their intellectual backgrounds as scholar-activists and, importantly, comrades. The authors then discuss the process of collaborating together…

  12. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (Thai SPADI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongamwong, Chanwit; Choosakde, Apijaree

    2015-09-04

    The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a good clinical tool to evaluate patients with shoulder pain, but has not been adapted to Thai version. The objectives of this study were to translate the English version and culturally adapt the SPADI to Thai version and to evaluate the internal consistency and construct validity of the Thai SPADI among Thai participants having shoulder pain. Following the cross-cultural adaptation guidelines stated by the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) Outcome Committee, the SPADI was translated to Thai version (Thai SPASI). Thai participants with shoulder pain completed the three questionnaires, i.e., the Thai SPADI, bodily pain subscale of the Thai Short Form 36 second version (Thai SF-36 V2) and the Thai version of disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (Thai DASH). Internal consistency of the Thai SPADI was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Convergent and divergent validity was used to measure construct validity of the Thai SPADI by assessing the correlation of the Thai SPADI with the Thai DASH and bodily pain subscale of the Thai SF-36 V2. Of 44 participants, the majority of participants were female (68.2%) and had Bachelor's degree or higher education level (59.1%) with a mean age of 50.4 years (SD 14.3). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Thai SPADI in pain subscale, disability subscale and total scale was 0.92, 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The correlation of the Thai SPADI with the Thai DASH and bodily pain subscale of the Thai SF-36 V was 0.79 (p shoulder disability among Thais.

  13. Thai research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  14. Theravada Buddhism and Thai Luxury Fashion Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ning (Mao); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Komin’s nine values cluster (Psychology of the Thai people), analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy (Han et al., 2010), integrates the Theory

  15. Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds, Pharmaceutical Quality, and Anticancer Activity of Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated some bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical qualities of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L. extracts from three different locations in Malaysia. The highest TF and total phenolic (TP contents were observed in the extracts from Kelantan (3.771 and 14.371 mg/g DW, followed by Selangor (3.146 and 12.272 mg/g DW and Johor (2.801 and 12.02 mg/g DW, respectively. High quercetin (0.350 mg/g DW, catechin (0.325 mg/g DW, epicatechin (0.678 mg/g DW, naringin (0.203 mg/g DW, and myricetin (0.703 mg/g DW levels were observed in the extracts from Kelantan, while the highest rutin content (0.082 mg/g DW was detected in the leaves from Selangor. The curry leaf extract from Kelantan exhibited higher concentration of gallic acid (0.933 mg/g DW than that from Selangor (0.904 mg/g DW and Johor (0.813 mg/g DW. Among the studied samples, the ones from Kelantan exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (DPPH, 66.41% and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP, 644.25 μm of Fe(II/g followed by those from Selangor (60.237% and 598.37 μm of Fe(II/g and Johor (50.76% and 563.42 μm of Fe(II/g, respectively. A preliminary screening showed that the curry leaf extracts from all the locations exhibited significant anticarcinogenic effects inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 and maximum inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell was observed with the curry leaf extract from Kelantan. Based on these results, it is concluded that Malaysian curry leaf collected from the North (Kelantan might be potential source of potent natural antioxidant and beneficial chemopreventive agents.

  16. Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds, Pharmaceutical Quality, and Anticancer Activity of Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Devarajan, Thiyagu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated some bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical qualities of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L.) extracts from three different locations in Malaysia. The highest TF and total phenolic (TP) contents were observed in the extracts from Kelantan (3.771 and 14.371 mg/g DW), followed by Selangor (3.146 and 12.272 mg/g DW) and Johor (2.801 and 12.02 mg/g DW), respectively. High quercetin (0.350 mg/g DW), catechin (0.325 mg/g DW), epicatechin (0.678 mg/g DW), naringin (0.203 mg/g DW), and myricetin (0.703 mg/g DW) levels were observed in the extracts from Kelantan, while the highest rutin content (0.082 mg/g DW) was detected in the leaves from Selangor. The curry leaf extract from Kelantan exhibited higher concentration of gallic acid (0.933 mg/g DW) than that from Selangor (0.904 mg/g DW) and Johor (0.813 mg/g DW). Among the studied samples, the ones from Kelantan exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (DPPH, 66.41%) and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP, 644.25  μ m of Fe(II)/g) followed by those from Selangor (60.237% and 598.37  μ m of Fe(II)/g) and Johor (50.76% and 563.42  μ m of Fe(II)/g), respectively. A preliminary screening showed that the curry leaf extracts from all the locations exhibited significant anticarcinogenic effects inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and maximum inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell was observed with the curry leaf extract from Kelantan. Based on these results, it is concluded that Malaysian curry leaf collected from the North (Kelantan) might be potential source of potent natural antioxidant and beneficial chemopreventive agents.

  17. Longevity of Thai physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Piyasing, Veera; Boontheaim, Benjaporn; Ratanamongkolgul, Suthee; Wattanasirichaigoon, Somkiat

    2004-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore characteristics of the long-lived Thai physicians. We sent 983 posted questionnaires to 840 male and 143 female physicians. We obtained 327 of them back after 2 rounds of mailing, yielding a response rate of 33.3 percents. The response rate of male physicians was 32.4 percents and that of female physicians was 38.5 percents. Their ages were between 68-93 years (75.1 +/- 4.86 years on average). The majority were married, implying that their spouses were also long-lived. Around half of them still did some clinical work, one-fourth did some charity work, one-fourth did various voluntary works, one-fifth did some business, one-fifth did some academic work, and some did more than one type of work. Most long-lived physicians were not obese, with BMI of 16.53-34.16 (average 23.97 +/- 2.80). Only 8 had BMI higher than 30. BMIs were not different between male and female physicians. However, four-fifths of them had diseases that required treatment, and some of them had more than one disease. The five most frequent diseases were hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, and benign prostate hypertrophy, respectively. Most long-lived physicians did exercise (87.8%), and some did more than one method. The most frequent one was walking (52.3%). Most did not drink alcohol or drank occasionally, only 9.0% drank regularly. Most of them slept 3-9 hours per night (average 6.75 +/- 1.06). Most (78.3%) took some medication regularly; of most were medicine for their diseases. Most did not eat macrobiotic food, vegetarian food, or fast food regularly. Most long-lived physicians practiced some religious activities by praying, paying respect to Buddha, giving food to monks, practicing meditation, and listening to monks' teaching. They also used Buddhist practice and guidelines for their daily living and work, and also recommended these to their younger colleagues. Their recreational activities were playing musical instruments

  18. A synopsis of Thai Nymphaeaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La-ongsri, Woranuch; Trisonthi, Chusie; Balslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A synopsis of Nymphaeaceae from Thailand was made by means of a literature search, consultation of herbarium specimens in several Thai and European herbaria, and a survey of 47 wetlands throughout Thailand. Nymphaeaceae phylogeny, habitats and reproductive ecology are reviewed. All species encoun...

  19. Medium of Instruction in Thai Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjavanakul, Natpat

    The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.

  20. Textiles of the Phu Thai of Laos

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Linda Susan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis documents the hand-woven textiles that the Phu Thai ethnic group living in Savannakhet Province, Laos, produce. The various stages of textile production and the uses of textiles in Phu Thai society, especially as identity markers, are also examined. Textiles of neighboring groups are also investigated to how knowledge of textile technology, types, and aesthetics are transferred between the Phu Thai and other ethnicities, specifically the Lao and Katang. The study's field research ...

  1. Thai petrochemical boom on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand

  2. Theravada buddhism and thai luxury fashion consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); N. Mao (Ning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede's cultural dimension theory and Komin's nine values cluster, analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy, integrates the Theory of Cultural Capital, and expounds the features

  3. Enhancing Life Purpose amongst Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthip, Karnsunaphat; McSherry, Wilfred; Petchruschatachart, Usanee; Piriyakoontorn, Siriwan; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2017-01-01

    This article describes experiences that enhanced life purpose in 21 Thai adolescents living in Southern Thailand. Thailand is undergoing rapid change from technology, a globalizing economy, and shifting social norms. A phenomenological analysis of in-depth interviews and stories to better understand how Thai youth themselves experience and…

  4. The Effect of Curry Leaves (Murayya Koenigii L. on Blood Glucose Levels In Alloxan Diabetic Mice (Mus Musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Fauziah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. on blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic mice (Mus musculus. The diabetic conditions were made by giving alloxan 75 mg/kg body weight (BW and the hypoglycemic effects of extract of curry leaves given with various doses.   This study used 24 male mice strain Balb/c in four groups of treatment with six replications, namely the negative control group, the ethanol extract of curry leaf tree 50% mL/10g body weight group, 70% mL/10g body weight group and 90% mL/10g body weight group. The treatment was given orally by using a gastric sonde for 14 days. Blood samples were taken through the sinus caudalis using a scissors. Blood glucose level was measured at 1st , the 8th and the 24th of treatment using blood glucose test strips and Nesco® Multicheck apparatus. Blood glucose data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variants and followed by Tuckey test at significance level of 5%. The result showed that treatment of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii at various doses significantly affected the decrease on blood glucose levels of mice (Mus musculus alloxan diabetic.

  5. Formulation of Thai herbal Namprik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijroongrojana, K.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Namprik is a typical Thai food containing various herbs. The diversity of Namprik depends on herb composition and content, cooking method, and flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a fine, driedand granular Namprik formula for eating with rice. The ingredients included many commonly found Thai herbs. The recipe of lemon grass Namprik produced by Satree Ban-Tung group, Khaokram district, AmphurMueang, Krabi province, Thailand, was reformulated. Mixture design was applied to optimize the amounts of black pepper (10-33%, garlic (10-66.67% and shallot (10-66.67%. Contour plot of hedonic scores andthe predictive regression models were calculated. Results showed that optimal formula should have 23.33% black pepper, 66.67% garlic and 10% shallot. Optimum levels of additional mixed herbs consisting of 5-25%kaffir lime leaves and 75-95% holy basil in the formula, using the mixture design, were also investigated. The results of sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale showed no significant differences in appearance,taste and overall liking (p>0.05. However, the formula containing 4.2% kaffir lime leaves and 15.8% holy basil obtained the highest average score for aroma (p<0.05. Various amounts of dried African chili (7, 5,3% were added to determine an acceptable hot and spicy flavor, using just-about-right scale. The results revealed that the formula containing 7, 5 and 3% dried African chili were defined as just-about-right by 22, 32 and 42% of the panelists, respectively. The final product was given average hedonic scores of aroma, taste,spicy and overall liking ranging from like moderately to like very much. Appearance scores were in the range of like slightly to like moderately. This study indicated that a more nutrition and healthier Namprik containing some Thai herbs can be produced.

  6. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  7. Fructose malabsorption in Thai adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu

    2007-01-01

    Fructose malabsorption has not been well-defined in Thai populations but there has been increasing consumption of fructose-fortified drinks. To assess the incidence of fructose malabsorption and intolerance in Thai normal subjects as well as the facilitating effect of glucose on fructose absorption. Twenty-five gram of fructose was ingested by 77 subjects (37 men, 40 women; mean age 26 and 31 y, range 20-50 y and 21-50 y for men and women, respectively). Measurement of breath-H(2) levels after fructose ingestion in each subject up to 2 h was performed. Those who showed fructose malabsorption were later given 25 g of each glucose and fructose and second tests of breath-H(2) tests were done. Fructose malabsorption was found in eleven females with a significant rise in average breath-H(2) level at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min (pfructose malabsorbers, excess breath-H(2) reverted to normal when the fructose solution was mixed and administered with 25 g glucose (pfructose malabsorption was 11 of 77 subjects but these were female. One of the 11 had gastrointestinal symptoms. It was found that an equal amount of glucose would abolish fructose malabsorption.

  8. Child readers' eye movements in reading Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamornphun Yurayat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study components of desired characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists. The sample consisted of 169 Thai clinical psychologists who have Thai clinical license and work on psychiatric in the hospital selected by simple random sampling technique. The research instrument was characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists questionnaires. Data were analyzed by means of second order confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL version 8.72. The results of the research revealed that desired characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists consisted of 3 components ; ability, personality and ethics. The characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists was congruent with the empirical data. The factor loadings of those three components were high at the .05 level, and they were found to be capable of measuring the characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists functioning factors.The results of second order confirmatory factor analysis of model in the characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists were found that model was fitted with empirical data. Ranging from the highest factor loading value to the lowest, they were from 0.30 to 1.09, respectively: personality, ethics and ability with factors loading of 1.09, 0.59, and 0.30 respectively. The construct validity of models was consistent with empirical data, with chi-square goodness of fit test at 56.65 ; p-value = 0.13497 ; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI = 0.94 ; Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI = 0.91 ; Comparative fit index (CFI = 0.98 ; Root Mean Square Residual (RMR = 0.010, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.037

  10. Fiscal 2000 international energy use rationalization measures project. International energy consumption efficiency improvement technology diffusion project - Green helmet project (Thailand: Report on heating furnace energy conservation seminar); 2000 nendo. Kokusai energy shiyo gorika to taisaku jigyo, Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka to gijutsu fukyu jigyo, Green helmet jigyo (Thai : kanetsuro shoenergy seminar hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The above-named seminar was held in Bangkok, Thailand, on January 30, 2001, and covered three kinds of industries of ceramics, glass, and aluminum. Approximately 200 people attended the meeting, consisting of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization)-affiliated people and 16 lecturers from Japan, and Thai participants. The seminar comprised a 'keynote address' and 'lectures on engineering' that aimed at the three industries as a whole, and 'lectures on engineering' and 'cases and activities for energy conservation' that aimed, respectively, at the three industries. Lectures were delivered on operating technologies which were already in practical use and on state-of-the-art technologies. The keynote address, entitled 'Global warming prevention and industrial furnaces,' covered the results of the 'High-performance industrial furnace field test project.' The lectures on engineering dealt with the 'instrumentation control system' and 'heat insulation technology' which were basic technologies for energy conservation and 'diagnosis technology and practice' which aimed at the enhancement of energy conservation after the start of operation. Questions and answers were earnestly exchanged. (NEDO)

  11. Psychometric properties of the Thai version of the work ability index (Thai WAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Work Ability Index (WAI). Forward translation and back-translation of the WAI were performed by seven bilingual professionals to ensure that the Thai WAI was culturally relevant and conceptually accurate. To ensure generalizability of the Thai WAI, a sample of 2,744 Thai workers from 19 different enterprises in five regions of Thailand completed the Thai version of the WAI along with the General Health Questionnaire. The 19 enterprises were from the following industries: canned food, snack food, cooking oil, footwear, pharmaceutical, ceramics, toy, steel, petrochemical, and auto parts. The results from exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model, accounting for 53.49% of the total variance. The results also provided evidence for adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Thai WAI. The internal consistency of the Thai WAI was found to be slightly low due to the newness of the concept of work ability, which is not a common term used in the Thai language; therefore, explanation of the meaning of work ability is needed to increase understanding of workers. By providing early recognition of workers' health risks as well as risks of early termination, the WAI can help Thai human resources managers respond better to the needs of workers and be proactive in their efforts to retain workers in their organizations. Occupational health professionals could also utilize the WAI to evaluate the work ability of Thai workers in order to help organizations recognize early signs of their workers' health risks and possible early terminations and respond appropriately.

  12. Curcumin: An Anti-Inflammatory Molecule from a Curry Spice on the Path to Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purusotam Basnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation have been pointed out in preclinical studies as the root cause of cancer and other chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, etc. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that cancer could be prevented or significantly reduced by treatment with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs, therefore, curcumin, a principal component of turmeric (a curry spice showing strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, might be a potential candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases. However, curcumin, a highly pleiotropic molecule with an excellent safety profile targeting multiple diseases with strong evidence on the molecular level, could not achieve its optimum therapeutic outcome in past clinical trials, largely due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Curcumin can be developed as a therapeutic drug through improvement in formulation properties or delivery systems, enabling its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. This review mainly focuses on the anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and recent developments in dosage form and nanoparticulate delivery systems with the possibilities of therapeutic application of curcumin for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer.

  13. Curcumin: an anti-inflammatory molecule from a curry spice on the path to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Purusotam; Skalko-Basnet, Natasa

    2011-06-03

    Oxidative damage and inflammation have been pointed out in preclinical studies as the root cause of cancer and other chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, etc. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that cancer could be prevented or significantly reduced by treatment with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs, therefore, curcumin, a principal component of turmeric (a curry spice) showing strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, might be a potential candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases. However, curcumin, a highly pleiotropic molecule with an excellent safety profile targeting multiple diseases with strong evidence on the molecular level, could not achieve its optimum therapeutic outcome in past clinical trials, largely due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Curcumin can be developed as a therapeutic drug through improvement in formulation properties or delivery systems, enabling its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. This review mainly focuses on the anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and recent developments in dosage form and nanoparticulate delivery systems with the possibilities of therapeutic application of curcumin for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer.

  14. Development of Online Courseware on Thai Food Good Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sompong, Narong; Kheerajitt, Cherdpong

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) develop the online courseware on Thai Food Good Health to support the Thai Kitchen to the world project; and 2) evaluate the courseware by the learners toward the courseware integrated using in aboard. The research sample were sampling for chefs, Thai restaurant owners, and the students who were studying…

  15. Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thai soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamsila, C; Singsawat, P; Duangvaraporn, A; Strickman, D

    1996-11-01

    Thai soldiers who were conscripted, Royal Thai Army forces, professional Border Patrol Police, or local militia (Thai Rangers) located in any of seven provinces of Thailand were bled in April and again, four months later, in July 1989. In 1991, soldiers from five different locations in southern Thailand were bled once, in July. Serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assay for antibody to Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, etiologic agent of scrub typhus, with any titer > or = 1:50 considered positive. Prior to field exercises, prevalence of antibody varied significantly between different types of units, ranging between 18.6% for Thai Rangers and 6.8% for the Royal Thai Army. The April prevalence, July prevalence, and incidence varied significantly by province in 1989, with highest incidence being 14.5% in Kanchanaburi and the lowest 0% in Utraladit. The prevalence in southern Thailand in 1991 varied between 1.6% and 6.8%. The data demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi is widely distributed in Thailand and that military activity consisting of field exercises that simulate combat conditions significantly expose soldiers to infection.

  16. Validation of the Thai version of Bergen Facebook addiction scale (Thai-BFAS). .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanasathit, Muthita; Manwong, Mereerat; Hanprathet, Nitt; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee

    2015-03-01

    To determine the validity ofthe Thai version ofthe Bergen FacebookAddiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) using Facebook addiction screening in Thai high school students. The original BFAS was authorized for translation and validation in Thai. After content validity and usability were approved by three Thai psychiatrists, the Thai-BFAS was adjusted again by the authors and back translated by an English expert. Thisfinal version was investigated using the internal consistency method among 874 high schools students in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, and confirmatoy factor analysis (CFA) was employed to prove that the six-component model could be representative of addiction behaviors. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed separately among 30 pilot high school students in Bangkok. The Thai-BFAS has six items, which are each scored on a 5-point scale with total score ranges from 0 to 24; the cutoff score for Facebook addition stands at least 12 points. The Cronbach s alpha coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI; 0.90, 0.92) and the inter-class correlation coefficient was 0.80 (95% CI; 0.49, 0.92). The CFA showed that the six items accurately represent the six-component model of addiction such as salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse and conflict. The Thai-BFAS is consistent as a screening testfor Facebook addiction among high school students due to good reliability and validity. It also conforms well to the original version. The six items in the Thai-BFAS are a good representation of the addiction behaviors. Further studies should be undertaken in cases of sensitivity and specificity when compared with other similar tests of addiction as well as in various additional populations and circumstances.

  17. An Investigation into Aspects of Thai Culture and Its Impact on Thai Students in an International School in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveney, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken to investigate aspects of Thai culture and its effects on Thai students in an international school in Thailand. Using a variety of data gathering methods, the investigation looks at how Thai culture manifests itself in the classroom in the form of student behaviour and attitudes. The research also…

  18. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  19. RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AMONG OUT-OF-SCHOOL THAI AND NON-THAI YOUTH IN URBAN CHIANG MAI, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Manoyosa, Veruree; Tarnkehard, Surapee; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-school youth in Thailand engage in risky sexual behavior that puts them at risk for contracting HIV infection and can have other negative sexual reproductive health outcomes. No study has examined risky sexual behaviors and compared them between Thai and non-Thai out-of-school youth. The current study compares sexual risk behavior and HIV testing behavior between out-of-school Thai and non-Thai youth. We conducted face-to-face interviews in this study population in urban Chiang Mai during 2014. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling from two main sources: non-formal education centers (NFECs) and social meeting places. We recruited 924 youth, aged 15-24 years, of whom 424 (45.9%) were Thai and 500 (54.1%) were non-Thai. The majority were attending NFECs (82.3%). Of the sexually experienced participants (57.7%), 75.4% did not use condoms consistently, and 50.3% had at least 2 lifetime sexual partners. Among the study participants, the Thai studied youth had significantly higher odds of ever having had sex (AOR=2.33; 95% CI: 1.56-3.49; p<0.001), having an earlier sexual debut (AOR=5.52; 95% CI: 2.71-11.25; p<0.001) and having a larger number of lifetime sexual partners (AOR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.37-3.88; p=0.002) than non-Thai participants. There was no significant difference between the Thai and non-Thai participants in terms of having HIV testing. The Thai studied youth were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than the non-Thai youth. However, both groups displayed risky sexual behaviors. Future research should explore indepth the drivers of risky sexual behaviors among both Thai and non-Thai youth.

  20. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  1. Promoting Wellness for Thai College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Rodriguez, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    There are few in-depth studies of Thai college student health and mental health behaviors that focus on the cultural influences that shape such behaviors. Thus, the purposes of this study are: (1) to conduct the needs assessment survey on health and mental health issues at a public university in Thailand in order to better understand the issues…

  2. Terry E. Miller on Thai Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1994-01-01

    Reports on an interview with Terry E. Miller, a specialist on music of Thailand and other southeastern Asian nations. Discusses the culture, the role of music, and musical instruments of Thailand. Includes a list of resources and two lesson plans for teaching about Thai music. (CFR)

  3. Will We. . .? Thai Dam Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This resource book is intended as an aid to persons working with Thai Dam refugees. To help the language teacher, some differences between Lao and English are discussed, specifically tonal inflections, positioning, declension of pronouns, conjugation of verbs, interrogatives, classifiers and predicate adjectives. An outline of cultural differences…

  4. Thai pediatricians' current practice toward childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalaporn, Harutai; Chawalitdamrong, Pongpan; Preutthipan, Aroonwan

    2018-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a substantial health burden in Thailand. Due to a lack of pediatric respiratory specialists (pediatric pulmonologists and allergists; RS), most Thai children are cared for by general pediatricians (pediatric primary care providers (PCP)). We investigated whether current practices of Thai pediatricians complied with asthma guidelines and compared practices (diagnosis and treatments) provided by PCP and RS. A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic surveys including four case scenarios of different asthma phenotypes distributed to Thai pediatricians. Asthma diagnosis and management were evaluated for compliance with standard guidelines. The practices of PCP and RS were compared. From 800 surveys distributed, there were 405 respondents (51%). Most respondents (81%) were PCP, who preferred to use clinical diagnosis rather than laboratory investigations to diagnose asthma. For acute asthmatic attacks, 58% of the pediatricians prescribed a systemic corticosteroid. For uncontrolled asthma, 89% of the pediatricians prescribed at least one controller. For exercise-induced bronchospasm, 55% of the pediatricians chose an inhaled bronchodilator, while 38% chose a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). For virus-induced wheeze, 40% of the respondents chose an LTRA, while 15% chose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators (31% vs. 18%, p = 0.02), antibiotics (20% vs. 6%, p attack. Most of the Thai pediatricians' practices toward diagnosis and treatment of acute asthmatic attack and uncontrolled asthma conform to the guidelines. PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators, antibiotics, and antihistamines than RS.

  5. Unpolished Thai Rice Strain of Leum Phua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    g sample, respectively. Interestingly, phytophenolic chromatogram and anthocyanin pigment levels showed a strong correlation. Conclusion: Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice strain of Leum Phua, has high levels of anthocyanin pigment, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Its pure phytochemical contents should be ...

  6. Atypical Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Thai Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jarurin Pitanupong; Chonnakarn Jatchavala

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version). The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to ...

  7. A Trace of Islamic Art in Thai Mosques

    OpenAIRE

    Pibool Waijittragum

    2012-01-01

    The mosques have been appearance in Thailand since Ayutthaya Kingdom (1350 to 1767 A.D.) Until today, more than 400 years later; there are many styles of art form behind their structure. This research intended to identify Islamic Art in Thai mosques. A framework was applied using qualitative research methods; Thai Muslims with dynamic roles in Islamic culture were interviewed. In addition, a field survey of 40 selected mosques from 175 Thai mosques was studied. Data analysis wi...

  8. Situational Analysis of Palliative Care Education in Thai Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. Methods A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. Results An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal ...

  9. The Meanings of Sanskrit Loanwords in Thai and Javanese Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamam Supriyadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Through history of nation building, Thai and Javanese people interacted with other language speakers. For example, they interacted with Indian mbrchants who also brought their literature and religions. In their contacts, Thai and Javanese speakers adopted Sanskrit words for enriching their own vocabularies. This article attempts to describe the meanings of Sanskrit loanwords. In comparison between the meanings of Sanskrit loanwords in Thai and Javanese languages, there are 14 categories of semantic adaptations which are found in both languages. These changes reflect the changes of the socio-cultural background of the Thai and Javanese speakers.

  10. Isolation and identification of salmonella from curry samples and its sensitivity to commercial antibiotics and aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) and Trachyspermum ammi (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasegaran, Thanes; Rathinam, Xavier; Kasi, Marimuthu; Sathasivam, Kathiresan; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2011-08-01

    To isolate Salmonella from curry samples and to evaluate the drug sensitivity of the food-borne Salmonella and its susceptibility to specific plant extracts. Salmonella was isolated from the curry samples by standard microbiological methods and was confirmed by biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted by disc diffusion method using commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and penicillin. In addition, the susceptibility of the food-borne Salmonella was also evaluated against the aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) Theaceae (tea leaves) and the Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Apiaceae ( ajwain or omum seeds). Out of fifty curry samples, only seven samples were identified to have Salmonella contamination. The Salmonella isolates showed a significant drug resistance pattern except for kanamycin. The plant extracts showed a considerable antibacterial activity against the isolates, indicating the presence of antimicrobial principle which can be exploited after complete pharmacological investigations. The present study demonstrates the occurrence of Salmonella in the curry samples, and shows significant drug resistance against most of the commercially available antibiotics, except kanamycin. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts against the food-bone Salmonella suggests that dietary including medicinal herbs would be one strategy to manage food borne pathogens.

  11. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  12. Thai gas demand seen outstripping supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thailand's demand for gas will outstrip supplies in the late 1990s as rapid economic growth continues. Gas will be a cornerstone for Thai energy policy throughout the growth, although sources in neighboring countries need development. Thai gas production will rise 25% from 1992 to average 1 bcfd by 1995. Including production from new discoveries, production could rise to 1.5 bcfd by 2000, up almost 90% from the 1992 level. Increased gas flow output in the mid-1990s will be due largely to development of Gulf of Thailand fields. By 1998, production from Gulf of Thailand fields will not be enough to offset the decline in today's fields. Thailand will need to import more than 1 bcfd by 2005 in the absence of future discoveries in the country. The paper discusses new pipelines and imports

  13. Characterization of Thai Amulets A PIXE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-In, K.; Suksawang, S.; Intarasiri, S.; Thongleurm, Chom; Kamwanna, T.; Dararutana, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Thai amulets that created in an image of Lord Buddha meditation were made to explain the Dharma of Buddha and believed to bless every life in this world for good karma. Phra Somdej Wat Rakhang amulet is the top of the five most famous Thai amulets. There are many molds with various compositions. In this work, it was the first time that X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods; scanning electron microscope cooperated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were carried out to analyze their compositions. Two samples were collected from different molds. Results revealed C, Ca and Si were main composition. The differences in their compositions have been used to identify and characterize for each molds

  14. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  15. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Determination of Trace Elements in Thai Cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a

  17. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most res...

  18. A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team poses with Lindsey, Currie and Clark

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team poses with Astronauts (from left) Steven W. Lindsey, Nancy Jane Currie and Laurel B. Clark. The team arrived at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  19. Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Compliments among Thai EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worathumrong, Sakulrat; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study compares how the native speakers of Thai (TTs) and American (AEs) as well as the Thai learners of English as a foreign language with high exposure to English (TEHs) and those with the low exposure (TELs) perform the speech acts of compliments (Cs) by taking the context of age into their consideration. The data were collected by means of…

  20. Mobile Technology in the Lives of Thai Immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Thongsawang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile technology in the lives of Thai immigrants in Berlin. By using qualitative research methods, this research investigates how new digital and social media applications have affected the organization of Thai immigrants on both individual and institutional levels, with a particular focus on the Royal Thai Embassy in Berlin. Mobile technologies today are widely used in the diaspora, by both individuals and social institutions, to maintain relationships with the homeland and to promote national affairs. Both individual Thai immigrants and official staff of the embassy rely significantly on Internet sites, particularly on social networking sites such as Facebook, to gain information on Thailand and to expand their networks. This paper explores changes in communication and their implications for Thais and their respective institutions in Germany.

