Helicobacter pylori prevalence in dyspeptic patients in the Eastern Cape province – race and disease status. ... Fisher's exact test was used to assess the univariate association between H. pylori infection and the possible risk factors. ... Gender, antibiotic treatment and alcohol consumption may be risk factors for infection.
Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Debie, N C; Pauwels, S P
The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using 99mTc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and [111In]DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man.
Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Debie, N.C.; Pauwels, S.P.
The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and (/sup 111/In)DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man.
Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Debie, N.C.; Pauwels, S.P.
The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and [ 111 In]DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man
Archampong, Timothy Nii Akushe; Asmah, Richard Harry; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Gyasi, Richard Kwasi; Nkrumah, Kofi Nyaako; Rajakumar, Kumar
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative urease-producing bacterium causally linked with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection is more frequent and acquired at an earlier age in developing countries compared to European populations. The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients was 75.4%. However, epidemiological factors associated with infection vary across populations. This study used a cross-sectional design to consecutively sample dyspeptic patients at the Endoscopy Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra between 2010 and 2012. The study questionnaire elicited their epidemiological clinical characteristics. Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by rapid-urease examination of antral biopsies at upper Gastro-intestinal endoscopy. The sample population of dyspeptic patients attending the Endoscopy Unit for upper GI endoscopy yielded 242 patients of which 47.5% were females. The age distribution of H. pylori-infection was even across most age - groups, ranging from 69.2% (61 - 70) years to 80% (21 - 30) years. Helicobacter pylori prevalence decreased across areas mapping to the three residential classes in accordance with increasing affluence with rural areas having the highest prevalence. The unemployed and patients in farming had relatively high Helicobacter pylori infection rates of 92.3% and 91.7% respectively. Helicobacter pylori is endemic in Ghana but the persistently high prevalence across age groups despite significant community anti-microbial use suggests likely recrudescence or re-infection from multiple sources in a developing country. Socio-cultural factors such as residential class and farming may be facilitating factors for its continued prevalence.
Britt, D P; Barakat, M H; Tungekar, M F; Painchaud, S M; Adlouni, M; Kern, K; Malhas, L
Two hundred and four patients, mainly Arabs, attending for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the gastroenterology clinic in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait, were examined for evidence of infection with Helicobacter pylori and associated inflammation. Biopsy specimens of antrum, body, and duodenum; gastric juice; and antral mucosal brushings were investigated by microbiological, cytological, and histopathological methods. Clinical conditions diagnosed at endoscopy included gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenitis and duodenal ulcer, but half the patients had endoscopically normal gastric and duodenal mucosae. H pylori was detected by one or more of the procedures in at least one specimen from 197 (96.6%) of the patients. Histological and cytological analysis showed equal sensitivity, but bacteriological culture was less reliable. The proportion of positive cases was high, compared with other reported series, which may have been accounted for by the variety of diagnostic techniques used in this study, the selected population (all with gastrointestinal symptoms) or genetic or environmental predisposing factors peculiar to the sample population.
Kjeldsen, Hans Christian; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christensen, Bo
were randomly assigned to treatment with omeprazol 40 mg for two weeks (n: 184) or endoscopy (n: 184). Main outcome measures: days free of dyspeptic symptoms and proportion of patients symptomatic after one year. Cost were estimated from patients' and GPs' questionnaire and from medical records...
Malik, M.F.; Hussain, T.; Khan, M.N.; Mirza, S.A.
To find out the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in the local population presenting with dyspeptic symptoms but having normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings. Hundred cases of dyspepsia having normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were taken as study population. Although the gold standard for presence or absence of Helicobacter pylori infection is culture but in this study the diagnostic method used was histopathology of gastric antrum. The male and female ratio was 2:1. Majority of the patients were either 40 years of age or less, mean age being 40.52 (sd+-13.22). The chief symptoms were pain epigastrium (46%) and upper abdominal discomfort (27%). Helicobacter pylori gastritis was found in 51% of cases. We conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection is quite common in dyspeptic patients apparently having normal endoscopic gastric mucosal findings. Eradication therapy should be instituted in positive cases to avoid its long-term complications. (author)
Hamrah, Mohammad Hussain; Hamrah, Mohammad Shoaib; Hassan Hamrah, Mohammad; Kanda, Mitsuro; Hamrah, Ahmad Edris; Dahi, Ahmad Elias; Homayoun, Farhat; Hamrah, Mohammad Hashem; Fotouhi, Akbar; Sakamoto, Junichi
Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is reported to be more than 50% worldwide. It has been associated with peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The seroprevalence of H. pylori varies greatly among societies and geographical locations. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and factors associated with H. pylori infection among dyspeptic patients in Afghanistan. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of H. pylori among dyspeptic patients in an outpatient clinic in Andkhoy, Afghanistan from January 2017 to April 2017. Data were obtained from patients using a questionnaire, including socio-demographic data and history of smoking and dyspeptic symptoms. Serum samples were also collected from the patients and tested for H. pylori antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: A total of 152 patients with dyspepsia were included in the analysis; 59 were men (40.0%), and 93 were women (60.0%). The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 75.6%. The predictor of seroprevalence of H. pylori was found to be illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] 4.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03¬24.17), epigastric pain (OR 12.01, 95% CI 3.56- 40.52), and rural population (OR 9.66, 95% CI 3.36- 27.82). There was an inverse association between employed status and seroprevalence of H. pylori (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01- 0.52). Conclusions: The seroprevalence of H. pylori was high among patient with dyspepsia in an outpatient clinic in Afghanistan. Illiteracy, unemployment and rural populations, and epigastric pain were significantly associated with H. pylori infection. Creative Commons Attribution License
Satpathi, Parthasarathi; Satpathi, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj K; Behera, Prativa K; Maity, Amit Bikram
The present study is done to study different aspects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) such as its prevalence, association with upper gastrointestinal pathology, diagnosis and treatment outcome. Gastric antral biopsy and serology for H. pylori was done for all dyspeptic patients. Histopathology, gram stain and biopsy urease test was done from the gastric biopsy specimen. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.8%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for histopathology was 96.9%, 100%, 100% and 95.8%, respectively; for biopsy urease test 80.4%, 100%, 100% and 78.2%, respectively; for gram stain 85.6%, 97.1%, 97.6% and 82.5%, respectively, and for serology 94.8%, 77.9%, 86% and 91.4%, respectively. Mostly peptic ulcer and duodenitis cases followed by chronic active gastritis were associated with H. pylori infection. Repeat biopsy revealed eradication of H. pylori in 90.7% cases. In dyspeptic patients, endoscopic biopsy not only detects H. pylori infection, but also reveals different gastric pathologies. © The Author(s) 2016.
Myint, Thein; Shiota, Seiji; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Ni, New; Aye, Than Than; Matsuda, Miyuki; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen; Uchida, Tomohisa; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio
To survey the detailed analyses for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric mucosal status in Myanmar. A total of 252 volunteers with dyspeptic symptoms (155 female and 97 male; mean age of 43.6 ± 14.2 years) was participated in Yangon and Mandalay. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on 5 different tests including rapid urease test, culture, histology, immunohistochemistry and serology. Histological scores were evaluated according to the update Sydney system and the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment system. Pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 48.0%. There was no relationship between age and infection rate. Even in young group (less than 29 years old), the H. pylori infection rate was relatively high (41.9%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in Yangon than that of Mandalay. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. All 7 subjects with peptic ulcer were infected with H. pylori. Although H. pylori-positive subjects showed stronger gastritis than H. pylori-negative subjects, most cases had mild gastritis. We revealed the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Myanmar. The H. pylori infection was a risk factor for peptic ulcer and stronger gastritis.
Weijnen, C. F.; Numans, M. E.; de Wit, N. J.; Smout, A. J.; Moons, K. G.; Verheij, T. J.; Hoes, A. W.
OBJECTIVES: To develop an easily applicable diagnostic scoring method to determine the presence of peptic ulcers in dyspeptic patients in a primary care setting; to evaluate whether Helicobacter pylori testing adds value to history taking. Design: Cross sectional study. SETTING: General
Strauss, R M; Wang, T C; Kelsey, P B; Compton, C C; Ferraro, M J; Perez-Perez, G; Parsonnet, J; Blaser, M J
To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and ulcer disease as well as in a control population undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected pancreatic or biliary disease. Forty-six eligible patients undergoing upper endoscopy at Massachusetts General Hospital were studied over a period of 18 months, as well as 24 patients undergoing ERCP for presumed pancreatic or biliary disease. Two biopsy specimens from the fundus and two from the antrum were taken for microbiologic and histopathologic analysis. Sera were examined by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. All specimens were processed in a blind fashion. Chi-square test with Yates' correction was used for statistical analysis. H. pylori was found in 31 of 46 (67%) study patients and in six of 24 (25%) control patients (by microbiologic or histologic techniques) (p less than 0.01). H. pylori was found in all patients with peptic ulcer disease and in 60% of patients without ulcers. No association between H. pylori and any specific gastrointestinal symptom was observed. H. pylori was identified in the fundus as often as in the antrum, although in the antrum the organism was more often associated with histologic gastritis. Compared with histology, serologic assays for IgG and IgA antibodies to H. pylori had sensitivities of 100% and 94%, and specificities of 86% and 76%, respectively. Reexamination of selected specimens without knowledge of their identity revealed that the specificity of serology exceeded 94% while the sensitivity of histologic and microbiologic studies may have been closer to 80%. H. pylori was more common in dyspeptic patients than in our control subjects undergoing ERCP. Multiple biopsy sites from fundus and antrum are required to exclude infection. Serologies of IgG and IgA were sensitive and specific for H. pylori, suggesting a possible role for non-endoscopic diagnosis of this infection. The frequent association of H
Mohammadi, M; Oghalaie, A; Mohajerani, N
can serve as screening markers for such a population, H. pylori strains were isolated from one hundred and thirty two dyspeptic patients. H. pylori genomic DNA was extracted and underwent PCR-amplification for the cytotoxin alleles. Genotyping of the signal sequence region of the vacA gene identified......Helicobacter pylori infects the majority of the population in the developing countries. However, the rate of gastrointestinal complications such as peptic ulcers and gastric malignancies has no parallel with the infection. In order to determine whether cytotoxin (vacA) and its allelic polymorphism...
Mohammadi, M; Oghalaie, A; Mohajerani, N
Helicobacter pylori infects the majority of the population in the developing countries. However, the rate of gastrointestinal complications such as peptic ulcers and gastric malignancies has no parallel with the infection. In order to determine whether cytotoxin (vacA) and its allelic polymorphism...... can serve as screening markers for such a population, H. pylori strains were isolated from one hundred and thirty two dyspeptic patients. H. pylori genomic DNA was extracted and underwent PCR-amplification for the cytotoxin alleles. Genotyping of the signal sequence region of the vacA gene identified...
Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p < 0.0001 and there was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest a relationship between gastric infection and the presence of this bacterium in the oral cavity. Despite this, H. pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection.
Ivy Bastos Ramis
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infects nearly 50% of the world's population. This microorganism is accepted as the most important agent of gastritis and as a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Currently many diagnostic methods exist for detecting H. pylori, however they all have limitations, thus it is recommend a combination of at least two methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic methods, such as in-house urease test, culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, for the detection of the H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of 144 dyspeptic patients, using as gold standard the association between histology and rapid urease test. According to the gold standard used in this study, 48 (33.3% patients were infected with H. pylori, while 96 (66.7% were classified as not infected. The in-house urease test and the PCR were the most sensitive methods (100%, followed by culture (85.4%. However, the in-house urease test and the culture were the most specific (100%, followed by PCR (75%. In conclusion, this study showed that, in comparison with the combination of histology and rapid urease test, the in-house urease test and the PCR presented 100% of sensitivity in the diagnosis of gastric infection by H. pylori, while the in-house urease test and the culture reached 100% of specificity. These finding suggest that the combination of two or more methods may improve the accuracy of the H. pylori detection.
Rokkas, T; Liatsos, C; Karameris, A; Petridou, E; Papatheodorou, G; Kalafatis, E
Helicobacter Pylori infection has been strongly associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) disease, especially duodenal ulcer. Endoscopy or contrast radiography is needed to diagnose and appropriately manage peptic ulcer disease. These diagnostic procedures, however, are time consuming and expensive; endoscopy is invasive and contrast radiography cannot help in the diagnosis of H pylori infection. Our aim was to examine in a prospective study the relation between serologic detection of cytotoxic associated gene (CagA) H pylori strains and endoscopic findings among young dyspeptic patients to determine whether this noninvasive test can help differentiate patients with from those without ulcers. One hundred patients younger than 45 years with dyspepsia referred for upper GI endoscopy were included in the study. During endoscopy antral biopsy specimens were obtained for the rapid urease test and histologic examination. At histologic examination gastritis was graded from 0 (normal histologic features) to 3 (severe gastritis). After endoscopy blood was obtained for serologic determination of CagA status. Among the 100 patients 56 were H pylori positive and 44 were H pylori negative. In the group of 56 H pylori-positive patients 36 (64.3%) had peptic ulcers and 20 (35.7%) did not. Among patients with peptic ulcer 34 of 36 (94.4%) were CagA positive and 2 (5.6%) were CagA negative. The respective values for the group of patients without ulcers were 9 of 20 (45%) and 11 of 20 (55%). The difference in the proportion of CagA-positive subjects between the group with and that without peptic ulcer was highly significant (p ulcer at endoscopy.
Mehmet Burak Selek
Full Text Available Objective: Helicobacter pylori is a microorganism associatedwith gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastriccancer. We aimed to figure out the positivity rate in stoolsamples of outpatients with dyspeptic complaints visitinggastroenterology department and to evaluate its relationwith age, gender and seasonal changes.Methods: Between January 01, 2012 and December 31,2012, stool samples of 330 adult outpatients admitted togastroenterology department are investigated with an immunochromatographictest kit using monoclonal antibodiesfor detection of H. pylori antigen.Results: Among 330 patients’ stool samples tested, 67(20.3% were positive. 18.6% of men and 22.2% of womenwere detected as positive. According to age groups,17.1% patients were positive for 15-35 age groups,27.1% patients were positive for 36-55 age groups and18.2% patients were positive for above 56. Seasonal differenceof H. pylori antigen positivity in stool samples wasstatistically significant (p=0.001. Highest positivity rate29.7% was detected for winter months (December-January-February. According to logistic regression analysis,winter is found as a risk factor with statistically significant2.295 times greater risk [p=0001, Exp (B = 2.925, 95.0%C.I. for EXP (B = 1.668-5.129].Conclusion: H. pylori antigen positivity rate of our study islower than other previously conducted studies in Turkey.But, positivity rates are higher among women comparedto men, concordant with other studies. Even more, detectionof high positivity rates in winter shows primary infectionand/or relapse can be affected by seasonal changes.Key words: Helicobacter pylori, gastroenterology, stool antigen test
Full Text Available Aim: One of the most common reasons of the chronic gastritis is Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection. Recent studies reported that Hp gastritis is involved with the duodenal ulcer, atrophic gastritis, dyspepsia, gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma. The prevalence of Hp infection has regional differences. We aimed to determine the frequency of Hp infection in our region and introduce the relationship between results of endoscopy with Hp infection. Material and Method: In this study we analyzed retrospectively 412 patients%u2019 endoscopy results and histopathological results between 2013 January-2014 February.Total 246 patients who have underwent endoscopic biopsy and Hphistopathologically investigated. Results: Male and female ratio was 1.8:1. There were 77 male patients and 139 female patients. Mean age of patients was 46.50±15.05 and range of age was 15 to 82.There was not any statically meaningful association between Hp and patients ages and gender (p>0.05.47.7% of patients were diagnosed as Hp positive, There was a meaningful relationship between Hp ( and chronic gastritis ( groups (p
Mattar, Rejane; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Kemp, Rafael; Santos, José Sebastião dos
To analyze the usefulness of Quick Lactose Intolerance Test in relation to the genetic test based on LCT-13910C>T genotypes, previously validated for clinical practice, for primary hypolactasia/lactase-persistence diagnosis. Thirty-two dyspeptic patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy entered the study. Two postbulbar duodenal biopsies were taken for the Quick test, and gastric antral biopsy for DNA extraction and LCT-13910C>T polymorphism analysis. DNA was also extracted from biopsies after being used in the Quick Test that was kept frozen until extraction. Nine patients with lactase-persistence genotype (LCT-13910CT or LCT-13910TT) had normolactasia, eleven patients with hypolactasia genotype (LCT-13910CC) had severe hypolactasia, and among twelve with mild hypolactasia, except for one that had LCT-13910CT genotype, all the others had hypolactasia genotype. The agreement between genetic test and quick test was high (plactose-containing food ingestion had severe hypolactasia (plactose intolerance.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and related factors of androgen receptor (AR expression in Thai breast cancer patients. A descriptive study was done in 95 patients, who were admitted to Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital, Bangkok (2011–2013. Statistical relationships were examined between AR protein expression, tumor status, and patient characteristics. Compared with those from Western countries, ethnic Thai patients were younger at age of diagnosis and had a higher proliferative index (high Ki-67 expression, which indicates unfavorable prognosis. In addition, 91% of the Thai breast tumors that were positive for any of the following receptors, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 also expressed the AR protein, while in triple negative breast tumors only 33% were AR positive. ER and PR expression was positively related with AR expression, while AR expression was inversely correlated to Ki-67 expression. AR status was strongly correlated with ER and PR status in Thai patients. There is an inverse relationship between Ki-67 and AR, which suggests that AR may be a prognostic factor for breast cancer.
Camp, Jon; Simpson, Kathryn; Bardsley, Michael R.; Popko, Laura N.; Young, David L.; Kemp, Bradley J.; Lowe, Val; Ordog, Tamas; Robb, Richard
Patients with chronic calorie insufficiency commonly suffer from upper gastrointestinal dysfunction and consequent dyspeptic symptoms, which may interfere with their nutritional rehabilitation. To investigate the relationship between gastric dysfunction and feeding behavior, we exposed mice to chronic caloric restriction and demonstrated gastric motor abnormalities in them. Gastric dysmotility is typically associated with dyspeptic symptoms but sensations cannot be directly assessed in animal...
Peczek, Lukasz; Zuk, Karolina; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Medrek, Marta; Nawrot, Barbara
To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on the expression level of the FHIT gene and its methylation status in the gastric mucosa of dyspeptic patients with or without a family history of gastric cancer (FHGC). In all, 31 patients with H. pylori infection including 13 with FHGC were enrolled in the study. The effectiveness of H. pylori eradication were confirmed by UBT, RUT and multiplex PCR (the presence of selected H. pylori strains) for biopsy samples from the antrum and corpus. Histopathological assessment was also performed. The expression of FHIT mRNA was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the methylation status of the FHIT promoter was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. After H. pylori eradication, the improvement of inflammation from superficial gastritis to normal mucosa (G → N) was observed in 39% of the patients without FHGC and in 54% of those with FHGC. FHIT mRNA expression was increased in patients without FHGC after H. pylori eradication (P pylori eradication (P > 0.05). For the samples from those with FHGC, the FHIT mRNA expression was not significantly changed and the methylation status fluctuated evenly. H. pylori eradication results in the improvement of gastric mucosal inflammation and histopathological non-atrophic changes. The FHIT gene expression is increased in patients without FHGC, which may contribute to the prevention of GC development. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Avşar, Erol; Tiftikçi, Arzu; Poturoğlu, Sule; Erzin, Yusuf; Kocakaya, Ozan; Dinçer, Dinç; Yıldırım, Bulut; Güliter, Sefa; Türkay, Cansel; Yılmaz, Uğur; Onuk, Mehmet Derya; Bölükbaş, Cengiz; Ellidokuz, Ender; Bektaş, Ahmet; Taşan, Güralp; Aytuğ, Necip; Ateş, Yüksel; Kaymakoğlu, Sabahattin
Proton-pump inhibitor and ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple regimens are the two recommended first line treatments for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of these two treatments in a prospective, multicentric, randomized study. Patients with dyspeptic complaints were recruited from 15 study centers. Presence of Helicobacter pylori was investigated by both histology and rapid urease test. The patients were randomized to either ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1 g bid plus clarithromycin 500 mg bid (n=149) or lansoprazole 30 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1 g bid plus clarithromycin 500 mg bid (n=130) treatment arm for 14 days. Adverse events have been recorded during the treatment phase. A 13 C urea breath test was performed 6 weeks after termination of treatment to assess the efficacy of the therapy. Eradication rate was calculated by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. Two hundred seventy-nine patients (123 male, 156 female) were eligible for randomization. In per-protocol analysis (n=247), Helicobacter pylori was eradicated with ranitidine bismuth citrate- and lansoprazole-based regimens in 74,6% and 69,2% of cases, respectively (p>0,05). Intention-to-treat analysis (n=279) revealed that eradication rates were 65,1% and 63,6% in ranitidine bismuth citrate and in lansoprazole-based regimens, respectively (p>0,05). Both regimes were well-tolerated, and no serious adverse event was observed during the study. Ranitidine bismuth citrate-based regimen is at least as effective and tolerable as the classical proton-pump inhibitor-based regimen, but none of the therapies could achieve the recommendable eradication rate.
Jebbink, H. J.; Bravenboer, B.; Akkermans, L. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.
Reports on motor abnormalities in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus are inconsistent. In 20 Type 1 diabetic patients and in 11 control subjects antroduodenojejunal manometry was performed under euglycaemic conditions in order to examine the prevalence of gastric and small intestinal motor
Piriyapong, Tapawas; Dharmasaroja, Pompatr A; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Piyayotai, Dilok; Hutayanon, Pisit
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is routinely performed to look for the cardiac sources of emboli in many Western stroke centers. Due to a limitation of resources in Thailand, echocardiography is done in only some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the need for cardiac investigations, especially TTE, in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke. Two-hundred and seven patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), who had TTE results during August 2006 to November 2008, were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups by the risk of cardioembolism: low- versus high-risk groups. All echocardiography results were reviewed and classified by the need for management change following the echocardiography. Abnormal TTE results indicating a need for change in management were found in 4% (4/102) and 18% (18/105) in low- and high- risk patients, respectively The results of ECG alone led to change in management in 17% (36 patients). Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolism, which was found in 35 patients (17%). Because of limited resources in Thailand, ECG should be routinely performed on all ischemic stroke patients and TTE in patients with high risk for cardioembolism. However larger studies are still needed to clarify the benefits of echocardiography in low-risk patients.
Full Text Available Suchat Paholpak,1 Ronnachai Kongsakon,2 Wasana Pattanakumjorn,3 Roongsang Kanokvut,4 Wiroj Wongsuriyadech,5 Manit Srisurapanont6 On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Study Group1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Ratchaburi Hospital, Ratchaburi, 4Department of Psychiatry, Buddhachinaraj Hospital, Phitsanulok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Udonthani Hospital, Udonthani, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: The aim of the study was to determine in a clinical setting the risk factors for current anxiety disorder (AD comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD, being treated under the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Project (TBDR. Methods: The TBDR was a multisite naturalistic study conducted at 24 psychiatric units (ie, at university, provincial mental, and government general hospitals between February 2009 and January 2011. Participants were in- or out-patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Instruments used in this study included the Thai Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5; Thai Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS; Thai Young Mania Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impression of Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S, CGI-BP-S-mania, CGI-BP-S-depression, and CGI-BP-S-overall BP illness; and the Thai SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results: Among the 424 BD patients, 404 (95.3% had BD type I. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age of onset of mood disturbance, first diagnosis of BD, and first treatment of BD was 32.0±11.9, 36.1±12.2, and 36.2±12.2 years. The duration of illness was 10.7±9.0 years. Fifty-three (12.5% of the 424 participants had
Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit,1 Suchat Paholpak,2 Somrak Choovanicvong,3 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,4 Wetid Pratoomsri,5 Manit Srisurapanont1On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Registry Group1Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 3Srithanya Hospital, Nonthaburi, 4Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 5Chachoengsao Hospital, Chachoengsao, ThailandBackground: The Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry was a prospective, multisite, naturalistic study conducted in 24 hospitals across Thailand. This study aimed to examine the correlates of current suicide risk in Thai patients with bipolar I disorder.Methods: Participants were adult inpatients or outpatients with bipolar disorder, based on the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All were assessed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, version 5. The severity of current suicide risk was determined by using the total score of the MINI suicidality module. Mood symptoms were assessed by using the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale.Results: The data of 383 bipolar I disorder patients were included in the analyses. Of these, 363 (94.8% were outpatients. The mean (standard deviation of the MINI suicide risk score was 1.88 (5.0. The demographic/clinical variables significantly associated with the MINI suicide risk scores included age, number of overall previous episodes, the Young Mania Rating Scale score, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and the Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness Scale for Bipolar Disorder mania score, depression score, and overall score. The variables affecting the differences of suicide risk scores between or among groups were type of first mood episode, a history of rapid cycling, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders. The stepwise multiple linear regression model revealed
Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Sappayatosok, Kraisorn
To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Thai dental practitioners regarding patients with HIV, a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The questionnaires requested demographic information and included questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners towards HIV. The results were analyzed using Scheffe method for multiple comparisons at the 95 percent confidence level. Out of 1,200 questionnaires sent, 446 questionnaires were returned (response rate 37.2 percent). The subjects included final (sixth)-year dental students (11.9 percent), general dentists (29.1 percent), specialist dentists (15.5 percent), dental hygienists (30.5 percent), and dental assistants (13 percent). More than 80 percent of the dental practitioners correctly answered the questions testing their basic knowledge of HIV such as routes of transmission and common opportunistic infections. However, knowledge about HIV pathogenesis, complications, and advances in HIV management was lacking. Dental hygienists and dental assistants had statistically significant lower scores in knowledge about HIV than other groups. Sixty-seven percent of dental practitioners said they feel worried when treating patients with HIV, and 20.4 percent said they would deny treatment for patients with HIV if possible. While knowledge about HIV may be adequate among dental practitioners in Thailand, greater effort should be put into emphasizing positive attitudes towards patients with HIV.
Full Text Available Background/purpose: Many factors, including economic, psychosocial statuses and ethnicity, affect patients' decision to seek orthodontic treatment. The present study compared orthodontic patients' motivation, attitude and the factors affecting this motivation in Taiwanese and Thai patients. We investigated the association between the aforementioned variables and patient characteristics. Materials and methods: We enrolled 250 Thai and 250 Taiwanese patients (ageÂ â¥Â 20 years from Sunprasitthiprasong and Taipei Medical University Hospitals, respectively, by using self-administered questionnaires. Demographic characteristics were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test, patients' motivation, attitude and the factors affecting this motivation were analyzed using the sample t-test. The association among the variables was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Results: In both hospitals, the main motivation for seeking orthodontic treatment was esthetic concerns; the patients believed that treatment could make them more beautiful. Taiwanese and Thai patients rejected treatment because of high treatment costs and long treatment periods, respectively. A significant association was observed between household income and Thai patients' motivation (pÂ <Â 0.05. Sex was significantly associated with Thai patients' attitude (pÂ <Â 0.05. Age, sex, active treatment duration, and marital status were associated with Taiwanese attitude toward treatment (pÂ <Â 0.05. In addition, age, household income, and information resources were significantly associated with the factors affecting Taiwanese patients' motivation (pÂ <Â 0.05. Conclusion: Ethnicity influenced patients' motivation. Economic status was the main factor affecting Thai patients, whereas many factors affected Taiwanese patients' decision to seek orthodontic treatment. However, esthetic concerns were a crucial motivation for both groups. Keywords: factors affecting
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have shown the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT on depression; however, there are limited studies concerning the universality of the IPT problem areas in different countries. This study identifies whether the interpersonal problem areas defined in the IPT manual are endorsed by Thai depressed patients. Methods The Thai Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai HRSD and Thai Interpersonal Questionnaire were used to assess 90 depressed and 90 non-depressed subjects in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, during July 2007 - January 2008. The association between interpersonal problem areas/sociodemographic variables and depressive disorder were analyzed by chi-square test. A multivariable analysis was performed by using logistic regression to identify the remaining factors associated with depressive disorder. Results Most of the subjects were young to middle-aged females living in Bangkok and the Central Provinces. All four interpersonal problem areas (grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits were increased in the depressed subjects as compared to the non-depressed subjects, as were the sociodemographic variables (low education, unemployment, low income, and having a physical illness. Logistic regression showed that all interpersonal problem areas still remained problems associated with depression (grief: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 1.93 - 18.69, p Conclusion All four interpersonal problem areas were applicable to Thai depressed patients.
Pongthanaracht, Natsalil; Yanarojana, Somchai; Pinthong, Darawan; Unchern, Supeenun; Thithapandha, Amnuay; Assantachai, Prasert; Supavilai, Porntip
To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K) and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai community-dwelling patients. One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman's method. The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12%) was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%), suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity. Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.
Full Text Available Natsalil Pongthanaracht,1 Somchai Yanarojana,1 Darawan Pinthong,1 Supeenun Unchern,1 Amnuay Thithapandha,1 Prasert Assantachai,2 Porntip Supavilai11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, 2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandObjective: To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai community-dwelling patients.Methods: One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman’s method.Results: The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12% was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%, suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity.Conclusion: Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.Keywords: butyrylcholinesterase K variant, butyrylcholinesterase activity, mild cognitive impairment, Thai community-dwelling patients
El-Salhy, Magdy; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge; Gonlachanvit, Sutep
The prevalence, gender distribution and clinical presentation of IBS differ between Asian and Western countries. This study aimed at studying and comparing enteroendocrine, Musashi 1 (Msi 1) and neurogenin 3 (neurog 3) cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Thirty Thai and 61 Norwegian IBS patients as well as 20 Thai and 24 Norwegian controls were included. Biopsy samples were taken from each of the sigmoid colon and the rectum during a standard colonoscopy. The samples were immunostained for serotonin, peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, Msi 1 and neurog 3. The densities of immunoreactive cells were determined with computerized image analysis. The densities of several enteroendocrine cell types were altered in both the colon and rectum of both Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Some of these changes were similar in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients, while others differed. The findings of abnormal densities of the enteroendocrine cells in Thai patients support the notion that enteroendocrine cells are involved in the pathophysiology of IBS. The present observations highlight that IBS differs in Asian and Western countries, and show that the changes in large-intestine enteroendocrine cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients might be caused by different mechanisms.
Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Peczek, Lukasz; Michalski, Blazej; Wisniewska-Jarosinska, Maria; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara
The expression of a fragile histidine triad (FHIT) protein is lost in stomach tumors. The study aimed at determining whether FHIT expression is affected by Helicobacter pylori infection, strain virulence (vacA and cagA genes) and histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa of patients with functional dyspepsia having first-degree relatives with gastric cancer. Eighty-eight never-smoking patients with functional dyspepsia were selected for the study, and 48 of them had first-degree relatives with gastric cancer. Bacterial DNA amplification was used to identify H. pylori colonization. The level of FHIT gene expression was determined by qRT-PCR (mRNA) and Western blot (FHIT protein) analyses. For patients having first-degree relatives with gastric cancer FHIT expression was lower (mRNA by ca. 40-45% and protein by 30%) compared with the control patients (p pylori infection decreased the FHIT mRNA level by 10-35% and the protein level by 10-20%. Bacterial strain vacA(+)cagA(+) lowered FHIT mRNA by ca. 30-35% in the antrum samples of both groups and in corpus samples of patients with first-degree relatives with gastric cancer (p pylori-negative patients with intestinal metaplasia, compared with those with non-atrophic gastritis. The decreased FHIT gene expression associated with hereditary factors and with H. pylori infection, especially with vacA(+)cagA(+)-positive strains, may be related to gastric carcinoma development.
Full Text Available Apichat Jariyavilas,1 Nuntika Thavichachart,2 Ronnachai Kongsakon,3 Sunanta Chantakarn,4 Suwanna Arunpongpaisal,5 Vasu Chantarasak,6 Piyadit Jaroensook,7 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,8 Osot Nerapusee9 1Srithanya Hospital, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 6Somdetchaopraya Institute of Psychiatry, Bangkok, 7Prasrimahabhodhi Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, 8Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 9Medical Affairs, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: This open-label prospective study investigated the effects of paliperidone extended release (ER on hostility in Thai patients with schizophrenia. Background: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be hostile or exhibit aggressive behavior, which can occasion their admission to psychiatric hospital. Antipsychotic medications are often used to treat hostility and aggression in such patients. Paliperidone ER is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, there are no data available for paliperidone ER with regard to its efficacy on hostility and aggression among Thai patients. This study was a part of the PERFEcT study, a 6-month, open-label, multicenter, multicountry, prospective trial to explore the safety, efficacy, and functionality of paliperidone ER tablets. The current study included only the data obtained from Thai participants. Materials and methods: Flexible dosing of paliperidone ER in a range of 3–12 mg/day was used, allowing investigators to adjust the dosage of each subject individually. The 199 Thai patients had a stable Clinical Global Impression – severity score before enrollment. Demographic
Full Text Available Pongsathorn Gojaseni1, Angkana Phaopha1, Worawon Chailimpamontree1, Thaweepong Pajareya1, Anutra Chittinandana21Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Education, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in nondiabetic hypertensive patients in Thailand.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed during January to December 2007 at outpatients departments of Bhumibol Adulyadej hospital. Nondiabetic hypertensive patients without a history of pre-existing kidney diseases participated in this study. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on demographics, lifestyle, and family history of cardiovascular and kidney disease. Spot morning urine samples were collected for albuminuria estimation. Albuminuria thresholds were evaluated and defined using albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR.Results: A total of 559 hypertensive patients (283 males, 276 females, aged 58.0 ± 11.6 years were enrolled in this study. Microalbuminuria (ACR 17 to 299 mg/g in males and 25 to 299 mg/g in females was found in 93 cases (16.6% [15.0%‑18.2%]. The independent determinants of elevated urinary albumin excretion in a multiple logistic regression model were; body mass index ≥30 (odds ratio (OR = 2.24, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.33–3.76 and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DCCB use (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.22‑3.02.Conclusion: In Thai nondiabetic hypertensive patients, microalbuminuria was not uncommon. Obesity and use of dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker were found to be the important predictors. Prognostic value of the occurrence of microalbuminuria in this population remains to be determined in prospective cohort studies.Keywords: microalbuminuria, hypertension, obesity, calcium channel blocker, metabolic
Emara, Mohamed H; Mohamed, Salem Y; Abdel-Aziz, Hesham R
The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori following the standard triple therapy is declining. This study was conducted to test whether the addition of Lactobacillus reuteri to the standard triple therapy improves the eradication rates as well as the clinical and pathological aspects in H. pylori infection. A total of 70 treatment-naïve patients were randomly assigned into group A (the L. reuteri treated group) and group B (the placebo control group). Patients were treated by the standard triple therapy for 2 weeks and either L. reuteri or placebo for 4 weeks. They were examined by symptom questionnaire, H. pylori antigen in stool, upper endoscopy with biopsies for rapid urease test and histopathological examination before treatment and 4 weeks after treatment. The eradication rate of H. pylori infection was 74.3% and 65.7% for both L. reuteri and placebo treated groups, respectively. There was a significant difference regarding the reported side effects, where patients treated with L. reuteri reported less diarrhea and taste disorders than placebo group. A significant difference within each group was observed after treatment regarding Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) scores; patients treated with L. reuteri showed more improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms than the placebo treated group. The severity and activity of H. pylori associated gastritis were reduced after 4 weeks of therapy in both groups. The L. reuteri treated group showed significant improvement compared with the placebo treated group. Triple therapy of H. pylori supplemented with L. reuteri increased eradication rate by 8.6%, improved the GSRS score, reduced the reported side effects and improved the histological features of H. pylori infection when compared with placebo-supplemented triple therapy.
Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a non-invasive microorganism causing intense gastric mucosal inflammatory and immune reaction. H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal cytokine overproduction has been clearly documented previously. The stomach has a large surface area and continuous spill-over of locally produced cytokines into the blood stream is a possibility. There are few and conflicting data on circulatory proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with H. pylori infection.
Chongcharueyskul, Pathomporn; Wangsrimonkol, Tasanee; Pisek, Poonsak; Pisek, Araya; Manosudprasit, Montian
To examine correlations between cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMs) and dental development stages, and cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stage 6 and completion of root formation of mandibular third molar in Thai cleft patients. Lateral cephalograms of 366 cleft subjects aged 7-9 years were assessed for CVMs using Baccetti method. Calcication stages of all left mandibular teeth within each CVMs were assessed from panoramic films using Demirjian method. Spearman rank correlation coefficients comparing CVMs and teeth were 0.51-0.79 (pmaturation indicators.
Full Text Available Thanitta Thanakiatpinyo,1 Supakij Suwannatrai,2 Ueamphon Suwannatrai,2 Phanitanong Khumkaew,2 Dokmai Wiwattamongkol,2 Manmas Vannabhum,2 Somluck Pianmanakit,1 Vilai Kuptniratsaikul1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2Center of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To study the efficacy of traditional Thai massage (TTM versus conventional physical therapy (PT programs in treating muscle spasticity, functional ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL in Thai stroke patients.Methods: This randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor was carried out at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand. The study included 50 stroke (onset ≥3 months outpatients experiencing spasticity at the elbow or knee muscles at a grade of ≥1+ on the modified Ashworth Scale who were ≥50 years old and able to communicate. The subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment group receiving TTM (24 subjects or the control group receiving the PT program (26 subjects. Both groups received treatment (either TTM or PT twice a week for 6 weeks. Spasticity grade, functional ability, anxiety, depression, and QoL were measured at Week 0 and Week 6.Results: At Week 6, the percentage of patients whose modified Ashworth Scale score had decreased by at least one grade was not statistically significant between the two groups. Both TTM and PT groups experienced a significant increase in functional ability and QoL, but no difference was found between the groups. Anxiety and depression scores showed a decreasing trend in the TTM group.Conclusion: This preliminary report showed no evidence that TTM differed from the PT program in decreasing spasticity. However, both interventions may relieve spasticity, increase functional ability, and improve QoL after 6 weeks. Only TTM can decrease anxiety and depression scores. Further studies with
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is predominantly acquired in childhood from family members. The infection can cause dypepepsia, chronic and acute gastritis and gastric cancer. Dyspepsia is the most common illness in the Ethiopian population visiting outpatient department of health facilities, and it has ...
Phongamwong, Chanwit; Choosakde, Apijaree
The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a good clinical tool to evaluate patients with shoulder pain, but has not been adapted to Thai version. The objectives of this study were to translate the English version and culturally adapt the SPADI to Thai version and to evaluate the internal consistency and construct validity of the Thai SPADI among Thai participants having shoulder pain. Following the cross-cultural adaptation guidelines stated by the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) Outcome Committee, the SPADI was translated to Thai version (Thai SPASI). Thai participants with shoulder pain completed the three questionnaires, i.e., the Thai SPADI, bodily pain subscale of the Thai Short Form 36 second version (Thai SF-36 V2) and the Thai version of disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (Thai DASH). Internal consistency of the Thai SPADI was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Convergent and divergent validity was used to measure construct validity of the Thai SPADI by assessing the correlation of the Thai SPADI with the Thai DASH and bodily pain subscale of the Thai SF-36 V2. Of 44 participants, the majority of participants were female (68.2%) and had Bachelor's degree or higher education level (59.1%) with a mean age of 50.4 years (SD 14.3). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Thai SPADI in pain subscale, disability subscale and total scale was 0.92, 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The correlation of the Thai SPADI with the Thai DASH and bodily pain subscale of the Thai SF-36 V was 0.79 (p shoulder disability among Thais.
Bunasuwan, Parichat; Bunbanjerdsuk, Sacarin; Nilsuwan, Amornwan
The purpose of this research is to study the causes of vertigo in the patients at Otoneurology Clinic, Thammasat Hospital. The data of these patients, collected from the medical records between January 2010 and January 2011, were reviewed and analyzed. From one hundred and forty-nine cases, 49 cases (33%) were men and 100 cases (67%) were women, which yielded the male-to-female ratio of 1:2. The average age of patients was 55 year olds. The most common diagnostic category was peripheral vestibular disorders (80.5%). Other causes were central vestibular disorders (4.7%) and non-vestibular related (4%), whereas the remaining (10.1%) was undiagnosed. The causes of vertigo included benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: BPPV (53%), Meniere's disease (10.1%) and recurrent vestibulopathy (8.1%), while the underlying diseases found were diabetes mellitus (11.4%), hypertension (32.2%) and dyslipidemia (34.2%). In Otoneurology Clinic, Thammasat Hospital, the peripheral vestibular disorders was the main etiology of vertigo, while the three most common causes were BPPV Meniere's disease, and recurrent vestibulopathy respectively.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Not only the prevalence, but also the progress of metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients is of importance for treatment planning and policy making. However, there have been very few prospective studies of metabolic disturbance in schizophrenic patients. This study aimed to assess the progress of metabolic abnormalities in Thai individuals with schizophrenia by estimating their one-year incidence rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods We screened all schizophrenic patients who visited our psychiatric clinic. After the exclusion of participants with MetS at baseline, each subject was reassessed at 6 and 12 months to determine the occurrence of MetS. The definition of MetS, as proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, was applied. Results Fifty-seven participants (24 males and 33 females had a mean of age and duration of antipsychotic treatment of 37.5 years old and 8.4 years, respectively. At baseline, 13 subjects met the MetS definition. Of 44 subjects who had no MetS at baseline, 35 could be followed up. Seven of these 35 subjects (20.0% had developed MetS at the 6- or 12-month visit, after already having 2 MetS components at baseline. The demographic data and characteristics of those developing and not developing MetS were not different in any respect. Conclusion Thai schizophrenic patients are likely to develop MetS. Their metabolic abnormalities may progress rapidly and fulfill the MetS definition within a year of follow-up. These findings support the importance of assessing and monitoring metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients.
Sakthong, Phantipa; Munpan, Wipaporn
Little was known about the head-to-head comparison of psychometric properties between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L or the different value sets of EQ-5D-5L. Therefore, this study set out to compare the psychometric properties including agreement, convergent, and known-group validity between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using the real value sets from Thailand and the UK in patients with chronic diseases. 356 adults taking a medication for at least 3 months were identified from a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, between July 2014 and March 2015. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Convergent validity was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and EQ-VAS and SF-12v2. For known-groups validity, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to examine the associations between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and patient characteristics. Agreements between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using Thai and UK value sets were fair, with ICCs of 0.45 and 0.49, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed that the majority of the SF-6D index scores were lower than the EQ-5D-5L index scores. Both the EQ-5D-5L value sets were more related to the EQ-VAS and physical health, while the SF-6D was more associated with mental health. Both EQ-5D-5L value sets were more sensitive than the SF-6D in discriminating patients with different levels of more known groups except for adverse drug reactions. The SF-6D and both EQ-5D-5L value sets appeared to be valid but sensitive to different outcomes in Thai patients with chronic diseases.