  1. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  2. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Thai men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Apinyanurag, Chalermchai; Soontrapa, Supasil; Soontrapa, Sugree; Pongchaiyakul, Choowong; Nguyen, Tuan V; Rajatanavin, Rajata

    2006-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing health problem not only in women but also in men. However, there is a scarcity of epidemiologic data to study osteoporosis in Thai men. To examine the bone mineral density (BMD) and to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in Thai men. A total of 412 men (159 from Bangkok and 253 from Khon Kaen, respectively) averaging 51 +/- 16 years of age, were measured for BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR Corporation, WI, USA). The peak BMD was observed in men 20-29 years of age at both the femoral neck (mean +/- SD, 1.10 +/- 0.15 g/cm2) and lumbar spine (mean +/- SD, 1.17 +/- 0.13 g/cm2). The prevalence of osteoporosis in the entire group of subjects was 12.6, 4.6 and 3.9 per cent at the femoral neck, lumbar spine and both sites, respectively. The prevalence of osteoporosis increased with advancing age and was significantly higher at the femoral neck in urban men than rural men (18.2 vs 9.2 per cent, p men.

  3. Competencies of Thai expertise teacher and PCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantaranima, Tarntip; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was accepted by worldwide Educators that it is a ubiquitous word in the preparation of teachers in the past decade. This study uses Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) framework as a lens for classifying the guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers. Therefore, the paper tries to clarify the relationship between competencies of Thai expertise teacher and PCK elements. To promote skillful Thai teachers by offering them academic titles, the Office of the Teacher Civil Service and Education Personal Commission were developed to provide guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers (OTEPC, 2009). This article focuses on the guideline criteria which are three areas of consideration. The first area of consideration is teacher's disciplines including virtues and professional conducts. The second area of consideration is teacher's knowledge and teaching ability. The last area of consider is teacher's performance. It seemed that the OTEPC guideline pay too much attention on the first area. However, there are some issues of PCK appearing on the OTEPC teacher competency. The paper will discuss some suggestions of fill up PCK in the OTEPC guideline. The paper may have implication for Thailand teacher education.

  4. Confirmation of 1-Phenylethane-1-thiol as the Character Impact Aroma Compound in Curry Leaves and Its Behavior during Tissue Disruption, Drying, and Frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin

    2017-03-15

    The most odor-active compounds previously identified by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis were quantitated in freshly picked curry leaves, either by stable isotope dilution assays in combination with GC-GC-MS or by GC-FID after simultaneous extraction/fractionation. Odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratios of concentrations to odor threshold values. The topmost OAVs were obtained for (3Z)-hex-3-enal (grassy; OAV 180 000), (1S)-1-phenylethane-1-thiol (sulfury, burnt; OAV 150 000), (1R)-1-phenylethane-1-thiol (sulfury, burnt; OAV 120 000), (3R)-linalool (citrusy; OAV 58 000), and myrcene (geranium leaf-like; OAV 23 000). The high OAVs calculated for its enantiomers confirmed 1-phenylethane-1-thiol as character impact compound of the typical sulfury and burnt aroma of curry leaves. The 1-phenylethane-1-thiol concentration in curry leaves decreased upon tissue disruption and drying, as well as upon frying of fresh leaves. By contrast, frying of dried leaves led to an increase of 1-phenylethane-1-thiol, indicating a yet unknown thermolabile precursor.

  5. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  6. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Krayenhoff and Bass, 2003; Foster, Lowe and Winkelman, 2012; Gill, 2007).spell out all authors first time referenced Biophilic urbanism and green infrastructure Harvard biologist E. O. Wilson popularised the concept of biophilia, describing it as “the...

  7. Effects of Thai piperaceae plant extracts on Neospora caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2017-06-01

    Neosporosis has a worldwide distribution and causes economic losses in farming, particularly by increasing the risk of abortion in cattle. This study investigated the effects of Thai piperaceae (Piper betle, P. nigrum, and P. sarmentosum) extracts on Neospora caninum infections in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro parasite growth assay based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, P. betle was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in human foreskin fibroblast cells (IC 50 of GFP-expressing N. caninum parasites, 22.1μg/ml). The P. betle extract, at 25μg per ml, inhibited parasite invasion into host cells. Furthermore, in two independent experiments, treating N. caninum-infected mice with the P. betle extract for 7days post-infection increased their survival. In trial one, the anti-N. caninum effects of the P. betle extract reduced the mouse clinical scores for 30days post-infection (dpi). The survival rate of the mice treated with 400mg/kg was 100% compared with 66.6% for those treated with 100mg/kg and the non-treated controls. In trial two, treating the infected mice with the P. betle extract increased their survival at 50dpi. All mice in the non-treatment group died; however, the survival rates of the 400mg/kg-treated and 100mg/kg-treated mice were 83.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Also, a trend towards a reduced parasite burden was noted in the brains of the P. betle extract-treated mice, compared with the control mice. Therefore P. betle extract has potential as a medicinal plant for treating neosporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships.

  9. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.

  10. Modulatory effects of Thai medicinal plant extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-08-02

    )-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are able to synergistically induce apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. The present study aimed to elucidate modulatory effects of ethanolic extracts derived from Thai traditional medicinal.

  11. Summit delegates praise Thai SchoolNet initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ".. a team of over 55 Thai delegates led by ICT Minister Surapong Suebwonglee exchanged views and showcased Thailand's achievements that addressed bridging the digital divide at the UN conference that was attended by over 40 national leaders" (1 page).

  12. Foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kickboxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.

  13. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improvi...

  14. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  15. Light-mediated activities of some Thai medicinal plant teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeptham, N; Towers, G H N

    2002-12-01

    Forty-one types of commercially available Thai medicinal teas were tested for their light-mediated activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus K147 methicillin-sensitive (Ms), Escherichia coli DC10, E. coli (wild), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 187 (wild), Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results represent a first report of the light-mediated antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal teas and suggest that phytochemical investigations may be warranted. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  17. Modelling and forecasting the demand for Thai tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Song, H; Witt, SF; Li, G

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the demand for Thai tourism by seven major origin countries – Australia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, the UK and the USA. The general-to-specific modelling approach is followed in the construction, estimation, testing and selection of the tourism demand models. The empirical results show that habit persistence is the most important factor that influences the demand for Thai tourism by residents from all origin countries. The income, own price, cross price and trade v...

  18. LEADERSHIP STYLES: A STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND THAI PUBLIC SECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Nattavud Pimpa; Timothy Moore

    2012-01-01

    Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked...

  19. Cloning and comparative analysis of zinc-finger protein gene on Y-chromosome (ZFY) between Thai Bangkaew dog and other Thai canids

    OpenAIRE

    Ukadej Boonyaprakob; Sommai Homsavart; Jatuporn Noosud; Rongdej Tungtrakanpoung

    2017-01-01

    The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dog...

  20. The validity and reliability of tinnitus handicap inventory Thai version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limviriyakul, Siriporn; Supavanich, Walop

    2012-11-01

    Demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version (THI-T), a self-report measure of tinnitus. A cross-sectional psychometric validation study was used to determine internal consistency reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version at the Otoneurology clinic at Tertiary care center The cross-cultural adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicapped Inventory English version (Newman et al, 1996) was translated into Thai version following the steps indicated by Guillemin et al. The reliability was constructed by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The validity was analyzed by the correlation between Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai version and the 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale using Spearman and Pearson test. The result showed good internal consistency reliabilities of total, functional, emotional, and catastrophic scale (a = 0.902, 0.804, 0.831 and 0.661, respectively) of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version. Spearman correlation showed the significant correlation of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory to 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version will be a vigorous tool in evaluating tinnitus patients as well as monitoring the progress of their symptoms.

  1. How Thai businesses utilize English in their product names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaporn Sanprasert Snodin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the names given to Thai local community products and provides a description of the use of the English language in naming products in Thailand. The business names of Thai local products under the program One Tambon One Product (OTOP were selected for analysis, focusing on language characteristics and semantic appropriateness by using onomastics to some extent. The data consisted of 1,304 names from five product categories—food, drinks, clothing and accessories, handicrafts and ornaments, and inedible herbs, as provided in the database of tambons and OTOP products. Thai product names in English, some of which only Thais can understand, show language creativity, reflecting Thai identity within English usage in the local setting. One problematic area concerns the lack of semantic appropriateness of some English names, as the names are sometimes not relevant to the product type. Thai entrepreneurs need support in naming their products to achieve international intelligibility if their products are to be marketed to international customers.

  2. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.

  3. Defluoridation with Locally Produced Thai Bone Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yothin Mutchimadilok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride sorption ability of a locally available bone char is quantified. Both a synthetic solution and natural groundwater samples from several sites are studied and compared to Indian bone char, which is widely accepted and used successfully in India and elsewhere. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were used to quantify sorption properties. Results show that the Thai bone char is as effective as the Indian bone char for removing fluoride from contaminated water, despite the more rigid physical and social constraints found in rural Thailand. Sorption studies with fluoride-contaminated natural groundwater samples also show that chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates had little effect on the removal of fluoride by the homemade bone char.

  4. Sucrose consumption in Thai undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promdee, Limthong; Trakulthong, Jindara; Kangwantrakul, Wisut

    2007-01-01

    Highly added sugar diets have been associated with various health problems such as dental caries, dyslipidemia, obesity and poor quality of life. Unfortunately, sugar consumption, especially sucrose, has increased continuously worldwide. The purpose of the study was to examine sources of sugar consumption and amount of added sucrose consumed in Thai undergraduate students. This study was carried out at Khon Kaen University, Thailand, between the years 2004-2005. A complete 3-day record of items and amounts of sweet consumption were obtained from 202 individuals--38 male and 164 female students. Added sucrose content of each sweetened food and drinks referred to in the record was determined by an enzymatic method. Mean intakes of sucrose were calculated from the sucrose content. The average of sucrose consumption in all subjects was 69+/-38 g/day, ranged from 4 to 182 g/day or 17 teaspoons of added sucrose per day. This amount accounted for 13.8% of total daily energy intake. There was a record of 337 kinds of sweetened foods and drinks found. The major source of added sucrose consumption was sweetened beverage, which was consumed 118 g/day averagely, or 60% of daily sugar consumption. Intake of sucrose per day in both male and female was not statistically difference, neither among different BMI groups. Intake of added sugar in the students was higher than the recommendation of the World Health Organization. These data would be helpful in a health promotion campaign aimed at a reduction of sugar consumption in Thai undergraduate students.

  5. Application of Irradiated Chitosan on Thai Chili s Growth and Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Tangthong, Theeranan; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Pongpat, Suchada; Charoen, Saovapong

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Effects of oligo chitosan on growth and productivity of Thai chili plants were investigated. The foliar spraying of oligo chitosan was applied. The growth and productivity of these oligo chitosan-treated chili plants were compared with those of untreated chili plants. The results showed that the application of oligo chitosan, at the concentration of 80 ppm, displayed significant effects, statistically, on chili plant height, total weight of chili, total number of chilies, total number of green chilies, total number of red chilies and weight per chili. The results also showed that productivity increased up to 34%. The oligo chitosan exhibited not only the ability to protect aphid infection but also the ability to shorten the harvest time of chili plants. The treatment of chili plants by oligo chitosan clearly displayed positive effects on chili s growth and productivity

  6. A cross-sectional examination of growth indicators from Thai adolescent girls: evidence of obesity among Thai youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Ruchiwit, Manyat; Pakapong, Yothaka

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined growth data from adolescent girls in Southeast Asia and almost none have been carried out in Thailand. Thus this study examines growth data from Thai adolescent girls. Cross-sectional growth data from a sample of Thai girls were compared to reference data from healthy well-nourished girls. It is hypothesized that the reference girls will be taller and heavier than the Thai girls; however, the growth indicators will also indicate that obesity is present among Thai girls. Anthropometric and age at menarche data were collected from a sample of 319 adolescent girls ages 11-17 years living in suburban Thailand. Thai girls are heavier than the reference girls at ages 11-13 years yet are shorter and lighter than the reference girls at ages 14-17 years. The data also reveal that 18.4% of the girls are overweight or obese as classified by the CDC BMI-for-age percentile growth curves. The findings suggest the presence of overweight and obesity among this adolescent Thai population. These data may reflect the impact of the improved economic situation of Thailand as well as the impact of body image concerns among these young girls.

  7. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  8. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  9. Green Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Inman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Green beans are thought to have originated in Peru and spread through South and Central America by Indian tribes. Spanish explorers introduced them into Europe in the 16th century. Surveys indicate that 60% of commercially grown green beans are produced in the United States. Particularly, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin produce the greatest amount of green beans in the United States.

  10. The Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes: I. Description of methods and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuluxananan, Somrat; Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Somboonviboon, Wanna; Nipitsukarn, Thana; Sothikarnmanee, Thepakorn; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Werawatganon, Thewarug; Tanudsintum, Surasak; Lekprasert, Varinee; Hintong, Thanoo

    2005-11-01

    Since anesthesia, unlike medical or surgical specialties, does not constitute treatment, The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand host the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes to determine factors related to anesthesia related adverse events. A prospective descriptive study of occurrence screening was conducted in 20 hospitals comprised of 7 university, 4 general and 4 district hospitals across Thailand. Anesthesia personnels were required to fill up patient-related, surgical-related, anesthesia-related variables and adverse outcomes on a strutured data entry form. The data included preanesthetic evaluation intraoperative period and 24 hr postoperative period. Adverse events specific form was recorded when adverse events occurred. All data were keyed in data management unit with double entry technique and descriptive statistics was used in the first phase of this study. A total of 163403 consecutive cases were recorded in one year. The mean (S.D.) of age, weight and height of patients were 38.6(2.3) yrs, 53.9(17.7) kgs and 153.4(22.7) cm respectively. There were more female (52.9%) than male (47. 1%) patients with ASA PS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = 50.8%, 36.3%, 10.7%, 2.0%, 0.2% respectively. Hypertension (11.6%), anemia (7.7%) and diabetes melitus (6.8%) were the three most common abnormalities in preanesthetic history taking. Mallampati score of 111870 patients grade 1, 2, 3, 4 were 54.0%, 39.7%, 5.6%, 0.7% and laryngoscopic grade 1, 2, 3, 4 of 74888 patients were 81.0%, 15.5%, 3.0% and 0.5% respectively. The first phase of THAI study epidemiological project can represent both the anesthesia and surgical profiles in Thailand. The collected data available should be useful for the improvement of the quality of anesthesia, guidelines for clinical practices, medical education and for further research.

  11. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...

  12. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  13. Thai Electoral Campaigning: Vote-Canvassing Networks and Hybrid Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyarat Chattharakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence gathered through participant observation, this article illuminates the nature of vote-canvassing, previously a black box in Thai electoral studies. Offering a close-up study of the internal mechanisms of an individual Thai election campaign, this article reveals that vote-canvasser networks are underpinned by long-term dyadic relationships, both hierarchical and horizontal, between the candidate, vote-canvassers and voters. These networks continue to be the most important factor in winning elections. This article documents how candidates draw up an election campaign map and identify voters along residential lines to maximise their vote-canvassing strategy. The findings of this article challenge Anek’s 1996 concept of “two democracies”, which argues that rural voters are influenced by money, local leaders, political factions and corrupt politicians while more well-educated, urban, middle-class voters are more oriented toward the alternative policies offered by competing parties. The case study of Kom’s election campaign showed that the role of the much-vaunted middle-class voters is not decisive, even in suburban areas of Bangkok. While political marketing has grown in importance in Thai elections, it has not displaced traditional electoral practices. Thai society is, in fact, deeply fragmented and diverse – too complex to be divided in such a simplistic manner. This article suggests that rather than undergoing a linear transformation, political hybridisation is a key trend in Thai election campaigns.

  14. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of perioperative allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienthong, Somboon; Hintong, Thanoo; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn

    2005-11-01

    To determine the incidence, risk factors, signs, symptoms and management of perioperative allergic reactions in the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study). Between February 1, 2003, and January 31, 2004, a descriptive, prospective, multicenter study was conducted in 20 hospitals across Thailand. All patients receiving anesthetic and medical agents were monitored for allergic reactions for the first 24 postoperative-hours. Signs and symptoms of suspected allergic reactions included skin reactions, wheezing and unexpected hypotension. The details of allergic reactions were reviewed and recorded. Allergic reactions occurred in 30 of the 163,403 patients included in this study. The reaction-incidence was approximately 1 in 5,500 cases of anesthesia. Forty-eight percent of the affected patients had a history of allergic reactions. The manifestations were skin reactions, hypotension and wheezing in 38, 22 and 19 percent of the overall symptoms, respectively. Reactions were mild, moderate and severe in 40, 23 and 37 percent of the patients, respectively. The three drugs most suspected of causing the reaction(s) were antibiotics (19%), muscle relaxants (17%) and propofol (15%). All of the affected patients recovered after treatment including the one who suffered cardiac arrest because of the allergic reaction. The incidence of perioperative allergic reactions was 1 in 5,500 cases of anesthesia. History of allergies was obtained from half of the patients and the most common sign was a skin reaction. The drugs most suspected of causing an allergic reaction were antibiotics. All of the patients responded well to rescue treatment.

  16. Radio protectors from Thai edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch

    2005-11-01

    Antioxidants have been used as radioprotectors in cosmetics and radiation therapy to protect normal tissues in cancer patients. The objective of this study is to determine the activities of antioxidants in Thai edible plants (holy basil, sesame (white and black). durian (Chanee and Monthong), parsley, morning glory, guava, chilies, pepper, sweet pepper, ash pumpkin, pumpkin, tomato, peppermint, and sweet basil) by using I, I-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and to determine their capability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis. Gamma rays (10 KGy) from cobalt-60 was used to induce hemolysis of human red blood cells, and ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant. The extracts from all samples showed antioxidant activities. However, only the extracts (0.1-1,000 μg/8 x 10 9 red blood cells) from parsley, guava, peppermint, and sweet basil could significantly inhibit (p<0.05) radiation-induced hemolysis. Although ascorbic acid is a strong antioxidant, its ability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis was lower than the extracts. This maybe due to its hydrophilic property which limits its ability to penetrate cell membrane

  17. Illness perspectives of Thais diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanseeha, Ladda; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Sethabouppha, Hunsa; Disayavanish, Chamlong; Turale, Sue

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the perceptions of 18 people diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1-10 years to uncover how they perceived themselves and their illness. It also involved 12 family members who added their perceptions. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, reflective journaling, and observations. The data were analyzed through the lens of Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology. Four themes emerged: perceptions of mental illness, perceptions of the causes of illness, perceptions of discrimination, and attempting to live with schizophrenia. The findings included strong underlying cultural and spiritual beliefs, and attitudes unique to the Thai participants, including the causation of schizophrenia by supernatural powers, black magic, and bad karma stemming from past deeds. Understanding the perceptions of the participants might help health-care providers to be more sensitive to those living with schizophrenia in Thailand and elsewhere. In particular, the findings could be useful in informing psychiatric careproviders about developing better caring systems for clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This should help the sufferers of schizophrenia to live their lives to their own satisfaction and as normally as possible.

  18. Female Sexuality in Thai Discourses about Maechii ('lay nuns').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, Marjorie

    2004-05-01

    By examining competing discourses about women who are maechii (or 'lay nuns') in Buddhist Thai society, this paper demonstrates that, although maechii vow to be celibate, social constructions of their role are grounded in sexuality. The discourses examined are those of the Buddhist canon and Sangha (Order of Monkhood), the Thai Maechii Institute, the mass media, and the government. The analysis is supplemented with field observations and interviews with monks, maechii, and lay persons. Findings suggest that maechii comprise an ambiguous category linguistically, Buddhistically, and in terms of their sexuality. Case studies of the founders of nunneries conducted in ChiangMai indicate that maechii leaders have been resisting the prevalent views that most maechii are social misfits, yet also are capable of undermining monks' celibacy and, by extension, the larger social order. The analysis contributes to the understanding of the interconnectedness of gender and sexuality in contemporary Thai society.

  19. An Elderly Employment Model For The Thai Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrat Sadangharn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit. 

  20. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  1. Hybrid heroes: Cultural hybridization in Thai action adventure films from 1997 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaya Na Nongkhai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied cultural hybridization as reflected in hero characters from 30 Thai action adventure films produced and released during 1997–2010. It was hypothesized that the characterization of the heroes in the action adventure films in question had been influenced by features of heroes in foreign films. Such features had been mixed with Thai values and local beliefs so as to create Thai hybrid hero characters. These hybrid characters demonstrated the distinctiveness and dynamics of Thai action adventure films. It was found that cultural hybridization is presented through the Thai hero characters' images, gender identity, and roles leading to the emergence of three important types of Thai hybrid hero: 1 local Thai cowboy heroes, 2 Thai martial arts heroes, and 3 Thai necromancer superheroes. These heroes are clear evidence of an adaptation and cultural hybridization between international films' hero characters and certain elements in Thai society being legends, local beliefs, and the values of masculinity. Moreover, these hybrid heroes reflect the flow of globalization into Thai society and the process of localization to creatively respond to the flux in global culture.

  2. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or unrealistic optimism. Because behavior is determined by

  3. Some attitudes towards teaching and learning in Thai nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Philip

    2006-04-01

    This paper offers a discussion of some of the attitudes towards teaching and learning in Thai nursing education. It illustrates the strict, hierarchical set of relationships that exist between people throughout all aspects of Thai society. It then relates these relationships to those between teachers and students of nursing and how those relationships effect the ways in which students receive and deal with knowledge. Other attitudes towards learning, communication and student/lecturer relationships are also noted. It is hoped that the paper helps those, in other cultures, to reflect on their own practices.

  4. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...

  5. Cloning and comparative analysis of zinc-finger protein gene on Y-chromosome (ZFY between Thai Bangkaew dog and other Thai canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukadej Boonyaprakob

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dogs, Asiatic jackals (Canis aureus and a dhole (Cuon alpinus. A 1075-bp ZFY segment from DNA samples of Thai Bangkaew dogs was found to be 100% identical to the domestic dog ZFY and (if gaps are allowed showed 81% and 92% identity to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. However, if gaps were treated as missing data, the 1045-bp ZFY sequence for the Thai Bangkaew dogs was 100% identical to domestic dog ZFY and 99.5% to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. In addition, the 959-bp Thai Bangkaew ZFX fragments were identical and showed 100% identity to domestic dog ZFX. These genetic data suggest that the Thai Bangkaew dogs still present today share a common male ancestor with modern dogs, rather than being the descendants of dhole or jackal/dog hybrids.

  6. Effectiveness comparison between Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture for myofascial back pain in Thai military personnel: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnerddee, Wipoo

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.

  7. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  9. Developing Academic and Content Area Literacy: The Thai EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charubusp, Sasima; Chinwonno, Apasara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Academic Literacy-Based Intervention (ALI) on 30 undergraduate Thai university students' English reading proficiency. Based on the English reading proficiency test, these students were sub-classified into 2 groups, 15 in the high English reading proficiency group and 15 in the low English reading proficiency…

  10. Performance assessment of the Thai National Center for Pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpanukrungsi, Wanida; Anantachoti, Puree

    2015-01-01

    The Thai National Pharmacovigilance Center (NPVC) has operated since 1983, but its performance has never been formally assessed. The paper aimed to present the main findings of performance assessment of the Thai NPVC. A survey was conducted. Data from January 2011-December 2013 were collected. The performance was assessed through four indicator domains. The NPVC has a clear mission to guide its roles and responsibilities. The center has a well-established structure, adequate budget, qualified personnel, and good IT infrastructure, but it has no in-house IT personnel.Safety surveillance function was considered excellent. The Thai adverse drug reaction database accumulate a number of quality reports. Typically, new signals of traditional or herbal medicines could be generated from the database.The risk management process was well established and carried out. The National Drug Safety Advisory Sub-Committee was composed of qualified representatives from related disciplines. Not only do these committee members make safety decisions, but they also provide key safety messages and communicate these to their member audiences.The risk communication function was evaluated to be unsatisfactory. It was not effectively distributed to individual health care professionals. The overall performance of the Thai NPVC was considerably good. The findings suggested that risk communication should be improved. Moreover, organizational performance should be routinely evaluated. If possible, benchmarking with international pharmacovigilance centers should also be performed.

  11. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. Materials and Methods: The tool selected ...

  12. Parent-teen communication about sex in urban Thai families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Byrnes, Hilary F; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13-14 years were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with 1 parent and 1 teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results showed that parents were most likely to talk with their teens about body changes and dating; however, less discussion about sex-related issues, birth control, and HIV/AIDS occurred. More daughters than sons reported frequent discussions with their parents about sex. Parents who believed their teens had been involved in sexual activity were more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS and the difficulty of teenagers having babies, instead of talking about sexual intercourse or when to start having sex. Multiple regression analysis indicated that gender of the child (female), parental religiosity, and parental perception of teen sexual activity were significant predictors of increased sexual communication in Thai families. The findings suggest a need for approaches designed to facilitate communication skills about sex-related issues among Thai parents.

  13. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Ph.D., RN

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking.

  14. Androgen Receptor Expression in Thai Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthat Chottanapund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and related factors of androgen receptor (AR expression in Thai breast cancer patients. A descriptive study was done in 95 patients, who were admitted to Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital, Bangkok (2011–2013. Statistical relationships were examined between AR protein expression, tumor status, and patient characteristics. Compared with those from Western countries, ethnic Thai patients were younger at age of diagnosis and had a higher proliferative index (high Ki-67 expression, which indicates unfavorable prognosis. In addition, 91% of the Thai breast tumors that were positive for any of the following receptors, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 also expressed the AR protein, while in triple negative breast tumors only 33% were AR positive. ER and PR expression was positively related with AR expression, while AR expression was inversely correlated to Ki-67 expression. AR status was strongly correlated with ER and PR status in Thai patients. There is an inverse relationship between Ki-67 and AR, which suggests that AR may be a prognostic factor for breast cancer.

  15. The great power game and Thai military rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of suggestions trying to explain why the Thai military decided, in 2006, to stage the 18th coup in 75 years. Some point to corruption and declining growth and investment rates, others to the security problems in the South. A third explanation has tried to relate the coup...

  16. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Thai. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Thai. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  17. Improving environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production in 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil production has increased in Thailand with considerable environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to analyse possibilities to examine how the environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production can be improved in the coming decades. To this end, we integrated a sectoral and a

  18. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  19. English Grammar and Thai University Students: An Insurmountable Linguistic Battle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengboon, Saksit

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating English grammar knowledge of a group of Thai university students. The three main research questions revolved around their knowledge of English grammar, the kinds of difficulties they had encountered in using the grammar as well as their perceptions of the roles of grammar in using English. The participants were…

  20. Cytotoxic activity and apoptotic induction of some edible Thai local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate eight edible Thai local plant extracts (Camellia sinensis, Careya sphaerica, Cratoxylum formosum, Eleutherococcus trifoliatus, Ficus auriculata, Persicaria odorata, Schima wallichii, and Vaccinium sprengelii) against colon and liver cancer cell lines. Methods: The 80 % ethanol plant extracts were ...

  1. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  2. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs) to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to ...

  3. Towards a Curriculum for the Thai Lao of Northeast Thailand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a fundamental issue in language planning, namely, whether or not to introduce a curriculum for the mother tongue (MT), in the wider context of a complex language planning situation in Thailand. It details recent moves in the consideration of this issue for the Thai Lao (Isan) of Northeast Thailand, Thailand's largest…

  4. Providing Business English Instruction: Thai Instructors' Practices and Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratoomrat, Panadda; Rajprasit, Krich

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine how Business English courses are conducted in the Thai Higher Education, and to investigate students' perceptions toward the instructional management of the courses in their universities. The participants were four instructors, and one hundred and forty students enrolling in the courses of four universities in…

  5. Atypical Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Thai Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarurin Pitanupong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version. The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to determine the correlation and P-value. Results: 141 Thai, medical students (15.9% were reported to have atypical attitudes towards eating, and displayed abnormal eating behaviors. There was no statistically significant correlation of attitude towards eating, and their current eating behaviors according to the medical students’ gender, year of studying and Grade Point Average. However, their eating attitudes and behaviors were, associated with Body Mass index. Normal weight (BMI 18.5- 23.49 and overweight (BMI 23.5-39.9 groups could increase by 2.2 (95% CI =1.2, 4.3 and 2.3 (95% CI=1.1, 4.8 times risk depending on atypical eating attitudes and abnormal eating behaviors respectively, when compared with the underweight group (BMI<18.5. Conclusion: There was no correlated difference in concerns to the Thai medical student’s abnormal eating habits, with gender, years of their study and Grade Point Average. Only normal to over-weight BMI were associated. Overweight male, medical students significantly represented more atypical attitudes towards eating and behaviors than other groups in this population. These results may reveal the changing trends of eating attitudes and behaviors due to the current ideal body image of being more muscular. However, prospective studies are still needed.

  6. Combination Welding Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Combination Welding. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for combination welding is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  7. Automotive Mechanics Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Automotive Mechanics. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for automotive mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  8. Maintenance Mechanics Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Maintenance Mechanics. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for maintenance mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  9. Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    To promote the benefits of green infrastructure, help communities overcome barriers to using GI, and encourage the use of GI to create sustainable and resilient water infrastructure that improves water quality and supports and revitalizes communities.

  10. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  11. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on April 16, 2015. [Database subscription]. Hartley L, Flowers N, Holmes J, et al. Green and black ... health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH. ...

  12. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  13. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  14. Thai Language Sentence Similarity Computation Based on Syntactic Structure and Semantic Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Feng, Yinhan; Cheng, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Sentence similarity computation plays an increasingly important role in text mining, Web page retrieval, machine translation, speech recognition and question answering systems. Thai language as a kind of resources scarce language, it is not like Chinese language with HowNet and CiLin resources. So the Thai sentence similarity research faces some challenges. In order to solve this problem of the Thai language sentence similarity computation. This paper proposes a novel method to compute the similarity of Thai language sentence based on syntactic structure and semantic vector. This method firstly uses the Part-of-Speech (POS) dependency to calculate two sentences syntactic structure similarity, and then through the word vector to calculate two sentences semantic similarity. Finally, we combine the two methods to calculate two Thai language sentences similarity. The proposed method not only considers semantic, but also considers the sentence syntactic structure. The experiment result shows that this method in Thai language sentence similarity computation is feasible.

  15. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  16. Attitude of Farmers towards Thai Koi Farming in Selected Upazila of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruk Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the study were to determine the attitude of farmers towards Thai Koi farming in a selected area of Mymensingh district. Attempt was also made to identify the problems faced by the farmers in Thai Koi farming. Data were obtained from randomly selected 70 Thai Koi farmers of Shaiod and Ahmedpur villages in Kheruajani Union under Muktagachha Upazila of Mamensingh district during April, 2015. Attitude of the farmers was measured in respect of different aspects of Thai koi production. A three-point rating scale was used to indicate the Thai koi farmers’ response against each statement. The possible score for each respondent could range from 15 to 45 and observed score ranged from 31 to 41. It is evident that ‘I believe that Thai koi farming in pond can supply protein and nutrition to the family members ranked first as a statement in attitude scale of Thai Koi farmers. Second is ‘I like Thai Koi farming because it has higher growth rate than that of other local Koi’. Most of the Thai Koi farmers had highly favourable attitude. Among the problems, ‘high sensitivity to disease of Thai Koi’ got the highest problem confrontation score and stood the first ranked problem and other problem were ‘High price of Thai koi feed’, High price of drugs’ and ‘High price of farm labour’ etc. Farmers suggested from their experiences that there should have need-based spot training on effective management of Thai Koi farming. In achieving this target, Department of Fisheries and allied NGOs may play a crucial role.

  17. SYSTEMATICITY OF L1 THAI LEARNERS' ENGLISH INTERLANGUAGE OF DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaboot Sumonsriworakun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates systematicity in English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners of L2 English. It is hypothesized that Thai learners show non-random use of English dependent prepositions in their English interlanguage, and that the systematicity is largely attributable to cross-linguistic influence and certain cognitive factors. To test the hypothesis, 30 L1 Thai undergraduate students of L2 English at elementary, intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels took two tests: a Thai–English translation test and a cloze test. The tests involved four types of relationship between English and Thai dependent prepositions: (1 [–prep] in English but [+prep] in Thai, (2 [+prep] in English but [–prep] in Thai, (3 [+prep1] in English but [+prep2] in Thai, and (4 [+prep] in English and [+prep] in Thai. The findings demonstrate that systematicity occurred in the learners’ English usage of prepositions of all such types, possibly due to negative transfer from the learners’ native language. Also, the L2 learners tended to exhibit such systematicity irrespective of their English proficiency level. It may be assumed that the cognitive aspect of L2 learners’ working memory is involved in processing the usage of the four types of English dependent prepositions. The results of the study are expected to shed light on the problems of L2 English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners.

  18. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Berecki-Gisolf

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand.Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study.Thailand.The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys.Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall.In 2009, 5608(10% participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%. Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury.Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  19. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Thailand. The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall. In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  20. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  1. LEADERSHIP STYLES: A STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND THAI PUBLIC SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattavud Pimpa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.

  2. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  3. Understanding on concepts of force of Thai freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usawinchai, Chokchai

    The central concept of Newtonian mechanics is force. Without this concept, the students would find the rest of mechanics very difficult to master. Based on this hypothesis, the understandings and misconceptions of Newtonian mechanics were investigated. Three hundred eighteen Thai freshmen participated in this study. The freshmen were divided into two groups according to their high school locations, Bangkok and other cities of Thailand. The Force Concept Inventory was used to probe the freshmen's understandings and misconceptions. The SPSS and EXCEL programs were used to analyze the data. The translation of the FCI into Thai and its subsequent validation is considered to be a significant contribution to physics education research. The analyses indicated freshmen had the best understanding on concepts of Newton's first and third laws and the least on Newton's second law. Several Misconceptions on Newtonian force concepts were found, similar to their USA counterparts. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of freshmen on understanding of Newtonian force concepts.

  4. The external relations of the monarchy in Thai politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The first part of the paper discusses the most important explanations of the coup. The second part is devoted to history and ideology of the king and the throne while the third develops an image of the Crown Property Bureau and the Privy council's role in Thai politics. The fourth and fifth secti...... sections look more squarely at the impact of the rivalry of the US and China and the regional security dimension in relation to the coup itself and more specifically the role of the king. Finally some concluding remarks are offered.......The first part of the paper discusses the most important explanations of the coup. The second part is devoted to history and ideology of the king and the throne while the third develops an image of the Crown Property Bureau and the Privy council's role in Thai politics. The fourth and fifth...

  5. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  6. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...

  7. Irregular Female Migrant Workers along Lao-Thai Borders

    OpenAIRE

    SIRAKUL SUWINTHAWONG

    2018-01-01

    This thesis focuses on irregular migration from Laos to Thailand, and irregular migrant labour in Thailand. This research is set in Mukdahan – a small (in size and population) yet important province as a gateway to cross-border activities in the Mekong region. It draws on the experiences of Lao irregular female migrant labourers in Mukdahan, northeastern Thailand, and the practices and perspectives of Thai authorities and employers in relation to irregular migrant labour law and enforcement. ...

  8. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  9. Sex determination using mastoid process measurement in Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoonpol, Chayanit; Plakornkul, Vasana

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of skeleton is necessary for sex determination. There are several pieces of bone that are used such as pelvic bone and zygomatic arch etc. In the fieldwork of physical anthropologist and forensic physician, the skull or some pieces of the skull can be very useful. In the skull, the mastoid process is a compact and permanent process. Craniometric measurements of mastoid process are interesting parameters to distinguish sex. To study the craniometric measurements of mastoid process of dry skulls in Thais and provide a method for sex determination. One hundred normal skulls of Thais from the central region, 60 male and 40 female, were studied. The measurement of mastoid process between the three points, porion (po), mastoidale (ma), and asterion (as) were made. The three distances (po-ma, ma-as, po-as) were recorded (mm) and the mastoid triangular areas were calculated by using Heron's formula (mm2). The student's t-test and linear discriminant analysis were used for data analysis. The means of mastoid dimensions and mastoid triangular area in male are significantly larger than those of the female (p < or = 0.01). The linear discriminant analysis shows that using the mastoid process dimensions and mastoid triangular area for determining sex in Thais are convincing. The average accuracy is 67.00 to 76.90%. The better mastoid dimension is ma-as of the right mastoid process. It shows a high average accuracy at 76.90%. Means of the mastoid dimensions and mastoid triangular area of Thai skulls (whole skull or fragments) provide an accurate method for determining sex.

  10. Thailand, A beauty hub for everyone? : Internationalizing Thai Aesthetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinhaneti, Kantara; Pullawan, Jitmanee

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Aesthetic surgery becomes another option of beauty. Interested Patients seeking for choices offered outside their homeland for more benefits. Thailand maybe one of those choices people is now interested in. Thai aesthetic industry may prove to be one of the most wanted destinations because of its expertise and relatively low cost with impressive service. Problem: “How should Thailand improve its Aesthetic service attractiveness to drive its potential to the level of internationa...

  11. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  12. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-10-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (pinjury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (pinjury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.

  13. Migraine in Thai children: prevalence in junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visudtibhan, Anannit; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Khongkhatithum, Chaiyos; Chiemchanya, Surang; Sirijunpen, Suthatip; Ruangkanchanasetr, Suwanna; Visudhiphan, Pongsakdi

    2007-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of migraine in seventh grade Thai students in 4 junior high schools in Bangkok, Thailand, according to the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the Classification of Headache of the International Headache Society was conducted in July 2004. The study included a screening self-administered questionnaire and face-to-face interview with physical examination. The diagnosis of migraine was made and confirmed by 2 pediatric neurologists. All of 1789 students in participating schools completed the questionnaire. After 2 interviews, 248 students (13.8%) were diagnosed with migraine. The prevalence in girls was higher than that in boys (16.2% vs 11.7%). Migraine as having aura was diagnosed in 34 students (13.7%). One student had sporadic hemiplegic migraine. Among 248 children, 176 (71%) reported the duration of headache between 1 and 2 hours. The leading precipitating factor of migraine was the stress related to daily school activities (17.7%). There were 32 students (12.9%) with frequent and intense headache who were referred to their primary physicians for further management. This study had disclosed a high prevalence of migraine in seventh grade Thai students in Bangkok City and reflected the existing burden of this illness in Thai students.

  14. Innovation, R&D and Productivity: Evidence from Thai Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanapol Srithanpong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between innovation, R&D (Research and Development, and productivity in Thai manufacturing using cross-sectional data from the 2007 Industrial Census of Thailand. We utilize a simplified structural model (CDM model that describes the link between innovation output, R&D and productivity for the Thai case. Various estimation techniques are used to compare and provide evidence for empirical results. Our findings generally suggest that government aid and plant characteristics play an important role for a plant to engage in R&D and to be innovative, both in terms of process innovation and product innovation. Exporting plants, plants in the central region, and plants that are categorized as Head Branch type are more likely to engage in R&D and be innovative. The type of industry and specific technological characteristics of plants are shown to influence innovation effort and decisions to undertake R&D. On average, plant size, foreign ownership, exporting and product innovation are important drivers of productivity enhancement in Thai manufacturing.

  15. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  16. Situational analysis of palliative care education in thai medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak

    2013-01-01

    The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum.

  17. Green Power Partnership Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  18. Risk factors for an anxiety disorder comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder: results from the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paholpak S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Suchat Paholpak,1 Ronnachai Kongsakon,2 Wasana Pattanakumjorn,3 Roongsang Kanokvut,4 Wiroj Wongsuriyadech,5 Manit Srisurapanont6 On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Study Group1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Ratchaburi Hospital, Ratchaburi, 4Department of Psychiatry, Buddhachinaraj Hospital, Phitsanulok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Udonthani Hospital, Udonthani, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: The aim of the study was to determine in a clinical setting the risk factors for current anxiety disorder (AD comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD, being treated under the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Project (TBDR. Methods: The TBDR was a multisite naturalistic study conducted at 24 psychiatric units (ie, at university, provincial mental, and government general hospitals between February 2009 and January 2011. Participants were in- or out-patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Instruments used in this study included the Thai Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5; Thai Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS; Thai Young Mania Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impression of Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S, CGI-BP-S-mania, CGI-BP-S-depression, and CGI-BP-S-overall BP illness; and the Thai SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results: Among the 424 BD patients, 404 (95.3% had BD type I. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age of onset of mood disturbance, first diagnosis of BD, and first treatment of BD was 32.0±11.9, 36.1±12.2, and 36.2±12.2 years. The duration of illness was 10.7±9.0 years. Fifty-three (12.5% of the 424 participants had

  19. The study of customer relationship management in Thai airline industry: A case of Thai travelers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Law

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers. This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology: This research paper is an attemp...

  20. The development of the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattharayuttawat, Sucheera; Ngamthipwatthana, Thienchai; Pitiyawaranun, Buncha

    2005-11-01

    "Quality of life" has become a main focus of interest in medicine. The Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL) was developed in order to measure the Thai mental illness both in a clinical setting and community. The purpose of this study was to develop the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL), having adequate and sufficient construct validity, discriminant power, concurrent validity, and reliability. To develop the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life Test, two samples groups were used in the present study: (1) pilot study samples: 30 samples and (2) survey samples were 672 samples consisting of normal, and psychiatric patients. The developing tests items were collected from a review of the literature in which all the items were based on the WHO definition of Quality of Life. Then, experts judgment by the Delphi technique was used in the first stage. After that a pilot study was used to evaluate the testing administration, and wording of the tests items. The final stage was collected data from the survey samples. The results of the present study showed that the final test was composed 25 items. The construct validity of this test consists of six domains: Physical, Cognitive, Affective, Social Function, Economic and Self-Esteem. All the PTQL items have sufficient discriminant power It was found to be statistically significant different at the. 001 level between those people with mental disorders and normal people. There was a high level of concurrent validity association with WHOQOL-BREF, Pearson correlation coefficient and Area under ROC curve were 0.92 and 0.97 respectively. The reliability coefficients for the Alpha coefficients of the PTQL total test was 0.88. The values of the six scales were from 0.81 to 0:91. The present study was directed at developing an effective psychometric properties pictorial quality of life questionnaire. The result will be a more direct and meaningful application of an instrument to detect the mental health illness poor quality of life in

  1. Variable Production of English Past Tense Morphology: A Case Study of a Thai-Speaking Learner of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…

  2. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  3. Risk factors of future smoking among Thai youth: a secondary analysis of the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. © 2013 APJPH.

  4. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  5. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  6. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  7. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  8. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  9. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  10. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , and coal, with a concomitant release of greenhouse gases. Green infrastructure seeks to perform those functions in a manner that, at the very least, minimises its impact on the natural environment and, at best, enhances the quality of the natural...

  11. Thai Elementary School Teachers' English Pronunciation and Effects of Teacher Variables: Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoksilapatham, Budsaba

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe 147 Thai elementary school teachers' English pronunciation competence and to identify a teacher variable that has an impact on their pronunciation. The instrument used to collect data consisted of two parts: a questionnaire to elicit Thai teachers' personal information (i.e., seven variables in all),…

  12. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by

  13. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  14. UNDERSTANDING THAI CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS MANAGEMENT DURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerasak Thanasankit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.

  15. Thai College Students' Perceptions on Roles and Functions of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangdhanakanond, Kamonwan; Archwamety, Teara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine Thai college students' perceptions of school psychologist's roles and functions. Participants were 164 undergraduate students in the Faculty of Education at a Thai university. A questionnaire was employed to collect the data. It was found that college students majoring in secondary education rated…

  16. Analyzing the Thai State Policy on Private Tutoring: The Prevalence of the Market Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Rattana

    2014-01-01

    Private tutoring in academic subjects, which is provided for a fee and which takes place outside standard school hours, has become a global phenomenon. It is also very visible in Thailand. This paper draws on qualitative method including documentary analyses and semi-structured interviews with Thai policy elites, to understand the Thai state…

  17. An Analysis of Errors in Written English Sentences: A Case Study of Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermsook, Kanyakorn; Liamnimit, Jiraporn; Pochakorn, Rattaneekorn

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to examine the language errors in a writing of English major students in a Thai university and to explore the sources of the errors. This study focused mainly on sentences because the researcher found that errors in Thai EFL students' sentence construction may lead to miscommunication. 104 pieces of writing…

  18. The Sport Commitment Model: An Investigation of Structural Relationships with Thai Youth Athlete Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosakul, Chairat; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon; Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Grounded in the conceptual framework of the Sport Commitment Model and previous empirical studies conducted in Western countries, this study was designed to (a) test and validate a Thai version of the Athlete Opinion Survey to assess components of the Sport Commitment Model in Thai youth athletes and (b) examine structural relationships among…

  19. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  20. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  1. Correlates of current suicide risk among Thai patients with bipolar I disorder: findings from the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttajit S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit,1 Suchat Paholpak,2 Somrak Choovanicvong,3 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,4 Wetid Pratoomsri,5 Manit Srisurapanont1On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Registry Group1Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 3Srithanya Hospital, Nonthaburi, 4Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 5Chachoengsao Hospital, Chachoengsao, ThailandBackground: The Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry was a prospective, multisite, naturalistic study conducted in 24 hospitals across Thailand. This study aimed to examine the correlates of current suicide risk in Thai patients with bipolar I disorder.Methods: Participants were adult inpatients or outpatients with bipolar disorder, based on the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All were assessed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, version 5. The severity of current suicide risk was determined by using the total score of the MINI suicidality module. Mood symptoms were assessed by using the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale.Results: The data of 383 bipolar I disorder patients were included in the analyses. Of these, 363 (94.8% were outpatients. The mean (standard deviation of the MINI suicide risk score was 1.88 (5.0. The demographic/clinical variables significantly associated with the MINI suicide risk scores included age, number of overall previous episodes, the Young Mania Rating Scale score, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and the Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness Scale for Bipolar Disorder mania score, depression score, and overall score. The variables affecting the differences of suicide risk scores between or among groups were type of first mood episode, a history of rapid cycling, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders. The stepwise multiple linear regression model revealed

  2. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  3. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green....... Architectural green could signify green architecture with inclusive interrelations between green and space, built and unbuilt, inside and outside. The aim of the term is to reflect a new focus in green architecture – its architectural performance. Ecological issues are not underestimated or ignored, but so far...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One...

  4. Effect of maturity and processing on total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents of Indian green leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punna, Ramulu; Rao Paruchuri, Udayasekhara

    2004-11-01

    Vegetables are very important in the diet and provide minerals, vitamins, antioxidants and fiber. A beneficial role of dietary fiber in human nutrition is known but the data on the effect of maturity and processing of Indian vegetables on dietary fiber and its fractions are not available. Hence, the present study was undertaken to generate data on total (TDF), insoluble (IDF) and soluble (SDF) dietary fiber contents of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and to assess the effect of leaf maturity and cooking on these parameters. Sixteen GLV (namely, agathi, alternanthera, amaranth, basella, cabbage, colocasia, coriander, curry leaves, drumstick, fenugreek, hibiscus, mint, portulaca, rumex, spinach and tender tamarind leaves) were analysed for TDF, IDF and SDF by the enzymatic and gravimetric method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Among the GLV analysed, the TDF and IDF contents were the lowest (2.5 g% and 1.6 g%) in basella and were the highest (16.3 g% and 13.4 g%) in curry leaves. The SDF content ranged from 0.7 g% in spinach to 2.9 g% in curry leaves. The SDF as a percentage of the TDF ranged from 11.3% in tender tamarind leaves to 36.0% in basella, but the majority of GLV had around 25% of the TDF as SDF. Significant (P species and intra-species in TDF, IDF and SDF contents of all the GLV. As the leaf matured from tender to mature and to coarse stage, the TDF and IDF contents of amaranth, basella, hibiscus, rumex and spinach increased significantly (P < 0.05), The SDF content significantly (P < 0.05) increased from tender to mature stage in all five GLV, but there was no further increase from mature to coarse stage except in rumex, where a significant (P < 0.01) increase (25%) was observed. Processing/cooking of GLV had no significant effect on their TDF, IDF and SDF contents.

  5. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  6. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  7. The Antidiabetic Activity of Curry Leaves “Murraya Koenigii” on the Glucose Levels, Kidneys, and Islets of Langerhans of Rats with Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad M Al-Ani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study were to explore the antihyperglycemic effect of curry leaves, Murraya koenigii "MK" aqueous extract, and to examine its possible protective effects on the islets of Langerhans and kidneys of streptozotocin (STZ diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n=6; normal control, normal treated with "MK" control, diabetic control (non-treated with "MK", diabetic treated with 200 mg/kg MK aqueous leaf extract and diabetic treated with 400 mg/kg MK aqueous leaf extract. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored gravimetrically. The animals were sacrificed on the 30th day; the kidney and pancreatic tissues were processed for histological studies. Results: The diabetic group showed considerable loss of body weight and increase in blood glucose levels and degeneration of the glomeruli and renal convoluted tubules and atrophied islets with disintegration of β-cells. Treatment of diabetic rats with MK extract showed significant (p < 0.001 improvement in blood glucose levels and body weight gain. The MK extract also caused an improvement in tissue injury induced by STZ injection in the kidney and islets of Langerhans. Conclusions: These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of MK aqueous extract against cellular oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  8. Comment on Kokkola et al. (2008) - Comparisons with analytical solutions from Khvorostyanov and Curry (2007) on the critical droplet radii and supersaturations of CCN with insoluble fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, V. I.; Curry, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the critical radii rcr and supersaturations scr of the cloud condensation nuclei with insoluble fractions were derived by Khvorostyanov and Curry (2007, hereafter KC07). Similar solutions were found later by Kokkola et al. (2008, hereafter Kok08); however, Kok08 used the approximation of an ideal dilute solution, while KC07 used more accurate assumptions that account for nonideality of solutions. Kok08 found a large discrepancy with KC07 in the critical supersaturations. Various possible reasons of this are analyzed. It is shown that the major discrepancy was caused by a simple mistake in Kok08 in the equation for the critical supersaturation: erroneous ''plus'' sign between the Kelvin and Raoult terms instead of correct ''minus'' sign. If this mistake is corrected, the equations from Kok08 mostly repeat the equations from KC07, except that Kok08 use the dilute solution approximation. If the mistake in Kok08 is corrected, then the differences in the critical radii and supersaturations do not exceed 16-18%, which characterizes the possible errors of an ideal diluted solution approximation. If the Kok08 scheme is corrected and applied to a nonideal solution, then the difference with KC07 does not exceed 0.4-1%.

  9. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  10. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green...... that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...

  11. The performance of obesity screening tools among young Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.

  12. Astaxanthin production from sewage of traditional Thai rice vermicelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarit, Chutinut; Rittirut, Waigoon; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Siripatana, Chairat

    2017-03-01

    This research aimed to investigate an optimal condition for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma TISTR 5730 in two different media: synthetic YM medium and the medium added with coconut water and diluted with sewage from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant (coconut water: sewage of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 ration respectively). The basic medium formulation was composed of 10 g/L glucose, 3 g/L yeast extract, 0.1 g/L K2HPO4, 0.01 g/L NaCl, 0.01 g/L MgSO4 and 0.01 g/L CaCl2 with initial pH 5.5. The cultures were cultivated on 200 rpm shaking bath at 50 °C for 120 hr. It was found that P. rhodozyma TISTR 5370 grew optimally when cultivated in a mixture of coconut water and Thai rice vermicelli sewage (ratio of 1:3), with growth of 3.23 g dry biomass/L and specific astaxanthin production of 680 μg/g dry cell respectively. When fan palm sugar was added to increase reducing sugar from 10 to 15, 20 and 25 g/L, it was demonstrated that the 15 g/L formulation produced highest both dry cell weight (9.66 g/L) and astaxanthin (810 μg/g dry cell weight). Furthermore, when 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/L citric acid was added as supplement, it was found that 1.0-g/L citric acid formulation gave the best result: 10.30 g/L dried cell weight and 930 μg/g dry cell weight astaxanthin. This study provides a promising alternative method of sewage reduction and valorization of wastewater from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant.

  13. Crazy for Ya Ba: methamphetamine use among northern Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anjalee

    2014-07-01

    Since the mid-1990s, Thailand has been one of the largest per capita consumers of methamphetamine pills (ya ba - "crazy drug") in the world and one of the leading consumers of methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, with its youth comprising the majority of users. This article examines the socio-cultural context of methamphetamine use among young Thai in order to understand its widespread appeal. The study is based on 18 months of ethnographic research in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, between 2002 and 2006 and a follow-up field trip in 2011. In-depth interviews were carried out with 211 young people aged between 15 and 25 in institutional and non-institutional settings. Many of the findings derive from participant observation and informal interviews with a small sample of 20 people. Chiang Mai youth have transformed methamphetamine from a labourers' drug centred on economic utility to a multi-purpose youth drug primarily consumed for pleasure and performance. Ya ba appeals to many young Thai due to its positive image as a modern and fashionable consumer commodity, with confidence in these synthetic pills drawing on and mirroring a broader faith in modern (western) medicine. The growing demand for ya ba in northern Thailand is in part a reflection of the changing social values that have accompanied rapid urbanisation and modernisation in Thailand. In their overwhelming aspiration to be modern, young Thai are consuming ya ba not to rebel against the dominant culture, but to keep up with the demands and expectations of a modern capitalist society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced

  15. Psychological morbidity of Thai families of a person with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungreangkulkij, Somporn; Chafetz, Linda; Chesla, Catherine; Gilliss, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents data on families of a person with schizophrenia in rural Thailand, using the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation. The aim is to assess the impact of family factors on psychological morbidity of the mothers and relatives of a person with schizophrenia. One hundred and eight Thai families were interviewed based on family assessment instruments. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The findings suggest that in a stable stage of illness, other stresses of family life may have stronger impact on psychological status of family members, than the illness. Implications for clinical nurses and researchers are presented.

  16. Health problems among Thai tourists returning from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Wichainprasast, Pongdej; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2017-07-01

    The number of Thai tourists visiting India is increasing each year. Most studies investigating health problems among international travellers to India have focused on travellers from Europe or North America, and the applicability of these studies to Asian travellers is unknown. This cross-sectional study used data collected from Thai tourists who had recently completed a trip to India. A questionnaire on demographic data, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparation, and health problems during the trip to India was administered. All participants were also invited to answer a follow-up questionnaire 15 days after their arrival. The study included 1,304 Thai tourists returning from India between October 2014 and March 2015. Sixty-two percent were female. Overall median age was 49 years, and the median length of stay was 10.6 days. Most were package tourists, and 52% (675) reported health problems during their trip. Common health problems were cough, runny nose, and sore throat (31.1%), followed by musculoskeletal problems (21.7%), fever (12.7%), diarrhea (9.8%) and skin problems (6.6%). Other reported problems were related to the eyes/ears (2.1%), animal exposure (1.9%) and accidents (0.8%). We found that several factors may be associated with the incidence of health problems among these tourists, including travelling style and travel health preparation. In the follow-up questionnaire, 16.8% of the participants reported new or additional symptoms that developed after their return to Thailand. Respiratory symptoms were still the most common health problems during this 15-day period. Over half (52%) of Thai tourists experienced health problems during their trip to India. The most common health problem was not travellers' diarrhoea, as would be expected from published studies. Rather, respiratory and musculoskeletal problems were common symptoms. This information will be useful in pre-travel assessment and care. Our findings may indicate that health risks among

  17. Low carbon society scenario 2050 in Thai industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thai industrial sector has been modelled using AIM/Enduse model. • Potential mitigation of CO 2 for 2050 is approximately 20% from Baseline scenario. • Abatement cost curves show that varied counter measures are practical in the industrial sector. • Energy security is enhanced due to CO 2 mitigation in the LCS scenario. - Abstract: Energy plays a dominant role in determining the individual competitiveness of a country and this is more relevant to emerging economies. That being said, energy also plays an important and ever expanding role in carbon emissions and sustainability of the country. As a developing country Thailand’s industrial sector is vibrant and robust and consumes majority of the energy. In addition, it also has the highest CO 2 emissions, provided the emissions of power generation are taken into account. Industry also accounts for the highest consumption of electricity in Thailand. The objective of this study is to model the Thai industrial energy sector and estimate the mitigation potential for the timeframe of 2010–2050 using the principles of Low Carbon Society (LCS). In addition, the paper would also evaluate emission tax as a key driver of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation along with Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) analysis. Another secondary objective is to analyse the impact of mitigation on energy security of the industrial sector. The Thai industrial sector was modelled using AIM/Enduse model, which is a recursive dynamic optimisation model belonging to the Asia–Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) family. Thai industrial sector was divided into nine sub-sectors based on national economic reporting procedures. Results suggest that the mitigation potential in 2050, compared to the Baseline scenario, is around 20% with positive impacts on energy security. The Baseline emission will approximately be 377 Mt-CO 2 in the industrial sector. All four indicators of energy security, Primary Energy Intensity, Carbon Intensity, Oil

  18. Maxent modelling for predicting the potential distribution of Thai Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Overgaard, Anne Blach

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly species distribution models are being used to address questions related to ecology, biogeography and species conservation on global and regional scales. We used the maximum entropy approach implemented in the MAXENT programme to build a habitat suitability model for Thai palms based...... overprediction of species distribution ranges. The models with the best predictive power were found by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). Here, we provide examples of contrasting predicted species distribution ranges as well as a map of modeled palm diversity...