Full Text Available The clinicopathological and endoscopic features of dyspepsia have not been well studied in Nigeria due to the high cost of gastroscopes and lack of the relevant expertise. This study was designed to highlight these features and possible risk factors. This prospective study was conducted on adult dyspeptic patients who fulfilled the study criteria from November 2007 to December 2008 at a University hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Demographic and clinical presentation including possible risk factors were obtained through a questionnaire administered by an interviewer followed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and gastric biopsy. Of the 123 subjects who took part in the study, 100 gave their consent to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy. The male:female ratio was 1:1, mean age was 44.98 (SD 15.4 years and the modal age group was 38-47years. The prevalence of dyspepsia was 29% and epigastric pain was the most common presentation. Endoscopic findings were superficial mucosal lesion (21%, peptic ulcer (16%, features of gastroesophageal reflux disease (10%, and gastric cancer (2%, as well normal findings (44%. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID use as a risk factor had a significant association with positive endoscopic findings; relative risk for development of positive endoscopic findings was 1.5% (P =0.03. Histology showed rates of chronic gastritis to be 91% and normal values 9%. The most common type of gastritis was the non-specific form (59.3%, followed by H. Pylori-associated gastritis (36.3%. The topography of gastritis was mainly pangastritis (68.1% and antral predominant in 23.1%. The prevalence of H. pylori by histology was 41%. The presence of H. pylori was not associated with severity, location or duration of symptoms. H. pylori was, however, found to be a significant contributor to the development of positive endoscopic findings (P=0.01; OR 2.92 95% CI 1.50-3.17. Alarm symptoms were found to be important markers of
Thanakiatpinyo, Thanitta; Suwannatrai, Supakij; Suwannatrai, Ueamphon; Khumkaew, Phanitanong; Wiwattamongkol, Dokmai; Vannabhum, Manmas; Pianmanakit, Somluck; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai
Purpose To study the efficacy of traditional Thai massage (TTM) versus conventional physical therapy (PT) programs in treating muscle spasticity, functional ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) in Thai stroke patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor was carried out at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand). The study included 50 stroke (onset ≥3 months) outpatients experiencing spasticity at the elbow or knee muscles at a grade of ≥1+ on the modified Ashworth Scale who were ≥50 years old and able to communicate. The subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment group receiving TTM (24 subjects) or the control group receiving the PT program (26 subjects). Both groups received treatment (either TTM or PT) twice a week for 6 weeks. Spasticity grade, functional ability, anxiety, depression, and QoL were measured at Week 0 and Week 6. Results At Week 6, the percentage of patients whose modified Ashworth Scale score had decreased by at least one grade was not statistically significant between the two groups. Both TTM and PT groups experienced a significant increase in functional ability and QoL, but no difference was found between the groups. Anxiety and depression scores showed a decreasing trend in the TTM group. Conclusion This preliminary report showed no evidence that TTM differed from the PT program in decreasing spasticity. However, both interventions may relieve spasticity, increase functional ability, and improve QoL after 6 weeks. Only TTM can decrease anxiety and depression scores. Further studies with adequate sample size are necessary. PMID:25143717
Thanakiatpinyo, Thanitta; Suwannatrai, Supakij; Suwannatrai, Ueamphon; Khumkaew, Phanitanong; Wiwattamongkol, Dokmai; Vannabhum, Manmas; Pianmanakit, Somluck; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai
To study the efficacy of traditional Thai massage (TTM) versus conventional physical therapy (PT) programs in treating muscle spasticity, functional ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) in Thai stroke patients. This randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor was carried out at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand). The study included 50 stroke (onset ≥ 3 months) outpatients experiencing spasticity at the elbow or knee muscles at a grade of ≥ 1+ on the modified Ashworth Scale who were ≥ 50 years old and able to communicate. The subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment group receiving TTM (24 subjects) or the control group receiving the PT program (26 subjects). Both groups received treatment (either TTM or PT) twice a week for 6 weeks. Spasticity grade, functional ability, anxiety, depression, and QoL were measured at Week 0 and Week 6. At Week 6, the percentage of patients whose modified Ashworth Scale score had decreased by at least one grade was not statistically significant between the two groups. Both TTM and PT groups experienced a significant increase in functional ability and QoL, but no difference was found between the groups. Anxiety and depression scores showed a decreasing trend in the TTM group. This preliminary report showed no evidence that TTM differed from the PT program in decreasing spasticity. However, both interventions may relieve spasticity, increase functional ability, and improve QoL after 6 weeks. Only TTM can decrease anxiety and depression scores. Further studies with adequate sample size are necessary.
Karbwang, J; Na-Bangchang, K; Congpoung, K; Thanavibul, A; Harinasuta, T
The pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its major plasma metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, were investigated in 11 Thai male patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria during the acute and recovery phases. Patients were given an oral dose of 200mg artesunate (Guilin Pharmaceutical) on the first day, followed by 100mg 12 hours later, then 100mg daily for another 4 days (total dose of 700mg). All the patients showed a rapid initial response with median (range) parasite and fever clearance times of 30 (18 to 60) and 24 (4 to 94) hours, respectively; no patients showed reappearance of parasites during the 28-day follow-up period. No significant clinical adverse effects were detected in any patient. Acute phase malaria infection significantly influenced the pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin. Maximum plasma drug concentration (C(max)), absorption half-life (t((1/2)a)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last observed time (AUC) and terminal elimination half-life (t((1/2)z)) of artesunate were decreased, while apparent total body clearance (CL/f) was increased during the acute phase, compared with the recovery phase. In addition, a decrease in the C(max) and an increase in the AUC(DHA/ARS ) ratio were found. Optimisation of therapy with oral artesunate should therefore be based on the kinetics of the drug and dihydroartemisinin in malaria patients with acute phase infection.
Buttagat, Vitsarut; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Kaber, David; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Arayawichanon, Preeda
To investigate acute effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram (EEG) signals), anxiety and pain in patients with scapulocostal syndrome (SCS). A single-blind, randomized clinical trial. The School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Forty patients, who were diagnosed with SCS, were randomly allocated to receive a 30-min session of either TTM or physical therapy (PT) using ultrasound therapy and hot packs. Electroencephalogram (EEG), State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and pain intensity rating. Results showed that both TTM and PT were associated with significant decreases in anxiety and pain intensity (p<0.01). However, there was a significantly greater reduction in anxiety and pain intensity for the TTM group when compared with the PT group. Analysis of EEG in the TTM group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in delta activity (p<0.05) and a decrease in theta, alpha and beta activity (p<0.01). Similar changes were not found in the PT group. The EEG measures were also significantly different when compared between the groups (p<0.01), except for delta activity (p=0.051), indicating lower states of arousal with the TTM treatment. It is suggested that TTM provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation and decrease anxiety and pain intensity in patients with SCS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jiratham-Opas, J; Kanjanavanit, R; Wongcharoen, W; Punyawudho, B; Arunmanakul, P; Amaritakomol, A; Topaiboon, P; Gunaparn, S; Phrommintikul, A
Digoxin is commonly prescribed for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Due to digoxin's narrow therapeutic range, monitoring the serum digoxin concentration (SDC) is important. However, the SDC measurement is not widely available. Equations using clinical parameters can be employed to estimate the SDC but have never been studied in the Thai population. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the correlation between the measured SDC and predicted digoxin level using 2 commonly used equations: the Konishi equation and the Koup and Jusko equation. This report describes prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at Chiang Mai University. One hundred and fourteen patients were recruited in the study. All of the patients were diagnosed as having HFrEF, AF or both and had been receiving digoxin for at least 4 weeks. The SDC of each patient was measured at steady state and assigned to one of 3 groups according to the classifications of the Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial: in the therapeutic range, over the therapeutic range and in the suboptimal range. There were significant correlations between the measured and predicted SDCs using both the Konishi equation and the Koup and Jusko equation, which had correlation coefficients (R) of 0.69 and 0.31 (P SDC that was over the therapeutic range. None of the readmitted patients had ventricular arrhythmia. The Konishi equation yielded better predictions of the SDC, especially in the subgroup of HFrEF patients. Furthermore, the prediction of SDCs in the over the therapeutic range using this equation was superior to that of the Koup and Jusko equation. With further validation in a larger population, this equation should facilitate the detection of patients who are over the therapeutic range in clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sibbritt, David; van der Riet, Pamela; Dedkhard, Saowapa; Srithong, Kannapatch
To determine quantitatively if a unique rehabilitation program using traditional Thai massage, herbal treatments and physical therapies could improve activities of daily living, mood and sleep patterns, and pain intensity of stroke patients over time. This was a prospective cohort study, conducted over a three-month period. Patients were recruited from a 42-bed rehabilitation centre in Northern Thailand, which admits mainly stroke, head injury and spinal patients for rehabilitation. There were 62 patients enrolled in the study, with 55% being male. The average age of patients was 59 years and 63% were married. The average time since the initial stroke was 15 months. At baseline, the average Barthel Index score was 50.7, and the average emotion, pain and sleep scores were 2.6, 3.1, and 3.2, respectively. After adjusting for age, gender and time since initial stroke in the longitudinal model, the Barthel Index significantly improved by 6.1 points after one month (P<0.01) and by 14.2 points after three months (P<0.01); emotion significantly improved by 0.7 points after one month (P<0.01) and by 0.9 points after three months (P<0.01); pain significantly improved by 0.5 points after one month (P<0.01) and by 0.5 points after three months (P<0.01); sleep significantly improved by 0.5 points after one month (P<0.01) and by 0.6 points after three months (P<0.01). This unique stroke rehabilitation program has produced significant improvements in activities of daily living, mood, pain and sleep patterns of stroke patients. These findings warrant the need for further research to compare patients undergoing this program of rehabilitation with patients undergoing more conventional rehabilitation programs.
Although the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is commonly used in several languages for a variety of foot disorders, it has not been validated specifically for foot and ankle arthritic conditions. The aims of the present study were to translate the original English FAOS into Thai and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the FAOS for the foot and ankle arthritic conditions. The original FAOS was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation. The Thai FAOS and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36 ® ) questionnaires were distributed to 44 Thai patients suffering from arthritis of the foot and ankle to complete. For validation, Thai FAOS scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also analyzed in this study. The Thai FAOS score demonstrated sufficient correlation with SF-36 total score in Pain (Pearson's correlation coefficient (r)=0.45, p=0.002), Symptoms (r=0.45, p=0.002), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r=0.47, p=0.001), and Quality of Life (QOL) (r=0.38, p=0.011) subscales. The Sports and Recreational Activities (Sports & Rec) subscale did not correlate significantly with the SF-36 ® (r=0.20, p=0.20). Cronbach's alpha, a measure of internal consistency, for the five subscales was as follows: Pain, 0.94 (pvalidity for the evaluation of foot and ankle arthritis. Although reliability was satisfactory for the major subscale ADL, it was not sufficient for the minor subscales. Our findings suggest that it can be used as a disease-specific instrument to evaluate foot and ankle arthritis and can complement other reliable outcome surveys. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and correlated factors of self-reported oral malodor in Thai dental patients from Chulalongkorn Dental Hospital.Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral malodor in 839 patients. Significant associations between self-perceived oral malodor and sociodemographics, oral problems and oral hygiene practice variables were determined by Chi-square test.Results: The prevalence of currently self-perceived oral malodor was 61.1%. A higher prevalence of self-perceived oral malodor was significantly correlated with a number of factors including being 30 years of age or older, having a high school or lower educationallevel, tongue coating, xerostomia, bleeding when brushing teeth, never receiving professional tooth cleaning and a lower toothbrushing frequency. However, multivariable analysisshowed that tongue coating was the factor most strongly associated with self-perceived oral malodor (OR=3.53; CI=2.05-6.08, followed by bleeding when brushing teeth (OR=2.96 and being 30 years of age or older (OR=2.46. Subjects with oral malodor perceivedby themselves and others had a higher level of self-perceived oral malodor, a higher prevalence of bad odor when talking, in the morning and throughout the whole day, and a higher prevalence of consulting with other people in comparison with those with perceptionby themselves alone.Conclusion: Tongue coating, bleeding when brushing teeth and being 30 years of age or older were significantly associated with self-perceived oral malodor. The level of selfperceivedoral malodor and consulting with other people was more prevalent in subjects with oral malodor perceived by themselves and others.
Khiewkhern, Santisith; Promthet, Supannee; Sukprasert, Aemkhea; Eunhpinitpong, Wichai; Bradshaw, Peter
Patients with colorectal cancer are usually treated with chemotherapy, which reduces the number of blood cells, especially white blood cells, and consequently increases the risk of infections. Some research studies have reported that aromatherapy massage affects the immune system and improves immune function by, for example, increasing the numbers of natural killer cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, there has been no report of any study which provided good evidence as to whether aromatherapy with Thai massage could improve the immune system in patients with colorectal cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the use of aromatherapy with light Thai massage in patients with colorectal cancer, who have received chemotherapy, can result in improvement of the cellular immunity and reduce the severity of the common symptoms of side effects. Sixty-six patients with colorectal cancer in Phichit Hospital, Thailand, were enrolled in a single-blind, randomised-controlled trial. The intervention consisted of three massage sessions with ginger and coconut oil over a 1-week period. The control group received standard supportive care only. Assessments were conducted at pre-assessment and at the end of one week of massage or standard care. Changes from pre-assessment to the end of treatment were measured in terms of white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio and also the severity of self-rated symptom scores. The main finding was that after adjusting for pre-assessment values the mean lymphocyte count at the post-assessment was significantly higher (P=0.04) in the treatment group than in the controls. The size of this difference suggested that aromatherapy with Thai massage could boost lymphocyte numbers by 11%. The secondary outcomes were that at the post assessment the symptom severity scores for fatigue, presenting symptom, pain and stress were significantly lower in the massage group than in the
Foocharoen, Chingching; Suwannachat, Prangsuporn; Netwijitpan, Sittichai; Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Suwannaroj, Siraphop; Nanagara, Ratanavadee
Anti-topoisomerase I antibody (ATA) carries an increased risk of systemic sclerosis (SSc) internal organ involvement. There have been no published comparisons of the clinical characteristics of patients positive and negative for ATA in Thailand, where the positive rate for ATA is higher than among Caucasians. To define the clinical differences between SSc, positive versus negative, for ATA. A retrospective cohort study was performed among SSc patients over 18 at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, during January 2006-December 2013. SSc-overlap syndrome was excluded. Two hundred and ninety-four SSc patients were included (female : male 2.5 : 1). The majority (68.6%) were the diffuse cutaneous SSc subset (dcSSc). ATA was positive in 252 patients (85.7%), among whom 71.7% had dcSSc and 28.2% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc). Using a multivariate analysis, hand deformity had a significantly positive association with ATA (odds ratio [OR] 7.01; 95% CI 1.02-48.69), whereas being anti-centromere (ACA) positive had a negative association (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.92). After doing a subgroup analysis of the SSc subset, the median duration of disease at time of pulmonary fibrosis detection among ATA positive dcSSc was significantly shorter than the ATA negative group (1.05 vs. 6.77 years, P = 0.01). Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) at onset was significantly more frequent in lcSSc sufferers who were ATA negative than those who were ATA positive (90.5% vs. 56.9%, P = 0.005). A high prevalence of ATA positivity was found among Thai SSc patients and this was associated with a high frequency of hand deformity, ACA negativity, a short duration of pulmonary fibrosis in dcSSc and a lower frequency of RP in lcSSc. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Camp, Jon; Simpson, Kathryn; Bardsley, Michael R.; Popko, Laura N.; Young, David L.; Kemp, Bradley J.; Lowe, Val; Ordog, Tamas; Robb, Richard
Patients with chronic calorie insufficiency commonly suffer from upper gastrointestinal dysfunction and consequent dyspeptic symptoms, which may interfere with their nutritional rehabilitation. To investigate the relationship between gastric dysfunction and feeding behavior, we exposed mice to chronic caloric restriction and demonstrated gastric motor abnormalities in them. Gastric dysmotility is typically associated with dyspeptic symptoms but sensations cannot be directly assessed in animal models. Therefore, as an initial step toward establishing measurable correlates of postprandial symptoms in small animals, we have attempted to characterize central responses to food intake by positron emission tomography-computerized microtomography (PET-CT) in normal and calorically restricted mice. Animals consumed a standard test meal after an overnight fast before receiving 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose tracer. The same mice were also scanned in the fasting state on a separate day. We were able to bring the fed and fasting PET volume images into spatial registration with each other and with an MR-derived atlas of the mouse brain, so that the differences in uptake between the two states could be mapped quantitatively against the neuroanatomic regions of the atlas. Our approach is suitable for studying the effects of gastric dysmotilities on central responses to feeding.
Abbas, S.Z.; English, J.; Abbas, A.B.; Vivian, G.; Shaw, S.; McGovern, D.; Dalton, H.R.
Abstract: Background: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) will cure most Hp positive duodenal ulcers (DU). However, after such treatment, patients often continue to get dyspeptic symptoms. The effects of Hp eradication in patients with proven DU on gastro-oesophageal reflux dis (GORD) symptoms are controversial. Results: Eighty one percent patients had improvement in ulcer-type symptoms. 21% developed new GORD symptoms. 68% discontinued long-term acid-suppression treatment. 79% requiring continued acid suppression therapy had new or continued GORD symptoms. Conclusion: Patients in the community with Hp positive DU disease after eradication, 81% patients got symptomatic improvement, two third discontinued their acid suppressing therapy but 21% developed new GORD symptoms. Among those who required continued acid suppression, 79% had GORD symptoms. (author)
Vibulchai, Nisakorn; Thanasilp, Sureeporn; Preechawong, Sunida
This study examined the effects of a self-efficacy enhancement program for the cardiac rehabilitation of Thai patients who had a myocardial infarction. Sixty-six hospitalized patients of various ages and both genders were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. Participants in the experimental group took part in three individualized in-hospital education sessions and three weekly sessions of telephone counseling. The control group primarily engaged in a supervised exercise and activities of a daily living performance regimen, and received education in this regard. Self-efficacy and functional status were measured via questionnaire. Four weeks after discharge, the experimental group was found to have significantly higher total self-efficacy and functional status scores than the control group. In addition, the experimental group exhibited significantly higher subscale scores on social activity, household tasks, occupation, and exercise self-efficacy than the control group. These results indicate that the program is effective in improving the self-efficacy and functional status of Thai patients who have had a myocardial infarction. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available There are numerous studies of quality of life (QOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients; however, there are a few studies of spirituality and its association with QOL. Previous studies were done focusing on Western cultures; thus, the study of CKD patients in Eastern cultures would reveal interesting insights. This study was conducted to explore the spirituality, QOL, and depression of Thai CKD patients, and the associations between spirituality, QOL, and depression. This cross-sectional descriptive study using structured questionnaires was approved by the Khon Kaen University Ethics Committee in Human Research, Thailand. A total of 63 pre-dialysis CKD stage V patients who visited the kidney diseases clinic as appointed at the outpatient department in a community hospital in northeastern Thailand were recruited. The patients were asked for consent and then interviewed. Spirituality was assessed by using the WHOQOL Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp. The 9-item Thai Health Status Assessment Instrument (9-THAI was used to assess QOL. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to evaluate the depression. The study patients had high WHOQOL-SRPB and FACIT-Sp spirituality scores (median = 18.0, and 44.0, respectively. The 9-THAI QOL scores were within the normal range of the Thai general, healthy population (physical health score [PHS]; median = 48.0, mental health score [MHS]; median = 32.0. Based on BDI-II scores, most patients were in the minimal depression group (63.5%. The Spearman rho correlation coefficients (rs of PHS and WHOQOL-SRPB and FACIT-Sp were moderate with 0.34 for both spirituality measures. Similarly, also the mental health scores (MHS correlated moderately with WHOQOL-SRPB (rs = 0.46 and FACIT-Sp (rs = 0.37. Depressive symptoms (BDI-II strongly negatively correlated with WHOQOL-SRPB (rs = −0.58 and
Sangruangake, Monthida; Jirapornkul, Chananya; Hurst, Cameron
The aims of this study were to translate and psychometrically evaluate the Thai version of diabetes management self-efficacy scale (T-DMSES) and to examine its association with HbA1c control in diabetic individuals. This study recruited patients from outpatient diabetes clinics of both community and university hospitals. The first phases of this study involved translation of the existing DMSES into Thai, and in the second phase, we evaluated its psychometric properties. The construct validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Criterion validity of DMSES was subsequently evaluated by examining DMSES's association with HbA1c control. The T-DMSES contains 20 items across four factors. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the construct validity of T-DMSES ( χ 2 = 645.142, df = 164, p diabetes management self-efficacy and may also prove useful in evaluating interventions for raising diabetes management self-efficacy, which in turn, improve both patient self-management and blood sugar control.
Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk
Propionic acidemia (PA) is an inborn error of metabolism, caused by mutations in either the PCCA or PCCB gene, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of propionyl-CoA and its by-products. Here we report a 6-year-old Thai boy with PA who was born to consanguineous parents. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous frameshift insertion (c.379_380insA; p.T127NfsX160) in the PCCB gene, expanding its mutational spectrum.
Qureshi, T.Z.; Saleem, K.; Zafar, S.
Helicobacter pylori was known as campylobacter pyloridis in the beginning of the twentieth century. Doenges was the first to find this bacterium in the autopsy specimens of stomach using haematoxylin and eosin Stains. In 1940 Freedburg and Baron carried out a study on 35 partial gastrectomy specimens and found spirochetes in 37% after a long search. A major breakthrough occurred with the advent of fibroptic biopsy technique permitting the biopsy of stomach. Then in 1975 Steer and Colin Jones observed gram negative bacilli in 80% of patients with gastric ulcer. The bacterium was closely associated with the surface epithelium, both within and between pits. These microorganisms were poorly stained by haematoxylin and eosin stains but could be seen easily with Warthin Starry silver stain. Later on, a heavy growth of campylobacter like organism was found on non-selective culture media and so the first culture of helicobacter pylori was achieved in April 1982. Since then eight other helicobacter species have been found, one in man and the remainder in other animals including birds. The organism may remain silent for years or produce serious gastric disorders in the beginning. Many studies have been conducted on asymptomatic healthy individuals but its presence in dyspeptic patients has always been ignored and dyspepsia has been treated as a result of over acid production This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helicobacter pylori (hp) infection in dyspeptic population of Islamabad using /sup 13/C urea breath test, and to find the possible role of water in bug transmission. We have also tried to assess the type of gastric pathology resulted by bacterial colonization in stomach. A total of 278 individuals were studied. Out of these 115 who had serious complaints/symptoms were sent for endoscopy to get the antral biopsy sample. Breath samples of dyspeptic individuals were sent to Isotope Application Division, PINSTECH for /sup 13/C//sup 12/C isotope ratio
Stoové Mark A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma is a key barrier for the delivery of care to patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. In the Asia region, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected socially marginalised groups, in particular, injecting drug users. The effect of the stigmatising attitudes towards injecting drug users on perceptions of PLWHA within the health care contexts has not been thoroughly explored, and typically neglected in terms of stigma intervention. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a group of twenty Thai trainee and qualified nurses. Drawing upon the idea of 'social reciprocity', this paper examines the constructions of injecting drug users and PLWHA by a group of Thai nurses. Narratives were explored with a focus on how participants' views concerning the high-risk behaviour of injecting drug use might influence their attitudes towards PLWHA. Results The analysis shows that active efforts were made by participants to separate their views of patients living with HIV/AIDS from injecting drug users. While the former were depicted as patients worthy of social support and inclusion, the latter were excluded on the basis that they were perceived as irresponsible 'social cheaters' who pose severe social and economic harm to the community. Absent in the narratives were references to wider socio-political and epidemiological factors related to drug use and needle sharing that expose injecting drug users to risk; these behaviours were constructed as individual choices, allowing HIV positive drug users to be blamed for their seropositive status. These attitudes could potentially have indirect negative implications on the nurses' opinions of patients living with HIV/AIDS more generally. Conclusion Decreasing the stigma associated with illicit drugs might play crucial role in improving attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS. Providing health workers with a broader understanding of risk behaviours and redirecting
Thongprasom, Kobkan; Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Kanjanabuch, Patnarin; Youngnak-Piboonratanakit, Pornpan; Preuksrisakul, Titipong
This study investigated the presence of serum antinuclear antibodies (ANA) profile and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) evaluation in elderly Thai patients with red and white oral lesions. Thirty-two patients with red and white oral lesions were divided into two groups: group I consisted of 10 cases not taking medications, while group II consisted of 12 cases taking medications, and 30 healthy subjects as a control group. Blood samples were used to determine the ANA profile. DIF was investigated in the lesion containing groups. Serum ANA was found in six cases (60%) in group I, eight cases (66.7%) in group II, and 19 cases (63.3%) in the control group. There were no significant differences between group I and group II and the control group (P > 0.05). Serum ANA was most commonly found in patients taking hypolipidemics (80%), followed by antihypertensives (71.4%), NSAIDs (50%), hypoglycemics (50%), and others (66.7%). The anticytoplasmic staining frequency in group II was higher compared with group I and the control group. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were not found in any group. Elderly patients with red and white oral lesions who were taking medications had a higher serum ANA frequency than group I and the control group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yangngam, Supaporn; Plong-On, Oradawan; Sripo, Thanya; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Hansakunachai, Tippawan; Wirojanan, Juthamas; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara
Aim: Neurexin 1 has two major protein isoforms using alternative promoters, coding for the alpha-neurexin 1 (α-NRXN1) and beta-neurexin 1 (β-NRXN1) genes. This study is to explore the possibility that variants of the NRXN1 gene predispose to intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: The coding regions in 24 exons and exon–intron boundaries of the NRXN1 gene were investigated in 115 Thai patients with ID and ASD by direct DNA sequencing. Results: Nine novel variants of the NRXN1 gene were identified. Four novel variants were found in the β-NRXN1 gene, one variant of six GGC repeats in exon 1, and three variants at the 5′UTR. Five novel variants were identified in the α-NRXN1 gene, four intronic variants and one missense variant in exon 14 (c.2713T>A or p.F905I). Conclusion: Mutation screening of the NRXN1gene in patients with ID and ASD may be useful to identify potential variants predisposing to ID and ASD. However, further studies utilizing protein functional analysis of the novel variants are required for a more definite conclusion. PMID:24832020
Pattaragarn, Anirut; Sumboonnanonda, Achra; Parichatikanond, Paisal; Supavekin, Suroj; Suntornpoch, Vibul; Vongjirad, Arun
To define the patterns of clinicopathologic findings and to identify the risk factors for renal failure and mortality of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Thailand. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical manifestations, laboratory data, and pathologic findings, treatment modalities, and outcome of 82 patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN) with disease onset between I January 1987 and 31 December 1997. All children developed these first manifestations at the age 13 years or under Sixty-four (789%) patients were females and eighteen (22%) were males (ratio female/male = 3.5:1). The patients were followed for a mean period of 53.6 months (range 1 -141). The mean age at disease onset was 9.2 years (range 2-12.6). Class-IV LN, observed in 40 (48.8%) patients, was the most frequent histopathology on initial renal biopsy. Less frequent findings were class-II (30.5%), V (14.6%), I (3.7%) and III (2.4%) LN. Based on the renal histopathology and clinical presentations, patients were treated with corticosteroids alone or in combination with azathioprine or with intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYC). Methylprednisolone pulses were given in patients with clinically more severe disease. Follow-up biopsies, performed in 12 patients, showed no change in 4 patients, and were progressive in 8 patients. On final clinical evaluation, 20 patients died, 65% died from serious infections, 15% from cardiopulmonary complications, and 10% from end stage renal disease. As the whole group, survival rates were 89% and 74% at 12 and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year patient survival in class-II, class-IV and class- VLN patients were 83%, 67% and 64%, respectively. Within the group of class-IV LN, the 5-year survival in the patients treated with intravenous CYC was significantly better than those receiving prednisolone with or without azathioprine. Five-year kidney survival rates from the time of diagnosis to the endpoints of terminal renal failure were 94
Full Text Available Background . Polypharmacy among elderly patients in primary care settings is a global phenomenon that has not been well examined in Thailand. Objectives . To determine (i the prevalence rate of polypharmacy (using ≥ 5 medications among elderly Thai patients ≥ 60 years of age who were diagnosed with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs in primary care, (ii medication adherence and (iii quality of home medication management. Material and methods . The electronic medical records of eligible patients were reviewed to obtain demographic data, current medications, medical diagnoses and medical outcomes such as blood pressure. Those with polypharmacy were interviewed at their homes using structured questionnaires to examine medication adherence and medication management at home. Data was collected between September 2014 and April 2015. Results . Of the 397 participants, 146 (36.8% had polypharmacy. Those with polypharmacy were more likely to have type 2 diabetes mellitus, poor disease control and more NCDs. High rates of poor medication adherence (61% and poor medication management (60.2% at home were found in the polypharmacy group, but these factors were not associated with poor disease control (p = 0.169 and p = 0.683, respectively. Conclusions . More than one-third of the sample of Thai elderly with multiple NCDs in primary care were recipients of polypharmacy. Of those with polypharmacy, almost two-thirds reported poor medication adherence and poor medication management at home. Strategies to decrease unnecessary polypharmacy and improve both medication adherence and home management are essential in this patient group.
Sirinthornpunya, Siam; Rungjiratananon, Somboon
Colonic diverticular disease exhibits mucosal outpouchings through the large intestine. Common complications of this disease are diverticular bleeding and diverticulitis. Some patients with colonic diverticular disease have abdominal symptoms resembling irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with abdominal discomfort, bloating or pain associated with disturbed defecation and unclear etiology. Some studies have shown a high prevalence of colonic diverticular disease in patients with IBS. To determine the association, clinical characteristics and factors associated with colonic diverticular disease in IBS patients compared with a control group. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted at the Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok during December 2007 to January 2009. The study collected data regarding clinical characteristics, demographics and colonoscopic findings of colonic diverticular disease comparing among IBS patients, defined by Rome III criteria and control group patients. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee of Rajavithi Hospital. Demographic data of patients were collected. The presence of diverticula, their location and number from colonoscopic findings were recorded. One hundred and fifty patients were enrolled and analyzed. The patients comprised 75 patients in the IBS group and 75 patients in the control group. The prevalence ofcolonic diverticular disease in the total population was 17.3% (26 of 150). The IBS group had a higher prevalence of colonic diverticular disease than the control group with statistical significance (18 of 75, 24.0% in the IBS group vs. 8 of 75 or 10.7% in the control group, p = 0.031). Body mass index (BMI) more than 25 kg/m2, age more than 60 years and being male were associated with colonic diverticular disease without significance (28.1% in BMI >25 kg/m2 vs. 14.3% in BMI ≤25 kg/m2, p = 0.071, 23.0% in age >60 years
Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Kongyai, Natedao; Sirirungsi, Wasna; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D F; Leechanachai, Pranee; Choovuthayakorn, Janejit; Kunavisarut, Paradee; Rothova, Aniki
Uveitis is a major cause of severe visual impairment throughout the world and can be initiated by various infectious and non-infectious causes. Early recognition of specific infections is important as the treatment with antimicrobial agents might stop the progression or even cure the eye disease. To determine the infectious causes of uveitis in Thailand, intraocular fluid samples of 100 HIV-negative patients and 47 HIV-positive patients with uveitis were examined using real-time PCR analysis for herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii. Positive PCR results were found in 33/100 (33%) HIV-negative patients and in 33/47 (70%) HIV-positive patients with uveitis. In Thailand, cytomegalovirus was identified as the most frequent cause of infectious uveitis in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients (49 and 91%, respectively). PCR analysis of intraocular samples in uveitis was a valuable diagnostic assay. The pattern of uveitis observed in the Far East differs from that found in the West. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jongsareejit, Amporn; Potisat, Somkiat; Krairittichai, Udom; Sattaputh, Charnvate; Arunratanachote, Woranut
To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Thailand and their associated risk factors. A cross-sectional, multi-sites, hospital-based study was carried out between June and December 2006. Diabetic patients from the outpatient department of seven public hospitals (3 tertiary, 2 secondary and 2 community hospital) in Thailand were performed by retinal specialist. One thousand seven of 1,120 diabetic patients received retinal examination using indirect ophthalmoscope. Patients were divided into two groups (absent and present DR). Most patients in both groups were female (72.7 and 68.0%). The prevalence of DR was 24.0% (n = 242), mild NPDR 9.4% (n = 95), moderate NPDR 10.5% (n = 106), severe NPDR 1.3% (n = 13), and proliferative (PDR) 2.8% (n = 28). Age at onset, duration of DM, systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, Triglyceride (TG), alcohol consumption, foot ulcer, and proteinuria were recorded. Metformin and insulin taking were statistically, significantly different among these groups. There is more prevalent NPDR and PDR in insulin-taking than non-insulin-taking groups. The grading of diabetic retinopathy is associated with the duration of diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, associated risk factors of DR patients were the duration of DM, HbA1c levels, and proteinuria. Diabetic retinopathy was present in about one fourth of type 2 diabetic patients in this study. Associated risk factors of DR were the duration of DM, HbA1c levels, and proteinuria. Regular screening for DR especially in T2DM with associated risk factor should be done for early treatment.
James A Potts
Full Text Available Dengue virus is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical resource-poor countries. Dengue illness can range from a nonspecific febrile illness to a severe disease, Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS, in which patients develop circulatory failure. Earlier diagnosis of severe dengue illnesses would have a substantial impact on the allocation of health resources in endemic countries.We compared clinical laboratory findings collected within 72 hours of fever onset from a prospective cohort children presenting to one of two hospitals (one urban and one rural in Thailand. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to develop diagnostic algorithms using different categories of dengue disease severity to distinguish between patients at elevated risk of developing a severe dengue illness and those at low risk. A diagnostic algorithm using WBC count, percent monocytes, platelet count, and hematocrit achieved 97% sensitivity to identify patients who went on to develop DSS while correctly excluding 48% of non-severe cases. Addition of an indicator of severe plasma leakage to the WHO definition led to 99% sensitivity using WBC count, percent neutrophils, AST, platelet count, and age.This study identified two easily applicable diagnostic algorithms using early clinical indicators obtained within the first 72 hours of illness onset. The algorithms have high sensitivity to distinguish patients at elevated risk of developing severe dengue illness from patients at low risk, which included patients with mild dengue and other non-dengue febrile illnesses. Although these algorithms need to be validated in other populations, this study highlights the potential usefulness of specific clinical indicators early in illness.
Putthapiban, Prapaipan; Sukhumthammarat, Weera; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been one of the most common chronic diseases that create great impacts on both morbidities and mortalities. Many patients who suffering from this disease seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and related factors of herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use in patients with DM type 2 at a single university hospital in Thailand. A cross-sectional study was performed in 200 type 2 DM patients via face-to-face structured interviews using developed questionnaires comprised of demographic data, diabetes-specific information, details on HDS use, and medical adherence. From the endocrinology clinic, 61% of total patients reported HDS exposure and 28% were currently consuming. More than two-thirds of HDS users did not notify their physicians, mainly because of a lack of doctor concern; 73% of cases had no awareness of potential drug-herb interaction. The use of drumstick tree, turmeric and bitter gourd and holy mushroom were most frequently reported. The main reasons for HDS use were friend and relative suggestions and social media. Comparisons of demographic characteristics, medical adherence, and hemoglobin A1c among these non-HDS users, as well as current and former users, were not statistically significantly different. This study revealed a great number of DM patients interested in HDS use. The use of HDS for glycemic control is an emerging public health concern given the potential adverse effects, drug interactions and benefits associated with its use. Health care professionals should aware of HDS use and hence incorporate this aspect into the clinical practice.
Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that Parkinson’s disease (PD patients who have REM behavior disorder (PD with RBD might be a PD subtype since they have different symptom clusters and disease trajectories from PD without RBD. Objective. To study the prevalence of PD with pRBD and to compare the clinical characteristics with PD without pRBD. The feasibility of clinical interview of items adopted from the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire was also to be determined. Methods. A total of 140 Parkinson's patients visiting neurological clinics during January to December 2016 were enrolled in this study. “Probable RBD (pRBD” was defined as present when the patient answered “yes” to a question adapted from the first Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ. The demographic data, motor symptoms, and nonmotor symptoms were obtained. Results. The prevalence of pRBD among this study’s PD patients was 48.5% (68 out of the total of 140. The median onset of RBD before PD diagnosis was 5 years (range: 0–11 years. By comparison of PD with pRBD and PD without pRBD, this study showed significant difference in the levodopa equivalent dose (742 mg/day versus 566 mg/day; p<0.01, prevalence of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension (35.3% versus 8.3%; p<0.01. The multivariable analysis found that pRBD is independently associated with orthostatic hypotension (OR = 5.02, p<0.01. Conclusion. The findings regarding prevalence and main clinical features of PD with pRBD in this study were similar to those of a previous study of PD with polysomnogram- (PSG- proven RBD. This study hypothesized that interviewing by adopted MSQ may be a cost-effective tool for screening RBD. Further studies with direct comparison are needed.
Khumsarn, Nattida [Dental Division of Lamphun Hospital, Lamphun (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)
This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns.
Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Nanakorn, Somsong; Mongconthawornchai, Paiboon; Virasiri, Surapol; Maneeganondh, Somchit; Thepsuthummarat, Kaewchai
To compare fingerprint patterns, means of dermatoglyphic variables i.e., total finger ridge count, total a-b ridge count, pattern complexity index, and fingerprint pattern asymmetry between patients with schizophrenia and normal controls. A cross-sectional, matching case-control was conducted. Thirty-four males and 34 females with schizophrenia and an equal number of age and sex matched normal controls were selected. Fingerprints and partial palm prints of all of the subjects were obtained using the Automated Inkless Fingerprint Imaging Software and the transparent-adhesive tape technique, respectively. Using paired t-tests (p < 0.05), the cases and controls, males and females separately, were compared for fingerprint pattern asymmetry, total finger ridge counts (TFRC), a-b ridge counts of the right (RABRC), left (LABRC), and both hands (TABRC), and pattern complexity index (PCI). Between cases and controls, neither sex had any significant differences in the mean scores for the pattern asymmetries, TFRC, right-left-ABRC and TABRC. However, the mean scores for PCI were significantly different between the male cases and controls (2.82 vs. 4.94, p = 0 009). Only male patients exhibited average scores for complex patterns (whorls minus arches less than 2), which might be a biomarker for screening of schizophrenia in males.
Chittrakul, Saranya; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Wongpakaran, Nahathai
To compare prevalence of anxiety in ovarian cancer patients following primary treatment to that of normal women and to examine predicting factor. In this cross-sectional study, 56 ovarian cancer patients who had primary surgical treatment within the past five years (cancer group) and 56 age-matched women who attended an outpatient clinic for check-ups (non-cancer group) were recruited from June 2013 to January 2014. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), was used to determine anxiety level of the participants with the score of ≥11 suggestive of anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and mean HADS scores for anxiety were compared between the study groups. For those with ovarian cancer, associations of demographic and clinical factors with anxiety was examined. A p-value of cancer group had higher rate of medical comorbidity, higher salary, and more frequent university education. The prevalence of anxiety was not different between the groups, at 7.1% each. The mean HADS scores for anxiety subscale were not significantly different between the groups, 5.0 in the cancer group vs 6.1 in the non-cancer group (p=0.09). On multivariable analysis, no demographic or clinical factors significantly associated with anxiety were identified. For the cancer group, no association between any particular factors and anxiety was demonstrated. The prevalence of anxiety in women with ovarian cancer following primary treatment was comparable to that of normal women seeking routine check-up.
Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Pramojanee, Sakarat; Thaiupathump, Trasapong
This study was performed to determine the relationship between the stage of tooth eruption (both vertical and mesio-angular) and chronological age. Indirect digital panoramic radiographs were used to measure the distances from the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) of the second molars to the occlusal plane of the second molar teeth and of the adjacent third molars in 264 Thai males and 437 Thai females using ImageJ software. The ratio of those distances was calculated by patient age, and the correlation coefficient of the ratio of the third molar length to the second molar length was calculated. The correlation between the height of the vertically erupted upper third molar teeth and age was at the intermediate level. The age range of ≥15 to age determined from the eruptional height and actual chronological age was statistically significant. The mean age of the female subjects, in which the position of the right upper third molar teeth was at or above the DEJ of the adjacent second molar but below one half of its coronal height was 19.9±2.6 years. That for the left side was 20.2±2.7 years. The mean ages of the male subjects were 20.1±3.3 years and 19.8±2.7 years for the right and left sides, respectively. It might be possible to predict chronological age from the eruption height of the wisdom teeth.
Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn; Ayudhya, Duangchit Panomvana Na; Sriuranpong, Virote; Areepium, Nutthada
Tamoxifen is a pharmacological estrogen inhibitor that binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cells. However, it shows an estrogenic effect in other organs, which causes adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) enzyme encoded by the SULT1A1 gene is involved in estrogen metabolism. Previous research has suggested that the SULT1A1 copy number is linked with the plasma estradiol (E2) concentration. Here, a total of 34 premenopausal breast cancer patients, selected from the Thai Tamoxifen (TTAM) Project, were screened for their SULT1A1 copy number, plasma E2 concentration and ADRs. The mean age was 44.3±11.1 years, and they were subtyped as ER+/ progesterone receptor (PR) + (28 patients), ER+/ PR- (5 patients) and ER-/PR- (1 patient). Three patients reported ADRs, which were irregular menstruation (2 patients) and vaginal discharge (1 patient). Most (33) patients had two SULT1A1 copies, with one patient having three copies. The median plasma E2 concentration was 1,575.6 (IQR 865.4) pg/ml. Patients with ADRs had significantly higher plasma E2 concentrations than those patients without ADRs (p = 0.014). The plasma E2 concentration was numerically higher in the patient with three SULT1A1 copies, but this lacked statistical significance.
Full Text Available Insee Sensorn,1,* Chonlaphat Sukasem,2,* Ekaphop Sirachainan,3 Montri Chamnanphon,2 Ekawat Pasomsub,4 Narumol Trachu,5 Porntip Supavilai,1 Darawan Pinthong,1 Sansanee Wongwaisayawan6 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 2Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 3Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 4Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 5Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, 6Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters have been extensively studied with regard to tamoxifen treatment outcomes. However, the results are inconclusive. Analysis of organ-specific metastasis may reveal the association of these pharmacogenetic factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of CYP3A5, CYP2D6, ABCB1, and ABCC2 polymorphisms on the risk of all distant and organ-specific metastases in Thai patients who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 73 patients with breast cancer who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. CYP3A5 (6986A>G, CYP2D6 (100C>T, ABCB1 (3435C>T, and ABCC2 (-24C>T were genotyped using allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. The impacts of prognostic clinical factors and genetic variants on disease-free survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results: In the univariate analysis, primary tumor size >5 cm was significantly associated with increased risk of distant metastasis (P=0
Dmytriieva, S M
Overall 304 children and adolescents with gastro-duodenal pathology were studied for some aspects of clinical manifestations of the pain and dyspeptic syndromes as related to the character of disordered gastroduodenal motility by making use of techniques of phase polygastroduodenometry. Pathogenetic interrelationship was disclosed of clinical manifestations of the pain and dyspeptic syndromes according to the variant of gastroduodenal dysmotility (dysphasic hyper- or hypomotile dyskinesia of the stomach and duodenum).
Full Text Available Chawanun Charnsil,1 Salinee Vongpanich21Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Medical Affairs Department, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Previous studies with extended-release (ER paliperidone have reported an effective outcome in terms of personal and social functioning improvement and also reported schizophrenia symptom improvement. The main objectives of this study were to further investigate improvements in symptom control and social functioning of paliperidone ER and acknowledge the safety profile of paliperidone ER in Thai patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Patients with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria were allowed flexible 3–12 mg/day dosing during the 10-week study duration. Patients were interviewed and assessed in social functioning using the Personal and Social Performance (PSP scale. Patients were also rated on overall severity of illness using the Clinical and Global Impressions – Severity (CGI-S scale.Results: In total, 40 patients were enrolled, 80% of enrolled patients (n = 32 completed the 10-week study period. Thirty-eight eligible patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis set (male 39.5%, female 60.5%. One patient was lost to follow-up without postbaseline-efficacy measurements. Another patient was terminated early due to a change in diagnosis during the trial. Statistically significant improvements from baseline in PSP total score were observed at all time points. Clinically relevant improvement in PSP (increase of at least one 10-point category was observed in 47.40% of patients at end point. Improvement in CGI-S was observed at end point (P < 0.001. The mean reduction ± standard deviation at end point in CGI-S was 0.8 ± 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.48–1.16. The most commonly reported adverse events (≥5% of patients were daytime drowsiness (15% and headache (15%. Three subjects
Potisat, Somkiat; Krairittichai, Udom; Jongsareejit, Amporn; Sattaputh, Charnvate; Arunratanachote, Woranut
To assess the clinical course of long-term diabetic complications; diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and foot problems in Thai patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes were followed for four years between March 2006 and September 2010. Seven hospitals in all levels of care under the Ministry of Public Health Thailand were included in the present study. A physical examination and a diabetic complications assessment were performed each year during the study period, by physician specialists in the related areas. Among 1,120 patients who participated in the present study, 705 (62.95%) patients completed the 4-year follow-up time. There were 88 (7.86%) patients reported deaths during the present study period. The mean age was 59.14 +/- 10.12 years. The average duration of diabetes was 7.30 +/- 6.14 years. Approximately 57.32% of patients had a family history of diabetes. The average plasma glucose level and HbA1C were 153 to 160 mg/dl and 8.25 to 8.75%. Moreover less than one-fourth of patients had HbA1C below 7%. The prevalence for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy were approximately 23.7% and 38.3%. In addition, more than 15% of patients had diabetic foot problems, loss of protective sensation and pedal pulse deficit. Finally, the incidence rates were 80.1 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 69.7, 91.8) for diabetic retinopathy, and 91.1 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 78.8, 105.1) for diabetic nephropathy Problems regarding poor diabetes control exist in Thai diabetes patients. It results in high prevalence and incidence of diabetic complications. As such, it is crucial to establish the country's diabetes management plan as well as evaluate the long-term complications in diabetic patients annually, in order for patients to receive the benefits of early treatment and prevent further complications.