  19. Reliability and validity of the Thai translation (Thai PPS Adult Suandok) of the Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewaskulyong, Busyamas; Sapinun, Ladarat; Downing, G Michael; Intaratat, Prapai; Lesperance, Mary; Leautrakul, Suntree; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Leerapun, Thaninit

    2012-12-01

    the Thai PPS Adult Suandok tool was translated from the Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2) and had been used in Chiang Mai, Thailand for several years. to test the reliability and validity of the Thai translation of PPSv2. a set of 22 palliative cases were used to determine a PPS score on Time-1, and repeated two weeks later as Time-2. A survey questionnaire was also completed for qualitative analysis. a total of 70 nurses and physicians from Maharaj Nakorn Hospital in Chiang Mai participated. The Time-1 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for absolute agreement is 0.911 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) and for consistency is 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.96). The Time-2 ICC for agreement is 0.905 (95% CI 0.85-0.95) and for consistency is 0.912 (95% CI 0.86-0.96). These findings indicate good agreement among participants and also were somewhat higher in the Time-2 re-test phase. Cohen's kappa score is 0.55, demonstrating a moderate agreement. Thematic analysis from the surveys showed that 91% felt PPS to be a valuable clinical tool overall, with it being 'very useful' or 'useful' in several areas, including care planning (78% and 20%), disease monitoring (69% and 27%) and prognostication (61% and 31%), respectively. Some respondents noted difficulty in determining appropriate scores in paraplegic patients or those with feeding tubes, while others found the instructions long or difficult. the Thai PPS Adult Suandok translated tool has good inter- and intra-rater reliability and can be used regularly for clinical care.

  20. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available for green roofs. A typical method makes use of a studded membrane (resembling an egg box) laid on a suitable waterproofing which, together, provides the waterproofing and the water drainage. A Geotextile blanket is then laid on top of the studded... be advisable to lay a supporting layer between the insulation and the studded membrane to protect the insulation. A further variation is to replace the studded membrane with a gravel drainage layer followed by the growing medium. In this instance it would...

  1. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  2. The Thai-Canadian nuclear human resources development linkage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitra, Tatchai; Chankow, Nares; Bradley, K.; Bereznai, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Thai-Canadian Nuclear Human Resources Development Linkage Project (the P roject ) was initiated in 1994 in order to develop the engineering and scientific expertise needed for Thailand to decide whether and how the country can best benefit from the establishment of a nuclear power program. The Project was designed to upgrade current academics and people in industry, and to develop an adequate supply of new technical personnel for academic, industry, utility, regulatory and other government institutions. The key Project objectives included the establishment of a Chair in Nuclear Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, the upgrading of the current Masters level curriculum, the establishment of undergraduate and doctorate level curricula, development and delivery of an industrial training program for people in industry and government, exchanges of Thai and Canadian academics and industry experts to establish common research programs and teaching interests, and a public education program that was to test in Thailand some of the techniques that have been successfully used in Canada. (author)

  3. Emergent Literacy in Thai Preschoolers: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampratoom, Ramorn; Aroonyadech, Nawarat; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Kositprapa, Jariya

    To investigate emergent literacy skills, including phonological awareness when presented with an initial phoneme-matching task and letter knowledge when presented with a letter-naming task in Thai preschoolers, and to identify key factors associated with those skills. Four hundred twelve typically developing children in their final kindergarten year were enrolled in this study. Their emergent reading skills were measured by initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming tasks. Determinant variables, such as parents' education and teachers' perception, were collected by self-report questionnaires. The mean score of the initial phoneme-matching task was 4.5 (45% of a total of 10 scores). The mean score of the letter-naming task without a picture representing the target letter name was 30.2 (68.6% of a total of 44 scores), which increased to 38.8 (88.2% of a total of 44 scores) in the letter-naming task when a picture representing the target letter name was provided. Both initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming abilities were associated with the mother's education and household income. Letter-naming ability was also influenced by home reading activities and gender. This was a preliminary study into emergent literacy skills of Thai preschoolers. The findings supported the importance of focusing on phonological awareness and phonics, especially in the socioeconomic disadvantaged group.

  4. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant (Capparis micracantha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoprom, Nonglak; Sangprom, Araya; Chaisri, Patcharaporn

    2018-04-01

    This work aims to study the antioxidants capacity, Total phenolic content and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant for the treatment of dermatitis-related inflammations, Capparis micracantha. Crude extract from stem of Thai medicinal plant was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The antioxidant activities (IC50) was evaluated with 1,1-diphenyl-1-princylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bacterial activities was tested with four human pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Stapylococcus epidermidis by using agar diffusion assay. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also determined by broth dilution method. For antioxidant activity, the methanol fraction from stem extract showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 2.4 mg/ml. Water extraction was the high TPC with 10,136.9 mg GAE/g dry weight. Methanol and water extraction showed the remarkable inhibition of bacterial growth was shown against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. In addition, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fraction from stem extract against S. epidermidis. The present finding suggests that the extract of C. micracantha could be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as pharmaceutical products.

  5. Family health consequences of modernisation programmes in Black Thai communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna; Nguyen, Thi Huong

    2011-12-01

    Southeast Asian governments implement ambitious programmes to reduce population growth and maternal mortality in areas with large minority ethnic populations. Although some of these programmes introduce new social and health practices that meet their broader aims, they may pay inadequate attention to the protective and medically beneficial aspects of traditional practices. This study examined the decline of temporary matrilocality (zu kuay) among the Black Thai in Dien Bien, Vietnam, as a response to policies adopted under the government programme of Doi Moi ('modernisation'). The patrilocal, patrilinear cultural norms of the majority ethnic Kinh people were promoted and zu kuay discouraged at a time when heroin availability increased dramatically but harm reduction programmes were not yet in place. This historical coincidence appears to have heightened certain Thai women's vulnerability to marriages with HIV-positive injecting drug users. Policies and guidelines on marriage and reproductive health should take into account the role of minority ethnic traditions, as well as local health-seeking practices, in order not only to improve reproductive programmes but also to reduce HIV vulnerability.

  6. Craniometric study for sex determination in a Thai population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthubua, Apichat; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Ruengdit, Sitthiporn; Singsuwan, Phruksachat; Praneatpolgrang, Sithee; Duangto, Phuwadon

    2015-01-01

    Sex determination is an important step in biological identification from skeletal remains, especially in forensic circumstances. Many authors suggested that the morphological study was more subjective than the metric. There are various craniometric studies in different populations. They revealed that there was population-specific for the sex discriminant equation derived from each population. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate sexual dimorphism and develop the discriminant function from 200 Thai skulls. Twenty-five standard cranial measurements were examined. The results revealed that males' cranium were statistically significant larger than females' in all measurements (P<0.05), except for minimum breadth of nasal bone. Sexual dimorphism index also expressed relatively high male/female ratio indicating great sexual dimorphism. The best practical equation for sex determination with six measurements (maximum cranial length, bizygomatic breadth, biauricular breadth, nasal height, biorbital breadth and right mastoid length) was derived from a stepwise discriminant method. This equation with 90.6% accuracy (91.1% in male and 90.0% in female) can provide valuable application utilizing in sex determination from skull in a Thai population. PMID:26770879

  7. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  8. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Kritsananuwat, R; Ploykrathok, T; Pengvanich, P; Tumnoi, Y; Thumvijit, T; Sriburee, S

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg -1 for 226 Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40 K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy -1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy -1 . The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard. (paper)

  9. Thai men's experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.

  10. Triphala: The Thai traditional herbal formulation for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Thai herbal plants are widely accepted in alternative medicine for treatment patients suffering deleterious diseases such as cancer. Having a variety of indications, several herbal formulas including Triphala have been routinely used as health tonic in Thai traditional and Ayurvedic medicines. The formulation of Triphala is a mixture of fruits of three plants: Phyllanthus emblica Linn., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn. Roxb., all of which were reported to inhibit the growth and induce the death of cancer cells effectively. Therefore, anticancer activities inevitably turn out to be one of the essential properties of Triphala formula as well. It is likely that a number of active compounds in the formula, especially tannins, are the key agents that induce the apoptotic cell death via free radical production in cancer cells. On the other hand, all three fruits of these plants also contain high levels of antioxidants, capable of protecting normal cells from any free radical-mediated injuries effectively. Thus, the paradoxical role of Triphala is cell-type specific and becomes an advantage for usage of this formulation. Furthermore, Triphala has high potentials for inhibition and prevention of mutagenesis and metastasis of cancer cells. Finally, studies in the mechanism of action of Triphala and the product development as well as safety evaluation of the standard herbal extract are definitely required for future pharmacological applications of Triphala as anticancer agents for cancer therapy.

  11. TRANSFER OF MARKETING KNOWLEDGE IN THAI INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.

  12. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  13. Carotenoids intake and asthma prevalence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.

  14. Thai Twin Registry: description of the initial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanakorn, Somsong; Chusilp, Kusuma; Kutanan, Wibhu

    2013-02-01

    The present study describes the initial phase of the Thai Twin Registry (TTR) in Khon Kaen University, a pioneer research university located in the Northeast of Thailand. The initial steps of the study included the analysis of dermatoglyphic information in Thai twins for answering the research question: Are monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins different in dermatoglyphic variables? Subjects were 212 twin pairs (131 MZ and 81 [corrected] DZ), consisting of 155 males and 269 females. Four types of fingerprint pattern (FP) - that is, arch, radial loop, ulnar loop, and whorl - were classified and analyzed and compared between MZ and DZ twins. The arch radial loop and whorl frequencies differ between MZ and DZ twins. When comparing FP in each finger, only the right little finger shows a statistically different FP, while the FP similarity average from 10 homologous fingers of co-twins was greater in MZ than DZ twins. By using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis, the MZ twins could be differentiated from DZ twins by the FP similarity. Summarizing, this valuable report about TTR was conducted by analysis of FP data, which indicated that the MZ and DZ twins exhibited FP pattern and FP similarity differences. Other dermatoglyphic studies of the existing FP database, such as finger ridge count, finger ridge density, and minutia, will be considered for ongoing research at the TTR.

  15. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  16. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, P.

    2006-01-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  17. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  18. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  19. Identification of predominant odorants in thai desserts flavored by smoking with "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa

    2009-02-11

    "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.

  20. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  1. Comment on "Comparisons with analytical solutions from Khvorostyanov and Curry (2007) on the critical droplet radii and supersaturations of CCN with insoluble fractions" by Kokkola et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, V. I.; Curry, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    Analytical solutions for the critical radii and supersaturations of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with insoluble fractions were derived by Khvorostyanov and Curry (2007, hereafter KC07). These solutions generalize Köhler's solutions for an arbitrary soluble fraction of CCN, and have two limiting cases: large soluble fraction (Köhler's original solution); and a new "low soluble fraction" limit. Similar solutions were found subsequently by Kokkola et al. (2008, hereafter Kok08); however, Kok08 used the approximation of an ideal and dilute solution, while KC07 used more accurate assumptions that account for nonideality of solutions. Kok08 found a large discrepancy with KC07 in the critical supersaturations. It is shown that the major discrepancy with KC07 found in Kok08 was caused by the simple mistake in Kok08, where comparison was made not with the general solution from KC07, but with the Köhler's solution or with some unknown quantity, not even with the "low soluble fraction" limit. If general solutions from the two works are compared, the equations from Kok08 mostly repeat the equations from KC07, except that Kok08 use the ideal dilute solution approximation. If the mistake in Kok08 is corrected, then the differences in the critical radii and supersaturations do not exceed 16-18%, which characterizes the errors of the ideal dilute solution approximation. If the Kok08 scheme is modified following KC07 to account for the non-ideality of solution, then the difference with KC07 does not exceed 0.4-1%.

  2. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  3. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  4. Contradictions in Learning how to be Thai: A Case Study of a Young Hmong Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Pilar Johnson-Messenger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper comes from a three month period of fieldwork that I conducted in a green Hmong village in northern Thailand during the summer of 1998. During that time a crisis erupted between a local Thai government organization and the families of “Muban”1 in which one of my main informants, Ga, a 20 year old Hmong kindergarten teacher, played a major role. Although the conflict remained unresolved at the time I left Thailand, I believe that an analysis of the events, along with an analysis of Ga's role in the crisis, will illustrate the way in which education contributes to the production of new identities which social actors draw on to interpret ambiguous and contradictory social situations. I am not suggesting that Ga's project can ultimately be considered successful in effectively accomplishing such a transformation, but what I do believe her experience shows is the ways in which education, history and politics may impact the production and distribution of cultural meanings, which make such transformations possible. Moreover, the shifting identities members of a culture may craft out of different social discourses position them in and around such cultural meanings thus making it possible for them to pursue contradictory social aims within a cultural formation, and to possibly alter the way in which cultural resources are reproduced. After a brief introduction to the Hmong in northern Thailand and a discussion of some of the social reproduction theory as it has been considered within anthropology and more particularly educational anthropology, the paper will proceed to the crisis and its analysis.

  5. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  6. On the Deictic Use of Verbs of Motion "Come" and "Go" in Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, Jack

    1978-01-01

    Expands on Clark's (1974) hypothesis regarding non-literal uses of the English verbs of motion "come" and "go," by positing the notions of marked and unmarked relative states, and comparative deixis, in Thai verbs of motion. (AM)

  7. Mechanical ventilators availability survey in Thai ICUs (ICU-RESOURCE I Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Bunburaphong, Thananchai; Champunot, Ratapum

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilators (MV) have been progressing rapidly. New ventilator modes and supportive equipments have been developed. However; the MV status in Thai ICUs was not available. The objective of this report was to describe the MV supply and availability in Thai ICUs and review some important characteristics regarding of the availability of MV MATERIAL AND METHOD: The ICU RESOURCE I study (Mechanical ventilator part) database was used in the present study. Hospital types, MV brands and models were recorded. Statistically significant differences between and among groups were defined as p-value ventilators were also a high proportion of the MVs in Thai ICUs. Bennette and Hamilton were the most highly available MVin this survey. Advanced MV models were more available in academic ICUs (Thai Clinical Trial Registry: TCTR-201200005).

  8. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  9. Thai family demography: a review and research prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, K; Podhisita, C

    1992-01-01

    A review of family demography in Thailand is presented, and future research needs are identified. Suggestions for future research include a determination of an acceptable set of standard roles and obligations among family members in the "loose structure" paradigm and an analysis of marital stability. Other researchable topics include support to the elderly, family allocations to children, changes among rural adolescents, and family responses to AIDS. Embree and other researchers defined the Thai family as a "loosely structured" paradigm where behavior within the family was highly variable. Anthropologists Sulamith and Potter have described the matrilineal system, and others have referred to the influences of Buddhism on family roles. Foster identified traditional Thai marriage as based on individual choice of spouse, which was often based on romantic love and the desired approval of parents. Arranged marriages declined in importance. Rural Thais married within their villages but outside their matrilineage. Bridewealth payments were not rigidly enforced. Marriage forms included formal Buddhist marriage, legal registration, or both; elopement; and cohabitation. By 1991 marriage age had stabilized at 22 years for women and 24 years for men. Muslim women married at a younger age than Buddhist women. Marriage was delayed in urban areas, after migration, with increased education, and with labor force participation and nonagricultural employment. Studies by Limanonda found that first birth status and smaller sibling size were associated with earlier marriage. Marriage was nearly universal, but singlehood was accepted. 15% of first marriages during the later 1970s were found to have ended in divorce. Remarriage was common. Average household size was 4.0 in 1988. 15.7% of households with children 0-15 years old in 1990 were female headed. Higher education was found to be related to nuclear family formation. Kinship was a bilateral system based on sex, relative age, and

  10. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  11. The Determinants of Green Radical and Incremental Innovation Performance: Green Shared Vision, Green Absorptive Capacity, and Green Organizational Ambidexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new concept, green organisational ambidexterity, that integrates green exploration learning and green exploitation learning simultaneously. Besides, this study argues that the antecedents of green organisational ambidexterity are green shared vision and green absorptive capacity and its consequents are green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance. The results demonstrate that green exploration learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green radical innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. In addition, this study indicates that green exploitation learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green incremental innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. Hence, firms have to increase their green shared vision, green absorptive capacity, and green organisational ambidexterity to raise their green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance.

  12. Enhancing Customer Loyalty towards Corporate Social Responsibility of Thai Mobile Service Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Wichai Onlaor; Siriluck Rotchanakitumnuai

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop the understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from consumers- perspective toward Thai mobile service providers. Based on the survey from 400 mobile customers, the result shows that four dimensions of CSR of Thai mobile service providers consist of economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility. These four CSR factors have positive impacts on enhancing customer satisfaction except one item of economic respon...

  13. An Analysis of Behavioral Intention to use Thai Internet Banking with Quality Management and Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Namahoot KS; Laohavichien T

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the effects of quality management and trust towards behavioural intention of Thai consumers to use internet banking. It specifically investigates whether the quality management dimensions of information quality, system quality and service quality affect the level of trust of Thai consumers towards internet banking, and whether this trust correspondingly affect their intention to use the system. This study has been conducted in Thailand and focused on the users of intern...

  14. Burden of musculoskeletal disorders among registered nurses: evidence from the Thai nurse cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Thinkhamrop, Wilaiphorn; Sawaengdee, Krisada; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Theerawit, Tuangtip; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Hurst, Cameron Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major public health problem among registered nurses (RNs) in Thailand. Information on their burdens at a national level is limited. This study estimated the prevalence of MSDs among RNs using the 2009 Thai Nurse Cohort, a nationally representative sample of RNs in Thailand. Methods This study is part of the first wave survey of the Thai Nurse Cohort Study (TNCS) conducted in 2009. Members of the cohort consisted of 18,756 RNs across Thailand. ...

  15. Formal Thai National Costume in the Reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej

    OpenAIRE

    Chanoknart Mayusoh

    2014-01-01

    The research about Formal Thai National Costume in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej is an applied research that aimed to study the accurate knowledge concerning to Thai national costume in the reign of King Rama IX, also to study origin of all costumes in the reign of King Rama IX and to study the style, material used, and using accasion. This research methodology which are collect quanlitative data through observation, document, and photograph from key informant of costume in the reign o...

  16. Intimate partner violence and poor mental health among Thai women residing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Emmelin, Maria; Essén, Birgitta; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The current aim is to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Thai women residing in Sweden and its association with mental health. We also investigate the potential influence of social isolation and social capital regarding the association between IPV and mental health outcome. A public health questionnaire in Thai was distributed by post to the entire population of Thai women, aged 18-64, residing in two regions in Sweden since 2006. Items included aspects related to IPV (physical/sexual/emotional), sociodemographic background, physical health, mental health (GHQ-12), social isolation, and social capital (i.e. social trust/participation). The response rate was 62.3% (n=804). Prevalence of lifetime reported IPV was 22.1%, with 20.5% by a previous partner and 6.7% by a current partner. Previous IPV exposure was significantly related to current IPV exposure, and all IPV exposure measures were significantly related to poor mental health. However, Thai women experiencing IPV by a current partner were more at risk for poor mental health than Thai women with previous or without any experience of IPV. Also, among all women exposed to IPV, those with trust in others and without exposure to social isolation seemed to have partial protection against the adverse mental health consequences associated with IPV. Most Thai women had never been exposed to IPV, and after migrating to Sweden, women had lower IPV exposure than in Thailand. However, the increased risk for poor mental health among those Thai women exposed to IPV suggests the need for supportive measures and targeted interventions to prevent further injuries and adverse health consequences. Although poor mental health in Thai women represents an obstacle for integration, the potential resilience indicated in the group with high social trust and without exposure to social isolation suggests that such aspects be included in the program designed to facilitate integration.

  17. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing the flexibility of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory: evidence from an unspaced orthography (Thai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel; Peart, Emma

    2014-07-01

    In the current study, we tested the generality of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Thai native speakers (Experiment 2). Thai has a distinctive alphabetic orthography with visually complex letters (ฝ ฟ or ผ พ) and nonlinear characteristics and lacks interword spaces. We used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Thai letters, or symbols. For the English speakers, we found a similar pattern of results as in previous studies (i.e., a dissociation between letters and symbols). In contrast, for the Thai participants, we found that the pattern for Thai letters, Roman letters and symbols displayed a remarkably similar linear trend. Thus, while we observed qualified support for the MRF theory, in that we found an advantage for initial position, this effect also applied to symbols (i.e., our data revealed a language-specific effect). We propose that this pattern for letters and symbols in Thai has developed as a specialized adaptive mechanism for reading in this visually complex and crowded nonlinear script without interword spaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Facebook Addiction and Related Factors Among Thai High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Mereerat Manwong; Hanprathet, Nitt; Phanasathit, Muthita

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence ofFacebook (FB) addiction and its related factors among Thai high school students. This cross-sectional study was performed among 972 high school students in four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administrative questionnaire was produced composing of three parts; demographic data, a Thai version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) and the Thai version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 items. Multivariate analysis was employed to analyze thefactors associated with FB addiction. The prevalence ofFB addiction amongst Thai adolescents was 41.8% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2). Related factors included gender school location, sufficiency ofpersonalfinance, devices ofFB access, duration ofstaying online via FB, andFB usage during holidays. In addition, every 1-hour increase in usage enhanced the risk for FB addiction (OR = 1.12, 95% CI; 1.05, 1.19). The prevalence of FB addiction in Thai high school students was found to be higher than in many other countries. Relatedfactors should be controlled in order to reduce FB addiction and its detrimental impacts, such as behavior modification and the promotion of healthier free-time activities. Further studies are recommended to understand why FB addiction is so high in Thailand.

  20. Synthesis of Polysyllabic Sequences of Thai Tones Using a Generative Model of Fundamental Frequency Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresangtakul, Pusadee; Takara, Tomio

    In this paper, the distinctive tones of Thai in running speech are studied. We present rules to synthesize F0 contours of Thai tones in running speech by using the generative model of F0 contours. Along with our method, the pitch contours of Thai polysyllabic words, both disyllabic and trisyllabic words, were analyzed. The coarticulation effect of Thai tones in running speech were found. Based on the analysis of the polysyllabic words using this model, rules are derived and applied to synthesize Thai polysyllabic tone sequences. We performed listening tests to evaluate intelligibility of the rules for Thai tones generation. The average intelligibility scores became 98.8%, and 96.6% for disyllabic and trisyllabic words, respectively. From these result, the rule of the tones' generation was shown to be effective. Furthermore, we constructed the connecting rules to synthesize suprasegmental F0 contours using the trisyllable training rules' parameters. The parameters of the first, the third, and the second syllables were selected and assigned to the initial, the ending, and the remaining syllables in a sentence, respectively. Even such a simple rule, the synthesized phrases/senetences were completely identified in listening tests. The MOSs (Mean Opinion Score) was 3.50 while the original and analysis/synthesis samples were 4.82 and 3.59, respectively.

  1. Sex estimation from the scapula in a contemporary Thai population: Applications for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Scott, Shelby; Meek, Susan; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2017-07-01

    The impact of climate change is estimated to be particularly severe in Thailand. Overall, the country faces an increase in surface temperatures, severe storms and floods, and a possible increase in the number of mass disasters in the region. It is extremely important that forensic scientists have access to sex estimation methods developed for use on a Thai population. The goal of this project is to evaluate the accuracy of sex estimation discriminant functions, created using contemporary Mexican and Greek populations, when applied to a contemporary Thai sample. The length of the glenoid cavity (LGC) and breadth of the glenoid cavity (BGC) were measured. The sample included 191 individuals (95 males and 96 females) with age ranges from 19 to 96years old. Overall, when the Mexican and Greek discriminant functions were applied to the Thai sample they showed higher accuracy rates for sexing female scapulae (83% to 99%) than for sexing male scapulae (53% to 92%). Size comparisons were made to Chilean, Mexican, Guatemalan, White American, and Greek populations. Overall, in males and females of the Thai sample, the scapulae were smaller than in the Chilean, Mexican, White American, and Greek populations. However, the male and female Thai scapulae were larger than in the Guatemalan sample. Population-specific discriminant functions were created for the Thai population with an overall sex classification accuracy rate of 83% to 88%. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing Third Year Thai Major Students’ Researching Skill Using Coaching and Mentoring Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimonrat Soonthornrojana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the study were (1 to develop third year Thai major students’ researching skill according to the criterion of 80 percent, and (2 to study third and fourth year Thai major students’ satisfaction in Coaching and Mentoring process. 95 participants were selected using purposive sampling from third year Thai major students. Five research instruments were used in this study ; (1 classroom research comprehension tests, (2 outline evaluation forms, lesson plan evaluation forms and achievement tests, teaching performance evaluation forms and research report evaluation forms, (3 research behavioral observation forms for third year Thai major students, (4 third year Thai major students interview forms, and (5 satisfaction questionnaire. Statistics used in the study were percentage average, and standard deviation. The result showed third year Thai major students who had taken research course using Coaching and Mentoring process scored 80% in researching skill according to the criterion and had positive satisfaction with average value of 4.54 or 90.79%. Moreover, the result found that fourth year students had positive satisfaction in counseling third year students with average value of 4.73 or 96.38%.

  3. Physical performance in recently aged adults after 6 weeks traditional Thai dance: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Laophosri, Maneepun; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly. Methods This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST), and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Results There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls), with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011), FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P dance group than the control group. Conclusion Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly) female adults. PMID:23950640

  4. Improvement of Thai error correction system by memetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krit Somkantha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient technique for improving the efficiency of Thai error correction system by using memetic algorithm. In this paper, the token passing algorithm is used for constructing word graph and the language model is used checking the correct sentence. The correction process starts with word graph construction from token passing algorithm, then the correct sentence are searched by memetic algorithm with the best fitness function from language model. For a long sentence from the token passing algorithm, a search space is very huge which can be resolved by using memetic algorithm. The memetic algorithm is used for searching the correct sentence in order to reduce the analysis time. The performance of the proposed method are evaluated and compared to the full search and genetic algorithm. From the experimental results show that the proposed method performs very well and yields better performance more than the compared method. The proposed method can search the best sentence accurately and quickly.

  5. Trakun, politics and the Thai state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangsivek, Katja

    state over decades. In this way they have control of the state and amass resources which they can transform into economic and symbolic capital. This capital is used to win elections and to maintain the influential position of political trakun. Capital is reproduced through socialization from one...... generation to the next. Strategic marriages create alliances or strengthen cooperation in the trakun. Upon the death of one member of the trakun, the funeral mediates the possible loss of symbolic capital in all its forms. Hereby, the traditional funeral rituals are utilized and reinvented...... for the proliferation of the trakun’s symbolic capital. The role of political trakun shows that the Thai state is an abstract concept of an institution exercising sovereignty over a given territory, relating fundamentally to the maintenance of order within its territory and to the business of government. This has given...

  6. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Health responsibilities of an aging Thai male workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalampakorn, Surintorn; Kaewpan, Wonpen; Luksamijarulkul, Pipat

    2009-12-01

    To examine the health responsibilities of an aging Thai male workforce and its related factors. A descriptive study was conducted with 417 male workers aged 45-60 who were working in 4 regions of Thailand. Data were collected between October 2004 and February 2005 using self-administered questionnaires. Health responsibility was measured at the frequency of the participants personal health practices relating to the health seeking, participation in health promoting activities, and having health check-ups. Statistical analyses used were percentage, mean, and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that subjects had health responsibility at moderate level (Mean = 17.2 +/- 4.7). Lowest mean of health responsibility was found in participation in health promotion activities/club area (Mean = 1.9 +/- 1.0). Social support, perceived health status, and monthly income (p responsibility. Health responsibility of an aging workforce should be enhanced through support from family, friends, and co-workers.

  8. Endophytic Xylariaceae from Thai Plants: A Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J S Whalley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are present in all plant species investigated, and members of the Xylariaceae are especially common in tropical plants. There is major interest in endophytic fungi, because of their excellent track record concerning the production of novel and often bioactive compounds including the anti-cancer drugs taxol and taxane. Studies in Thailand on endophytes over the past 20 years confirm the high presence of the Xylariaceae in many different Thai plants. Species of Xylaria stand out as the most frequent Xylariaceae isolated; although, Daldinia eschscholtzii has also been commonly isolated. DNA technology and chemical profiling have been shown to be invaluable in the identification of xylariaceous isolates which previously could not be identified to species level or even assigned to genera in many cases. Reference is made to those isolates which produce novel compounds or those exhibiting bioactive properties.

  9. Natural radionuclide concentrations in processed materials from Thai mineral industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyotha, S; Kranrod, C; Chankow, N; Kritsananuwat, R; Sriploy, P; Pangza, K

    2012-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) distributed in products, by-products and waste produced from Thai mineral industries were investigated. Samples were analysed for radioactivity concentrations of two principal NORM isotopes: (226)Ra and (228)Ra. The enrichment of NORM was found to occur during the treatment process of some minerals. The highest activity of (226)Ra (7 × 10(7) Bq kg(-1)) was in the scale from tantalum processing. The radium concentration in the discarded by-product material from metal ore dressing was also enriched by 3-10 times. Phosphogypsum, a waste produced from the production of phosphate fertilisers, contained 700 times the level of (226)Ra concentration found in phosphate ore. Hence, these residues were also sources of exposure to workers and the public, which needed to be controlled.