The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered.
The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered
Intragumtornchai, Tanin; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Khuhapinant, Archrob; Nawarawong, Weerasak; Norasetthada, Lalita; Lekhakula, Arnuparp; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Sirijerachai, Chittima; Chansung, Kanjana; Suwanban, Tawatchai; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Niparuck, Pimjai; Wongkhantee, Somchai; Mongkonsritragoon, Wichean; Numbenjapon, Tontanai
The impact of health insurance with inequitable rituximab coverage on the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has never been reported. We conducted a nationwide multicenter analysis on the outcome of 553 adult patients consecutively diagnosed with DLBCL between July 2003 and June 2006, in whom treatment cost was reimbursed under the Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme (CSMBS) (n =201) or the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) (n =352). The international prognostic index was comparable between the two payment groups. Rituximab-based therapy was administered in 45.3% and 3.1% of CSMBS and UCS patients, respectively (p <0.001). With a median follow-up of 24.6 months, the 6-year progression-free survival (PFS) was superior for CSMBS patients (34.2 vs. 23.2%, p =0.005). "Not treated with rituximab-based therapy" was the strongest adverse prognostic feature indicating a short PFS (hazard ratio 2.1, p <0.001). It is concluded that lack of access to rituximab is the principal factor accounting for the inferior PFS observed in Thai patients with DLBCL who are treated under the UCS.
Siriangkhawut, Methira; Tansakul, Patthana; Uchaipichat, Verawan
Drug-drug interactions are one of the major risk factors associated with statin-induced myopathy. Although simvastatin is widely used in Thailand, studies investigating the prevalence of potential simvastatin-drug interactions (SDIs) and its clinical relevance in Thai population are still limited. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of potential SDIs (phase 1 study) and musculoskeletal adverse effects (AEs) associated with those interactions (phase 2 study). A phase 1 study was retrospectively conducted with outpatients at a 60-bed hospital who received simvastatin between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. In phase 2, study was cross-sectionally conducted in outpatients whose prescriptions contain potential SDIs. Musculoskeletal AEs were evaluated by using symptom checklist questionnaires and measuring plasma creatinine kinase (CK). The causal relationship between the AEs and the potential SDIs was assessed using a Drug Interaction Probability Scale. Out of 3447 simvastatin users, potential SDIs were found in 314 patients (9.1%). The prevalence of prescriptions containing potential SDIs was in the range of 4.7-6.0%. Two-thirds of the potential SDIs were rated to be highly significant while more than 70% were in contraindication list. The most common precipitant drugs were gemfibrozil (382 prescriptions), colchicine (171 prescriptions) and amlodipine (152 prescriptions). Of 49 patients recruited into phase 2 study, we found that 31 patients (63.3%) had myopathy. Myalgia was the most frequently identified AEs ( n = 18, 58.1%), followed by asymptomatic rising CK ( n = 8, 25.8%), and myositis ( n = 5, 16.1%). Musculoskeletal AEs associated with SDIs were found in 16 patients (51.6%). Of these, we found 50.0%, 31.3% and 18.8% had asymptomatic rising CK, myalgia, and myositis, respectively. Precipitant drugs associated with myopathy were amlodipine (2 possible cases), colchicine (3 possible cases), gemfibrozil (8 possible and 1 probable cases), nevirapine (1
Pongtheerat, Tanett; Saelee, Pensri
Background: Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) is involved in the detoxification of carcinogenic agents. DNA copy number variants of GSTM1 may be associated with cancer progression and may result in reduced survival time of various cancers. Determination of DNA copy number variants was here used to assess the association between GSTM1 copy number variant and pathological status and survival time of colorectal-cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Methods: One hundred thirteen Thai colorectal-cancer patients were investigated for GSTM1 copy number variant by real-time PCR. Relationships between gene copy number variants and clinico-pathological parameters were determined. Result: Associations were evident between GSTM1 copy number and stage of tumor (P = 0.026) and metastasis at diagnosis (P = 0.049), with odds ratio values of 0.2 and 0.3 respectively. Conclusions: GSTM1 copy number variant was here not related with reduced overall survival for the colorectal-cancer patients receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy. Creative Commons Attribution License
Construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Thai version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-TH) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.
Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Phutrit, Suphatha; Tongprasert, Siam; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Khunachiva, Jeeranan
This study evaluated additional psychometric properties of the Thai version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-TH) which included, test-retest reliability, construct validity, internal consistency of in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. As for determining construct validity, the Thai EuroQOL questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) was also administered in order to examine convergent and divergent validity. Fifty patients completed both questionnaires. The DASH-TH showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.811) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.911). The exploratory factor analysis yielded a six-factor solution while the confirmatory factor analysis denoted that the hypothesized model adequately fit the data with a comparative fit index of 0.967 and a Tucker-Lewis index of 0.964. The related subscales between the DASH-TH and the Thai EQ-5D-5L were significantly correlated, indicating the DASH-TH's convergent and discriminant validity. The DASH-TH demonstrated good reliability, internal consistency construct validity, and multidimensionality, in assessing the upper extremity function in carpal tunnel syndrome patients.
O'Keefe, S J; Salvador, B; Nainkin, J; Majiki, S; Stevens, H; Atherstone, A
Evidence that chronic gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is an aetiological factor in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma has led to the suggestion that all serologically positive dyspeptic patients should be treated empirically with antibiotics to eradicate the infection, without endoscopic diagnosis. The following study was performed to determine whether such a policy would prove to be of benefit in rural Africa, where endoscopic facilities are lacking and infection rates high. Four district clinics were visited and 97 consecutive patients with persistent upper gastro-intestinal symptoms studied. After history-taking and physical examination, a blood sample was taken for HP serology (IgG anti-HP EIA) and endoscopy was performed. In comparison with similar studies in westernised countries HP was considerably more common (80%), and similar to that reported for the background population (83-86%), but peptic ulceration (17%) and gastric cancer (1%) were not. HP status and antibody levels failed to predict the presence of serious disease; patients with 'alarm' signs (78%), cancer (78%) and peptic ulcers (81%) had similar seropositivity rates to patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (81%). Interestingly, many patients with distal oesophagitis were seronegative (40%). Haemoglobin concentrations and nutritional status were similar in HP-positive and negative patients. On the basis of published decision analysis strategies, empiric treatment of HP-positive patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia could be expected to produce symptomatic relief in 50% of cases, but would have delayed the diagnosis of 3 cases of cancer if patients over the age of 45 were included. The lack of association between HP serology and upper gastro-intestinal disease indicates that serological investigation cannot substitute for endoscopy in the management of black Africans with dyspepsia, and that empiric anti-HP therapy cannot be justified.
The purposes of this research are to investigate Thai teens’ attitude toward prostitution on the internet, to discover the causes of teenage prostitution and to study the relationship between teenage promiscuity and the causes of teenage prostitution. This study is a mixed research which utilized both qualitative and quantitative approach. The population of this study included teenagers and early adults between 14-21 years old who were studying in high schools, colleges, or universities. A to...
Comparison of Quick Lactose Intolerance Test in duodenal biopsies of dyspeptic patients with single nucleotide polymorphism LCT-13910C>T associated with primary hypolactasia/lactase-persistence Comparação do Teste Quick de Intolerância à Lactose em biópsias duodenais de pacientes dispépticos com polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único LCT-13910C>T associado com hipolactasia primária/lactase persistente
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the usefulness of Quick Lactose Intolerance Test in relation to the genetic test based on LCT-13910C>T genotypes, previously validated for clinical practice, for primary hypolactasia/lactase-persistence diagnosis. METHODS: Thirty-two dyspeptic patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy entered the study. Two postbulbar duodenal biopsies were taken for the Quick test, and gastric antral biopsy for DNA extraction and LCT-13910C>T polymorphism analysis. DNA was also extracted from biopsies after being used in the Quick Test that was kept frozen until extraction. RESULTS: Nine patients with lactase-persistence genotype (LCT-13910CT or LCT-13910TT had normolactasia, eleven patients with hypolactasia genotype (LCT-13910CC had severe hypolactasia, and among twelve with mild hypolactasia, except for one that had LCT-13910CT genotype, all the others had hypolactasia genotype. The agreement between genetic test and quick test was high (pOBJETIVO: Analisar a aplicabilidade do Teste Quick de Intolerância à Lactose em relação ao teste genético baseado nos genótipos LCT-13910C>T, previamente validado para a prática clínica, para diagnóstico de má digestão primária de lactose/digestão de lactose. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois pacientes dispépticos submetidos à endoscopia digestiva entraram no estudo. Duas biópsias duodenais pós-bulbares foram empregadas no Teste Quick, e biópsia do antro gástrico para extração de DNA e análise do polimorfismo LCT-13910C>T. DNA também foi extraído de biópsias depois de terem sido usadas no teste Quick, e conservadas congeladas. RESULTADOS: Nove pacientes com genótipo de lactase persistente (LCT-13910CT ou LCT-13910TT tinham normolactasia, onze pacientes com genótipo de hipolactasia (LCT-13910CC tinham hipolactasia severa, e entre doze com hipolactasia leve, com exceção de uma que tinha genótipo LCT-13910CT, todos os demais tinham genótipo de hipolactasia. A concord
Full Text Available A 72-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of an incarcerated uterine prolapse along with an infected wound at the anterior uterine wall. She had previously undergone the traditional Thai practice Yue Fai, or “lying by the fire,” as performed by postpartum women. However, her uterus was burned by the extremely high temperature involved in the practice; it subsequently became infected and incarcerated. Pelvic examination revealed stage IV genitourinary prolapse according to the POP-Q classification. An ill-defined ulcer measuring 6.5 × 4.5 cm was present in the anterior wall of the uterus, and a 2.0 cm diameter ulcer was present in the right posterior wall of the uterus. The patient was treated symptomatically with broad-spectrum antibiotics, local estrogen therapy, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents, and antiseptic dressing of the ulcerated area. After alleviation of all symptoms, the ulcer almost completely healed. She was advised to undergo definitive surgical treatment for the prolapsed uterus.
Limviriyakul, Siriporn; Supavanich, Walop
Demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version (THI-T), a self-report measure of tinnitus. A cross-sectional psychometric validation study was used to determine internal consistency reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version at the Otoneurology clinic at Tertiary care center The cross-cultural adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicapped Inventory English version (Newman et al, 1996) was translated into Thai version following the steps indicated by Guillemin et al. The reliability was constructed by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The validity was analyzed by the correlation between Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai version and the 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale using Spearman and Pearson test. The result showed good internal consistency reliabilities of total, functional, emotional, and catastrophic scale (a = 0.902, 0.804, 0.831 and 0.661, respectively) of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version. Spearman correlation showed the significant correlation of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory to 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version will be a vigorous tool in evaluating tinnitus patients as well as monitoring the progress of their symptoms.
Aiempanakit, Kumpol; Naorungroj, Surarit; Chiratikarnwong, Kanokphorn; Auepemkiate, Sauvarat; Apinantriyo, Benjawan
Background: Febrile neutropenia (FNP) is a condition defined by fever and neutropenia. There are current only limited data on related cutaneous manifestations. This study aimed to assess cutaneous lesions and their etiologies in a Thai group of FNP patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 43 non-transplant febrile neutropenic patients with concurrent cutaneous lesions, as determined by dermatopathologic studies at Songklanagarind Hospital in Thailand over a five-year period. Results: The mean age was 39 years (SD: 18.8). Approximately 60% were male. The most common underlying disease was a hematologic neoplasm. Twenty-one of the participants had developed FNP within 7.5±8.7 days after presenting with skin lesions. Twenty-two participants had skin lesions 9.0±11.1 days after FNP diagnosis. Cutaneous manifestations were mostly in the form of multiple lesions (67.4%), of which the most common were nodular skin lesions (37.2%) presenting on the lower extremities of the body (58.1%). The dermatopathologic diagnoses included infections which were almost all fungal and leukemia cutis. The development of skin lesions after FNP proved to be a statistically significant risk factor for fungal infection (OR 8.13, P = 0.009), whereas age (over 40 years) proved to be a statistically significant protective factor (OR 0.20, P = 0.04). Conclusions: There are a variety of cutaneous manifestations in FNP, of which the most common were cutaneous nodular skin lesions in the lower extremities. The most frequent infection was fungal in patients under 40 who had developed skin lesions after FNP. Creative Commons Attribution License
Endarti, Dwi; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kristina, Susi Ari
To gain insight into the most suitable foreign value set among Malaysian, Singaporean, Thai, and UK value sets for calculating the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire index score (utility) among patients with cervical cancer in Indonesia. Data from 87 patients with cervical cancer recruited from a referral hospital in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, from an earlier study of health-related quality of life were used in this study. The differences among the utility scores derived from the four value sets were determined using the Friedman test. Performance of the psychometric properties of the four value sets versus visual analogue scale (VAS) was assessed. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to test the agreement among the utility scores. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were used to assess convergent validity between utility scores and patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. With respect to known-group validity, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the differences in utility according to the stages of cancer. There was significant difference among utility scores derived from the four value sets, among which the Malaysian value set yielded higher utility than the other three value sets. Utility obtained from the Malaysian value set had more agreements with VAS than the other value sets versus VAS (intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plot tests results). As for the validity, the four value sets showed equivalent psychometric properties as those that resulted from convergent and known-group validity tests. In the absence of an Indonesian value set, the Malaysian value set was more preferable to be used compared with the other value sets. Further studies on the development of an Indonesian value set need to be conducted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the impact of quality of care (QoC and other factors on chronic kidney disease (CKD stage progression among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM patients.This study employed a retrospective cohort from a nationwide Diabetes and Hypertension study involving 595 Thai hospitals. T2DM patients who were observed at least 2 times in the 3 years follow-up (between 2011-2013 were included in our study. Ordinal logistic mixed effect regression modeling was used to investigate the association between the QoC and other factors with CKD stage progression.After adjusting for covariates, we found that the achievement of the HbA1c clinical targets (≤7% was the only QoC indicator protective against the CKD stage progression (adjusted OR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.59-0.98; p<0.05. In terms of other covariates, age, occupation, type of health insurance, region of residence, HDL-C, triglyceride, hypertension and insulin sensitizer were also strongly associated with CKD stage progression.This cohort study demonstrates the achievement of the HbA1c clinical target (≤7% is the only QoC indicator protective against progression of CKD stage. Neither of the other clinical targets (BP and LDL-C nor any process of care targets could be shown to be associated with CKD stage progression. Therefore, close monitoring of blood sugar control is important to slow CKD progression, but long-term prospective cohorts are needed to gain better insights into the impact of QoC indicators on CKD progression.
Nagaviroj, Kittiphon; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat
Many terminally ill patients would prefer to stay and die in their own homes, but unfortunately, some may not be able to do so. Although there are many factors associated with successful home deaths, receiving palliative home visits from the multidisciplinary care teams is one of the key factors that enable patients to die at home. Our study was aimed to find whether there was any association between our palliative home care program and home death. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Family Medicine at Ramathibodi Hospital between January 2012 and May 2014. All of the patients who were referred to multidisciplinary palliative care teams were included. The data set comprised of patient's profile, disease status, functional status, patient's symptoms, preferred place of death, frequency of home visits, types of team interventions, and patient's actual place of death. Multiple logistic regression was applied in order to determine the association between the variables and the probability of dying at home. A total of 142 patients were included into the study. At the end of the study, 50 (35.2%) patients died at home and 92 (64.8%) patients died in the hospital. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a strong association between multidisciplinary home care and home death (odds ratio 6.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.48-17.38). Palliative home care was a significant factor enabling patients who want to die at home. We encourage health policy makers to promote the development of community-based palliative care programs in Thailand.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on gastrointestinal symptoms, dysfunctions, and neurological disorders in systemic scleroderma are lacking so far. Methods Thirty-eight scleroderma patients (34 limited, 4 diffuse, 60 healthy controls and 68 dyspeptic controls were scored for upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms (dyspepsia, bowel habits, gastric and gallbladder emptying to liquid meal (functional ultrasonography and small bowel transit (H2-breath test. Autonomic nerve function was assessed by cardiovascular tests. Results The score for dyspepsia (mainly gastric fullness was greater in scleroderma patients than healthy controls, but lower than dyspeptic controls who had multiple symptoms, instead. Scleroderma patients with dyspepsia had a longer disease duration. Fasting antral area and postprandial antral dilatation were smaller in scleroderma patients than dyspeptic and healthy controls. Gastric emptying was delayed in both scleroderma patients (particularly in those with abnormal dyspeptic score and dyspeptic controls, who also showed a larger residual area. Despite gallbladder fasting and postprandial volumes were comparable across the three groups, gallbladder refilling appeared delayed in dyspeptic controls and mainly dependent on delayed gastric emptying in scleroderma. Small intestinal transit was also delayed in 74% of scleroderma and 66% of dyspeptic controls. Bowel habits were similar among the three groups. Autonomic neuropathy was not associated with dyspepsia, gastric and gallbladder motility and small intestinal transit. Conclusion In scleroderma patients dyspepsia (mainly gastric fullness, restricted distension of the gastric antrum and diffuse gastrointestinal dysmotility are frequent features. These defects are independent from the occurrence of autonomic neuropathy.
The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)
Rungpetchwong, T; Likhitsathian, S; Jaranai, S; Srisurapanont, M
To examine the distress related to individual depressive symptoms, the correlation between symptom distress and disability, and the gender difference in distress levels in patients with major depressive disorder. This was a cross-sectional, observational study carried out at a university hospital providing tertiary care in northern Thailand. Participants were patients with major depressive disorder aged between 18 and 65 years. Depression severity was self-rated using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). We expanded the 9 symptom items of the PHQ-9 into 13 individual symptoms. The participants rated their distress for each symptom on a scale of 0 to 4, from 0 indicating 'not at all' to 4 indicating 'extremely'. A total of 130 (92 female and 38 male) patients with major depressive disorder participated in this study. Of the 13 symptoms, the distress level of overeating was lowest. Compared with overeating, the distress levels of feeling depressed / hopeless, feeling guilty, poor concentration, anhedonia, initial insomnia, middle / terminal insomnia, and fatigue were significantly higher and had a large effect size of differences (p difference between men and women on any symptom. Depressive symptoms related to high distress levels and moderately correlated with functional impairment were feeling depressed / hopeless, feeling guilty, poor concentration, and anhedonia.
Muangpaisan, Weerasak; Intalapaporn, Somboon; Assantachai, Prasert
Far too little attention has been paid to the difference of Digit Span test and category verbal fluency test (CVFT) between normal and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. To investigate the difference of Digit Span test and CVFT between normal subjects and patients with MCI and study the influence of age, gender, and education on the task performance. The authors collected data of 77 participants diagnosed with amnestic MCI (from 517 participants screened) and 30 normal subjects aged 50 or over enrolled from communities in Bangkok. The Digit Span test and CVFT (semantic fluency and Controlled word association test for letter fluency) were used to evaluate the subjects. MCI patients had significantly lower digit span score, in both Digits Forward and Digits Backward, poorer performance on semantic fluency for animals and fruits and letter fluency test. The logistic regression model of MCI diagnosis showed that only Digits Backward score was a predictor of MCI diagnosis (OR 0.643 for each increment of 1 digit, p = 0.009, 95% confidence interval 0.462-0.896). The cut-off point of Digit Backward score was 4 and yielded sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 57%. Females had lower scores than males in every test except semantic fluency for fruits. The digit span and semantic fluency scores decreased as age increased but letter fluency increased correspondently with age. The digit span and CVFT scores increased in parallel with the increase of education. MCI patients had poorer performance on the Digit Span and CVFT tests than normal age and education matched subjects. Digits Backward test can predict the MCI diagnosis. Age, gender and education have an impact on the performance of the tests.
M. Ning (Mao); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Komin’s nine values cluster (Psychology of the Thai people), analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy (Han et al., 2010), integrates the Theory
Axéll, T; Zain, R B; Siwamogstham, P; Tantiniran, D; Thampipit, J
At the Faculties of Dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients of mean ages 33.8 and 31.0 yr, respectively, were examined for the presence of oral mucosal lesions. Tobacco in some form was regularly used by 31.7% and 27.5% of the study populations in CM and KL, respectively. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit. In CM three persons chewed betel quids and nine smoked banana leaf cigars daily. In addition, there were 24 habitual chewers of tea leaves (miang). In KL six persons chewed betel quids daily. In CM and KL three cases each (1.3%) of tobacco-associated leukoplakias were found. In KL an additional idiopathic leukoplakia was registered. One and three cases of betel related lesions were found in CM and KL, respectively. One case of a squamous cell carcinoma was found in a 45-yr-old Indian woman in KL who had been chewing betel with tobacco daily for many years. High prevalence figures were found for lichen planus, 3.8% in CM and 2.1% in KL, and an extremely high one, 48.3%, in CM for episodes of aphthous ulcers experienced during the last 2 yr. Comparatively low prevalence figures were found for herpes labialis. As could be expected melanin pigmentation was prevalent while only low figures were encountered for denture-related lesions and amalgam tattoos.
This study aims to examine the twelve core values of Thai people found in Thai university students. The twelve values consist of the following attributes: 1.Upholding the nation, the religions and the Monarchy 2. Being honest, sacrificial and patient with positive attitude for the common good of the public 3. Being grateful to the parents,…
Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Piyasing, Veera; Boontheaim, Benjaporn; Ratanamongkolgul, Suthee; Wattanasirichaigoon, Somkiat
The objectives of this study were to explore characteristics of the long-lived Thai physicians. We sent 983 posted questionnaires to 840 male and 143 female physicians. We obtained 327 of them back after 2 rounds of mailing, yielding a response rate of 33.3 percents. The response rate of male physicians was 32.4 percents and that of female physicians was 38.5 percents. Their ages were between 68-93 years (75.1 +/- 4.86 years on average). The majority were married, implying that their spouses were also long-lived. Around half of them still did some clinical work, one-fourth did some charity work, one-fourth did various voluntary works, one-fifth did some business, one-fifth did some academic work, and some did more than one type of work. Most long-lived physicians were not obese, with BMI of 16.53-34.16 (average 23.97 +/- 2.80). Only 8 had BMI higher than 30. BMIs were not different between male and female physicians. However, four-fifths of them had diseases that required treatment, and some of them had more than one disease. The five most frequent diseases were hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, and benign prostate hypertrophy, respectively. Most long-lived physicians did exercise (87.8%), and some did more than one method. The most frequent one was walking (52.3%). Most did not drink alcohol or drank occasionally, only 9.0% drank regularly. Most of them slept 3-9 hours per night (average 6.75 +/- 1.06). Most (78.3%) took some medication regularly; of most were medicine for their diseases. Most did not eat macrobiotic food, vegetarian food, or fast food regularly. Most long-lived physicians practiced some religious activities by praying, paying respect to Buddha, giving food to monks, practicing meditation, and listening to monks' teaching. They also used Buddhist practice and guidelines for their daily living and work, and also recommended these to their younger colleagues. Their recreational activities were playing musical instruments
Charuluxananan, Somrat; Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Somboonviboon, Wanna; Nipitsukarn, Thana; Sothikarnmanee, Thepakorn; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Werawatganon, Thewarug; Tanudsintum, Surasak; Lekprasert, Varinee; Hintong, Thanoo
Since anesthesia, unlike medical or surgical specialties, does not constitute treatment, The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand host the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes to determine factors related to anesthesia related adverse events. A prospective descriptive study of occurrence screening was conducted in 20 hospitals comprised of 7 university, 4 general and 4 district hospitals across Thailand. Anesthesia personnels were required to fill up patient-related, surgical-related, anesthesia-related variables and adverse outcomes on a strutured data entry form. The data included preanesthetic evaluation intraoperative period and 24 hr postoperative period. Adverse events specific form was recorded when adverse events occurred. All data were keyed in data management unit with double entry technique and descriptive statistics was used in the first phase of this study. A total of 163403 consecutive cases were recorded in one year. The mean (S.D.) of age, weight and height of patients were 38.6(2.3) yrs, 53.9(17.7) kgs and 153.4(22.7) cm respectively. There were more female (52.9%) than male (47. 1%) patients with ASA PS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = 50.8%, 36.3%, 10.7%, 2.0%, 0.2% respectively. Hypertension (11.6%), anemia (7.7%) and diabetes melitus (6.8%) were the three most common abnormalities in preanesthetic history taking. Mallampati score of 111870 patients grade 1, 2, 3, 4 were 54.0%, 39.7%, 5.6%, 0.7% and laryngoscopic grade 1, 2, 3, 4 of 74888 patients were 81.0%, 15.5%, 3.0% and 0.5% respectively. The first phase of THAI study epidemiological project can represent both the anesthesia and surgical profiles in Thailand. The collected data available should be useful for the improvement of the quality of anesthesia, guidelines for clinical practices, medical education and for further research.
Thienthong, Somboon; Hintong, Thanoo; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn
To determine the incidence, risk factors, signs, symptoms and management of perioperative allergic reactions in the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study). Between February 1, 2003, and January 31, 2004, a descriptive, prospective, multicenter study was conducted in 20 hospitals across Thailand. All patients receiving anesthetic and medical agents were monitored for allergic reactions for the first 24 postoperative-hours. Signs and symptoms of suspected allergic reactions included skin reactions, wheezing and unexpected hypotension. The details of allergic reactions were reviewed and recorded. Allergic reactions occurred in 30 of the 163,403 patients included in this study. The reaction-incidence was approximately 1 in 5,500 cases of anesthesia. Forty-eight percent of the affected patients had a history of allergic reactions. The manifestations were skin reactions, hypotension and wheezing in 38, 22 and 19 percent of the overall symptoms, respectively. Reactions were mild, moderate and severe in 40, 23 and 37 percent of the patients, respectively. The three drugs most suspected of causing the reaction(s) were antibiotics (19%), muscle relaxants (17%) and propofol (15%). All of the affected patients recovered after treatment including the one who suffered cardiac arrest because of the allergic reaction. The incidence of perioperative allergic reactions was 1 in 5,500 cases of anesthesia. History of allergies was obtained from half of the patients and the most common sign was a skin reaction. The drugs most suspected of causing an allergic reaction were antibiotics. All of the patients responded well to rescue treatment.
La-ongsri, Woranuch; Trisonthi, Chusie; Balslev, Henrik
A synopsis of Nymphaeaceae from Thailand was made by means of a literature search, consultation of herbarium specimens in several Thai and European herbaria, and a survey of 47 wetlands throughout Thailand. Nymphaeaceae phylogeny, habitats and reproductive ecology are reviewed. All species encoun...
The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.
McIntosh, Linda Susan
This thesis documents the hand-woven textiles that the Phu Thai ethnic group living in Savannakhet Province, Laos, produce. The various stages of textile production and the uses of textiles in Phu Thai society, especially as identity markers, are also examined. Textiles of neighboring groups are also investigated to how knowledge of textile technology, types, and aesthetics are transferred between the Phu Thai and other ethnicities, specifically the Lao and Katang. The study's field research ...
Pallotta, N; Pezzotti, P; Calabrese, E; Baccini, F; Corazziari, E
AIM: Delayed gastric emptying and an enlarged fasting gastric antrum are common findings in functional dyspepsia but their relationship with gastrointestinal (GI), and the frequently associated extra-GI symptoms remains unclear. This study evaluated the relationship between GI and extra-GI symptoms, fasting antral volume and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.
Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha; Suntharapa, Thongchai; Harnroongroj, Thossart
Nowadays, measuring score in the form of subjective questionnaires is the important tool for clinical evaluation of the foot and ankle-related problems. VisualAnalogue Scale-Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) is the newly developed subjective questionnaire, which has sufficiency of validity and reliability from a previous study Translate the original English version of VAS-FA into the Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai VAS-FA in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. According to the forward-backward translation protocol, original VAS-FA was translated into the Thai version. Thai VAS-FA and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were distributed to 42 Thai patients to complete. For validation, Thai VAS-FA scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. For reliability, the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. Thai VAS-FA score demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP) domains, and total score of SF-36 (statistically significant with p 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.995 from test-retest study. The internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha: 0.995. The original VAS-FA score is a well-validated, subjective, visual-analogue-scale based outcome score. The Thai version of VAS-FA form maintained the validity and reliability of the original version. This newly translated-validated score can be distributed for the evaluation of the functions, symptoms, and limitation of activities in Thai patients with foot and ankle problems.
This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand
A study to determine whether the volume-weighted computed tomography dose index gives reasonable estimates of organ doses for thai patients undergoing abdomen and pelvis computed tomography examinations
Full Text Available Introduction: Values for the CTDIvol, which is displayed on scanner consoles, give doses relative to a phantom much larger than most Thai patients, and the CTDIvoldoes not take account of differences in patient size, which affect organ doses. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships for size specific dose estimate (SSDE and volume weighted computed tomography (CT dose index (CTDIvol with patient size for CT scanners operating under automatic tube current modulation (ATCM. Methods: Retrospective data from 244 patients who had undergone abdomen and pelvis examination on GE and Siemens CT scanners were included in this study. The combination of anteroposterior (AP and lateral dimensions at the level of the first lumbar vertebra (L1 was used to represent patient size. Image noise within the liver was measured, and values of the absorbed dose for organs covered by the primary beam such as the liver, stomach and kidney were calculated using methods described in the literature. Values of CTDIvolwere recorded and SSDE calculated according to the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM Report No.204. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between SSDE, CTDIvol, image noise and patient size. Results: SSDE is 20%-50% larger than the CTDIvol, with values for larger patients being more representative. Both the CTDIvoland image noise decreased with patient size for Siemens scanners, but the decline in SSDE was less significant. For the GE scanner, the CTDIvolwas a factor of 3-4 lower in small patients compared to larger ones, while the SSDE only decreased by a factor of two. Noise actually decreased slightly with patient size. Conclusion: Values of SSDE were similar to the doses calculated for the liver, stomach and kidney, which are covered by the primary beam, confirming that it provides a good estimate of organ-absorbed dose.
M.J. McAleer (Michael); N. Mao (Ning)
markdownabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede's cultural dimension theory and Komin's nine values cluster, analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy, integrates the Theory of Cultural Capital, and expounds the features
Balthip, Karnsunaphat; McSherry, Wilfred; Petchruschatachart, Usanee; Piriyakoontorn, Siriwan; Liamputtong, Pranee
This article describes experiences that enhanced life purpose in 21 Thai adolescents living in Southern Thailand. Thailand is undergoing rapid change from technology, a globalizing economy, and shifting social norms. A phenomenological analysis of in-depth interviews and stories to better understand how Thai youth themselves experience and…
Sinhaneti, Kantara; Pullawan, Jitmanee
Introduction: Aesthetic surgery becomes another option of beauty. Interested Patients seeking for choices offered outside their homeland for more benefits. Thailand maybe one of those choices people is now interested in. Thai aesthetic industry may prove to be one of the most wanted destinations because of its expertise and relatively low cost with impressive service. Problem: “How should Thailand improve its Aesthetic service attractiveness to drive its potential to the level of internationa...
Michelle Bafutto Gomes Costa
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Functional dyspepsia is a condition in which symptoms are not related to organic underlying disease; its pathogenesis is not well known. The small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is characterized by the increase in the number and/or type of colonic bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The hypothesis of SIBO being associated to functional dyspepsia must be considered, since the impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the main etiologic factors involved on both pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is SIBO in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Case-control study, evaluating 34 patients: 23 functional dyspeptic and 11 non-dyspeptic (control group. Questionnaire applied based on Rome III criteria. The patients underwent H2-lactulose breath test, considered positive when: H2 peak exceeding 20 ppm, in relation to fasting, or two peaks exceeding 10 ppm sustained until 60 minutes. RESULTS: Of the 23 dyspeptic patients, 13 (56.5% obtained positive results for SIBO trough the H2-lactulose breath test. On control group, SIBO was not observed. The association between the dyspeptic group and the control group regarding SIBO was statistically significant, with P = 0.0052. In the group of dyspeptic patients, 12 (52.2% were using proton pump inhibitor; of these 9 (75% were positive for SIBO. In the control group, none of the 11 patients used proton pump inhibitors and SIBO was not observed. The association of the dyspeptic group using proton pump inhibitor that were positive for SIBO and the control group was statistically significant, with P = 0.0011. CONCLUSION: It was found that, patients with functional dyspepsia presented SIBO, when they underwent to H2-lactulose breath test, compared to the non-dyspeptic. In addition, it was observed a higher prevalence of SIBO in dyspeptic patients that were using proton pump inhibitors, compared to control group.
In vitro sensitivity of antimalarial drugs and correlation with clinico-parasitological response following treatment with a 3-day artesunate-mefloquine combination in patients with falciparum malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border.
Muhamad, Phunuch; Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Phompradit, Papichaya; Na-Bangchang, Kesara
A 3-day artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy has been using as first-line treatment for acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand since 1995 on the background of mefloquine resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates (n=44) in an area along the Thai-Myanmar border (year 2009) to artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine and quinine, including their correlation with clinico-parasitological response. Twenty, 19, and 5 isolates were collected from patients with 'Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR)', 'Late Parasitological Failure (LPF)' and 're-infection', respectively. The IC 50 of artesunate and mefloquine were significantly higher in patients with LPF compared with ACPR and re-infection. The proportion of isolates with declined artesunate or mefloquine sensitivity in the LPF group (47.4%) was significantly higher than the ACPR group (5.0%). A weak but statistical significant correlation (r=0.384, p=0.01) was observed between IC 50 values of artesunate and parasite clearance time (PCT). There was no significant relationship between in vitro sensitivity of parasite isolates to chloroquine or quinine and clinical response. In vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum isolates to artesunate and mefloquine may be used as a useful reliable tool to predict clinico-pathological response following a 3-day artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Namprik is a typical Thai food containing various herbs. The diversity of Namprik depends on herb composition and content, cooking method, and flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a fine, driedand granular Namprik formula for eating with rice. The ingredients included many commonly found Thai herbs. The recipe of lemon grass Namprik produced by Satree Ban-Tung group, Khaokram district, AmphurMueang, Krabi province, Thailand, was reformulated. Mixture design was applied to optimize the amounts of black pepper (10-33%, garlic (10-66.67% and shallot (10-66.67%. Contour plot of hedonic scores andthe predictive regression models were calculated. Results showed that optimal formula should have 23.33% black pepper, 66.67% garlic and 10% shallot. Optimum levels of additional mixed herbs consisting of 5-25%kaffir lime leaves and 75-95% holy basil in the formula, using the mixture design, were also investigated. The results of sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale showed no significant differences in appearance,taste and overall liking (p>0.05. However, the formula containing 4.2% kaffir lime leaves and 15.8% holy basil obtained the highest average score for aroma (p<0.05. Various amounts of dried African chili (7, 5,3% were added to determine an acceptable hot and spicy flavor, using just-about-right scale. The results revealed that the formula containing 7, 5 and 3% dried African chili were defined as just-about-right by 22, 32 and 42% of the panelists, respectively. The final product was given average hedonic scores of aroma, taste,spicy and overall liking ranging from like moderately to like very much. Appearance scores were in the range of like slightly to like moderately. This study indicated that a more nutrition and healthier Namprik containing some Thai herbs can be produced.
Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.
Lumyongsatien, Jate; Yangsakul, Waralak; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Hopkins, Claire; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of common health conditions that affects patients' health-related quality of life. Our purpose is to assess the reliability and validity of Thai-version of Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 in chronic rhinosinusitis. Permission for translation of SNOT-22 from English language to Thai language was obtained from the developer. The translation process was done based on the international standard of translation method. A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study and divided into two groups comprising of 50 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 30 healthy volunteers. Cronbach's α and Intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated for its reliability. Validity test was evaluated against VAS score, SF-36 (Thai version) questionnaire and CT scan (based on Lund-Mackay score). Responsiveness was assessed between pre-operative and post-operative scores in 34 patients. The Thai version of SNOT-22 showed good reliability according to high value of Cronbach's α coefficient ( r = 0.929) and intraclass correlation coefficient ( r = 0.935). It also showed good validity by its ability to differential the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis from normal ( p reliability and validity, suitable for evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms together with severity of the disease and response to treatment. Thai clinical trials registry TCTR20170320003. Date of registration 20/03/2017 (retrospectively registered).
Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu
Fructose malabsorption has not been well-defined in Thai populations but there has been increasing consumption of fructose-fortified drinks. To assess the incidence of fructose malabsorption and intolerance in Thai normal subjects as well as the facilitating effect of glucose on fructose absorption. Twenty-five gram of fructose was ingested by 77 subjects (37 men, 40 women; mean age 26 and 31 y, range 20-50 y and 21-50 y for men and women, respectively). Measurement of breath-H(2) levels after fructose ingestion in each subject up to 2 h was performed. Those who showed fructose malabsorption were later given 25 g of each glucose and fructose and second tests of breath-H(2) tests were done. Fructose malabsorption was found in eleven females with a significant rise in average breath-H(2) level at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min (pfructose malabsorbers, excess breath-H(2) reverted to normal when the fructose solution was mixed and administered with 25 g glucose (pfructose malabsorption was 11 of 77 subjects but these were female. One of the 11 had gastrointestinal symptoms. It was found that an equal amount of glucose would abolish fructose malabsorption.
Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Ruktrakul, Ruk
This study examines the Thai version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for its psychometric properties. In total 462 participants were recruited - 310 medical students from Chiang Mai University and 152 psychiatric patients, and they completed the Thai version of the MSPSS, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Test-retest reliability was conducted over a four week period. Factor analysis produced three-factor solutions for both patient (PG) and student groups (SG), and overall the model demonstrated adequate fit indices. The mean total score and the sub-scale score for the SG were statistically higher than those in the PG, except for 'Significant Others'. The internal consistency of the scale was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91 for the SG and 0.87 for the PG. After a four week retest for reliability exercise, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.84. The Thai-MSPSS was found to have a negative correlation with the STAI and the TDI, but was positively correlated with the RSES. The Thai MSPSS is a reliable and valid instrument to use.
Arunakul, Marut; Arunakul, Preeyaphan; Suesiritumrong, Chakhrist; Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha
Self-administered questionnaires have become an important aspect for clinical outcome assessment of foot and ankle-related problems. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) subjective form is a region-specific questionnaire that is widely used and has sufficient validity and reliability from previous studies. Translate the original English version of FAAM into a Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai FAAM in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. The FAAM subjective form was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation protocol. Afterward, reliability and validity were tested. Following responses from 60 consecutive patients on two questionnaires, the Thai FAAM subjective form and the short form (SF)-36, were used. The validity was tested by correlating the scores from both questionnaires. The reliability was adopted by measuring the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Thai FAAM score including activity of daily life (ADL) and Sport subscale demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF) and physical composite score (PCS) domains of the SF-36 (statistically significant with p foot and ankle-related problems.
Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis
It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study components of desired characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists. The sample consisted of 169 Thai clinical psychologists who have Thai clinical license and work on psychiatric in the hospital selected by simple random sampling technique. The research instrument was characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists questionnaires. Data were analyzed by means of second order confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL version 8.72. The results of the research revealed that desired characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists consisted of 3 components ; ability, personality and ethics. The characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists was congruent with the empirical data. The factor loadings of those three components were high at the .05 level, and they were found to be capable of measuring the characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists functioning factors.The results of second order confirmatory factor analysis of model in the characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists were found that model was fitted with empirical data. Ranging from the highest factor loading value to the lowest, they were from 0.30 to 1.09, respectively: personality, ethics and ability with factors loading of 1.09, 0.59, and 0.30 respectively. The construct validity of models was consistent with empirical data, with chi-square goodness of fit test at 56.65 ; p-value = 0.13497 ; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI = 0.94 ; Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI = 0.91 ; Comparative fit index (CFI = 0.98 ; Root Mean Square Residual (RMR = 0.010, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.037
Ankavipar Saprungruang, MD
Conclusions: All 20 patients with LQTS were mostly symptomatic at presentation. Owing to the geographical region and ethnicity of the Thai population, we conclude that the ratio of patients who develop cardiac symptoms at rest or during sleep might be higher than in other Asian countries.
Khanuntong, S; Kuptawintu, P; Upaisilpsathaporn, K; Poolchareon, A; Bunworasate, U; Hirankarn, N
This study was a retrospective analysis of Thai patients undergoing T-replete hematopoietic stem cell transplant from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donors. We investigated 66 patients, including 40 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 12 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 14 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and HLA ligands were typed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes. We analyzed the effect of the number of missing KIR ligands (Bw4, C1 and C2) on clinical outcomes. A beneficial effect of missing KIR ligand was not observed in both univariate and multivariate analysis. When we analyzed the effect of specific missing KIR ligand on clinical outcomes, there was a trend that patients with missing A11 ligand had lower relapse rate (P = 0.076). Therefore, we also conducted the analysis by including the group with missing KIR ligands of Bw4, C1, C2 and A11. Patients with two or more than two missing KIR ligands had a trend for better clinical outcome including reduced relapse (P = 055) and statistically significant in terms of reduced acute graft-vs-host disease (aGVHD) rate (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, patients with two or more than two missing KIR ligands had a statistically significant better clinical outcome in terms of reduced aGVHD rate (HR = 0.155, 95%CI = 0.040-0.605, P = 0.007). The association between clinical outcome with KIR haplotypes, centromeric B haplotype and activating KIR was not observed here. Although the sample size in this study is rather limited, these data can later be subjected to meta-analysis to help reach the conclusion of the usefulness of this additional promising KIR genotyping in various hematopoietic stem cell transplantation types. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most depression screening tools in Thailand are lengthy. The long process makes them impractical for routine use in primary care. This study aims to examine the reliability and validity of a Thai version Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 as a screening tool for major depression in primary care patients. Methods The English language PHQ-9 was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the pre-final version, as well as final adjustments. The PHQ-9 was then administered among 1,000 patients in family practice clinic. Of these 1,000 patients, 300 were further assessed by the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and the Thai version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. These tools served as gold-standards for diagnosing depression and for assessing symptom severity, respectively. In the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed. Results Complete data were obtained from 924 participants and 279 interviewed respondents. The mean age of the participants was 45.0 years (SD = 14.3 and 73.7% of them were females. The mean PHQ-9 score was 4.93 (SD = 3.75. The Thai version of the PHQ-9 had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79 and showed moderate convergent validity with the HAM-D (r = 0.56; P Conclusion The Thai version of the PHQ-9 has acceptable psychometric properties for screening for major depression in general practice with a recommended cut-off score of nine or greater.
Phattharayuttawat, Sucheera; Ngamthipwatthana, Thienchai; Pitiyawaranun, Buncha
"Quality of life" has become a main focus of interest in medicine. The Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL) was developed in order to measure the Thai mental illness both in a clinical setting and community. The purpose of this study was to develop the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL), having adequate and sufficient construct validity, discriminant power, concurrent validity, and reliability. To develop the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life Test, two samples groups were used in the present study: (1) pilot study samples: 30 samples and (2) survey samples were 672 samples consisting of normal, and psychiatric patients. The developing tests items were collected from a review of the literature in which all the items were based on the WHO definition of Quality of Life. Then, experts judgment by the Delphi technique was used in the first stage. After that a pilot study was used to evaluate the testing administration, and wording of the tests items. The final stage was collected data from the survey samples. The results of the present study showed that the final test was composed 25 items. The construct validity of this test consists of six domains: Physical, Cognitive, Affective, Social Function, Economic and Self-Esteem. All the PTQL items have sufficient discriminant power It was found to be statistically significant different at the. 001 level between those people with mental disorders and normal people. There was a high level of concurrent validity association with WHOQOL-BREF, Pearson correlation coefficient and Area under ROC curve were 0.92 and 0.97 respectively. The reliability coefficients for the Alpha coefficients of the PTQL total test was 0.88. The values of the six scales were from 0.81 to 0:91. The present study was directed at developing an effective psychometric properties pictorial quality of life questionnaire. The result will be a more direct and meaningful application of an instrument to detect the mental health illness poor quality of life in
Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Paul
The purpose of this research was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Work Ability Index (WAI). Forward translation and back-translation of the WAI were performed by seven bilingual professionals to ensure that the Thai WAI was culturally relevant and conceptually accurate. To ensure generalizability of the Thai WAI, a sample of 2,744 Thai workers from 19 different enterprises in five regions of Thailand completed the Thai version of the WAI along with the General Health Questionnaire. The 19 enterprises were from the following industries: canned food, snack food, cooking oil, footwear, pharmaceutical, ceramics, toy, steel, petrochemical, and auto parts. The results from exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model, accounting for 53.49% of the total variance. The results also provided evidence for adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Thai WAI. The internal consistency of the Thai WAI was found to be slightly low due to the newness of the concept of work ability, which is not a common term used in the Thai language; therefore, explanation of the meaning of work ability is needed to increase understanding of workers. By providing early recognition of workers' health risks as well as risks of early termination, the WAI can help Thai human resources managers respond better to the needs of workers and be proactive in their efforts to retain workers in their organizations. Occupational health professionals could also utilize the WAI to evaluate the work ability of Thai workers in order to help organizations recognize early signs of their workers' health risks and possible early terminations and respond appropriately.
Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch
Antioxidants have been used as radioprotectors in cosmetics and radiation therapy to protect normal tissues in cancer patients. The objective of this study is to determine the activities of antioxidants in Thai edible plants (holy basil, sesame (white and black). durian (Chanee and Monthong), parsley, morning glory, guava, chilies, pepper, sweet pepper, ash pumpkin, pumpkin, tomato, peppermint, and sweet basil) by using I, I-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and to determine their capability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis. Gamma rays (10 KGy) from cobalt-60 was used to induce hemolysis of human red blood cells, and ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant. The extracts from all samples showed antioxidant activities. However, only the extracts (0.1-1,000 μg/8 x 10 9 red blood cells) from parsley, guava, peppermint, and sweet basil could significantly inhibit (p<0.05) radiation-induced hemolysis. Although ascorbic acid is a strong antioxidant, its ability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis was lower than the extracts. This maybe due to its hydrophilic property which limits its ability to penetrate cell membrane
Sompong, Narong; Kheerajitt, Cherdpong
The objectives of this research were to: 1) develop the online courseware on Thai Food Good Health to support the Thai Kitchen to the world project; and 2) evaluate the courseware by the learners toward the courseware integrated using in aboard. The research sample were sampling for chefs, Thai restaurant owners, and the students who were studying…
Eamsila, C; Singsawat, P; Duangvaraporn, A; Strickman, D
Thai soldiers who were conscripted, Royal Thai Army forces, professional Border Patrol Police, or local militia (Thai Rangers) located in any of seven provinces of Thailand were bled in April and again, four months later, in July 1989. In 1991, soldiers from five different locations in southern Thailand were bled once, in July. Serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assay for antibody to Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, etiologic agent of scrub typhus, with any titer > or = 1:50 considered positive. Prior to field exercises, prevalence of antibody varied significantly between different types of units, ranging between 18.6% for Thai Rangers and 6.8% for the Royal Thai Army. The April prevalence, July prevalence, and incidence varied significantly by province in 1989, with highest incidence being 14.5% in Kanchanaburi and the lowest 0% in Utraladit. The prevalence in southern Thailand in 1991 varied between 1.6% and 6.8%. The data demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi is widely distributed in Thailand and that military activity consisting of field exercises that simulate combat conditions significantly expose soldiers to infection.
Phanasathit, Muthita; Manwong, Mereerat; Hanprathet, Nitt; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee
To determine the validity ofthe Thai version ofthe Bergen FacebookAddiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) using Facebook addiction screening in Thai high school students. The original BFAS was authorized for translation and validation in Thai. After content validity and usability were approved by three Thai psychiatrists, the Thai-BFAS was adjusted again by the authors and back translated by an English expert. Thisfinal version was investigated using the internal consistency method among 874 high schools students in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, and confirmatoy factor analysis (CFA) was employed to prove that the six-component model could be representative of addiction behaviors. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed separately among 30 pilot high school students in Bangkok. The Thai-BFAS has six items, which are each scored on a 5-point scale with total score ranges from 0 to 24; the cutoff score for Facebook addition stands at least 12 points. The Cronbach s alpha coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI; 0.90, 0.92) and the inter-class correlation coefficient was 0.80 (95% CI; 0.49, 0.92). The CFA showed that the six items accurately represent the six-component model of addiction such as salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse and conflict. The Thai-BFAS is consistent as a screening testfor Facebook addiction among high school students due to good reliability and validity. It also conforms well to the original version. The six items in the Thai-BFAS are a good representation of the addiction behaviors. Further studies should be undertaken in cases of sensitivity and specificity when compared with other similar tests of addiction as well as in various additional populations and circumstances.
This article describes research undertaken to investigate aspects of Thai culture and its effects on Thai students in an international school in Thailand. Using a variety of data gathering methods, the investigation looks at how Thai culture manifests itself in the classroom in the form of student behaviour and attitudes. The research also…
Mens, Helene; Højlyng, Niels; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling
We report the first case of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection, in a 32-y-old HIV positive Thai woman, in Denmark. Untreated it is a life-threatening infection. Therefore it is extremely important to consider P. marneffei in patients who are immunocompromized and who have been travelling...
Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim
Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10 with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. Methods A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [χ2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p r = 0.60, p r = 0.55, p r = -0.46, p Conclusions The Thai version of the PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2
Full Text Available In Thailand, the combined generic anti-retroviral drug stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (d4T/3TC/NVP has been used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals since 2001. Due to relatively frequent adverse effects, d4T gradually has been replaced with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF. Although the frequency of adverse drug effects with TDF is lower than that with d4T, TDF is known to induce kidney dysfunction, especially in the proximal tubules. It has been reported that renal tubular transporters, including members of the multi-drug resistant (MDR protein family, are implicated in tenofovir extrusion and may, therefore, confer susceptibility to TDF-induced kidney tubular dysfunction (KTD. We have explored the association between KTD and polymorphisms in genes that encode adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC-type MDRs.HIV-infected patients receiving TDF-containing antiretroviral regimens for at least one year were enrolled in the study. The levels of beta2-microglobulin in urine and creatinine (Cr were measured. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms, ABCC2 C-24T (rs717620, ABCC2 G1429A (rs2273697, and ABCC4 T4976C (rs1059751, were analyzed using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays.A total of 273 HIV-infected patients were recruited. The median number of years of TDF treatment was 5.04 with interquartile range (IQR of 3.9-6.7. Despite the length of treatment with TDF, 98.5% patients maintained an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of >60 mL/min as calculated by the CKD-EPI formula. Fifty-four patients (19.8% showed beta2-microglobulinuria (median 2636 μg/g Cr with IQR of 1519-13197 μg/g Cr. The allele frequency of ABCC4 T4976C among those 54 patients was 0.602, compared to 0.475 among the 219 remaining patients (p = 0.018.Approximately 20% of HIV-infected patients receiving TDF showed beta2-microglobulinuria. The C allele at position 4976 of the ABCC4 gene was associated with beta2-microglobulinuria in this
Ungsedhapand, C.; Kroon, E. D.; Suwanagool, S.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Yimsuan, N.; Sonjai, A.; Ubolyam, S.; Buranapraditkun, S.; Tiengrim, S.; Pakker, N.; Kunanusont, C.; Lange, J. M.; Cooper, D. A.; Phanuphak, P.
To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor combination of zidovudine, lamivudine, and didanosine therapy. A randomized open-label trial. Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts of 100 to 500 cells/microl. A total of 106
Chewaskulyong, Busyamas; Sapinun, Ladarat; Downing, G Michael; Intaratat, Prapai; Lesperance, Mary; Leautrakul, Suntree; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Leerapun, Thaninit
the Thai PPS Adult Suandok tool was translated from the Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2) and had been used in Chiang Mai, Thailand for several years. to test the reliability and validity of the Thai translation of PPSv2. a set of 22 palliative cases were used to determine a PPS score on Time-1, and repeated two weeks later as Time-2. A survey questionnaire was also completed for qualitative analysis. a total of 70 nurses and physicians from Maharaj Nakorn Hospital in Chiang Mai participated. The Time-1 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for absolute agreement is 0.911 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) and for consistency is 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.96). The Time-2 ICC for agreement is 0.905 (95% CI 0.85-0.95) and for consistency is 0.912 (95% CI 0.86-0.96). These findings indicate good agreement among participants and also were somewhat higher in the Time-2 re-test phase. Cohen's kappa score is 0.55, demonstrating a moderate agreement. Thematic analysis from the surveys showed that 91% felt PPS to be a valuable clinical tool overall, with it being 'very useful' or 'useful' in several areas, including care planning (78% and 20%), disease monitoring (69% and 27%) and prognostication (61% and 31%), respectively. Some respondents noted difficulty in determining appropriate scores in paraplegic patients or those with feeding tubes, while others found the instructions long or difficult. the Thai PPS Adult Suandok translated tool has good inter- and intra-rater reliability and can be used regularly for clinical care.
Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Manoyosa, Veruree; Tarnkehard, Surapee; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat
Out-of-school youth in Thailand engage in risky sexual behavior that puts them at risk for contracting HIV infection and can have other negative sexual reproductive health outcomes. No study has examined risky sexual behaviors and compared them between Thai and non-Thai out-of-school youth. The current study compares sexual risk behavior and HIV testing behavior between out-of-school Thai and non-Thai youth. We conducted face-to-face interviews in this study population in urban Chiang Mai during 2014. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling from two main sources: non-formal education centers (NFECs) and social meeting places. We recruited 924 youth, aged 15-24 years, of whom 424 (45.9%) were Thai and 500 (54.1%) were non-Thai. The majority were attending NFECs (82.3%). Of the sexually experienced participants (57.7%), 75.4% did not use condoms consistently, and 50.3% had at least 2 lifetime sexual partners. Among the study participants, the Thai studied youth had significantly higher odds of ever having had sex (AOR=2.33; 95% CI: 1.56-3.49; p<0.001), having an earlier sexual debut (AOR=5.52; 95% CI: 2.71-11.25; p<0.001) and having a larger number of lifetime sexual partners (AOR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.37-3.88; p=0.002) than non-Thai participants. There was no significant difference between the Thai and non-Thai participants in terms of having HIV testing. The Thai studied youth were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than the non-Thai youth. However, both groups displayed risky sexual behaviors. Future research should explore indepth the drivers of risky sexual behaviors among both Thai and non-Thai youth.
This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…
Ratanasiripong, Paul; Rodriguez, Adrian
There are few in-depth studies of Thai college student health and mental health behaviors that focus on the cultural influences that shape such behaviors. Thus, the purposes of this study are: (1) to conduct the needs assessment survey on health and mental health issues at a public university in Thailand in order to better understand the issues…
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
Reports on an interview with Terry E. Miller, a specialist on music of Thailand and other southeastern Asian nations. Discusses the culture, the role of music, and musical instruments of Thailand. Includes a list of resources and two lesson plans for teaching about Thai music. (CFR)
Murphy, Richard, Ed.; And Others
This resource book is intended as an aid to persons working with Thai Dam refugees. To help the language teacher, some differences between Lao and English are discussed, specifically tonal inflections, positioning, declension of pronouns, conjugation of verbs, interrogatives, classifiers and predicate adjectives. An outline of cultural differences…
Kamalaporn, Harutai; Chawalitdamrong, Pongpan; Preutthipan, Aroonwan
Childhood asthma is a substantial health burden in Thailand. Due to a lack of pediatric respiratory specialists (pediatric pulmonologists and allergists; RS), most Thai children are cared for by general pediatricians (pediatric primary care providers (PCP)). We investigated whether current practices of Thai pediatricians complied with asthma guidelines and compared practices (diagnosis and treatments) provided by PCP and RS. A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic surveys including four case scenarios of different asthma phenotypes distributed to Thai pediatricians. Asthma diagnosis and management were evaluated for compliance with standard guidelines. The practices of PCP and RS were compared. From 800 surveys distributed, there were 405 respondents (51%). Most respondents (81%) were PCP, who preferred to use clinical diagnosis rather than laboratory investigations to diagnose asthma. For acute asthmatic attacks, 58% of the pediatricians prescribed a systemic corticosteroid. For uncontrolled asthma, 89% of the pediatricians prescribed at least one controller. For exercise-induced bronchospasm, 55% of the pediatricians chose an inhaled bronchodilator, while 38% chose a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). For virus-induced wheeze, 40% of the respondents chose an LTRA, while 15% chose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators (31% vs. 18%, p = 0.02), antibiotics (20% vs. 6%, p attack. Most of the Thai pediatricians' practices toward diagnosis and treatment of acute asthmatic attack and uncontrolled asthma conform to the guidelines. PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators, antibiotics, and antihistamines than RS.
g sample, respectively. Interestingly, phytophenolic chromatogram and anthocyanin pigment levels showed a strong correlation. Conclusion: Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice strain of Leum Phua, has high levels of anthocyanin pigment, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Its pure phytochemical contents should be ...
Full Text Available Nowadays, Thai herbal plants are widely accepted in alternative medicine for treatment patients suffering deleterious diseases such as cancer. Having a variety of indications, several herbal formulas including Triphala have been routinely used as health tonic in Thai traditional and Ayurvedic medicines. The formulation of Triphala is a mixture of fruits of three plants: Phyllanthus emblica Linn., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn. Roxb., all of which were reported to inhibit the growth and induce the death of cancer cells effectively. Therefore, anticancer activities inevitably turn out to be one of the essential properties of Triphala formula as well. It is likely that a number of active compounds in the formula, especially tannins, are the key agents that induce the apoptotic cell death via free radical production in cancer cells. On the other hand, all three fruits of these plants also contain high levels of antioxidants, capable of protecting normal cells from any free radical-mediated injuries effectively. Thus, the paradoxical role of Triphala is cell-type specific and becomes an advantage for usage of this formulation. Furthermore, Triphala has high potentials for inhibition and prevention of mutagenesis and metastasis of cancer cells. Finally, studies in the mechanism of action of Triphala and the product development as well as safety evaluation of the standard herbal extract are definitely required for future pharmacological applications of Triphala as anticancer agents for cancer therapy.
Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Kusumaphanyo, Chaiyapruk; Ittichaikulthol, Wichai; Suksompong, Sirilak; Ratanachai, Prapa
Analyze the clinical course, management, outcome, and contributing factors of perioperative allergic reactions in the Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study (Thai AIMS). A prospective descriptive multicenter study was conducted in 51 hospitals across Thailand Voluntary, anonymous reports of any adverse or undesirable events during the first 24 hours of anesthesia were sent to the Thai AIMS data management unit. Possible perioperative allergic reactions were extracted and examined independently by three peer reviewers. Forty-three reports of possible perioperative allergic reactions from the 2,537 incidents reported to the Thai AIMS (1.6%) were reviewed. There was a female predominance (1.9:1). The most common features were cutaneous manifestations (93%), arterial hypotension (20.1%), and bronchospasm (11.6%) respectively. The severity grades were 69.8% in grade I, 4.7% in grade II, and 25.6% in grade III. The three most suspected causative agents were neuromuscular blocking agents (39.5%, 30.2%-succinylcholine), antibiotics (27.9%), and opioids (18.6%) respectively. All but one responded well to treatment with complete recovery. One patient suffered acute myocardial infarction and had to stay at the hospital for longer than one week. None had further allergic reaction. Perioperative allergic reactions accounted for 1.6% of anesthetic adverse events. The most common features were cutaneous manifestations. A quarter of these were life-threatening but responded well to treatment. The most common suspected causative agent was succinylcholine.
Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Paholpak, Suchat; Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai
To determine the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the WHO Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) Version 2.1, Eating Disorders Section The SCAN interview version 2.1 Eating Disorders Section (section 9) was translated into Thai. The content validity of the translation was verified by comparing the back-translation to the English original. Whenever inconsistencies were encountered, the Thai version was adapted so that it correctly conveyed the meaning of the original English version. The revised Thai version was then field-tested in four regions (Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, Jitavejkhonkaen Hospital, Srithanya Hospital and Suansaranrom Psychiatric Hospital, each place comprised 20 volunteers) for comprehensibility of the relatively technical language. Re-edition of the Thai version was made in accordance with suggestions from the field trial. The reliability study was done between October 2005 and September 2008 in which 30 persons (4 males; 26 females) were recruited. Fifteen persons (1 males and 14 females) were eating disorders patients (4 anorexia nervosa and 11 bulimia nervosa patients) and the other 15 (3 males and 12 females) were normal. The number of years of formal education varied widely and occupations were diverse. Subjects were interviewed using SCAN eating disorders section by a psychiatrist competent in using the Thai version of SCAN. The interviews were recorded on video so that the material could be re-rated. Regarding validity of WHO SCAN eating disorders section, based on the response from Thai subjects and consultations with competent psychiatrists, the content validity was established. Regarding the reliability study, the time taken to interview an eating disorder patient averaged 23.80 +/- 5.15 minutes (range, 18.35-34.26) versus 17.27 +/- 4.05 minutes (range, 9.07-22.37) for a normal subject. The mean of inter-rater reliability (kappa) of the eating disorder section was 0.73, standard error (SE) = 0
Jarurin Pitanupong; Chonnakarn Jatchavala
Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version). The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to ...
The mosques have been appearance in Thailand since Ayutthaya Kingdom (1350 to 1767 A.D.) Until today, more than 400 years later; there are many styles of art form behind their structure. This research intended to identify Islamic Art in Thai mosques. A framework was applied using qualitative research methods; Thai Muslims with dynamic roles in Islamic culture were interviewed. In addition, a field survey of 40 selected mosques from 175 Thai mosques was studied. Data analysis wi...
Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon
Objective The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. Methods A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. Results An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal ...
Full Text Available Through history of nation building, Thai and Javanese people interacted with other language speakers. For example, they interacted with Indian mbrchants who also brought their literature and religions. In their contacts, Thai and Javanese speakers adopted Sanskrit words for enriching their own vocabularies. This article attempts to describe the meanings of Sanskrit loanwords. In comparison between the meanings of Sanskrit loanwords in Thai and Javanese languages, there are 14 categories of semantic adaptations which are found in both languages. These changes reflect the changes of the socio-cultural background of the Thai and Javanese speakers.
Virulsri, Chanyaphan; Tangpornprasert, Pairat; Romtrairat, Parineak
Highlights: • A multi-objective shape optimization was proposed to design hip prosthesis for Thais. • The prosthesis design was optimized in terms of safety of both cement and prosthesis. • The objective functions used the Soderberg fatigue strength formulations. • Safety factors of the cement and prosthesis are 1.200 and 1.109 respectively. • The newly designed prosthesis also fits well with chosen small-sized Thai femurs. - Abstract: The long-term success of Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) depends largely on how well the prosthetic components fit the bones. The majority of cemented femoral hip prosthesis failures are due to aseptic loosening, which is possibly caused by cracking of the cement mantle. The strength of cement components is a function of cement mantles having adequate thickness. Since the size and shape of cemented femoral hip prostheses used in Thailand are based on designs for a Caucasian population, they do not properly conform to most Thai patients’ physical requirements. For these reasons, prostheses designed specifically for Thai patients must consider the longevity and functionality of both cement and prosthesis. The objective of this study was to discover a new design for femoral hip prostheses which is not only optimal and safe in terms of both cement and prosthesis, but also fits the selected Thai femur. This study used a small-sized Thai femoral model as a reference model for a new design. Biocompatible stainless steel 316L (SS316L) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were selected as raw materials for the prosthesis and bone cement respectively. A multi-objective shape optimization program, which is an interface between optimization C program named NSGA-II and a finite element program named ANSYS, was used to optimize longevity of femoral hip prostheses by varying shape parameters at assigned cross-sections of the selected geometry. Maximum walking loads of sixty-kilograms were applied to a finite element model for stress and
Win, Thet Su Zin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Suwankesawong, Wimon; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Nathisuwan, Surakit
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) blockers are commonly used for cardiovascular diseases. Currently, little information exists for the Asian population on angioedema, a rare yet serious adverse event. This study aimed to describe characteristics of RAS blockers-associated angioedema (RASBA) in Thai patients. A retrospective study using the national pharmacovigilance database of Thailand was undertaken. Cases indicating the presence of angioedema with RAS blockers uses from 1984-2011 were identified. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, concomitant drugs, information for the RAS blockers and angioedema were obtained as well as causality assessment and quality of reports. A total of 895 cases were identified. Mean age was 59.9+12.8 years and 66.5% being female. Most angioedema events (48.6%) occurred during the first week of treatment. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (87.7%) were the most commonly implicated agents followed by angiotensin receptor blockers (10.5%), aldosterone antagonist (2.1%) and direct renin inhibitor (0.2%). Out of the 895 cases incorporated in this study, 165 (18.4%) were classified as serious events and resulted in hospitalization. The overall case fatality rate was 0.4%. Respiratory disturbance occurred in 46 cases (5.1%). Patients with respiratory complications tended to be younger (53.4+13.9 vs 60.3+12.7 years old; p=0.002) and with higher frequency of allergy history (26.1% vs 14.7%; p=0.032) compared to those without respiratory complications. Based on multivariate logistic regression, the adjusted OR for history of allergy was 2.23 (95%CI: 1.04 - 4.78, p = 0.041). RASBA in Thai population occurred mostly in elderly female patients and often led to hospitalization. Since large number of patients is regularly exposed to RAS-blockers, a nationwide attempt to raise awareness of clinicians when prescribing RAS-blockers is prudent.
Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon
Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10) with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [chi2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p PSS-10 had a significant positive correlation with the STAI (r = 0.60, p PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Thailand's demand for gas will outstrip supplies in the late 1990s as rapid economic growth continues. Gas will be a cornerstone for Thai energy policy throughout the growth, although sources in neighboring countries need development. Thai gas production will rise 25% from 1992 to average 1 bcfd by 1995. Including production from new discoveries, production could rise to 1.5 bcfd by 2000, up almost 90% from the 1992 level. Increased gas flow output in the mid-1990s will be due largely to development of Gulf of Thailand fields. By 1998, production from Gulf of Thailand fields will not be enough to offset the decline in today's fields. Thailand will need to import more than 1 bcfd by 2005 in the absence of future discoveries in the country. The paper discusses new pipelines and imports
Won-In, K.; Suksawang, S.; Intarasiri, S.; Thongleurm, Chom; Kamwanna, T.; Dararutana, P.
The Thai amulets that created in an image of Lord Buddha meditation were made to explain the Dharma of Buddha and believed to bless every life in this world for good karma. Phra Somdej Wat Rakhang amulet is the top of the five most famous Thai amulets. There are many molds with various compositions. In this work, it was the first time that X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods; scanning electron microscope cooperated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were carried out to analyze their compositions. Two samples were collected from different molds. Results revealed C, Ca and Si were main composition. The differences in their compositions have been used to identify and characterize for each molds
Liu, Y.; Vosmaer, G. D. C.; Tytgat, G. N. J.; Xiao, S.-D.; ten Kate, F. J. W.
Background: Gastrin G cells and somatostatin D cells are important regulators of gastric acid secretion and alterations in their relative numbers may play a key role in gastroduodenal disease. Aim: To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on the density of immunoreactive G and D
Conclusions: H. pylori may coexist in similar proportions without dominance of one cag genotype, suggesting a heterogeneous distribution in the esophagus. The cagE and virB11 genes can be used as markers of cag-PAI in the esophagus. The single cag-PAI genotype in both mucosae confers an increased risk of developing histological damage.
Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C
The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.
Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya
Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan
Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a
Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat
The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most res...
Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Worathumrong, Sakulrat; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn
This study compares how the native speakers of Thai (TTs) and American (AEs) as well as the Thai learners of English as a foreign language with high exposure to English (TEHs) and those with the low exposure (TELs) perform the speech acts of compliments (Cs) by taking the context of age into their consideration. The data were collected by means of…
Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Aroonpongpaisal, Suwanna; Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Rongbutsri, Somchit; Maneeganondh, Somchit; Pimpanit, Wijitra
To compare the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale with the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was translated into Thai and its content-validity checked by bacA translation. The reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale compared with the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale was ther tested between February and March 2008 on 270 volunteers, including 135 patients with psychiatric illness and 135 normal volunteers. The authors analyzed the internal consistency and factor structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version and the correlation between it and the Visual Analog Scale. The Cronbach's Alpha for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale-Thai version was 0.849 and the Pearson's correlation between it and the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale 0.618 (p = 0.01). Two factors, viz, the positively and negatively framea items, from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version accounted for 44.04% and 12.10% of the variance, respectively. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version has acceptable reliability. The Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale provides an effective measure of self-esteem.
Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile technology in the lives of Thai immigrants in Berlin. By using qualitative research methods, this research investigates how new digital and social media applications have affected the organization of Thai immigrants on both individual and institutional levels, with a particular focus on the Royal Thai Embassy in Berlin. Mobile technologies today are widely used in the diaspora, by both individuals and social institutions, to maintain relationships with the homeland and to promote national affairs. Both individual Thai immigrants and official staff of the embassy rely significantly on Internet sites, particularly on social networking sites such as Facebook, to gain information on Thailand and to expand their networks. This paper explores changes in communication and their implications for Thais and their respective institutions in Germany.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP is causally associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. Determination of the prevalence of HP infection in dyspepsia patients′ in particular geographical area is imperative for the appropriate management of dyspepsia. HP antigen detection in stool is a noninvasive diagnostic test of HP infection. This prospective study was conducted to find out the prevalence of HP infection based on stool antigen testing in dyspeptic patients who had also undergone upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy. This study highlights the high prevalence of HP infection in dyspeptic Indian patients, particularly males, and emphasizes the growing importance of the bacterium causing infection among children. We also found HP stool antigen testing to be superior to upper GI endoscopy for detecting HP infection. Hence, we recommend initial testing for HP stool antigen in dyspeptic patients before initiating treatment and before carrying out any invasive procedure such as endoscopy.
Kaihin, Ratchaneekorn; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Chitreechuer, Jittaporn; Grimes, Richard M
A pilot study was conducted to determine effects of an empowerment intervention on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among Thai youth living with HIV/AIDS. It compared two groups of 23 young persons (15-24 years) who receive ART from AIDS clinics at two community hospitals. One hospital's patients served as the experimental group, and the other as a control group. The experimental groups attended five sessions that empowered them to take control of their own health. The control group received the standard of care. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square statistics. Before the empowerment, no one from the experimental group or the control group had ART adherence ≥ 95%. After the intervention, the 82.6% of the experimental group had ≥ 95% adherence compared to the control group, which had 21.7% adherence (p < .0001). The empowerment intervention resulted in a significant increase in ART adherence among Thai youth.
Lundberg, Pranee C; Thrakul, Supunnee
To report of a qualitative study of how religion affects the self-management of Thai Buddhist and Muslim women with type 2 diabetes. The importance of diabetes self-management is well recognised. However, research on such self-management in Thailand is scarce, in particular on the influence of religion on the self-management of Thai Buddhist and Muslim women with type 2 diabetes. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Purposive convenience sampling was used, and 48 women, 19 Buddhist and 29 Muslim, aged from 28-80 years, participated. Data were collected in 2008-09 and analysed by use of manifest and latent content analysis. Four themes of the influence of religion on the self-management among Thai women with type 2 diabetes emerged: religion - a way of coping with diabetes, spiritual practice - a help for disease control, spiritual practice - an effort to struggle with everyday life, and support from family - a cultural practice. The Buddhist and Muslim women had self-management capabilities that were often related to their religions. However, many of them had poor control of their blood sugar levels and needed assistance. Reference to religion and spiritual practice can be an effective means of helping diabetes patients better manage their disease and change their lifestyles. Furthermore, family and economic and social environments should be taken into account both in care and in interventions aimed at helping patients cope and empowering them to control their disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sathira-Angkura, Vera; Pithankuakul, Kongkit; Sakulpipatana, Susana; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Kunakornsawat, Sombat
Cross-sectional observational study to investigate psychometric properties of an adapted Thai version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Thai version of the refined SRS-22 questionnaire. The SRS-22 questionnaire is a valid instrument for assessing the health-related quality of life for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Recently, the questionnaire has been translated and validated in many languages for non-English-speaking countries. Translation/retranslation of the English version of the SRS-22 was conducted, and the cross-cultural adaptation process was performed. The Thai version SRS-22 and previously validated Thai version Short-Form survey version 2.0 (SF-36V2) questionnaires were administered to 77 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had surgical treatment. Fifty-eight patients (52 adolescent girls) had filled out the first set of questionnaires. Thirty patients of the first-time responders completed the second set of questionnaires. The mean age at the time of operation was 14.6 years and the mean age at the time of the final follow-up was 18.7 years. The mean preoperative scoliosis curve magnitude was 55.4° (range, 30°-95°) and postoperative curve magnitude was 20.1° (range, 0°-60°). Internal consistency was determined with Cronbach α coefficient. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used for test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36V2 questionnaire, using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The mean overall Cronbach α coefficient of the adapted Thai version SRS-22 was 0.76. The 2 of corresponding domains (mental health = 0.80 and self-image = 0.83) had satisfactory internal consistency and the remaining domains (pain = 0.78; function/activity = 0.74; and satisfaction = 0.76) were good. The intraclass correlation coefficient for 5 domains was ranged from
Background: There is a high prevalence of gastro-duodenal disease in sub Saharan Africa. Peptic ulcer disease in dyspeptic patients, 24.5%, was comparable to prevalence of gastro-duodenal disease among symptomatic individuals in developed countries (12 – 25%). Limited data exists regarding its associated risk ...
Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Apinyanurag, Chalermchai; Soontrapa, Supasil; Soontrapa, Sugree; Pongchaiyakul, Choowong; Nguyen, Tuan V; Rajatanavin, Rajata
Osteoporosis is a growing health problem not only in women but also in men. However, there is a scarcity of epidemiologic data to study osteoporosis in Thai men. To examine the bone mineral density (BMD) and to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in Thai men. A total of 412 men (159 from Bangkok and 253 from Khon Kaen, respectively) averaging 51 +/- 16 years of age, were measured for BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR Corporation, WI, USA). The peak BMD was observed in men 20-29 years of age at both the femoral neck (mean +/- SD, 1.10 +/- 0.15 g/cm2) and lumbar spine (mean +/- SD, 1.17 +/- 0.13 g/cm2). The prevalence of osteoporosis in the entire group of subjects was 12.6, 4.6 and 3.9 per cent at the femoral neck, lumbar spine and both sites, respectively. The prevalence of osteoporosis increased with advancing age and was significantly higher at the femoral neck in urban men than rural men (18.2 vs 9.2 per cent, p men.
Chantaranima, Tarntip; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was accepted by worldwide Educators that it is a ubiquitous word in the preparation of teachers in the past decade. This study uses Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) framework as a lens for classifying the guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers. Therefore, the paper tries to clarify the relationship between competencies of Thai expertise teacher and PCK elements. To promote skillful Thai teachers by offering them academic titles, the Office of the Teacher Civil Service and Education Personal Commission were developed to provide guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers (OTEPC, 2009). This article focuses on the guideline criteria which are three areas of consideration. The first area of consideration is teacher's disciplines including virtues and professional conducts. The second area of consideration is teacher's knowledge and teaching ability. The last area of consider is teacher's performance. It seemed that the OTEPC guideline pay too much attention on the first area. However, there are some issues of PCK appearing on the OTEPC teacher competency. The paper will discuss some suggestions of fill up PCK in the OTEPC guideline. The paper may have implication for Thailand teacher education.
Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades
In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the
Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee
Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.
Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Singhavejakul, Jesda; Lertprasertsuk, Nirush; Wongsawasdi, Lumduan
The aim of this prospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics of colorectal polyp in Thai children. From December 2002 to February 2005, children under 15 years of age presenting with rectal bleeding were prospectively enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory information was recorded. Location, number, characteristics, and histopathology of the polyps were noted. There were 32 patients with a mean age of 6.5 years. The most common presenting symptom was hematochezia, followed by prolapsing rectal mass and diarrhea. In 20 patients there was a single polyp, 6 had 2-4 polyps, and 6 were diagnosed with polyposis coli. Most of the polyps were located exclusively at the rectum and sigmoid colon. In only 7 cases were the polyps proximal to the rectosigmoid region. This included 6 patients who had polyps beyond the splenic flexure. All were juvenile polyps without evidence of adenomatous changes. Compared to those with isolated polyps, the patients with polyposis coli had a statistically significant incidence of right-sided polyps (P polyps and the concern about malignant transformation, colonoscopy should be considered as the initial evaluation in children with rectal bleeding.
Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai
This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p benefits from condom use (p benefits of condom use (p = 0.016), and perceived risk for HIV (p = 0.033). They explained 36% of behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.
Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas
This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.
Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat
The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships.
Hu, K K; Maung, C; Katz, D L
To evaluate the prevailing practice of presumptively diagnosing malaria in all cases of febrile illness in a clinic serving a refugee population on the Thai-Myanmar border A retrospective review of 3,506 patient charts from December 1993 through June 1994 at the MaeSot medical clinic to compare clinical signs of malaria to blood smear findings. Patients presenting without fever were assumed not to have malaria; the remaining 2,111 patients presenting with fever had blood smears examined for malaria infection. Fever alone sufferedfrom poorpositive predictive value (54.7 percent) and specificity (59.3 percent). When fever was combined with hepatosplenomegaly and anemia, the positive predictive value and specificity improved (84.5 percent and 98.5 percent, respectively). However, this combination also resulted in an unacceptably poor sensitivity (16.5 percent) and false negative error rate (835/1,000). CONCLUSIONS. In this nonimmune refugee population, severe complications of falciparum malaria occur quickly and commonly; aggressive chemotherapy is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. Until laboratory facilities are made available, all cases offever should continue to be treated presumptively as malaria.
Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M
Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.
)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are able to synergistically induce apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. The present study aimed to elucidate modulatory effects of ethanolic extracts derived from Thai traditional medicinal.
".. a team of over 55 Thai delegates led by ICT Minister Surapong Suebwonglee exchanged views and showcased Thailand's achievements that addressed bridging the digital divide at the UN conference that was attended by over 40 national leaders" (1 page).
Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit
Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria
Background Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improvi...
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....
Cheeptham, N; Towers, G H N
Forty-one types of commercially available Thai medicinal teas were tested for their light-mediated activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus K147 methicillin-sensitive (Ms), Escherichia coli DC10, E. coli (wild), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 187 (wild), Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results represent a first report of the light-mediated antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal teas and suggest that phytochemical investigations may be warranted. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.
Song, H; Witt, SF; Li, G
This study examines the demand for Thai tourism by seven major origin countries – Australia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, the UK and the USA. The general-to-specific modelling approach is followed in the construction, estimation, testing and selection of the tourism demand models. The empirical results show that habit persistence is the most important factor that influences the demand for Thai tourism by residents from all origin countries. The income, own price, cross price and trade v...
Nattavud Pimpa; Timothy Moore
Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked...
Ukadej Boonyaprakob; Sommai Homsavart; Jatuporn Noosud; Rongdej Tungtrakanpoung
The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dog...
Navaporn Sanprasert Snodin
Full Text Available This paper investigated the names given to Thai local community products and provides a description of the use of the English language in naming products in Thailand. The business names of Thai local products under the program One Tambon One Product (OTOP were selected for analysis, focusing on language characteristics and semantic appropriateness by using onomastics to some extent. The data consisted of 1,304 names from five product categories—food, drinks, clothing and accessories, handicrafts and ornaments, and inedible herbs, as provided in the database of tambons and OTOP products. Thai product names in English, some of which only Thais can understand, show language creativity, reflecting Thai identity within English usage in the local setting. One problematic area concerns the lack of semantic appropriateness of some English names, as the names are sometimes not relevant to the product type. Thai entrepreneurs need support in naming their products to achieve international intelligibility if their products are to be marketed to international customers.
Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej
This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.
Full Text Available The fluoride sorption ability of a locally available bone char is quantified. Both a synthetic solution and natural groundwater samples from several sites are studied and compared to Indian bone char, which is widely accepted and used successfully in India and elsewhere. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were used to quantify sorption properties. Results show that the Thai bone char is as effective as the Indian bone char for removing fluoride from contaminated water, despite the more rigid physical and social constraints found in rural Thailand. Sorption studies with fluoride-contaminated natural groundwater samples also show that chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates had little effect on the removal of fluoride by the homemade bone char.
Promdee, Limthong; Trakulthong, Jindara; Kangwantrakul, Wisut
Highly added sugar diets have been associated with various health problems such as dental caries, dyslipidemia, obesity and poor quality of life. Unfortunately, sugar consumption, especially sucrose, has increased continuously worldwide. The purpose of the study was to examine sources of sugar consumption and amount of added sucrose consumed in Thai undergraduate students. This study was carried out at Khon Kaen University, Thailand, between the years 2004-2005. A complete 3-day record of items and amounts of sweet consumption were obtained from 202 individuals--38 male and 164 female students. Added sucrose content of each sweetened food and drinks referred to in the record was determined by an enzymatic method. Mean intakes of sucrose were calculated from the sucrose content. The average of sucrose consumption in all subjects was 69+/-38 g/day, ranged from 4 to 182 g/day or 17 teaspoons of added sucrose per day. This amount accounted for 13.8% of total daily energy intake. There was a record of 337 kinds of sweetened foods and drinks found. The major source of added sucrose consumption was sweetened beverage, which was consumed 118 g/day averagely, or 60% of daily sugar consumption. Intake of sucrose per day in both male and female was not statistically difference, neither among different BMI groups. Intake of added sugar in the students was higher than the recommendation of the World Health Organization. These data would be helpful in a health promotion campaign aimed at a reduction of sugar consumption in Thai undergraduate students.
Pawloski, Lisa R; Ruchiwit, Manyat; Pakapong, Yothaka
Few studies have examined growth data from adolescent girls in Southeast Asia and almost none have been carried out in Thailand. Thus this study examines growth data from Thai adolescent girls. Cross-sectional growth data from a sample of Thai girls were compared to reference data from healthy well-nourished girls. It is hypothesized that the reference girls will be taller and heavier than the Thai girls; however, the growth indicators will also indicate that obesity is present among Thai girls. Anthropometric and age at menarche data were collected from a sample of 319 adolescent girls ages 11-17 years living in suburban Thailand. Thai girls are heavier than the reference girls at ages 11-13 years yet are shorter and lighter than the reference girls at ages 14-17 years. The data also reveal that 18.4% of the girls are overweight or obese as classified by the CDC BMI-for-age percentile growth curves. The findings suggest the presence of overweight and obesity among this adolescent Thai population. These data may reflect the impact of the improved economic situation of Thailand as well as the impact of body image concerns among these young girls.
Full Text Available Tanyong Pipanmekaporn,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,2 Sirirat Mueankwan,3 Piyawat Dendumrongkul,2 Kaweesak Chittawatanarat,3 Nantiya Khongpheng,3 Nongnut Duangsoy31Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU, when compared to the diagnoses made by delirium experts.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in both surgical intensive care and subintensive care units in Thailand between February–June 2011. Seventy patients aged 60 years or older who had been admitted to the units were enrolled into the study within the first 48 hours of admission. Each patient was randomly assessed as to whether they had delirium by a nurse using the Thai version of the CAM-ICU algorithm (Thai CAM-ICU or by a delirium expert using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.Results: The prevalence of delirium was found to be 18.6% (n=13 by the delirium experts. The sensitivity of the Thai CAM-ICU’s algorithms was found to be 92.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] =64.0%-99.8%, while the specificity was 94.7% (95% CI =85.4%-98.9%. The instrument displayed good interrater reliability (Cohen’s κ=0.81; 95% CI =0.64-0.99. The time taken to complete the Thai CAM-ICU was 1 minute (interquatile range, 1-2 minutes.Conclusion: The Thai CAM-ICU demonstrated good validity, reliability, and ease of use when diagnosing delirium in a surgical intensive care unit setting. The use of this diagnostic tool should be encouraged for daily, routine use, so as to promote the early detection
Full Text Available Based on evidence gathered through participant observation, this article illuminates the nature of vote-canvassing, previously a black box in Thai electoral studies. Offering a close-up study of the internal mechanisms of an individual Thai election campaign, this article reveals that vote-canvasser networks are underpinned by long-term dyadic relationships, both hierarchical and horizontal, between the candidate, vote-canvassers and voters. These networks continue to be the most important factor in winning elections. This article documents how candidates draw up an election campaign map and identify voters along residential lines to maximise their vote-canvassing strategy. The findings of this article challenge Anek’s 1996 concept of “two democracies”, which argues that rural voters are influenced by money, local leaders, political factions and corrupt politicians while more well-educated, urban, middle-class voters are more oriented toward the alternative policies offered by competing parties. The case study of Kom’s election campaign showed that the role of the much-vaunted middle-class voters is not decisive, even in suburban areas of Bangkok. While political marketing has grown in importance in Thai elections, it has not displaced traditional electoral practices. Thai society is, in fact, deeply fragmented and diverse – too complex to be divided in such a simplistic manner. This article suggests that rather than undergoing a linear transformation, political hybridisation is a key trend in Thai election campaigns.
Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel
This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Poungvarin, Niphon; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Ratanakorn, Disya; Towanabut, Somchai; Tantirittisak, Tassanee; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Phanthumchinda, Kamman; Tiamkoa, Somsak; Chankrachang, Siwaporn; Nidhinandana, Samart; Laptikultham, Somsak; Limsoontarakul, Sansern; Udomphanthuruk, Suthipol
Prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has never been studied in Thailand. A simple prognostic score to predict poor prognosis of CVST has also never been reported. The authors are aiming to establish a simple and reliable prognostic score for this condition. The medical records of CVST patients from eight neurological training centers in Thailand who received between April 1993 and September 2005 were reviewed as part of this retrospective study. Clinical features included headache, seizure, stroke risk factors, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood pressure on arrival, papilledema, hemiparesis, meningeal irritation sign, location of occluded venous sinuses, hemorrhagic infarction, cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure, treatment options, length of stay, and other complications were analyzed to determine the outcome using modified Rankin scale (mRS). Poor prognosis (defined as mRS of 3-6) was determined on the discharge date. One hundred ninety four patients' records, 127 females (65.5%) and mean age of 36.6 +/- 14.4 years, were analyzed Fifty-one patients (26.3%) were in the poor outcome group (mRS 3-6). Overall mortality was 8.4%. Univariate analysis and then multivariate analysis using SPSS version 11.5 revealed only four statistically significant predictors influencing outcome of CVST They were underlying malignancy, low GCS, presence of hemorrhagic infarction (for poor outcome), and involvement of lateral sinus (for good outcome). Thai venous stroke prognostic score (TV-SPSS) was derived from these four factors using a multiple logistic model. A simple and pragmatic prognostic score for CVST outcome has been developed with high sensitivity (93%), yet low specificity (33%). The next study should focus on the validation of this score in other prospective populations.
Sanseeha, Ladda; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Sethabouppha, Hunsa; Disayavanish, Chamlong; Turale, Sue
This study explored the perceptions of 18 people diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1-10 years to uncover how they perceived themselves and their illness. It also involved 12 family members who added their perceptions. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, reflective journaling, and observations. The data were analyzed through the lens of Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology. Four themes emerged: perceptions of mental illness, perceptions of the causes of illness, perceptions of discrimination, and attempting to live with schizophrenia. The findings included strong underlying cultural and spiritual beliefs, and attitudes unique to the Thai participants, including the causation of schizophrenia by supernatural powers, black magic, and bad karma stemming from past deeds. Understanding the perceptions of the participants might help health-care providers to be more sensitive to those living with schizophrenia in Thailand and elsewhere. In particular, the findings could be useful in informing psychiatric careproviders about developing better caring systems for clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This should help the sufferers of schizophrenia to live their lives to their own satisfaction and as normally as possible.
By examining competing discourses about women who are maechii (or 'lay nuns') in Buddhist Thai society, this paper demonstrates that, although maechii vow to be celibate, social constructions of their role are grounded in sexuality. The discourses examined are those of the Buddhist canon and Sangha (Order of Monkhood), the Thai Maechii Institute, the mass media, and the government. The analysis is supplemented with field observations and interviews with monks, maechii, and lay persons. Findings suggest that maechii comprise an ambiguous category linguistically, Buddhistically, and in terms of their sexuality. Case studies of the founders of nunneries conducted in ChiangMai indicate that maechii leaders have been resisting the prevalent views that most maechii are social misfits, yet also are capable of undermining monks' celibacy and, by extension, the larger social order. The analysis contributes to the understanding of the interconnectedness of gender and sexuality in contemporary Thai society.
Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit.
Witteman, E. M.; Hopman, W. P.; Becx, M. C.; de Koning, R. W.; Tytgat, G. N.; Janssen, A. J.; Jansen, J. B.
Thirty-three dyspeptic patients with colonization of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric antrum were treated with tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate 120 mg q.d.s. for 28 days and metronidazole 250 mg q.d.s. for 10 days starting on day 19. Five weeks after cessation of this treatment regimen H. pylori
van der Wouden, E.J.; Thijs, JC; van Zwet, AA; Kleibeuker, J.H.