  10. Modified relaxation technique for treating hypertension in Thai postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saensak S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University,Thailand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Aim: To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education. Methods: This is a 16-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in a menopausal clinic in a tertiary health care center in Northeastern Thailand. The intervention group received a 60-minute session of MR training and were encouraged to practice 15–20 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. The control group received lifestyle education, including diet and exercise. The primary and secondary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Results: Of 432 participants, 215 and 217 were randomly allocated to the MR and control groups, respectively. Of those, 167 participants in the MR group and 175 participants in the control group completed the study. The SBP was significantly more reduced in the MR group, with a mean of 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between groups on the changed DBP. Conclusion: The MR technique may be effective in lowering SBP in Thai postmenopausal women visiting a menopause clinic. Its efficacy may be observed as soon as 4 weeks after start of treatment. Long-term and combined relaxation therapy and antihypertensive agents are warranted in a large cohort of this population. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (number

  11. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel......In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  12. Renin angiotensin system blockers-associated angioedema in the Thai population: analysis from Thai National Pharmacovigilance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Thet Su Zin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Suwankesawong, Wimon; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Nathisuwan, Surakit

    2015-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) blockers are commonly used for cardiovascular diseases. Currently, little information exists for the Asian population on angioedema, a rare yet serious adverse event. This study aimed to describe characteristics of RAS blockers-associated angioedema (RASBA) in Thai patients. A retrospective study using the national pharmacovigilance database of Thailand was undertaken. Cases indicating the presence of angioedema with RAS blockers uses from 1984-2011 were identified. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, concomitant drugs, information for the RAS blockers and angioedema were obtained as well as causality assessment and quality of reports. A total of 895 cases were identified. Mean age was 59.9+12.8 years and 66.5% being female. Most angioedema events (48.6%) occurred during the first week of treatment. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (87.7%) were the most commonly implicated agents followed by angiotensin receptor blockers (10.5%), aldosterone antagonist (2.1%) and direct renin inhibitor (0.2%). Out of the 895 cases incorporated in this study, 165 (18.4%) were classified as serious events and resulted in hospitalization. The overall case fatality rate was 0.4%. Respiratory disturbance occurred in 46 cases (5.1%). Patients with respiratory complications tended to be younger (53.4+13.9 vs 60.3+12.7 years old; p=0.002) and with higher frequency of allergy history (26.1% vs 14.7%; p=0.032) compared to those without respiratory complications. Based on multivariate logistic regression, the adjusted OR for history of allergy was 2.23 (95%CI: 1.04 - 4.78, p = 0.041). RASBA in Thai population occurred mostly in elderly female patients and often led to hospitalization. Since large number of patients is regularly exposed to RAS-blockers, a nationwide attempt to raise awareness of clinicians when prescribing RAS-blockers is prudent.

  13. The study of customer relationship management in Thai airline industry: A case of Thai travelers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Law

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers.  This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology/approach: This research paper is an attempt to study and identify the factors, including loyalty program, distribution channel, customer services, promotions and other influence causes that affected the customer preference in the airline ticket purchasing behavior in Thailand. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the sample identified through unrestricted non probability sampling technique at four major airports in Thailand. The data collected are analyzed to identify the favorable drivers that lead to customer decision on airline choice. Findings: The result from the study has demonstrated that price, and promotion has a significant impact on customer preference and positively leads to repurchase intention for their future travel. Moreover, flight schedules are also a main factor influencing the travelers’ final decision on airline choice. However, when the promotional strategies and schedule are comparable between airlines, customers are attracted by the airline amenities and services. Loyalty program (frequent-flier program flier program is showing a less attractive motivator while distribution channel demonstrates the least important affecting the travelers’ choice of airline. Originality/value: The paper begins with an overview of previous research in the area of airlines customer relationship management and then moves on to what is currently being implemented by the airlines. The authors then propose several customer relationship strategies and identify the most attractive one that

  14. Railroads for Curry Curry, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Antioxidant potential of curry (Murraya koenigii L.) and mint (Mentha spicata) leaf extracts and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A K; Chatli, M K; Sahoo, J

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of curry and mint leaf and their effect on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat stored at 4 ± 1°C. The results indicated that among the two individual leaf categories, the ethanol extract of curry leaf (EHEC) and the water extract of mint leaf (WEM) showed higher DPPH and ABTS(+) activity. EHEC also exhibited the highest total phenolic contents while these were the lowest for WEM. WEM showed the highest superoxide anionic scavenging activity (%). The pork meat samples treated with EHEC and WEM showed a decrease in the Hunter L- and a-values and a increase in b-value during storage at 4°C. However, the pH and TBARS values were higher in control samples irrespective of storage periods. In conclusion, EHEC and WEM have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants to minimise lipid oxidation of pork products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. EIGHT STEPS OF SCALE DEVELOPMENT WERE FOLLOWED: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability were confirmed. The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a screening tool to assess active aging levels among older

  17. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.

  18. A Comparison of the Twelve Core Values of Thai People Defined by the Head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) Found in Thai Private and Public University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngammuk, Patariya

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the twelve core values of Thai people found in Thai university students. The twelve values consist of the following attributes: 1.Upholding the nation, the religions and the Monarchy 2. Being honest, sacrificial and patient with positive attitude for the common good of the public 3. Being grateful to the parents,…

  19. Curry County 2010 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  20. Curry County 2010 Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  1. Curry County Current Point Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  2. Curry County Current Area Landmark

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  3. Curry County 2010 Census Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  4. Resurrection of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878 for the Green Crested Lizard (Squamata, Agamidae of southern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Zug

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent fieldwork in southern Tanintharyi revealed the presence of a small Green Crested Lizard in the wet evergreen forest. We generated mtDNA sequence data (ND2 that demonstrates that this population’s nearest relative is Bronchocela rayaensis Grismer et al., 2015 of Pulau Langkawi, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia and Phuket Island. Morphologically the Burmese Bronchocela shares many features with B. rayaensis, which potentially would make this recently described Thai-Malay species a synonym of Bronchocela burmana Blanford, 1878; however, we interpret the genetic and morphological differences to reflect evolutionary divergence and recommend the recognition of both species.

  5. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  6. Tracking of Body Composition in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for

  7. Reflection of Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism on gender relations and gender specific occupation in Thai society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M; Weber, K E

    1994-01-01

    It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in

  8. A prospective study of injuries sustained during competitive Muay Thai kickboxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Sam; Malik, Mohammad Hammad; Lovell, Martyn

    2005-01-01

    To investigate prospectively the type and rate of injuries sustained during amateur Muay Thai competition. Prospective cohort study collection of data following clinical examination. Amateur Muay Thai competitions in the United Kingdom organized by the International Amateur Muay Thai Federation. Amateur Muay Thai boxers. Both sexes. Lightweight to super heavyweight. There were 92 participants, 12 females and 82 males. The average age was 17.3 years, and the average previous number of bouts was 3.9. A total of 588.5 minutes of competition time was assessed during a total of 10 events. Injury rates were 1.3 injuries per 100 minutes of competition in the lightweight category, 2.25 per 100 minutes of competition in the middleweight category, 30 per 100 minutes of competition in the heavyweight category, and 2.54 per 100 minutes of competition in the super heavyweight category. Compared with other reported martial arts, the injury rates are higher in Muay Thai. The head was shown to be the most common site of injury in amateur fighters, but there was an almost complete absence of lower limb injuries, which again is at variance with reported figures for other martial arts.

  9. Universality of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT problem areas in Thai depressed patients

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    Thavichachart Nuntika

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have shown the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT on depression; however, there are limited studies concerning the universality of the IPT problem areas in different countries. This study identifies whether the interpersonal problem areas defined in the IPT manual are endorsed by Thai depressed patients. Methods The Thai Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai HRSD and Thai Interpersonal Questionnaire were used to assess 90 depressed and 90 non-depressed subjects in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, during July 2007 - January 2008. The association between interpersonal problem areas/sociodemographic variables and depressive disorder were analyzed by chi-square test. A multivariable analysis was performed by using logistic regression to identify the remaining factors associated with depressive disorder. Results Most of the subjects were young to middle-aged females living in Bangkok and the Central Provinces. All four interpersonal problem areas (grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits were increased in the depressed subjects as compared to the non-depressed subjects, as were the sociodemographic variables (low education, unemployment, low income, and having a physical illness. Logistic regression showed that all interpersonal problem areas still remained problems associated with depression (grief: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 1.93 - 18.69, p Conclusion All four interpersonal problem areas were applicable to Thai depressed patients.

  10. Translation and validation of the condom self-efficacy scale with Thai adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Sathja; Hanna, Kathleen M; Rodcumdee, Branom

    2005-01-01

    To translate the 14-item Condom Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) into Thai and to validate the Thai version of the Condom Self-efficacy Scale (CSES-T) among Thai adolescents and young adults. The CSES was translated using a back-translation technique and validated with a cluster-based sample of 425 participants aged 18 to 22 years from eight randomly selected private vocational schools in Bangkok. Participants completed anonymous self-administered scales. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to identify latent factors. Factor analysis indicated three factors: communication, correct use, and consistent use. Items loading on the original CSES also loaded on the same factors of the CSES-T except one item. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .85 for the total scale, .70 for consistent use, .79 for correct use, and .80 for communication. Based on psychometric properties, the CSES-T is a valid and reliable tool. It is culturally appropriate for Thai young adults. Thai researchers and health care providers can use the CSES-T to assess adolescents' and young adults' self-efficacy to use condoms as well as to further develop and evaluate interventions to increase condom use.

  11. Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An Anthropological Study

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    Ailadda Kaewma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84% was much greater than that of female (1.94% compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type.

  12. Thai traditional massage increases biochemical markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetung, Sunee; Chailurkit, La-Or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

    2013-03-25

    The effect of massage therapy on bone metabolism in adults has only scarcely been explored. In a randomized crossover trial, we investigated the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover. Forty-eight postmenopausal women participated in the study. All volunteers were randomized to a 2-hour session of Thai traditional massage twice a week for 4 weeks and a 4-week control period after a 2-week washout, or vice versa. Twenty-one subjects were allocated to receiving Thai traditional massage first, followed by the control period, while 27 were initially allocated to the control period. Serum P1NP increased significantly after Thai traditional massage (P women whose ages were in the middle and higher tertiles and whose heights were in the lower and middle tertiles (n = 22) had a 14.8 ± 3.3% increase in P1NP after massage (P women (n = 26). Thai traditional massage results in an increase in bone formation as assessed by serum P1NP, particularly in postmenopausal women who are older and have a smaller body build. Future studies with larger samples and additional design features are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01627028.

  13. Why Thai parents do not discuss sex with their children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Pfeil, Michael; Crozier, Kenda

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative article explores the attitudes of Thai adolescents and parents concerning the barriers that prevent parents providing sex education to their adolescent children. Focus groups were conducted with 30 parents and 36 adolescents in rural north-eastern Thailand and were analyzed by using thematic analysis. The results showed that most Thai parents have not taught their children about sex education issues. Five themes emerged in relation to the limitations in providing sex education in Thai families. These were: restrictions imposed by traditional Thai culture; sex education is not a parental duty; parental limitations; the generation gap; and better not bring it up. We conclude that the core values in Thai society restrict the discussion of sex, resulting in youth missing the opportunity to acquire the knowledge that is needed about sexual issues from their family. This article provides evidence of how parents' knowledge and perceptions are linked to their ability and willingness to discuss sexual matters with their teenagers. Therefore, future sex education policies could be greatly enhanced by empowering parents to take part in the sex education of their teenage children. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS): Thai Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Ruktrakul, Ruk

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the Thai version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for its psychometric properties. In total 462 participants were recruited - 310 medical students from Chiang Mai University and 152 psychiatric patients, and they completed the Thai version of the MSPSS, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Test-retest reliability was conducted over a four week period. Factor analysis produced three-factor solutions for both patient (PG) and student groups (SG), and overall the model demonstrated adequate fit indices. The mean total score and the sub-scale score for the SG were statistically higher than those in the PG, except for 'Significant Others'. The internal consistency of the scale was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91 for the SG and 0.87 for the PG. After a four week retest for reliability exercise, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.84. The Thai-MSPSS was found to have a negative correlation with the STAI and the TDI, but was positively correlated with the RSES. The Thai MSPSS is a reliable and valid instrument to use.

  15. Validity and Reliability of Thai Version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Subjective Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunakul, Marut; Arunakul, Preeyaphan; Suesiritumrong, Chakhrist; Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha

    2015-06-01

    Self-administered questionnaires have become an important aspect for clinical outcome assessment of foot and ankle-related problems. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) subjective form is a region-specific questionnaire that is widely used and has sufficient validity and reliability from previous studies. Translate the original English version of FAAM into a Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai FAAM in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. The FAAM subjective form was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation protocol. Afterward, reliability and validity were tested. Following responses from 60 consecutive patients on two questionnaires, the Thai FAAM subjective form and the short form (SF)-36, were used. The validity was tested by correlating the scores from both questionnaires. The reliability was adopted by measuring the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Thai FAAM score including activity of daily life (ADL) and Sport subscale demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF) and physical composite score (PCS) domains of the SF-36 (statistically significant with p foot and ankle-related problems.

  16. Reliability and validity study of Sino-nasal outcome test 22 (Thai version) in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumyongsatien, Jate; Yangsakul, Waralak; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Hopkins, Claire; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of common health conditions that affects patients' health-related quality of life. Our purpose is to assess the reliability and validity of Thai-version of Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 in chronic rhinosinusitis. Permission for translation of SNOT-22 from English language to Thai language was obtained from the developer. The translation process was done based on the international standard of translation method. A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study and divided into two groups comprising of 50 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 30 healthy volunteers. Cronbach's α and Intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated for its reliability. Validity test was evaluated against VAS score, SF-36 (Thai version) questionnaire and CT scan (based on Lund-Mackay score). Responsiveness was assessed between pre-operative and post-operative scores in 34 patients. The Thai version of SNOT-22 showed good reliability according to high value of Cronbach's α coefficient ( r  = 0.929) and intraclass correlation coefficient ( r  = 0.935). It also showed good validity by its ability to differential the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis from normal ( p  reliability and validity, suitable for evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms together with severity of the disease and response to treatment. Thai clinical trials registry TCTR20170320003. Date of registration 20/03/2017 (retrospectively registered).

  17. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  18. Superstitious Beliefs and Problem Gambling Among Thai Lottery Gamblers: The Mediation Effects of Number Search and Gambling Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravichai, Sunisa; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2015-12-01

    Thai lottery gamblers won prizes after betting on numbers they obtained from newspaper stories. We hypothesized that Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs were related to their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. In a study among 380 Thai lottery gamblers, superstitious beliefs were operationally defined as the beliefs in events or objects that seemed to reveal numbers, number search as an attempt to identify numbers to bet, gambling intensity as the frequency and amounts of lottery gambling, and problem gambling as the symptoms of problems relating to lottery gambling. Results support the hypotheses. There is a statistically significant indirect relationship between Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs and their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. Thai lottery gamblers need to be reminded that their superstitious beliefs and number search are precursors of their problem gambling.

  19. Clinical diagnosis of malaria on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K K; Maung, C; Katz, D L

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the prevailing practice of presumptively diagnosing malaria in all cases of febrile illness in a clinic serving a refugee population on the Thai-Myanmar border A retrospective review of 3,506 patient charts from December 1993 through June 1994 at the MaeSot medical clinic to compare clinical signs of malaria to blood smear findings. Patients presenting without fever were assumed not to have malaria; the remaining 2,111 patients presenting with fever had blood smears examined for malaria infection. Fever alone sufferedfrom poorpositive predictive value (54.7 percent) and specificity (59.3 percent). When fever was combined with hepatosplenomegaly and anemia, the positive predictive value and specificity improved (84.5 percent and 98.5 percent, respectively). However, this combination also resulted in an unacceptably poor sensitivity (16.5 percent) and false negative error rate (835/1,000). CONCLUSIONS. In this nonimmune refugee population, severe complications of falciparum malaria occur quickly and commonly; aggressive chemotherapy is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. Until laboratory facilities are made available, all cases offever should continue to be treated presumptively as malaria.

  20. Thai dental practitioners' knowledge and attitudes regarding patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Sappayatosok, Kraisorn

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Thai dental practitioners regarding patients with HIV, a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The questionnaires requested demographic information and included questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners towards HIV. The results were analyzed using Scheffe method for multiple comparisons at the 95 percent confidence level. Out of 1,200 questionnaires sent, 446 questionnaires were returned (response rate 37.2 percent). The subjects included final (sixth)-year dental students (11.9 percent), general dentists (29.1 percent), specialist dentists (15.5 percent), dental hygienists (30.5 percent), and dental assistants (13 percent). More than 80 percent of the dental practitioners correctly answered the questions testing their basic knowledge of HIV such as routes of transmission and common opportunistic infections. However, knowledge about HIV pathogenesis, complications, and advances in HIV management was lacking. Dental hygienists and dental assistants had statistically significant lower scores in knowledge about HIV than other groups. Sixty-seven percent of dental practitioners said they feel worried when treating patients with HIV, and 20.4 percent said they would deny treatment for patients with HIV if possible. While knowledge about HIV may be adequate among dental practitioners in Thailand, greater effort should be put into emphasizing positive attitudes towards patients with HIV.

  1. Transthoracic echocardiography in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriyapong, Tapawas; Dharmasaroja, Pompatr A; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Piyayotai, Dilok; Hutayanon, Pisit

    2012-01-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is routinely performed to look for the cardiac sources of emboli in many Western stroke centers. Due to a limitation of resources in Thailand, echocardiography is done in only some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the need for cardiac investigations, especially TTE, in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke. Two-hundred and seven patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), who had TTE results during August 2006 to November 2008, were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups by the risk of cardioembolism: low- versus high-risk groups. All echocardiography results were reviewed and classified by the need for management change following the echocardiography. Abnormal TTE results indicating a need for change in management were found in 4% (4/102) and 18% (18/105) in low- and high- risk patients, respectively The results of ECG alone led to change in management in 17% (36 patients). Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolism, which was found in 35 patients (17%). Because of limited resources in Thailand, ECG should be routinely performed on all ischemic stroke patients and TTE in patients with high risk for cardioembolism. However larger studies are still needed to clarify the benefits of echocardiography in low-risk patients.

  2. Successful strategy to improve glucose tolerance in Thai obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2010-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.

  3. Juvenile polyp in Thai children--clinical and colonoscopic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Singhavejakul, Jesda; Lertprasertsuk, Nirush; Wongsawasdi, Lumduan

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics of colorectal polyp in Thai children. From December 2002 to February 2005, children under 15 years of age presenting with rectal bleeding were prospectively enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory information was recorded. Location, number, characteristics, and histopathology of the polyps were noted. There were 32 patients with a mean age of 6.5 years. The most common presenting symptom was hematochezia, followed by prolapsing rectal mass and diarrhea. In 20 patients there was a single polyp, 6 had 2-4 polyps, and 6 were diagnosed with polyposis coli. Most of the polyps were located exclusively at the rectum and sigmoid colon. In only 7 cases were the polyps proximal to the rectosigmoid region. This included 6 patients who had polyps beyond the splenic flexure. All were juvenile polyps without evidence of adenomatous changes. Compared to those with isolated polyps, the patients with polyposis coli had a statistically significant incidence of right-sided polyps (P polyps and the concern about malignant transformation, colonoscopy should be considered as the initial evaluation in children with rectal bleeding.

  4. Examining Thai high school students' developing STEM projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenoi, Kultida; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Like others, Thailand education strongly focused on STEM education. This paper aimed to examine existing Thai high school students' integrated knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in their developing science project. The participants included 49 high school students were studying the subject of individual study (IS) in Khon Kaen wittayayon school, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The IS was provided to gradually enhance students to know how to do science project starting from getting start to do science projects, They enrolled to study the individual study of science project for three year in roll. Methodology was qualitative research. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM were interpreted through participant observation, interview, and students' science projects. The first author as participant observation has taught this group of students for 3 years. It found that 16 science projects were developed. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM could be categorized into three categories. These included (1) completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, (2) partial indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, and (3) no integration. The findings revealed that majority of science projects could be categorized as completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The paper suggested some ideas of enhancing students to applying STEM for developing science projects.

  5. Technical Efficiency of Thai Manufacturing SMEs: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

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    Teerawat Charoenrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.

  6. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

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    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  7. Changes in Thai sexual behavior lower HIV spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-02

    More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.

  8. Hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer in Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosari, Arisara; Promthet, Supannee; Kamsa-ard, Siriporn; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Longkul, Jirapat; Wiangnon, Surapon

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. We investigated the association of hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer in Thai women. A cohort study was conducted in Khon Kaen, Thailand. There were 70 cases of histologically confirmed breast cancer among 11 414 women aged 30 to 69 years who were recruited as participants in the cohort study during the period from 1990 through 2001. The study population was followed-up until December 31, 2011. To identify factors associated with incidence of breast cancer, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The 11 414 women provided a total observation time of 157 200 person-years. Breast cancer risk among women with a history of hormonal contraceptive use was 1.31 times that of women without such a history, but the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.65-2.65). No type of hormonal contraceptive was associated with a significant increase in breast cancer risk as compared with women who had never used hormonal contraceptives (oral contraception: HR = 1.35, 95% CI, 0.65-2.78; injection contraception: HR = 1.25, 95% CI, 0.56-2.80), and there was no relationship between duration of hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer. There was no association between hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to the small number of cases.

  9. Acceptability of oral typhoid vaccine in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekmullica, Jutarat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu

    2003-06-01

    To determine the acceptability of oral typhoid vaccine to Thai children, 434 volunteers, aged 4-15 years (average age = 8.2 years), were assigned to take three capsules of oral typhoid vaccine (one capsule every other day). Success was defined as the subjects' being able to swallow all three capsules. Information concerning the subjects' level of education, eating habits, and ability to take medicines in a variety of preparations (syrups, tablets and capsules) was obtained. The overall success rate was 94.2%; the rates were 84.4%, 94.9%, and 100% in the age groups 4-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-12 years respectively. The rates were 82%, 85.7%, 93.3%, 96.4%, 98.8%, 100% and 100% in the students of kindergarten 1, kindergarten 2, elementary grade 1, grade 2, grade 3, grade 4, and grade 5 respectively. There was a correlation between a child's prior ability to take tablets/capsules and his success in swallowing the oral typhoid vaccine.

  10. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

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    Atipat Boonmoh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to participate in the experiment. Observations and interviews were utilized to ascertain how the subjects used their PEDs. The findings showed superficial and partial reading of the dictionary entries. It also revealed several factors that may hinder dictionary look-up success. On the basis of this research, guidelines for buying PEDs and for teaching PED skills are proposed.

    OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van sak- elektroniese woordeboeke deur Thaise universiteitstudente. Hierdie artikel doen verslag van 'n kleinskaalse studie van Thaisprekende aanleerders wat sak- elektroniese woordeboeke (SEW's gebruik om 'n Engelse nuusartikel te lees. Dit ondersoek hoe die proefpersone hul SAW's gebruik vir leesbegrip. Nege-en-dertig voorgraadse studente het 'n vraelysopname voltooi. Uit hulle is vier gekies om aan die eksperiment deel te neem. Waarnemings en onderhoude is aangewend om te bepaal hoe die proefpersone hul SEW's gebruik het. Die bevindings het oppervlakkige en gedeeltelike lees van die woordeboekinskrywings getoon. Dit het ook verskeie faktore uitgewys wat woordeboekopsoeksukses mag belemmer. Op grond van hierdie navorsing word riglyne vir die koop van SEW's en vir die onderrig van SEWvaardighede voorgestel.

    Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, SAK- ELEKTRONIESE WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKRAADPLEGING, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK

  11. Energy Efficiency Tracking in Thai Manufacturing Sector by Decomposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsapai Wongkot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of energy saving and changes in energy intensities in Thai manufacturing sector by Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition technique. This method includes three effects consists of the energy intensity effect, the structural effect and the effect of the economic growth on the energy consumption in Thailand by using the 25-year annual data from 1990 to 2014, carried out in four phases; (i before National Energy Conservation law, (ii during the effect of the law, (iii Transition period of the law from first to second version, and (iv during the effect of the law (No.2. We found that the most effective intensity effect is in the third phase due to the effect of the implementation of new energy efficient equipment from the second phase by enforcement of the law, especially in non-metallic sector, while the first phase illustrates the lowest intensity effect due to the energy conservation law had not been occurred. However, due to the highest economic growth of the country and change from agricultural to industrial development direction, the first phase presents the most effective structural effect, then this effect continuously decreased by time. We also conclude that the energy conservation law have direct effect to energy efficiency of the country however, strictly individual regulation which have target to enforce to energy intensive industries is still required for sustainable energy efficiency improvement.

  12. Green Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  13. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  14. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  15. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  16. Green Nail Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from blue-green to dark green to bluish-grey. Since the discoloration is underneath the nail, it ... infected by P. aeruginosa. Nails repeatedly immersed in water are susceptible. Housewives, dishwashers, cooks, and health care ...

  17. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  18. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...) is extremely environmentally friendly and leaves no toxic residues. Decon Green (trademark) retains the low-temperature decontamination ability of DS2, but it is noncorrosive to aluminum and steel. Decon Green (trademark...

  19. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  20. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  1. Visual analogue scale foot and ankle: validity and reliability of Thai version of the new outcome score in subjective form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha; Suntharapa, Thongchai; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays, measuring score in the form of subjective questionnaires is the important tool for clinical evaluation of the foot and ankle-related problems. VisualAnalogue Scale-Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) is the newly developed subjective questionnaire, which has sufficiency of validity and reliability from a previous study Translate the original English version of VAS-FA into the Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai VAS-FA in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. According to the forward-backward translation protocol, original VAS-FA was translated into the Thai version. Thai VAS-FA and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were distributed to 42 Thai patients to complete. For validation, Thai VAS-FA scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. For reliability, the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. Thai VAS-FA score demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP) domains, and total score of SF-36 (statistically significant with p 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.995 from test-retest study. The internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha: 0.995. The original VAS-FA score is a well-validated, subjective, visual-analogue-scale based outcome score. The Thai version of VAS-FA form maintained the validity and reliability of the original version. This newly translated-validated score can be distributed for the evaluation of the functions, symptoms, and limitation of activities in Thai patients with foot and ankle problems.

  2. Effects of Thai Massage on Spasticity in Young People with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malila, Pisamai; Seeda, Kantarakorn; Machom, Savet; Eungpinithpong, Wichai

    2015-06-01

    To determine the effects of Thai massage on muscle spasticity in young people with cerebral palsy. Young people with spastic diplegia, aged 6-18 years old, were recruitedfrom the Srisungwan School in Khon Kaen Province. Spasticity of right quadriceps femoris muscles was measured using Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) at pre- and immediately post 30-minute session of Thai massage. Thai massage was applied on the lower back and lower limbs. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test was used to compare the outcome between pre- and post treatment. Seventeen participants with spastic diplegia aged 13.71 +/- 3.62 years old participated. A significant difference of MAS was observed between pre- and post treatment (1+, 1; pspasticity and is suggested to be an alternative treatmentfor reducing spasticity in young people with cerebral palsy.

  3. Towards a cosmopolitan criticality? Relational aesthetics, Rirkrit Tiravanija and transnational encounters with pad thai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Dohmen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marsha Meskimmon and Nikos Papastergiadis have responded to contemporary art’s concern with transculturalism, audience participation and intersubjectivity by re-articulating the cosmopolitan in relation to both aesthetics and globalisation. Dohmen investigates how their cosmopolitanism translates into a mode of critical address and probes this question with regard to the work of Rirkrit Tiravanija, a key proponent of relational aesthetics, an art movement of the 1990s championing audience participation and the intersubjective. Even though Tiravanija expressly draws attention to his Thai background by cooking pad thai in the gallery, Dohmen detects a striking disavowal of cultural alterity at the heart of relational aesthetics, which she regards as untenable within the context of the art world’s increasing internationalisation. Dohmen demonstrates how relational aesthetics appropriated key aspects of Tiravanija’s Thai-derived outlook while asking how a cosmopolitan outlook might redress and repair this marked critical Eurocentricity.

  4. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanarong Vorapun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. Methods The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. Results The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95 years. 689(34.9% are men and 1284(65.1% are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20 kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003. The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952 had highest level gait disorders. 39

  5. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  6. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  7. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  8. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  9. Comparison of factors affecting orthodontic treatment motivation of Taiwanese and Thai patients in two hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wariya Laothong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Many factors, including economic, psychosocial statuses and ethnicity, affect patients' decision to seek orthodontic treatment. The present study compared orthodontic patients' motivation, attitude and the factors affecting this motivation in Taiwanese and Thai patients. We investigated the association between the aforementioned variables and patient characteristics. Materials and methods: We enrolled 250 Thai and 250 Taiwanese patients (age ≥ 20 years from Sunprasitthiprasong and Taipei Medical University Hospitals, respectively, by using self-administered questionnaires. Demographic characteristics were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test, patients' motivation, attitude and the factors affecting this motivation were analyzed using the sample t-test. The association among the variables was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Results: In both hospitals, the main motivation for seeking orthodontic treatment was esthetic concerns; the patients believed that treatment could make them more beautiful. Taiwanese and Thai patients rejected treatment because of high treatment costs and long treatment periods, respectively. A significant association was observed between household income and Thai patients' motivation (p < 0.05. Sex was significantly associated with Thai patients' attitude (p < 0.05. Age, sex, active treatment duration, and marital status were associated with Taiwanese attitude toward treatment (p < 0.05. In addition, age, household income, and information resources were significantly associated with the factors affecting Taiwanese patients' motivation (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ethnicity influenced patients' motivation. Economic status was the main factor affecting Thai patients, whereas many factors affected Taiwanese patients' decision to seek orthodontic treatment. However, esthetic concerns were a crucial motivation for both groups. Keywords: factors affecting

  10. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the PHQ-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipanish Ratana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most depression screening tools in Thailand are lengthy. The long process makes them impractical for routine use in primary care. This study aims to examine the reliability and validity of a Thai version Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 as a screening tool for major depression in primary care patients. Methods The English language PHQ-9 was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the pre-final version, as well as final adjustments. The PHQ-9 was then administered among 1,000 patients in family practice clinic. Of these 1,000 patients, 300 were further assessed by the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and the Thai version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. These tools served as gold-standards for diagnosing depression and for assessing symptom severity, respectively. In the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed. Results Complete data were obtained from 924 participants and 279 interviewed respondents. The mean age of the participants was 45.0 years (SD = 14.3 and 73.7% of them were females. The mean PHQ-9 score was 4.93 (SD = 3.75. The Thai version of the PHQ-9 had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79 and showed moderate convergent validity with the HAM-D (r = 0.56; P Conclusion The Thai version of the PHQ-9 has acceptable psychometric properties for screening for major depression in general practice with a recommended cut-off score of nine or greater.