Objective & Design We question whether Helicobacter pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease patients leads to a decrease in symptoms and reduced use of anti-dyspeptic drugs. Therefore, the recurrence rate of H. pylori, upper abdominal symptoms and the use of acid-suppressive drugs were determined
Antos, Z.; Belohlavek, O.; Suchy, B.; Michal, V.; Vodak, M.
Dynamic scintigraphy can find explanation for many cases of digestion disorder whose cause is otherwise undetectable. A group of soldiers suffering from digestion disorder and a control cohort of students were subjected to scintigraphic examination, during which the person swallowed water containing a technetium-99 colloid tracer. The radiation burden of the patient is several times lower than from X-raying. (M.D.) 5 refs
Krittaya Na Nongkhai
Full Text Available This paper studied cultural hybridization as reflected in hero characters from 30 Thai action adventure films produced and released during 1997–2010. It was hypothesized that the characterization of the heroes in the action adventure films in question had been influenced by features of heroes in foreign films. Such features had been mixed with Thai values and local beliefs so as to create Thai hybrid hero characters. These hybrid characters demonstrated the distinctiveness and dynamics of Thai action adventure films. It was found that cultural hybridization is presented through the Thai hero characters' images, gender identity, and roles leading to the emergence of three important types of Thai hybrid hero: 1 local Thai cowboy heroes, 2 Thai martial arts heroes, and 3 Thai necromancer superheroes. These heroes are clear evidence of an adaptation and cultural hybridization between international films' hero characters and certain elements in Thai society being legends, local beliefs, and the values of masculinity. Moreover, these hybrid heroes reflect the flow of globalization into Thai society and the process of localization to creatively respond to the flux in global culture.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P
Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or unrealistic optimism. Because behavior is determined by
This paper offers a discussion of some of the attitudes towards teaching and learning in Thai nursing education. It illustrates the strict, hierarchical set of relationships that exist between people throughout all aspects of Thai society. It then relates these relationships to those between teachers and students of nursing and how those relationships effect the ways in which students receive and deal with knowledge. Other attitudes towards learning, communication and student/lecturer relationships are also noted. It is hoped that the paper helps those, in other cultures, to reflect on their own practices.
Full Text Available The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dogs, Asiatic jackals (Canis aureus and a dhole (Cuon alpinus. A 1075-bp ZFY segment from DNA samples of Thai Bangkaew dogs was found to be 100% identical to the domestic dog ZFY and (if gaps are allowed showed 81% and 92% identity to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. However, if gaps were treated as missing data, the 1045-bp ZFY sequence for the Thai Bangkaew dogs was 100% identical to domestic dog ZFY and 99.5% to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. In addition, the 959-bp Thai Bangkaew ZFX fragments were identical and showed 100% identity to domestic dog ZFX. These genetic data suggest that the Thai Bangkaew dogs still present today share a common male ancestor with modern dogs, rather than being the descendants of dhole or jackal/dog hybrids.
Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Sriwanitchrak, Kanchana; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Kaset, Chollanot; Nathalang, Oytip
Background The Kidd (JK) blood group antigens are encoded by the JK gene. The rare Jk(a−b−) phenotype can be caused by homozygosity for a silent JK allele. Currently, JKnull alleles have been identified among different populations; however, information on its presence among Thais is not available. Materials and methods Screening for the Jk(a−b−) phenotype by the urea lysis test was performed in 25,340 blood samples from Thai blood donors. The Jk(a−b−) phenotypes were confirmed by an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Additionally, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequence analysis of the JK gene were performed using previously described methods. Results Five samples were confirmed as having a Jk(a−b−) phenotype by a urea lysis test and IAT; four of these samples were investigated. Two samples of JK*02 alleles were homozygous for a g>a mutation at the 3′ acceptor splice site of intron 5 of the JK gene, as in previous studies in Asians and Polynesians. Moreover, one sample of JK*02 alleles was homozygous for an 896G>A mutation at exon 9 (Gly299Glu), as in a previous study in Polynesians. Interestingly, missense dual mutations of JK*01 alleles from a female blood donor were identified. The first mutation was 956C>T (Thr319Met) in exon 10, as in a recent study in African-Americans. The second mutation was 130G>A (Glu44Lys) at exon 4, as in previous studies among Caucasians. Conclusion There are various different molecular bases of the Jk(a−b−) phenotype. This is the first report of JKnull alleles among Thais. The information presented in this study could be beneficial in planning genotyping strategies for blood donors and patients. PMID:22153692
Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Sriwanitchrak, Kanchana; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Kaset, Chollanot; Nathalang, Oytip
The Kidd (JK) blood group antigens are encoded by the JK gene. The rare Jk(a-b-) phenotype can be caused by homozygosity for a silent JK allele. Currently, JK(null) alleles have been identified among different populations; however, information on its presence among Thais is not available. Screening for the Jk(a-b-) phenotype by the urea lysis test was performed in 25,340 blood samples from Thai blood donors. The Jk(a-b-) phenotypes were confirmed by an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Additionally, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequence analysis of the JK gene were performed using previously described methods. Five samples were confirmed as having a Jk(a-b-) phenotype by a urea lysis test and IAT; four of these samples were investigated. Two samples of JK*02 alleles were homozygous for a g>a mutation at the 3' acceptor splice site of intron 5 of the JK gene, as in previous studies in Asians and Polynesians. Moreover, one sample of JK*02 alleles was homozygous for an 896G>A mutation at exon 9 (Gly299Glu), as in a previous study in Polynesians. Interestingly, missense dual mutations of JK*01 alleles from a female blood donor were identified. The first mutation was 956C>T (Thr319Met) in exon 10, as in a recent study in African-Americans. The second mutation was 130G>A (Glu44Lys) at exon 4, as in previous studies among Caucasians. There are various different molecular bases of the Jk(a-b-) phenotype. This is the first report of JK(null) alleles among Thais. The information presented in this study could be beneficial in planning genotyping strategies for blood donors and patients.
The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.
Full Text Available Abstract Background G6PD deficiency is common in malaria endemic regions and is estimated to affect more than 400 million people worldwide. Treatment of malaria patients with the anti-malarial drug primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines may be associated with potential haemolytic anaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of G6PD variants in Thai population who resided in malaria endemic areas (western, northern, north-eastern, southern, eastern and central regions of Thailand, as well as the Burmese population who resided in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods The ten common G6PD variants were investigated in dried blood spot samples collected from 317 Thai (84 males, 233 females and 183 Burmese (11 males, 172 females populations residing in malaria endemic areas of Thailand using PCR-RFLP method. Results Four and seven G6PD variants were observed in samples collected from Burmese and Thai population, with prevalence of 6.6% (21/317 and 14.2% (26/183, respectively. Almost all (96.2% of G6PD mutation samples collected from Burmese population carried G6PD Mahidol variant; only one sample (3.8% carried G6PD Kaiping variant. For the Thai population, G6PD Mahidol (8/21: 38.1% was the most common variant detected, followed by G6PD Viangchan (4/21: 19.0%, G6PD Chinese 4 (3/21: 14.3%, G6PD Canton (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Union (2/21: 9.5%, G6PD Kaiping (1/21: 4.8%, and G6PD Gaohe (1/21: 4.8%. No G6PD Chinese 3, Chinese 5 and Coimbra variants were found. With this limited sample size, there appeared to be variation in G6PD mutation variants in samples obtained from Thai population in different regions particularly in the western region. Conclusions Results indicate difference in the prevalence and distribution of G6PD gene variants among the Thai and Burmese populations in different malaria endemic areas. Dosage regimen of primaquine for treatment of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria may need to be
Tirabanchasak, Sirapassorn; Siripunthana, Sukumarn; Supornsilchai, Vichit; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee
Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The predictors of IGT in obese youth are not well described. We studied 115 obese Thai children who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were calculated for assessment of β-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and clinical parameters were also used to determine predictors of IGT. We found that three patients had T2DM and 30 subjects had IGT. IGT patients had significantly higher fasting glucose (FG), 1-h postload glucose, 2-h postload insulin, and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity indices than in normal glucose tolerance subjects whereas other indices were comparable. By ROC curve analyses, 1-h postload glucose was the best predictor of IGT, but FG or HbA1c represented a poor diagnostic tool for prediabetes screening. Subjects with 1-h OGTT glucose > 155 mg/dL had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein levels, lower insulin sensitivity, and more insulin resistance than those with 1-h postload glucose of ≤ 155 mg/dL. Abnormal glucose tolerance is highly prevalent in obese Thai youth. Several fasting indices and HbA1c fail to predict IGT. An 1-h OGTT glucose of > 155 mg/dL appears to be more associated with adverse insulin dynamics and metabolic profile than 2-h postload glucose.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins. MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results: While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001 more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions: S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral
Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Prakongsai, Phusit; Sumalee, Hathaichanok; Tosanguan, Jiraboon; Mills, Anne
Empirical evidence demonstrates that the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) has improved equity of health financing and provided a relatively high level of financial risk protection. Several UCS design features contribute to these outcomes: a tax-financed scheme, a comprehensive benefit package and gradual extension of coverage to illnesses that can lead to catastrophic household costs, and capacity of the National Health Security Office (NHSO) to mobilise adequate resources. This study assesses the policy processes related to making decisions on these features. The study employs qualitative methods including reviews of relevant documents, in-depth interviews of 25 key informants, and triangulation amongst information sources. Continued political and financial commitments to the UCS, despite political rivalry, played a key role. The Thai Rak Thai (TRT)-led coalition government introduced UCS; staying in power 8 of the 11 years between 2001 and 2011 was long enough to nurture and strengthen the UCS and overcome resistance from various opponents. Prime Minister Surayud's government, replacing the ousted TRT government, introduced universal renal replacement therapy, which deepened financial risk protection.Commitment to their manifesto and fiscal capacity pushed the TRT to adopt a general tax-financed universal scheme; collecting premiums from people engaged in the informal sector was neither politically palatable nor technically feasible. The relatively stable tenure of NHSO Secretary Generals and the chairs of the Financing and the Benefit Package subcommittees provided a platform for continued deepening of financial risk protection. NHSO exerted monopsonistic purchasing power to control prices, resulting in greater patient access and better systems efficiency than might have been the case with a different design.The approach of proposing an annual per capita budget changed the conventional line-item programme budgeting system by basing negotiations between the
Blomqvist, Susanne; Leonhardt, Åsa; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Carlen, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar
Objective The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins) and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins). MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001) more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral infections and complaints
Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIM: The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease in cirrhosis remains controversial. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of H pylori infection and portal hypertension gastropathy in the prevalence of active peptic ulcer among dyspeptic patients with compensated hepatitis C virus (HCV-related cirrhosis.
Charubusp, Sasima; Chinwonno, Apasara
This study investigated the effects of Academic Literacy-Based Intervention (ALI) on 30 undergraduate Thai university students' English reading proficiency. Based on the English reading proficiency test, these students were sub-classified into 2 groups, 15 in the high English reading proficiency group and 15 in the low English reading proficiency…
Kaewpanukrungsi, Wanida; Anantachoti, Puree
The Thai National Pharmacovigilance Center (NPVC) has operated since 1983, but its performance has never been formally assessed. The paper aimed to present the main findings of performance assessment of the Thai NPVC. A survey was conducted. Data from January 2011-December 2013 were collected. The performance was assessed through four indicator domains. The NPVC has a clear mission to guide its roles and responsibilities. The center has a well-established structure, adequate budget, qualified personnel, and good IT infrastructure, but it has no in-house IT personnel.Safety surveillance function was considered excellent. The Thai adverse drug reaction database accumulate a number of quality reports. Typically, new signals of traditional or herbal medicines could be generated from the database.The risk management process was well established and carried out. The National Drug Safety Advisory Sub-Committee was composed of qualified representatives from related disciplines. Not only do these committee members make safety decisions, but they also provide key safety messages and communicate these to their member audiences.The risk communication function was evaluated to be unsatisfactory. It was not effectively distributed to individual health care professionals. The overall performance of the Thai NPVC was considerably good. The findings suggested that risk communication should be improved. Moreover, organizational performance should be routinely evaluated. If possible, benchmarking with international pharmacovigilance centers should also be performed.
Background: This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. Materials and Methods: The tool selected ...
Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Byrnes, Hilary F; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee
This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13-14 years were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with 1 parent and 1 teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results showed that parents were most likely to talk with their teens about body changes and dating; however, less discussion about sex-related issues, birth control, and HIV/AIDS occurred. More daughters than sons reported frequent discussions with their parents about sex. Parents who believed their teens had been involved in sexual activity were more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS and the difficulty of teenagers having babies, instead of talking about sexual intercourse or when to start having sex. Multiple regression analysis indicated that gender of the child (female), parental religiosity, and parental perception of teen sexual activity were significant predictors of increased sexual communication in Thai families. The findings suggest a need for approaches designed to facilitate communication skills about sex-related issues among Thai parents.
Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Ph.D., RN
Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
There are a variety of suggestions trying to explain why the Thai military decided, in 2006, to stage the 18th coup in 75 years. Some point to corruption and declining growth and investment rates, others to the security problems in the South. A third explanation has tried to relate the coup...
Seattle School District 1, WA.
Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Thai. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…
Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars
Palm oil production has increased in Thailand with considerable environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to analyse possibilities to examine how the environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production can be improved in the coming decades. To this end, we integrated a sectoral and a
Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya
Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…
This study aimed at investigating English grammar knowledge of a group of Thai university students. The three main research questions revolved around their knowledge of English grammar, the kinds of difficulties they had encountered in using the grammar as well as their perceptions of the roles of grammar in using English. The participants were…
Purpose: To evaluate eight edible Thai local plant extracts (Camellia sinensis, Careya sphaerica, Cratoxylum formosum, Eleutherococcus trifoliatus, Ficus auriculata, Persicaria odorata, Schima wallichii, and Vaccinium sprengelii) against colon and liver cancer cell lines. Methods: The 80 % ethanol plant extracts were ...
Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn
Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…
This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs) to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to ...
This article considers a fundamental issue in language planning, namely, whether or not to introduce a curriculum for the mother tongue (MT), in the wider context of a complex language planning situation in Thailand. It details recent moves in the consideration of this issue for the Thai Lao (Isan) of Northeast Thailand, Thailand's largest…
Pratoomrat, Panadda; Rajprasit, Krich
The present study aimed to examine how Business English courses are conducted in the Thai Higher Education, and to investigate students' perceptions toward the instructional management of the courses in their universities. The participants were four instructors, and one hundred and forty students enrolling in the courses of four universities in…
To study knee's angulation required for Thai Buddhist monks whose activity based on floor sitting basis. And to identify an inter-observer reliability of knee flexion measurement based on radiologic reading. Descriptive analysis study comprised of measuring bilateral knee flexing angulation in 4 postures of floor activities; kneeling, monk's position in both right and left manner and sit cross-legged position, in 35 Thai Buddhist monks at Priest Hospital using plain radiograph image. The radiograph imaging for each patient was performed by one radiologist and two orthopedics. The measurement result was also analyzed for inter-observer reliability. Mean knee flexion angle in kneel, left monk's position, right monk's position and sit cross-legged postures were 163.21, 146.49, 148.89 and 138.38 degree, respectively. No statistical difference between knee flexion measurements among 3 investigators. Daily floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks need more flexion capacity than that can achieve by total knee arthroplasty instrument using nowadays.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version. The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to determine the correlation and P-value. Results: 141 Thai, medical students (15.9% were reported to have atypical attitudes towards eating, and displayed abnormal eating behaviors. There was no statistically significant correlation of attitude towards eating, and their current eating behaviors according to the medical students’ gender, year of studying and Grade Point Average. However, their eating attitudes and behaviors were, associated with Body Mass index. Normal weight (BMI 18.5- 23.49 and overweight (BMI 23.5-39.9 groups could increase by 2.2 (95% CI =1.2, 4.3 and 2.3 (95% CI=1.1, 4.8 times risk depending on atypical eating attitudes and abnormal eating behaviors respectively, when compared with the underweight group (BMI<18.5. Conclusion: There was no correlated difference in concerns to the Thai medical student’s abnormal eating habits, with gender, years of their study and Grade Point Average. Only normal to over-weight BMI were associated. Overweight male, medical students significantly represented more atypical attitudes towards eating and behaviors than other groups in this population. These results may reveal the changing trends of eating attitudes and behaviors due to the current ideal body image of being more muscular. However, prospective studies are still needed.
Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72. Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.
Saleeon, T; Siriwong, W; Maldonado-Pérez, H L; Robson, M G
Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L.) is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS). To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%). Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73), smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47), skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68), wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23), process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16), and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72). The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.
Chomtho, Krisnachai; Suteerojntrakool, Orapa; Chomtho, Sirinuch
To determine the efficacy, side effects and feasibility of Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet (KD) in Thai children with intractable epilepsy. Children with intractable epilepsy were recruited. Baseline seizure frequency was recorded over 4 weeks before starting MCT KD. Average seizure frequency was assessed at 1 month and 3 months, compared to the baseline using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Side effects and feasibility were also assessed by blood tests and an interview. Sixteen subjects were recruited with mean seizure frequency of 0.35-52.5 per day. After treatment, there was a significant reduction in seizure frequency, ranging from 12% to 100% (p = 0.002 at 1 month, and 0.001 at 3 months). 64.3% of the subjects achieved more than 50% seizure reduction at 3 months and 28.6% of the patients were seizure-free. Common adverse effects were initial weight loss (37.5%) and nausea (25%). 87.5% of subjects and parents were satisfied with the MCT KD with 2 cases dropping-out due to diarrhea and non-compliance. MCT ketogenic diet is effective and feasible in Thai children with intractable epilepsy. Despite modification against Asian culinary culture, the tolerability and maintenance rate was still satisfactory. A larger study is required.
Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee
Women with breast cancer receive different forms of treatment. Although treatment can save the lives of women, they can result in adverse physical, psychological, and social effects that can impact the women's quality of life. The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of breast cancer treatment among Thai women in southern Thailand. This study used qualitative methods (in-depth interviewing and drawings) with 20 Thai women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Three themes emerged: (a) being a breast cancer patient: visible signs and adverse effects of therapy, (b) experiencing emotional chaos, and (c) experiencing social dysfunction. The women had to deal with physical body changes, emotional burden, treatment-related social stigma, and being marginalized within their own social context. Women experienced changes including social stigma after receiving breast cancer treatments. They had to manage stigma and difficulties themselves without sufficient professional support. It is important for nurses to understand such experiences so that they may support appropriate coping strategies suited to each woman. Community health nurses need to view each woman with breast cancer as a unique person and appreciate how to provide appropriate care and support based on each woman's experience with her illness and treatment.
Shin, Masako T.
This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for combination welding is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…
Shin, Masako T.
This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for automotive mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…
Shin, Masako T.
This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for maintenance mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…
Wang, Hongbin; Feng, Yinhan; Cheng, Liang
Sentence similarity computation plays an increasingly important role in text mining, Web page retrieval, machine translation, speech recognition and question answering systems. Thai language as a kind of resources scarce language, it is not like Chinese language with HowNet and CiLin resources. So the Thai sentence similarity research faces some challenges. In order to solve this problem of the Thai language sentence similarity computation. This paper proposes a novel method to compute the similarity of Thai language sentence based on syntactic structure and semantic vector. This method firstly uses the Part-of-Speech (POS) dependency to calculate two sentences syntactic structure similarity, and then through the word vector to calculate two sentences semantic similarity. Finally, we combine the two methods to calculate two Thai language sentences similarity. The proposed method not only considers semantic, but also considers the sentence syntactic structure. The experiment result shows that this method in Thai language sentence similarity computation is feasible.
Full Text Available The main purposes of the study were to determine the attitude of farmers towards Thai Koi farming in a selected area of Mymensingh district. Attempt was also made to identify the problems faced by the farmers in Thai Koi farming. Data were obtained from randomly selected 70 Thai Koi farmers of Shaiod and Ahmedpur villages in Kheruajani Union under Muktagachha Upazila of Mamensingh district during April, 2015. Attitude of the farmers was measured in respect of different aspects of Thai koi production. A three-point rating scale was used to indicate the Thai koi farmers’ response against each statement. The possible score for each respondent could range from 15 to 45 and observed score ranged from 31 to 41. It is evident that ‘I believe that Thai koi farming in pond can supply protein and nutrition to the family members ranked first as a statement in attitude scale of Thai Koi farmers. Second is ‘I like Thai Koi farming because it has higher growth rate than that of other local Koi’. Most of the Thai Koi farmers had highly favourable attitude. Among the problems, ‘high sensitivity to disease of Thai Koi’ got the highest problem confrontation score and stood the first ranked problem and other problem were ‘High price of Thai koi feed’, High price of drugs’ and ‘High price of farm labour’ etc. Farmers suggested from their experiences that there should have need-based spot training on effective management of Thai Koi farming. In achieving this target, Department of Fisheries and allied NGOs may play a crucial role.
Full Text Available The study investigates systematicity in English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners of L2 English. It is hypothesized that Thai learners show non-random use of English dependent prepositions in their English interlanguage, and that the systematicity is largely attributable to cross-linguistic influence and certain cognitive factors. To test the hypothesis, 30 L1 Thai undergraduate students of L2 English at elementary, intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels took two tests: a Thai–English translation test and a cloze test. The tests involved four types of relationship between English and Thai dependent prepositions: (1 [–prep] in English but [+prep] in Thai, (2 [+prep] in English but [–prep] in Thai, (3 [+prep1] in English but [+prep2] in Thai, and (4 [+prep] in English and [+prep] in Thai. The findings demonstrate that systematicity occurred in the learners’ English usage of prepositions of all such types, possibly due to negative transfer from the learners’ native language. Also, the L2 learners tended to exhibit such systematicity irrespective of their English proficiency level. It may be assumed that the cognitive aspect of L2 learners’ working memory is involved in processing the usage of the four types of English dependent prepositions. The results of the study are expected to shed light on the problems of L2 English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners.
Pilipenko, V I; Burliaeva, E A; Shakhovskaia, A K; Isakov, V A
The research involved 76 patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Introduction of fermented milk products--inulin fortified spoon yoghurt, drinking, yoghurt, kefir drink--into a standard ration exerted influence upon dynamics of basis manifestations of illness and made for increase of indices, which characterize patients' quality of life. The biggest was marked upon use of spoon yoghurt and kefir drink. After use of drinking yoghurt, dyspeptic effects were observed in a third part of patients.
James, Paul T J
The purpose of this paper is to help consolidate and understand management perceptions and experiences of a targeted group (n=7) of Vice-Presidents of international Private Thai hospitals in Bangkok regarding medical tourism impacts. The method adopted uses a small-scale qualitative inquiry. Examines the on-going development and service management factors which contribute to the establishment and strengthening of relationships between international patients and hospital medical services provision. Develops a qualitative model that attempts to conceptualize the findings from a diverse range of management views into a framework of main (8) - Hospital Management; Hospital Processes; Hospital Technology; Quality Related; Communications; Personnel; Financial; and Patients; and consequent sub-themes (22). Outcomes from small-scale qualitative inquiries cannot by design be taken outside of its topical arena. This inevitably indicates that more research of this kind needs to be carried out to understand this field more effectively. The evidence suggests that Private Thai hospital management have established views about what constitutes the impact of medical tourism on hospital policies and practices when hospital staff interact with international patients. As the private health service sector in Thailand continues to grow, future research is needed to help hospitals provide appropriate service patterns and appropriate medical products/services that meet international patient needs and aspirations. Highlights the increasing importance of the international consumer in Thailand's health industry. This study provides insights of private health service providers in Bangkok by helping to understand more effectively health service quality environments, subsequent service provision, and the integrated development and impacts of new medical technology.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand.Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study.Thailand.The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys.Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall.In 2009, 5608(10% participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%. Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury.Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.
Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Thailand. The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall. In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.
Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.
Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.
Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.
The central concept of Newtonian mechanics is force. Without this concept, the students would find the rest of mechanics very difficult to master. Based on this hypothesis, the understandings and misconceptions of Newtonian mechanics were investigated. Three hundred eighteen Thai freshmen participated in this study. The freshmen were divided into two groups according to their high school locations, Bangkok and other cities of Thailand. The Force Concept Inventory was used to probe the freshmen's understandings and misconceptions. The SPSS and EXCEL programs were used to analyze the data. The translation of the FCI into Thai and its subsequent validation is considered to be a significant contribution to physics education research. The analyses indicated freshmen had the best understanding on concepts of Newton's first and third laws and the least on Newton's second law. Several Misconceptions on Newtonian force concepts were found, similar to their USA counterparts. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of freshmen on understanding of Newtonian force concepts.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
The first part of the paper discusses the most important explanations of the coup. The second part is devoted to history and ideology of the king and the throne while the third develops an image of the Crown Property Bureau and the Privy council's role in Thai politics. The fourth and fifth secti...... sections look more squarely at the impact of the rivalry of the US and China and the regional security dimension in relation to the coup itself and more specifically the role of the king. Finally some concluding remarks are offered.......The first part of the paper discusses the most important explanations of the coup. The second part is devoted to history and ideology of the king and the throne while the third develops an image of the Crown Property Bureau and the Privy council's role in Thai politics. The fourth and fifth...
Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha
This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.
Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...
This thesis focuses on irregular migration from Laos to Thailand, and irregular migrant labour in Thailand. This research is set in Mukdahan – a small (in size and population) yet important province as a gateway to cross-border activities in the Mekong region. It draws on the experiences of Lao irregular female migrant labourers in Mukdahan, northeastern Thailand, and the practices and perspectives of Thai authorities and employers in relation to irregular migrant labour law and enforcement. ...
Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol
Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...
Manoonpol, Chayanit; Plakornkul, Vasana
Analysis of skeleton is necessary for sex determination. There are several pieces of bone that are used such as pelvic bone and zygomatic arch etc. In the fieldwork of physical anthropologist and forensic physician, the skull or some pieces of the skull can be very useful. In the skull, the mastoid process is a compact and permanent process. Craniometric measurements of mastoid process are interesting parameters to distinguish sex. To study the craniometric measurements of mastoid process of dry skulls in Thais and provide a method for sex determination. One hundred normal skulls of Thais from the central region, 60 male and 40 female, were studied. The measurement of mastoid process between the three points, porion (po), mastoidale (ma), and asterion (as) were made. The three distances (po-ma, ma-as, po-as) were recorded (mm) and the mastoid triangular areas were calculated by using Heron's formula (mm2). The student's t-test and linear discriminant analysis were used for data analysis. The means of mastoid dimensions and mastoid triangular area in male are significantly larger than those of the female (p < or = 0.01). The linear discriminant analysis shows that using the mastoid process dimensions and mastoid triangular area for determining sex in Thais are convincing. The average accuracy is 67.00 to 76.90%. The better mastoid dimension is ma-as of the right mastoid process. It shows a high average accuracy at 76.90%. Means of the mastoid dimensions and mastoid triangular area of Thai skulls (whole skull or fragments) provide an accurate method for determining sex.
Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E
To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (pinjury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (pinjury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.
Visudtibhan, Anannit; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Khongkhatithum, Chaiyos; Chiemchanya, Surang; Sirijunpen, Suthatip; Ruangkanchanasetr, Suwanna; Visudhiphan, Pongsakdi
A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of migraine in seventh grade Thai students in 4 junior high schools in Bangkok, Thailand, according to the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the Classification of Headache of the International Headache Society was conducted in July 2004. The study included a screening self-administered questionnaire and face-to-face interview with physical examination. The diagnosis of migraine was made and confirmed by 2 pediatric neurologists. All of 1789 students in participating schools completed the questionnaire. After 2 interviews, 248 students (13.8%) were diagnosed with migraine. The prevalence in girls was higher than that in boys (16.2% vs 11.7%). Migraine as having aura was diagnosed in 34 students (13.7%). One student had sporadic hemiplegic migraine. Among 248 children, 176 (71%) reported the duration of headache between 1 and 2 hours. The leading precipitating factor of migraine was the stress related to daily school activities (17.7%). There were 32 students (12.9%) with frequent and intense headache who were referred to their primary physicians for further management. This study had disclosed a high prevalence of migraine in seventh grade Thai students in Bangkok City and reflected the existing burden of this illness in Thai students.
Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between innovation, R&D (Research and Development, and productivity in Thai manufacturing using cross-sectional data from the 2007 Industrial Census of Thailand. We utilize a simplified structural model (CDM model that describes the link between innovation output, R&D and productivity for the Thai case. Various estimation techniques are used to compare and provide evidence for empirical results. Our findings generally suggest that government aid and plant characteristics play an important role for a plant to engage in R&D and to be innovative, both in terms of process innovation and product innovation. Exporting plants, plants in the central region, and plants that are categorized as Head Branch type are more likely to engage in R&D and be innovative. The type of industry and specific technological characteristics of plants are shown to influence innovation effort and decisions to undertake R&D. On average, plant size, foreign ownership, exporting and product innovation are important drivers of productivity enhancement in Thai manufacturing.
Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.
Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak
The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum.
Magen, E; Waitman, D-A; Goldstein, N; Schlesinger, M; Dickstein, Y; Kahan, N R
Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in the western world. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-infected dyspeptic patients with IgAD. Case samples were drawn from all subjects ≥ 12 years of age (n = 104729) who had undergone serum total IgA measurements during 2004-14 for any reason at Leumit Healthcare Services (Israel) and had serum total IgA < 0·07 g/l. The control group was comprised of a random sample of remaining patients with a case-control ratio of 10 controls for each case. The dyspeptic diseases were identified and retrieved from Leumit Health Care Services electronic database using specific ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. The case group included 347 subjects and the control group 3470 subjects. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of patients with dyspepsia [84 (24·2%) versus 821 (23·6%) for cases and controls, respectively]. Additionally, there was no difference in a proportion of dyspeptic H. pylori-positive subjects [59 (17·1%) versus 524 (15·1%)] between the case and control groups. Only 59 (17%) among the 347 IgAD patients underwent gastroscopy. A significantly larger proportion of case subjects experienced several forms of gastritis [13 (61·9%) versus 38 (21·6%), P < 0·001), duodenal ulcers [seven (33·3%) versus 19 (10·8%); P = 0·01] and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) [two (9·5%) versus none; P = 0·011]. IgAD is not associated with increased prevalence of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia; nevertheless, H. pylori-infected dyspeptic IgAD subjects experience more EGD-proved gastritis, duodenal ulcers and NLH. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.
In vitro activity of colistin mono- and combination therapy against colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, mechanism of resistance, and clinical outcomes of patients infected with colistin-resistant A. baumannii at a Thai university hospital
Full Text Available Yongyut Lertsrisatit,1 Wichai Santimaleeworagun,2,3 Sudaluck Thunyaharn,4 Jantima Traipattanakul5 1College of Pharmacotherapy Thailand, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand; 3Pharmaceutical Initiative for Resistant Bacteria and Infectious Diseases Working Group (PIRBIG Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand; 4Faculty of Medical Technology, Nakhonratchasima College, Nakhonratchasima, Thailand; 5Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Colistin is a drug of last resort for treating multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Unfortunately, colistin-resistant A. baumannii (CoR-AB has been reported. Here, we examined the in vitro effect of mono- and combined antimicrobials against CoR-AB strains and their resistance mechanism, and evaluated the clinical outcomes of CoR-AB-infected patients.Patients and methods: Seventeen clinical CoR-AB strains were isolated from patients at Phramongkutklao hospital, 2011–2015. The mono- and synergistic activities of colistin, tigecycline, sulbactam, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, fosfomycin, and cotrimoxazole were examined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index. Clonal relationship and resistance genes were determined by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. The effect of carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone combined with colistin was used to test efflux pump involvement. Patient treatment outcomes were also reported.Results: The most prevalent infection in CoR-AB patients was pneumonia (35.3%, and all patients were administered colistin combined with another agent. The 30-day mortality was 70.6%, and the colistin MIC range and MIC50 was 16–512 µg/mL and 64 µg/mL, respectively. All CoR-AB strains were sensitive to tigecycline
Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important pathogen caused large outbreaks in Asian-Pacific region with severe neurological complications and may lead to death in young children. Understanding of the etiological spectrum and epidemic changes of enterovirus and population’s immunity against EV71 are crucial for the implementation of future therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Results A total of 1,182 patients who presented with the symptoms of hand foot and mouth disease (67.3%) or herpangina (HA) (16.7%) and admitted to the hospitals during 2008-2013 were tested for enterovirus using pan-enterovirus PCR targeting 5′-untranslated region and specific PCR for viral capsid protein 1 gene. Overall, 59.7% were pan-enterovirus positive comprising 9.1% EV71 and 31.2% coxsackievirus species A (CV-A) including 70.5% CV-A6, 27.6% CV-A16, 1.1% CV-A10, and 0.8% CV-A5. HFMD and HA occurred endemically during 2008-2011. The number of cases increased dramatically in June 2012 with the percentage of the recently emerged CV-A6 significantly rose to 28.4%. Co-circulation between different EV71 genotypes was observed during the outbreak. Total of 161 sera obtained from healthy individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against EV71 subgenotype B5 (EV71-B5) using microneutralization assay. The seropositive rate of EV71-B5 was 65.8%. The age-adjusted seroprevalence for individuals was found to be lowest in children aged >6 months to 2 years (42.5%). The seropositive rate remained relatively low in preschool children aged > 2 years to 6 years (48.3%) and thereafter increased sharply to more than 80% in individuals aged > 6 years. Conclusions This study describes longitudinal data reflecting changing patterns of enterovirus prevalence over 6 years and demonstrates high seroprevalences of EV71-B5 NAb among Thai individuals. The rate of EV71 seropositive increased with age but without gender-specific significant difference. We identified
Full Text Available Yaowaluck Hongkaew,1,2 Nattawat Ngamsamut,3 Apichaya Puangpetch,1,2 Natchaya Vanwong,1,2 Pornpen Srisawasdi,4 Montri Chamnanphon,1,2 Bhunnada Chamkrachchangpada,3 Teerarat Tan-kam,3 Penkhae Limsila,3 Chonlaphat Sukasem1,2 1Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Laboratory for Pharmacogenomics, Somdech Phra Debaratana Medical Center (SDMC, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 3Yuwaprasart Waithayopathum Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital, Department of Mental Health Services, Ministry of Public Health, 4Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The clinical data of patients collected from medical records – age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone, duration of treatment, and drug-use pattern – were recorded. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 66 of 147 (44.90% subjects. Median prolactin level at the high doses (24.00, interquartile range [IQR] 14.30–29.20 of risperidone was significantly found to be higher than at the recommended (16.20, IQR 10.65–22.30 and low (11.70, IQR 7.51–16.50 doses of risperidone. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and duration of risperidone treatment. Dose-dependence is identified as a main factor associated with hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with ASD treated with
Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers. This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology: This research paper is an attemp...
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this research was to analyze blood-group antigen-binding adhesion (babA2 and sialic acid binding adhesion (sabA genotypes status in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori isolates and their relationship with clinical outcomes. Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens were homogenized and placed in Brucella agar medium supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 3 antibiotics and were cultured at 37 °C under microaerophilic conditions and incubated for 4-7 days. H. pylori was identified by typical morphology, gram-staining and urease tests, and babA2 and sabA genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: From a total of 100 H. pylori isolates; babA2 and sabA genes were detected in 23.0 and 26.4%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between these genes and clinical outcomes (P < 0.050. Conclusion: We found that the babA2 status was not related to clinical outcomes in Tabriz, Iran. However, sabA was a promoting determinant for disease, and multivariate analysis disclosed sabA to be an independent marker of non-ulcer diseases in our subjects.
Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama
The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…
Hedin, C A; Axéll, T
At the faculties of dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients were interviewed concerning tobacco and chewing habits and examined for the presence of oral melanin pigmentation. Tobacco was regularly used by 32% and 28% of the studied populations in CM and KL. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit, but the chewing of betel and tea leaves (miang) and the smoking of banana leaf cigars (khi yo) was also registered. The genetically acquired pigmentation dominated. Although nearly all non-tobacco users in the Malay and Indian populations had oral melanin pigmentation, it was found that tobacco smokers had significantly more oral surfaces pigmented than non-tobacco users. Among Thais, the percentage of pigmented individuals was significantly higher among tobacco smokers. It was concluded that tobacco smoking stimulates oral melanocytes to a higher melanin production also in dark-skinned ethnic groups.
Walker S.C. Poston
Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.
Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu
The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. © 2013 APJPH.
Ali Asghar Keshavarz
Full Text Available Objective. The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD is high in Iran, and evaluation of CD is not part of the routine screening procedure for dyspeptic patients; therefore, cases of occult CD may be missed. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occult CD among dyspeptic patients who presented at a gastroenterology clinic in the Western region of Iran. Methods. In this descriptive, cross-sectional prospective study, patients who had a history of at least 12 weeks of upper abdominal discomfort were eligible to participate in the study during a 14-month recruitment period. Patients with a clinical or paraclinical data in favor of organic causes were excluded from the study. Enrolled patients were screened for IgA antiendomysium antibody (EMA and IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG. Those who screened positive for EMA/tTG received a confirmatory diagnostic biopsy for Marsh classification of CD. Results. From 225 potential participants with dyspepsia, 55 patients were excluded due to having explainable organic causes. The study sample included 170 patients with “functional dyspepsia.” Mean age of participants was 31 years and 55.8% were female. Twelve patients (7% had positive tests (EMA/tTG, of which 10 were female (83.4%. According to Rome II criteria, all twelve patients with positive tests had “dysmotility type dyspepsia.” Based on Marsh classification, six patients were consistent with “Marsh I,” four with “Marsh II,” and two with the “Marsh III” classification. Conclusions. In this study, the prevalence of CD in dyspeptic patients was high. As a result, this study suggests that screening by serology tests (EMA/tTG is justifiable for the detection of CD among functional dyspeptic patients in the tertiary centers in our country.
The objectives of this study are to describe 147 Thai elementary school teachers' English pronunciation competence and to identify a teacher variable that has an impact on their pronunciation. The instrument used to collect data consisted of two parts: a questionnaire to elicit Thai teachers' personal information (i.e., seven variables in all),…
Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.
During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by
Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra
This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…
Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.
Tangdhanakanond, Kamonwan; Archwamety, Teara
The purpose of the present study was to examine Thai college students' perceptions of school psychologist's roles and functions. Participants were 164 undergraduate students in the Faculty of Education at a Thai university. A questionnaire was employed to collect the data. It was found that college students majoring in secondary education rated…
Private tutoring in academic subjects, which is provided for a fee and which takes place outside standard school hours, has become a global phenomenon. It is also very visible in Thailand. This paper draws on qualitative method including documentary analyses and semi-structured interviews with Thai policy elites, to understand the Thai state…
Sermsook, Kanyakorn; Liamnimit, Jiraporn; Pochakorn, Rattaneekorn
The purposes of the present study were to examine the language errors in a writing of English major students in a Thai university and to explore the sources of the errors. This study focused mainly on sentences because the researcher found that errors in Thai EFL students' sentence construction may lead to miscommunication. 104 pieces of writing…
Choosakul, Chairat; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon; Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter
Grounded in the conceptual framework of the Sport Commitment Model and previous empirical studies conducted in Western countries, this study was designed to (a) test and validate a Thai version of the Athlete Opinion Survey to assess components of the Sport Commitment Model in Thai youth athletes and (b) examine structural relationships among…
This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…
Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee
This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…
Sritipsukho, Paskorn; Satdhabudha, Araya; Nanthapisal, Sira
Despite an increasing recognition that both asthma and allergic rhinitis are serious health disorders in Thailand, their combined effects on patients' quality of life in the Thai population has not been reported. The study aimed to evaluate the impacts of allergic rhinitis and asthma on the quality of life of young adolescents in Thailand. A total of 1,440 pupils, aged 12-14 years, were randomly recruited from 4 schools located in Bangkok and Pathum Thani Province. Allergic rhinitis and asthmatic symptoms were identified by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire was used to evaluate their quality of life. There were 1,230 completed questionnaires for analysis. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis alone, asthma alone and diseases co-occurrence was 32.8%, 7.2%, and 12.7% respectively. Pupils with respiratory allergy had significantly lower PedsQL mean scores than healthy pupils, for all dimensions (p < 0.006). The greatest reduction of the PedsQL mean score was for emotional functioning. Among pupils with allergic rhinitis, those who were also affected with asthma had significantly lower mean scores, for all quality of life domains (all p < 0.001). Compared to allergic rhinitis, asthma significantly reduced PedsQL mean scores in almost all domains (p < 0.001), except for physical health. Allergic rhinitis and asthma have a significant influence on the quality of life in young Thai adolescents, in particular regarding emotional functioning. Asthma has stronger negative effects on life quality than allergic rhinitis, especially regarding psychosocial health.
Winch Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Thai Universal Coverage health insurance scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group-based retrospective payment, for which quality of the diagnosis and procedure codes is crucial. However, there has been limited understandings on which health care professions are involved and how the diagnosis and procedure coding is actually done within hospital settings. The objective of this study is to detail hospital coding structure and process, and to describe the roles of key hospital staff, and other related internal dynamics in Thai hospitals that affect quality of data submitted for inpatient care reimbursement. Methods Research involved qualitative semi-structured interview with 43 participants at 10 hospitals chosen to represent a range of hospital sizes (small/medium/large, location (urban/rural, and type (public/private. Results Hospital Coding Practice has structural and process components. While the structural component includes human resources, hospital committee, and information technology infrastructure, the process component comprises all activities from patient discharge to submission of the diagnosis and procedure codes. At least eight health care professional disciplines are involved in the coding process which comprises seven major steps, each of which involves different hospital staff: 1 Discharge Summarization, 2 Completeness Checking, 3 Diagnosis and Procedure Coding, 4 Code Checking, 5 Relative Weight Challenging, 6 Coding Report, and 7 Internal Audit. The hospital coding practice can be affected by at least five main factors: 1 Internal Dynamics, 2 Management Context, 3 Financial Dependency, 4 Resource and Capacity, and 5 External Factors. Conclusions Hospital coding practice comprises both structural and process components, involves many health care professional disciplines, and is greatly varied across hospitals as a result of five main factors.
Pongpirul, Krit; Walker, Damian G; Winch, Peter J; Robinson, Courtland
In the Thai Universal Coverage health insurance scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group-based retrospective payment, for which quality of the diagnosis and procedure codes is crucial. However, there has been limited understandings on which health care professions are involved and how the diagnosis and procedure coding is actually done within hospital settings. The objective of this study is to detail hospital coding structure and process, and to describe the roles of key hospital staff, and other related internal dynamics in Thai hospitals that affect quality of data submitted for inpatient care reimbursement. Research involved qualitative semi-structured interview with 43 participants at 10 hospitals chosen to represent a range of hospital sizes (small/medium/large), location (urban/rural), and type (public/private). Hospital Coding Practice has structural and process components. While the structural component includes human resources, hospital committee, and information technology infrastructure, the process component comprises all activities from patient discharge to submission of the diagnosis and procedure codes. At least eight health care professional disciplines are involved in the coding process which comprises seven major steps, each of which involves different hospital staff: 1) Discharge Summarization, 2) Completeness Checking, 3) Diagnosis and Procedure Coding, 4) Code Checking, 5) Relative Weight Challenging, 6) Coding Report, and 7) Internal Audit. The hospital coding practice can be affected by at least five main factors: 1) Internal Dynamics, 2) Management Context, 3) Financial Dependency, 4) Resource and Capacity, and 5) External Factors. Hospital coding practice comprises both structural and process components, involves many health care professional disciplines, and is greatly varied across hospitals as a result of five main factors.
Tharnprisan, Piangjit; Khiewyoo, Jiraporn; Sripraya, Piporn; Wiangnon, Surapon
The standard national protocol for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children was implemented in 2006. A systematic evaluation of the treatment outcome is needed. This study examined the relapse-free survival among childhood ALL cases treated with this protocol and related factors. A descriptive study was conducted in children aged between 0-15 years, newly diagnosed with ALL between March 2006 and March 2011 at Srinagarind Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University. The patients were treated on the basis of stratified risk as per the Thai national protocol. Data were compiled from the hospital records. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to describe relapse-free survival and the Cox proportional hazard model to investigate the associated factors. Of the 103 children recruited, 86 (83.5%) achieved complete remission. The total follow-up time was 3132.5 person-months. Eighteen (20.9%) relapsed. The incidence density was 0.6 per 100 person-months (95%CI: 0.4, 0.9). The respective relapse-free rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 93.0% (95%CI: 85.1, 96.8), 84.5% (95%CI: 74.0, 90.9) and 64.1% (95%CI: 45.6, 77.8). A factor associated with the relapse-free rate was age under 1 year (HR=6.0; 95%CI: 1.1, 33.8). The rate of being relapse-free in ALL children treated under the Thai national protocol at Srinagarind Hospital was better than with former protocols; however, it is still not as good as in developed countries. Further review of the treatment approach of ALL is needed.
Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn
Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.
Sujarit, Chutinut; Rittirut, Waigoon; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Siripatana, Chairat
This research aimed to investigate an optimal condition for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma TISTR 5730 in two different media: synthetic YM medium and the medium added with coconut water and diluted with sewage from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant (coconut water: sewage of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 ration respectively). The basic medium formulation was composed of 10 g/L glucose, 3 g/L yeast extract, 0.1 g/L K2HPO4, 0.01 g/L NaCl, 0.01 g/L MgSO4 and 0.01 g/L CaCl2 with initial pH 5.5. The cultures were cultivated on 200 rpm shaking bath at 50 °C for 120 hr. It was found that P. rhodozyma TISTR 5370 grew optimally when cultivated in a mixture of coconut water and Thai rice vermicelli sewage (ratio of 1:3), with growth of 3.23 g dry biomass/L and specific astaxanthin production of 680 μg/g dry cell respectively. When fan palm sugar was added to increase reducing sugar from 10 to 15, 20 and 25 g/L, it was demonstrated that the 15 g/L formulation produced highest both dry cell weight (9.66 g/L) and astaxanthin (810 μg/g dry cell weight). Furthermore, when 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/L citric acid was added as supplement, it was found that 1.0-g/L citric acid formulation gave the best result: 10.30 g/L dried cell weight and 930 μg/g dry cell weight astaxanthin. This study provides a promising alternative method of sewage reduction and valorization of wastewater from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant.
Since the mid-1990s, Thailand has been one of the largest per capita consumers of methamphetamine pills (ya ba - "crazy drug") in the world and one of the leading consumers of methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, with its youth comprising the majority of users. This article examines the socio-cultural context of methamphetamine use among young Thai in order to understand its widespread appeal. The study is based on 18 months of ethnographic research in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, between 2002 and 2006 and a follow-up field trip in 2011. In-depth interviews were carried out with 211 young people aged between 15 and 25 in institutional and non-institutional settings. Many of the findings derive from participant observation and informal interviews with a small sample of 20 people. Chiang Mai youth have transformed methamphetamine from a labourers' drug centred on economic utility to a multi-purpose youth drug primarily consumed for pleasure and performance. Ya ba appeals to many young Thai due to its positive image as a modern and fashionable consumer commodity, with confidence in these synthetic pills drawing on and mirroring a broader faith in modern (western) medicine. The growing demand for ya ba in northern Thailand is in part a reflection of the changing social values that have accompanied rapid urbanisation and modernisation in Thailand. In their overwhelming aspiration to be modern, young Thai are consuming ya ba not to rebel against the dominant culture, but to keep up with the demands and expectations of a modern capitalist society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria
Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced
Rungreangkulkij, Somporn; Chafetz, Linda; Chesla, Catherine; Gilliss, Catherine
The paper presents data on families of a person with schizophrenia in rural Thailand, using the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation. The aim is to assess the impact of family factors on psychological morbidity of the mothers and relatives of a person with schizophrenia. One hundred and eight Thai families were interviewed based on family assessment instruments. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The findings suggest that in a stable stage of illness, other stresses of family life may have stronger impact on psychological status of family members, than the illness. Implications for clinical nurses and researchers are presented.
Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Wichainprasast, Pongdej; Tantawichien, Terapong
The number of Thai tourists visiting India is increasing each year. Most studies investigating health problems among international travellers to India have focused on travellers from Europe or North America, and the applicability of these studies to Asian travellers is unknown. This cross-sectional study used data collected from Thai tourists who had recently completed a trip to India. A questionnaire on demographic data, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparation, and health problems during the trip to India was administered. All participants were also invited to answer a follow-up questionnaire 15 days after their arrival. The study included 1,304 Thai tourists returning from India between October 2014 and March 2015. Sixty-two percent were female. Overall median age was 49 years, and the median length of stay was 10.6 days. Most were package tourists, and 52% (675) reported health problems during their trip. Common health problems were cough, runny nose, and sore throat (31.1%), followed by musculoskeletal problems (21.7%), fever (12.7%), diarrhea (9.8%) and skin problems (6.6%). Other reported problems were related to the eyes/ears (2.1%), animal exposure (1.9%) and accidents (0.8%). We found that several factors may be associated with the incidence of health problems among these tourists, including travelling style and travel health preparation. In the follow-up questionnaire, 16.8% of the participants reported new or additional symptoms that developed after their return to Thailand. Respiratory symptoms were still the most common health problems during this 15-day period. Over half (52%) of Thai tourists experienced health problems during their trip to India. The most common health problem was not travellers' diarrhoea, as would be expected from published studies. Rather, respiratory and musculoskeletal problems were common symptoms. This information will be useful in pre-travel assessment and care. Our findings may indicate that health risks among
Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Yuzuru
Highlights: • Thai industrial sector has been modelled using AIM/Enduse model. • Potential mitigation of CO 2 for 2050 is approximately 20% from Baseline scenario. • Abatement cost curves show that varied counter measures are practical in the industrial sector. • Energy security is enhanced due to CO 2 mitigation in the LCS scenario. - Abstract: Energy plays a dominant role in determining the individual competitiveness of a country and this is more relevant to emerging economies. That being said, energy also plays an important and ever expanding role in carbon emissions and sustainability of the country. As a developing country Thailand’s industrial sector is vibrant and robust and consumes majority of the energy. In addition, it also has the highest CO 2 emissions, provided the emissions of power generation are taken into account. Industry also accounts for the highest consumption of electricity in Thailand. The objective of this study is to model the Thai industrial energy sector and estimate the mitigation potential for the timeframe of 2010–2050 using the principles of Low Carbon Society (LCS). In addition, the paper would also evaluate emission tax as a key driver of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation along with Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) analysis. Another secondary objective is to analyse the impact of mitigation on energy security of the industrial sector. The Thai industrial sector was modelled using AIM/Enduse model, which is a recursive dynamic optimisation model belonging to the Asia–Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) family. Thai industrial sector was divided into nine sub-sectors based on national economic reporting procedures. Results suggest that the mitigation potential in 2050, compared to the Baseline scenario, is around 20% with positive impacts on energy security. The Baseline emission will approximately be 377 Mt-CO 2 in the industrial sector. All four indicators of energy security, Primary Energy Intensity, Carbon Intensity, Oil
Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Overgaard, Anne Blach
Increasingly species distribution models are being used to address questions related to ecology, biogeography and species conservation on global and regional scales. We used the maximum entropy approach implemented in the MAXENT programme to build a habitat suitability model for Thai palms based...... overprediction of species distribution ranges. The models with the best predictive power were found by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). Here, we provide examples of contrasting predicted species distribution ranges as well as a map of modeled palm diversity...
Sumitra, Tatchai; Chankow, Nares; Bradley, K.; Bereznai, G.
The Thai-Canadian Nuclear Human Resources Development Linkage Project (the P roject ) was initiated in 1994 in order to develop the engineering and scientific expertise needed for Thailand to decide whether and how the country can best benefit from the establishment of a nuclear power program. The Project was designed to upgrade current academics and people in industry, and to develop an adequate supply of new technical personnel for academic, industry, utility, regulatory and other government institutions. The key Project objectives included the establishment of a Chair in Nuclear Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, the upgrading of the current Masters level curriculum, the establishment of undergraduate and doctorate level curricula, development and delivery of an industrial training program for people in industry and government, exchanges of Thai and Canadian academics and industry experts to establish common research programs and teaching interests, and a public education program that was to test in Thailand some of the techniques that have been successfully used in Canada. (author)
Yampratoom, Ramorn; Aroonyadech, Nawarat; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Kositprapa, Jariya
To investigate emergent literacy skills, including phonological awareness when presented with an initial phoneme-matching task and letter knowledge when presented with a letter-naming task in Thai preschoolers, and to identify key factors associated with those skills. Four hundred twelve typically developing children in their final kindergarten year were enrolled in this study. Their emergent reading skills were measured by initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming tasks. Determinant variables, such as parents' education and teachers' perception, were collected by self-report questionnaires. The mean score of the initial phoneme-matching task was 4.5 (45% of a total of 10 scores). The mean score of the letter-naming task without a picture representing the target letter name was 30.2 (68.6% of a total of 44 scores), which increased to 38.8 (88.2% of a total of 44 scores) in the letter-naming task when a picture representing the target letter name was provided. Both initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming abilities were associated with the mother's education and household income. Letter-naming ability was also influenced by home reading activities and gender. This was a preliminary study into emergent literacy skills of Thai preschoolers. The findings supported the importance of focusing on phonological awareness and phonics, especially in the socioeconomic disadvantaged group.
Laoprom, Nonglak; Sangprom, Araya; Chaisri, Patcharaporn
This work aims to study the antioxidants capacity, Total phenolic content and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant for the treatment of dermatitis-related inflammations, Capparis micracantha. Crude extract from stem of Thai medicinal plant was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The antioxidant activities (IC50) was evaluated with 1,1-diphenyl-1-princylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bacterial activities was tested with four human pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Stapylococcus epidermidis by using agar diffusion assay. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also determined by broth dilution method. For antioxidant activity, the methanol fraction from stem extract showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 2.4 mg/ml. Water extraction was the high TPC with 10,136.9 mg GAE/g dry weight. Methanol and water extraction showed the remarkable inhibition of bacterial growth was shown against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. In addition, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fraction from stem extract against S. epidermidis. The present finding suggests that the extract of C. micracantha could be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as pharmaceutical products.
Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna; Nguyen, Thi Huong
Southeast Asian governments implement ambitious programmes to reduce population growth and maternal mortality in areas with large minority ethnic populations. Although some of these programmes introduce new social and health practices that meet their broader aims, they may pay inadequate attention to the protective and medically beneficial aspects of traditional practices. This study examined the decline of temporary matrilocality (zu kuay) among the Black Thai in Dien Bien, Vietnam, as a response to policies adopted under the government programme of Doi Moi ('modernisation'). The patrilocal, patrilinear cultural norms of the majority ethnic Kinh people were promoted and zu kuay discouraged at a time when heroin availability increased dramatically but harm reduction programmes were not yet in place. This historical coincidence appears to have heightened certain Thai women's vulnerability to marriages with HIV-positive injecting drug users. Policies and guidelines on marriage and reproductive health should take into account the role of minority ethnic traditions, as well as local health-seeking practices, in order not only to improve reproductive programmes but also to reduce HIV vulnerability.
Sinthubua, Apichat; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Ruengdit, Sitthiporn; Singsuwan, Phruksachat; Praneatpolgrang, Sithee; Duangto, Phuwadon
Sex determination is an important step in biological identification from skeletal remains, especially in forensic circumstances. Many authors suggested that the morphological study was more subjective than the metric. There are various craniometric studies in different populations. They revealed that there was population-specific for the sex discriminant equation derived from each population. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate sexual dimorphism and develop the discriminant function from 200 Thai skulls. Twenty-five standard cranial measurements were examined. The results revealed that males' cranium were statistically significant larger than females' in all measurements (P<0.05), except for minimum breadth of nasal bone. Sexual dimorphism index also expressed relatively high male/female ratio indicating great sexual dimorphism. The best practical equation for sex determination with six measurements (maximum cranial length, bizygomatic breadth, biauricular breadth, nasal height, biorbital breadth and right mastoid length) was derived from a stepwise discriminant method. This equation with 90.6% accuracy (91.1% in male and 90.0% in female) can provide valuable application utilizing in sex determination from skull in a Thai population. PMID:26770879
Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.
In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.
Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Kritsananuwat, R; Ploykrathok, T; Pengvanich, P; Tumnoi, Y; Thumvijit, T; Sriburee, S
In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg -1 for 226 Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40 K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy -1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy -1 . The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard. (paper)
Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.
Full Text Available The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.
Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.
Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.
Nanakorn, Somsong; Chusilp, Kusuma; Kutanan, Wibhu
The present study describes the initial phase of the Thai Twin Registry (TTR) in Khon Kaen University, a pioneer research university located in the Northeast of Thailand. The initial steps of the study included the analysis of dermatoglyphic information in Thai twins for answering the research question: Are monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins different in dermatoglyphic variables? Subjects were 212 twin pairs (131 MZ and 81 [corrected] DZ), consisting of 155 males and 269 females. Four types of fingerprint pattern (FP) - that is, arch, radial loop, ulnar loop, and whorl - were classified and analyzed and compared between MZ and DZ twins. The arch radial loop and whorl frequencies differ between MZ and DZ twins. When comparing FP in each finger, only the right little finger shows a statistically different FP, while the FP similarity average from 10 homologous fingers of co-twins was greater in MZ than DZ twins. By using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis, the MZ twins could be differentiated from DZ twins by the FP similarity. Summarizing, this valuable report about TTR was conducted by analysis of FP data, which indicated that the MZ and DZ twins exhibited FP pattern and FP similarity differences. Other dermatoglyphic studies of the existing FP database, such as finger ridge count, finger ridge density, and minutia, will be considered for ongoing research at the TTR.
Feng, Fu-min; Bao, Zuo-yi; Zhuang, Dao-min; Liu, Si-yang; Li, Lin; Li, Jing-yun
To clone, identify and phylogenetically characterize a clade B-Thai HIV isolate representing the most prevalent virus in Henan province. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an HIV-1 infected patient in Henan Province were separated, and co-cultivated with phytohemagglutinin-stimulated healthy donor PBMCs. Proviral DNA was extracted from productively infected PBMCs. The full-length HIV-1 genome was amplified by using the LA Tag long template PCR system. Primers were positioned in conserved regions within the HIV-1 long terminal repeats. Purified PCR products were T-A ligated into a pWSK29-T vector(CNHN 24 clone). Three recombinant clones containing virtually full-length HIV-1 genome were identified by PCR. The full-length genome was sequenced by using the primer-walking approach. Nucleotide sequence similarities were calculated by the local-homology algorithm. Phylogenetic trees of gag, pol and env reading frames were constructed using the Phylip software. HIV-1 C3V4 sequences indicate that the epidemic in this area was B-Thai subtype. V3 loop multiple amino acid sequence alignments showed amino acid alterations at nine positions. The 9,010 bp genomic sequence derived from isolate CNHN 24 contained all known structural and regulatory genes of an HIV-1 genome. No major deletions, insertions, or rearrangements were found. The highest homologies of the gag, pol, vpr, and vif reading frames to the corresponding clade B-Thai RL 42 sequences were 95.42%-97.08%. Phylogenetic trees showed the closest relationship of CNHN 24 and RL 42. The cloning and characterization of a virtually full-length HIV-1 B-Thai subtype in central China was completed in our laboratory. The data should be helpful to future studies on the genetic diversity of HIV-1.
Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa
"Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.
Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Likitmaskul, Supawadee; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Peerapatdit, Thavatchai; Sawathiparnich, Pairunyar; Nitiyanant, Wannee; Angsusingha, Kitti; Tuchinda, Chanika; Tandhanand, Sunthorn
Diabetes Education Program, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital has provided summer camps for Thai children with type 1 diabetes since 1990. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the diabetes camp in glycemic control. Twenty male and forty-two female patients participated in the 5-day diabetes camp held in Karnchanaburi, Thailand in 2003. The mean age was 14.1 +/- 4.3 years and the mean duration of disease was 4.5 +/- 3.5 years. Fifty out of sixty-two patients returned for a 3-month-postcamp visit. The glycemic control improved significantly. The mean precamp and postcamp HbA1c levels were 10.0 +/- 3.1% and 9.0 +/- 2.6% (p = 0.008) respectively. The diabetes camp is a valuable program for patients to learn diabetes-self management skills, especially in countries where the diabetes education programs are not always available.
Full Text Available Diabetes and hypertension are major independent risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases; however, prevalence and characteristics of the coexistence in general population is not clear. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey III were used to estimate the prevalence of coexistence of diabetes and hypertension, and to estimate the proportion of awareness, treatment and control of both conditions. A total of 36,877 (male 17,614 and female 19,263 participants were included in the study. The prevalence of people with diabetes and hypertension was 3.2% (male 2.8% and female 3.6%. Approximately half of the diabetes patients (49.0%, 95%CI 45.6, 52.5 had hypertension, and 14.4% (95%CI 13.0, 16.0 of hypertensive patients had diabetes. After controlling for covariates, factors associated with coexistence of diabetes and hypertension included; age ≥60 years (adjust odds ratio 1.38, 95%CI 1.14, 1.73, having education less than 6 years (1.83, 95%CI 1.03, 3.38 and abdominal obesity (2.49, 95%CI 2.00, 3.10. More than 80% were unaware of having both conditions. Target for control of both glucose and blood pressure among those treated was achieved in only 6.2%. In conclusion, patients with diabetes or hypertension should be promoted to have weight control and screening for the comorbidity.
Expands on Clark's (1974) hypothesis regarding non-literal uses of the English verbs of motion "come" and "go," by positing the notions of marked and unmarked relative states, and comparative deixis, in Thai verbs of motion. (AM)
Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Bunburaphong, Thananchai; Champunot, Ratapum
Mechanical ventilators (MV) have been progressing rapidly. New ventilator modes and supportive equipments have been developed. However; the MV status in Thai ICUs was not available. The objective of this report was to describe the MV supply and availability in Thai ICUs and review some important characteristics regarding of the availability of MV MATERIAL AND METHOD: The ICU RESOURCE I study (Mechanical ventilator part) database was used in the present study. Hospital types, MV brands and models were recorded. Statistically significant differences between and among groups were defined as p-value ventilators were also a high proportion of the MVs in Thai ICUs. Bennette and Hamilton were the most highly available MVin this survey. Advanced MV models were more available in academic ICUs (Thai Clinical Trial Registry: TCTR-201200005).
Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos
Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...
Richter, K; Podhisita, C
A review of family demography in Thailand is presented, and future research needs are identified. Suggestions for future research include a determination of an acceptable set of standard roles and obligations among family members in the "loose structure" paradigm and an analysis of marital stability. Other researchable topics include support to the elderly, family allocations to children, changes among rural adolescents, and family responses to AIDS. Embree and other researchers defined the Thai family as a "loosely structured" paradigm where behavior within the family was highly variable. Anthropologists Sulamith and Potter have described the matrilineal system, and others have referred to the influences of Buddhism on family roles. Foster identified traditional Thai marriage as based on individual choice of spouse, which was often based on romantic love and the desired approval of parents. Arranged marriages declined in importance. Rural Thais married within their villages but outside their matrilineage. Bridewealth payments were not rigidly enforced. Marriage forms included formal Buddhist marriage, legal registration, or both; elopement; and cohabitation. By 1991 marriage age had stabilized at 22 years for women and 24 years for men. Muslim women married at a younger age than Buddhist women. Marriage was delayed in urban areas, after migration, with increased education, and with labor force participation and nonagricultural employment. Studies by Limanonda found that first birth status and smaller sibling size were associated with earlier marriage. Marriage was nearly universal, but singlehood was accepted. 15% of first marriages during the later 1970s were found to have ended in divorce. Remarriage was common. Average household size was 4.0 in 1988. 15.7% of households with children 0-15 years old in 1990 were female headed. Higher education was found to be related to nuclear family formation. Kinship was a bilateral system based on sex, relative age, and
Wichai Onlaor; Siriluck Rotchanakitumnuai
The aim of this research is to develop the understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from consumers- perspective toward Thai mobile service providers. Based on the survey from 400 mobile customers, the result shows that four dimensions of CSR of Thai mobile service providers consist of economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility. These four CSR factors have positive impacts on enhancing customer satisfaction except one item of economic respon...
Namahoot KS; Laohavichien T
This research explores the effects of quality management and trust towards behavioural intention of Thai consumers to use internet banking. It specifically investigates whether the quality management dimensions of information quality, system quality and service quality affect the level of trust of Thai consumers towards internet banking, and whether this trust correspondingly affect their intention to use the system. This study has been conducted in Thailand and focused on the users of intern...
Thinkhamrop, Wilaiphorn; Sawaengdee, Krisada; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Theerawit, Tuangtip; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Hurst, Cameron Paul
Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major public health problem among registered nurses (RNs) in Thailand. Information on their burdens at a national level is limited. This study estimated the prevalence of MSDs among RNs using the 2009 Thai Nurse Cohort, a nationally representative sample of RNs in Thailand. Methods This study is part of the first wave survey of the Thai Nurse Cohort Study (TNCS) conducted in 2009. Members of the cohort consisted of 18,756 RNs across Thailand. ...
The research about Formal Thai National Costume in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej is an applied research that aimed to study the accurate knowledge concerning to Thai national costume in the reign of King Rama IX, also to study origin of all costumes in the reign of King Rama IX and to study the style, material used, and using accasion. This research methodology which are collect quanlitative data through observation, document, and photograph from key informant of costume in the reign o...
Fernbrant, Cecilia; Emmelin, Maria; Essén, Birgitta; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth
The current aim is to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Thai women residing in Sweden and its association with mental health. We also investigate the potential influence of social isolation and social capital regarding the association between IPV and mental health outcome. A public health questionnaire in Thai was distributed by post to the entire population of Thai women, aged 18-64, residing in two regions in Sweden since 2006. Items included aspects related to IPV (physical/sexual/emotional), sociodemographic background, physical health, mental health (GHQ-12), social isolation, and social capital (i.e. social trust/participation). The response rate was 62.3% (n=804). Prevalence of lifetime reported IPV was 22.1%, with 20.5% by a previous partner and 6.7% by a current partner. Previous IPV exposure was significantly related to current IPV exposure, and all IPV exposure measures were significantly related to poor mental health. However, Thai women experiencing IPV by a current partner were more at risk for poor mental health than Thai women with previous or without any experience of IPV. Also, among all women exposed to IPV, those with trust in others and without exposure to social isolation seemed to have partial protection against the adverse mental health consequences associated with IPV. Most Thai women had never been exposed to IPV, and after migrating to Sweden, women had lower IPV exposure than in Thailand. However, the increased risk for poor mental health among those Thai women exposed to IPV suggests the need for supportive measures and targeted interventions to prevent further injuries and adverse health consequences. Although poor mental health in Thai women represents an obstacle for integration, the potential resilience indicated in the group with high social trust and without exposure to social isolation suggests that such aspects be included in the program designed to facilitate integration.
Tempark, Therdpong; Satapornpong, Patompong; Rerknimitr, Pawinee; Nakkam, Nontaya; Saksit, Niwat; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Jantararoungtong, Thawinee; Koomdee, Napatrupron; Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra; Suttisai, Sumitra; Pratoomwun, Jirawat; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Rerkpattanapipat, Ticha; Sukasem, Chonlaphat
A previous publication in Chinese leprosy patients showed that the HLA-B*13:01 allele is a strong genetic marker for dapsone-induced drug hypersensitivity reactions, however there are no data describing whether HLA-B*13:01 is a valid marker for prediction of dapsone-induced drug hypersensitivity reactions in other ethnicities or nonleprosy patients. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between HLA genotypes and dapsone-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in Thai nonleprosy patients. HLA-B genotypes of 15 patients with dapsone-induced SCARs (11 drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, 4 Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis), 29 control patients, and 986 subjects from the general Thai population were determined by the reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotides probe. The HLA-B*13:01 allele was significantly associated with dapsone-induced SCARs compared with dapsone-tolerant controls (odds ratio: 54.00, 95% confidence interval: 7.96-366.16, P=0.0001) and the general population (odds ratio: 26.11, 95% confidence interval: 7.27-93.75, P=0.0001). In addition, HLA-B*13:01 associated with dapsone-induced SJS-TEN (OR: 40.50, 95% confidence interval: 2.78-591.01, P=0.0070) and DRESS (OR: 60.75, 95% confidence interval: 7.44-496.18, P=0.0001). This study demonstrated an association between HLA-B*13:01 and dapsone-induced SCARs including Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in nonleprosy patients. Moreover, these results suggest that the HLA-B*13:01 allele may be a useful genetic marker for prediction of dapsone-induced SCARs in Thai and Han-Chinese populations.
Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Wiwatwongwana, Sutti; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F
Short-form 36 (SF-36) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) are common instruments for measuring quality of life (QoL) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The goal of the present study was to compare the performance of both instruments in evaluating QoL in patients with knee osteoarthritis as diagnosed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Treatment included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and patient education for 6 weeks. Face-to-face interview by an orthopaedist was done at baseline and after treatment, including collection of demographic data and use of both SF-36 and WOMAC questionnaires. Evaluation of instrument performance included reliability, validity, and responsiveness measures. Reliability was tested by analysis of internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha at baseline and after treatment. Construct validity was computed by determining the correlation between each domain of SF-36 and WOMAC (Pearson's test). Responsiveness was compared between baseline and after treatment of both SF-36 and WOMAC in each domain using the paired t test. Fifty-two patients (8 men, 48 women) with a mean age of 58.4 years were included in the present study. About 75% of subjects had less than secondary education levels and most were from agricultural communities. Sixty-four percent had mild grade knee osteoarthritis. The internal consistency of WOMAC revealed good levels of reliability, both at baseline and after treatment, in all dimensions. The reliability of SF-36 was relatively low, especially in the role physical and bodily pain dimensions (Cronbach's alpha validity between each dimension in SF-36 and WOMAC demonstrated coefficients ranging from -0.05 to -0.409. Both WOMAC and SF-36 showed good responsiveness when comparing scores before and after treatment in all domains. In conclusion, both the Thai version WOMAC and SF-36 were valid, reliable, and sensitive to change in evaluating QoL in Thai patients with
Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel; Peart, Emma
In the current study, we tested the generality of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Thai native speakers (Experiment 2). Thai has a distinctive alphabetic orthography with visually complex letters (ฝ ฟ or ผ พ) and nonlinear characteristics and lacks interword spaces. We used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Thai letters, or symbols. For the English speakers, we found a similar pattern of results as in previous studies (i.e., a dissociation between letters and symbols). In contrast, for the Thai participants, we found that the pattern for Thai letters, Roman letters and symbols displayed a remarkably similar linear trend. Thus, while we observed qualified support for the MRF theory, in that we found an advantage for initial position, this effect also applied to symbols (i.e., our data revealed a language-specific effect). We propose that this pattern for letters and symbols in Thai has developed as a specialized adaptive mechanism for reading in this visually complex and crowded nonlinear script without interword spaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Mereerat Manwong; Hanprathet, Nitt; Phanasathit, Muthita
To determine the prevalence ofFacebook (FB) addiction and its related factors among Thai high school students. This cross-sectional study was performed among 972 high school students in four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administrative questionnaire was produced composing of three parts; demographic data, a Thai version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) and the Thai version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 items. Multivariate analysis was employed to analyze thefactors associated with FB addiction. The prevalence ofFB addiction amongst Thai adolescents was 41.8% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2). Related factors included gender school location, sufficiency ofpersonalfinance, devices ofFB access, duration ofstaying online via FB, andFB usage during holidays. In addition, every 1-hour increase in usage enhanced the risk for FB addiction (OR = 1.12, 95% CI; 1.05, 1.19). The prevalence of FB addiction in Thai high school students was found to be higher than in many other countries. Relatedfactors should be controlled in order to reduce FB addiction and its detrimental impacts, such as behavior modification and the promotion of healthier free-time activities. Further studies are recommended to understand why FB addiction is so high in Thailand.
Seresangtakul, Pusadee; Takara, Tomio
In this paper, the distinctive tones of Thai in running speech are studied. We present rules to synthesize F0 contours of Thai tones in running speech by using the generative model of F0 contours. Along with our method, the pitch contours of Thai polysyllabic words, both disyllabic and trisyllabic words, were analyzed. The coarticulation effect of Thai tones in running speech were found. Based on the analysis of the polysyllabic words using this model, rules are derived and applied to synthesize Thai polysyllabic tone sequences. We performed listening tests to evaluate intelligibility of the rules for Thai tones generation. The average intelligibility scores became 98.8%, and 96.6% for disyllabic and trisyllabic words, respectively. From these result, the rule of the tones' generation was shown to be effective. Furthermore, we constructed the connecting rules to synthesize suprasegmental F0 contours using the trisyllable training rules' parameters. The parameters of the first, the third, and the second syllables were selected and assigned to the initial, the ending, and the remaining syllables in a sentence, respectively. Even such a simple rule, the synthesized phrases/senetences were completely identified in listening tests. The MOSs (Mean Opinion Score) was 3.50 while the original and analysis/synthesis samples were 4.82 and 3.59, respectively.
Peckmann, Tanya R; Scott, Shelby; Meek, Susan; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk
The impact of climate change is estimated to be particularly severe in Thailand. Overall, the country faces an increase in surface temperatures, severe storms and floods, and a possible increase in the number of mass disasters in the region. It is extremely important that forensic scientists have access to sex estimation methods developed for use on a Thai population. The goal of this project is to evaluate the accuracy of sex estimation discriminant functions, created using contemporary Mexican and Greek populations, when applied to a contemporary Thai sample. The length of the glenoid cavity (LGC) and breadth of the glenoid cavity (BGC) were measured. The sample included 191 individuals (95 males and 96 females) with age ranges from 19 to 96years old. Overall, when the Mexican and Greek discriminant functions were applied to the Thai sample they showed higher accuracy rates for sexing female scapulae (83% to 99%) than for sexing male scapulae (53% to 92%). Size comparisons were made to Chilean, Mexican, Guatemalan, White American, and Greek populations. Overall, in males and females of the Thai sample, the scapulae were smaller than in the Chilean, Mexican, White American, and Greek populations. However, the male and female Thai scapulae were larger than in the Guatemalan sample. Population-specific discriminant functions were created for the Thai population with an overall sex classification accuracy rate of 83% to 88%. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purposes of the study were (1 to develop third year Thai major students’ researching skill according to the criterion of 80 percent, and (2 to study third and fourth year Thai major students’ satisfaction in Coaching and Mentoring process. 95 participants were selected using purposive sampling from third year Thai major students. Five research instruments were used in this study ; (1 classroom research comprehension tests, (2 outline evaluation forms, lesson plan evaluation forms and achievement tests, teaching performance evaluation forms and research report evaluation forms, (3 research behavioral observation forms for third year Thai major students, (4 third year Thai major students interview forms, and (5 satisfaction questionnaire. Statistics used in the study were percentage average, and standard deviation. The result showed third year Thai major students who had taken research course using Coaching and Mentoring process scored 80% in researching skill according to the criterion and had positive satisfaction with average value of 4.54 or 90.79%. Moreover, the result found that fourth year students had positive satisfaction in counseling third year students with average value of 4.73 or 96.38%.
Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Laophosri, Maneepun; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak
Background Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly. Methods This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST), and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Results There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls), with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011), FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P dance group than the control group. Conclusion Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly) female adults. PMID:23950640
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient technique for improving the efficiency of Thai error correction system by using memetic algorithm. In this paper, the token passing algorithm is used for constructing word graph and the language model is used checking the correct sentence. The correction process starts with word graph construction from token passing algorithm, then the correct sentence are searched by memetic algorithm with the best fitness function from language model. For a long sentence from the token passing algorithm, a search space is very huge which can be resolved by using memetic algorithm. The memetic algorithm is used for searching the correct sentence in order to reduce the analysis time. The performance of the proposed method are evaluated and compared to the full search and genetic algorithm. From the experimental results show that the proposed method performs very well and yields better performance more than the compared method. The proposed method can search the best sentence accurately and quickly.
state over decades. In this way they have control of the state and amass resources which they can transform into economic and symbolic capital. This capital is used to win elections and to maintain the influential position of political trakun. Capital is reproduced through socialization from one...... generation to the next. Strategic marriages create alliances or strengthen cooperation in the trakun. Upon the death of one member of the trakun, the funeral mediates the possible loss of symbolic capital in all its forms. Hereby, the traditional funeral rituals are utilized and reinvented...... for the proliferation of the trakun’s symbolic capital. The role of political trakun shows that the Thai state is an abstract concept of an institution exercising sovereignty over a given territory, relating fundamentally to the maintenance of order within its territory and to the business of government. This has given...
The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Green Living has been practiced in everyday life which is accepted worldwide. However, there is no concrete academic principles for Green Living. The understanding of Green Living is rather abstract. This study focuses on the academic principles and indicators of the Green Living Families in Thailand. The results from the studies will be used for further research.This qualitative study aims at proposing the principles and indicators of the Green Living Families in the Thai context. The research methodologies include the analysis and synthesis of various documents both from Thailand and foreign countries, interviews and observation of five Green Living Families. The results show that the principles consist of 1 production for one’s own consumption within the family 2 economical use of resources and 3 sharing with others and the society. The essential indicators comprise of 1 Knowledge, 2 Practice, and 3 Attitude on Green Living.
Kalampakorn, Surintorn; Kaewpan, Wonpen; Luksamijarulkul, Pipat
To examine the health responsibilities of an aging Thai male workforce and its related factors. A descriptive study was conducted with 417 male workers aged 45-60 who were working in 4 regions of Thailand. Data were collected between October 2004 and February 2005 using self-administered questionnaires. Health responsibility was measured at the frequency of the participants personal health practices relating to the health seeking, participation in health promoting activities, and having health check-ups. Statistical analyses used were percentage, mean, and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that subjects had health responsibility at moderate level (Mean = 17.2 +/- 4.7). Lowest mean of health responsibility was found in participation in health promotion activities/club area (Mean = 1.9 +/- 1.0). Social support, perceived health status, and monthly income (p responsibility. Health responsibility of an aging workforce should be enhanced through support from family, friends, and co-workers.
Anthony J S Whalley
Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are present in all plant species investigated, and members of the Xylariaceae are especially common in tropical plants. There is major interest in endophytic fungi, because of their excellent track record concerning the production of novel and often bioactive compounds including the anti-cancer drugs taxol and taxane. Studies in Thailand on endophytes over the past 20 years confirm the high presence of the Xylariaceae in many different Thai plants. Species of Xylaria stand out as the most frequent Xylariaceae isolated; although, Daldinia eschscholtzii has also been commonly isolated. DNA technology and chemical profiling have been shown to be invaluable in the identification of xylariaceous isolates which previously could not be identified to species level or even assigned to genera in many cases. Reference is made to those isolates which produce novel compounds or those exhibiting bioactive properties.
Chanyotha, S; Kranrod, C; Chankow, N; Kritsananuwat, R; Sriploy, P; Pangza, K
The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) distributed in products, by-products and waste produced from Thai mineral industries were investigated. Samples were analysed for radioactivity concentrations of two principal NORM isotopes: (226)Ra and (228)Ra. The enrichment of NORM was found to occur during the treatment process of some minerals. The highest activity of (226)Ra (7 × 10(7) Bq kg(-1)) was in the scale from tantalum processing. The radium concentration in the discarded by-product material from metal ore dressing was also enriched by 3-10 times. Phosphogypsum, a waste produced from the production of phosphate fertilisers, contained 700 times the level of (226)Ra concentration found in phosphate ore. Hence, these residues were also sources of exposure to workers and the public, which needed to be controlled.
Full Text Available Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University,Thailand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Aim: To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education. Methods: This is a 16-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in a menopausal clinic in a tertiary health care center in Northeastern Thailand. The intervention group received a 60-minute session of MR training and were encouraged to practice 15–20 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. The control group received lifestyle education, including diet and exercise. The primary and secondary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Results: Of 432 participants, 215 and 217 were randomly allocated to the MR and control groups, respectively. Of those, 167 participants in the MR group and 175 participants in the control group completed the study. The SBP was significantly more reduced in the MR group, with a mean of 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between groups on the changed DBP. Conclusion: The MR technique may be effective in lowering SBP in Thai postmenopausal women visiting a menopause clinic. Its efficacy may be observed as soon as 4 weeks after start of treatment. Long-term and combined relaxation therapy and antihypertensive agents are warranted in a large cohort of this population. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (number
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers. This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology/approach: This research paper is an attempt to study and identify the factors, including loyalty program, distribution channel, customer services, promotions and other influence causes that affected the customer preference in the airline ticket purchasing behavior in Thailand. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the sample identified through unrestricted non probability sampling technique at four major airports in Thailand. The data collected are analyzed to identify the favorable drivers that lead to customer decision on airline choice. Findings: The result from the study has demonstrated that price, and promotion has a significant impact on customer preference and positively leads to repurchase intention for their future travel. Moreover, flight schedules are also a main factor influencing the travelers’ final decision on airline choice. However, when the promotional strategies and schedule are comparable between airlines, customers are attracted by the airline amenities and services. Loyalty program (frequent-flier program flier program is showing a less attractive motivator while distribution channel demonstrates the least important affecting the travelers’ choice of airline. Originality/value: The paper begins with an overview of previous research in the area of airlines customer relationship management and then moves on to what is currently being implemented by the airlines. The authors then propose several customer relationship strategies and identify the most attractive one that
Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Hatthakit, Urai
Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. EIGHT STEPS OF SCALE DEVELOPMENT WERE FOLLOWED: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability were confirmed. The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a screening tool to assess active aging levels among older
Fakkham, Supalak; Sirithanawutichi, Teabpaluck; Jarupoonpol, Vithaya; Homjumpa, Pitsamai; Bunalesnirunltr, Montri
Develop a model of administration/management of district/general hospitals in the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand to enable the medical services of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine to be integrated into the current Modern Medical (Health) System. A prospective study of the various services of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine in relation to the needs of other related services of the hospitals and the health needs of the population of Huay Ploo District Hospital of Nakhon Pathom Province. The collection of data of services covered 12 months to enable the comparisons of changes that occurred during the period. The study was both quantitative and quantitative measures. There is a statistical difference in all aspects compared of the opinions of personnel related to the services of Thai Traditional Medicine before and after the interventions in the areas of knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and the support of the services rendered by Thai Traditional Medicine. The present study showed that more system diseases was seen before than after the interventions whereas the most common incidence of diseases was in the musculo-skeletal system when compared to those found in other systems. After the interventions, the patients' preferences in the methods of treatment were mixed, with several methods of treatment preferred and with the tendency to resort to Thai Traditional Medicine more than before the interventions. This was believed to be the result of changes in the hospital i.e. personnel from all service units after answering the questionnaires and voiced opinions were found to require more relevant competencies and in need of support from their superiors. The personnel surveyed wished that the planning and policies'goals succeed with efficiency The Administrators outlined the plan and strategies to move forward. With cooperation to solve problems, should any occur and with mutual role and coordination of personnel and services, the way towards solving problems should be
Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed. Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria. Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day. The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day. The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words : Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus. ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan. Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah. Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi
Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen
Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for
Shrestha, M; Weber, K E
It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in
Ungkanont, Kitirat; Boonyabut, Panrasee; Komoltri, Chulaluk; Tanphaichitr, Archwin; Vathanophas, Vannipa
To study the incidence and outcome of management of otitis media with effusion in Thai children with cleft palate. Retrospective cohort study in the tertiary care center. Ninety-five children with cleft palate were referred for ear evaluation, from June 1997 to January 2015. Fifteen children (15.8%) had associated craniofacial syndromic anomalies. Cumulative incidence of otitis media with effusion, rate of ventilation tube insertion, duration of indwelling tubes, hearing outcome, and complications of ventilation tubes. Ear examinations were done every 8 to 12 weeks throughout the study. Cumulative incidence of otitis media with effusion was 53.7% in children within 12 months of age and 81.1% within 24 months of age. At the end of the study, all of the patients had at least 1 episode of otitis media with effusion. Eighty-eight children (92.6%) had palatoplasty, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of otitis media before and after palatoplasty. The mean hearing level at recruitment was 40.8 ±18.4 dB. Ventilation tube insertion was done in 76 patients (80%). The median time for indwelling tubes was 11.7 months. Rate of ventilation tube insertion was 0.5/year. The mean hearing level at last follow-up was 23.5 ± 14 dB. Otorrhea through tube was found in 24 cases (31.6%). Otitis media with effusion was common in Thai children with cleft palate. Surveillance of middle ear effusion and ventilation tube insertion contributed to a favorable hearing outcome.
Gartland, Sam; Malik, Mohammad Hammad; Lovell, Martyn
To investigate prospectively the type and rate of injuries sustained during amateur Muay Thai competition. Prospective cohort study collection of data following clinical examination. Amateur Muay Thai competitions in the United Kingdom organized by the International Amateur Muay Thai Federation. Amateur Muay Thai boxers. Both sexes. Lightweight to super heavyweight. There were 92 participants, 12 females and 82 males. The average age was 17.3 years, and the average previous number of bouts was 3.9. A total of 588.5 minutes of competition time was assessed during a total of 10 events. Injury rates were 1.3 injuries per 100 minutes of competition in the lightweight category, 2.25 per 100 minutes of competition in the middleweight category, 30 per 100 minutes of competition in the heavyweight category, and 2.54 per 100 minutes of competition in the super heavyweight category. Compared with other reported martial arts, the injury rates are higher in Muay Thai. The head was shown to be the most common site of injury in amateur fighters, but there was an almost complete absence of lower limb injuries, which again is at variance with reported figures for other martial arts.
Thato, Sathja; Hanna, Kathleen M; Rodcumdee, Branom
To translate the 14-item Condom Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) into Thai and to validate the Thai version of the Condom Self-efficacy Scale (CSES-T) among Thai adolescents and young adults. The CSES was translated using a back-translation technique and validated with a cluster-based sample of 425 participants aged 18 to 22 years from eight randomly selected private vocational schools in Bangkok. Participants completed anonymous self-administered scales. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to identify latent factors. Factor analysis indicated three factors: communication, correct use, and consistent use. Items loading on the original CSES also loaded on the same factors of the CSES-T except one item. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .85 for the total scale, .70 for consistent use, .79 for correct use, and .80 for communication. Based on psychometric properties, the CSES-T is a valid and reliable tool. It is culturally appropriate for Thai young adults. Thai researchers and health care providers can use the CSES-T to assess adolescents' and young adults' self-efficacy to use condoms as well as to further develop and evaluate interventions to increase condom use.
Full Text Available The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84% was much greater than that of female (1.94% compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type.
Saetung, Sunee; Chailurkit, La-Or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong
The effect of massage therapy on bone metabolism in adults has only scarcely been explored. In a randomized crossover trial, we investigated the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover. Forty-eight postmenopausal women participated in the study. All volunteers were randomized to a 2-hour session of Thai traditional massage twice a week for 4 weeks and a 4-week control period after a 2-week washout, or vice versa. Twenty-one subjects were allocated to receiving Thai traditional massage first, followed by the control period, while 27 were initially allocated to the control period. Serum P1NP increased significantly after Thai traditional massage (P women whose ages were in the middle and higher tertiles and whose heights were in the lower and middle tertiles (n = 22) had a 14.8 ± 3.3% increase in P1NP after massage (P women (n = 26). Thai traditional massage results in an increase in bone formation as assessed by serum P1NP, particularly in postmenopausal women who are older and have a smaller body build. Future studies with larger samples and additional design features are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01627028.
Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Pfeil, Michael; Crozier, Kenda
This qualitative article explores the attitudes of Thai adolescents and parents concerning the barriers that prevent parents providing sex education to their adolescent children. Focus groups were conducted with 30 parents and 36 adolescents in rural north-eastern Thailand and were analyzed by using thematic analysis. The results showed that most Thai parents have not taught their children about sex education issues. Five themes emerged in relation to the limitations in providing sex education in Thai families. These were: restrictions imposed by traditional Thai culture; sex education is not a parental duty; parental limitations; the generation gap; and better not bring it up. We conclude that the core values in Thai society restrict the discussion of sex, resulting in youth missing the opportunity to acquire the knowledge that is needed about sexual issues from their family. This article provides evidence of how parents' knowledge and perceptions are linked to their ability and willingness to discuss sexual matters with their teenagers. Therefore, future sex education policies could be greatly enhanced by empowering parents to take part in the sex education of their teenage children. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Pravichai, Sunisa; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai
Thai lottery gamblers won prizes after betting on numbers they obtained from newspaper stories. We hypothesized that Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs were related to their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. In a study among 380 Thai lottery gamblers, superstitious beliefs were operationally defined as the beliefs in events or objects that seemed to reveal numbers, number search as an attempt to identify numbers to bet, gambling intensity as the frequency and amounts of lottery gambling, and problem gambling as the symptoms of problems relating to lottery gambling. Results support the hypotheses. There is a statistically significant indirect relationship between Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs and their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. Thai lottery gamblers need to be reminded that their superstitious beliefs and number search are precursors of their problem gambling.
Waitayakul, Satawan; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nutthapong
It was believed that more than 90 per cent of children with colorectal polyp had a single lesion, located in the rectosigmoid colon, therefore, sigmoidoscopy with polypectomy was the treatment of choice. After a wide use of pediatric colonoscopy, this concept has been changed. This study was aimed to describe clinical characteristics of colorectal polyp in Thai children. Medical records of children with colorectal polyp were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison between polyposis coli and children with less than 5 polyps were also analyzed. There were 93 patients, 43 females and 50 males. The average age was 5.1 years. Lower GI bleeding and prolapse of rectal polyp comprised the two most common presentations, 93.5 and 39.8 per cent, respectively. The mean duration of symptoms was 5.6 months. Only 50.6 per cent had rectal polyp noted by digital examination. Investigations included sigmoidoscopy (n = 77), colonoscopy (n = 16), and barium enema (n = 16). Eight per cent of the cases had more than 5 polyps. Location of the polyps was noted in the rectosigmoid colon (88.2%), descending colon (4.3%), right-sided colon (4.3%), and pancolonic (3.2%). Of all the patients, 11.8 per cent had the polyp above the rectosigmoid region, whereas 50 per cent of those who underwent colonoscopy (n = 16) had the polyps noted proximal to this region. Older age, lower hematocrit, and more frequent right-sided polyps were significantly associated with polyposis coli (p polyp (95%), inflammatory pseudopolyp (2.5%), and hyperplastic polyp (2.5%). Most of the children with colorectal polyp had juvenile polyp that is commonly found in the rectosigmoid colon. However, a significant number of patients had carrying polyps proximal to the rectosigmoid region, which would be easily missed by sigmoidoscopy. With the concern of malignancy change particularly in children with polyposis coli, routine colonoscopy should be considered as an initial investigation in children with colorectal polyp.
Teenoi, Kultida; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Like others, Thailand education strongly focused on STEM education. This paper aimed to examine existing Thai high school students' integrated knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in their developing science project. The participants included 49 high school students were studying the subject of individual study (IS) in Khon Kaen wittayayon school, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The IS was provided to gradually enhance students to know how to do science project starting from getting start to do science projects, They enrolled to study the individual study of science project for three year in roll. Methodology was qualitative research. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM were interpreted through participant observation, interview, and students' science projects. The first author as participant observation has taught this group of students for 3 years. It found that 16 science projects were developed. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM could be categorized into three categories. These included (1) completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, (2) partial indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, and (3) no integration. The findings revealed that majority of science projects could be categorized as completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The paper suggested some ideas of enhancing students to applying STEM for developing science projects.
Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.
Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.
More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.
Poosari, Arisara; Promthet, Supannee; Kamsa-ard, Siriporn; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Longkul, Jirapat; Wiangnon, Surapon
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. We investigated the association of hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer in Thai women. A cohort study was conducted in Khon Kaen, Thailand. There were 70 cases of histologically confirmed breast cancer among 11 414 women aged 30 to 69 years who were recruited as participants in the cohort study during the period from 1990 through 2001. The study population was followed-up until December 31, 2011. To identify factors associated with incidence of breast cancer, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The 11 414 women provided a total observation time of 157 200 person-years. Breast cancer risk among women with a history of hormonal contraceptive use was 1.31 times that of women without such a history, but the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.65-2.65). No type of hormonal contraceptive was associated with a significant increase in breast cancer risk as compared with women who had never used hormonal contraceptives (oral contraception: HR = 1.35, 95% CI, 0.65-2.78; injection contraception: HR = 1.25, 95% CI, 0.56-2.80), and there was no relationship between duration of hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer. There was no association between hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to the small number of cases.
Mekmullica, Jutarat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu
To determine the acceptability of oral typhoid vaccine to Thai children, 434 volunteers, aged 4-15 years (average age = 8.2 years), were assigned to take three capsules of oral typhoid vaccine (one capsule every other day). Success was defined as the subjects' being able to swallow all three capsules. Information concerning the subjects' level of education, eating habits, and ability to take medicines in a variety of preparations (syrups, tablets and capsules) was obtained. The overall success rate was 94.2%; the rates were 84.4%, 94.9%, and 100% in the age groups 4-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-12 years respectively. The rates were 82%, 85.7%, 93.3%, 96.4%, 98.8%, 100% and 100% in the students of kindergarten 1, kindergarten 2, elementary grade 1, grade 2, grade 3, grade 4, and grade 5 respectively. There was a correlation between a child's prior ability to take tablets/capsules and his success in swallowing the oral typhoid vaccine.
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ABSTRACT: This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to participate in the experiment. Observations and interviews were utilized to ascertain how the subjects used their PEDs. The findings showed superficial and partial reading of the dictionary entries. It also revealed several factors that may hinder dictionary look-up success. On the basis of this research, guidelines for buying PEDs and for teaching PED skills are proposed.
OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van sak- elektroniese woordeboeke deur Thaise universiteitstudente. Hierdie artikel doen verslag van 'n kleinskaalse studie van Thaisprekende aanleerders wat sak- elektroniese woordeboeke (SEW's gebruik om 'n Engelse nuusartikel te lees. Dit ondersoek hoe die proefpersone hul SAW's gebruik vir leesbegrip. Nege-en-dertig voorgraadse studente het 'n vraelysopname voltooi. Uit hulle is vier gekies om aan die eksperiment deel te neem. Waarnemings en onderhoude is aangewend om te bepaal hoe die proefpersone hul SEW's gebruik het. Die bevindings het oppervlakkige en gedeeltelike lees van die woordeboekinskrywings getoon. Dit het ook verskeie faktore uitgewys wat woordeboekopsoeksukses mag belemmer. Op grond van hierdie navorsing word riglyne vir die koop van SEW's en vir die onderrig van SEWvaardighede voorgestel.
Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, SAK- ELEKTRONIESE WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKRAADPLEGING, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of energy saving and changes in energy intensities in Thai manufacturing sector by Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition technique. This method includes three effects consists of the energy intensity effect, the structural effect and the effect of the economic growth on the energy consumption in Thailand by using the 25-year annual data from 1990 to 2014, carried out in four phases; (i before National Energy Conservation law, (ii during the effect of the law, (iii Transition period of the law from first to second version, and (iv during the effect of the law (No.2. We found that the most effective intensity effect is in the third phase due to the effect of the implementation of new energy efficient equipment from the second phase by enforcement of the law, especially in non-metallic sector, while the first phase illustrates the lowest intensity effect due to the energy conservation law had not been occurred. However, due to the highest economic growth of the country and change from agricultural to industrial development direction, the first phase presents the most effective structural effect, then this effect continuously decreased by time. We also conclude that the energy conservation law have direct effect to energy efficiency of the country however, strictly individual regulation which have target to enforce to energy intensive industries is still required for sustainable energy efficiency improvement.
Malila, Pisamai; Seeda, Kantarakorn; Machom, Savet; Eungpinithpong, Wichai
To determine the effects of Thai massage on muscle spasticity in young people with cerebral palsy. Young people with spastic diplegia, aged 6-18 years old, were recruitedfrom the Srisungwan School in Khon Kaen Province. Spasticity of right quadriceps femoris muscles was measured using Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) at pre- and immediately post 30-minute session of Thai massage. Thai massage was applied on the lower back and lower limbs. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test was used to compare the outcome between pre- and post treatment. Seventeen participants with spastic diplegia aged 13.71 +/- 3.62 years old participated. A significant difference of MAS was observed between pre- and post treatment (1+, 1; pspasticity and is suggested to be an alternative treatmentfor reducing spasticity in young people with cerebral palsy.
Full Text Available Marsha Meskimmon and Nikos Papastergiadis have responded to contemporary art’s concern with transculturalism, audience participation and intersubjectivity by re-articulating the cosmopolitan in relation to both aesthetics and globalisation. Dohmen investigates how their cosmopolitanism translates into a mode of critical address and probes this question with regard to the work of Rirkrit Tiravanija, a key proponent of relational aesthetics, an art movement of the 1990s championing audience participation and the intersubjective. Even though Tiravanija expressly draws attention to his Thai background by cooking pad thai in the gallery, Dohmen detects a striking disavowal of cultural alterity at the heart of relational aesthetics, which she regards as untenable within the context of the art world’s increasing internationalisation. Dohmen demonstrates how relational aesthetics appropriated key aspects of Tiravanija’s Thai-derived outlook while asking how a cosmopolitan outlook might redress and repair this marked critical Eurocentricity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. Methods The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. Results The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95 years. 689(34.9% are men and 1284(65.1% are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20 kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003. The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952 had highest level gait disorders. 39
Good Michael F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Group A streptococcal (GAS infections can lead to the development of severe post-infectious sequelae, such as rheumatic fever (RF and rheumatic heart disease (RHD. RF and RHD are a major health concern in developing countries, and in indigenous populations of developed nations. The majority of GAS isolates are M protein-nontypeable (MNT by standard serotyping. However, GAS typing is a necessary tool in the epidemiologically analysis of GAS and provides useful information for vaccine development. Although DNA sequencing is the most conclusive method for M protein typing, this is not a feasible approach especially in developing countries. To overcome this problem, we have developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based assay for molecular typing the M protein gene (emm of GAS. Results Using one pair of primers, 13 known GAS M types showed one to four bands of PCR products and after digestion with Alu I, they gave different RFLP patterns. Of 106 GAS isolates examined from the normal Thai population and from patients with GAS-associated complications including RHD, 95 isolates gave RFLP patterns that corresponded to the 13 known M types. Only 11 isolates gave RFLP patterns that differed from the 13 known M types. These were then analyzed by DNA sequencing and six additional M types were identified. In addition, we found that M93 GAS was the most common M type in the population studied, and is consistent with a previous study of Thai GAS isolates. Conclusion PCR-RFLP analysis has the potential for the rapid screening of different GAS M types and is therefore considerably advantageous as an alternative M typing approach in developing countries in which GAS is endemic.
El Muay Thai es un arte marcial tailandés considerado hoy uno de los mejores deportes de contacto en el mundo porque trabaja todas las extremidades del cuerpo, y permite un elevado desarrollo de la aptitud física, de concentración y la confianza. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar cuáles son los patrones de consumo alimentario, el estado nutricional y el consumo de suplementos dietarios en deportistas que practican la disciplina de Muay Thai en la ciudad de Mar del ...
Full Text Available Taweesak Janyacharoen,1–3 Maneepun Laophosri,2,4 Jaturat Kanpittaya,3,5 Paradee Auvichayapat,6 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth71School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Improvement of Physical Performance and Quality of Life Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Back, Neck and Other Joint Pain Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 6Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, ThailandBackground: Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly.Methods: This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT, five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST, and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention.Results: There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls, with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011, FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P < 0.001, and flexibility was higher (14.9 ± 3.5 versus 11.1 ± 5.7 cm; P = 0.002 in the Thai dance group than the control group.Conclusion: Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly female adults
Supametaporn, Pinhatai; Stern, Phyllis Noerager; Rodcumdee, Branom; Chaiyawat, Waraporn
Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these young women used the basic social process they called "waiting for the right time" in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three overlapping properties: learning rules, planning life path, and ways of preserving virginity. The findings provide information that may lead to the development of culturally competent interventions for middle-class Thai youths to remain healthy and avoid pregnancy.
Kyaw, Shwe Sin; Drake, Tom; Ruangveerayuth, Ronatrai; Chierakul, Wirongrong; White, Nicholas J; Newton, Paul N; Lubell, Yoel
Despite demonstrated benefits and World Health Organization (WHO) endorsement, parenteral artesunate is the recommended treatment for patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in only one fifth of endemic countries. One possible reason for this slow uptake is that a treatment course of parenteral artesunate is costlier than quinine and might, therefore, pose a substantial economic burden to health care systems. This analysis presents a detailed account of the resources used in treating falciparum malaria by either parenteral artesunate or quinine in a hospital on the Thai-Myanmar border. The analysis used data from four studies, with random allocation of inpatients with falciparum malaria to treatment with parenteral artesunate or quinine, conducted in Mae Sot Hospital, Thailand from 1995 to 2001. Detailed resource use data were collected during admission and unit costs from the 2008 hospital price list were applied to these. Total admission costs were broken down into five categories: 1) medication; 2) intravenous fluids; 3) disposables; 4) laboratory tests; and 5) services. While the medication costs were higher for patients treated with artesunate, total admission costs were similar in those treated with quinine, US$ 243 (95% CI: 167.5-349.7) and in those treated with artesunate US$ 190 (95% CI: 131.0-263.2) (P=0.375). For cases classified as severe malaria (59%), the total cost of admission was US$ 298 (95% CI: 203.6-438.7) in the quinine group as compared with US$ 284 (95% CI: 181.3-407) in the artesunate group (P=0.869). This analysis finds no evidence for a difference in total admission costs for malaria inpatients treated with artesunate as compared with quinine. Assuming this is generalizable to other settings, the higher cost of a course of artesunate should not be considered a barrier for its implementation in the treatment of malaria.
Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Sirirak, Thanitha; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Zimet, Gregory
Difficulties in modeling the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) have occurred, and these were corrected in the revised version of the Thai MSPSS. However, the revised version has not been tested in elderly populations. The present study aimed at confirming the factor structure of the revised version of the MSPSS among the elderly with depressive disorders, in populations with or without depressive disorders. Eight hundred and three elderly patients were recruited from four tertiary hospitals; 190 (23.7%) had depressive disorders. All completed the revised Thai MSPSS consisting of 12 items, using a 7-point Likert scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the MSPSS was conducted in both groups. The mean age was 69.24 years (SD 6.88), and 70% of the sample was female. There were no significant difference in demographic data between two groups. The revised version of the Thai MSPSS provided excellent internal consistency. The three-factor model was clearly superior to other alternative models in both depressed and non-depressed groups. CFA for the whole group revealed an acceptable model fit: χ 2 = 147.44, df = 45, p < 0.001; Tucker-Lewis Index 0.975; Comparative Fit Index 0.982; Good Fit Index 0.966; and root-mean-square error of approximation 0.056. The fit statistics in the depressed group was better than in the non-depressed group across all models. Due to its robust factor structure, these data support the use of the revised MSPSS as a brief instrument for assessing perceived social support in the elderly with or without depressive disorders.
Leerasiri, Pichai; Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak
To evaluate the performance of ovarian stromal area to total ovarian area (S/A) ratio for the prediction of biochemical hyperandrogenism in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A cross-sectional study was performed in 222 reproductive-aged Thai women with PCOS attending the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit (GEU), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital from May 2007 to January 2009. The patients were interviewed for medical history and examined for anthropometry and clinical hyperandrogenism. Venous blood samples were obtained for androgen profiles. An ovarian ultrasonogram was obtained via transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonography. The prevalences of clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism were 48.6% and 81.1%, respectively. The S/A ratio at a cut-off point of 0.33 had modest predictability for hyperandrogenism, namely, 0.537 area under the receiver-operator curve, 36.6% sensitivity, 72.1% specificity, 83.8% positive predictive value (PPV) and 20.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The combination of clinical hyperandrogenism and S/A ratio improved the predictability for biochemical hyperandrogenism, with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 72.1%, 58.1%, 87.8% and 33.3%, respectively. The S/A ratio alone is not a good predictor for biochemical hyperandrogenism in Thai PCOS women attending GEU for menstrual dysfunction. The combination of S/A ratio and clinical hyperandrogenism has better performance than the S/A ratio alone to predict biochemical hyperandrogenism. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+ among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times, and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count P = 0.043. There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.
Boonsai, Pattaraporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Chanchao, Chanpen
Background: Propolis is a sticky, dark brown resinous residue made by bees that is derived from plant resins. It is used to construct and repair the nest, and in addition possesses several diverse bioactivities. Here, propolis from Apis mellifera from Nan province, Thailand, was tested for antibacterial activity against Gram+ve (Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae) and Gram-ve (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Materials and methods: The three bacterial isolates were confirmed for species designation by Gram staining and analysis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Propolis was sequentially extracted by methanol, dichloromethane and hexane. The antibacterial activity was determined by agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assays using streptomycin as a positive control. The most active crude extract was further purified by quick column and adsorption chromatography. The apparent purity of each bioactive fraction was tested by thin layer chromatography. The chemical structure of the isolated bioactive compound was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results: Crude methanol extract of propolis showed the best antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 5 mg/mL for S. aureus and E. coli and 6.25 mg/mL for P. larvae. After quick column chromatography, only three active fractions were inhibitory to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 6.25 and 31.3 µg/mL, respectively. Further adsorption chromatography yielded one pure bioactive fraction (A1A) with an IC50 value of 0.175 µg/mL for E. coli and 0.683 µg/mL for P. larvae, and was determined to be cardanol by NMR analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed unusual shaped (especially in dividing cells), damaged and dead cells in cardanol-treated E. coli. Conclusion: Thai propolis contains a promising antibacterial agent. PMID:24578609
Karbwang, J; Bangchang, K N; Supapojana, A; Bunnag, D; Harinasuta, T
Malaria constitutes one of the most serious public health problems in Thailand. The disease undermines the health of the people and threatens the economy and security of the country as it is most prevalent in the rural region in forested mountain areas along the border where government officials (border police) have to perform their duties. A safe and effective prophylactic drug for use by these government officials is needed. Nine healthy border police volunteers who were working on the Thai-Cambodia border, aged between 22 to 50 years, and whose weight ranged between 48 and 61 kg, with no history of liver or kidney disease were recruited into the study. 375 mg of mefloquine (as Fansimef tablets) was given as a loading dose, followed by 250 mg every 4 weeks for 4 doses. Whole blood concentrations of mefloquine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography at intervals for 19 weeks. None of the volunteers developed malaria during study period. Seven volunteers had mild adverse effects which required no specific treatment. No changes in liver or renal function or in blood profiles occurred during 19 weeks of observation. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a mean maximum concentration of 420 +/- 141 ng/ml a time to peak concentration of 12 +/- 8 hours, terminal half-life was 14.93 +/- 4.43 days, apparent volume of distribution (Vd/f) was 16.5 +/- 5.6 l/kg and total clearance was 0.99 +/- 0.62 ml/min/kg. The mean minimum whole blood mefloquine concentration derived from this study was approximately 100 ng/ml which is considered to be low for treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available (1 Background: Adolescents are a key asset and resource for the social and economic development of any country, with the potential to make a significant contribution to their families, communities and countries. Healthy and educated adolescents are important. However, there are still significant rates of death, illness and disease among adolescents in some countries, where HIV is one of the most prevalent causes of death in this group. Adolescents living with HIV may experience and encounter social restrictions and physiological limitations. Therefore, this investigation explored whether the concepts of spirituality and dignity had any relevance to participants sense of meaning and purpose and whether these had any impact upon their health and well-being (2 Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used involving twenty-two adolescents living with HIV attending one regional hospital in Southern Thailand. One to one interviews and descriptive diaries were used to collect the data and thematic analysis enabled the identification of attributes of spirituality and dignity. (3 Results: The findings revealed that spirituality and dignity were present in the lives of Thai adolescents living with HIV expressed in the main category of living life responsibly. This comprised of six themes: (a Understanding the disease and accepting the truth about life, (b Maintaining hope for a cure, (c Focusing on life’s purposes, (d Making life choices, (e Caring for oneself and (f Responsibility towards other. (4 Conclusions: The findings provide helpful insights for parents, nurses, and other health professionals supporting adolescents living with HIV to obtain a holistic, dignified approach to care that includes attention to the spiritual dimension.
Ngerncham, Sopapan; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wongvisutdhi, Thidaratana; Ritjaroen, Yupin; Painpichan, Nipa; Hakularb, Pussara; Gunnaleka, Panidaporn; Chaturapitphothong, Penpaween
Breastfeeding has abundant biological and psychological benefits. Effective breastfeeding requires good latching on, which is possible when the infant is able to cup around the maternal areola with his tongue. One of the most common conditions resulting in poor latching on is tongue-tie. To determine the prevalence of tongue-tie with subsequent breastfeeding difficulties and other factors affecting the success of breastfeeding in newborn infants. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of healthy Thai infants without contraindications for breastfeeding. Physical examination of the infants and mothers and their breastfeeding practices were assessed between 24 and 48 hours of life. 2679 mother-infant dyads were recruited. The study detected a prevalence of 16% for severe tongue-tie, 37.9% of which was associated with breastfeeding difficulties. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, moderate (adjusted OR 13.3, 95% CI 7.2-24.5) and severe (adjusted OR 62, 95% CI 34.1-112.8) tongue-tie, short nipples (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), mothers feeling the infant's tongue on the nipple area (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2-5.2) and mothers' inability to feel the infant's tongue (adjusted OR 11.8, 95% CI 4.3-32.4) independently increased the risk of breastfeeding difficulties. Tongue-tie is not uncommon and is associated with breastfeeding difficulty in newborn infants. Mothers of infants with severe tongue-tie should be closely and individually coached during breastfeeding and followed up, especially during the first critical weeks of the infant's life.
Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn
A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December, 2003 among Thai Buddhist monks in 4 provinces of the central region (Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Saraburi and Chai Nat) and in 4 provinces of the eastern region (Chachoengsao, Rayong, Trat, and Sa Kaeo) of Thailand. Data were collected using face to face interviews, questionnaires, and physical examination reports (weight, height, heart rate, blood pressure, etc) as the research tools. This study focused on sociodemographics, history of illness, and smoking behavior. The proportion of the cigarette smoking was 47.6% of the total of 920 Buddhist monks. The age group 20-34 years, Maha Nikaya section and Public temple were the majority of the study subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that only four factors were related to smoking consumption: dharma education, Naktharm To (grade 2) (OR = 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4-0.9), Naktharm Aek (grade 3) or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.6); Lay education, secondary school (OR = 0.7, 95% Cl: 0.5-0.9), bachelor degree or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.8); systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg (OR = 1.8, 95% Cl: 1.1-2.8) and history of respiratory illness (OR = 3.2, 95% Cl: 1.5-6.9). As a result, dharma education and well educated persons were the crucial factors which led to success in decreasing cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation campaigns and education of the consequences of smoking are strongly recommended among risk groups.
Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi
Neosporosis has a worldwide distribution and causes economic losses in farming, particularly by increasing the risk of abortion in cattle. This study investigated the effects of Thai piperaceae (Piper betle, P. nigrum, and P. sarmentosum) extracts on Neospora caninum infections in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro parasite growth assay based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, P. betle was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in human foreskin fibroblast cells (IC 50 of GFP-expressing N. caninum parasites, 22.1μg/ml). The P. betle extract, at 25μg per ml, inhibited parasite invasion into host cells. Furthermore, in two independent experiments, treating N. caninum-infected mice with the P. betle extract for 7days post-infection increased their survival. In trial one, the anti-N. caninum effects of the P. betle extract reduced the mouse clinical scores for 30days post-infection (dpi). The survival rate of the mice treated with 400mg/kg was 100% compared with 66.6% for those treated with 100mg/kg and the non-treated controls. In trial two, treating the infected mice with the P. betle extract increased their survival at 50dpi. All mice in the non-treatment group died; however, the survival rates of the 400mg/kg-treated and 100mg/kg-treated mice were 83.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Also, a trend towards a reduced parasite burden was noted in the brains of the P. betle extract-treated mice, compared with the control mice. Therefore P. betle extract has potential as a medicinal plant for treating neosporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C
This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy. © 2011 APJPH.
Full Text Available Objectives. To determine how beta-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ 1-42, total tau (tTau, and phosphorylated tau (pTau levels in CSF behave in a cohort of Thai patients from the Memory Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods. During 2009–2011, twenty eight subjects from the memory clinic at Siriraj Hospital had CSF analysis for AD biomarkers. Aβ 1-42, tTau, and pTau (at amino acid 181 were measured in CSF by ELISA technique. Results. Mean of Thai mental state examination (TMSE of 28 Thai cohort was 16.48 (6.63. Fourteen had AD, ten had non-AD dementia, and four non-cases were those with subjective memory complaint (SMC without dementia. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, ptau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the AD group were 241.36 (60.14 pg/mL, 222.79 (212.24 pg/mL, 40.79 (27.84 pg/mL, and 0.18 (0.12 accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-AD dementia group were 430.40 (125.18 pg/mL, 349.30 (692.16 pg/mL, 36.80 (14.90 pg/mL, and 0.09 (0.04 accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-cases with SMC without dementia were 499.75 (93.44 pg/mL, 137.25 (62.74 pg/mL, 31.75 (17.48 pg/mL, and 0.06 (0.02. There is significant difference (P<0.05 among the 3 groups in CSF Aβ 1-42 and pTau/Aβ 1-42. We propose mean + 1.5 SD of CSF Aβ 1-42 in AD group (331.57 pg/mL to be the cut-off point in Thai subjects. Conclusion. There are significant different in CSF Aβ 1-42 and CSF p-tau/Aβ 1-42 among those with AD, non-AD dementia and non cases with SMC without dementia in Thai cohort. Cut-off point of CSF Aβ 1-42 of 331.57 pg/mL is suggested in Thai study.
Rattanapunya, Siwalee; Cressey, Tim R; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Tawon, Yardpiroon; Kongjam, Panida; Na-Bangchang, Kesara
Concomitant use of anti-malarial and antiretroviral drugs is increasingly frequent in malaria and HIV endemic regions. The aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction between the anti-malarial drugs, artesunate-mefloquine and the antiretroviral drug, lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (LPV/r). The study was an open-label, three-way, sequential, cross-over, pharmacokinetic study in healthy Thai adults. Subjects received the following treatments: Period 1: standard 3-day artesunate-mefloquine combination; Period 2 (2 months wash-out): oral LPV/r 400 mg/100 mg twice a day for 14 days; and, Period 3: artesunate-mefloquine and LPV/r twice a day for 3 days. Sixteen subjects (eight females) were enrolled and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. In the presence of LPV/r, artesunate Cmax and systemic exposure were significantly increased by 45-80 %, while the metabolic ratio of dihydroartemisinin to artesunate was significantly reduced by 72 %. In addition, mefloquine Cmax and systemic exposure were significantly reduced by 19-37 %. In the presence of artesunate-mefloquine, lopinavir Cmax was significantly reduced by 22 % but without significant change in systemic drug exposure. The 90 % CI of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) of AUC0-∞ and Cmax were outside the acceptable bioequivalent range for each drug. Drug treatments were generally well tolerated with no serious adverse events. Vertigo, nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events reported. The reduction in systemic exposure of all investigated drugs raises concerns of an increased risk of treatment failure rate in co-infected patients and should be further investigated.
Phuangtham, R; Romphruk, A; Puapairoj, C; Leelayuwat, C; Romphruk, A V
A comparative study of allele frequencies at HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15 in Burmese and Karen populations as well as at HPA-15 in north-eastern Thais (NET) is presented. Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are clinically important in several immune platelet disorders, including foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR). The knowledge of antigen frequencies in a population is essential for the evaluation of patients suffering from immune-mediated platelet disorders. A total of 285 unrelated, healthy Burmese, 242 Karen and 300 NET were recruited to this study. Genotype and allele frequencies of HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15 were defined using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) RESULTS: No individuals homozygous for HPA-1bb, -2bb, -4bb, -5bb and -6bb were detected. HPA-1a, -2a, -4a, -5a and -6a were present in all samples of Burmese and Karen origin. HPA-1b, -2b, -4b, -5b and -6b were rare in these populations. The frequencies of HPA-3a/-3b were 60·4/39·6% in Burmese and 55·8/44·2% in Karen, respectively. Frequencies of HPA-15a/-15b were 57·2/42·8% in Burmese, 52·5/47·5% in Karen and 49·8/50·2% in NET. The frequencies of HPA genotypes in our study indicates that HPA-1a, -2a, -4a, -5a and -6a are unlikely involved in FNAIT, PTP and PTR in Burmese and Karen populations. However, HPA-1b, -2b, -3a, -3b, -4b, -5b, -6b, -15a and -15b may likely stimulate alloantibodies in these populations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.
KIATRUNGRIT, Komsan; PUTTHISRI, Suwannee; HONGSANGUANSRI, Sirichai; WISAJAN, Pattaraporn; JULLAGATE, Sudawan
Background The adult ADHD Self–Report Scale Thai version (ASRS-V1.1) (18 items) is a questionnaire for screening adult ADHD. Aim To test the validity and reliability of the 18-question ASRS-V1.1 Thai version (ASRS-V1.1 TH) as a screening tool for adult ADHD Methods The original 18-question ASRS-V1.1 version was translated into Thai. The process was composed of forward-translation, synthesis of the translation, and back translation. Cross cultural adaptation, field testing, and final adjustmen...
Web 2.0 technology has drawn much attention recently as a fascinating tool for Information Literacy Instruction (ILI), especially in academic libraries. This research was aimed to investigate the implementation of Web 2.0 technology for ILI in Thai university libraries, in terms of information literacy skills being taught, types of Web 2.0…
Thongplew, N.; Spaargaren, G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.
Over the decades, the Thai appliance industry has developed into a strong and export-oriented industry with rigorous strategies to improve the environmental performance of products and production. Leading producers have recently begun to develop greening strategies targeting the consumption behavior
This research explores the perception and experiences of 15 Burmese international students temporarily studying at two international colleges in suburban Bangkok, Thailand and compares their impressions of and reaction to history with 10 Thai students studying at the same international colleges. This ethnographic exploration of Burmese…
Sipilä, Kirsi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Mitrirattanakul, Somsak; Sitthisomwong, Panupen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lahti, Satu
Cultural or ethnic factors may play an important role in subjects' pain reports. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms between Finnish and Thai populations. The Finnish study population comprised the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 5696 subjects participated in the present study. The Thai sample consisted of 1501 randomly selected people living in 10 different districts in Bangkok. Data on orofacial pain was collected based on questionnaires. After adjusting for age, gender and education, the logistic regression analysis showed that Thai subjects had an increased risk for reporting oral pain (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.7-5.4), tooth pain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) and pain in the face (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7). It can be concluded that Thai people report more orofacial pain symptoms than Finnish subjects. Cross-cultural factors exist in the background of reporting pain symptoms in the oral and facial area.
Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.
This is a report on a workshop held in Hawaii with representatives from United States community college and the Thai Ministry of Education to help form the East-West Consortium for Community College Development in Thailand. Recommendations from the workshop included plans for a U.S. community college training team to visit Thailand and help begin…
Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…
As teaching English as a foreign language, it has become obvious that an average Thai is considered to have very low English proficiency. As a result, Thailand may find herself at a disadvantage because of inferior English skills towards globalization and forming of ASEAN community. Thus, the study is devoted to the exploration of English writing…
Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.
This study examined the impact of the 2004 Asian tsunami on 400 Thai adolescents 1 year after the disaster. Quantitative analyses showed that youth behavior problems were positively associated with tsunami experiences and negatively associated with positive family functioning. Tsunami exposure, school connectedness, religious beliefs and…
Atwood, Katharine A.; Zimmerman, Rick; Cupp, Pamela K.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chaiphet, Nonthathorn; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee
This paper examines the risk and protective factors associated with sexual behaviors among Thai youth ages 13-14 (N=420) living in Bangkok, Thailand. Cross-sectional data were collected using a random sample of households methodology. Three outcomes were assessed: (1) intention to engage in sexual intercourse, (2) pre-coital behaviors, and (3)…
Sosik, John J.; Chun, Jae Uk; Koul, Ravinder
This paper examined the direct and interaction effects of students' learning and performance-avoidance goal orientations on their psychological wellbeing and a moderating role of students' gender in these relationships. Using 564 self-reports of freshman college students in a Thai university, we found students' psychological wellbeing to be…
Choosri, Noppon; Pookao, Chompoonut
The intervention for cognitive language development is required to conduct at the young ages. As children usually gain the skill through their plays, this study proposed a physical interactive game to help children improve their language skill in both Thai and English language for pre-schooler. The motivation of this research is to create a game…
Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian
Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is identified as a research-based approach used in many Western schools to support student behaviour. This study aimed to assist Thai classroom teachers by providing a professional development and learning programme in FBA to develop an effective and efficient process to address behaviour problems and allow…
Lin, Yi; Kingminghae, Worapinya
Based on data recently collected in China, this study examined factors influencing Thai international students' stay/leave intentions after completion of degrees in Chinese universities. Paying attention to the concrete situations and lived experiences of international students in a more integrated Asia-Pacific region, we found that…
Vongkrachang, Salila; Chinwonno, Apasara
The study aimed to examine the effect of explicit reading instruction as an approach to Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework on EFL students' informational text comprehension and engagement. The explicit reading instruction was implemented with 39 first-year Thai undergraduate students over a 10-week period. It was found that the…
Translation ability requires many language skills to produce an accurate and complete text; however, one important skill, critical reading in the research, has been neglected. This research, therefore, employed the explanatory sequential mixed method to investigate the differences in Thai-English translation ability between students with a high…
Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali; Sawad, Buncha Panacharoen; Wongwai, Sarun
This research article is part of a periodic study conducted to understand, model, map and to develop an integrated approach for effective and interactive self-learning phases of Thai International Hospitality and Tourism higher education students. Questionnaire containing both qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed at the beginning…
Tallman, Sean D; Winburn, Allysha P
Ancestry assessment from the postcranial skeleton presents a significant challenge to forensic anthropologists. However, metric dimensions of the femur subtrochanteric region are believed to distinguish between individuals of Asian and non-Asian descent. This study tests the discriminatory power of subtrochanteric shape using modern samples of 128 Thai and 77 White American males. Results indicate that the samples' platymeric index distributions are significantly different (p≤0.001), with the Thai platymeric index range generally lower and the White American range generally higher. While the application of ancestry assessment methods developed from Native American subtrochanteric data results in low correct classification rates for the Thai sample (50.8-57.8%), adapting these methods to the current samples leads to better classification. The Thai data may be more useful in forensic analysis than previously published subtrochanteric data derived from Native American samples. Adapting methods to include appropriate geographic and contemporaneous populations increases the accuracy of femur subtrochanteric ancestry methods. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Thielemans, Laurence; Trip-Hoving, Margreet; Bancone, Germana; Turner, Claudia; Simpson, Julie A.; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Rheenen, Patrick; Paw, Moo Kho; Nosten, Francois; McGready, Rose; Carrara, Verena I.
Background: This study aims to identify risk factors and the neurodevelopmental impact of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a limited-resource setting among a refugee and migrant population residing along the Thai-Myanmar border, an area with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate
Four different analyses of Thai Syzygium show, with very small discrepancies, that one smaller monophyletic and one larger polyphyletic group can be recognised. The smaller monophyletic group warrants sectional rank as Syzygium section Jambosa and consists of S. anacardiifolium, S. aqueum, S.
Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.
In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)
Full Text Available Although hotels and other tourist institutions in Thailand have been making some sporadic attempts to incorporate specifically Thai food and beverage (F&B elements into their overall product offering, this has rarely been attempted in a thoughtful and systematic manner. This is despite the importance of F&B in determining overall levels of customer satisfaction and the recent importance attached to incorporating ‘Thainess’ into the hotel and tourism industry nationwide. It is, therefore, rather surprising that little if any sustained effort has been made to define authenticity with respect to Thai food (bearing in mind also regional variations or to incorporate certificates of quality to establishments providing such authentic dishes. This paper draws on qualitative research and personal observation undertaken in a wide range of Thai hotels with a view to identifying emergent value-adding clusters in the domestic hospitality sector. It describes and categorizes the uses of Thai F&B currently and identifies shortcomings in industry vision, which leads to recommendations for both hotel and resort managers and also to those responsible for national level tourism development efforts. The paper also recognizes the problematic nature of the concepts of ‘authenticity’ in this context and attempts to reconcile differing conceptions.
This exploratory study investigated the perceptions of Thai university students towards World Englishes (WEs). One hundred and ninety-eight students from three universities in Bangkok were administered a questionnaire inquiring about definitions of WEs, the Kachruvian concentric circles, the concepts of standard and ownership of English, Thai…
Moongkarndi, Primchanien; Kosem, Nuttavut; Luanratana, Omboon; Jongsomboonkusol, Suna; Pongpan, Narongchai
Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.
Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Manakit, Srinual; Pornpakakul, Surachai; Petsom, Amorn
Extracts of ten Thai indigenous medicinal plants having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were tested for their Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity. The hexane extracts of Cyperus rotundus and Orthosiphon aristatus showed high potent inhibitory activity on crude enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase from rat brain.
Ketudat, Sippanondha; Fry, Gerald
The relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation in Thailand are the topic of this paper. The major focus is on the research/policy linkage. A complex educational administrative structure and a pluralistic informal power structure characterize the Thai research context. A tetrahedral model of linkages provides the conceptual framework for the analysis. Details are then provided with respect to the actual operationalization of the model in terms of the Thai approach in practice. Major elements in the Thai approach include the use of expert policy committees, joint committees involving both administrators and researchers, problem-oriented seminars, and commissioned research. Actual examples of research efforts described are an educational reform study, local level school mapping, a school cluster experiment, a budget exercise to improve the equity of primary school resource allocations, and a policy evaluation of sub-district secondary schools. Finally, lessons to be learned from the Thai experience are summarized. Thailand has experienced some success in building analytical educational research capacity and ensuring its utilization. Key elements in this success have been an emphasis on strengthening human capacities; judging political will in a timely, flexible manner; creatively utilizing bureaucratic forms such as committees; and remaining both politically detached and sensitive.
Chuthapisith, Jariya; Taycharpipranai, Pasinee; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara
The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) was developed to provide an assessment of domains of language impairment in children, particularly the pragmatic domain. This study examined the effectiveness of the CCC-Thai version in discriminating children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children. The parents of two groups of 50 children aged 4-6 years, one with clinically ascertained ASD, and one with typical development, completed the CCC-Thai version. The mean pragmatic composite score was significantly lower in the ASD group (124.6) than in the typical development group (142). The optimal receiver operating characteristic curve cut-off score was found to be identical to the original English version (132). Corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 86%, respectively. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 87% and 93%, respectively. The corresponding area under the curve was 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.99). The CCC-Thai version is a promising instrument to assess pragmatic language impairment in Thai children. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
This paper results from a pilot study in a Thai academic context testing two hypotheses. First, blended e-learning required by an institution can motivate learners extrinsically to learn EFL. Second, blended e-learning can enhance learners' positive attitudes toward learning EFL. The hypotheses were constructed based on an implication that Thai…
This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson's (1978, 1987) and Myers'…
Rishøj, Christian; Ruangrajitpakorn, Taneth; Boonkwan, Prachya
on a generic mapping of CG types in case of unknown words. Currently, all but a handful of the trees in the Thai CG bank can unambiguously be transformed into directed dependency trees. Dependency labels can optionally be assigned with a learned classifier, which in a preliminary evaluation with a very small...
Kitratporn, Poonsook; Puncreobutr, Vichian
The purpose of the study is to measure the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools located along the Thai-Cambodian borders. The study intended to measure the relationship between the two underlying variables quality of work life and organizational climate. Simple random sample of 384 respondents were administrators and teachers…
Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Cowie, Bronwen
This paper reports on the implementation of a guided note taking strategy to promote Thai students' understanding of electromagnetism during a lecture course. The aim of the study was to enhance student learning of electromagnetism concepts. The developed guided notes contain quotations, diagrams, pictures, problems, and blank spaces to encourage…
Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali
This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…
Rishøj, Christian; Ruangrajitpakorn, Taneth; Boonkwan, Prachya
A method for deriving an approximately labeled dependency treebank from the Thai Categorial Grammar Treebank has been implemented. The method involves a lexical dictionary for assigning dependency directions to the CG types associated with the grammatical entities in the CG bank, falling back...
Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Cowie, Bronwen
The study investigated the impact on student motivation and understanding of magnetism of teaching sequences based on an inductive approach. The study was conducted in large lecture classes. A pre- and post-Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism was conducted with just fewer than 700 Thai undergraduate science students, before and after…
Soparat, Sasithorn; Arnold, Savitree Rochanasmita; Klaysom, Saowadee
This research aimed to study the use of Project-based Learning using ICT (PBL using ICT) to develop learners' five key competencies based on Thai Basic Education Curriculum 2008, which consists of 1) communication capability 2) thinking capability 3) problem solving capability 4) capability in applying life skills and 5) capability in…
Tongtep, Nattapong; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk
Extracting named entities (NEs) and their relations is more difficult in Thai than in other languages due to several Thai specific characteristics, including no explicit boundaries for words, phrases and sentences; few case markers and modifier clues; high ambiguity in compound words and serial verbs; and flexible word orders. Unlike most previous works which focused on NE relations of specific actions, such as work_for, live_in, located_in, and kill, this paper proposes more general types of NE relations, called predicate-oriented relation (PoR), where an extracted action part (verb) is used as a core component to associate related named entities extracted from Thai Texts. Lacking a practical parser for the Thai language, we present three types of surface features, i.e. punctuation marks (such as token spaces), entity types and the number of entities and then apply five alternative commonly used learning schemes to investigate their performance on predicate-oriented relation extraction. The experimental results show that our approach achieves the F-measure of 97.76%, 99.19%, 95.00% and 93.50% on four different types of predicate-oriented relation (action-location, location-action, action-person and person-action) in crime-related news documents using a data set of 1,736 entity pairs. The effects of NE extraction techniques, feature sets and class unbalance on the performance of relation extraction are explored.
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T. Khamkaew (Tanchanok); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThis paper analyzes the responsiveness of Thai outbound tourism to East Asian destinations, namely China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and Korea, to changes in effective relative price of tourism, total real total tourism expenditure, and one-off events. The nonlinear and linear Almost Ideal
In the Thai Universal Coverage scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement. Questionable quality of the submitted DRG codes has been of concern whereas knowledge about hospital coding practice has been lacking. The objectives of this thesis are (1) To explore hospital coding…
Artdej, Romklao; Ratanaroutai, Thasaneeya; Coll, Richard Kevin; Thongpanchang, Tienthong
This study involved the development of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess Thai high school students' understanding of acid-base chemistry. The acid-base diagnostic test (ABDT) comprising 18 items was administered to 55 Grade 11 students in a science and mathematics programme during the second semester of the 2008 academic year. Analysis of…
Thampanya, U.; Vermaat, J.E.; Terrados, J.T.
Three to four-month-old seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species (Avicennia officinalis L., Rhizophora mucronata Lamk and Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler) were experimentally buried using six sediment accretion levels (0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 cm) in a randomized block design. Avicennia was
Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose
Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry. PMID:22514615
Crisafulli, Antonio; Vitelli, Stefano; Cappai, Ivo; Milia, Raffaele; Tocco, Filippo; Melis, Franco; Concu, Alberto
Muay Thai is a martial art that requires complex skills and tactical excellence for success. However, the energy demand during a Muay Thai competition has never been studied. This study was devised to obtain an understanding of the physiological capacities underlying Muay Thai performance. To that end, the aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of anaerobic metabolism were assessed in 10 male athletes during a simulation match of Muay Thai. Subjects were studied while wearing a portable gas analyzer, which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and heart rate (HR). The excess of CO2 production (CO2 excess) was also measured to obtain an index of anaerobic glycolysis. During the match, group energy expenditure was, on average (mean +/- standard error of the mean), 10.75 +/- 1.58 kcal.min-1, corresponding to 9.39 +/- 1.38 metabolic equivalents. Oxygen uptake and HRs were always above the level of the anaerobic threshold assessed in a preliminary incremental test. CO2 excess showed an abrupt increase in the first round, and reached a value of 636 +/- 66.5 mL.min-1. This parameter then gradually decreased throughout the simulation match. These data suggest that Muay Thai is a physically demanding activity with great involvement of both the aerobic metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis. In particular, it appears that, after an initial burst of anaerobic glycolysis, there was a progressive increase in the aerobic energy supply. Thus, training protocols should include exercises that train both aerobic and anaerobic energetic pathways.
Duangto, P; Janhom, A; Prasitwattanaseree, S; Iamaroon, A
The purposes of this study were to generate new age estimation equations using two four-teeth methods and to test the accuracy of the resulting equations in comparison with Demirjian and Goldstein four-teeth methods in a Thai population. A sample of 720 digital panoramic radiographs of Thai individuals (360 males and 360 females), aged between 7 and 15 years was randomly selected and assessed for age estimation. The new equations were developed using quadratic regression analysis. The results showed the Thai population-specific equations had a strong relationship between the dental maturity score and the chronological age in both sexes (r = 0.946-0.956). The new equations revealed no statistically significant differences between the estimated and the chronological ages in either sex. On the other hand, Demirjian and Goldstein four-teeth methods showed statistically significant differences between the estimated and the chronological ages in both sexes. Moreover, we found slight differences in the mean absolute error between Demirjian and Goldstein methods and our new equations (0.01 years for males and 0.03 years for females in method I and 0.04 years for males and 0.02 years for females in method II) and the root mean square error between Demirjian and Goldstein methods and our new equations (0.02 years for males and 0.04 years for females in method I and 0.00 years for males and 0.04 years for females in method II). In summary, although Thai population-specific equations provide a slightly increased accuracy in age estimation in Thai children and adolescents, Demirjian and Goldstein methods are still relevant.
Peungsuwan, Punnee; Sermcheep, Phawinee; Harnmontree, Papatsara; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro
[Purpose] This study investigated the effectiveness of a class- and home-based exercise with massage between Thai traditional and standardized physical therapy (TPT and SPT) in older people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects with KOA (aged 50-85 years) in two selected villages were randomly assigned into the TPT or SPT programs. Seventeen TPT subjects received Thai exercise with traditional massage, and 14 SPT individuals performed strengthening exercise with Swedish massage. Both programs consisted of a class with supervision plus home self-care for 8 weeks; the subjects then managed home self-care for 1 year. [Results] After 2 months, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and SF-36 testing showed significant improvement in both groups, but the improvement of the TPT group was greater. After 1year, only the score for the 6MWT was greater in the TPT group than in the SPT group. [Conclusion] The TPT program yielded better results for the 6MWT, but, both programs had beneficial effects on the pain, function, and QOL of middle-aged and older patients with KOA in the community setting.
Panyasai, Sitthichai; Thongsuk, Pollawat; Pornprasert, Sakorn
Hb Agenogi [β90(F6)Glu→Lys (GAG>AAG) HBB: c.271G>A)] is a very rare β-globin chain variant. We report for the first time this hemoglobinopathy in a pregnant 20-year-old Thai woman. She was seen by an obstetrician at her 14th week of gestation. She was pale and had an inflammatory lesion of her lower left leg. The hemoglobin (Hb) analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) showed a peak of abnormal Hb at the C window. On capillary electrophoresis (CE), the abnormal Hb peak was observed at electrophoretic zone 4 that corresponded to the Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) peak. Direct DNA sequencing revealed a GAG>AAG mutation at codon 90 of the β-globin gene. Thus, even though Hb Agenogi is very rare, it can be found in Thai people. The knowledge and understanding of this hemoglobinopathy will be used to assist in diagnosis, management and counseling for patients.
Full Text Available Thanita Hiranyatheb,1 Ratana Saipanish,1 Manote Lotrakul,1 Rungthip Prasertchai,1 Wanwisa Ketkaew,1 Sudawan Jullagate,1 Umaporn Udomsubpayakul,2 Pichaya Kusalaruk1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Section for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: The self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS has been developed to overcome the limitations of the clinician-administered version, which needs to be executed by trained personnel and is time consuming. The second edition of the Y-BOCS (Y-BOCS-II was developed to address some limitations of the original version. However, there is no self-report version of the Y-BOCS-II at the moment. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the developed Thai self-report version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-SR-T. Patients and methods: Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was developed from the Thai version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale-Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II-T. The Y-BOCS-II-SR-T, the Y-BOCS-II-T, the Thai version of the Florida Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory (FOCI-T, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, and the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL instrument were administered to 52 obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD patients. Internal consistency for the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α, and the factor analyses were completed. Pearson’s correlation was used in determining convergent and divergent validity among the other measures. Results: The mean score of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total score was 20.71±11.16. The internal consistencies of the Y-BOCS-II-SR-T total scores, the obsession subscale, and the compulsion subscale scores were excellent (α=0
Milisavljević, Nemanja; Cvetković, Mirjana; Nikolić, Goran; Filipović, Branka; Milinić, Nikola
The association between celiac disease and eating disorders has been very rarely reported. This is the first report on celiac disease associated with bulimia in this part of Europe. An adult female patient with history of bulimia and one uncomplicated pregnancy was admitted to the Gastroenterology Department, due to long lasting dyspeptic symptoms, constipation, major weight loss and fatigue. After positive serological screening, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed with histopathology examination of duodenal biopsy specimen. Complicated interactions between celiac disease and bulimia can make them difficult to diagnose and treat. It is important to consider the presence of celiac disease in patients with bulimia and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Apinut Wongkietkachorn; Kunathip Nissaipan; Narin Hiransuthikul
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) incidence has been increasing in Thai youth, mostly from unsafe sex. Embarrassment with carrying condom was one of the main reasons. This study aims to evaluate attitude towards condom use, sexual behavior and the new condom packaging that merges with daily life products in Thai youth. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among volunteers aged 15-24. New packaging were demonstrated and the volunteers were provided with questionnaire...
Vatcharavongvan, Pasitpon; Hepworth, Julie; Lim, Joanne; Marley, John
This study explored the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Brisbane, Australia. Five focus groups with Thai migrants were conducted. The qualitative data were examined using thematic content analysis that is specifically designed for focus group analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) positive experiences in Australia, (2) physical health problems, (3) mental health problems, and (4) familial and social health problems. This study revealed key health needs related to chronic disease and mental health, major barriers to health service use, such as language skills, and facilitating factors, such as the Thai Temple. We concluded that because the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants were complex and culture bound, the development of health and community services for Thai migrants needs to take account of the ways in which Thai culture both negatively impacts health and offer positive solutions to problems.
Full Text Available Background: Lamotrigine (LTG is commonly used for treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. It is one of the common cause of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR. Clinical symptoms of LTG-induced CADR range from maculopapular exanthema (MPE to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR. This study aimed to determine the association of the LTG-induced CADR with human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles in Thai patients.Methods: Fifteen patients with LTG-induced CADR [10 MPE; 4 Stevens–Johnson syndrome; and 1 drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms] and 50 LTG-tolerant controls were included in the study. HLA-A and HLA-B genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotides probes.Results: The proportion of HLA-A∗02:07 and HLA-B∗15:02 allele carriers were significantly higher in the LTG-induced CADR group than in the tolerant controls [odds ratio (OR: 7.83; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.60–38.25; P = 0.013, and OR: 4.89; 95% CI: 1.28–18.67; P = 0.014]. In addition, subjects with HLA-A∗33:03, HLA-B∗15:02, and HLA-B∗44:03 were significantly higher in the LTG-induced MPE group than in the tolerant controls (OR: 8.27; 95% CI: 1.83–37.41; P = 0.005, OR: 7.33; 95% CI: 1.63–33.02; P = 0.005; and OR: 10.29; 95% CI: 1.45–72.81; P = 0.029. In contrast to the LTG-induced MPE group, there were no significant differences between HLA alleles and LTG-induced SCAR group.Conclusion:HLA-A∗02:07 and HLA-B∗15:02 were associated with LTG-induced CADR in Thai patients. We also identified an association between HLA-A∗33:03, HLA-B∗15:02, and HLA-B∗44:03 and LTG-induced MPE in this population. These results suggest that these alleles could be useful screening markers for preventing CADR before LTG treatment in Thai patients, but further replication studies with larger sample sizes are needed.
Amornsriwatanakul, Areekul; Lester, Leanne; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael
Background Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youth?s PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youth?s participati...
Schaecher Kurt E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Duffy-binding protein II of Plasmodium vivax (PvDBPII has been considered as an attractive target for vaccine-mediated immunity despite a possible highly polymorphic nature. Among seven PvDBP domains, domain II has been shown to exhibit a high rate of nonsynonymous polymorphism, which has been suggested to be a potential immune (antibody binding evasion mechanism. This study aimed to determine the extent of genetic polymorphisms and positive natural selection at domain II of the PvDBP gene among a sampling of Thai P. vivax isolates. Methods The PvDBPII gene was PCR amplified and the patterns of polymorphisms were characterized from 30 Thai P. vivax isolates using DNA cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences and positive selection were done using DnaSP ver 4.0 and MEGA ver 4.0 packages. Results This study demonstrated a high rate of nonsynonymous polymorphism. Using Sal I as the reference strain, a total of 30 point-mutations were observed in the PvDBPII gene among the set of Thai P. vivax isolates, of which 25 nonsynonymous and five synonymous were found. The highest frequency of polymorphism was found in five variant amino acids (residues D384G, R390H, L424I, W437R, I503K with the variant L424I having the highest frequency. The difference between the rates of nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations estimated by the Nei and Gojobori's method suggested that PvDBPII antigen appears to be under selective pressure. Phylogenetic analysis of PvDBPII Thai P. vivax isolates to others found internationally demonstrated six distinct allele groups. Allele groups 4 and 6 were unique to Thailand. Conclusion Polymorphisms within PvDBPII indicated that Thai vivax malaria parasites are genetically diverse. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences using the Neighbour-Joining method demonstrated that Thai isolates shared distinct alleles with P. vivax isolates from different geographical areas. The study reported here
Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI cut-off values (>25 and >30 that predict diabetes risk have been well validated in Caucasian populations but less so in Asian populations. We aimed to determine the BMI threshold associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2DM risk and to calculate the proportion of T2DM cases attributable to overweight and obesity in the Thai population. Methods Participants were those from the Thai Cohort Study who were diabetes-free in 2005 and were followed-up in 2009 and 2013 (n = 39,021. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the BMI-T2DM association. We modelled non-linear associations using restricted cubic splines. We estimated population attributable fractions (PAF and the number of T2DM incident cases attributed to overweight and obesity. We also calculated the impact of reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity on T2DM incidence in the Thai population. Results Non-linear modelling indicated that the points of inflection where the BMI-T2DM association became statistically significant compared to a reference of 20.00 kg/m2 were 21.60 (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.00–1.61 and 20.03 (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.02–1.03 for men and women, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of T2DM cases in Thai adults could be attributed to overweight and obesity. Annually, if prevalent obesity was 5% lower, ~13,000 cases of T2DM might be prevented in the Thai population. Conclusions A BMI cut-point of 22 kg/m2, one point lower than the current 23 kg/m2, would be justified for defining T2DM risk in Thai adults. Lowering obesity prevalence would greatly reduce T2DM incidence.
Maheshkumar P. Joshi
Full Text Available There is a need for more comparative empirical research that examines middle manager roles in strategic change. This paper reports a study of middle managers in two dynamic settings: the Asia/Pacific region – Malaysia and Thailand; and Central/Eastern Europe – Hungary. Results of 213 respondents across three countries indicate that middle managers from all three tend toward use of authoritarian management styles even in proactive strategic change situations. However, Hungarians are less likely to use these styles than Thai and Malaysian middle managers. For all three countries, managers with less work experience were found to have lower tendencies to use an authoritarian style of implementation. When top managers exhibit an aggressive strategic posture, middle-managers from all three countries are also less likely to use an authoritarian style.Firms that want to stay competitive in the global market place must continuously evolve by successfully accomplishing strategic change (Struckman & Yammarino 2003. Although senior managers are critical in leading the strategic change process, even the best-planned strategic changes will not achieve their full potential unless they are well implemented. Part of the strategic leadership responsibility, therefore, includes establishing a climate in which the organization's rank and file will experience both a positive attitude about change and the confidence to actively seek change opportunities (Kanter 2003. Research attention is bringing more insight into the important roles of middle-managers in this process of implementing strategic change (Balogun & Jenkins 2003; Floyd & Wooldridge, 1992, 1994; Wooldridge & Floyd 1990. Although there is little doubt that active support by middle managers is critical for the strategies to be well implemented (Guth & MacMillan 1986, there remain many important questions with regard to how middle managers participate in this process (Balogun 2003.The need for research
Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining in clinical efficacy of artesunate-mefloquine combination has been documented in areas along the eastern border (Thai-Cambodian of Thailand. In the present study, the clinical efficacy of the three-day combination regimen of artesunate-mefloquine as first-line treatment for acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand was monitored in an area along the western border (Thai-Myanmar of the country. Methods A total of 150 Burmese patients (85 males and 65 females aged between 16 and 50 years who were attending the Mae Tao clinic, Mae-Sot, Tak Province, and presenting with symptomatic acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were included into the study. Patients were treated initially (day 0 with 4 mg/kg body weight artesunate and 15 mg/kg body weight mefloquine. The dose regimen on day 2 was 4 mg/kg body weight artesunate and 10 mg/kg body weight mefloquine. On day 3, artesunate at the dose of 4 mg/kg body weight was given with 0.6 mg/kg body weight primaquine. Whole blood mefloquine and plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (active plasma metabolite of artesunate concentrations following treatment were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS, respectively. Results Thirty-four cases had recrudescence during days 7 and 42. Five and 5 cases, respectively had reinfection with P. falciparum and reappearance of Plasmodium vivax in their peripheral blood during follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 42-and 28-day efficacy rates of this combination regimen were 72.58% (95% CI: 63.20-79.07% and 83.06 (95% CI 76.14-94.40%, respectively. Parasite clearance time (PCT and fever clearance time (FCT were significantly prolonged in patients with treatment failure compared with those with sensitive response [median (95% CI values for PCT 32.0 (20.0-48.0 vs 24.0 (14.0-32.0 hr and FCT 30.0 (22.0-42.0 vs 26.0 (18.0-36.0 hr; p vs 525 (452-599 ng
Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.
This study applies the model analysis technique to explore the distribution of Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving and how those attitudes and approaches change as a result of different experiences in physics learning. We administered the Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to over 700 Thai university students from five different levels, namely students entering science, first-year science students, and second-, third- and fourth-year physics students. We found that their inferred mental states were generally mixed. The largest gap between physics experts and all levels of the students was about the role of equations and formulas in physics problem solving, and in views towards difficult problems. Most participants of all levels believed that being able to handle the mathematics is the most important part of physics problem solving. Most students’ views did not change even though they gained experiences in physics learning.
Full Text Available The interaction between the distribution of tones and syllable types in Thai has been found to be interesting. The absence of the rising contour tone on CVO and CVVO supports the argument that syllables with shorter phonetic duration are bad licensers for the rising contour tone (Zhang 2002. The distributional gaps on CVO and CVVO are also found to be correlated with syllable-final glottalization (Moren & Zsiga 2006. Furthermore, Ruangjaroon (2006 argues that there is the consonant-tone interaction in Thai and analyzes it under the framework of OT. However, I will indicate both theoretical and analytical problems faced by analyses in Ruangjaroon (2006 in this paper.
Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.
Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.
Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee; Mangmool, Supachoke
The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla , Averrhoa bilimbi , Malpighia glabra , Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape , Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.
Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.
Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana
The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold
Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.
de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus
The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.
Noomhorm, A.; Koomsanit, T.; Pungsawat, K.; Theamhong, T.; Srisawas, W.; Sirisoontaralak, P.; Vongsawasdi, P.; Vitittheeranon, A.
Gamma irradiation was applied to extend the shelf life of selected Thai prepared meals, which comprised rice, meats and vegetables and which were kept under chilled conditions. For Thai spicy chicken basil rice (kao ka pao kai), cooked rice was prepared so as to obtain a harder texture and irradiated at 2 kGy. Three components (cooked chicken, sauce and blanched basil leaf) were separately packed and irradiated at 2 kGy for chicken and sauce and 0.1 kGy for basil leaves. The shelf life of irradiated spicy chicken (2 kGy) separately packed (>4 weeks) was much longer than the control sample (2 weeks), considering sensory quality. However, this dose was not enough to kill entirely the inoculated Listeria monocytogenes in spicy cooked chicken. Likewise, there is a need to preserve basil leaf, since it was microbiologically spoiled by the second week of storage. For stir-fried rice noodle with dried shrimp (pad Thai), a dose of 4 kGy was recommended because the product was free from L. monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, safe from microbial spoilage and had acceptable sensory quality. Irradiation at 4 kGy could extend the shelf life of chilled pad Thai to more than 4 weeks compared with a normal chilled ready meal, which has a shelf life of 5-7 d. For steamed sticky rice, roasted chicken and papaya salad (kao neaw som tom), a dose of 3 kGy was enough to control L. monocytogenes and E. coli during chilled storage. The product irradiated at 3 kGy and upwards remained microbiologically safe after 8 weeks of chilled storage whereas the non-irradiated sample was spoiled after the second week. Panellists accepted irradiated steamed sticky rice and roasted chicken, which kept under chilled conditions for 8 weeks, but they rejected irradiated papaya salad owing to the soft texture and tainted taste. (author)
Subhan, Ujang; Muthukannan, Vanitha; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Mulhadi, Muhammad Fakhri; Rochima, Emma; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made
The efficiency and productivity of aquaculture strongly depends on the development of advanced technology for water quality management system. The most important factor for the success of intensive aquaculture system is controlling the water quality of fish rearing media. This paper reports the design of fine bubbles (FBs) generator and performance evaluation of the system to improve water quality in thai catfish media (10 g/ind) with density (16.66 ind./L). The FBs generator was designed to control the size distribution of bubble by controlling its air flow rate entry to the mixing chamber of the generator. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the produced debit, dissolved oxygen rate and ammonia content in the catfish medium. The size distribution was observed by using a high speed camera image followed by processing using ImageJ. freeware application. The results show that air flow rate 0.05 L/min and 0.1 L/min received average bubble size of 29 µm and 31 µm respectively. The generator produced bubbles with capacity of 6 L/min and dissolved oxygen rate 0.2 ppm/min/L. The obtained DO growth was 0.455 ppm/second/L while the average decay rate was 0.20 ppm/second/L. (0.011/0.005 fold). In contrast, the recieved DO growth rate is faster compared to the DO consumption rate of the Thai catfish. This results indicated that the potential application of FBs enhanced the density of thai catfish seed rearing. In addition, ammonia can be reduced at 0.0358 ppm/hour/L and it is also observed that the inhibition of bacterial growth of air FBs is postive to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria compared to the negative control. It is concluded that as-developed FBs system can be potentially applied for intensive thai catfish culture and expected to improve the feeding efficiency rate.
Wongdatengam, Siraporn; Kruapanichwong, Panjaporn
“Mobile phones as a communication technology fits into culture rather than imposes on a culture” (Xin, 2006).Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to investigate and to understand the impact national culture has on mobile phone buyer behaviour of Thai and Swedish consumers. The research was also conducted to identify whether there was a significant cultural difference of buying behaviour for these two cultures when purchasing mobile phones. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (individ...
Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa
This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...
Hanprathet, Nitt; Manwong, Mereerat; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Phanasathit, Muthita
To investigate the relationship between Facebook addiction and mental health among high school students. This cross-sectional analytic study was performed among 972 high school students from four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, ChiangMai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. Facebook addiction was assessed using the Thai version of the Bergen-Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS), while a Thai version ofthe General Health Questionnaire (Thai GHQ-28) was used for mental health evaluation. The relationship between Facebook addiction and mental health was analyzed through multiple logistic regressions. The prevalence of Facebook addiction and abnormal mental health were 41.9% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2), and 21.9% (95% CI; 19.2, 24.8), respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors (sufficiency of household income, school location, level of education, GPAX learning deficits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), the individuals identified as having Facebook addiction were discovered to be at a high risk of developing abnormal general mental health (ORadj = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), somatic symptoms (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.7), anxiety and insomnia (ORadj = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.8), social dysfunction (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1) and severe depression (ORadj = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). Moreover; there were pronounced trends of increasing risk according to the level of Facebook addiction (Ptrend Facebook addiction among high school students could be associated with abnormal, general mental health status, somatic symptoms, anxiety & insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Therefore, it is essential that the relevant authorities educate young people about the mental health impacts linked with Facebook addictive usage and impose appropriate public health policies by screening Facebook addiction and mental health issues in risk groups.
Tanglakmankhong, Kamonthip; Perrin, Nancy A; Lowe, Nancy K
This paper is a report of the psychometric properties of the Thai language versions of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire, and the equivalence of the Thai and English versions of these instruments. The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire were developed to measure women's abilities to cope with labour and fear of childbirth. Consistent with Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory, women who have greater confidence in their ability to cope with labour have reported having less fear in childbirth. However, research is needed to validate the measures and this relationship in countries other than the United States of America, where the tools were developed. Back-translation was used. Content validity was examined by experts. The psychometric properties were estimated with internal consistency reliability, construct validity, contrasted groups and criterion-related validity with 148 pregnant women at a hospital in Thailand in 2008. Both measures were shown to have high internal consistency. Contrasting group and criterion-related validity were consistent with self-efficacy theory and findings in the United States. Differences between the stages of labour across expectancies in the Childbirth Self-Efficacy inventory were found only for second stage. Support for good validity and reliability of the instruments when used with Thai women was demonstrated. It may be appropriate for Thai women to use The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory only in relation to the second stage of labour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Nilsu, Thanasan; Thorroad, Sakornrat; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Thasana, Nopporn
Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, squarrosine A (1) and pyrrolhuperzine A (2), were isolated from the Thai and Philippine plant Huperzia squarrosa. (R)-2-Piperidineacetic acid (5) was a known alkaloid, but has now been isolated for the first time from a natural source. Their structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analyses and, for pyrrolhuperzine A (2), confirmation by chemical transformation. The new compounds exhibited moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Thipsuda Imjai; Ying Keeratiburana; Marisa Koseyayothin
Folk music of Central Thailand is an artistic performance and an important cultural heritage of Thais that is in need of conservation, revitalization and development. The performance factors of all 5 folk music bands studied in the research were similar in areas of 1) performance stages. 2) Similar traditional clothing. 3) Music instruments. 4) Light and sound. 5) The amount of performers was selected according to appropriateness. The difficulties of Central Thailand folk music are 1) Declini...
The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the causes and effects of gender discrimination in the Thai workplace. The research focuses on gender differences related to recruitment, occupational segregation, compensation, pay raises, promotion opportunities, fringe benefits, and personnel policies and practices. Three hundred employees and ten supervisors of "Grarui and So Co., Ltd. participated in the study. Also, personnel policies and regulations were reviewed and evalua...
Lumlerdkij, Natchagorn; Tantiwongse, Jaturapat; Booranasubkajorn, Suksalin; Boonrak, Ranida; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Laohapand, Tawee; Heinrich, Michael
Thai traditional medicine (TTM) is widely practiced in Thailand and continues to gain importance in cancer management, but little is known about the TTM practitioners' emic concepts and practice. With this study we firstly aim to document the practice of cancer treatment and prevention by TTM practitioners and, secondly, to evaluate how such traditional concepts and practices are correlated with biomedical ones. This in turn can form the basis for developing novel strategies for designing pharmacological experiments and longer term strategies to develop TTM practice. Semi-structured interviews with 33 TTM practitioners were performed in five provinces in different regions of Thailand. The following information were recorded; basic information of informants, descriptions of cancer (mareng in Thai), causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Plants used in the treatment and prevention of mareng were also collected. Using an in depth ethnographic approach four representative case studies to assist in a better understanding of the characteristics of mareng, its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are reported here. Five characteristics of mareng - waste accumulation (khong sia), chronic illnesses (krasai), inflammation (kan aksep), bad blood (luead) and lymph (namlueang), and the imbalance of four basic elements (dhātu si) - have been identified. Explanatory models of cancer in TTM were linked with biomedical concepts and relevant pharmacological actions. Traditional uses and available scientific evidence of medicinal plants mentioned in the case studies for the treatment or prevention of mareng are presented and discussed. Here for the first time five main characteristics of cancer based on Thai traditional medical concepts are analysed. Our findings are relevant not only for the planning of clinical studies or pharmacological experiment in the search for novel compounds for cancer treatment and prevention, but also for the integration of Thai traditional
Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Wongsariya, Karn; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen which causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Seventeen Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their activity against MRSA. Garcinia mangostana was identified as the most potent plant, and its activity was traced to the prenylated xanthone, alpha-mangostin (MIC and MBC values of 1.95 and 3.91 microg/ml, respectively).
Manosroi, Aranya; Pattamapun, Kassara; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Kietthanakorn, Bang-on; Issarangporn, Witchapong; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej
Plant mucilages can be found in various parts of several Thai plants, which can be used as thickening, moisturizing, and lubricating agents in artificial saliva formulations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties, biological activity, and cytotoxicity of Thai plant mucilages. The mucilages from Thai plants were extracted by various processes (temperature and pH variation, microwave oven, steam, and Tris-HCl buffer extraction). The viscosity and the rheology were evaluated using viscometer. Antioxidative activities including DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating activities were investigated. The mucilages were determined for cytotoxicity on normal human gingival fibroblasts and anti-adherent activity of Streptococcus mutans. Mucilages from Ocimum citriodorum Vis. (Lamiaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae), Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench. (Malvaceae), and Basella alba Linn. (Basellaceae) exhibited pseudoplastic non-Newtonian rheology. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging and metal-chelating activities were observed in the mucilages from B. alba (microwave, 3 min) and A. esculentus (microwave, 1 min) with the SC50 and MC50 values (50% of scavenging activity and 50% of metal chelating activity, respectively) of 0.71 ± 0.32 and 1.11 ± 0.52 mg/ml, respectively. Most mucilages exhibited no cytotoxicity to normal human gingival fibroblasts. The mucilage from A. esculentus (microwave, 5 min) gave the shortest wetting time of 2.75 ± 0.51 min. The highest S. mutans adhesion inhibition was observed in A. esculentus (pH 11) of 5.39 ± 9.70%. This study has indicated the suitable physicochemical and biological properties and the potential application of mucilages from Thai plants for artificial saliva preparation.
Dawisa Sritanyarat; Darlene Russ-Eft
This study proposed empirical indicators which can be validated and adopted in higher education institutions to evaluate quality of teaching and learning, and to serve as an evaluation criteria for human resource management and development of higher institutions in Thailand. The main purpose of this study was to develop empirical indicators of a theoretically-based multidimensional learners’ evaluation in Thai higher education adopting the National Institute of Development A...
Patpong, Pattama Jor
This study aims to explore talisman advertisements as examples of persuasive discourse widely found in Thailand. In the Thai context, the advertising of talismans and Buddha images seems prevalent in a wide range of printed media - leaflets, newspapers, magazines, and books. Data for this paper are drawn from a corpus consisting of twenty talisman advertisements. All of them are taken from Thailand';s best selling-printed newspaper - Thairath. This talisman corpus is composed of 629 clause co...
Nasamon Wanlapakorn; Thanunrat Thongmee; Preeyaporn Vichaiwattana; Elke Leuridan; Sompong Vongpunsawad; Yong Poovorawan
Abstract: Background. Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease, yet an increasing incidence of pertussis occurs in many countries. Thailand has a long-standing pertussis vaccination policy, therefore most expectant mothers today had received vaccines as children. The resurgence of pertussis among Thai infants in recent years led us to examine the preexisting antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens in a cohort of 90 pregnant women. Methods. We evaluated the IgG to the Pertussis toxin (PT...
Starck, Kristian; Zadeh, Shahriyar Hossein
Date of final seminar: 2013-05-29. Academic level: Master Thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS. University: Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden. Institution: The School of Business, Science and Engineering. Authors: Kristian Starck and Shahriyar Hossein Zadeh. Title: Marketing within higher education institutions - A case study of two private Thai universities. Supervisor: Peter Ekman. Examiner: Eva Manninen Olsson. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze what ...
Aurathai Lertwannawit; Sirivan Serirat; Siroj Pholpantin
This research assesses the relationship between career competencies and career success of Thai employees in the tourism and hospitality sector. The authors distinguished and operationalized four career competencies, i.e. computer and language skills, work spirits and ethics, team working and leadership, and tourism and hospitality knowledge and skills, and two career successes, i.e. objective and subjective career successes. A quantitative study was performed using 800 employees in four indus...
Bumrungkitjareon, Tipaporn; Tanasansopin, Suveera
Title: Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men's Skin Care Products Problem: Men concern more about their image than ever before. This behavior is becoming a new trend in cosmetic market. Moreover, Thailand is one of the fast growing cosmetics industry, particularly male skin care market within countries in Asia-Pacific region. However, most of the literatures have just studied on women cosmetic products. There are a few studies within male cosmetic market, despite the demands of...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.
Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanaku, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog
by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from....... This is the first record of freshly isolated A. niger strains producing fumonisins and the first report on the natural occurrence of FB2 and FB4 in coffee....
Tarry, Estelle F
This thesis seeks to consider Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities. Through the literature review it has been identified that higher education is globally expanding. Competing knowledgebased economies with higher education institutions have led education to be considered a market commodity and consequently the marketization of higher education in competitive world markets. This is exemplified by discussion of the United Kingdom higher education ...
Four different analyses of Thai Syzygium show, with very small discrepancies, that one smaller monophyletic and one larger polyphyletic group can be recognised. The smaller monophyletic group warrants sectional rank as Syzygium section Jambosa and consists of S. anacardiifolium, S. aqueum, S. diospyrifolium, S. formosum, S. foxworthianum, S. jambos, S. lakshanakarae, S. malaccense, S. megacarpum, S. papillosum, S. pseudoformosum, S. pycnanthum, S. samarangense, S. scortechinii and S. siamense.
The present research seeks to shed light on collaboration in the largely unexplored area of Thai fansubbing practices with the main focus placed on fansubbers. The interrelationships within the fansubbing community, which develop in particular between fansubbers and non-translating fans, have generally been overlooked by scholars. Furthermore, the significant roles played by digital technologies in facilitating such interdependencies have not been fully discussed in the literature. In an atte...
Teanpaisan, Rawee; Kawsud, Pajaree; Pahumunto, Nuntiya; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn
To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 12 ethanol extracts of Thai traditional herb against oral pathogens. The antibacterial activities were assessed by agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill methods. Antibiofilm activity was investigated using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting, and TLC-bioautography were used to determine the active ...
Cimadoro, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Ryan; Babault, Nicolas
Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ). Nine professional Muay Thai fighters participated in this randomized, cross-over trial. CMJs were measured on force plates before and after (post 0min, post 5min, post 10min, post 20min and post 30min) two striking (1set x 20reps) conditions (H1; H3). Although no difference was observed between H1 and H3 values, neuromuscular fatigue parameters displayed different patterns over time. CMJ height decreased immediately after H3 striking (PMuay Thai and conditioning coaches should focus on hard striking with both long and slow pacing during specific heavy bag or pad work.
Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai
Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.
Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja
To develop a conceptual framework of adherence to treatment among Thai people living with tuberculosis, a grounded theory approach was used. A purposive sample of 20 Thai people living with tuberculosis, aged from 23 to 85 years, was interviewed. From the participants' perspective, a core category of social belonging was highlighted, with three categories of conditions connected: personal barriers, personal resilience, and social facilitation. Personal barriers encompassed fear of stigma, concealing the illness, and lack of knowledge and motivation to complete the treatment regime. Personal resilience encompassed positive thinking and self-awareness. Social facilitation encompassed the ease of access to health services, continuity in the health service's ability to choose a directly-observed therapy observer, and social support. This study contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of Thai people living with tuberculosis with regards to adherence to tuberculosis treatment. It might improve how local healthcare workers provide tuberculosis care, and inspire them to tailor care to people living with tuberculosis in a local community to increase personal resilience and reduce stigma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Ongsara, Sara; Boonpol, Sakulrat; Prompalad, Nussaree; Jeenduang, Nutjaree
Although, the effect of Ramadan fasting on the risks for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies, the results were inconsistent. In addition, the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in Thai subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometry, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. A total of 65 healthy subjects (21 men and 44 women) aged between 19-24 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometry, blood pressure, FBG, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), and body composition were measured before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. There were no changes in anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profiles and body composition in both genders before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. Nevertheless, FBG levels were significantly increased after one month of Ramadan compared with baseline (5.09±0.50 versus 4.83±0.38 mmol/L, p=0.016, respectively) in women. The Ramadan fasting did not affect the lipid, anthropometric and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. However, the increased FBG levels after one month of Ramadan were observed in women. To improve the favourable biochemical parameters after Ramadan fasting, the lifestyle modifications such as, increased intake of healthy diets and increased physical activity should be recommended.
Full Text Available The influence of stocking density on feather pecking and aggressive behavior of Thai crossbred chickens was investigated from age 4–12 wk. In total, 900 day-old mixed sex Thai crossbred chickens were assigned to three replicates of 100 birds per pen, at stocking densities of 8 birds/m2, 12 birds/m2 and 16 birds/m2, respectively. The frequency of feather pecking, the number of pecks per bout, pecking intensity and the frequency of aggressive behavior were recorded once a week by scanning all the birds in the pen. It was found that the stocking density had no effect on the frequencies of feather pecking on body areas except on the wings area (p < 0.05. The stocking density had no effect on the occurrence of 1–4 pecks per bout or 5–9 pecks per bout. The stocking density had no significant influence on the pecking, pinching or plucking intensity, except on the intensity of pulling. The different types of aggressive behavior such as stand-off, fight, threat, leap, chase, avoidance and peck were not affected by the stocking density. In conclusion, stocking density did not affect the feather pecking activities and aggressive behavior of Thai crossbred chickens. However, further work is suggested with a larger number of replications to establish that there is no effect of stocking density, as the power of this study was low.
Suriyaprom, K; Tungtrongchitr, R; Thawnashom, K; Pimainog, Y
Many studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the reward system of addiction, and that nicotine may induce alterations in BDNF gene expression and its protein level within the mesocorticolimbic system. We investigated the BDNF levels and biochemical-hematological parameters of smoker and non-smoker groups, and examined the association of the Val66Met BDNF gene polymorphism with BDNF serum levels and cigarette smoking. The study sample comprised 311 Thai volunteers (200 smokers; 111 non-smokers). The levels of serum BDNF and biochemical-hematological parameters were determined. The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The smoker group had significantly higher serum BDNF levels than the non-smoker group (8.3 vs 6.5 ng/mL, P smoked, and thiocyanate level (P smoking status of the Thai males in this study. Cigarette smoking may be one factor that determines the serum BDNF level, but the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism probably does not influence susceptibility to smoking among Thai males.
Boonprong, S.; Choothesa, A.; Sribhen, C.; Parvizi, N.; Vajrabukka, C.
The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving ( P < 0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC.
Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C
Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds.
Viseskul, Nongkran; Fongkaew, Warunee; Settheekul, Saowaluck; Grimes, Richard M
Studies of sexual behavior among HIV-infected Thai youth show conflicting results due to the different ages of the respondents. This study examined the relationships between sexual self-efficacy and risk behaviors among 92 HIV-positive Thai youth aged 14 to 21 years. A questionnaire previously validated in Thailand measured sexual self-efficacy. There were low levels of sexual activity with 13 respondents having sex in the last 6 months. The sexual self-efficacy scales were inversely related to the risk behaviors of having sex, having multiple partners, and drinking alcohol in the last 6 months. The scores of the sexual self-efficacy scale and its subscales were significantly lower in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. Sexual risk behaviors were significantly higher in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. These findings suggest that interventions to increase sexual self-efficacy should be emphasized as HIV-infected Thai youth reach late adolescence. © The Author(s) 2013.
Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee
The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.
Techo, Sujitra; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Tanasupawat, Somboon
A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Khanom-jeen, a Thai traditional fermented rice noodle. They belonged to the genus Leuconostoc (Ln), Lactobacillus (Lb), Enterococcus (E), Lactococcus (Lc), and Weissella (W), based on their phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The strains were identified as Ln. pseudomesenteroides (group 1, two strains), Ln. citreum (group 2, three strains), Ln. lactis (group 3, three strains), Lb. paracasei subsp. tolerans (group 4, two strains), E. faecium (group 5, three strains), Lc. lactis subsp. lactis (group 6, one strain), W. confusa (group 7, six strains), Lb. fermentum (group 8, seven strains), and Lb. plantarum subsp. plantarum and Lb. pentosus (group 9, five strains). Fifteen strains exhibited the inhibitory activity against Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates by spot-on-lawn method. Lb. fermentum P43-01 resisted to bile acids showed the broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against H. pylori strains MS83 and BK364. These antagonistic effects were associated with proteinaceous compounds which are sensitive to α-chymotrypsin and pepsin. Results indicated that production of bacteriocin-like substances of selected strain might be the significant mechanism that exerted the inhibition on H. pylori. A potential strain could be used as probiotics in alternative or adjunctive therapy for a patient suffering from H. pylori infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is genetically heterogeneous. Mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 are responsible for at least 90% of the cases, which are transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner or are de novo events. We identified a Thai boy with OI whose parents were first cousins. Because the proband was the product of a consanguineous marriage, we hypothesized that he might be homozygous for a mutation in a known gene causing a recessive form of OI. Using whole exome sequencing (WES, we did not find any pathogenic mutations in any known gene responsible for an autosomal recessive form of OI. Instead, we identified a COL1A1 frameshift mutation, c.1290delG (p.Gly431Valfs*110 in heterozygosis. By Sanger sequencing, the mutation was confirmed in the proband, and not detected in his parents, indicating that it was a de novo mutation. These findings had implication for genetic counseling. In conclusion, we expanded the mutational spectrum of COL1A1 and provided another example of a de novo pathogenic mutation in heterozygosis in a patient born to consanguineous parents.
Wilantho, Alisa; Deekaew, Pamornya; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Tongsima, Sissades; Somboonna, Naraporn
Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas). Skin samples were categorized (grouped) into (i) normal ( teenage.hea ) and (ii) acne-prone ( teenage.acn ) young adults, and normal (iii) middle-aged ( middle.hea ) and (iv) elderly ( elderly.hea ) adults. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas , distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea . For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis , with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation), but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado) to gain insight into the diversity across national biogeography
El-Salhy, Magdy; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge; Gonlachanvit, Sutep
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asia show distinctive differences from those in the western world. The gastrointestinal endocrine cells appear to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBS. The present study aimed at studying the density of chromogranin A (CgA) cells in the large intestine of Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Thirty Thai IBS patients and 20 control subjects, and 47 Norwegian IBS patients and 20 control subjects were included. A standard colonoscopy was performed in both the patients and controls, and biopsy samples were taken from the colon and the rectum. The biopsy samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunostained for CgA. The density of CgA cells was determined by computerized image analysis. In the colon and rectum, the CgA cell densities were far higher in both IBS and healthy Thai subjects than in Norwegians. The colonic CgA cell density was lower in Norwegian IBS patients than in controls, but did not differ between Thai IBS patients and controls. In the rectum, the CgA cell densities in both Thai and Norwegian patients did not differ from those of controls. The higher densities of CgA cells in Thai subjects than Norwegians may be explained by a higher exposure to infections at childhood and the development of a broad immune tolerance, by differences in the intestinal microbiota, and/or differing diet habits. The normal CgA cell density in Thai IBS patients in contrast to that of Norwegians may be due to differences in pathophysiology.
Мар'яна Миколаївна Курбан
Full Text Available Aim: The work deals with special features of chronic gastritis clinical course with comorbid arterial hypertension.Methods: 96 patients underwent complex examination: 62 patients with combined clinical course of arterial hypertension and chronic gastritis and 34 ones with isolated chronic gastritis. All patients underwent clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination.Result: At analysis of results it was established that in the 1 group of patients took place the more heavy clinical course and the main complaints were presented as pain syndrome (of an acute, nagging character especially in epigastric zone or without strict localization that took place after ingestion, dyspeptic syndrome (with predominant meteorism, spreading feeling in epigastrium and eructation and asthenoneurotic syndrome (with sleep disorders, general weakness and work disability as opposed to patients of the 11 group whose pain syndrome was predominantly stable or periodic of an acute character in epigastric zone. Among complaints that are specific for dyspeptic syndrome prevailed eructation, spreading feeling in epigastrium and nausea. At the same time the chronic gastritis duration and pain syndrome intensity correlated with helicobacterial infection and comorbidity.Conclusions: Combined pathology is characterized with more intense clinical symptomatology as a direct consequence of mutual influence of diseases. The researches aimed at the study of clinical features of comorbid states allow the grounded approach to its therapy with special attention to all aspects of interaction
Natesirinilkul, Rungrote; Sasanakul, Werasak; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Kadegasem, Praguywan; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan; Sirachainan, Nongnuch
Prolonged euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were reported to be risk factors of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) by some studies; however, these findings were not supported by other studies. The objective of this study was to determine the association of ECLT, PAI-1 level, and polymorphisms of 4G and 5G of PAI-1 gene to the development of AIS in Thai children. This study included patients aged 1-18 years old. Diagnosis of AIS was confirmed by imaging study. The control group was age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Demographic data were recorded, and blood was tested for ECLT, PAI-1 level, lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and 4G and 5G polymorphisms of PAI-1 gene. There were 70 subjects participating in this study, consisting of 30 patients and 40 controls. Demographic data, lipid profiles, and FBS were similar between the 2 groups. Furthermore, ECLT and PAI-1 level did not differ between patient and control groups; however, both showed significant correlation (r = .352, P = .006). The 4G/5G polymorphism was the most common genotype in both patient and control groups (69.0% vs. 80.0%). However, 4G and 5G polymorphisms of PAI-1 gene did not correlate with PAI-1 level in this study (P = .797). The PAI-1 level and 4G/5G polymorphism may not be a risk factor of AIS in this population. It was also found that the 4G/5G polymorphism was the most common PAI-1 genotype in this study. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tammasakchai, Achiraya; Reungpatthanaphong, Sareeya; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Rattanachitthawat, Sirichet; Suwannalert, Prasit
Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in colorectal cancer development. Many dark pigments of plants have potent oxidative stress preventive properties. In this study, unpolished Thai rice was assessed for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. Red strain unpolished Thai rice was also administered to rats exposed to azoxymethane (AOM) for induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated for cellular oxidative stress and serum antioxidants, respectively. Red pigment unpolished Thai rice demonstrated high antioxidant activity and was found to significantly and dose dependently decrease the total density and crypt multiplicity of ACF. Consumption of Thai rice further resulted in high serum antioxidant activity and low MDA cellular oxidative stress. Interestingly, the density of ACF was strongly related to MDA at r=0.964, while it was inversely related with FRAP antioxidants (r=-0.915, pred strain of unpolished Thai rice may exert potentially beneficial effects on colorectal cancer through decrease in the level of oxidative stress.
Poompruek, Panoopat; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Guadamuz, Thomas E.
Background The Thai term kathoei refers to non-gender-normative females, males and intersexual individuals at different stages of the transitional spectrum with recognized social and cultural roles in society. Nevertheless, kathoeis are only tolerated in Thai society. Many kathoeis seek social acceptance through beauty and turn to the off-label injection of various ‘beauty drugs’. Methods The first author conducted an ethnographic study of injection parties at a wedding studio in a Central Thai provincial city between April and September 2011. Data were gathered through participant observation, focus group discussions and narrative interviews with six participants. All data were collected and analyzed in Thai, and later translated. Findings While injection parties provide opportunities for kathoeis to socialize, bond, and share experiential knowledge on chemically-assisted transformation, they also reproduce ideologies of gender, beauty and sexuality that reinforce the notion that if a kathoei is to maintain her beauty, she must use medicines more frequently and in higher doses. Conclusion Injection parties among Thai kathoeis feature drug use that is entirely reasonable in terms of their own lay knowledge. Empowering kathoeis, by providing accessible information on chemicals and health in a way that reflects the complexity and diversity of their practices, would be one way to reduce health risks. Society must give more long-term options to kathoeis to build their sense of self, based on things besides being beautiful. PMID:25047007
Li, Dong-Zhi; Li, Yan; Li, Jian; Li, Shu-Chen; Li, Ru
α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is a common inherited disease in southern China. The severest form is Hb Bart's (γ4) disease, in which the affected fetuses almost always die in utero or shortly after birth, and the mothers are at high risk for severe morbidity. The most common type of α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal) in southern China is Southeast Asian (- -(SEA)) deletion. Occasionally, Hb Bart's disease, caused by a compound heterozygosity for the - -(SEA) and - -(THAI) α(0)-thal deletions, can also be encountered. In this study, we report our experience with the prevention of Hb Bart's disease associated with the - -(THAI) α(0)-thal deletion. A total of 385 couples at risk for Hb Bart's disease, including seven who tested positive for the - -(SEA) deletion in one partner and the - -(THAI) deletion in the other, were found. Different prenatal procedures were offered, depending on the gestational age at presentation. Sixty-six affected fetuses were diagnosed prenatally; among these, two cases of Hb Bart's disease were compound heterozygotes for the - -(SEA) and - -(THAI) deletions. All affected pregnancies were terminated in time. We also presented a diagnostic protocol for identification of α(0)-thal trait that can reduce the number of samples for detection of the - -(THAI) deletion.