  11. The Thai version of the PSS-10: An Investigation of its psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran Tinakon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10 with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. Methods A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [χ2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p r = 0.60, p r = 0.55, p r = -0.46, p Conclusions The Thai version of the PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  12. Patrones de consumo, estado nutricional y suplementos dietarios en el Muay Thai

    OpenAIRE

    Cañadas, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    El Muay Thai es un arte marcial tailandés considerado hoy uno de los mejores deportes de contacto en el mundo porque trabaja todas las extremidades del cuerpo, y permite un elevado desarrollo de la aptitud física, de concentración y la confianza. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar cuáles son los patrones de consumo alimentario, el estado nutricional y el consumo de suplementos dietarios en deportistas que practican la disciplina de Muay Thai en la ciudad de Mar del ...

  13. Physical performance in recently aged adults after 6 weeks traditional Thai dance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyacharoen T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taweesak Janyacharoen,1–3 Maneepun Laophosri,2,4 Jaturat Kanpittaya,3,5 Paradee Auvichayapat,6 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth71School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Improvement of Physical Performance and Quality of Life Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Back, Neck and Other Joint Pain Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 6Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, ThailandBackground: Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly.Methods: This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT, five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST, and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention.Results: There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls, with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011, FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P < 0.001, and flexibility was higher (14.9 ± 3.5 versus 11.1 ± 5.7 cm; P = 0.002 in the Thai dance group than the control group.Conclusion: Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly female adults

  14. Waiting for the right time: how and why young Thai women manage to avoid heterosexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supametaporn, Pinhatai; Stern, Phyllis Noerager; Rodcumdee, Branom; Chaiyawat, Waraporn

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these young women used the basic social process they called "waiting for the right time" in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three overlapping properties: learning rules, planning life path, and ways of preserving virginity. The findings provide information that may lead to the development of culturally competent interventions for middle-class Thai youths to remain healthy and avoid pregnancy.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of a Cardanol from Thai Apis mellifera Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsai, Pattaraporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Chanchao, Chanpen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a sticky, dark brown resinous residue made by bees that is derived from plant resins. It is used to construct and repair the nest, and in addition possesses several diverse bioactivities. Here, propolis from Apis mellifera from Nan province, Thailand, was tested for antibacterial activity against Gram+ve (Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae) and Gram-ve (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Materials and methods: The three bacterial isolates were confirmed for species designation by Gram staining and analysis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Propolis was sequentially extracted by methanol, dichloromethane and hexane. The antibacterial activity was determined by agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assays using streptomycin as a positive control. The most active crude extract was further purified by quick column and adsorption chromatography. The apparent purity of each bioactive fraction was tested by thin layer chromatography. The chemical structure of the isolated bioactive compound was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results: Crude methanol extract of propolis showed the best antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 5 mg/mL for S. aureus and E. coli and 6.25 mg/mL for P. larvae. After quick column chromatography, only three active fractions were inhibitory to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 6.25 and 31.3 µg/mL, respectively. Further adsorption chromatography yielded one pure bioactive fraction (A1A) with an IC50 value of 0.175 µg/mL for E. coli and 0.683 µg/mL for P. larvae, and was determined to be cardanol by NMR analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed unusual shaped (especially in dividing cells), damaged and dead cells in cardanol-treated E. coli. Conclusion: Thai propolis contains a promising antibacterial agent. PMID:24578609

  16. Thai venous stroke prognostic score: TV-SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungvarin, Niphon; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Ratanakorn, Disya; Towanabut, Somchai; Tantirittisak, Tassanee; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Phanthumchinda, Kamman; Tiamkoa, Somsak; Chankrachang, Siwaporn; Nidhinandana, Samart; Laptikultham, Somsak; Limsoontarakul, Sansern; Udomphanthuruk, Suthipol

    2009-11-01

    Prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has never been studied in Thailand. A simple prognostic score to predict poor prognosis of CVST has also never been reported. The authors are aiming to establish a simple and reliable prognostic score for this condition. The medical records of CVST patients from eight neurological training centers in Thailand who received between April 1993 and September 2005 were reviewed as part of this retrospective study. Clinical features included headache, seizure, stroke risk factors, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood pressure on arrival, papilledema, hemiparesis, meningeal irritation sign, location of occluded venous sinuses, hemorrhagic infarction, cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure, treatment options, length of stay, and other complications were analyzed to determine the outcome using modified Rankin scale (mRS). Poor prognosis (defined as mRS of 3-6) was determined on the discharge date. One hundred ninety four patients' records, 127 females (65.5%) and mean age of 36.6 +/- 14.4 years, were analyzed Fifty-one patients (26.3%) were in the poor outcome group (mRS 3-6). Overall mortality was 8.4%. Univariate analysis and then multivariate analysis using SPSS version 11.5 revealed only four statistically significant predictors influencing outcome of CVST They were underlying malignancy, low GCS, presence of hemorrhagic infarction (for poor outcome), and involvement of lateral sinus (for good outcome). Thai venous stroke prognostic score (TV-SPSS) was derived from these four factors using a multiple logistic model. A simple and pragmatic prognostic score for CVST outcome has been developed with high sensitivity (93%), yet low specificity (33%). The next study should focus on the validation of this score in other prospective populations.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of prophylactic mefloquine in Thai healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbwang, J; Bangchang, K N; Supapojana, A; Bunnag, D; Harinasuta, T

    1991-03-01

    Malaria constitutes one of the most serious public health problems in Thailand. The disease undermines the health of the people and threatens the economy and security of the country as it is most prevalent in the rural region in forested mountain areas along the border where government officials (border police) have to perform their duties. A safe and effective prophylactic drug for use by these government officials is needed. Nine healthy border police volunteers who were working on the Thai-Cambodia border, aged between 22 to 50 years, and whose weight ranged between 48 and 61 kg, with no history of liver or kidney disease were recruited into the study. 375 mg of mefloquine (as Fansimef tablets) was given as a loading dose, followed by 250 mg every 4 weeks for 4 doses. Whole blood concentrations of mefloquine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography at intervals for 19 weeks. None of the volunteers developed malaria during study period. Seven volunteers had mild adverse effects which required no specific treatment. No changes in liver or renal function or in blood profiles occurred during 19 weeks of observation. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a mean maximum concentration of 420 +/- 141 ng/ml a time to peak concentration of 12 +/- 8 hours, terminal half-life was 14.93 +/- 4.43 days, apparent volume of distribution (Vd/f) was 16.5 +/- 5.6 l/kg and total clearance was 0.99 +/- 0.62 ml/min/kg. The mean minimum whole blood mefloquine concentration derived from this study was approximately 100 ng/ml which is considered to be low for treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Spirituality and Dignity of Thai Adolescents Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnsunaphat Balthip

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Adolescents are a key asset and resource for the social and economic development of any country, with the potential to make a significant contribution to their families, communities and countries. Healthy and educated adolescents are important. However, there are still significant rates of death, illness and disease among adolescents in some countries, where HIV is one of the most prevalent causes of death in this group. Adolescents living with HIV may experience and encounter social restrictions and physiological limitations. Therefore, this investigation explored whether the concepts of spirituality and dignity had any relevance to participants sense of meaning and purpose and whether these had any impact upon their health and well-being (2 Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used involving twenty-two adolescents living with HIV attending one regional hospital in Southern Thailand. One to one interviews and descriptive diaries were used to collect the data and thematic analysis enabled the identification of attributes of spirituality and dignity. (3 Results: The findings revealed that spirituality and dignity were present in the lives of Thai adolescents living with HIV expressed in the main category of living life responsibly. This comprised of six themes: (a Understanding the disease and accepting the truth about life, (b Maintaining hope for a cure, (c Focusing on life’s purposes, (d Making life choices, (e Caring for oneself and (f Responsibility towards other. (4 Conclusions: The findings provide helpful insights for parents, nurses, and other health professionals supporting adolescents living with HIV to obtain a holistic, dignified approach to care that includes attention to the spiritual dimension.

  19. Lingual frenulum and effect on breastfeeding in Thai newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngerncham, Sopapan; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wongvisutdhi, Thidaratana; Ritjaroen, Yupin; Painpichan, Nipa; Hakularb, Pussara; Gunnaleka, Panidaporn; Chaturapitphothong, Penpaween

    2013-05-01

    Breastfeeding has abundant biological and psychological benefits. Effective breastfeeding requires good latching on, which is possible when the infant is able to cup around the maternal areola with his tongue. One of the most common conditions resulting in poor latching on is tongue-tie. To determine the prevalence of tongue-tie with subsequent breastfeeding difficulties and other factors affecting the success of breastfeeding in newborn infants. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of healthy Thai infants without contraindications for breastfeeding. Physical examination of the infants and mothers and their breastfeeding practices were assessed between 24 and 48 hours of life. 2679 mother-infant dyads were recruited. The study detected a prevalence of 16% for severe tongue-tie, 37.9% of which was associated with breastfeeding difficulties. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, moderate (adjusted OR 13.3, 95% CI 7.2-24.5) and severe (adjusted OR 62, 95% CI 34.1-112.8) tongue-tie, short nipples (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), mothers feeling the infant's tongue on the nipple area (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2-5.2) and mothers' inability to feel the infant's tongue (adjusted OR 11.8, 95% CI 4.3-32.4) independently increased the risk of breastfeeding difficulties. Tongue-tie is not uncommon and is associated with breastfeeding difficulty in newborn infants. Mothers of infants with severe tongue-tie should be closely and individually coached during breastfeeding and followed up, especially during the first critical weeks of the infant's life.

  20. Cigarette smoking among Thai Buddhist monks, central and eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2005-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December, 2003 among Thai Buddhist monks in 4 provinces of the central region (Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Saraburi and Chai Nat) and in 4 provinces of the eastern region (Chachoengsao, Rayong, Trat, and Sa Kaeo) of Thailand. Data were collected using face to face interviews, questionnaires, and physical examination reports (weight, height, heart rate, blood pressure, etc) as the research tools. This study focused on sociodemographics, history of illness, and smoking behavior. The proportion of the cigarette smoking was 47.6% of the total of 920 Buddhist monks. The age group 20-34 years, Maha Nikaya section and Public temple were the majority of the study subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that only four factors were related to smoking consumption: dharma education, Naktharm To (grade 2) (OR = 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4-0.9), Naktharm Aek (grade 3) or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.6); Lay education, secondary school (OR = 0.7, 95% Cl: 0.5-0.9), bachelor degree or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.8); systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg (OR = 1.8, 95% Cl: 1.1-2.8) and history of respiratory illness (OR = 3.2, 95% Cl: 1.5-6.9). As a result, dharma education and well educated persons were the crucial factors which led to success in decreasing cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation campaigns and education of the consequences of smoking are strongly recommended among risk groups.

  1. A simple 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and curry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2008-01-01

    A method using simple extraction and 2-directional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was developed for the simultaneous determination of curcumin, metanil yellow, and sudan dyes in turmeric, chili, and various mixed curry powder formulations. The method offers resolution (Rf) of turmeric pigments, namely, curcumin (0.77), demethoxycurcumin (0.69), bis(demethoxy)curcumin (0.61), and the synthetic dye metanil yellow (0.05) by the first-directional mobile phase, chloroform-methanol (9 + 1, v/v). The resolution (Rf) of sudan I (0.30) and sudan IV (0.23) was achieved by the second-directional mobile phase, toluene-hexane-acetic acid (50 + 50 + 1, v/v/v). Natural pigments of both turmeric and chili showed no interference in the detection and quantification of synthetic colors. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for curcumin, metanil yellow, sudan I, and sudan IV were 17.39, 42.90, 15.45, and 7.01 and 52.71,130.0, 46.80, and 21.24 ng/spot, respectively. Analysis of a few market samples showed the presence of metanil yellow (1.5-4.6 mg/g), sudan I (4.8-12.1 mg/g), and sudan IV (0.9-2.0 mg/g) in loose turmeric and chili samples, whereas the curcumin content in turmeric and mixed curry powder samples ranged from 6.5 to 36.4 and from 0.3 to 1.9 mg/g, respectively. The method is relatively simple, offers reasonable sensitivity, and can be used to screen a large number of samples.

  2. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy. © 2011 APJPH.

  3. Enteroendocrine, Musashi 1 and neurogenin 3 cells in the large intestine of Thai and Norwegian patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence, gender distribution and clinical presentation of IBS differ between Asian and Western countries. This study aimed at studying and comparing enteroendocrine, Musashi 1 (Msi 1) and neurogenin 3 (neurog 3) cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Thirty Thai and 61 Norwegian IBS patients as well as 20 Thai and 24 Norwegian controls were included. Biopsy samples were taken from each of the sigmoid colon and the rectum during a standard colonoscopy. The samples were immunostained for serotonin, peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, Msi 1 and neurog 3. The densities of immunoreactive cells were determined with computerized image analysis. The densities of several enteroendocrine cell types were altered in both the colon and rectum of both Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Some of these changes were similar in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients, while others differed. The findings of abnormal densities of the enteroendocrine cells in Thai patients support the notion that enteroendocrine cells are involved in the pathophysiology of IBS. The present observations highlight that IBS differs in Asian and Western countries, and show that the changes in large-intestine enteroendocrine cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients might be caused by different mechanisms.

  4. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  5. Validity and Reliability of Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Thai Version (ASRS-V1.1 TH)

    OpenAIRE

    KIATRUNGRIT, Komsan; PUTTHISRI, Suwannee; HONGSANGUANSRI, Sirichai; WISAJAN, Pattaraporn; JULLAGATE, Sudawan

    2017-01-01

    Background The adult ADHD Self–Report Scale Thai version (ASRS-V1.1) (18 items) is a questionnaire for screening adult ADHD. Aim To test the validity and reliability of the 18-question ASRS-V1.1 Thai version (ASRS-V1.1 TH) as a screening tool for adult ADHD Methods The original 18-question ASRS-V1.1 version was translated into Thai. The process was composed of forward-translation, synthesis of the translation, and back translation. Cross cultural adaptation, field testing, and final adjustmen...

  6. Clinical presentation and course of long QT syndrome in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankavipar Saprungruang, MD

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: All 20 patients with LQTS were mostly symptomatic at presentation. Owing to the geographical region and ethnicity of the Thai population, we conclude that the ratio of patients who develop cardiac symptoms at rest or during sleep might be higher than in other Asian countries.

  7. The Implementation of Web 2.0 Technology for Information Literacy Instruction in Thai University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawetrattanasatian, Oranuch

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology has drawn much attention recently as a fascinating tool for Information Literacy Instruction (ILI), especially in academic libraries. This research was aimed to investigate the implementation of Web 2.0 technology for ILI in Thai university libraries, in terms of information literacy skills being taught, types of Web 2.0…

  8. Burmese Sociocultural Adjustment to Thai International Programs: An Analysis of the Impact of Historical Revisionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the perception and experiences of 15 Burmese international students temporarily studying at two international colleges in suburban Bangkok, Thailand and compares their impressions of and reaction to history with 10 Thai students studying at the same international colleges. This ethnographic exploration of Burmese…

  9. Orofacial pain and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in Finnish and Thai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Kirsi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Mitrirattanakul, Somsak; Sitthisomwong, Panupen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lahti, Satu

    2015-07-01

    Cultural or ethnic factors may play an important role in subjects' pain reports. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms between Finnish and Thai populations. The Finnish study population comprised the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 5696 subjects participated in the present study. The Thai sample consisted of 1501 randomly selected people living in 10 different districts in Bangkok. Data on orofacial pain was collected based on questionnaires. After adjusting for age, gender and education, the logistic regression analysis showed that Thai subjects had an increased risk for reporting oral pain (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.7-5.4), tooth pain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) and pain in the face (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7). It can be concluded that Thai people report more orofacial pain symptoms than Finnish subjects. Cross-cultural factors exist in the background of reporting pain symptoms in the oral and facial area.

  10. Thai East-West Community College Workshop (Bangkok, Thailand, November 20-27, 2001). A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.

    This is a report on a workshop held in Hawaii with representatives from United States community college and the Thai Ministry of Education to help form the East-West Consortium for Community College Development in Thailand. Recommendations from the workshop included plans for a U.S. community college training team to visit Thailand and help begin…

  11. Married Thai Working Mothers: Coping with Initial Part-Time Doctoral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnam, Thanit

    2011-01-01

    Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…

  12. An Analysis of Textual Metafunction in Thai EFL Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunsirot, Sudrutai

    2013-01-01

    As teaching English as a foreign language, it has become obvious that an average Thai is considered to have very low English proficiency. As a result, Thailand may find herself at a disadvantage because of inferior English skills towards globalization and forming of ASEAN community. Thus, the study is devoted to the exploration of English writing…

  13. Thai Adolescent Survivors 1 Year after the 2004 Tsunami: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2004 Asian tsunami on 400 Thai adolescents 1 year after the disaster. Quantitative analyses showed that youth behavior problems were positively associated with tsunami experiences and negatively associated with positive family functioning. Tsunami exposure, school connectedness, religious beliefs and…

  14. Correlates of Precoital Behaviors, Intentions, and Sexual Initiation among Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Zimmerman, Rick; Cupp, Pamela K.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chaiphet, Nonthathorn; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the risk and protective factors associated with sexual behaviors among Thai youth ages 13-14 (N=420) living in Bangkok, Thailand. Cross-sectional data were collected using a random sample of households methodology. Three outcomes were assessed: (1) intention to engage in sexual intercourse, (2) pre-coital behaviors, and (3)…

  15. Relationships between Psychological Wellbeing of Thai College Students, Goal Orientations, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J.; Chun, Jae Uk; Koul, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined the direct and interaction effects of students' learning and performance-avoidance goal orientations on their psychological wellbeing and a moderating role of students' gender in these relationships. Using 564 self-reports of freshman college students in a Thai university, we found students' psychological wellbeing to be…

  16. Physical Interactive Game for Enhancing Language Cognitive Development of Thai Pre-Schooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosri, Noppon; Pookao, Chompoonut

    2017-01-01

    The intervention for cognitive language development is required to conduct at the young ages. As children usually gain the skill through their plays, this study proposed a physical interactive game to help children improve their language skill in both Thai and English language for pre-schooler. The motivation of this research is to create a game…

  17. Professional Development and Learning by General Teachers Implementing Functional Behavioural Assessment in Thai Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is identified as a research-based approach used in many Western schools to support student behaviour. This study aimed to assist Thai classroom teachers by providing a professional development and learning programme in FBA to develop an effective and efficient process to address behaviour problems and allow…

  18. Factors That Influence Stay Intention of Thai International Students Following Completion of Degrees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Kingminghae, Worapinya

    2017-01-01

    Based on data recently collected in China, this study examined factors influencing Thai international students' stay/leave intentions after completion of degrees in Chinese universities. Paying attention to the concrete situations and lived experiences of international students in a more integrated Asia-Pacific region, we found that…

  19. CORI: Explicit Reading Instruction to Enhance Informational Text Comprehension and Reading Engagement for Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongkrachang, Salila; Chinwonno, Apasara

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effect of explicit reading instruction as an approach to Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework on EFL students' informational text comprehension and engagement. The explicit reading instruction was implemented with 39 first-year Thai undergraduate students over a 10-week period. It was found that the…

  20. Critical Reading Skills and Translation Ability of Thai EFL Students: Pragmatic, Syntactic, and Semantic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwantaneeyakul, Suttawan

    2018-01-01

    Translation ability requires many language skills to produce an accurate and complete text; however, one important skill, critical reading in the research, has been neglected. This research, therefore, employed the explanatory sequential mixed method to investigate the differences in Thai-English translation ability between students with a high…

  1. Modeling and Mapping Personal Learning Environment of Thai International Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali; Sawad, Buncha Panacharoen; Wongwai, Sarun

    2018-01-01

    This research article is part of a periodic study conducted to understand, model, map and to develop an integrated approach for effective and interactive self-learning phases of Thai International Hospitality and Tourism higher education students. Questionnaire containing both qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed at the beginning…

  2. Forensic Applicability of Femur Subtrochanteric Shape to Ancestry Assessment in Thai and White American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Sean D; Winburn, Allysha P

    2015-09-01

    Ancestry assessment from the postcranial skeleton presents a significant challenge to forensic anthropologists. However, metric dimensions of the femur subtrochanteric region are believed to distinguish between individuals of Asian and non-Asian descent. This study tests the discriminatory power of subtrochanteric shape using modern samples of 128 Thai and 77 White American males. Results indicate that the samples' platymeric index distributions are significantly different (p≤0.001), with the Thai platymeric index range generally lower and the White American range generally higher. While the application of ancestry assessment methods developed from Native American subtrochanteric data results in low correct classification rates for the Thai sample (50.8-57.8%), adapting these methods to the current samples leads to better classification. The Thai data may be more useful in forensic analysis than previously published subtrochanteric data derived from Native American samples. Adapting methods to include appropriate geographic and contemporaneous populations increases the accuracy of femur subtrochanteric ancestry methods. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Marginalized Population on the Thai-Myanmar Border : A study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielemans, Laurence; Trip-Hoving, Margreet; Bancone, Germana; Turner, Claudia; Simpson, Julie A.; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Rheenen, Patrick; Paw, Moo Kho; Nosten, Francois; McGready, Rose; Carrara, Verena I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aims to identify risk factors and the neurodevelopmental impact of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a limited-resource setting among a refugee and migrant population residing along the Thai-Myanmar border, an area with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate

  4. Numerical analysis of Thai members of the Eugenia-Syzygium group (Myrtaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parnell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different analyses of Thai Syzygium show, with very small discrepancies, that one smaller monophyletic and one larger polyphyletic group can be recognised. The smaller monophyletic group warrants sectional rank as Syzygium section Jambosa and consists of S. anacardiifolium, S. aqueum, S.

  5. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  6. The Experience Economy in Thai Hotels and Resort Clusters: The Role of Authentic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanan Apivantanaporn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although hotels and other tourist institutions in Thailand have been making some sporadic attempts to incorporate specifically Thai food and beverage (F&B elements into their overall product offering, this has rarely been attempted in a thoughtful and systematic manner. This is despite the importance of F&B in determining overall levels of customer satisfaction and the recent importance attached to incorporating ‘Thainess’ into the hotel and tourism industry nationwide. It is, therefore, rather surprising that little if any sustained effort has been made to define authenticity with respect to Thai food (bearing in mind also regional variations or to incorporate certificates of quality to establishments providing such authentic dishes. This paper draws on qualitative research and personal observation undertaken in a wide range of Thai hotels with a view to identifying emergent value-adding clusters in the domestic hospitality sector. It describes and categorizes the uses of Thai F&B currently and identifies shortcomings in industry vision, which leads to recommendations for both hotel and resort managers and also to those responsible for national level tourism development efforts. The paper also recognizes the problematic nature of the concepts of ‘authenticity’ in this context and attempts to reconcile differing conceptions.

  7. An Exploratory Study of Thai University Students' Understanding of World Englishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengboon, Saksit

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the perceptions of Thai university students towards World Englishes (WEs). One hundred and ninety-eight students from three universities in Bangkok were administered a questionnaire inquiring about definitions of WEs, the Kachruvian concentric circles, the concepts of standard and ownership of English, Thai…

  8. Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moongkarndi, Primchanien; Kosem, Nuttavut; Luanratana, Omboon; Jongsomboonkusol, Suna; Pongpan, Narongchai

    2004-06-01

    Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Inhibitory effects of selected Thai medicinal plants on Na+,K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Manakit, Srinual; Pornpakakul, Surachai; Petsom, Amorn

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of ten Thai indigenous medicinal plants having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were tested for their Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity. The hexane extracts of Cyperus rotundus and Orthosiphon aristatus showed high potent inhibitory activity on crude enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase from rat brain.

  10. Relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation: The Thai experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketudat, Sippanondha; Fry, Gerald

    1981-06-01

    The relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation in Thailand are the topic of this paper. The major focus is on the research/policy linkage. A complex educational administrative structure and a pluralistic informal power structure characterize the Thai research context. A tetrahedral model of linkages provides the conceptual framework for the analysis. Details are then provided with respect to the actual operationalization of the model in terms of the Thai approach in practice. Major elements in the Thai approach include the use of expert policy committees, joint committees involving both administrators and researchers, problem-oriented seminars, and commissioned research. Actual examples of research efforts described are an educational reform study, local level school mapping, a school cluster experiment, a budget exercise to improve the equity of primary school resource allocations, and a policy evaluation of sub-district secondary schools. Finally, lessons to be learned from the Thai experience are summarized. Thailand has experienced some success in building analytical educational research capacity and ensuring its utilization. Key elements in this success have been an emphasis on strengthening human capacities; judging political will in a timely, flexible manner; creatively utilizing bureaucratic forms such as committees; and remaining both politically detached and sensitive.

  11. Translation and validation of the Children's Communication Checklist to evaluate pragmatic language impairment in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Taycharpipranai, Pasinee; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara

    2014-02-01

    The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) was developed to provide an assessment of domains of language impairment in children, particularly the pragmatic domain. This study examined the effectiveness of the CCC-Thai version in discriminating children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children. The parents of two groups of 50 children aged 4-6 years, one with clinically ascertained ASD, and one with typical development, completed the CCC-Thai version. The mean pragmatic composite score was significantly lower in the ASD group (124.6) than in the typical development group (142). The optimal receiver operating characteristic curve cut-off score was found to be identical to the original English version (132). Corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 86%, respectively. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 87% and 93%, respectively. The corresponding area under the curve was 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.99). The CCC-Thai version is a promising instrument to assess pragmatic language impairment in Thai children. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Blended E-Learning as a Requirement for Teaching EFL in a Thai Academic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananuraksakul, Noparat

    2016-01-01

    This paper results from a pilot study in a Thai academic context testing two hypotheses. First, blended e-learning required by an institution can motivate learners extrinsically to learn EFL. Second, blended e-learning can enhance learners' positive attitudes toward learning EFL. The hypotheses were constructed based on an implication that Thai…

  13. Politeness Strategies in Thai Graduate Research Paper Discussions: Implications for Second/Foreign Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getkham, Kunyarut

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson's (1978, 1987) and Myers'…

  14. Automatic Transformation of the Thai Categorial Grammar Treebank to Dependency Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Ruangrajitpakorn, Taneth; Boonkwan, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    on a generic mapping of CG types in case of unknown words. Currently, all but a handful of the trees in the Thai CG bank can unambiguously be transformed into directed dependency trees. Dependency labels can optionally be assigned with a learned classifier, which in a preliminary evaluation with a very small...

  15. Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools Located along the Thai-Cambodian Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitratporn, Poonsook; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools located along the Thai-Cambodian borders. The study intended to measure the relationship between the two underlying variables quality of work life and organizational climate. Simple random sample of 384 respondents were administrators and teachers…

  16. The Effect of Guided Note Taking during Lectures on Thai University Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Cowie, Bronwen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a guided note taking strategy to promote Thai students' understanding of electromagnetism during a lecture course. The aim of the study was to enhance student learning of electromagnetism concepts. The developed guided notes contain quotations, diagrams, pictures, problems, and blank spaces to encourage…

  17. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  18. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei sepsis in a HIV-positive Thai woman in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Højlyng, Niels; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection, in a 32-y-old HIV positive Thai woman, in Denmark. Untreated it is a life-threatening infection. Therefore it is extremely important to consider P. marneffei in patients who are immunocompromized and who have been travelling...

  19. Automatic Transformation of the Thai Categorial Grammar Treebank to Dependency Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Ruangrajitpakorn, Taneth; Boonkwan, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    A method for deriving an approximately labeled dependency treebank from the Thai Categorial Grammar Treebank has been implemented. The method involves a lexical dictionary for assigning dependency directions to the CG types associated with the grammatical entities in the CG bank, falling back...

  20. Magnetism Teaching Sequences Based on an Inductive Approach for First-Year Thai University Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Cowie, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the impact on student motivation and understanding of magnetism of teaching sequences based on an inductive approach. The study was conducted in large lecture classes. A pre- and post-Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism was conducted with just fewer than 700 Thai undergraduate science students, before and after…

  1. The Thai anesthesia incident monitoring study of perioperative allergic reactions: an analysis of 1996 incidents reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Kusumaphanyo, Chaiyapruk; Ittichaikulthol, Wichai; Suksompong, Sirilak; Ratanachai, Prapa

    2008-10-01

    Analyze the clinical course, management, outcome, and contributing factors of perioperative allergic reactions in the Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study (Thai AIMS). A prospective descriptive multicenter study was conducted in 51 hospitals across Thailand Voluntary, anonymous reports of any adverse or undesirable events during the first 24 hours of anesthesia were sent to the Thai AIMS data management unit. Possible perioperative allergic reactions were extracted and examined independently by three peer reviewers. Forty-three reports of possible perioperative allergic reactions from the 2,537 incidents reported to the Thai AIMS (1.6%) were reviewed. There was a female predominance (1.9:1). The most common features were cutaneous manifestations (93%), arterial hypotension (20.1%), and bronchospasm (11.6%) respectively. The severity grades were 69.8% in grade I, 4.7% in grade II, and 25.6% in grade III. The three most suspected causative agents were neuromuscular blocking agents (39.5%, 30.2%-succinylcholine), antibiotics (27.9%), and opioids (18.6%) respectively. All but one responded well to treatment with complete recovery. One patient suffered acute myocardial infarction and had to stay at the hospital for longer than one week. None had further allergic reaction. Perioperative allergic reactions accounted for 1.6% of anesthetic adverse events. The most common features were cutaneous manifestations. A quarter of these were life-threatening but responded well to treatment. The most common suspected causative agent was succinylcholine.

  2. The Development of Thai Learners' Key Competencies by Project-Based Learning Using ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soparat, Sasithorn; Arnold, Savitree Rochanasmita; Klaysom, Saowadee

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to study the use of Project-based Learning using ICT (PBL using ICT) to develop learners' five key competencies based on Thai Basic Education Curriculum 2008, which consists of 1) communication capability 2) thinking capability 3) problem solving capability 4) capability in applying life skills and 5) capability in…

  3. Discovery of Predicate-Oriented Relations among Named Entities Extracted from Thai Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtep, Nattapong; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    Extracting named entities (NEs) and their relations is more difficult in Thai than in other languages due to several Thai specific characteristics, including no explicit boundaries for words, phrases and sentences; few case markers and modifier clues; high ambiguity in compound words and serial verbs; and flexible word orders. Unlike most previous works which focused on NE relations of specific actions, such as work_for, live_in, located_in, and kill, this paper proposes more general types of NE relations, called predicate-oriented relation (PoR), where an extracted action part (verb) is used as a core component to associate related named entities extracted from Thai Texts. Lacking a practical parser for the Thai language, we present three types of surface features, i.e. punctuation marks (such as token spaces), entity types and the number of entities and then apply five alternative commonly used learning schemes to investigate their performance on predicate-oriented relation extraction. The experimental results show that our approach achieves the F-measure of 97.76%, 99.19%, 95.00% and 93.50% on four different types of predicate-oriented relation (action-location, location-action, action-person and person-action) in crime-related news documents using a data set of 1,736 entity pairs. The effects of NE extraction techniques, feature sets and class unbalance on the performance of relation extraction are explored.

  4. Estimating Price Effects in an Almost Ideal Demand Model of Outbound Thai Tourism to East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T. Khamkaew (Tanchanok); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the responsiveness of Thai outbound tourism to East Asian destinations, namely China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and Korea, to changes in effective relative price of tourism, total real total tourism expenditure, and one-off events. The nonlinear and linear Almost Ideal

  5. Hospital Coding Practice, Data Quality, and DRG-Based Reimbursement under the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpirul, Krit

    2011-01-01

    In the Thai Universal Coverage scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement. Questionable quality of the submitted DRG codes has been of concern whereas knowledge about hospital coding practice has been lacking. The objectives of this thesis are (1) To explore hospital coding…

  6. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthanaracht, Natsalil; Yanarojana, Somchai; Pinthong, Darawan; Unchern, Supeenun; Thithapandha, Amnuay; Assantachai, Prasert; Supavilai, Porntip

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K) and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai community-dwelling patients. One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman's method. The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12%) was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%), suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity. Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.

  7. Thai Grade 11 Students' Alternative Conceptions for Acid-Base Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artdej, Romklao; Ratanaroutai, Thasaneeya; Coll, Richard Kevin; Thongpanchang, Tienthong

    2010-01-01

    This study involved the development of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess Thai high school students' understanding of acid-base chemistry. The acid-base diagnostic test (ABDT) comprising 18 items was administered to 55 Grade 11 students in a science and mathematics programme during the second semester of the 2008 academic year. Analysis of…

  8. The effect of increasing sediment accretion on the seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.; Vermaat, J.E.; Terrados, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Three to four-month-old seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species (Avicennia officinalis L., Rhizophora mucronata Lamk and Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler) were experimentally buried using six sediment accretion levels (0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 cm) in a randomized block design. Avicennia was

  9. Femoral hip prosthesis design for Thais using multi-objective shape optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virulsri, Chanyaphan; Tangpornprasert, Pairat; Romtrairat, Parineak

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective shape optimization was proposed to design hip prosthesis for Thais. • The prosthesis design was optimized in terms of safety of both cement and prosthesis. • The objective functions used the Soderberg fatigue strength formulations. • Safety factors of the cement and prosthesis are 1.200 and 1.109 respectively. • The newly designed prosthesis also fits well with chosen small-sized Thai femurs. - Abstract: The long-term success of Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) depends largely on how well the prosthetic components fit the bones. The majority of cemented femoral hip prosthesis failures are due to aseptic loosening, which is possibly caused by cracking of the cement mantle. The strength of cement components is a function of cement mantles having adequate thickness. Since the size and shape of cemented femoral hip prostheses used in Thailand are based on designs for a Caucasian population, they do not properly conform to most Thai patients’ physical requirements. For these reasons, prostheses designed specifically for Thai patients must consider the longevity and functionality of both cement and prosthesis. The objective of this study was to discover a new design for femoral hip prostheses which is not only optimal and safe in terms of both cement and prosthesis, but also fits the selected Thai femur. This study used a small-sized Thai femoral model as a reference model for a new design. Biocompatible stainless steel 316L (SS316L) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were selected as raw materials for the prosthesis and bone cement respectively. A multi-objective shape optimization program, which is an interface between optimization C program named NSGA-II and a finite element program named ANSYS, was used to optimize longevity of femoral hip prostheses by varying shape parameters at assigned cross-sections of the selected geometry. Maximum walking loads of sixty-kilograms were applied to a finite element model for stress and

  10. Physiological responses and energy cost during a simulation of a Muay Thai boxing match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Vitelli, Stefano; Cappai, Ivo; Milia, Raffaele; Tocco, Filippo; Melis, Franco; Concu, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Muay Thai is a martial art that requires complex skills and tactical excellence for success. However, the energy demand during a Muay Thai competition has never been studied. This study was devised to obtain an understanding of the physiological capacities underlying Muay Thai performance. To that end, the aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of anaerobic metabolism were assessed in 10 male athletes during a simulation match of Muay Thai. Subjects were studied while wearing a portable gas analyzer, which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and heart rate (HR). The excess of CO2 production (CO2 excess) was also measured to obtain an index of anaerobic glycolysis. During the match, group energy expenditure was, on average (mean +/- standard error of the mean), 10.75 +/- 1.58 kcal.min-1, corresponding to 9.39 +/- 1.38 metabolic equivalents. Oxygen uptake and HRs were always above the level of the anaerobic threshold assessed in a preliminary incremental test. CO2 excess showed an abrupt increase in the first round, and reached a value of 636 +/- 66.5 mL.min-1. This parameter then gradually decreased throughout the simulation match. These data suggest that Muay Thai is a physically demanding activity with great involvement of both the aerobic metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis. In particular, it appears that, after an initial burst of anaerobic glycolysis, there was a progressive increase in the aerobic energy supply. Thus, training protocols should include exercises that train both aerobic and anaerobic energetic pathways.

  11. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongthanaracht N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natsalil Pongthanaracht,1 Somchai Yanarojana,1 Darawan Pinthong,1 Supeenun Unchern,1 Amnuay Thithapandha,1 Prasert Assantachai,2 Porntip Supavilai11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, 2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandObjective: To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai community-dwelling patients.Methods: One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman’s method.Results: The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12% was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%, suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity.Conclusion: Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.Keywords: butyrylcholinesterase K variant, butyrylcholinesterase activity, mild cognitive impairment, Thai community-dwelling patients

  12. New equations for age estimation using four permanent mandibular teeth in Thai children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangto, P; Janhom, A; Prasitwattanaseree, S; Iamaroon, A

    2018-03-03

    The purposes of this study were to generate new age estimation equations using two four-teeth methods and to test the accuracy of the resulting equations in comparison with Demirjian and Goldstein four-teeth methods in a Thai population. A sample of 720 digital panoramic radiographs of Thai individuals (360 males and 360 females), aged between 7 and 15 years was randomly selected and assessed for age estimation. The new equations were developed using quadratic regression analysis. The results showed the Thai population-specific equations had a strong relationship between the dental maturity score and the chronological age in both sexes (r = 0.946-0.956). The new equations revealed no statistically significant differences between the estimated and the chronological ages in either sex. On the other hand, Demirjian and Goldstein four-teeth methods showed statistically significant differences between the estimated and the chronological ages in both sexes. Moreover, we found slight differences in the mean absolute error between Demirjian and Goldstein methods and our new equations (0.01 years for males and 0.03 years for females in method I and 0.04 years for males and 0.02 years for females in method II) and the root mean square error between Demirjian and Goldstein methods and our new equations (0.02 years for males and 0.04 years for females in method I and 0.00 years for males and 0.04 years for females in method II). In summary, although Thai population-specific equations provide a slightly increased accuracy in age estimation in Thai children and adolescents, Demirjian and Goldstein methods are still relevant.

  13. The Thai version of the PSS-10: An Investigation of its psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon

    2010-06-12

    Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10) with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [chi2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p PSS-10 had a significant positive correlation with the STAI (r = 0.60, p PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  14. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Greening America's Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  16. Epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human enterovirus 71 among Thai populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important pathogen caused large outbreaks in Asian-Pacific region with severe neurological complications and may lead to death in young children. Understanding of the etiological spectrum and epidemic changes of enterovirus and population’s immunity against EV71 are crucial for the implementation of future therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Results A total of 1,182 patients who presented with the symptoms of hand foot and mouth disease (67.3%) or herpangina (HA) (16.7%) and admitted to the hospitals during 2008-2013 were tested for enterovirus using pan-enterovirus PCR targeting 5′-untranslated region and specific PCR for viral capsid protein 1 gene. Overall, 59.7% were pan-enterovirus positive comprising 9.1% EV71 and 31.2% coxsackievirus species A (CV-A) including 70.5% CV-A6, 27.6% CV-A16, 1.1% CV-A10, and 0.8% CV-A5. HFMD and HA occurred endemically during 2008-2011. The number of cases increased dramatically in June 2012 with the percentage of the recently emerged CV-A6 significantly rose to 28.4%. Co-circulation between different EV71 genotypes was observed during the outbreak. Total of 161 sera obtained from healthy individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against EV71 subgenotype B5 (EV71-B5) using microneutralization assay. The seropositive rate of EV71-B5 was 65.8%. The age-adjusted seroprevalence for individuals was found to be lowest in children aged >6 months to 2 years (42.5%). The seropositive rate remained relatively low in preschool children aged > 2 years to 6 years (48.3%) and thereafter increased sharply to more than 80% in individuals aged > 6 years. Conclusions This study describes longitudinal data reflecting changing patterns of enterovirus prevalence over 6 years and demonstrates high seroprevalences of EV71-B5 NAb among Thai individuals. The rate of EV71 seropositive increased with age but without gender-specific significant difference. We identified

  17. Green technology innovation in a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Dolphen, Rujira; Dhurakit, Prapai; Siswanto, Dian; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2017-11-01

    Developing countries rapidly grow when green technology, which is referred to as eco-friendly processes or methods, is developed in parallel. Here, some examples of green technology research and development in Thailand will be overviewed. A huge amount of agricultural waste is generated during agricultural processes. Applying these agricultural wastes in order to maximize the benefits for environmental cleanups of water, soil and air has been studied and commercialized. For example: 1) Application of agricultural waste and/or biochar developed from agricultural waste as biological adsorbents for wastewater treatment in some industries, such as textile/dye industries, and printing industries. In addition, this agricultural waste can also be applied in decolorization of sugar syrup from sugar industries; 2) The research on modified biomaterials as adsorbents and packing materials in biofilters would also be presented, and now, pilot scale biofilters have been developed and applied to solve air pollution problems in the field for future commercialization; 3) Some agricultural waste and/or biochar developed from agricultural waste in our laboratory can promote rice growth and improve rice quality via the reduction of Cd uptake and translocation in rice. Phytoremediation technology, in which plants are used to improve the environmental quality in water and air, has also been studied and would be presented. 1) Some species of native Thai plants can effectively remove heavy metals and dye from wastewater. For this research, a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment was developed and applied in a real contaminated site. 2) In air phytoremediation, some plant species harbor highly volatile organic compound (VOC) removal efficiency. In addition, plants do not only absorb organic pollutants, but also they have the innate ability to degrade organic compounds and use them as carbon sources for their growth. In addition, plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria inoculation

  18. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  19. Green Marketing amp Consumerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalalkamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing is a progressive issue that most of its dimensions are unknown or intangible for consumers. In this review some of its aspects are surveyed considering its impact on consumers as a fundamental segment in economics. Also consumer behavior is defined and analyzed through its awareness of green marketing issue which causes purchasing decision.

  20. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  1. The Greening Dutchman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marlen Gabriele; Hockerts, Kai

    2011-01-01

    of ‘green flagging’ as a groundbreaking corporate sustainability innovation strategy. This paper describes how Philips uses this approach in its Green Flagship Program (GFP). Philips' GFP is particularly interesting since it sets specific targets across all its business units, thus driving the integration...... and limitations of these findings for theory and research on sustainability innovation strategies....

  2. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  3. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  4. Coordinate green growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Green economic growth needs a shared sense of direction if it is to lead to a more sustainable future under climate change. Studies on green innovation and societal transformation show that uncoordinated initiatives are unlikely to be an effective way “to get the ball rolling and to ‘learn

  5. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects of ...... of green default rules.....

  6. 10 Paths to Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  7. The Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  8. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  9. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  10. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  11. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  12. Green technology in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runderkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    Taiwan is striving for leadership in the field of green Technologies. Solar cells and Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are the best examples of successful Taiwanese green technologies. Electronic vehicles and smart grids are giving new impetus to the Taiwanese export of high-quality technology. [nl

  13. Attitude towards New Packaging to Reduce Condom-carrying Embarrassment among Thai Youth, A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apinut Wongkietkachorn; Kunathip Nissaipan; Narin Hiransuthikul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) incidence has been increasing in Thai youth, mostly from unsafe sex. Embarrassment with carrying condom was one of the main reasons. This study aims to evaluate attitude towards condom use, sexual behavior and the new condom packaging that merges with daily life products in Thai youth. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among volunteers aged 15-24. New packaging were demonstrated and the volunteers were provided with questionnaire...

  14. What are the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Australia? A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharavongvan, Pasitpon; Hepworth, Julie; Lim, Joanne; Marley, John

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Brisbane, Australia. Five focus groups with Thai migrants were conducted. The qualitative data were examined using thematic content analysis that is specifically designed for focus group analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) positive experiences in Australia, (2) physical health problems, (3) mental health problems, and (4) familial and social health problems. This study revealed key health needs related to chronic disease and mental health, major barriers to health service use, such as language skills, and facilitating factors, such as the Thai Temple. We concluded that because the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants were complex and culture bound, the development of health and community services for Thai migrants needs to take account of the ways in which Thai culture both negatively impacts health and offer positive solutions to problems.

  15. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity......, investing in the rebuilding of fish stocks and a coordinated regulation of marine activities that interact with fisheries. Incentive-based regulation of fisheries that counterbalances services of the ecosystems is an important instrument to achieve green growth....

  16. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  17. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  18. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  19. ?Are Thai children and youth sufficiently active? prevalence and correlates of physical activity from a nationally representative cross-sectional study?

    OpenAIRE

    Amornsriwatanakul, Areekul; Lester, Leanne; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youth?s PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youth?s participati...

  20. Polymorphism patterns in Duffy-binding protein among Thai Plasmodium vivax isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaecher Kurt E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Duffy-binding protein II of Plasmodium vivax (PvDBPII has been considered as an attractive target for vaccine-mediated immunity despite a possible highly polymorphic nature. Among seven PvDBP domains, domain II has been shown to exhibit a high rate of nonsynonymous polymorphism, which has been suggested to be a potential immune (antibody binding evasion mechanism. This study aimed to determine the extent of genetic polymorphisms and positive natural selection at domain II of the PvDBP gene among a sampling of Thai P. vivax isolates. Methods The PvDBPII gene was PCR amplified and the patterns of polymorphisms were characterized from 30 Thai P. vivax isolates using DNA cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences and positive selection were done using DnaSP ver 4.0 and MEGA ver 4.0 packages. Results This study demonstrated a high rate of nonsynonymous polymorphism. Using Sal I as the reference strain, a total of 30 point-mutations were observed in the PvDBPII gene among the set of Thai P. vivax isolates, of which 25 nonsynonymous and five synonymous were found. The highest frequency of polymorphism was found in five variant amino acids (residues D384G, R390H, L424I, W437R, I503K with the variant L424I having the highest frequency. The difference between the rates of nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations estimated by the Nei and Gojobori's method suggested that PvDBPII antigen appears to be under selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis of PvDBPII Thai P. vivax isolates to others found internationally demonstrated six distinct allele groups. Allele groups 4 and 6 were unique to Thailand. Conclusion Polymorphisms within PvDBPII indicated that Thai vivax malaria parasites are genetically diverse. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences using the Neighbour-Joining method demonstrated that Thai isolates shared distinct alleles with P. vivax isolates from different geographical areas. The study reported here

  1. Body mass index and type 2 diabetes in Thai adults: defining risk thresholds and population impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Papier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI cut-off values (>25 and >30 that predict diabetes risk have been well validated in Caucasian populations but less so in Asian populations. We aimed to determine the BMI threshold associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2DM risk and to calculate the proportion of T2DM cases attributable to overweight and obesity in the Thai population. Methods Participants were those from the Thai Cohort Study who were diabetes-free in 2005 and were followed-up in 2009 and 2013 (n = 39,021. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the BMI-T2DM association. We modelled non-linear associations using restricted cubic splines. We estimated population attributable fractions (PAF and the number of T2DM incident cases attributed to overweight and obesity. We also calculated the impact of reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity on T2DM incidence in the Thai population. Results Non-linear modelling indicated that the points of inflection where the BMI-T2DM association became statistically significant compared to a reference of 20.00 kg/m2 were 21.60 (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.00–1.61 and 20.03 (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.02–1.03 for men and women, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of T2DM cases in Thai adults could be attributed to overweight and obesity. Annually, if prevalent obesity was 5% lower, ~13,000 cases of T2DM might be prevented in the Thai population. Conclusions A BMI cut-point of 22 kg/m2, one point lower than the current 23 kg/m2, would be justified for defining T2DM risk in Thai adults. Lowering obesity prevalence would greatly reduce T2DM incidence.

  2. STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION STYLES OF MALAYSIAN, THAI AND HUNGARIAN MIDDLE MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar P. Joshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for more comparative empirical research that examines middle manager roles in strategic change. This paper reports a study of middle managers in two dynamic settings: the Asia/Pacific region – Malaysia and Thailand; and Central/Eastern Europe – Hungary. Results of 213 respondents across three countries indicate that middle managers from all three tend toward use of authoritarian management styles even in proactive strategic change situations. However, Hungarians are less likely to use these styles than Thai and Malaysian middle managers. For all three countries, managers with less work experience were found to have lower tendencies to use an authoritarian style of implementation. When top managers exhibit an aggressive strategic posture, middle-managers from all three countries are also less likely to use an authoritarian style.Firms that want to stay competitive in the global market place must continuously evolve by successfully accomplishing strategic change (Struckman & Yammarino 2003. Although senior managers are critical in leading the strategic change process, even the best-planned strategic changes will not achieve their full potential unless they are well implemented. Part of the strategic leadership responsibility, therefore, includes establishing a climate in which the organization's rank and file will experience both a positive attitude about change and the confidence to actively seek change opportunities (Kanter 2003. Research attention is bringing more insight into the important roles of middle-managers in this process of implementing strategic change (Balogun & Jenkins 2003; Floyd & Wooldridge, 1992, 1994; Wooldridge & Floyd 1990. Although there is little doubt that active support by middle managers is critical for the strategies to be well implemented (Guth & MacMillan 1986, there remain many important questions with regard to how middle managers participate in this process (Balogun 2003.The need for research

  3. Harmonic oscillator Green's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Yu.; Khrebtukov, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Green's function for the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions plays an important role in the theory of atomic collisions. One representation of low-energy ion-atom collisions involves harmonic oscillator potentials. A closed-form expression for the harmonic oscillator Green's function, needed to exploit this representation, is derived. This expression is similar to the expression for the Coulomb Green's function obtained by Hostler and Pratt. Calculations of electron distributions for a model system of ion-atom collisions are reported to illustrate the theory.

  4. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  5. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  6. Use of model analysis to analyse Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.

    2018-03-01

    This study applies the model analysis technique to explore the distribution of Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving and how those attitudes and approaches change as a result of different experiences in physics learning. We administered the Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to over 700 Thai university students from five different levels, namely students entering science, first-year science students, and second-, third- and fourth-year physics students. We found that their inferred mental states were generally mixed. The largest gap between physics experts and all levels of the students was about the role of equations and formulas in physics problem solving, and in views towards difficult problems. Most participants of all levels believed that being able to handle the mathematics is the most important part of physics problem solving. Most students’ views did not change even though they gained experiences in physics learning.

  7. Problems of Analyzing Consonant-tone Interaction in Thai: A Reply to Ruangjaroon

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    Tsung-Ying Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the distribution of tones and syllable types in Thai has been found to be interesting. The absence of the rising contour tone on CVO and CVVO supports the argument that syllables with shorter phonetic duration are bad licensers for the rising contour tone (Zhang 2002. The distributional gaps on CVO and CVVO are also found to be correlated with syllable-final glottalization (Moren & Zsiga 2006. Furthermore, Ruangjaroon (2006 argues that there is the consonant-tone interaction in Thai and analyzes it under the framework of OT. However, I will indicate both theoretical and analytical problems faced by analyses in Ruangjaroon (2006 in this paper.

  8. Preliminary results of consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident using Thai meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.

    2017-06-01

    Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.

  9. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee; Mangmool, Supachoke

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla , Averrhoa bilimbi , Malpighia glabra , Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape , Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  10. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  11. Effect of an Empowerment Intervention on Antiretroviral Drug Adherence in Thai Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihin, Ratchaneekorn; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Chitreechuer, Jittaporn; Grimes, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to determine effects of an empowerment intervention on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among Thai youth living with HIV/AIDS. It compared two groups of 23 young persons (15-24 years) who receive ART from AIDS clinics at two community hospitals. One hospital's patients served as the experimental group, and the other as a control group. The experimental groups attended five sessions that empowered them to take control of their own health. The control group received the standard of care. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square statistics. Before the empowerment, no one from the experimental group or the control group had ART adherence ≥ 95%. After the intervention, the 82.6% of the experimental group had ≥ 95% adherence compared to the control group, which had 21.7% adherence (p < .0001). The empowerment intervention resulted in a significant increase in ART adherence among Thai youth.

  12. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  14. Effects of Muay Thai training frequency on body composition and physical fitness in healthy untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.

  15. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of Thai prepared meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Koomsanit, T.; Pungsawat, K.; Theamhong, T.; Srisawas, W.; Sirisoontaralak, P.; Vongsawasdi, P.; Vitittheeranon, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to extend the shelf life of selected Thai prepared meals, which comprised rice, meats and vegetables and which were kept under chilled conditions. For Thai spicy chicken basil rice (kao ka pao kai), cooked rice was prepared so as to obtain a harder texture and irradiated at 2 kGy. Three components (cooked chicken, sauce and blanched basil leaf) were separately packed and irradiated at 2 kGy for chicken and sauce and 0.1 kGy for basil leaves. The shelf life of irradiated spicy chicken (2 kGy) separately packed (>4 weeks) was much longer than the control sample (2 weeks), considering sensory quality. However, this dose was not enough to kill entirely the inoculated Listeria monocytogenes in spicy cooked chicken. Likewise, there is a need to preserve basil leaf, since it was microbiologically spoiled by the second week of storage. For stir-fried rice noodle with dried shrimp (pad Thai), a dose of 4 kGy was recommended because the product was free from L. monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, safe from microbial spoilage and had acceptable sensory quality. Irradiation at 4 kGy could extend the shelf life of chilled pad Thai to more than 4 weeks compared with a normal chilled ready meal, which has a shelf life of 5-7 d. For steamed sticky rice, roasted chicken and papaya salad (kao neaw som tom), a dose of 3 kGy was enough to control L. monocytogenes and E. coli during chilled storage. The product irradiated at 3 kGy and upwards remained microbiologically safe after 8 weeks of chilled storage whereas the non-irradiated sample was spoiled after the second week. Panellists accepted irradiated steamed sticky rice and roasted chicken, which kept under chilled conditions for 8 weeks, but they rejected irradiated papaya salad owing to the soft texture and tainted taste. (author)

  16. Development and performance evaluation of air fine bubbles on water quality of thai catfish rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Ujang; Muthukannan, Vanitha; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Mulhadi, Muhammad Fakhri; Rochima, Emma; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency and productivity of aquaculture strongly depends on the development of advanced technology for water quality management system. The most important factor for the success of intensive aquaculture system is controlling the water quality of fish rearing media. This paper reports the design of fine bubbles (FBs) generator and performance evaluation of the system to improve water quality in thai catfish media (10 g/ind) with density (16.66 ind./L). The FBs generator was designed to control the size distribution of bubble by controlling its air flow rate entry to the mixing chamber of the generator. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the produced debit, dissolved oxygen rate and ammonia content in the catfish medium. The size distribution was observed by using a high speed camera image followed by processing using ImageJ. freeware application. The results show that air flow rate 0.05 L/min and 0.1 L/min received average bubble size of 29 µm and 31 µm respectively. The generator produced bubbles with capacity of 6 L/min and dissolved oxygen rate 0.2 ppm/min/L. The obtained DO growth was 0.455 ppm/second/L while the average decay rate was 0.20 ppm/second/L. (0.011/0.005 fold). In contrast, the recieved DO growth rate is faster compared to the DO consumption rate of the Thai catfish. This results indicated that the potential application of FBs enhanced the density of thai catfish seed rearing. In addition, ammonia can be reduced at 0.0358 ppm/hour/L and it is also observed that the inhibition of bacterial growth of air FBs is postive to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria compared to the negative control. It is concluded that as-developed FBs system can be potentially applied for intensive thai catfish culture and expected to improve the feeding efficiency rate.

  17. Impact of Culture on Mobile Phone Purchasing A Comparison between Thai and Swedish Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Wongdatengam, Siraporn; Kruapanichwong, Panjaporn

    2011-01-01

    “Mobile phones as a communication technology fits into culture rather than imposes on a culture” (Xin, 2006).Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to investigate and to understand the impact national culture has on mobile phone buyer behaviour of Thai and Swedish consumers. The research was also conducted to identify whether there was a significant cultural difference of buying behaviour for these two cultures when purchasing mobile phones.  Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (individ...

  18. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  19. Facebook Addiction and Its Relationship with Mental Health among Thai High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanprathet, Nitt; Manwong, Mereerat; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Phanasathit, Muthita

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between Facebook addiction and mental health among high school students. This cross-sectional analytic study was performed among 972 high school students from four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, ChiangMai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. Facebook addiction was assessed using the Thai version of the Bergen-Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS), while a Thai version ofthe General Health Questionnaire (Thai GHQ-28) was used for mental health evaluation. The relationship between Facebook addiction and mental health was analyzed through multiple logistic regressions. The prevalence of Facebook addiction and abnormal mental health were 41.9% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2), and 21.9% (95% CI; 19.2, 24.8), respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors (sufficiency of household income, school location, level of education, GPAX learning deficits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), the individuals identified as having Facebook addiction were discovered to be at a high risk of developing abnormal general mental health (ORadj = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), somatic symptoms (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.7), anxiety and insomnia (ORadj = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.8), social dysfunction (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1) and severe depression (ORadj = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). Moreover; there were pronounced trends of increasing risk according to the level of Facebook addiction (Ptrend Facebook addiction among high school students could be associated with abnormal, general mental health status, somatic symptoms, anxiety & insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Therefore, it is essential that the relevant authorities educate young people about the mental health impacts linked with Facebook addictive usage and impose appropriate public health policies by screening Facebook addiction and mental health issues in risk groups.

  20. Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties of Thai language versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanglakmankhong, Kamonthip; Perrin, Nancy A; Lowe, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of the psychometric properties of the Thai language versions of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire, and the equivalence of the Thai and English versions of these instruments. The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire were developed to measure women's abilities to cope with labour and fear of childbirth. Consistent with Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory, women who have greater confidence in their ability to cope with labour have reported having less fear in childbirth. However, research is needed to validate the measures and this relationship in countries other than the United States of America, where the tools were developed. Back-translation was used. Content validity was examined by experts. The psychometric properties were estimated with internal consistency reliability, construct validity, contrasted groups and criterion-related validity with 148 pregnant women at a hospital in Thailand in 2008. Both measures were shown to have high internal consistency. Contrasting group and criterion-related validity were consistent with self-efficacy theory and findings in the United States. Differences between the stages of labour across expectancies in the Childbirth Self-Efficacy inventory were found only for second stage. Support for good validity and reliability of the instruments when used with Thai women was demonstrated. It may be appropriate for Thai women to use The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory only in relation to the second stage of labour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Squarrosine A and Pyrrolhuperzine A, New Lycopodium Alkaloids from Thai and Philippine Huperzia squarrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsu, Thanasan; Thorroad, Sakornrat; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Thasana, Nopporn

    2016-07-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, squarrosine A (1) and pyrrolhuperzine A (2), were isolated from the Thai and Philippine plant Huperzia squarrosa. (R)-2-Piperidineacetic acid (5) was a known alkaloid, but has now been isolated for the first time from a natural source. Their structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analyses and, for pyrrolhuperzine A (2), confirmation by chemical transformation. The new compounds exhibited moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Conservation and Development of Central Thai Folk Music for Cultural Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Thipsuda Imjai; Ying Keeratiburana; Marisa Koseyayothin

    2013-01-01

    Folk music of Central Thailand is an artistic performance and an important cultural heritage of Thais that is in need of conservation, revitalization and development. The performance factors of all 5 folk music bands studied in the research were similar in areas of 1) performance stages. 2) Similar traditional clothing. 3) Music instruments. 4) Light and sound. 5) The amount of performers was selected according to appropriateness. The difficulties of Central Thailand folk music are 1) Declini...

  3. Gender Discrimination in the Thai Workplace: a Case Study of Textile Company, Khon Kaen, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Grisanaputi, Wipawee

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the causes and effects of gender discrimination in the Thai workplace. The research focuses on gender differences related to recruitment, occupational segregation, compensation, pay raises, promotion opportunities, fringe benefits, and personnel policies and practices. Three hundred employees and ten supervisors of "Grarui and So Co., Ltd. participated in the study. Also, personnel policies and regulations were reviewed and evalua...

  4. Understanding cancer and its treatment in Thai traditional medicine: An ethnopharmacological-anthropological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumlerdkij, Natchagorn; Tantiwongse, Jaturapat; Booranasubkajorn, Suksalin; Boonrak, Ranida; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Laohapand, Tawee; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-04-24

    Thai traditional medicine (TTM) is widely practiced in Thailand and continues to gain importance in cancer management, but little is known about the TTM practitioners' emic concepts and practice. With this study we firstly aim to document the practice of cancer treatment and prevention by TTM practitioners and, secondly, to evaluate how such traditional concepts and practices are correlated with biomedical ones. This in turn can form the basis for developing novel strategies for designing pharmacological experiments and longer term strategies to develop TTM practice. Semi-structured interviews with 33 TTM practitioners were performed in five provinces in different regions of Thailand. The following information were recorded; basic information of informants, descriptions of cancer (mareng in Thai), causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Plants used in the treatment and prevention of mareng were also collected. Using an in depth ethnographic approach four representative case studies to assist in a better understanding of the characteristics of mareng, its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are reported here. Five characteristics of mareng - waste accumulation (khong sia), chronic illnesses (krasai), inflammation (kan aksep), bad blood (luead) and lymph (namlueang), and the imbalance of four basic elements (dhātu si) - have been identified. Explanatory models of cancer in TTM were linked with biomedical concepts and relevant pharmacological actions. Traditional uses and available scientific evidence of medicinal plants mentioned in the case studies for the treatment or prevention of mareng are presented and discussed. Here for the first time five main characteristics of cancer based on Thai traditional medical concepts are analysed. Our findings are relevant not only for the planning of clinical studies or pharmacological experiment in the search for novel compounds for cancer treatment and prevention, but also for the integration of Thai traditional

  5. A novel PCCB mutation in a Thai patient with propionic acidemia identified by exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2015-01-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is an inborn error of metabolism, caused by mutations in either the PCCA or PCCB gene, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of propionyl-CoA and its by-products. Here we report a 6-year-old Thai boy with PA who was born to consanguineous parents. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous frameshift insertion (c.379_380insA; p.T127NfsX160) in the PCCB gene, expanding its mutational spectrum.

  6. Antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Wongsariya, Karn; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2009-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen which causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Seventeen Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their activity against MRSA. Garcinia mangostana was identified as the most potent plant, and its activity was traced to the prenylated xanthone, alpha-mangostin (MIC and MBC values of 1.95 and 3.91 microg/ml, respectively).

  7. Physicochemical properties and biological activities of Thai plant mucilages for artificial saliva preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Pattamapun, Kassara; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Kietthanakorn, Bang-on; Issarangporn, Witchapong; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-01-01

    Plant mucilages can be found in various parts of several Thai plants, which can be used as thickening, moisturizing, and lubricating agents in artificial saliva formulations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties, biological activity, and cytotoxicity of Thai plant mucilages. The mucilages from Thai plants were extracted by various processes (temperature and pH variation, microwave oven, steam, and Tris-HCl buffer extraction). The viscosity and the rheology were evaluated using viscometer. Antioxidative activities including DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating activities were investigated. The mucilages were determined for cytotoxicity on normal human gingival fibroblasts and anti-adherent activity of Streptococcus mutans. Mucilages from Ocimum citriodorum Vis. (Lamiaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench. (Malvaceae), and Basella alba Linn. (Basellaceae) exhibited pseudoplastic non-Newtonian rheology. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging and metal-chelating activities were observed in the mucilages from B. alba (microwave, 3 min) and A. esculentus (microwave, 1 min) with the SC50 and MC50 values (50% of scavenging activity and 50% of metal chelating activity, respectively) of 0.71 ± 0.32 and 1.11 ± 0.52 mg/ml, respectively. Most mucilages exhibited no cytotoxicity to normal human gingival fibroblasts. The mucilage from A. esculentus (microwave, 5 min) gave the shortest wetting time of 2.75 ± 0.51 min. The highest S. mutans adhesion inhibition was observed in A. esculentus (pH 11) of 5.39 ± 9.70%. This study has indicated the suitable physicochemical and biological properties and the potential application of mucilages from Thai plants for artificial saliva preparation.

  8. Empirical Evaluation Indicators in Thai Higher Education: Theory-Based Multidimensional Learners’ Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Dawisa Sritanyarat; Darlene Russ-Eft

    2016-01-01

    This study proposed empirical indicators which can be validated and adopted in higher education institutions to evaluate quality of teaching and learning, and to serve as an evaluation criteria for human resource management and development of higher institutions in Thailand. The main purpose of this study was to develop empirical indicators of a theoretically-based multidimensional learners’ evaluation in Thai higher education adopting the National Institute of Development A...

  9. A corpus-based study of Thai persuasive texts : a transitivity analysis of talisman advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Patpong, Pattama Jor

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore talisman advertisements as examples of persuasive discourse widely found in Thailand. In the Thai context, the advertising of talismans and Buddha images seems prevalent in a wide range of printed media - leaflets, newspapers, magazines, and books. Data for this paper are drawn from a corpus consisting of twenty talisman advertisements. All of them are taken from Thailand';s best selling-printed newspaper - Thairath. This talisman corpus is composed of 629 clause co...

  10. Antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens in maternal and cord blood pairs: a Thai cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Nasamon Wanlapakorn; Thanunrat Thongmee; Preeyaporn Vichaiwattana; Elke Leuridan; Sompong Vongpunsawad; Yong Poovorawan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background. Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease, yet an increasing incidence of pertussis occurs in many countries. Thailand has a long-standing pertussis vaccination policy, therefore most expectant mothers today had received vaccines as children. The resurgence of pertussis among Thai infants in recent years led us to examine the preexisting antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens in a cohort of 90 pregnant women. Methods. We evaluated the IgG to the Pertussis toxin (PT...

  11. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.

  12. Marketing within higher education institutions - A case study of two private Thai universities

    OpenAIRE

    Starck, Kristian; Zadeh, Shahriyar Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Date of final seminar: 2013-05-29. Academic level: Master Thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS. University: Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden. Institution: The School of Business, Science and Engineering. Authors: Kristian Starck and Shahriyar Hossein Zadeh. Title: Marketing within higher education institutions - A case study of two private Thai universities. Supervisor: Peter Ekman. Examiner: Eva Manninen Olsson. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze what ...

  13. Career Competencies And Career Success Of Thai Employees In Tourism And Hospitality Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Aurathai Lertwannawit; Sirivan Serirat; Siroj Pholpantin

    2011-01-01

    This research assesses the relationship between career competencies and career success of Thai employees in the tourism and hospitality sector. The authors distinguished and operationalized four career competencies, i.e. computer and language skills, work spirits and ethics, team working and leadership, and tourism and hospitality knowledge and skills, and two career successes, i.e. objective and subjective career successes. A quantitative study was performed using 800 employees in four indus...

  14. Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men‟s Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bumrungkitjareon, Tipaporn; Tanasansopin, Suveera

    2011-01-01

    Title: Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men's Skin Care Products Problem: Men concern more about their image than ever before. This behavior is becoming a new trend in cosmetic market. Moreover, Thailand is one of the fast growing cosmetics industry, particularly male skin care market within countries in Asia-Pacific region. However, most of the literatures have just studied on women cosmetic products. There are a few studies within male cosmetic market, despite the demands of...

  15. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  16. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanaku, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from....... This is the first record of freshly isolated A. niger strains producing fumonisins and the first report on the natural occurrence of FB2 and FB4 in coffee....

  17. Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities

    OpenAIRE

    Tarry, Estelle F

    2008-01-01

    This thesis seeks to consider Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities. Through the literature review it has been identified that higher education is globally expanding. Competing knowledgebased economies with higher education institutions have led education to be considered a market commodity and consequently the marketization of higher education in competitive world markets. This is exemplified by discussion of the United Kingdom higher education ...

  18. Numerical analysis of Thai members of the Eugenia-Syzygium group (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different analyses of Thai Syzygium show, with very small discrepancies, that one smaller monophyletic and one larger polyphyletic group can be recognised. The smaller monophyletic group warrants sectional rank as Syzygium section Jambosa and consists of S. anacardiifolium, S. aqueum, S. diospyrifolium, S. formosum, S. foxworthianum, S. jambos, S. lakshanakarae, S. malaccense, S. megacarpum, S. papillosum, S. pseudoformosum, S. pycnanthum, S. samarangense, S. scortechinii and S. siamense.

  19. Understanding Thai fansubbing: collaboration in fan Communities translating a Korean TV show

    OpenAIRE

    Wongseree, Thandao

    2017-01-01

    The present research seeks to shed light on collaboration in the largely unexplored area of Thai fansubbing practices with the main focus placed on fansubbers. The interrelationships within the fansubbing community, which develop in particular between fansubbers and non-translating fans, have generally been overlooked by scholars. Furthermore, the significant roles played by digital technologies in facilitating such interdependencies have not been fully discussed in the literature. In an atte...

  20. Screening for antibacterial and antibiofilm activity in Thai medicinal plant extracts against oral microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Teanpaisan, Rawee; Kawsud, Pajaree; Pahumunto, Nuntiya; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 12 ethanol extracts of Thai traditional herb against oral pathogens. The antibacterial activities were assessed by agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill methods. Antibiofilm activity was investigated using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting, and TLC-bioautography were used to determine the active ...

  1. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  2. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  3. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  4. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  5. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  6. Compliance for Green IT

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.

  7. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  8. The Green Revolution Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  9. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  10. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...... that entrepreneurial governance such as green city branding has important and uneven political consequences for the social and economic fabric of our cities....

  11. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green......Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...

  12. Acute neuromuscular responses to short and long roundhouse kick striking paces in professional Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadoro, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Ryan; Babault, Nicolas

    2018-04-04

    Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ). Nine professional Muay Thai fighters participated in this randomized, cross-over trial. CMJs were measured on force plates before and after (post 0min, post 5min, post 10min, post 20min and post 30min) two striking (1set x 20reps) conditions (H1; H3). Although no difference was observed between H1 and H3 values, neuromuscular fatigue parameters displayed different patterns over time. CMJ height decreased immediately after H3 striking (PMuay Thai and conditioning coaches should focus on hard striking with both long and slow pacing during specific heavy bag or pad work.

  13. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  14. Thai people living with tuberculosis and how they adhere to treatment: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2017-12-01

    To develop a conceptual framework of adherence to treatment among Thai people living with tuberculosis, a grounded theory approach was used. A purposive sample of 20 Thai people living with tuberculosis, aged from 23 to 85 years, was interviewed. From the participants' perspective, a core category of social belonging was highlighted, with three categories of conditions connected: personal barriers, personal resilience, and social facilitation. Personal barriers encompassed fear of stigma, concealing the illness, and lack of knowledge and motivation to complete the treatment regime. Personal resilience encompassed positive thinking and self-awareness. Social facilitation encompassed the ease of access to health services, continuity in the health service's ability to choose a directly-observed therapy observer, and social support. This study contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of Thai people living with tuberculosis with regards to adherence to tuberculosis treatment. It might improve how local healthcare workers provide tuberculosis care, and inspire them to tailor care to people living with tuberculosis in a local community to increase personal resilience and reduce stigma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Thai Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongsara, Sara; Boonpol, Sakulrat; Prompalad, Nussaree; Jeenduang, Nutjaree

    2017-09-01

    Although, the effect of Ramadan fasting on the risks for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies, the results were inconsistent. In addition, the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in Thai subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometry, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. A total of 65 healthy subjects (21 men and 44 women) aged between 19-24 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometry, blood pressure, FBG, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), and body composition were measured before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. There were no changes in anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profiles and body composition in both genders before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. Nevertheless, FBG levels were significantly increased after one month of Ramadan compared with baseline (5.09±0.50 versus 4.83±0.38 mmol/L, p=0.016, respectively) in women. The Ramadan fasting did not affect the lipid, anthropometric and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. However, the increased FBG levels after one month of Ramadan were observed in women. To improve the favourable biochemical parameters after Ramadan fasting, the lifestyle modifications such as, increased intake of healthy diets and increased physical activity should be recommended.

  16. Effects of stocking density on feather pecking and aggressive behavior in Thai crossbred chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of stocking density on feather pecking and aggressive behavior of Thai crossbred chickens was investigated from age 4–12 wk. In total, 900 day-old mixed sex Thai crossbred chickens were assigned to three replicates of 100 birds per pen, at stocking densities of 8 birds/m2, 12 birds/m2 and 16 birds/m2, respectively. The frequency of feather pecking, the number of pecks per bout, pecking intensity and the frequency of aggressive behavior were recorded once a week by scanning all the birds in the pen. It was found that the stocking density had no effect on the frequencies of feather pecking on body areas except on the wings area (p < 0.05. The stocking density had no effect on the occurrence of 1–4 pecks per bout or 5–9 pecks per bout. The stocking density had no significant influence on the pecking, pinching or plucking intensity, except on the intensity of pulling. The different types of aggressive behavior such as stand-off, fight, threat, leap, chase, avoidance and peck were not affected by the stocking density. In conclusion, stocking density did not affect the feather pecking activities and aggressive behavior of Thai crossbred chickens. However, further work is suggested with a larger number of replications to establish that there is no effect of stocking density, as the power of this study was low.

  17. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and serum concentrations of BDNF with smoking in Thai males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyaprom, K; Tungtrongchitr, R; Thawnashom, K; Pimainog, Y

    2013-10-24

    Many studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the reward system of addiction, and that nicotine may induce alterations in BDNF gene expression and its protein level within the mesocorticolimbic system. We investigated the BDNF levels and biochemical-hematological parameters of smoker and non-smoker groups, and examined the association of the Val66Met BDNF gene polymorphism with BDNF serum levels and cigarette smoking. The study sample comprised 311 Thai volunteers (200 smokers; 111 non-smokers). The levels of serum BDNF and biochemical-hematological parameters were determined. The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The smoker group had significantly higher serum BDNF levels than the non-smoker group (8.3 vs 6.5 ng/mL, P smoked, and thiocyanate level (P smoking status of the Thai males in this study. Cigarette smoking may be one factor that determines the serum BDNF level, but the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism probably does not influence susceptibility to smoking among Thai males.

  18. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p benefits from condom use (p benefits of condom use (p = 0.016), and perceived risk for HIV (p = 0.033). They explained 36% of behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  19. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprong, S.; Choothesa, A.; Sribhen, C.; Parvizi, N.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2008-05-01

    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving ( P < 0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC.

  1. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds.

  2. Factors Related to Sexual Self-Efficacy among Thai Youth Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseskul, Nongkran; Fongkaew, Warunee; Settheekul, Saowaluck; Grimes, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sexual behavior among HIV-infected Thai youth show conflicting results due to the different ages of the respondents. This study examined the relationships between sexual self-efficacy and risk behaviors among 92 HIV-positive Thai youth aged 14 to 21 years. A questionnaire previously validated in Thailand measured sexual self-efficacy. There were low levels of sexual activity with 13 respondents having sex in the last 6 months. The sexual self-efficacy scales were inversely related to the risk behaviors of having sex, having multiple partners, and drinking alcohol in the last 6 months. The scores of the sexual self-efficacy scale and its subscales were significantly lower in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. Sexual risk behaviors were significantly higher in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. These findings suggest that interventions to increase sexual self-efficacy should be emphasized as HIV-infected Thai youth reach late adolescence. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Religion and self-management of Thai Buddhist and Muslim women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Thrakul, Supunnee

    2013-07-01

    To report of a qualitative study of how religion affects the self-management of Thai Buddhist and Muslim women with type 2 diabetes. The importance of diabetes self-management is well recognised. However, research on such self-management in Thailand is scarce, in particular on the influence of religion on the self-management of Thai Buddhist and Muslim women with type 2 diabetes. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Purposive convenience sampling was used, and 48 women, 19 Buddhist and 29 Muslim, aged from 28-80 years, participated. Data were collected in 2008-09 and analysed by use of manifest and latent content analysis. Four themes of the influence of religion on the self-management among Thai women with type 2 diabetes emerged: religion - a way of coping with diabetes, spiritual practice - a help for disease control, spiritual practice - an effort to struggle with everyday life, and support from family - a cultural practice. The Buddhist and Muslim women had self-management capabilities that were often related to their religions. However, many of them had poor control of their blood sugar levels and needed assistance. Reference to religion and spiritual practice can be an effective means of helping diabetes patients better manage their disease and change their lifestyles. Furthermore, family and economic and social environments should be taken into account both in care and in interventions aimed at helping patients cope and empowering them to control their disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  5. Towards a green economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trotter, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available a number of explicit and aligned green economic strategies, policies, and programmes; ? UNEP1 identifies, South Africa, Germany and China as having forward thinking policy showing a conscious effort to drive decoupling- with some evidence... review of unintended behavioural responses, counter incentives, and legal conflicts or obstacles in the context of a Green Economic transition, followed by appropriate reform; ? CSIR 2012 Slide 15 Enabling Funding and Investment Frameworks ? A review...

  6. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Introduction: The New Urban Imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 1. Greening from the Inside: Stories...

  7. The sustainability of green funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    This paper analyses the performance of the Dutch "Green Funds Scheme". This scheme is a policy instrument to advance green projects. The scheme relies on tax compensation for private investors who save or invest in green institutions below market returns. The green institutions select and monitor

  8. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  9. Preconcentration and trace determination of copper (II) in Thai food recipes using Fe3O4@Chi-GQDs nanocomposites as a new magnetic adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Areerob, Yonrapach; Nuengmatcha, Prawit; Sripakdee, Thitiya; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization, and application of a new magnetic chitosan-graphene quantum dots (Fe 3 O 4 @Chi-GQDs) nanocomposite as an adsorbent for the preconcentration of Cu(II) in Thai food recipes or the so-called "Som Tam" (green papaya salad) prior to determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The spectroscopic and magnetic properties along with the morphology and thermal property were analyzed using FTIR, EDX, XRD, TGA, VSM, and TEM. Preconcentration optimizations including pH, dosage of adsorbent, adsorption-desorption time, concentration and volume of elution solvent, sample volume and enrichment factor, and reusing time were investigated. Good linearity was obtained ranging from 0.05 to 1500µgL -1 with correlation coefficient of 0.999. Limit of detection was 0.015µgL -1 . Relative recoveries of 85.4-107.5% were satisfactorily obtained. This Fe 3 O 4 @Chi-GQDs has high potential to be used as preconcentration method and can be reused 7times with high extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  11. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilantho, Alisa; Deekaew, Pamornya; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Tongsima, Sissades; Somboonna, Naraporn

    2017-01-01

    Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas). Skin samples were categorized (grouped) into (i) normal ( teenage.hea ) and (ii) acne-prone ( teenage.acn ) young adults, and normal (iii) middle-aged ( middle.hea ) and (iv) elderly ( elderly.hea ) adults. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas , distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea . For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis , with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation), but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado) to gain insight into the diversity across national biogeography

  12. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  13. Validity and reliability study of the Thai version of WHO Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry: Eating Disorders Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Paholpak, Suchat; Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai

    2011-04-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the WHO Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) Version 2.1, Eating Disorders Section The SCAN interview version 2.1 Eating Disorders Section (section 9) was translated into Thai. The content validity of the translation was verified by comparing the back-translation to the English original. Whenever inconsistencies were encountered, the Thai version was adapted so that it correctly conveyed the meaning of the original English version. The revised Thai version was then field-tested in four regions (Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, Jitavejkhonkaen Hospital, Srithanya Hospital and Suansaranrom Psychiatric Hospital, each place comprised 20 volunteers) for comprehensibility of the relatively technical language. Re-edition of the Thai version was made in accordance with suggestions from the field trial. The reliability study was done between October 2005 and September 2008 in which 30 persons (4 males; 26 females) were recruited. Fifteen persons (1 males and 14 females) were eating disorders patients (4 anorexia nervosa and 11 bulimia nervosa patients) and the other 15 (3 males and 12 females) were normal. The number of years of formal education varied widely and occupations were diverse. Subjects were interviewed using SCAN eating disorders section by a psychiatrist competent in using the Thai version of SCAN. The interviews were recorded on video so that the material could be re-rated. Regarding validity of WHO SCAN eating disorders section, based on the response from Thai subjects and consultations with competent psychiatrists, the content validity was established. Regarding the reliability study, the time taken to interview an eating disorder patient averaged 23.80 +/- 5.15 minutes (range, 18.35-34.26) versus 17.27 +/- 4.05 minutes (range, 9.07-22.37) for a normal subject. The mean of inter-rater reliability (kappa) of the eating disorder section was 0.73, standard error (SE) = 0

  14. Red strain oryza sativa-unpolished thai rice prevents oxidative stress and colorectal aberrant crypt foci formation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammasakchai, Achiraya; Reungpatthanaphong, Sareeya; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Rattanachitthawat, Sirichet; Suwannalert, Prasit

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in colorectal cancer development. Many dark pigments of plants have potent oxidative stress preventive properties. In this study, unpolished Thai rice was assessed for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. Red strain unpolished Thai rice was also administered to rats exposed to azoxymethane (AOM) for induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated for cellular oxidative stress and serum antioxidants, respectively. Red pigment unpolished Thai rice demonstrated high antioxidant activity and was found to significantly and dose dependently decrease the total density and crypt multiplicity of ACF. Consumption of Thai rice further resulted in high serum antioxidant activity and low MDA cellular oxidative stress. Interestingly, the density of ACF was strongly related to MDA at r=0.964, while it was inversely related with FRAP antioxidants (r=-0.915, pred strain of unpolished Thai rice may exert potentially beneficial effects on colorectal cancer through decrease in the level of oxidative stress.

  15. ‘For me… it’s a miracle’: injecting beauty among kathoeis in a provincial Thai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poompruek, Panoopat; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Thai term kathoei refers to non-gender-normative females, males and intersexual individuals at different stages of the transitional spectrum with recognized social and cultural roles in society. Nevertheless, kathoeis are only tolerated in Thai society. Many kathoeis seek social acceptance through beauty and turn to the off-label injection of various ‘beauty drugs’. Methods The first author conducted an ethnographic study of injection parties at a wedding studio in a Central Thai provincial city between April and September 2011. Data were gathered through participant observation, focus group discussions and narrative interviews with six participants. All data were collected and analyzed in Thai, and later translated. Findings While injection parties provide opportunities for kathoeis to socialize, bond, and share experiential knowledge on chemically-assisted transformation, they also reproduce ideologies of gender, beauty and sexuality that reinforce the notion that if a kathoei is to maintain her beauty, she must use medicines more frequently and in higher doses. Conclusion Injection parties among Thai kathoeis feature drug use that is entirely reasonable in terms of their own lay knowledge. Empowering kathoeis, by providing accessible information on chemicals and health in a way that reflects the complexity and diversity of their practices, would be one way to reduce health risks. Society must give more long-term options to kathoeis to build their sense of self, based on things besides being beautiful. PMID:25047007

  16. Prevention of Hb Bart's (γ4) Disease Associated with the - -(THAI) α(0)-Thalassemia Deletion in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Zhi; Li, Yan; Li, Jian; Li, Shu-Chen; Li, Ru

    2015-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is a common inherited disease in southern China. The severest form is Hb Bart's (γ4) disease, in which the affected fetuses almost always die in utero or shortly after birth, and the mothers are at high risk for severe morbidity. The most common type of α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal) in southern China is Southeast Asian (- -(SEA)) deletion. Occasionally, Hb Bart's disease, caused by a compound heterozygosity for the - -(SEA) and - -(THAI) α(0)-thal deletions, can also be encountered. In this study, we report our experience with the prevention of Hb Bart's disease associated with the - -(THAI) α(0)-thal deletion. A total of 385 couples at risk for Hb Bart's disease, including seven who tested positive for the - -(SEA) deletion in one partner and the - -(THAI) deletion in the other, were found. Different prenatal procedures were offered, depending on the gestational age at presentation. Sixty-six affected fetuses were diagnosed prenatally; among these, two cases of Hb Bart's disease were compound heterozygotes for the - -(SEA) and - -(THAI) deletions. All affected pregnancies were terminated in time. We also presented a diagnostic protocol for identification of α(0)-thal trait that can reduce the number of samples for detection of the - -(THAI) deletion.

  17. Exploring science and mathematics teaching experiences in Thailand using reflective journals of an internship program between Vietnamese and Thai students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruekpramool, Chaninan; Kanyaprasith, Kamonwan; Phonphok, Nason; Diem, Huynh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    An internship program between Vietnamese student teachers from Cantho University and Thai graduate students from Srinakharinwirot University has occurred in June 2016. There were six Vietnamese student teachers and four Thai graduate students participated in this program with the help of science teachers from two schools in Sa Kaeo and Chachoengsao Provinces of Thailand. To explore Vietnamese and Thai students' life experiences and their perceptions in science and Mathematics teaching, reflective journals were used to record their progress as team teaching in primary and lower secondary classrooms in the form of the online format via social media in English language. The data were collected from 54 reflective journals from their eight days experiences at the schools. The data were analyzed qualitatively using Van Manen's level of reflectivity which composed of three levels; 1) Technical Rationality (TR), 2) Practical Action (PA) and 3) Critical Reflection (CR). The results explicitly revealed that the three levels of reflectivity have appeared in the reflective journals. Besides, Vietnamese and Thai students have learned more from each other and can exchange their educational experiences and culture. Certainly, this was the first time for them to teach science and mathematics in English to Thai students. Moreover, they have shared their impressions toward schools, teachers and also students in the schools in their reflective journal as well.

  18. Linguistic Disadvantage and Authorial Identity in Research Articles Written by Native English and Thai Writers in International Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darunee Yotimart

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research have reported that one of the challenges faced by non-native English writers to have their research articles (RAs accepted by English-medium journals is to fulfill the journals’ expectations in terms of linguistic aspect. In addition, non-native English writers seem to be having the problem in expressing their authorial identity which is needed to build one’s academic arguments. Therefore, this research was conducted to 1 explore whether linguistic disadvantage exists among native English writers or Thai writers in international publication, and 2 discover how the native English and Thai writers assert their identities through different rhetorical purposes of RAs. Eight university lecturers in Applied Linguistics (AL from a few universities in Thailand were interviewed  to understand  their  views on the issues of  writing  for scholarly  publication  in  the  English  language. The findings revealed two salient emerging themes:  (1 the role of linguistic disadvantage and (2 variation in authorial identity between native English and Thai writers. The study has found that linguistic disadvantage exists among the Thai writers. The native English writers expressed their authorial identity overtly but the Thai writers deferred their authorial identity. It is suggested that teachers in Thailand emphasize more on the knowledge of linguistic aspect required in international publication and the effective use of linguistic realization of authorial identity in academic writing.

  19. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  20. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs