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Sample records for th22 cells represent

  1. A pro-inflammatory role for Th22 cells in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Cheng, Ping; Liu, Xiao-fei; Peng, Liu-sheng; Li, Bo-sheng; Wang, Ting-ting; Chen, Na; Li, Wen-hua; Shi, Yun; Chen, Weisan; Pang, Ken C; Zeng, Ming; Mao, Xu-hu; Yang, Shi-ming; Guo, Hong; Guo, Gang; Liu, Tao; Zuo, Qian-fei; Yang, Hui-jie; Yang, Liu-yang; Mao, Fang-yuan; Lv, Yi-pin; Zou, Quan-ming

    2015-09-01

    Helper T (Th) cell responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Th22 cells represent a newly discovered Th cell subset, but their relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR and ELISA analyses were performed to examine cell, protein and transcript levels in gastric samples from patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Gastric tissues from interleukin (IL)-22-deficient and wild-type (control) mice were also examined. Tissue inflammation was determined for pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory protein production. Gastric epithelial cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were isolated, stimulated and/or cultured for Th22 cell function assays. Th22 cells accumulated in gastric mucosa of both patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Th22 cell polarisation was promoted via the production of IL-23 by dendritic cells (DC) during H. pylori infection, and resulted in increased inflammation within the gastric mucosa. This inflammation was characterised by the CXCR2-dependent influx of MDSCs, whose migration was induced via the IL-22-dependent production of CXCL2 by gastric epithelial cells. Under the influence of IL-22, MDSCs, in turn, produced pro-inflammatory proteins, such as S100A8 and S100A9, and suppressed Th1 cell responses, thereby contributing to the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis. This study, therefore, identifies a novel regulatory network involving H. pylori, DCs, Th22 cells, gastric epithelial cells and MDSCs, which collectively exert a pro-inflammatory effect within the gastric microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this Th22-dependent pathway may therefore prove a valuable strategy in the therapy of H. pylori-associated gastritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Reduced Th22 cell proportion and prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants following maternal probiotic supplementation.

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    Rø, A D B; Simpson, M R; Rø, T B; Storrø, O; Johnsen, R; Videm, V; Øien, T

    2017-08-01

    In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children. To examine whether Th cell proportions were affected by maternal probiotic supplementation and thus could mediate the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. A total of 415 pregnant women were randomized to ingest a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) or placebo, and their offspring were assessed for AD during the first 2 years of life. Peripheral blood collected at 3 months of age was analysed for regulatory T cells (n=140) and Th subsets (n=77) including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22. The proportion of Th22 cells was reduced in children in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group (median 0.038% vs 0.064%, P=.009). The difference between the probiotic and placebo groups was also observed in the children who did not develop AD during the 2-year follow-up. The proportion of Th22 cells was increased in children who developed AD compared to the children who did not develop AD (0.090% vs 0.044%, Pprobiotics was partially mediated through the reduction in Th22 cells. Perinatal maternal probiotic supplementation with a combination of LGG, Bb-12 and La-5 reduced the proportion of Th22 cells in 3-month-old children. This may partially explain the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. TH17, TH22 and Treg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum.

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    Martin J Wolff

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4(+ T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that T(H17, T(H22 and T(Reg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas T(H1 and T(H2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of T(H17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1. These results suggest that CD4(+ T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment.

  4. The importance of TH22 and TC22 cells in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases.

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    Shamsdin, Seyedeh Azra; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Ghaderi, Abbas; Lankrani, Kamran B; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Pouladfar, Gholam Reza

    2017-06-01

    An association exists between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), peptic ulcers, gastritis, and sometimes gastric carcinomas. Th22 cells have protective and inflammatory roles in defense against microbes. We investigated the frequencies of Th22, Tc22, Th22/17, and Tc22/17 cells in addition to the changes in levels of cytokines IL-22, IL-6, IL-23, TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β in sera from patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis, and peptic ulcer, and in uninfected patients. A total of 76 patients with H. pylori-associated disorders formed the studied group. Frequencies of T-cell subsets were determined by flow cytometry. Levels of cytokines IL-22, IL-6, IL-23, TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β in the sera and supernatants of patients were measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. The study participants included 32 males and 44 females with a mean age of 38.5±15.3 years. We divided the infected group into peptic ulcer and gastritis (mild, moderate, active chronic, and chronic). The frequencies of Th22, Tc22, and Tc22/17 increased significantly in the peptic ulcer, moderate, active chronic, and chronic gastritis groups compared to the uninfected group. Th22/17 only increased significantly in the chronic gastritis group. We observed significant increases in IL-22 in the moderate and active chronic gastritis, IL-23 in the active chronic and chronic gastritis, and TNF-α in the peptic ulcer and moderate gastritis groups. Following in vitro antigenic stimulation, we observed significantly higher levels of IL-1β, IL-23, and IL-6 in the active chronic gastritis group, as well as IL-6 and IL-1β in the chronic gastritis group compared to the uninfected group. Increased Th22, Tc22, and Tc22/17 cells and IL-22 levels appear to be influential in progression and severity of H. pylori infection. Th22/17 can be an interesting therapeutic target for chronic H. pylori infections where eradication is more difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Intrinsic renal cells induce lymphocytosis of Th22 cells from IgA nephropathy patients through B7-CTLA-4 and CCL-CCR pathways.

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    Gan, Lu; Zhou, Qiaoling; Li, Xiaozhao; Chen, Chen; Meng, Ting; Pu, Jiaxi; Zhu, Mengyuan; Xiao, Chenggen

    2018-04-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common glomerulonephritis, has an unclear pathogenesis. The role of Th22 cells, which are intimately related to proteinuria and progression in IgAN, in mediating infection-related IgAN is unclear. This study aimed to characterize the association between intrinsic renal cells (tubular epithelial cells and mesangial cells) and Th22 cells in immune regulation of infection-related IgAN and to elucidate the impact of Th22 lymphocytosis; the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α; and CCL chemokines on kidney fibrosis. Hemolytic streptococcus infection induced an increase in IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, resulting in Th22 cell differentiation from T lymphocytes obtained from patients with IgAN, and the CCL20-CCR6, CCL22-CCR4, and/or CCL27-CCR10 axes facilitated Th22 cell chemotaxis. The increased amount of Th22 cells caused an increase in TGF-β1 levels, and anti-CD80, anti-CD86, and CTLA-4Ig treatment reduced TGF-β1 levels by inhibiting Th22 lymphocytosis and secretion of cytokines and chemokines, thus potentially relieving kidney fibrosis. Our data suggest that Th22 cells might be recruited into the kidneys via the CCL20-CCR6, CCL22-CCR4, and/or CCL27-CCR10 axes by mesangial cells and tubular epithelial cells in infection-related IgAN. Th22 cell overrepresentation was attributed to stimulation of the B7-CTLA-4Ig antigen-presenting pathway and IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α.

  6. The existence of Th22, pure Th17 and Th1 cells in CIN and Cervical Cancer along with their frequency variation in different stages of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tian, Xinli; Mumtahana, Fidia; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Teng; Croce, Kimiko Della; Ma, Daoxin; Kong, Beihua; Cui, Baoxia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it is found that T-helper (Th) 22 cells are involved in different types of autoimmune and tumor diseases. But, till now, no study has been carried out to understand the involvement of these cells in cervical cancer (CC). Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Interleukin-22 (IL-22), IL-17 in the peripheral blood of healthy controls (HC), CIN and cervical cancer patients. From peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), mRNA expression levels of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), RAR-related orphan receptor C (RORC), TNF-α and IL-6 were respectively determined. Using the method of ELISA, plasma concentrations of IL-22, IL-17 and TNF-α were examined. Th22 and Th17 cells were elevated in CC and CIN patients. Th1 cells and the plasma concentrations of IL-22 in CC patients were significantly increased compared with HC. In CC patients, an increased prevalence of Th22 cells was associated with lymph node metastases. There was a positive correlation between Th22 and Th17 cells, but an approximately negative correlation between Th22 and Th1 cells in CC patients. The mRNA expression of RORC, TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly high in CC patients. Our results indicate that there is a higher circulatory frequency of Th22, Th17 and Th1 cells in CC which may conjointly participate in the pathogenesis and growth of CC

  7. Down-regulation of the Th1, Th17, and Th22 pathways due to anti-TNF-α treatment in psoriasis.

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    Luan, Li; Han, Shixin; Wang, Hua; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is a T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory dermatosis. Th1, Th17 and Th22 cells are suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. To determine whether treatment with the anti-tumor-necrosis-factor antagonist, adalimumab, induces significant modulation of the Th1, Th17 and Th22 pathways, and correlates cellular activity with clinical response. This study included 21 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis who were treated with adalimumab, and 10 healthy control subjects. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at week 12. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the frequency of circulating Th1, Th17 and Th22 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the expression of T-bet (Th1-related), retinoid-acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt, Th17-related) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, Th22-related). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze the serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-22, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). At baseline, the frequencies of Th1, Th17 and Th22 cells were higher in psoriasis patients compared to the healthy controls. The expression of transcription factors T-bet, RORγt and AHR, and the serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-22, IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in psoriasis patients compared to the healthy controls. After adalimumab therapy, there was a significant decline in the frequencies of Th1, Th17 and Th22 cells, and a concomitant decrease in the levels of their associated transcription factors and cytokines. The results suggest that the anti-tumor-necrosis-factor antagonist, adalimumab, disrupts the Th1, Th17 and Th22 pathways, resulting in clinical improvement of psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture Resource: Validated Cell Models Representing All Molecular Subtypes

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    Yuan Xie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most frequent and malignant form of primary brain tumor. GBM is essentially incurable and its resistance to therapy is attributed to a subpopulation of cells called glioma stem cells (GSCs. To meet the present shortage of relevant GBM cell (GC lines we developed a library of annotated and validated cell lines derived from surgical samples of GBM patients, maintained under conditions to preserve GSC characteristics. This collection, which we call the Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture (HGCC resource, consists of a biobank of 48 GC lines and an associated database containing high-resolution molecular data. We demonstrate that the HGCC lines are tumorigenic, harbor genomic lesions characteristic of GBMs, and represent all four transcriptional subtypes. The HGCC panel provides an open resource for in vitro and in vivo modeling of a large part of GBM diversity useful to both basic and translational GBM research.

  9. The Cell Cycle: An Activity Using Paper Plates to Represent Time Spent in Phases of the Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, students are given the opportunity to combine skills in math and geometry for a biology lesson in the cell cycle. Students utilize the data they collect and analyze from an online onion-root-tip activity to create a paper-plate time clock representing a 24-hour cell cycle. By dividing the paper plate into appropriate phases of…

  10. Adult renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid morphology represents a neoplastic dedifferentiation analogous to sarcomatoid carcinoma.

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    Chapman-Fredricks, Jennifer R; Herrera, Loren; Bracho, Jorge; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Leveillee, Raymond; Rey, Luis; Jorda, Merce

    2011-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with rhabdoid morphology (RCC-RM) is a recently described variant of RCC, which has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis, akin to sarcomatoid RCC. The current World Health Organization classification of RCC does not include the rhabdoid phenotype as a distinct histologic entity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether RCC-RM represents a dedifferentiation of a classifiable-type World Health Organization RCC or a carcinosarcoma with muscle differentiation. We reviewed 168 cases of RCC obtained between 2003 and 2008. From these cases, 10 (6%) were found to have areas of classic rhabdoid morphology. Immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, CD10, and CD117 was performed in each case using the labeled streptavidin-biotin method. Rhabdoid differentiation was identified in association with conventional-type RCC (9) and with unclassifiable-type RCC with spindle cell morphology (1). In all cases, both the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid tumoral areas were positive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen and negative for desmin. Cytokeratin positivity in the rhabdoid areas was focal. In cases associated with conventional-type RCC, CD10 was positive in both the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid foci. CD117 was negative in these tumors. The unclassifiable-type RCC with spindle cell morphology was negative for both CD10 and CD117. The similar immunophenotype between the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid tumoral foci supports the origin of the rhabdoid cells from the classifiable-type RCC. Areas of rhabdoid morphology do not represent muscle metaplastic differentiation. Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid morphology may represent a dedifferentiation of a classifiable-type RCC, similar to that of sarcomatoid differentiation. The recognition of RCC-RM is important as it allows for the inclusion of these high-grade malignancies into a category associated with poor prognosis despite lacking the spindle cell component

  11. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells

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    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac.

  12. Canine spontaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas represent their human counterparts at the molecular level.

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    Deli Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous canine head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC represents an excellent model of human HNSCC but is greatly understudied. To better understand and utilize this valuable resource, we performed a pilot study that represents its first genome-wide characterization by investigating 12 canine HNSCC cases, of which 9 are oral, via high density array comparative genomic hybridization and RNA-seq. The analyses reveal that these canine cancers recapitulate many molecular features of human HNSCC. These include analogous genomic copy number abnormality landscapes and sequence mutation patterns, recurrent alteration of known HNSCC genes and pathways (e.g., cell cycle, PI3K/AKT signaling, and comparably extensive heterogeneity. Amplification or overexpression of protein kinase genes, matrix metalloproteinase genes, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes TWIST1 and SNAI1 are also prominent in these canine tumors. This pilot study, along with a rapidly growing body of literature on canine cancer, reemphasizes the potential value of spontaneous canine cancers in HNSCC basic and translational research.

  13. Phylum Verrucomicrobia representatives share a compartmentalized cell plan with members of bacterial phylum Planctomycetes

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    Romeo Tony

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a divergent phylum within domain Bacteria including members of the microbial communities of soil and fresh and marine waters; recently extremely acidophilic members from hot springs have been found to oxidize methane. At least one genus, Prosthecobacter, includes species with genes homologous to those encoding eukaryotic tubulins. A significant superphylum relationship of Verrucomicrobia with members of phylum Planctomycetes possessing a unique compartmentalized cell plan, and members of the phylum Chlamydiae including human pathogens with a complex intracellular life cycle, has been proposed. Based on the postulated superphylum relationship, we hypothesized that members of the two separate phyla Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia might share a similar ultrastructure plan differing from classical prokaryote organization. Results The ultrastructure of cells of four members of phylum Verrucomicrobia – Verrucomicrobium spinosum, Prosthecobacter dejongeii, Chthoniobacter flavus, and strain Ellin514 – was examined using electron microscopy incorporating high-pressure freezing and cryosubstitution. These four members of phylum Verrucomicrobia, representing 3 class-level subdivisions within the phylum, were found to possess a compartmentalized cell plan analogous to that found in phylum Planctomycetes. Like all planctomycetes investigated, they possess a major pirellulosome compartment containing a condensed nucleoid and ribosomes surrounded by an intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM, as well as a ribosome-free paryphoplasm compartment between the ICM and cytoplasmic membrane. Conclusion A unique compartmentalized cell plan so far found among Domain Bacteria only within phylum Planctomycetes, and challenging our concept of prokaryote cell plans, has now been found in a second phylum of the Domain Bacteria, in members of phylum Verrucomicrobia. The planctomycete cell plan thus occurs in at least two

  14. CD71(high) population represents primitive erythroblasts derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

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    Chao, Ruihua; Gong, Xueping; Wang, Libo; Wang, Pengxiang; Wang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The CD71/Ter119 combination has been widely used to reflect dynamic maturation of erythrocytes in vivo. However, because CD71 is expressed on all proliferating cells, it is unclear whether it can be utilized as an erythrocyte-specific marker during differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In this study, we revealed that a population expressing high level of CD71 (CD71(high)) during mouse ESC differentiation represented an in vitro counterpart of yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts (EryPs) isolated at 8.5days post coitum. In addition, these CD71(high) cells went through "maturational globin switching" and enucleated during terminal differentiation in vitro that were similar to the yolk sac-derived EryPs in vivo. We further demonstrated that the formation of CD71(high) population was regulated differentially by key factors including Scl, HoxB4, Eaf1, and Klf1. Taken together, our study provides a technical advance that allows efficient segregation of EryPs from differentiated ESCs in vitro for further understanding molecular regulation during primitive erythropoiesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for non-small-cell lung cancer: does that represent a 'new frontier'?

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    Pilotto, Sara; Kinspergher, Stefania; Peretti, Umberto; Calio, Anna; Carbognin, Luisa; Ferrara, Roberto; Brunelli, Matteo; Chilosi, Marco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the interpretation and understanding of cancer behaviour, particularly of its ability to evade the host immunosurveillance, deregulating the balance between inhibitory and stimulatory factors, led to the development of an innovative category of immunotherapeutic agents, currently under investigation. Although the disappointing data deriving from the employment of vaccines in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), more promising results have been obtained in the early phase trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. This review delineates the main features of the available immunotherapeutic agents, focusing the discussion on immune checkpoint inhibitors, those that have already demonstrated a relevant clinical activity (such as Ipilimumab and Nivolumab) and those molecules still in early development phase. Moreover, we underline the possible emerging issues deriving from the progressive diffusion of Immuno-Oncology into the standard clinical practice. The careful and accurate identification and management of immune-related toxicities, the validation of more reliable immune response criteria and the increasing research of potential predictive biomarkers are key points of discussion. The perspective is that immunotherapy might represent an effective 'magic bullet', able to change the treatment paradigm of NSCLC, particularly of those subgroups featured by a heavily mutant cancer (squamous histology and smokers), where the immunologic agents contribute in cancer development and progression seems to be strong and, concurrently, the efficacy of standard therapies particularly limited.

  16. LAG-3 Represents a Marker of CD4+ T Cells with Regulatory Activity in Patients with Bone Fracture.

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    Wang, Jun; Ti, Yunfan; Wang, Yicun; Guo, Guodong; Jiang, Hui; Chang, Menghan; Qian, Hongbo; Zhao, Jianning; Sun, Guojing

    2018-04-19

    The lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) is a CD4 homolog with binding affinity to MHC class II molecules. It is thought that LAG-3 exerts a bimodal function, such that co-ligation of LAG-3 and CD3 could deliver an inhibitory signal in conventional T cells, whereas, on regulatory T cells, LAG-3 expression could promote their inhibitory function. In this study, we investigated the role of LAG-3 expression on CD4 + T cells in patients with long bone fracture. We found that LAG-3 + cells represented approximately 13% of peripheral blood CD4 + T cells on average. Compared to LAG-3 - CD4 + T cells, LAG-3 + CD4 + T cells presented significantly higher Foxp3 and CTLA-4 expression. Directly ex vivo or with TCR stimulation, LAG-3 + CD4 + T cells expressed significantly higher levels of IL-10 and TGF-β than LAG-3 - CD4 + T cells. Interestingly, blocking the LAG-3-MHC class II interaction actually increased the IL-10 expression by LAG-3 + CD4 + T cells. The frequency of LAG-3 + CD4 + T cell was positively correlated with restoration of healthy bone function in long bone fracture patients. These results together suggested that LAG-3 is a marker of CD4 + T cells with regulatory function; at the same time, LAG-3 might have limited the full suppressive potential of Treg cells.

  17. Therapeutic Vaccination Using Cationic Liposome-Adjuvanted HIV Type 1 Peptides Representing HLA-Supertype-Restricted Subdominant T Cell Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román, Victor Raúl Gómez; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Jensen, Sanne Skov

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine concept based on peptides together with the adjuvant CAF01. Peptides represented 15 HLA-supertype-restricted subdominant and conserved CD8 T cell epitopes and three CD4 T-helper cell epitopes. In this phase I clinical trial, safety and immunogenicity...... were assessed in untreated HIV-1-infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Twenty-three HIV-1-infected individuals were randomized to receive placebo (n=5) or vaccine (n=18). Safety was appraised by clinical follow-up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T cell counts......, and HIV-1 viral loads. T cell immunogenicity was monitored longitudinally by interferon (IFN)-γ ELISpot. New vaccine-specific T cell responses were induced in 6/14 vaccinees for whom ELISpot data were valid. CD4 T cell counts and viral loads were stable. The study shows that therapeutic immunization...

  18. KHYG-1 and NK-92 represent different subtypes of LFA-1-mediated NK cell adhesiveness.

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    Suck, Garnet; Tan, Suet-Mien; Chu, Sixian; Niam, Madelaine; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Lim, Tsyr Jong; Koh, Mickey B C

    2011-01-01

    Novel cancer cellular therapy approaches involving long-term ex vivo IL-2 stimulated highly cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells are emerging. However, adhesion properties of such NK cells are not very well understood. Herein, we describe the novel observation of permanently activated alphaLbeta2 integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 adhesion receptor in long-term IL-2 activated NK cells and the permanent NK cell lines KHYG-1 and NK-92. We show that such cytokine activated NK effectors constitutively adhered to the LFA-1-ligand ICAM-1, whereas binding to the lower affinity ligand ICAM-3 required additional exogenous activating conditions. The results demonstrate an extended conformation and an intermediate affinity state for the LFA-1 population expressed by the NK cells. Interestingly, adhesion to ICAM-1 or K562 induced pronounced cell spreading in KHYG-1, but not in NK-92, and partially in long-term IL-2 stimulated primary NK cells. It is conceivable that such differential adhesion characteristics may impact motility potential of such NK effectors with relevance to clinical tumor targeting. KHYG-1 could be a useful model in planning future targeted therapeutic approaches involving NK effectors with augmented functions.

  19. Androgen Secreting Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary Represented with Postmenopasal Bleeding and Extensive Hirsutism

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    Jadranka Georgievska

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In adult patients with hirsutism and elevated serum testosterone a possibility of a presence of an ovarian steroid cell tumor should be considered. Surgery is the main treatment of such patients.

  20. Vacuolization of mucolipidosis type II mouse exocrine gland cells represents accumulation of autolysosomes.

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    Boonen, Marielle; van Meel, Eline; Oorschot, Viola; Klumperman, Judith; Kornfeld, Stuart

    2011-04-15

    We previously reported that mice deficient in UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase (mucolipidosis type II or Gnptab -/- mice), the enzyme that initiates the addition of the mannose 6-phosphate lysosomal sorting signal on acid hydrolases, exhibited extensive vacuolization of their exocrine gland cells, while the liver, brain, and muscle appeared grossly unaffected. Similar pathological findings were observed in several exocrine glands of patients with mucolipidosis II. To understand the basis for this cell type-specific abnormality, we analyzed these tissues in Gnptab -/- mice using a combined immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical approach. We demonstrate that the vacuoles in the exocrine glands are enlarged autolysosomes containing undigested cytoplasmic material that accumulate secondary to deficient lysosomal function. Surprisingly, the acid hydrolase levels in these tissues ranged from normal to modestly decreased, in contrast to skin fibroblasts, which accumulate enlarged lysosomes and/or autolysosomes also but exhibit very low levels of acid hydrolases. We propose that the lysosomal defect in the exocrine cells is caused by the combination of increased secretion of the acid hydrolases via the constitutive pathway along with their entrapment in secretory granules. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of the tissue-specific abnormalities seen in mucolipidosis type II.

  1. Plasmablasts During Acute Dengue Infection Represent a Small Subset of a Broader Virus-specific Memory B Cell Pool

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    Ramapraba Appanna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is endemic in tropical countries worldwide and the four dengue virus serotypes often co-circulate. Infection with one serotype results in high titers of cross-reactive antibodies produced by plasmablasts, protecting temporarily against all serotypes, but impairing protective immunity in subsequent infections. To understand the development of these plasmablasts, we analyzed virus-specific B cell properties in patients during acute disease and at convalescence. Plasmablasts were unrelated to classical memory cells expanding in the blood during early recovery. We propose that only a small subset of memory B cells is activated as plasmablasts during repeat infection and that plasmablast responses are not representative of the memory B cell repertoire after dengue infection.

  2. Electrical performance of a string of magnets representing a half-cell of the LHC machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Coull, L.; Dahlerup-Petersen, K.; Hagedorn, D.; Krainz, G.; Rijllart, A.; McInturff, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tests have been carried out on a string of prototype superconducting magnets, consisting of one double-quadrupole and two double-dipoles forming the major part of a half-cell of the LHC machine. The magnets are protected individually by cold diodes and quench heaters. The electrical aspects of these tests are described here. The performance during quench of the protection diodes and the associated interconnections was studied. Tests determined the magnet quench performance in training and at different ramp-rates, and investigated the inter-magnet propagation of quenches. Current lead and inter-magnet contact resistances were controlled and the performance of the power converter and the dump switches assessed

  3. Electrical performance of a string of magnets representing a half-cell of the LHC machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Coull, L.; Dahlerup-Petersen, K.; Hagedorn, D.; Krainz, G.; Rijllart, A.; McInturff, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tests have been carried out on a string prototype superconducting magnets, consisting of one double-quadrupole and two double-dipoles forming the major part of a half-cell of the LHC machine. The magnets are protected individually by ''cold diodes'' and quench heaters. The electrical aspects of these tests are described here. The performance during quench of the protection diodes and the associated interconnections was studied. Tests determined the magnet quench performance in training and at different ramp-rates, and investigated the inter-magnet propagation of quenches. Current lead and inter-magnet contact resistances were controlled and the performance of the power converter and the dump switches assessed

  4. Comparison of lung cancer cell lines representing four histopathological subtypes with gene expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers are the most common type of human malignancy and are intractable. Lung cancers are generally classified into four histopathological subtypes: adenocarcinoma (AD, squamous cell carcinoma (SQ, large cell carcinoma (LC, and small cell carcinoma (SC. Molecular biological characterization of these subtypes has been performed mainly using DNA microarrays. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of these four subtypes using twelve human lung cancer cell lines and the more reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Results We selected 100 genes from public DNA microarray data and examined them by DNA microarray analysis in eight test cell lines (A549, ABC-1, EBC-1, LK-2, LU65, LU99, STC 1, RERF-LC-MA and a normal control lung cell line (MRC-9. From this, we extracted 19 candidate genes. We quantified the expression of the 19 genes and a housekeeping gene, GAPDH, with qPCR, using the same eight cell lines plus four additional validation lung cancer cell lines (RERF-LC-MS, LC-1/sq, 86-2, and MS-1-L. Finally, we characterized the four subtypes of lung cancer cell lines using principal component analysis (PCA of gene expression profiling for 12 of the 19 genes (AMY2A, CDH1, FOXG1, IGSF3, ISL1, MALL, PLAU, RAB25, S100P, SLCO4A1, STMN1, and TGM2. The combined PCA and gene pathway analyses suggested that these genes were related to cell adhesion, growth, and invasion. S100P in AD cells and CDH1 in AD and SQ cells were identified as candidate markers of these lung cancer subtypes based on their upregulation and the results of PCA analysis. Immunohistochemistry for S100P and RAB25 was closely correlated to gene expression. Conclusions These results show that the four subtypes, represented by 12 lung cancer cell lines, were well characterized using qPCR and PCA for the 12 genes examined. Certain genes, in particular S100P and CDH1, may be especially important for distinguishing the different subtypes. Our results

  5. Very late relapse in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents clonally related disease and is marked by germinal center cell features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Daphne; Glas, Annuska M.; Boerrigter, Lucie; Hermus, Marie-Christine; Dalesio, Otilia; Willemse, Els; Nederlof, Petra M.; Kersten, Marie José

    2003-01-01

    Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) rarely show relapse after 4 years of complete remission (CR). In this study, we addressed the following questions: (1) Does late-relapsing DLBCL represent clonally related disease or a second malignancy; and (2) is there a characteristic biologic

  6. Qualitative and quantitative expression status of the human chromosome 20 genes in cancer tissues and the representative cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanhui; Wen, Bo; Yan, Guangrong; Wei, Junying; Xie, Liqi; Xu, Shaohang; Jiang, Dahai; Wang, Tingyou; Lin, Liang; Zi, Jin; Zhang, Ju; Zhou, Ruo; Zhao, Haiyi; Ren, Zhe; Qu, Nengrong; Lou, Xiaomin; Sun, Haidan; Du, Chaoqin; Chen, Chuangbin; Zhang, Shenyan; Tan, Fengji; Xian, Youqi; Gao, Zhibo; He, Minghui; Chen, Longyun; Zhao, Xiaohang; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Yunping; Yin, Xingfeng; Shen, Huali; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Liwei; Chang, Cheng; Ma, Jie; Yan, Guoquan; Yao, Jun; Lu, Haojie; Ying, Wantao; Zhong, Fan; He, Qing-Yu; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-04

    Under the guidance of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP), (1, 2) we conducted a systematic survey of the expression status of genes located at human chromosome 20 (Chr.20) in three cancer tissues, gastric, colon, and liver carcinoma, and their representative cell lines. We have globally profiled proteomes in these samples with combined technology of LC-MS/MS and acquired the corresponding mRNA information upon RNA-seq and RNAchip. In total, 323 unique proteins were identified, covering 60% of the coding genes (323/547) in Chr.20. With regards to qualitative information of proteomics, we overall evaluated the correlation of the identified Chr.20 proteins with target genes of transcription factors or of microRNA, conserved genes and cancer-related genes. As for quantitative information, the expression abundances of Chr.20 genes were found to be almost consistent in both tissues and cell lines of mRNA in all individual chromosome regions, whereas those of Chr.20 proteins in cells are different from tissues, especially in the region of 20q13.33. Furthermore, the abundances of Chr.20 proteins were hierarchically evaluated according to tissue- or cancer-related distribution. The analysis revealed several cancer-related proteins in Chr.20 are tissue- or cell-type dependent. With integration of all the acquired data, for the first time we established a solid database of the Chr.20 proteome.

  7. Differential Activity of Voltage- and Ca2+-Dependent Potassium Channels in Leukemic T Cell Lines: Jurkat Cells Represent an Exceptional Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Valle-Reyes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of resting T cells relies on sustained Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane, which in turn depends on the functional expression of potassium channels, whose activity repolarizes the membrane potential. Depending on the T-cells subset, upon activation the expression of Ca2+- or voltage-activated K+ channels, KCa or Kv, is up-regulated. In this study, by means of patch-clamp technique in the whole cell mode, we have studied in detail the characteristics of Kv and KCa currents in resting and activated human T cells, the only well explored human T-leukemic cell line Jurkat, and two additional human leukemic T cell lines, CEM and MOLT-3. Voltage dependence of activation and inactivation of Kv1.3 current were shifted up to by 15 mV to more negative potentials upon a prolonged incubation in the whole cell mode and displayed little difference at a stable state in all cell lines but CEM, where the activation curve was biphasic, with a high and low potential components. In Jurkat, KCa currents were dominated by apamine-sensitive KCa2.2 channels, whereas only KCa3.1 current was detected in healthy T and leukemic CEM and MOLT-3 cells. Despite a high proliferation potential of Jurkat cells, Kv and KCa currents were unexpectedly small, more than 10-fold lesser as compared to activated healthy human T cells, CEM and MOLT-3, which displayed characteristic Kv1.3high:KCa3.1high phenotype. Our results suggest that Jurkat cells represent perhaps a singular case and call for more extensive studies on primary leukemic T cell lines as well as a verification of the therapeutic potential of specific KCa3.1 blockers to combat acute lymphoblastic T leukemias.

  8. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiyavarong, Pichaya; Traitanon, Opas; Chuengsaman, Piyatida; Patumanond, Jayanton; Tasanarong, Adis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter.

  9. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways, ...

  10. Characteristic of innate lymphoid cells (ILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Adamiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILC is a newly described family of immune cells that are part of the natural immunity which is important not only during infections caused by microorganisms, but also in the formation of lymphoid tissue, tissue remodeling after damage due to injury and homeostasis tissue stromal cells. Family ILC cells form NK cells (natural killer and lymphoid tissue inducer T cells (LTi, which, although they have different functions, are evolutionarily related. NK cells are producing mainly IFN-γ, whereas LTi cells as NKR+LTi like, IL-17 and/or IL-22, which suggests that the last two cells, can also represent the innate versions of helper T cell - TH17 and TH22. Third population of ILC is formed by cells with characteristics such as NK cells and LTi (ILC22 - which are named NK22 cells, natural cytotoxicity receptor 22 (NCR22 cells or NK receptor-positive (LTi NKR+ LTi cells. Fourth population of ILC cells are ILC17 - producing IL-17, while the fifth is formed by natural helper type 2 T cells (nTH2, nuocyte, innate type 2 helper cells (IH2 and multi-potent progenitor type 2 cells (MPPtype2. Cells of the last population synthesize IL-5 and IL-13. It is assumed that an extraordinary functional diversity of ILC family, resembles T cells, probably because they are under the control of the corresponding transcription factors - as direct regulation factors, such as the family of lymphocytes T.

  11. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  12. Representing time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Poncellini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of natural phenomena applied to architectural planning and design is facing the most fascinating and elusive of the four dimensions through which man attempts to define life within the universe: time. We all know what time is, said St. Augustine, but nobody knows how to describe it. Within architectural projects and representations, time rarely appears in explicit form. This paper presents the results of a research conducted by students of NABA and of the Polytechnic of Milan with the purpose of representing time considered as a key element within architectural projects. Student investigated new approaches and methodologies to represent time using the two-dimensional support of a sheet of paper.

  13. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M.; Blanchet, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cellier, F. [Framatome, Centre Technique, 71 - Saint Marcel (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tore supra (TS) has used from the beginning of operation in 1989 actively cooled plasma facing components. Since the operation and baking temperature of all in vessel components has been defined to be up to 230 deg. C at 40 bars, a special water chemistry of the cooling water plant was suggested in order to avoid eventual water leaks due to corrosion (general corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion, etc.) at relative high temperatures and pressures in tubes, pipes, bellows, water boxes, coils, etc. From the beginning of TS operation, in vessel components (e.g. wall protection panels, limiters, ergodic divertor coils, neutralisers and diagnostics) represented a unique combination of metals in the hydraulic circuit mainly such as stainless steel, Inconel, CuCrZr, Nickel and Copper. These different materials were joined together by welding (St to St, Inconel to Inconel, CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to St-St via a Ni sleeve adapter), brazing (St-St to Cu and Cu-LSTP), friction (CuCrZr and Cu to St-St), explosion (CuCrZr to St-St) and memory metal junction (Cryo-fit to Cu - only test sample). Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralized water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/ 7.0 (25 deg. C/ 200 deg. C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 deg. C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal

  14. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Blanchet, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tore supra (TS) has used from the beginning of operation in 1989 actively cooled plasma facing components. Since the operation and baking temperature of all in vessel components has been defined to be up to 230 deg. C at 40 bars, a special water chemistry of the cooling water plant was suggested in order to avoid eventual water leaks due to corrosion (general corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion, etc.) at relative high temperatures and pressures in tubes, pipes, bellows, water boxes, coils, etc. From the beginning of TS operation, in vessel components (e.g. wall protection panels, limiters, ergodic divertor coils, neutralisers and diagnostics) represented a unique combination of metals in the hydraulic circuit mainly such as stainless steel, Inconel, CuCrZr, Nickel and Copper. These different materials were joined together by welding (St to St, Inconel to Inconel, CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to St-St via a Ni sleeve adapter), brazing (St-St to Cu and Cu-LSTP), friction (CuCrZr and Cu to St-St), explosion (CuCrZr to St-St) and memory metal junction (Cryo-fit to Cu - only test sample). Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralized water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/ 7.0 (25 deg. C/ 200 deg. C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 deg. C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal

  15. Human and murine very small embryonic-like cells represent multipotent tissue progenitors, in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Aaron M; Sun, Hongli; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Jung, Younghun; Wang, Jingcheng; Mishra, Anjali; Jiang, Yajuan; O'Neill, David W; Krebsbach, Paul H; Rodgerson, Denis O; Taichman, Russell S

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lineage progression of human and murine very small embryonic-like (HuVSEL or MuVSEL) cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, HuVSEL and MuVSEL cells differentiated into cells of all three embryonic germ layers. HuVSEL cells produced robust mineralized tissue of human origin compared with controls in calvarial defects. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the HuVSEL cells gave rise to neurons, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts within the calvarial defects. MuVSEL cells were also able to differentiate into similar lineages. First round serial transplants of MuVSEL cells into irradiated osseous sites demonstrated that ∼60% of the cells maintained their VSEL cell phenotype while other cells differentiated into multiple tissues at 3 months. Secondary transplants did not identify donor VSEL cells, suggesting limited self renewal but did demonstrate VSEL cell derivatives in situ for up to 1 year. At no point were teratomas identified. These studies show that VSEL cells produce multiple cellular structures in vivo and in vitro and lay the foundation for future cell-based regenerative therapies for osseous, neural, and connective tissue disorders.

  16. Antigen-presenting cells represent targets for R5 HIV-1 infection in the first trimester pregnancy uterine mucosa.

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    Romain Marlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission is relatively rare despite the permissivity of placental cells to cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. The placenta interacts directly with maternal uterine cells (decidual cells but the physiological role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission and whether decidua could be a source of infected cells is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To answer to this question, decidual mononuclear cells were exposed to HIV-1 in vitro. Decidual cells were shown to be more susceptible to infection by an R5 HIV-1, as compared to an X4 HIV-1. Infected cells were identified by flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that CD14(+ cells were the main targets of HIV-1 infection in the decidua. These infected CD14(+ cells expressed DC-SIGN, CD11b, CD11c, the Fc gamma receptor CD16, CD32 and CD64, classical MHC class-I and class-II and maturation and activation molecules CD83, CD80 and CD86. The permissivity of decidual tissue was also evaluated by histoculture. Decidual tissue was not infected by X4 HIV-1 but was permissive to R5 HIV-1. Different profiles of infection were observed depending on tissue localization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of HIV-1 target cells in the decidua in vitro and the low rate of in utero mother-to-child transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy suggest that a natural control occurs in vivo limiting cell-to-cell infection of the placenta and consequently infection of the fetus.

  17. The use of FDTD in establishing in vitro experimentation conditions representative of lifelike cell phone radiation on the spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradi, Rand; Desai, Nisarg; Erdemir, Ahmet; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposing human semen samples to cell phone radiation leads to a significant decline in sperm parameters. In daily living, a cell phone is usually kept in proximity to the groin, such as in a trouser pocket, separated from the testes by multiple layers of tissue. The aim of this study was to calculate the distance between cell phone and semen sample to set up an in vitro experiment that can mimic real life conditions (cell phone in trouser pocket separated by multiple tissue layers). For this reason, a computational model of scrotal tissues was designed by considering these separating layers, the results of which were used in a series of simulations using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. To provide an equivalent effect of multiple tissue layers, these results showed that the distance between a cell phone and semen sample should be 0.8 cm to 1.8 cm greater than the anticipated distance between a cell phone and the testes.

  18. Stably engineered nanobubbles and ultrasound - An effective platform for enhanced macromolecular delivery to representative cells of the retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S Thakur

    Full Text Available Herein we showcase the potential of ultrasound-responsive nanobubbles in enhancing macromolecular permeation through layers of the retina, ultimately leading to significant and direct intracellular delivery; this being effectively demonstrated across three relevant and distinct retinal cell lines. Stably engineered nanobubbles of a highly homogenous and echogenic nature were fully characterised using dynamic light scattering, B-scan ultrasound and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The nanobubbles appeared as spherical liposome-like structures under TEM, accompanied by an opaque luminal core and darkened corona around their periphery, with both features indicative of efficient gas entrapment and adsorption, respectively. A nanobubble +/- ultrasound sweeping study was conducted next, which determined the maximum tolerated dose for each cell line. Detection of underlying cellular stress was verified using the biomarker heat shock protein 70, measured before and after treatment with optimised ultrasound. Next, with safety to nanobubbles and optimised ultrasound demonstrated, each human or mouse-derived cell population was incubated with biotinylated rabbit-IgG in the presence and absence of ultrasound +/- nanobubbles. Intracellular delivery of antibody in each cell type was then quantified using Cy3-streptavidin. Nanobubbles and optimised ultrasound were found to be negligibly toxic across all cell lines tested. Macromolecular internalisation was achieved to significant, yet varying degrees in all three cell lines. The results of this study pave the way towards better understanding mechanisms underlying cellular responsiveness to ultrasound-triggered drug delivery in future ex vivo and in vivo models of the posterior eye.

  19. Generation of HIV-1 primary isolates representative of plasma variants using the U87.CD4 cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeregrave, Edwin J.; Ampofo, William K.; Tetteh, John K. A.; Ofori, Michael; Ofori, Sampson B.; Shah, Akram S.; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain HIV-1 primary isolates in settings with limited access to donor PBMCs, a culture method was developed where patient PBMCs infected with HIV-1 were cultured together with U87.CD4 cells. Using this non-laborious method, it is possible to harvest virus solely on the basis of syncytia

  20. Dectin-1 Positive Dendritic Cells Expand after Infection with Leishmania major Parasites and Represent Promising Targets for Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimara, Nicole; Chanyalew, Menberework; Aseffa, Abraham; van Zandbergen, Ger; Lepenies, Bernd; Schmid, Maximilian; Weiss, Richard; Rascle, Anne; Wege, Anja Kathrin; Jantsch, Jonathan; Schatz, Valentin; Brown, Gordon D.; Ritter, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Resistant mouse strains mount a protective T cell-mediated immune response upon infection with Leishmania (L.) parasites. Healing correlates with a T helper (Th) cell-type 1 response characterized by a pronounced IFN-γ production, while susceptibility is associated with an IL-4-dependent Th2-type response. It has been shown that dermal dendritic cells are crucial for inducing protective Th1-mediated immunity. Additionally, there is growing evidence that C-type lectin receptor (CLR)-mediated signaling is involved in directing adaptive immunity against pathogens. However, little is known about the function of the CLR Dectin-1 in modulating Th1- or Th2-type immune responses by DC subsets in leishmaniasis. We characterized the expression of Dectin-1 on CD11c+ DCs in peripheral blood, at the site of infection, and skin-draining lymph nodes of L. major-infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and in peripheral blood of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Both mouse strains responded with an expansion of Dectin-1+ DCs within the analyzed tissues. In accordance with the experimental model, Dectin-1+ DCs expanded as well in the peripheral blood of CL patients. To study the role of Dectin-1+ DCs in adaptive immunity against L. major, we analyzed the T cell stimulating potential of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in the presence of the Dectin-1 agonist Curdlan. These experiments revealed that Curdlan induces the maturation of BMDCs and the expansion of Leishmania-specific CD4+ T cells. Based on these findings, we evaluated the impact of Curdlan/Dectin-1 interactions in experimental leishmaniasis and were able to demonstrate that the presence of Curdlan at the site of infection modulates the course of disease in BALB/c mice: wild-type BALB/c mice treated intradermally with Curdlan developed a protective immune response against L. major whereas Dectin-1−/− BALB/c mice still developed the fatal course of disease after Curdlan treatment. Furthermore

  1. Blastema cells derived from New Zealand white rabbit's pinna carry stemness properties as shown by differentiation into insulin producing, neural, and osteogenic lineages representing three embryonic germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeinasab, Morvarid; Matin, Maryam M; Rassouli, Fatemeh B; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-05-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are known as undifferentiated cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacities. Regeneration is a phenomenon that occurs in a limited number of animals after injury, during which blastema tissue is formed. It has been hypothesized that upon injury, the dedifferentiation of surrounding tissues leads into the appearance of cells with SC characteristics. In present study, stem-like cells (SLCs) were obtained from regenerating tissue of New Zealand white rabbit's pinna and their stemness properties were examined by their capacity to differentiate toward insulin producing cells (IPCs), as well as neural and osteogenic lineages. Differentiation was induced by culture of SLCs in defined medium, and cell fates were monitored by specific staining, RT-PCR and flow cytometry assays. Our results revealed that dithizone positive cells, which represent IPCs, and islet-like structures appeared 1 week after induction of SLCs, and this observation was confirmed by the elevated expression of Ins, Pax6 and Glut4 at mRNA level. Furthermore, SLCs were able to express neural markers as early as 1 week after retinoic acid treatment. Finally, SLCs were able to differentiate into osteogenic lineage, as confirmed by Alizarin Red S staining and RT-PCR studies. In conclusion, SLCs, which could successfully differentiate into cells derived from all three germ layers, can be considered as a valuable model to study developmental biology and regenerative medicine.

  2. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M. [CEA/DSM/DRFC Centre de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul lez Durance (France); Blanchet, J.; Cellier, F. [Framatome, 71 - Saint Marcel (France). Centre Technique

    2007-07-01

    Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralised water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/7.0 (25 C/200 C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal combinations survived the test campaign without stress corrosion cracking, with the exception of the memory metal junction (creep in Cu) and the bellows made of St-St 316L and Inconel 625 while 316 Ti bellows survived. In contrary to the vacuum brazed Cu-LSTP to St-St samples, some of flame brazed Cu to St-St samples failed either in the braze joint or in the copper structure itself. For comparison, a spot weld of an inflated 316L panel sample, filled voluntary with a caustic solution of pH 11.5 (25 C), failed after 90 h of testing (intergranular cracking at the spot weld), while an identical sample containing AVT water of pH 9.0 (25 C) survived without damage. The results of these tests, performed during 1986 and 1997, have never been published and therefore are presented more in detail in this paper since corrosion in hydraulic circuits is also an issue of ITER. Up to day, the TS cooling water plant operates with an above mentioned water treatment and no water leaks have been detected on in-vessel components originating from water corrosion at high temperature and high pressure. (orig.)

  3. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Blanchet, J.; Cellier, F.

    2007-01-01

    Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralised water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/7.0 (25 C/200 C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal combinations survived the test campaign without stress corrosion cracking, with the exception of the memory metal junction (creep in Cu) and the bellows made of St-St 316L and Inconel 625 while 316 Ti bellows survived. In contrary to the vacuum brazed Cu-LSTP to St-St samples, some of flame brazed Cu to St-St samples failed either in the braze joint or in the copper structure itself. For comparison, a spot weld of an inflated 316L panel sample, filled voluntary with a caustic solution of pH 11.5 (25 C), failed after 90 h of testing (intergranular cracking at the spot weld), while an identical sample containing AVT water of pH 9.0 (25 C) survived without damage. The results of these tests, performed during 1986 and 1997, have never been published and therefore are presented more in detail in this paper since corrosion in hydraulic circuits is also an issue of ITER. Up to day, the TS cooling water plant operates with an above mentioned water treatment and no water leaks have been detected on in-vessel components originating from water corrosion at high temperature and high pressure. (orig.)

  4. T helper cell subsets specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah K Bayes

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the magnitude of antigen-specific memory T helper cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy humans and patients with cystic fibrosis.Peripheral blood human memory CD4(+ T cells were co-cultured with dendritic cells that had been infected with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The T helper response was determined by measuring proliferation, immunoassay of cytokine output, and immunostaining of intracellular cytokines.Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had robust antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa that not only contained a Th1 and Th17 component but also Th22 cells. In contrast to previous descriptions of human Th22 cells, these Pseudomonal-specific Th22 cells lacked the skin homing markers CCR4 or CCR10, although were CCR6(+. Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had similar levels of Th22 cells, but the patient group had significantly fewer Th17 cells in peripheral blood.Th22 cells specific to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are induced in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Along with Th17 cells, they may play an important role in the pulmonary response to this microbe in patients with cystic fibrosis and other conditions.

  5. Regulatory T cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, Mohan S; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Das, Mrinmoy; Prakhar, Praveen; Sharma, Varun K; Singh, Vikas; Rabin, Magalie; Trinath, Jamma; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N; Bolgert, Francis; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Magy, Laurent; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-03-20

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report in murine model proposed that IVIG expands regulatory T (T reg ) cells via induction of interleukin 33 (IL-33). However, translational insight on these observations is lacking. Ten newly diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients were treated with IVIG at the rate of 0.4 g/kg for three to five consecutive days. Clinical evaluation for muscular weakness was performed by Medical Research Council (MRC) and modified Rankin scoring (MRS) system. Heparinized blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 4-5 weeks post-IVIG therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for surface CD4 and intracellular Foxp3, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-33 and prostaglandin E2 in the plasma were measured by ELISA. The fold changes in plasma IL-33 at week 1 showed no correlation with the MRC and MRS scores at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. Clinical recovery following IVIG therapy appears to be associated with T reg cell response. Contrary to murine study, there was no association between the fold changes in IL-33 at week 1 and T reg cell frequency at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. T reg cell-mediated clinical response to IVIG therapy in GBS patients was associated with reciprocal regulation of effector T cells-expressing TNF-α. T reg cell expansion by IVIG in patients with autoimmune diseases lack correlation with IL-33. T reg cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to IVIG therapy.

  6. The oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu represents a cell culture system to examine functional expression of the mouse gap junction gene connexin29 (Cx29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Christoph Söhl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential gap junction forming mouse connexin29 (Cx29 protein is concomitantly expressed with connexin32 (Cx32 in peripheral myelin forming Schwann cells and together with both Cx32 and connexin47 (Cx47 in oligodendrocytes of the CNS. To study the genomic structure and functional expression of Cx29, either primary cells or cell culture systems might be selected, from which the latter are easier to cultivate. Both structure and expression of Cx29 is still not fully understood. In the mouse sciatic nerve, brain and the oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu the Cx29 gene is processed in two transcript isoforms both harbouring a unique reading frame. In contrast to Cx32 and Cx47, only Cx29 protein is abundantly expressed in undifferentiated as well as differentiated Oli-neu cells but the absence of Etbr dye transfer after microinjection concealed the function of Cx29 mediated gap junction communication between those cells. Although HeLa cells stably transfected with Cx29 or Cx29-eGFP neither demonstrated any permeability for Lucifer yellow nor for neurobiotin, blocking of Etbr uptake from the media by gap junction blockers does suppose a role of Cx29 in hemi-channel function. Thus, we conclude that, due to its high abundance of Cx29 expression and its reproducible culture conditions, the oligodendroglial precursor cell line Oli-neu might constitute an appropriate cell culture system to study molecular mechanisms or putative extracellular stimuli to functionally open Cx29 channels or hemi-channels.

  7. Immunization with a novel chimeric peptide representing B and T cell epitopes from HER2 extracellular domain (HER2 ECD) for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Manijeh; Keyhanfar, Mehrnaz; Jafarian, Abbas; Mohabatkar, Hassan; Rabbani, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Because of direct stimulating immune system against disease, vaccination or active immunotherapy is preferable compared to passive immunotherapy. For this purpose, a newly designed chimeric peptide containing epitopes for both B and T cells from HER2 ECD subdomain III was proposed. To evaluate the effects of the active immunization, a discontinuous B cell epitope peptide was selected based on average antigenicity by bioinformatics analysis. The selected peptide was collinearly synthesized as a chimera with a T helper epitope from the protein sequence of measles virus fusion (208-302) using the GPSL linker. Three mice were immunized with the chimeric peptide. Reactive antibodies with HER2 protein in ELISA and immunofluorescence assays with no cross-reactivity were generated. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the anti-peptide sera had inhibitory effects on proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells. Hence, the newly designed, discontinuous chimeric peptide representing B and T cell epitopes from subdomain III of HER2-ECD can form the basis for future vaccines design, where these data can be applied for monoclonal antibody production targeting the distinct epitope of HER2 receptor compared to the two broadly used anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, Herceptin and pertuzumab.

  8. Clinically relevant morphological structures in breast cancer represent transcriptionally distinct tumor cell populations with varied degrees of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CD44+CD24- stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Evgeny V; Skryabin, Nikolay A; Gerashchenko, Tatiana S; Tashireva, Lubov A; Wilhelm, Jochen; Buldakov, Mikhail A; Sleptcov, Aleksei A; Lebedev, Igor N; Vtorushin, Sergey V; Zavyalova, Marina V; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda V; Perelmuter, Vladimir M

    2017-09-22

    Intratumor morphological heterogeneity in breast cancer is represented by different morphological structures (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular, and discrete) and contributes to poor prognosis; however, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we performed 3D imaging, laser microdissection-assisted array comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression microarray analysis of different morphological structures and examined their association with the standard immunohistochemistry scorings and CD44 + CD24 - cancer stem cells. We found that the intratumor morphological heterogeneity is not associated with chromosomal aberrations. By contrast, morphological structures were characterized by specific gene expression profiles and signaling pathways and significantly differed in progesterone receptor and Ki-67 expression. Most importantly, we observed significant differences between structures in the number of expressed genes of the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes and the association with cancer invasion pathways. Tubular (tube-shaped) and alveolar (spheroid-shaped) structures were transcriptionally similar and demonstrated co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Solid (large shapeless) structures retained epithelial features but demonstrated an increase in mesenchymal traits and collective cell migration hallmarks. Mesenchymal genes and cancer invasion pathways, as well as Ki-67 expression, were enriched in trabecular (one/two rows of tumor cells) and discrete groups (single cells and/or arrangements of 2-5 cells). Surprisingly, the number of CD44 + CD24 - cells was found to be the lowest in discrete groups and the highest in alveolar and solid structures. Overall, our findings indicate the association of intratumor morphological heterogeneity in breast cancer with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CD44 + CD24 - stemness and the appeal of this heterogeneity as a model for the study of cancer invasion.

  9. Re-epithelialization resulted from prostate basal cells in canine prostatic urethra may represent the ideal healing method after two-micron laser resection of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize the re-epithelialization of wound healing in canine prostatic urethra and to evaluate the effect of this re-epithelialization way after two-micron laser resection of the prostate (TmLRP. TmLRP and partial bladder neck mucosa were performed in 15 healthy adult male crossbred canines. Wound specimens were harvested at 3 days, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after operation, respectively. The histopathologic characteristics were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of cytokeratin 14 (CK14, CK5, CK18, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin A (CgA, uroplakin, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 , and TGF-β type II receptor in prostatic urethra wound were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Van Gieson staining was performed to determine the expression of collagen fibers in prostatic urethra and bladder neck would. The results showed that the re-epithelialization of the prostatic urethra resulted from the mobilization of proliferating epithelial cells from residual prostate tissue under the wound. The proliferating cells expressed CK14, CK5, but not CK18, Syn, and CgA and re-epithelialize expressed uroplakin since 3 weeks. There were enhanced TGF-β1 and TGF-β type II receptor expression in proliferating cells and regenerated cells, which correlated with specific phases of re-epithelialization. Compared with the re-epithelialization of the bladder neck, re-epithelialization of canine prostatic urethra was faster, and the expression of collagen fibers was relatively low. In conclusion, re-epithelialization in canine prostatic urethra resulted from prostate basal cells after TmLRP and this re-epithelialization way may represent the ideal healing method from anatomic repair to functional recovery after injury.

  10. The Combined Application of the Caco-2 Cell Bioassay Coupled with In Vivo (Gallus gallus Feeding Trial Represents an Effective Approach to Predicting Fe Bioavailability in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Tako

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research methods that predict Fe bioavailability for humans can be extremely useful in evaluating food fortification strategies, developing Fe-biofortified enhanced staple food crops and assessing the Fe bioavailability of meal plans that include such crops. In this review, research from four recent poultry (Gallus gallus feeding trials coupled with in vitro analyses of Fe-biofortified crops will be compared to the parallel human efficacy studies which used the same varieties and harvests of the Fe-biofortified crops. Similar to the human studies, these trials were aimed to assess the potential effects of regular consumption of these enhanced staple crops on maintenance or improvement of iron status. The results demonstrate a strong agreement between the in vitro/in vivo screening approach and the parallel human studies. These observations therefore indicate that the in vitro/Caco-2 cell and Gallus gallus models can be integral tools to develop varieties of staple food crops and predict their effect on iron status in humans. The cost-effectiveness of this approach also means that it can be used to monitor the nutritional stability of the Fe-biofortified crop once a variety has released and integrated into the food system. These screening tools therefore represent a significant advancement to the field for crop development and can be applied to ensure the sustainability of the biofortification approach.

  11. RPA accumulation during class switch recombination represents 5'-3' DNA-end resection during the S-G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Arito; Robbiani, Davide F; Resch, Wolfgang; Bothmer, Anne; Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Oliveira, Thiago; Rommel, Philipp C; Brown, Eric J; Nussenzweig, Andre; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Casellas, Rafael

    2013-01-31

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promotes chromosomal translocations by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and oncogenes in the G1 phase. RPA is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that associates with resected DSBs in the S phase and facilitates the assembly of factors involved in homologous repair (HR), such as Rad51. Notably, RPA deposition also marks sites of AID-mediated damage, but its role in Ig gene recombination remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RPA associates asymmetrically with resected ssDNA in response to lesions created by AID, recombination-activating genes (RAG), or other nucleases. Small amounts of RPA are deposited at AID targets in G1 in an ATM-dependent manner. In contrast, recruitment in the S-G2/M phase is extensive, ATM independent, and associated with Rad51 accumulation. In the S-G2/M phase, RPA increases in nonhomologous-end-joining-deficient lymphocytes, where there is more extensive DNA-end resection. Thus, most RPA recruitment during class switch recombination represents salvage of unrepaired breaks by homology-based pathways during the S-G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Combined Application of the Caco-2 Cell Bioassay Coupled with In Vivo (Gallus gallus) Feeding Trial Represents an Effective Approach to Predicting Fe Bioavailability in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Elad; Bar, Haim; Glahn, Raymond P.

    2016-01-01

    Research methods that predict Fe bioavailability for humans can be extremely useful in evaluating food fortification strategies, developing Fe-biofortified enhanced staple food crops and assessing the Fe bioavailability of meal plans that include such crops. In this review, research from four recent poultry (Gallus gallus) feeding trials coupled with in vitro analyses of Fe-biofortified crops will be compared to the parallel human efficacy studies which used the same varieties and harvests of the Fe-biofortified crops. Similar to the human studies, these trials were aimed to assess the potential effects of regular consumption of these enhanced staple crops on maintenance or improvement of iron status. The results demonstrate a strong agreement between the in vitro/in vivo screening approach and the parallel human studies. These observations therefore indicate that the in vitro/Caco-2 cell and Gallus gallus models can be integral tools to develop varieties of staple food crops and predict their effect on iron status in humans. The cost-effectiveness of this approach also means that it can be used to monitor the nutritional stability of the Fe-biofortified crop once a variety has released and integrated into the food system. These screening tools therefore represent a significant advancement to the field for crop development and can be applied to ensure the sustainability of the biofortification approach. PMID:27869705

  13. CAUDAL MEDULLARY PATHWAYS TO LUMBOSACRAL MOTONEURONAL CELL GROUPS IN THE CAT - EVIDENCE FOR DIRECT PROJECTIONS POSSIBLY REPRESENTING THE FINAL COMMON PATHWAY FOR LORDOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHORST, VGJM; HOLSTEGE, G

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase

  14. Caudal Medullary Pathways To Lumbosacral Motoneuronal Cell Groups In The Cat; Evidence For Direct Projections Possibly Representing The Final Common Pathway For Lordosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Holstege, Gert

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase

  15. The GluN2B subunit represents a major functional determinant of NMDA receptors in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Neagoe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal signaling pathways mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various CNS disorders and have been long considered as promising points of therapeutic intervention. However, few efforts have been previously described concerning evaluation of therapeutic modulators of NMDARs and their downstream pathways in human neurons with endogenous expression of NMDARs. In the present study, we assessed expression, functionality, and subunit composition of endogenous NMDARs in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC-derived cortical neurons (iCell Neurons and iCell GlutaNeurons. We initially confirmed the expected pharmacological response of iCell Neurons and iCell GlutaNeurons to NMDA by patch-clamp recordings. Subsequent pharmacological interrogation using GluN2 subunit-selective antagonists revealed the predominance of GluN2B in both iCell Neurons and iCell GlutaNeurons. This observation was also supported by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses of GluN2 subunit expression as well as pharmacological experiments using positive allosteric modulators with distinct GluN2 subunit selectivity. We conclude that iCell Neurons and iCell GlutaNeurons express functional GluN2B-containing NMDARs and could serve as a valuable system for development and validation of GluN2B-modulating pharmaceutical agents. Keywords: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons, iCell Neurons, iCell GlutaNeurons, NMDA receptors, GluN2B, Positive allosteric modulators

  16. NK cells of the oldest seniors represent constant and resistant to stimulation high expression of cellular protective proteins SIRT1 and HSP70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszubowska, Lucyna; Foerster, Jerzy; Kaczor, Jan Jacek; Schetz, Daria; Ślebioda, Tomasz Jerzy; Kmieć, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer cells (NK cells) are cytotoxic lymphocytes of innate immunity that reveal some immunoregulatory properties, however, their role in the process of ageing is not completely understood. The study aimed to analyze the expression of proteins involved in cellular stress response: sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in human NK cells with reference to the process of ageing. Non-stimulated and stimulated with IL-2, LPS or PMA with ionomycin cells originated from peripheral blood samples of: seniors aged over 85 ('the oldest'; n  = 25; 88.5 ± 0.5 years, mean ± SEM), seniors aged under 85 ('the old'; n  = 30; 75.6 ± 0.9 years) and the young ( n  = 31; 20.9 ± 0.3 years). The relationships between the levels of expression of cellular protective proteins in the studied population were also analyzed. The concentrations of carbonyl groups and 8-isoprostanes, markers of oxidative stress, in both stimulated and non-stimulated cultured NK cells were measured to assess the level of the oxidative stress in the cells. The oldest seniors varied from the other age groups by significantly higher expression of SIRT1 and HSP70 both in non-stimulated and stimulated NK cells. These cells also appeared to be resistant to further stimulations with IL-2, LPS or PMA with ionomycin. Highly positive correlations between SIRT1 and intracellular HSP70 in both stimulated and non-stimulated NK cells were observed. SOD2 presented low expression in non-stimulated cells, whereas its sensitivity to stimulation increased with age of donors. High positive correlations between SOD2 and surface HSP70 were observed. We found that the markers of oxidative stress in NK cells did not change with ageing. The oldest seniors revealed well developed adaptive stress response in NK cells with increased, constant levels of SIRT1 and intracellular HSP70. They presented also very high positive correlations between

  17. Angels and demons: Th17 cells represent a beneficial response, while neutrophil IL-17 is associated with poor prognosis in squamous cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Simone; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Kritikou, Eva; Lubberts, Erik; Trimbos, J Baptist; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Gorter, Arko

    2015-01-01

    The role of interleukin (IL)-17 in cancer remains controversial. In view of the growing interest in the targeting of IL-17, knowing its cellular sources and clinical implications is crucial. In the present study, we unraveled the phenotype of IL-17 expressing cells in cervical cancer using immunohistochemical double and immunofluorescent triple stainings. In the tumor stroma, IL-17 was found to be predominantly expressed by neutrophils (66%), mast cells (23%), and innate lymphoid cells (8%). Remarkably, T-helper 17 (Th17) cells were a minor IL-17 expressing population (4%). A similar distribution was observed in the tumor epithelium. The Th17 and granulocyte fractions were confirmed in head and neck, ovarian, endometrial, prostate, breast, lung, and colon carcinoma. An above median number of total IL-17 expressing cells was an independent prognostic factor for poor disease-specific survival in early stage disease ( p = 0.016). While a high number of neutrophils showed at trend toward poor survival, the lowest quartile of mast cells correlated with poor survival ( p = 0.011). IL-17 expressing cells and neutrophils were also correlated with the absence of vaso-invasion ( p < 0.01). IL-17 was found to increase cell growth or tightness of cervical cancer cell lines, which may be a mechanism for tumorigenesis in early stage disease. These data suggest that IL-17, primarily expressed by neutrophils, predominantly promotes tumor growth, correlated with poor prognosis in early stage disease. Strikingly, a high number of Th17 cells was an independent prognostic factor for improved survival ( p = 0.026), suggesting Th17 cells are part of a tumor suppressing immune response.

  18. A study of V79 cell survival after for proton and carbon ion beams as represented by the parameters of Katz' track structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, Leszek; Waligórski, M. P. R.; Bassler, Niels

    different sets of data obtained for the same cell line and different ions, measured at different laboratories, we have fitted model parameters to a set of carbon-irradiated V79 cells, published by Furusawa et al. (2), and to a set of proton-irradiated V79 cells, published by Wouters et al. (3), separately....... We found that values of model parameters best fitted to the carbon data of Furusawa et al. yielded predictions of V79 survival after proton irradiation which did not match the V79 proton data of Wouters et al. Fitting parameters to both sets combined did not improve the accuracy of model predictions...... carbon irradiation. 1. Katz, R., Track structure in radiobiology and in radiation detection. Nuclear Track Detection 2: 1-28 (1978). 2. Furusawa Y. et al. Inactivation of aerobic and hypoxic cells from three different cell lines by accelerated 3He-, 12C- and 20Ne beams. Radiat Res. 2012 Jan; 177...

  19. Development of representative models for the study of gastric cancer and evaluation of potential antitumor agents in primary gastric cancer cells and gastric metastasis in liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Chaves, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer has been the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and the leading cause of death by tumors in Costa Rica, the survival of patients is limited by difficulties in diagnosis and the lack of therapeutic options to improve life expectancy. The study has conducted a number of research models that will allow in the future to better understand the pathology of this tumor and it has evaluated the therapeutic action of naturally occurring in gastric cancer cells. A vivo model of carcinogenesis in stomachs of Wistar rats, has achieved to establish by means of chemical induction with MNNG, in which it has been possible to observe the appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium flat keratinized starting from week 22 of experiment; while for the 40th week adenomas were observed in the simple cylindrical epithelium. Additionally, the role of Helicobacter pylori was inquired in the development of gastric cancer by inoculation of two strains of bacteria (CagA + and CagA-) in the stomach of Wistar rats, as well as the effect of his administration together with MNNG. However, the results of these models have been limited due to the lack of detection of the bacteria in the stomachs of rats inoculated. In addition, it has established an in vitro model of threedimensional cell culture, which has allowed to reproduce some of the characteristics observed in vivo in the tumors, in this case it was determined that the two gastric cancer cell lines have showed a different behavior, since the cells NCI-N87 from a in metastasis gastric liver were able to form steroids compact whereas AGS cells have been originate from a primary tumor that has formed easily dispersible structures and not compact spheroids. Finally, the effect of natural retinoids ATRA and retinoic acid 13-cis were evaluated, as well as retinamide synthetic retinoid on the viability of the cells AGS and NCI-N87. Cytotoxicity assays using MTT have allowed to observe the reduction of a variation in the

  20. Mucosal HSV-2 specific CD8+ T-cells represent containment of prior viral shedding rather than a correlate of future protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Tisdell Schiffer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is largely unknown why certain infected hosts shed Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2 more frequently and have more severe disease manifestations than others. One idea is that different density or functional capacity of tissue resident effector memory CD8+ T-cells between infected persons may explain phenotypic variability. To generate hypotheses for contrasting shedding patterns in different infected hosts, a spatial mathematical model was employed to evaluate the effects of variability in tissue resident effector memory CD8+ T-cell response, and HSV-2 replication and spread, on viral shedding rate. Model simulations suggest that high levels of CD8+ T-cells in the mucosa do not necessarily indicate a protective phenotype but rather an effective response to recent shedding. Moreover, higher CD8+ T-cell expansion rate and lower viral replication rate, which correlate with better short-term control, may have only a minor impact on long term shedding rates. Breakthrough shedding occurs under all sets of model parameter assumptions, because CD8+ T-cell levels only surpass a protective threshold in a minority of genital tract mucosal micro-regions. If CD8+ T-cell levels are artificially increased using an immunotherapeutic approach, better control of shedding is predicted to occur for at least a year. These results highlight the complex co-dependent relationship between HSV-2 and tissue resident CD8+ lymphocytes during the course of natural infection.

  1. IFN-γ alters the expression of diverse immunity related genes in a cell culture model designed to represent maturing neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ellison

    Full Text Available The cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ is approved as a drug to treat chronic granulomatous disease (CGD and osteopetrosis and is also used in hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes. Patients with CGD have defects in proteins of the NOX2 NADPH oxidase system. This leads to reduced production of microbicidal ROS by PMNs and recurrent life threatening infections. The goal of this study was to better understand how IFN-γ might support phagocyte function in these diseases, and to obtain information that might expand potential uses for IFN-γ. Neutrophils mature in the bone marrow and then enter the blood where they quickly undergo apoptotic cell death with a half-life of only 5-10 hours. Therefore we reasoned that IFN-γ might exert its effects on neutrophils via prolonged exposure to cells undergoing maturation in the marrow rather than by its brief exposure to short-lived circulating cells. To explore this possibility we made use of PLB-985 cells, a myeloblast-like myeloid cell line that can be differentiated into a mature, neutrophil-like state by treatment with various agents including DMSO. In initial studies we investigated transcription and protein expression in PLB-985 cells undergoing maturation in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We observed IFN-γ induced differences in expression of genes known to be involved in classical aspects of neutrophil function (transmigration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, killing and pattern recognition as well as genes involved in apoptosis and other mechanisms that regulating neutrophil number. We also observed differences for genes involved in the major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI and MHCII systems whose involvement in neutrophil function is controversial and not well defined. Finally, we observed significant changes in expression of genes encoding guanylate binding proteins (Gbps that are known to have roles in immunity but which have not as yet been linked to neutrophil function. We propose that changes in the

  2. List of Accredited Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VA accreditation is for the sole purpose of providing representation services to claimants before VA and does not imply that a representative is qualified to provide...

  3. Angels and demons: Th17 cells represent a beneficial response, while neutrophil IL-17 is associated with poor prognosis in squamous cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Punt (Simone); G.J. Fleuren (G.); E. Kritikou (Eva); E.W. Lubberts (Erik); J.B. Trimbos; E.S. Jordanova (Ekaterina S.); A. Gorter (Arko)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe role of interleukin (IL)-17 in cancer remains controversial. In view of the growing interest in the targeting of IL-17, knowing its cellular sources and clinical implications is crucial. In the present study, we unraveled the phenotype of IL-17 expressing cells in cervical cancer

  4. Concordant bone marrow involvement of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents a distinct clinical and biological entity in the era of immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Deng, Lijuan; Xu-Monette, Z Y

    2018-01-01

    In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the clinical and biological significance of concordant and discordant bone marrow (BM) involvement have not been well investigated. We evaluated 712 de novo DLBCL patients with front-line rituximab-containing treatment, including 263 patients with positiv...

  5. Construction and validation of a long-channel membrane test cell for representative monitoring of performance and characterization of fouling over the length of spiral-wound membrane modules

    KAUST Repository

    Siebdrath, Nadine; Ding, Wei; Pietsch, Elisabeth; Kruithof, Joop; Uhl, Wolfgang; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    A long-channel membrane test cell (LCMTC) with the same length as full-scale elements was developed to simulate performance and fouling in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral-wound membrane modules (SWMs). The transparent LCMTC enabled simultaneous monitoring of SWM performance indicators: feed channel pressure drop, permeate flux and salt passage. Both permeate flux and salt passage were monitored over five sections of the test cell and were related to the amount and composition of the accumulated foulant in these five sections, illustrating the unique features of the test cell. Validation experiments at various feed pressures showed the same flow profile and the same hydraulic behaviour as SWMs used in practice, confirming the representativeness and suitability of the test cell to study SWM operation and fouling. The importance to apply feed spacers matching the flow channel height in test cell systems was demonstrated. Biofouling studies showed that the dosage of a biodegradable substrate to the feed of the LCMTC accelerated the gradual decrease of membrane performance and the accumulation of biomass on the spacer and membrane sheets. The strongest permeate flux decline and the largest amount of accumulated biomass was found in the first 18 cm of the test cell. The LCMTC showed to be suitable to study the impact of biofilm development and biofouling control strategies under representative conditions for full-scale membrane elements.

  6. Construction and validation of a long-channel membrane test cell for representative monitoring of performance and characterization of fouling over the length of spiral-wound membrane modules

    KAUST Repository

    Siebdrath, Nadine

    2017-12-03

    A long-channel membrane test cell (LCMTC) with the same length as full-scale elements was developed to simulate performance and fouling in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral-wound membrane modules (SWMs). The transparent LCMTC enabled simultaneous monitoring of SWM performance indicators: feed channel pressure drop, permeate flux and salt passage. Both permeate flux and salt passage were monitored over five sections of the test cell and were related to the amount and composition of the accumulated foulant in these five sections, illustrating the unique features of the test cell. Validation experiments at various feed pressures showed the same flow profile and the same hydraulic behaviour as SWMs used in practice, confirming the representativeness and suitability of the test cell to study SWM operation and fouling. The importance to apply feed spacers matching the flow channel height in test cell systems was demonstrated. Biofouling studies showed that the dosage of a biodegradable substrate to the feed of the LCMTC accelerated the gradual decrease of membrane performance and the accumulation of biomass on the spacer and membrane sheets. The strongest permeate flux decline and the largest amount of accumulated biomass was found in the first 18 cm of the test cell. The LCMTC showed to be suitable to study the impact of biofilm development and biofouling control strategies under representative conditions for full-scale membrane elements.

  7. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  8. Allergen-induced activation of natural killer cells represents an early-life immune response in the development of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Matthew C; Whalen, Elizabeth; Togias, Alkis; O'Connor, George T; Bacharier, Leonard B; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Kattan, Meyer; Wood, Robert A; Presnell, Scott; LeBeau, Petra; Jaffee, Katy; Visness, Cynthia M; Busse, William W; Gern, James E

    2018-03-05

    Childhood asthma in inner-city populations is a major public health burden, and understanding early-life immune mechanisms that promote asthma onset is key to disease prevention. Children with asthma demonstrate a high prevalence of aeroallergen sensitization and T H 2-type inflammation; however, the early-life immune events that lead to T H 2 skewing and disease development are unknown. We sought to use RNA sequencing of PBMCs collected at age 2 years to determine networks of immune responses that occur in children with allergy and asthma. In an inner-city birth cohort with high asthma risk, we compared gene expression using RNA sequencing in PBMCs collected at age 2 years between children with 2 or more aeroallergen sensitizations, including dust mite, cockroach, or both, by age 3 years and asthma by age 7 years (cases) and matched control subjects who did not have any aeroallergen sensitization or asthma by age 7 years. PBMCs from the cases showed higher levels of expression of natural killer (NK) cell-related genes. After cockroach or dust mite allergen but not tetanus antigen stimulation, PBMCs from the cases compared with the control subjects showed differential expression of 244 genes. This gene set included upregulation of a densely interconnected NK cell-like gene network reflecting a pattern of cell activation and induction of inflammatory signaling molecules, including the key T H 2-type cytokines IL9, IL13, and CCL17, as well as a dendritic cell-like gene network, including upregulation of CD1 lipid antigen presentation molecules. The NK cell-like response was reproducible in an independent group of children with later-onset allergic sensitization and asthma and was found to be specific to only those children with both aeroallergen sensitization and asthma. These findings provide important mechanistic insight into an early-life immune pathway involved in T H 2 polarization, leading to the development of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2018 American

  9. Human T-cell recognition of synthetic peptides representing conserved and variant sequences from the merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Hviid, L; Dodoo, D

    1997-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a malaria vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. We analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response to synthetic peptides corresponding to conserved and variant regions of the FCQ-27 allelic form of MSP2 in Ghanaian individuals....... The findings are encouraging for the development of a vaccine based on these T-epitope containing regions of MSP2, as the peptides were broadly recognized suggesting that they can bind to diverse HLA alleles and also because they include conserved MSP2 sequences. Immunisation with a vaccine construct...

  10. The Heat Resistance of Microbial Cells Represented by D Values Can be Estimated by the Transition Temperature and the Coefficient of Linear Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a method for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms by measuring the transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion of a cell changes. Here, we performed heat resistance measurements using a scanning probe microscope with a nano thermal analysis system. The microorganisms studied included six strains of the genus Bacillus or related genera, one strain each of the thermophilic obligate anaerobic bacterial genera Thermoanaerobacter and Moorella, two strains of heat-resistant mold, two strains of non-sporulating bacteria, and one strain of yeast. Both vegetative cells and spores were evaluated. The transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion due to heating changed from a positive value to a negative value correlated strongly with the heat resistance of the microorganism as estimated from the D value. The microorganisms with greater heat resistance exhibited higher transition temperatures. There was also a strong negative correlation between the coefficient of linear expansion and heat resistance in bacteria and yeast, such that microorganisms with greater heat resistance showed lower coefficients of linear expansion. These findings suggest that our method could be useful for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms.

  11. Representing and Coping with Early Twentieth-Century Chongqing: “Guide Songs” as Maps, Memory Cells, and Means of Creating Cultural Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Chabrowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chongqing’s “guide songs” form an interesting subgenre among the broad category of haozi 號子 (workers’ songs. These early twentieth-century songs were a form of rhythm-based oral narrative describing Chongqing’s urban spaces, river docks, and harbors. Each toponym mentioned in the lyrics was followed by a depiction of the characteristic associations, whether visible or symbolic, of the place. This article aims to analyze the verbal images of Chongqing presented in these songs in order to understand how the city was remembered, reproduced, and represented. The article deconstructs representations of the city produced by the lower classes, mainly by Sichuan boatmen, and links culturally meaningful images of urban spaces with the historical experiences of work, religion, and historical-mythical memory. It also points to the functions that oral narratives had in the urban environment of early twentieth-century Chongqing. Rhythmic and easy to remember, the songs provided ready-to-use guides and repositories of knowledge useful to anyone living or working there. A cross between utilitarian resource books and cultural representations, they shaped modes of thinking and visualizations of urban spaces and Chongqing. Finally, this article responds to the need to employ popular culture in our thinking about Chinese cities and the multiplicity of meanings they were given in pre-Communist times.

  12. Real-time monitoring of non-viable airborne particles correlates with airborne colonies and represents an acceptable surrogate for daily assessment of cell-processing cleanroom performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Jay S; Koch, Eileen; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2012-10-01

    Airborne particulate monitoring is mandated as a component of good manufacturing practice. We present a procedure developed to monitor and interpret airborne particulates in an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 7 cleanroom used for the cell processing of Section 351 and Section 361 products. We collected paired viable and non-viable airborne particle data over a period of 1 year in locations chosen to provide a range of air quality. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine empirically the relationship between non-viable and viable airborne particle counts. Viable and non-viable particles were well-correlated (r(2) = 0.78), with outlier observations at the low end of the scale (non-viable particles without detectable airborne colonies). ROC analysis predicted viable counts ≥ 0.5/feet(3) (a limit set by the United States Pharmacopeia) at an action limit of ≥ 32 000 particles (≥ 0.5 µ)/feet(3), with 95.6% sensitivity and 50% specificity. This limit was exceeded 2.6 times during 18 months of retrospective daily cleanroom data (an expected false alarm rate of 1.3 times/year). After implementing this action limit, we were alerted in real time to an air-handling failure undetected by our hospital facilities management. A rational action limit for non-viable particles was determined based on the correlation with airborne colonies. Reaching or exceeding the action limit of 32 000 non-viable particles/feet(3) triggers suspension of cleanroom cell-processing activities, deep cleaning, investigation of air handling, and a deviation management process. Our full procedure for particle monitoring is available as an online supplement.

  13. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  14. OSMOSE experiment representativity studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliberti, G.; Klann, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-10

    The OSMOSE program aims at improving the neutronic predictions of advanced nuclear fuels through measurements in the MINERVE facility at the CEA-Cadarache (France) on samples containing the following separated actinides: Th-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243, Cm-244 and Cm-245. The goal of the experimental measurements is to produce a database of reactivity-worth measurements in different neutron spectra for the separated heavy nuclides. This database can then be used as a benchmark for integral reactivity-worth measurements to verify and validate reactor analysis codes and integral cross-section values for the isotopes tested. In particular, the OSMOSE experimental program will produce very accurate sample reactivity-worth measurements for a series of actinides in various spectra, from very thermalized to very fast. The objective of the analytical program is to make use of the experimental data to establish deficiencies in the basic nuclear data libraries, identify their origins, and provide guidelines for nuclear data improvements in coordination with international programs. To achieve the proposed goals, seven different neutron spectra can be created in the MINERVE facility: UO2 dissolved in water (representative of over-moderated LWR systems), UO2 matrix in water (representative of LWRs), a mixed oxide fuel matrix, two thermal spectra containing large epithermal components (representative of under-moderated reactors), a moderated fast spectrum (representative of fast reactors which have some slowing down in moderators such as lead-bismuth or sodium), and a very hard spectrum (representative of fast reactors with little moderation from reactor coolant). The different spectra are achieved by changing the experimental lattice within the MINERVE reactor. The experimental lattice is the replaceable central part of MINERVE, which establishes the spectrum at the sample location. This configuration

  15. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  16. Impact of age and comorbidity on treatment of non-small cell lung cancer recurrence following complete resection: A nationally representative cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melisa L.; McMurry, Timothy L.; Stukenborg, George J.; Francescatti, Amanda B.; Amato-Martz, Carla; Schumacher, Jessica R.; Chang, George J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.; Winchester, David P.; McKellar, Daniel P.; Walter, Louise C.; Kozower, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Older patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are less likely to receive guideline-recommended treatment at diagnosis, independent of comorbidity. However, national data on treatment of postoperative recurrence are limited. We evaluated the associations between age, comorbidity, and other patient factors and treatment of postoperative NSCLC recurrence in a national cohort. Materials and Methods We randomly selected 9,001 patients with surgically resected stage I-III NSCLC in 2006–2007 from the National Cancer Data Base. Patients were followed for 5 years or until first NSCLC recurrence, new primary cancer, or death, whichever came first. Perioperative comorbidities, first recurrence, treatment of recurrence, and survival were abstracted from medical records and merged with existing registry data. Factors associated with active treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery) versus supportive care only were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Median age at initial diagnosis was 67; 69.7% had ≥1 comorbidity. At 5-year follow-up, 12.3% developed locoregional and 21.5% developed distant recurrence. Among patients with locoregional recurrence, 79.5% received active treatment. Older patients (OR 0.49 for age ≥75 compared with <55; 95% CI 0.27–0.88) and those with substance abuse (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.23–0.81) were less likely to receive active treatment. Women (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43–0.89) and patients with symptomatic recurrence (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.47–0.99) were also less likely to receive active treatment. Among those with distant recurrence, 77.3% received active treatment. Older patients (OR 0.42 for age ≥75 compared with <55; 95% CI 0.26–0.68) and those with any documented comorbidities (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.38–0.89) were less likely to receive active treatment. Conclusion Older patients independent of comorbidity, patients with substance abuse, and women were less likely to receive active treatment for

  17. Representing AIDS in Comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, M K

    2018-02-01

    Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Representative of the municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellnou Barcelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The decommissioning of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant was a big challenge for the host community of Vandellos i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant and the close-by region. Closing down of the facility resulted in a rise of unemployment and a decrease of municipal income. The public was concerned with three issues: safety, transparency and information about the decommissioning, and economic future. Therefore, from the very beginning, municipal governments entered into negotiations with ENRESA on socio-economic benefits, including local employment in dismantling activities, and other types of financial and non-financial compensation. The ADE business association, i.e. a network of business organisations was created that guided the allotment of work to local firms. To satisfy public demand, local municipalities focused on the triad of safety, dialogue and local development, considered the three 'pillars of trust'. A Municipal Monitoring Commission was created, made up of representatives of affected municipalities, the regional government, the ADE business association, trade unions, the local university, the NPP management and ENRESA to monitor the dismantling process and regularly inform the local public. Items that were handled by this Commission included: - Work process monitoring. - Workers. - Materials Control. - Conventional and radioactive or contaminated waste management. - Emanation waste management (liquid and gas) - Safety (training and accidents). - Surveillance (radiological and environmental: dust, noise). - Effects. - Fulfillment of agreed conditions. A number of communication tools and channels were used, e.g., public information meetings, an information centre, the municipal magazine, the municipal radio station, and meetings with representatives of the local press. Particularly innovative was the idea to ask academics from the University of Tarragona to help with 'translating' technical information into language that could

  19. Odontogenic keratocysts in the Basal Cell Nevus (Gorlin-Goltz) Syndrome associated with paresthesia of the lower jaw: Case report, retrospective analysis of a representative Czech cohort and recommendations for the early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Milan; Kripnerova, Tereza; Nemcikova, Michaela; Krepelová, Anna; Puchmajerova, Alena; Malikova, Marcela; Havlovicová, Markéta; Cadova, Jana; Kodet, Roman; Macek, Milan; Dostalova, Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    Identification of early presenting signs of the Basal Cell Nevus (BCNS; synonyme Gorlin-Goltz) syndrome, which is associated with a principal triad of multiple basal cell nevi, jaw odontogenic keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies, in stomatological and neurological practices. Proposal of multidisciplinary diagnostic algorithm comprising other medical specialists, including pathology, imaging, laboratory and molecular analyses based on the study outcomes. Case report of a male patient reporting paresthesia of their lower jaw, with right facial asymmetry (maxilla and mandible) and radiological detection of large osteolytic lesions in both jaws, including a retrospective analysis of a representative Czech cohort with BCNS from within the last decade. Clinical, imaging and laboratory analyses were carried out at a national tertiary centre. A multidisciplinary clinical approach followed by surgical management lead to the identification of odontogenic cysts, which were substantiated by histological examination. DNA sequencing of the PTCH1 gene detected a c.2929dupT resulting in p. Tyr977Leufs*16 pathogenic variant. This finding confirmed the clinical and laboraoty diagnosis of BCNS. Parental DNA analysis showed that this causal genetic defect arose de novo. Surgical management and orthodontic therapy were successful. Analysis of the reported case and retrospective data analysis provided evidence that paresthesia of the lower jaw should be considered as one of the early presenting signs of this rare disorder in stomatological and neurological practice. Obtained results allowed us to formulate recommendations for diagnostic practice in stomatology and neurology.

  20. MicroRNAs are suitable for assessment as biomarkers from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and miR-24 represents an appropriate reference microRNA for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, Rachel Emily; Sieniawski, Michal; Proctor, Stephen John; Menon, Geetha; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia

    2013-03-01

    Tissue biopsy specimens in the form of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) represent a valuable resource for biomarker identification and validation. However, to date, they remain an underused asset due to uncertainty regarding RNA extraction and the reliability of downstream techniques, including quantitative RT-PCR. Recently, much interest has emerged in the study of microRNAs; small single-stranded RNAs with a role in transcriptional regulation, that are thought to be well preserved in FFPET. In this study, we show that microRNA expression is comparable between FFPET and matched fresh-frozen samples (miR-17-5p: p=0.01, miR-92: p=0.003), and demonstrate that no significant deterioration in expression occurs over prolonged FFPET storage (p=0.06). Furthermore, microRNA expression is equivalent dependant on RNA extraction method (p<0.001) or DNAse treatment of total RNA (p<0.001). Finally, we validate miR-24 as a suitable reference microRNA for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) FFPET studies.

  1. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and....../or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect...

  2. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...

  3. Does representative wind information exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Representativity requirements are discussed for various wind data users. It is shown that most applications can be dealt with by using data from wind stations when these are made to conform with WMO specifications. Methods to achieve this WMO normalization are reviewed, giving minimum specifications

  4. OAS :: Member States : Permanent Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez

  5. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    p. 4i). This hy- pothesis was studied in several contexts, including intuitive statisti- cal judgments and the prediction of professional choice (Kahneman... professional choice . Here, X is representative of M either because it is frequently associated with M (e.g., high fever commonly accompanies pneumonia

  6. WIPP facility representative program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) facility representative (FR) program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It provides the following information: (1) FR and support organization authorities and responsibilities; (2) FR program requirements; and (3) FR training and qualification requirements

  7. Burnout in Customer Service Representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and aim of this research was to (1 identify the factors that contributes towards job burnout in sales service representative (2 What are the relationships of these factors (3 To empirically test the relationships of the determinants relating to burnout in customer service representatives. Based on literature survey six different variables related to burnout were identified. The variables were (1 Emotional exhaustion.(2 Reduced personal accomplishment.(3 Job induced tension.(4 Job satisfaction.(5 Workload (6 Job satisfaction.Each of the variables contained 3 sub-variables. Five different hypotheses were developed and tested through techniques such as Z-test, F-test and regression analysis. The questionnaire administered for the study contained 15 questions including personal data. The subject was Moblink company customers sales service representative in Karachi.The valid sample size was 98 drawn through multi-cluster technique. Techniques such as measure of dispersion and measure of central tendencies were used for analyzing the data. Regression, Z-test, and F-test were used for testing the developed hypothesis.According to the respondents’ opinions, the reduced personal accomplishment had a high rating with a mean of 3.75 and job induced tension has the lowest mean of 3.58. The standard deviation of respondents’ opinions was highest for dimension depersonalization and least for dimension work load. This indicates that there is a high polarization of the respondents’ opinions on the dimension depersonalization moral and least on the dimension work load.The Skew nesses for all the dimensions were in negative except the determinants emotional exhaustion and workload. This indicates that the majority of respondents’ opinions on all the dimensions were below the mean except in the case of emotional exhaustion and workload.Five hypotheses were developed and tested:a The hypothesis relating to low level of burnout in customers

  8. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  9. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  10. Microalbuminuria represents a feature of advanced renal disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The systematic screening for microalbuminuria represents the touchstone to prevent CRF in patients with diabetes mellitus. Microalbuminuria has also been demonstrated in patients with sickle cell disease. Whether this has the same ...

  11. Conspicuous Waste and Representativeness Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Shishkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the similarities between conspicuous waste and representativeness heuristic. The conspicuous waste is analyzed according to the classic Veblen’ interpretation as a strategy to increase social status through conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. In “The Theory of the Leisure Class” Veblen introduced two different types of utility – conspicuous and functional. The article focuses on the possible benefits of the analysis of conspicuous utility not only in terms of institutional economic theory, but also in terms of behavioral economics. To this end, the representativeness heuristics is considered, on the one hand, as a way to optimize the decision-making process, which allows to examine it in comparison with procedural rationality by Simon. On the other hand, it is also analyzed as cognitive bias within the Kahneman and Twersky’ approach. The article provides the analysis of the patterns in the deviations from the rational behavior strategy that could be observed in case of conspicuous waste both in modern market economies in the form of conspicuous consumption and in archaic economies in the form of gift-exchange. The article also focuses on the marketing strategies for luxury consumption’ advertisement. It highlights the impact of the symbolic capital (in Bourdieu’ interpretation on the social and symbolic payments that actors get from the act of conspicuous waste. This allows to perform a analysis of conspicuous consumption both as a rational way to get the particular kind of payments, and, at the same time, as a form of institutionalized cognitive bias.

  12. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...... most often used mass reduction method, performs appallingly?its use must be discontinued (with the singular exception for completely homogenized fine powders). Only proper mass reduction (i.e. carried out in complete compliance with all appropriate design principles, maintenance and cleaning rules) can...

  13. The balance between IL-17 and IL-22 produced by liver-infiltrating T-helper cells critically controls NASH development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolla, Simona; Alchera, Elisa; Imarisio, Chiara; Bardina, Valentina; Valente, Guido; Cappello, Paola; Mombello, Cristina; Follenzi, Antonia; Novelli, Francesco; Carini, Rita

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the evolution of steatosis towards NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and fibrosis are not completely defined. In the present study we evaluated the role of CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cells in this process. We analysed the infiltration of different subsets of CD4(+) Th cells in C57BL/6 mice fed on a MCD (methionine choline-deficient) diet, which is a model reproducing all phases of human NASH progression. There was an increase in Th17 cells at the beginning of NASH development and at the NASH-fibrosis transition, whereas levels of Th22 cells peaked between the first and the second expansion of Th17 cells. An increase in the production of IL (interleukin)-6, TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α), TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) and CCL20 (CC chemokine ligand 20) accompanied the changes in Th17/Th22 cells. Livers of IL-17(-/-) mice were protected from NASH development and characterized by an extensive infiltration of Th22 cells. In vitro, IL-17 exacerbated the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)-dependent mouse hepatocyte lipotoxicity induced by palmitate. IL-22 prevented lipotoxicity through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-mediated inhibition of JNK, but did not play a protective role in the presence of IL-17, which up-regulated the PI3K/Akt inhibitor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10). Consistently, livers of IL-17(-/-) mice fed on the MCD diet displayed decreased activation of JNK, reduced expression of PTEN and increased phosphorylation of Akt compared with livers of wild-type mice. Hepatic infiltration of Th17 cells is critical for NASH initiation and development of fibrosis in mice, and reflects an infiltration of Th22 cells. Th22 cells are protective in NASH, but only in the absence of IL-17. These data strongly support the potentiality of clinical applications of IL-17 inhibitors that can prevent NASH by both abolishing the lipotoxic action of IL-17 and allowing IL-22-mediated protection. © 2016 Authors

  14. Representing and Acquiring Geographic Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    34 " " " ’ ." .*"., -" " " " " " " " " " " ". ’ . . -’ " " " " .N ," ’ " , " " " " ’ 190 A * EL4 ~.L.. b3S 64 4. eeo-ctieA~ ’T&6I le- T@&6c. *911t41 II +~r4 a%~rf - AA Figure 94 Applying Default...34) (34 55) (55 8) *(85 => 3) ((85 84) (34 55) (55 8)) 5 -(34 => 8) ((34 55) (55 8)) * -We next cell the sketcher. as above. to find the extreme

  15. Want change? Call your representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2011-07-01

    During my tenure as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, which began in September 2010 and continues until November 2011, my time has been shared between working with the U.S. House of Representatives Natural Resource Committee Democratic staff and in the office of Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass., ranking Democrat on the committee). I appreciate getting to work with staff, fellows, and interns who inspire me, make me laugh, and know their issues cold. Much of my work on the committee is related to fish, wildlife, oceans, lands, and water issues and is directly related to my background in ecology and evolutionary biology (I studied zebra ecology and behavior in Kenya). My assignments have included asking the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) about why it has not changed the allowed usage of certain pesticides that the National Marine Fisheries Service has found to jeopardize the recovery of endangered Pacific salmon; helping to identify research needs and management options to combat the swiftly spreading and catastrophic white nose syndrome in North American bats; and inquiring as to whether a captive-ape welfare bill, if passed without amendment, could thwart development of a vaccine to stop the Ebola virus from continuing to cause mass mortality in endangered wild apes.

  16. OAS :: Authorities : Permanent Representatives to the OAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Bolivia José Luiz Machado Brazil José Luiz Machado e Costa Ambassador, Permanent Representative

  17. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  18. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.906 - Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of New Technology... Conditions § 1274.906 Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative. Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative July 2002 (a) For purposes of administration...

  20. Verification of Representative Sampling in RI waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hong Joo; Song, Byung Cheul; Sohn, Se Cheul; Song, Kyu Seok; Jee, Kwang Yong; Choi, Kwang Seop

    2009-01-01

    For evaluating the radionuclide inventories for RI wastes, representative sampling is one of the most important parts in the process of radiochemical assay. Sampling to characterized RI waste conditions typically has been based on judgment or convenience sampling of individual or groups. However, it is difficult to get a sample representatively among the numerous drums. In addition, RI waste drums might be classified into heterogeneous wastes because they have a content of cotton, glass, vinyl, gloves, etc. In order to get the representative samples, the sample to be analyzed must be collected from selected every drum. Considering the expense and time of analysis, however, the number of sample has to be minimized. In this study, RI waste drums were classified by the various conditions of the half-life, surface dose, acceptance date, waste form, generator, etc. A sample for radiochemical assay was obtained through mixing samples of each drum. The sample has to be prepared for radiochemical assay and although the sample should be reasonably uniform, it is rare that a completely homogeneous material is received. Every sample is shredded by a 1 ∼ 2 cm 2 diameter and a representative aliquot taken for the required analysis. For verification of representative sampling, classified every group is tested for evaluation of 'selection of representative drum in a group' and 'representative sampling in a drum'

  1. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of uncertain parameters. Monte Carlo simulation is readily used for practical calculations. However, an alternative approach is offered by possibility theory making use of possibility distributions such as intervals and fuzzy intervals. This approach is well suited to represent lack of knowledge or imprecision......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  2. Services Subcontract Technical Representative (STR) handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, D.H.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidance to Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Subcontract Representatives in their assignments. It is the intention of this handbook to ensure that subcontract work is performed in accordance with the subcontract documents

  3. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  4. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms

  5. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  6. Crisis Relocation Workshops for Transportation Industry Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    executive, two National Guard members, one Air Force transporta- _a ,tion representative, two Red Cross representatives, one school bus z coordinators...manaaers, local transitCD operator, and miiltary busingA authorityA Local Governa-ient 2 Fire chief, assistantI Air Force 3 Liaison Support D CPA :z...to attend the workshop. Majur trans- portation problems anticipated during crisis relocation include: 1. Transportation of carless residents; 2. The

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-72 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-72 Designation of new technology representative... of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative (JUL 1997) (a) For purposes of administration of the clause of this contract entitled “New Technology” or “Patent Rights—Retention by the...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.58 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of new technology... of new technology representative and patent representative. Designation of New Technology... of this grant entitled “New Technology,” the following named representatives are hereby designated by...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg designated...

  10. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  11. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  12. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Policy innovation is a key aspect of public innovation, which has been largely overlooked. Political leadership, competition and collaboration are key drivers of policy innovation. It is a barrier in traditional models of representative democracy that they provide weak conditions for collaboration....... Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...... and collaboration in political life....

  13. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.

    2000-11-01

    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  14. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  15. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  16. Strong imploding shock, the representative curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1981-01-01

    The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)

  17. 28 CFR 104.4 - Personal Representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition, as provided in § 104.21(b)(5) of this part, the Special Master may publish a list of individuals... Special Master may, in his discretion, determine that the Personal Representative for purposes of... administrator of the decedent's estate. In the event no will exists, the Special Master may, in his discretion...

  18. Adjustment Following Disability: Representative Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1984-01-01

    Examined adjustment following physical disability using the representative case method with two persons with quadriplegia. Results highlighted the importance of previously established coping styles as well as the role of the environment in adjustment. Willingness to mourn aided in later growth. (JAC)

  19. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  20. Climate Change and the Representative Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The artifice of an infinitely-lived representative agent is commonly invoked to balance the present costs and future benefits of climate stabilization policies. Since actual economies are populated by overlapping generations of finite-lived persons, this approach begs important questions of welfare aggregation. This paper compares the results of representative agent and overlapping generations models that are numerically calibrated based on standard assumptions regarding climate economy interactions. Under two social choice rules - Pareto efficiency and classical utilitarianism - the models generate closely similar simulation results. In the absence of policies to redistribute income between present and future generations, efficient rates of carbon dioxide emissions abatement rise from 15 to 20% between the years 2000 and 2105. Under classical utilitarianism, in contrast, optimal control rates rise from 48 to 79% this same period. 23 refs.

  1. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  2. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  3. Using semantics for representing experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Olga; García, Alexander; López, Federico; Corcho, Oscar

    2017-11-13

    An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory. There is the need for a unified framework with respect to the syntactic structure and the semantics for representing experimental protocols. In this paper we present "SMART Protocols ontology", an ontology for representing experimental protocols. Our ontology represents the protocol as a workflow with domain specific knowledge embedded within a document. We also present the S ample I nstrument R eagent O bjective (SIRO) model, which represents the minimal common information shared across experimental protocols. SIRO was conceived in the same realm as the Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) model that supports search, retrieval and classification purposes in evidence based medicine. We evaluate our approach against a set of competency questions modeled as SPARQL queries and processed against a set of published and unpublished protocols modeled with the SP Ontology and the SIRO model. Our approach makes it possible to answer queries such as Which protocols use tumor tissue as a sample. Improving reporting structures for experimental protocols requires collective efforts from authors, peer reviewers, editors and funding bodies. The SP Ontology is a contribution towards this goal. We build upon previous experiences and bringing together the view of researchers managing protocols in their laboratory work. Website: https://smartprotocols.github.io/ .

  4. The local brand representative in reseller networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Suraksha; Malhotra, Naresh K; Czinkota, Michael; Foroudi, Pantea

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of local individuals who represent a brand to its resellers by first conceptualizing these characteristics by employing complexity theory and then testing the conceptualization. This research revealed that four characteristics ‘native’, ‘entrepreneurial’, ‘advisor’, and ‘compatible’ are the main ones that influence reseller brand preferences. The study finds a link between reseller brand preference and reseller brand loyalty which is useful for mana...

  5. Citizen's initiatives and the representative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberger, B.; Kempf, U.

    1978-01-01

    This anthology containing contributions of 19 sociologists is a systematic investigation of the locality, the possibilities and the effective radius of citizen's initiatives under the functional conditions of the parliamentary - representative system. The intellectual and political surroundings, the sociologic context, the institutional, political and judical overall conditions as well as the consequences of this movement for the whole political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  6. Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Saxon E

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of Project Activity ORD-FY04-012, 'Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative', was to provide the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with expertise on past, present, and future climate scenarios and to support the technical elements of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) climate program. The Climate Technical Support Representative was to explain, defend, and interpret the YMP climate program to the various audiences during Site Recommendation and License Application. This technical support representative was to support DOE management in the preparation and review of documents, and to participate in comment response for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, the Site Recommendation Hearings, the NRC Sufficiency Comments, and other forums as designated by DOE management. Because the activity was terminated 12 months early and experience a 27% reduction in budget, it was not possible to complete all components of the tasks as originally envisioned. Activities not completed include the qualification of climate datasets and the production of a qualified technical report. The following final report is an unqualified summary of the activities that were completed given the reduced time and funding

  7. Diversity and representativeness: two key factors

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    In the past few weeks many of you have filled out the questionnaire for preparing the upcoming Five-yearly review. Similarly, Staff Association members have elected their delegates to the Staff Council for the coming two years. Once again we would like to thank all those who have taken the time and effort to make their voice heard on these two occasions. Elections to the Staff Council Below we publish the new Staff Council with its forty delegates who will represent in 2014 and 2015 all CERN staff in the discussions with Management and Member States in the various bodies and committees. Therefore it is important that the Staff Council represents as far as possible the diversity of the CERN population. By construction, the election process with its electoral colleges and two-step voting procedure guarantees that all Departments, even the small ones, and the various staff categories are correctly represented. Figure 1 shows the participation rate in the elections. The average rate is just above 52 %, with ...

  8. Invite your representative to work. Change the world. Here's how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J

    2018-02-15

    Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory. Salud Carbajal peered through a microscope and met real scientists. Before his visit, he did not know what a postdoctoral fellow was, much less what stem cells look like. When he left he knew our names, how much money we bring into his district, and how important National Institutes of Health funding and international mobility are to our enterprise. Although I live in the United States, this approach should also apply to other democratic countries. If each of us converts one representative into a science champion, we can change the world. © 2018 Montell. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J; Basurko, O.C; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C; Mesbahi, E.

    water, the shape, size and number of ballast tanks and the heterogeneous distribution of organisms within tanks. These factors hinder efforts to obtain samples that truly represent the total ballast water onboard a vessel. A known cell density...

  10. Exploring Representativeness and Informativeness for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    How can we find a general way to choose the most suitable samples for training a classifier? Even with very limited prior information? Active learning, which can be regarded as an iterative optimization procedure, plays a key role to construct a refined training set to improve the classification performance in a variety of applications, such as text analysis, image recognition, social network modeling, etc. Although combining representativeness and informativeness of samples has been proven promising for active sampling, state-of-the-art methods perform well under certain data structures. Then can we find a way to fuse the two active sampling criteria without any assumption on data? This paper proposes a general active learning framework that effectively fuses the two criteria. Inspired by a two-sample discrepancy problem, triple measures are elaborately designed to guarantee that the query samples not only possess the representativeness of the unlabeled data but also reveal the diversity of the labeled data. Any appropriate similarity measure can be employed to construct the triple measures. Meanwhile, an uncertain measure is leveraged to generate the informativeness criterion, which can be carried out in different ways. Rooted in this framework, a practical active learning algorithm is proposed, which exploits a radial basis function together with the estimated probabilities to construct the triple measures and a modified best-versus-second-best strategy to construct the uncertain measure, respectively. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm consistently achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art active learning algorithms.

  11. Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Apri

    Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.

  12. [Sensitivity of four representative angular cephalometric measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xü, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    2000-05-01

    Examined the sensitivity of four representative cephalometric angles to the detection of different vectors of craniofacial growth. Landmark coordinate data from a stratified random sample of 48 adolescent subjects were used to calculate conventional values for changes between the pretreatment and end-of-treatment lateral cephalograms. By modifying the end-of-treatment coordinate values appropriately, the angular changes could be recalculated reflecting three hypothetical situations: Case 1. What if there were no downward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 2. What if there were no forward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 3. What if there were no Nasion change? These questions were asked for four representative cephalometric angles: SNA, ANB, NAPg and UI-SN. For Case 1, the associations (r) between the baseline and the modified measure for the three angles were very highly significant (P < 0.001) with r2 values no lower than 0.94! For Case 2, however, the associations were much weaker and no r value reached significance. These angular measurements are less sensitive for measuring downward landmark displacement than they are for measuring forward landmark displacement.

  13. Anthropomorphic Networks as Representatives of Global Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Yahodzinskyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been analyzed a phenomenon of global consciousness, and its cultural and historical, civilizational dimensions have been substantiated. There has been demonstrated that the concept of planetary consciousness, global thinking, noosphere was described for the first time in the philosophy of cosmism. However, in modern conditions ideas of representatives of the naturalistic philosophical direction of cosmism have not lost their heuristic potential. They can be reconsidered in a new fashion within the context of emerging anthropomorphic (human dimension networks. There has been proved that global consciousness is a component of the social and cultural potential of global information networks defining vectors to prospects of humanity progress in the 21st century. Relying on methodology of the structural and functional analysis, the author arrives at a conclusion about global networks obtaining the status of representatives of global consciousness. This is the area of networks where all relevant information is concentrated – from statistical data to scientific and technical information. Access to these data is limited by human abilities and is realized in the form of discrete requests with using heuristic algorithms of information procession. A suggestion is introduced considering the fact that modern society being a self-organized system seeks to gain stable condition. Anthropomorphic networks are means of decreasing social entropy, which is growing as a result of any kind of human intervention into social processes. Thus, for the first time a human is challenged by their intellect, ability to create, discover and control.

  14. How Are Feedbacks Represented in Land Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land systems are characterised by many feedbacks that can result in complex system behaviour. We defined feedbacks as the two-way influences between the land use system and a related system (e.g., climate, soils and markets, both of which are encompassed by the land system. Land models that include feedbacks thus probably more accurately mimic how land systems respond to, e.g., policy or climate change. However, representing feedbacks in land models is a challenge. We reviewed articles incorporating feedbacks into land models and analysed each with predefined indicators. We found that (1 most modelled feedbacks couple land use systems with transport, soil and market systems, while only a few include feedbacks between land use and social systems or climate systems; (2 equation-based land use models that follow a top-down approach prevail; and (3 feedbacks’ effects on system behaviour remain relatively unexplored. We recommend that land system modellers (1 consider feedbacks between land use systems and social systems; (2 adopt (bottom-up approaches suited to incorporating spatial heterogeneity and better representing land use decision-making; and (3 pay more attention to nonlinear system behaviour and its implications for land system management and policy.

  15. May 2013 Council of Chapter Representatives Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Council of Chapter Representatives met in conjunction with the ATS meeting in Philadelphia on May 18, 2012.Roll Call. The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Representatives from Arizona, California, DC Metro, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island were in attendance, and by telephone from Washington.Chapter Updates. Information on chapter activities and a chapter brochure. There are currently 19 active chapters. Most are having annual meetings. Advocacy. Gary Ewart from ATS Government Relations gave a presentation on Washington activities. Highlights included activities on the SGR, a number of air pollution regulations and a letter campaign advocating regulation of cigars. ATS President 2013-14-vision for the coming year. Patrician Finn gave a summary of what she hopes to accomplish over the next year. The theme of her presidency will be health equality. ATS Executive Director-update. Steve Crane gave a positive presentation on the …

  16. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  17. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  18. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  19. Using resource graphs to represent conceptual change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Wittmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce resource graphs, a representation of linked ideas used when reasoning about specific contexts in physics. Our model is consistent with previous descriptions of coordination classes and resources. It represents mesoscopic scales that are neither knowledge-in-pieces nor large-scale concepts. We use resource graphs to describe several forms of conceptual change: incremental, cascade, wholesale, and dual construction. For each, we give evidence from the physics education research literature to show examples of each form of conceptual change. Where possible, we compare our representation to models used by other researchers. Building on our representation, we analyze another form of conceptual change, differentiation, and suggest several experimental studies that would help understand the differences between reform-based curricula.

  20. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  1. Towards a representative periphytic diatom sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to acquire a representative periphytic diatom sample for river water quality monitoring has been recognised in the development of existing diatom indices, important in the development and employment of diatom monitoring tools for the Water Framework Directive. In this study, a nested design with replication is employed to investigate the magnitude of variation in diatom biomass, composition and Trophic Diatom Index at varying scales within a small chalk river. The study shows that the use of artificial substrates may not result in diatom communities that are typical of the surrounding natural substrates. Periphytic diatom biomass and composition varies between artificial and natural substrates, riffles and glides and between two stretches of the river channel. The study also highlights the existence of high variation in diatom frustule frequency and biovolume at the individual replicate scale which may have implications for the use of diatoms in routine monitoring.

  2. Suppression of IL-7-dependent Effector T-cell Expansion by Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells and PGE2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, James L; Vaes, Bart; Hull, Caroline; Sabbah, Shereen; Hayday, Thomas; Wang, Nancy S; DiPiero, Anthony; Lehman, Nicholas A; Taggart, Jen M; Carty, Fiona; English, Karen; Pinxteren, Jef; Deans, Robert; Ting, Anthony E; Tree, Timothy I M

    2015-01-01

    T-cell depletion therapy is used to prevent acute allograft rejection, treat autoimmunity and create space for bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation. The evolved response to T-cell loss is a transient increase in IL-7 that drives compensatory homeostatic proliferation (HP) of mature T cells. Paradoxically, the exaggerated form of this process that occurs following lymphodepletion expands effector T-cells, often causing loss of immunological tolerance that results in rapid graft rejection, autoimmunity, and exacerbated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). While standard immune suppression is unable to treat these pathologies, growing evidence suggests that manipulating the incipient process of HP increases allograft survival, prevents autoimmunity, and markedly reduces GVHD. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) are a clinical grade immunomodulatory cell therapy known to alter γ-chain cytokine responses in T-cells. Herein, we demonstrate that MAPC regulate HP of human T-cells, prevent the expansion of Th1, Th17, and Th22 effectors, and block the development of pathogenic allograft responses. This occurs via IL-1β-primed secretion of PGE2 and activates T-cell intrinsic regulatory mechanisms (SOCS2, GADD45A). These data provide proof-of-principle that HP of human T-cells can be targeted by cellular and molecular therapies and lays a basis for the development of novel strategies to prevent immunopathology in lymphodepleted patients. PMID:26216515

  3. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  4. Multicriteria analysis of ontologically represented information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2014-11-01

    Our current work concerns the development of a decision support system for the software selection problem. The main idea is to utilize expert knowledge to help the user in selecting the best software / method / computational resource to solve a computational problem. Obviously, this involves multicriterial decision making and the key open question is: which method to choose. The context of the work is provided by the Agents in Grid (AiG) project, where the software selection (and thus multicriterial analysis) is to be realized when all information concerning the problem, the hardware and the software is ontologically represented. Initially, we have considered the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is well suited for the hierarchical data structures (e.g., such that have been formulated in terms of ontologies). However, due to its well-known shortcomings, we have decided to extend our search for the multicriterial analysis method best suited for the problem in question. In this paper we report results of our search, which involved: (i) TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution), (ii) PROMETHEE, and (iii) GRIP (Generalized Regression with Intensities of Preference). We also briefly argue why other methods have not been considered as valuable candidates.

  5. What does self rated mental health represent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Levinson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859].Results. The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions. The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health

  6. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  7. Musculoskeletal symptoms in pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Katherine; Gyi, Diane; Haslam, Cheryl

    2010-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a leading cause of work-related ill health. Existing literature indicates that pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) report a high prevalence of MSDs, possibly exacerbated by the nature of work (prolonged driving and manual handling). In addition, they experience difficulty in accessing occupational health services. To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among PSRs in order to assist their occupational health management through raising risk awareness. A self-completed questionnaire distributed to 205 PSRs within a UK pharmaceutical company was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors, work tasks undertaken and company car use. To assist understanding of work tasks and organizational factors, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of 12 key personnel. The questionnaire response rate was 68%. PSRs reported high mileage and 100% reported working from the car in a typical day. Forty-seven per cent reported both manual handling for > or = 4 h/day and 'often' or 'sometimes' working from the car. Fifty-seven per cent reported low back symptoms in the last 12 months. Interview data revealed issues relating to car choice, storage in the boot and working from the car, which should be considered when developing priorities for preventive management of MSDs. Musculoskeletal symptoms appear to be a problem for PSRs, with risk factors reported as prolonged driving, sitting in the car, working from the car and manual handling. Interventions to facilitate their occupational health management should focus on raising awareness of the risks of prolonged driving and working from the car.

  8. HOW TO REPRESENT THE GENETIC CODE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Santos-Magalhães

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of molecular genetic comprises a true revolution of far-reaching consequences for human-kind, which evolved into a specialized branch of the modern-day Biochemistry. The analysis of specicgenomic information are gaining wide-ranging interest because of their signicance to the early diag-nosis of disease, and the discovery of modern drugs. In order to take advantage of a wide assortmentof signal processing (SP algorithms, the primary step of modern genomic SP involves convertingsymbolic-DNA sequences into complex-valued signals. How to represent the genetic code? Despitebeing extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins is one of the relevant discoveries of genetics.The genetic code (GC is revisited in this work, addressing other descriptions for it, which can beworthy for genomic SP. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map buildson the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a codon. A two-dimensional-Gray genetic representationis oered as a structured map that can help interpreting DNA spectrograms or scalograms. Theseare among the powerful visual tools for genome analysis, which depends on the choice of the geneticmapping. Finally, the world-chart for the GC is investigated. Evoking the cyclic structure of thegenetic mapping, it can be folded joining the left-right borders, and the top-bottom frontiers. As aresult, the GC can be drawn on the surface of a sphere resembling a world-map. Eight parallels oflatitude are required (four in each hemisphere as well as four meridians of longitude associated tofour corresponding anti-meridians. The tropic circles have 11.25o, 33.75o, 56.25o, and 78.5o (Northand South. Starting from an arbitrary Greenwich meridian, the meridians of longitude can be plottedat 22.5o, 67.5o, 112.5o, and 157.5o (East and West. Each triplet is assigned to a single point on thesurface that we named Nirenberg-Kohamas Earth. Despite being valuable, usual representations forthe GC can be

  9. Linear elastic properties derivation from microstructures representative of transport parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh Tan; Bonnet, Guy; Tuan Luu, Hoang; Perrot, Camille

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that three-dimensional periodic unit cells (3D PUC) representative of transport parameters involved in the description of long wavelength acoustic wave propagation and dissipation through real foam samples may also be used as a standpoint to estimate their macroscopic linear elastic properties. Application of the model yields quantitative agreement between numerical homogenization results, available literature data, and experiments. Key contributions of this work include recognizing the importance of membranes and properties of the base material for the physics of elasticity. The results of this paper demonstrate that a 3D PUC may be used to understand and predict not only the sound absorbing properties of porous materials but also their transmission loss, which is critical for sound insulation problems.

  10. Application to Representative Structures. Other Representative Structures: Mutsu-Ogawara, Niigata East and West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1999-01-01

    Reliability analyses are performed for three Japanese vertical wall breakwaters in this chapter. Only the geotechnical failure modes described in chapter 3 are investigated. For none of the breakwaters detailed data are available for the wave climate and for the soil conditions. Therefore represe...

  11. The Korarchaeota: Archaeal orphans representing an ancestral lineage of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, James G.; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Barry, Kerrie; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Hedlund, Brian; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Graham, David; Keller, Martin; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Stetter, Karl O.

    2007-05-01

    Based on conserved cellular properties, all life on Earth can be grouped into different phyla which belong to the primary domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. However, tracing back their evolutionary relationships has been impeded by horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Within the Archaea, the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota exhibit a profound divergence. In order to elucidate the evolution of these two major kingdoms, representatives of more deeply diverged lineages would be required. Based on their environmental small subunit ribosomal (ss RNA) sequences, the Korarchaeota had been originally suggested to have an ancestral relationship to all known Archaea although this assessment has been refuted. Here we describe the cultivation and initial characterization of the first member of the Korarchaeota, highly unusual, ultrathin filamentous cells about 0.16 {micro}m in diameter. A complete genome sequence obtained from enrichment cultures revealed an unprecedented combination of signature genes which were thought to be characteristic of either the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, or Eukarya. Cell division appears to be mediated through a FtsZ-dependent mechanism which is highly conserved throughout the Bacteria and Euryarchaeota. An rpb8 subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified which is absent from other Archaea and has been described as a eukaryotic signature gene. In addition, the representative organism possesses a ribosome structure typical for members of the Crenarchaeota. Based on its gene complement, this lineage likely diverged near the separation of the two major kingdoms of Archaea. Further investigations of these unique organisms may shed additional light onto the evolution of extant life.

  12. CD4+ T cells are required to contain early extrathoracic TB dissemination and sustain multi-effector functions of CD8+ T and CD3− lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuyu; Huang, Dan; Chen, Crystal Y.; Halliday, Lisa; Wang, Richard C.; Chen, Zheng W.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that CD4+ T cells can act as “innate-like” cells to contain very-early M. tuberculosis (Mtb) dissemination and function as master helpers to sustain multiple effector functions of CD8+ T cells and CD3-negative lymphocytes during development of adaptive immunity against primary tuberculosis(TB) has not been demonstrated. We showed that pulmonary Mtb infection of CD4-depleted macaques surprisingly led to very-early extrathoracic Mtb dissemination, whereas CD4 deficiency clearly resulted in rapid TB progression. CD4 depletion during Mtb infection revealed the ability of CD8+ T cells to compensate and rapidly differentiate to Th17-like/Th1-like, and cytotoxic-like effectors, but these effector functions were subsequently unsustainable due to CD4 deficiency. While CD3-negative non-T lymphocytes in presence of CD4+ T cells developed predominant Th22-like and NK-like (perforin production) responses to Mtb infection, CD4 depletion abrogated these Th22-/NK-like effector functions and favored IL-17 production by CD3-negative lymphocytes. CD4-depleted macaques exhibited no or few pulmonary T effector cells constitutively producing IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-17, IL-22, and perforin at the endpoint of more severe TB, but presented pulmonary IL-4+ T effectors. TB granulomas in CD4-depleted macaques contained fewer IL-22+ and perforin+ cells despite presence of IL-17+ and IL-4+ cells. These results implicate previously-unknown “innate-like” ability of CD4+ T cells to contain extrathoracic Mtb dissemination at very early stage. Data also suggest that CD4+ T cells are required to sustain multiple effector functions of CD8+ T cells and CD3-negative lymphocytes and to prevent rapid TB progression during Mtb infection of nonhuman primates. PMID:24489088

  13. Registration Appointment and Services for Representatives Management Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A new internet/intranet application that collects all representative information and establishes the relationship between the claimant and the representative. Allow...

  14. Targeting Nucleophosmin 1 Represents a Rational Strategy for Radiation Sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhar, Konjeti R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Benamar, Mouadh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Sasi, Soumya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hann, Stephen R. [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Geng, Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Balusu, Ramesh [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas (United States); Abbas, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Freeman, Michael L., E-mail: michael.freeman@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that small molecule targeting of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) represents a rational approach for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: Wilde-type and NPM1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were used to determine whether radiosensitization produced by the small molecule YTR107 was NPM1 dependent. The stress response to ionizing radiation was assessed by quantifying pNPM1, γH2AX, and Rad51 foci, neutral comet tail moment, and colony formation. NPM1 levels in a human-derived non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue microarray (TMA) were determined by immunohistochemistry. YTR107-mediated radiosensitization was assessed in NSCLC cell lines and xenografts. Results: Use of NPM1-null MEFs demonstrated that NPM1 is critical for DNA double- strand break (DSB) repair, that loss of NPM1 increases radiation sensitivity, and that YTR107-mediated radiosensitization is NPM1 dependent. YTR107 was shown to inhibit NPM1 oligomerization and impair formation of pNPM1 irradiation-induced foci that colocalized with γH2AX foci. Analysis of the TMA demonstrated that NPM1 is overexpressed in subsets of NSCLC. YTR107 inhibited DNA DSB repair and radiosensitized NSCLC lines and xenografts. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that YTR107-mediated targeting of NPM1 impairs DNA DSB repair, an event that increases radiation sensitivity.

  15. Targeting Nucleophosmin 1 Represents a Rational Strategy for Radiation Sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, Konjeti R.; Benamar, Mouadh; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Sasi, Soumya; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Hann, Stephen R.; Geng, Ling; Balusu, Ramesh; Abbas, Tarek; Freeman, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that small molecule targeting of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) represents a rational approach for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: Wilde-type and NPM1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were used to determine whether radiosensitization produced by the small molecule YTR107 was NPM1 dependent. The stress response to ionizing radiation was assessed by quantifying pNPM1, γH2AX, and Rad51 foci, neutral comet tail moment, and colony formation. NPM1 levels in a human-derived non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue microarray (TMA) were determined by immunohistochemistry. YTR107-mediated radiosensitization was assessed in NSCLC cell lines and xenografts. Results: Use of NPM1-null MEFs demonstrated that NPM1 is critical for DNA double- strand break (DSB) repair, that loss of NPM1 increases radiation sensitivity, and that YTR107-mediated radiosensitization is NPM1 dependent. YTR107 was shown to inhibit NPM1 oligomerization and impair formation of pNPM1 irradiation-induced foci that colocalized with γH2AX foci. Analysis of the TMA demonstrated that NPM1 is overexpressed in subsets of NSCLC. YTR107 inhibited DNA DSB repair and radiosensitized NSCLC lines and xenografts. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that YTR107-mediated targeting of NPM1 impairs DNA DSB repair, an event that increases radiation sensitivity

  16. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  17. 20 CFR 266.7 - Accountability of a representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability of a representative payee. 266.7 Section 266.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT REPRESENTATIVE PAYMENT § 266.7 Accountability of a representative payee. (a) A representative...

  18. CCR6(+) Th cell populations distinguish ACPA positive from ACPA negative rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulissen, Sandra M J; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Davelaar, Nadine; Vroman, Heleen; Hazes, Johanna M W; de Jong, Pascal H P; Lubberts, Erik

    2015-11-30

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be separated into two major subpopulations based on the absence or presence of serum anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). The more severe disease course in ACPA(+) RA and differences in treatment outcome between these subpopulations suggest that ACPA(+) and ACPA(-) RA are different disease subsets. The identification of T-helper (Th) cells specifically recognizing citrullinated peptides, combined with the strong association between HLA-DRB1 and ACPA positivity, point toward a pathogenic role of Th cells in ACPA(+) RA. In this context we recently identified a potential pathogenic role for CCR6(+) Th cells in RA. Therefore, we examined whether Th cell population distributions differ by ACPA status. We performed a nested matched case-control study including 27 ACPA(+) and 27 ACPA(-) treatment-naive early RA patients matched for disease activity score in 44 joints, presence of rheumatoid factor, sex, age, duration of complaints and presence of erosions. CD4(+)CD45RO(+) (memory) Th cell distribution profiles from these patients were generated based on differential chemokine receptor expression and related with disease duration. ACPA status was not related to differences in total CD4(+) T cell or memory Th cell proportions. However, ACPA(+) patients had significantly higher proportions of Th cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR6 and CXCR3. Similar proportions of CCR4(+) and CCR10(+) Th cells were found. Within the CCR6(+) cell population, four Th subpopulations were distinguished based on differential chemokine receptor expression: Th17 (CCR4(+)CCR10(-)), Th17.1 (CXCR3(+)), Th22 (CCR4(+)CCR10(+)) and CCR4/CXCR3 double-positive (DP) cells. In particular, higher proportions of Th22 (p = 0.02), Th17.1 (p = 0.03) and CCR4/CXCR3 DP (p = 0.01) cells were present in ACPA(+) patients. In contrast, ACPA status was not associated with differences in Th1 (CCR6(-)CXCR3(+); p = 0.90), Th2 (CCR6(-)CCR4(+); p = 0.27) and T

  19. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  20. Building Representative-Based Data Aggregation Tree in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation is an essential operation to reduce energy consumption in large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs. A compromised node may forge an aggregation result and mislead base station into trusting a false reading. Efficient and secure aggregation scheme is critical in WSN applications due to the stringent resource constraints. In this paper, we propose a method to build up the representative-based aggregation tree in the WSNs such that the sensing data are aggregated along the route from the leaf cell to the root of the tree. In the cinema of large-scale and high-density sensor nodes, representative-based aggregation tree can reduce the data transmission overhead greatly by directed aggregation and cell-by-cell communications. It also provides security services including the integrity, freshness, and authentication, via detection mechanism in the cells.

  1. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-03-15

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  2. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Golubovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.; intracellular markers (FOXP3; epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic; and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  3. Statistics On Title II Direct Payments To Claimant Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Every person has the right to be represented by an attorney or other representative while pursuing a claim or other rights. This dataset contains data around Title...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1520 - Fee for a representative's services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1520 Fee for a representative's services. (a... you or your representative from contacting us in person or in writing. (B) There was a death or...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1720 - Fee for a representative's services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties § 404.1720 Fee for a representative's services. (a... you or your representative from contacting us in person or in writing. (B) There was a death or...

  6. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative is selected shall include a procedure for the owners and operators of the source and affected units at the source to authorize the alternate designated representative to act in lieu...) In the event of a conflict, any action taken by the designated representative shall take precedence...

  7. 22 CFR 23.4 - Representative value in exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representative value in exchange. 23.4 Section 23.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.4 Representative value in exchange. Representative value in exchange for the collection of a fee means foreign...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4111 - Alternate Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Hg designated representative... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4111 Alternate Hg designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation under § 60.4113...

  9. Stem cell biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

  10. Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV/SIV Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spandan V. Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, new populations of innate lymphocytes have been described in mice and primates that are critical for mucosal homeostasis, microbial regulation, and immune defense. Generally conserved from mice to humans, innate lymphoid cells (ILC have been divided primarily into three subpopulations based on phenotypic and functional repertoires: ILC1 bear similarities to natural killer cells; ILC2 have overlapping functions with TH2 cells; and ILC3 that share many functions with TH17/TH22 cells. ILC are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces and are possibly one of the earliest responders during viral infections besides being involved in the homeostasis of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and maintenance of gut epithelial barrier integrity. Burgeoning evidence also suggests that there is an early and sustained abrogation of ILC function and numbers during HIV and pathogenic SIV infections, most notably ILC3 in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and dysregulation of the local immune system. A better understanding of the direct or indirect mechanisms of loss and dysfunction will be critical to immunotherapeutics aimed at restoring these cells. Herein, we review the current literature on ILC with a particular emphasis on ILC3 and their role(s in mucosal immunology and the significance of disrupting the ILC niche during HIV and SIV infections.

  11. Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV/SIV Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Spandan V; Manickam, Cordelia; Ram, Daniel R; Reeves, R Keith

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several years, new populations of innate lymphocytes have been described in mice and primates that are critical for mucosal homeostasis, microbial regulation, and immune defense. Generally conserved from mice to humans, innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have been divided primarily into three subpopulations based on phenotypic and functional repertoires: ILC1 bear similarities to natural killer cells; ILC2 have overlapping functions with TH2 cells; and ILC3 that share many functions with TH17/TH22 cells. ILC are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces and are possibly one of the earliest responders during viral infections besides being involved in the homeostasis of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and maintenance of gut epithelial barrier integrity. Burgeoning evidence also suggests that there is an early and sustained abrogation of ILC function and numbers during HIV and pathogenic SIV infections, most notably ILC3 in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and dysregulation of the local immune system. A better understanding of the direct or indirect mechanisms of loss and dysfunction will be critical to immunotherapeutics aimed at restoring these cells. Herein, we review the current literature on ILC with a particular emphasis on ILC3 and their role(s) in mucosal immunology and the significance of disrupting the ILC niche during HIV and SIV infections.

  12. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    ’ potential identities. It shows that the students preferred STEM representatives resembled themselves in some aspects (primarily social and health aspects) and fit their perceptions of a typical person working in STEM in other aspects (knowledge seeking, hard-working etc.). At least two different...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...

  13. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggitt, P R; Jaykus, L A

    2000-12-01

    Although viral foodborne disease is a significant problem, foods are rarely tested for viral contamination, and when done, testing is limited to shellfish commodities. In this work, we report a method to extract and detect human enteric viruses from alternative food commodities using an elution-concentration approach followed by detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-gram lettuce or hamburger samples were artificially inoculated with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), hepatitis A virus (HAV), or the Norwalk virus and processed by the sequential steps of homogenization, filtration, Freon extraction (hamburger), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. To reduce volumes further and remove RT-PCR inhibitors, a secondary PEG precipitation was necessary, resulting in an overall 10- to 20-fold sample size reduction from 50 g to 3 to 5 ml. Virus recoveries in secondary PEG concentrates ranged from 10 to 70% for PV1 and 2 to 4% for HAV as evaluated by mammalian cell culture infectivity assay. Total RNA from PEG concentrates was extracted to a small volume (30 to 40 microl) and subjected to RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA sequences. Detection limit studies indicated that viral RNA was consistently detected by RT-PCR at initial inoculum levels > or =102 PFU/50-g food sample for PV1 and > or =10(3) PFU/50-g food sample for HAV. In similar studies with the Norwalk virus, detection at inoculum levels > or =1.5 X 10(3) PCR-amplifiable units/50-g sample for both food products was possible. All RT-PCR amplicons were confirmed by subsequent Southern hybridization. The procedure reported represents progress toward the development of methods to detect human enteric viral contamination in foods other than shellfish.

  14. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM edu-cations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  15. Assessing Use of Cognitive Heuristic Representativeness in Clinical Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as ca...

  16. Determination of representative CANDU feeder dimensions for engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.; Muzumdar, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a logic for selection of representative channel groups and a methodology for determination of representative CANDU feeder dimensions and the pressure drops between inlet/outlet header and fuel channel in the primary loop. A code, MEDOC, was developed based on this logic and methodology and helps perform a calculation of representative feeder dimensions for a selected channel group on the basis of feeder geometry data (fluid volume, mass flow rate, loss factor) and given property data (pressure, quality, density) at inlet/outlet header. The representative feeder dimensions calculated based on this methodology will be useful for the engineering simulator for the CANDU type reactor. (author)

  17. DFS Associates: Simple ways to become a good manufacturer's representative

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra K. Pharre

    2018-01-01

    Being one of the trusted manufacturer’s representative firms for RF and microwave products and services, DFS Associates wanted to impart a few insights to consider in becoming a good manufacturer’s representative with this article. Firstly, you need to understand what it does if you’re interested on becoming one where it could be an individual or a small business that can represent a manufacturer’s products and services effectively to the marketplace. You can choose between representing one m...

  18. Workshop on Innovations in Scholarly Communication - OAI4, CERN - Geneva, Switzerland, 20th-22nd October 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The workshop is a forum that is more for activists rather than theorists or administrators. It brings together people who are at the forefront of scholarly communication change. The workshop is intended as a forum for technological issues associated with scholarly communication and will take place every second year in alternation with the Nordic Conference on Scholarly Communication .LIBER, CERN, SPARC and SPARC Europe, OSI, and the OAi announce the 4th OAi workshop.

  19. Representing Young Children with Disabilities in Classroom Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C.; LaRoe, Joyce; Phillipsen, Leslie; Kumar, Poonam

    2000-01-01

    The "Inventory of Disability Representation" was administered to 92 teachers representing kindergarten, community child care, or preschool settings. Low scores across settings indicated that classrooms typically do not have materials that represent or depict children with diverse abilities. Reasons cited by teachers are noted as are benefits…

  20. 19 CFR 146.2 - Port director as Board representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.2 Port director as Board representative. The appropriate port director shall be in charge of the zone as the representative of the Board. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11, 1986, as amended by T.D. 99-27, 64 FR 13676, Mar. 22, 1999] ...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4114 - Objections concerning Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections concerning Hg designated... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4114 Objections concerning Hg designated representative. (a) Once a complete certificate of...

  2. 37 CFR 10.84 - Representing a client zealously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representing a client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.84 Representing a client zealously. (a) A practitioner shall not intentionally: (1) Fail to seek the lawful objectives of a client through reasonably available...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 261 - Representative Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative Sampling Methods I...—Representative Sampling Methods The methods and equipment used for sampling waste materials will vary with the form and consistency of the waste materials to be sampled. Samples collected using the sampling...

  4. 27 CFR 71.31 - Attorneys and other representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... representatives. 71.31 Section 71.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... applicant may be represented by an attorney, certified public accountant, or other person enrolled to practice before the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau under 31 CFR part 8—Practice before the...

  5. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  6. Survival of microorganisms representing the three Domains of life inside the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesco, Canganella; Giovanna, Bianconi

    2007-09-01

    The present work was mainly focused to study the response of representative non pathogenic microorganisms to the environment inside the space vehicle at different mission stages (10, 56, and 226 days) within the frame of the Italian ENEIDE mission, from Feb to Oct 2005. Microorganisms were chosen according to their phylogenetic position and cell structures; they were representatives of the three taxonomic domains and belonged to different ecosystems (food, soil, intestinal tract, plants, deep-sea). They were the followings: Thermococcus guaymasensis (Domain Archaea); Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Domain Eucarya); Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Rhizobium tropici (Domain Bacteria). As main environmental parameters we were interested in: a) space radiations; b) microgravity; c) temperature. The response of microorganisms was investigated in terms of survival rates, cell structure modifications, and genomic damages. The survival of cells was affected by both radiation doses and intrinsec cell features. As expected, only samples kept on the ISS for 226 days showed significant levels of mortality. Asfar as regard the effect on cell structures, these samples showed also remarkable morphological changes, particularly for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The data collected allowed to get new insights into the biological traits of microorganisms exposed to space environment during the flight on a spacecraft. Moreover, the result obtained may be important for the improvement of human conditions aboard space vehicles (nutraceuticals for astronauts and disinfections of ISS modules) and also for the potential development of closed systems devoted to vegetable productions and organic recycling.

  7. Searches over graphs representing geospatial-temporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Randolph; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying objects of interest in remote sensing images by searching over geospatial-temporal graph representations are described herein. Graphs are constructed by representing objects in remote sensing images as nodes, and connecting nodes with undirected edges representing either distance or adjacency relationships between objects and directed edges representing changes in time. Geospatial-temporal graph searches are made computationally efficient by taking advantage of characteristics of geospatial-temporal data in remote sensing images through the application of various graph search techniques.

  8. Life forms of succulent representatives of the family Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gaidarzhy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life forms of succulent’s representatives of the family Asclepiadaceae of the tropical and subtropical plants from the collection of O.V. Fomin Botanical garden according to author classification are characterized.

  9. The value of political parties to representative democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölln, Ann-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Political parties play a major role in democratic processes around the world. Recent empirical research suggests that parties are increasingly less important to citizens. Simultaneously, classic and contemporary theories of representative democracy specifically still minimally incorporate accounts

  10. Developing Representative Michigan Truck Configurations for Bridge Load Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study is to recommend a rating process representative of Michigan load effects for legal and extended permit vehicles. For this study, high fidelity WIM data from 20 Michigan sites were analyzed. Using vehicle weight and configu...

  11. UN: new Permanent Representative of Monaco presents credentials

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Michel Borghini, the new Permanent Representative of Monaco to the United Nations, presented his credentials to Secretary-General Kofi Annan today. He worked as a researcher at CERN from 1965 to 1969" (1/3 page).

  12. On the Representativeness of Norming Samples for Aptitude Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, William

    2003-01-01

    ...). We regressed aptitude test scores on demographics and concluded that: ̂ Norming sample for aptitude tests must be representative of the target population with respect to age, race"ethnicity, gender, respondent's education, and mother's...

  13. Sample representativeness verification of the FADN CZ farm business sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample representativeness verification is one of the key stages of statistical work. After having joined the European Union the Czech Republic joined also the Farm Accountancy Data Network system of the Union. This is a sample of bodies and companies doing business in agriculture. Detailed production and economic data on the results of farming business are collected from that sample annually and results for the entire population of the country´s farms are then estimated and assessed. It is important hence, that the sample be representative. Representativeness is to be assessed as to the number of farms included in the survey and also as to the degree of accordance of the measures and indices as related to the population. The paper deals with the special statistical techniques and methods of the FADN CZ sample representativeness verification including the necessary sample size statement procedure. The Czech farm population data have been obtained from the Czech Statistical Office data bank.

  14. Arab Knowledge Society: Who Represents the Arab World Online ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Knowledge Society: Who Represents the Arab World Online? ... Wikipedia's culture of openness, extensive reuse and near ubiquity makes it an ideal place to ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  15. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. © FASEB.

  16. Elections for staff representatives – Join, commit and vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Council is a statutory body representing collectively in the area of employment conditions all CERN staff members (MPE and MPA), as well as the pensioners, former Cernois. The Staff Council is the supreme representative body of the CERN staff and pensioners, which defines the main lines of the policy of the Staff Association. The Staff Council is composed of staff representatives (45 seats to represent staff members, and 5 for representing fellows and associate members), as well as delegates for pensioners (seven positions), designated by GAC-EPA. Every two years, the Council is renewed through elections. Concerning the 45 delegates representing staff members, all departments have a least two seats allocated, one in career paths AA to D and one in career paths E to H. This guarantees a fair distribution of seats among the various organizational units and career paths. The table below, shows the exact number of delegates per department and career paths. Staff members or fellows who want to participa...

  17. Towards Representative Metallurgical Sampling and Gold Recovery Testwork Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Dominy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available When developing a process flowsheet, the risks in achieving positive financial outcomes are minimised by ensuring representative metallurgical samples and high quality testwork. The quality and type of samples used are as important as the testwork itself. The key characteristic required of any set of samples is that they represent a given domain and quantify its variability. There are those who think that stating a sample(s is representative makes it representative without justification. There is a need to consider both (1 in-situ and (2 testwork sub-sample representativity. Early ore/waste characterisation and domain definition are required, so that sampling and testwork protocols can be designed to suit the style of mineralisation in question. The Theory of Sampling (TOS provides an insight into the causes and magnitude of errors that may occur during the sampling of particulate materials (e.g., broken rock and is wholly applicable to metallurgical sampling. Quality assurance/quality control (QAQC is critical throughout all programmes. Metallurgical sampling and testwork should be fully integrated into geometallurgical studies. Traditional metallurgical testwork is critical for plant design and is an inherent part of geometallurgy. In a geometallurgical study, multiple spatially distributed small-scale tests are used as proxies for process parameters. These will be validated against traditional testwork results. This paper focusses on sampling and testwork for gold recovery determination. It aims to provide the reader with the background to move towards the design, implementation and reporting of representative and fit-for-purpose sampling and testwork programmes. While the paper does not intend to provide a definitive commentary, it critically assesses the hard-rock sampling methods used and their optimal collection and preparation. The need for representative sampling and quality testwork to avoid financial and intangible losses is

  18. Selection of Representative Models for Decision Analysis Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Luis A. A.; Coelho, Guilherme P.; Santos, Antonio Alberto S.; Schiozer, Denis J.

    2016-03-01

    The decision-making process in oil fields includes a step of risk analysis associated with the uncertainties present in the variables of the problem. Such uncertainties lead to hundreds, even thousands, of possible scenarios that are supposed to be analyzed so an effective production strategy can be selected. Given this high number of scenarios, a technique to reduce this set to a smaller, feasible subset of representative scenarios is imperative. The selected scenarios must be representative of the original set and also free of optimistic and pessimistic bias. This paper is devoted to propose an assisted methodology to identify representative models in oil fields. To do so, first a mathematical function was developed to model the representativeness of a subset of models with respect to the full set that characterizes the problem. Then, an optimization tool was implemented to identify the representative models of any problem, considering not only the cross-plots of the main output variables, but also the risk curves and the probability distribution of the attribute-levels of the problem. The proposed technique was applied to two benchmark cases and the results, evaluated by experts in the field, indicate that the obtained solutions are richer than those identified by previously adopted manual approaches. The program bytecode is available under request.

  19. Assessing the use of cognitive heuristic representativeness in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L; Crowley, Rebecca S; Crowley, Rebecca

    2008-11-06

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors.

  20. Assessing Use of Cognitive Heuristic Representativeness in Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Velma L.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a pilot study to investigate use of the cognitive heuristic Representativeness in clinical reasoning. We tested a set of tasks and assessments to determine whether subjects used the heuristics in reasoning, to obtain initial frequencies of heuristic use and related cognitive errors, and to collect cognitive process data using think-aloud techniques. The study investigates two aspects of the Representativeness heuristic - judging by perceived frequency and representativeness as causal beliefs. Results show that subjects apply both aspects of the heuristic during reasoning, and make errors related to misapplication of these heuristics. Subjects in this study rarely used base rates, showed significant variability in their recall of base rates, demonstrated limited ability to use provided base rates, and favored causal data in diagnosis. We conclude that the tasks and assessments we have developed provide a suitable test-bed to study the cognitive processes underlying heuristic errors. PMID:18999140

  1. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  2. Interlab study on nanotoxicology of representative graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Martinez, Diego S. T.; Justo, Giselle Z.; de Lima, Renata; Lúcia de Castro, Vera; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A.; Barbieri, Edison; Durán, Marcela; Melo, Patricia S.; Alves, Oswaldo L.; Fávaro, Wagner J.

    2015-05-01

    The graphene sample GO:Single-layer graphene oxide, purity 99%, thickness 0.7-1.2 nm (AFM); ∼300-800nm X&Y dimensions is the standard size embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3), human keratinocytes (HaCaT), colorectal cancer cells (Caco-2/HCT 116), Lewis lung cancer cells (3LL), acute myeloid leukemia cells (KG-1, Jurkat, Kasumi-1) and chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562, Lucena) and no significant toxicity was found after exposition to 0.1-100 μg/mL for 24 and 48 h. Breast cancer cells, MCF-7, showed a 20% reduction on cell viability at 24 and 48 h. No cytotoxicity were found in lymphocytes, Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and human macrophage cell line (U937) at 0.1-50 μg/mL, but 30-50% survival inhibition was observed at 100 μg/mL. A dose-dependent increase in apoptosis was observed in some cells (Kasumi-1, Jurkatand K562 cells). In the case of CHO and 3T3 cells, greater levels of necrosis with increasing concentrations of GO (>50 μg/mL) were observed. Genotoxic study using the Comet assay showed slight DNA damage in lymphocytes at all concentrations tested, while more significant effects was observed in CHO cells. Econanotoxicity was carried out by lethality assays in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, d in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra, Daphania amd in Shrimp with no signs of toxicity at concentrations varying from 0.1-100 μg/mL of GO. However, death and disintegration of Hydra was observed after exposition to 100 μg/mL for 72 h. In in vivo studies, no changes in biochemical parameters of Fischer 344 rats were observed after the i.p. administration of GO. Some black agglomerates were found in the intraperitoneal cavity of rats injected with GO. However, in Fisher 344 rats-bearing prostate tumors, treatment with GO (up to 100 μg/mL) negatively affected the hepatic parameters, whilst in the renal ones, an improvement was observed. Studies are in progress to understand the mechanisms involved in the uptake of GO by RES. GO appears as a potential non

  3. Enterprise Systems Implementations: Organizational Influence Processes for Corporate User Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Nordheim, Stig

    2008-01-01

    -depth, interpretive study from the oil industry, where we analyze a case of innovative integration of an ECM system with collaboration technologies. The data collection has been longitudinal. The data analysis has been performed through the perspective of organizational influence processes. The main finding concerns...... an organizational role as corporate user representative to deal with the scale and complexities of implementation. A single person was particularly influential in the role. At the outset a user representative had to perform upward influence processes from a lower formal position. This is impeding...

  4. Representing and reasoning about program in situation calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Ming-yi; Wu, Mao-nian; Xie, Gang

    2011-12-01

    Situation calculus is an expressive tool for modeling dynamical system in artificial intelligence, changes in a dynamical world is represented naturally by the notions of action, situation and fluent in situation calculus. Program can be viewed as a discrete dynamical system, so it is possible to model program with situation calculus. To model program written in a smaller core programming language CL, notion of fluent is expanded for representing value of expression. Together with some functions returning concerned objects from expressions, a basic action theory of CL programming is constructed. Under such a theory, some properties of program, such as correctness and termination can be reasoned about.

  5. A geometric language for representing structure in polyphonic music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, Deutsch and Feroe proposed a formal language for representing melodic pitch structure that employed the powerful concept of hierarchically-related pitch alphabets. However, neither rhythmic structure nor pitch structure in polyphonic music can be adequately represented using this language....... A new language is proposed here that incorporates certain features of Deutsch and Feroe’s model but extends and generalises it to allow for the representation of both rhythm and pitch structure in polyphonic music. The new language adopts a geometric approach in which a passage of polyphonic music...

  6. Data mining a small molecule drug screening representative subset from NIH PubChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2008-03-01

    PubChem is a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiatives. It is a compound repository created to facilitate information exchange and data sharing among the NIH Roadmap-funded Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN) and the scientific community. However, PubChem has more than 10 million records of compound information. It will be challenging to conduct a drug screening of the whole database of millions of compounds. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop a data mining cheminformatics approach in order to construct a representative and structure-diverse sublibrary from the large PubChem database. In this study, a new chemical diverse representative subset, rePubChem, was selected by whole-molecule chemistry-space matrix calculation using the cell-based partition algorithm. The representative subset was generated and was then subjected to evaluations by compound property analyses based on 1D and 2D molecular descriptors. The new subset was also examined and assessed for self-similarity analysis based on 2D molecular fingerprints in comparing with the source compound library. The new subset has a much smaller library size (540K compounds) with minimum similarity and redundancy without loss of the structural diversity and basic molecular properties of its parent library (5.3 million compounds). The new representative subset library generated could be a valuable structure-diverse compound resource for in silico virtual screening and in vitro HTS drug screening. In addition, the established subset generation method of using the combined cell-based chemistry-space partition metrics with pairwised 2D fingerprint-based similarity search approaches will also be important to a broad scientific community interested in acquiring structurally diverse compounds for efficient drug screening, building representative virtual combinatorial chemistry libraries for syntheses, and data mining large compound databases like the PubChem library in general.

  7. Representing User Navigation in XML Retrieval with Structural Summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, M. S.; Consens, Mariano P.; Larsen, Birger

    This poster presents a novel way to represent user navigation in XML retrieval using collection statistics from XML summaries. Currently, developing user navigation models in XML retrieval is costly and the models are specific to collected user assessments. We address this problem by proposing...

  8. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  9. On the representativeness of behavior observation samples in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H; Miller, Sarah J; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred students for 4 consecutive school days between 9:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m. using duration recording in consecutive 10-min sessions. We then culled 10-min, 20-min, 30-min, and 60-min observations from the complete record and compared these observations to the true daily mean to assess their accuracy (i.e., how well individual observations represented the daily occurrence of target behaviors). The results indicated that when behavior occurred with low variability, the majority of brief observations were representative of the overall levels; however, when behavior occurred with greater variability, even 60-min observations did not accurately capture the true levels of behavior. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Hospitals - Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations. This study will, in particular, focus on their representational quality as well as on their role in collective

  11. Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Catering sector - Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the contract catering sector in the Netherlands. In order to determine their relative importance in the

  12. 'To Think Representatively': Arendt on Judgment and the Imagination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the standpoint of the spectator, I go on to examine their most distinctive features, in particular, the link between judgment, the imagination, and the ability to think 'representatively'. I also examine the philosophical sources of Arendt's theory of judgment, namely, Kant's theory of aesthetic judgment and its criteria of validity.

  13. Cephalopods represented by beaks in the stomach of a sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 3 000 cephalopod beaks taken from the stomach of a sperm whale stranded at Paekakariki, North Island, New Zealand, were identified to species and measured; estimates were made of the masses and standard lengths of the cephalopods represented. In all, 24 species of cephalopod in 13 families were ...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3211-3 - Employee representative supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative supplemental tax. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employee...

  15. Understanding and Representing Changing Work Structures and Practices through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work, Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices. An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

  16. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  17. Re-Presenting Self: Reading Some Van Kalker Studio Photographs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The photographic implement, from the earliest days of its invention in Europe, in 1839, has been used to document events considered as real. However, notions of 'reality' could be ambiguous as objects or sceneries intended to be photographed are sometimes constructed to represent an imagined stereotypical reality.

  18. A Balanced and Representative Corpus: The Effects of Strict Corpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretically the Northern Sotho language is made up of almost 30 dialects while practically it is not so, because the standard language was formed from very few of its dialects. As a result, even today the language has no corpus which is balanced or representative owing to the fact that almost all of the available corpora ...

  19. Quantitative radiomic profiling of glioblastoma represents transcriptomic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Junhyung; Ryu, Gyuha; You, Hye-Jin; Sung, Joon Kyung; Han, Yong Hee; Shin, Hye-Mi; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Sung-Tae; Park, Chul-Kee; Choi, Seung Hong; Choi, Jeong Won; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2018-01-19

    Quantitative imaging biomarkers have increasingly emerged in the field of research utilizing available imaging modalities. We aimed to identify good surrogate radiomic features that can represent genetic changes of tumors, thereby establishing noninvasive means for predicting treatment outcome. From May 2012 to June 2014, we retrospectively identified 65 patients with treatment-naïve glioblastoma with available clinical information from the Samsung Medical Center data registry. Preoperative MR imaging data were obtained for all 65 patients with primary glioblastoma. A total of 82 imaging features including first-order statistics, volume, and size features, were semi-automatically extracted from structural and physiologic images such as apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion images. Using commercially available software, NordicICE, we performed quantitative imaging analysis and collected the dataset composed of radiophenotypic parameters. Unsupervised clustering methods revealed that the radiophenotypic dataset was composed of three clusters. Each cluster represented a distinct molecular classification of glioblastoma; classical type, proneural and neural types, and mesenchymal type. These clusters also reflected differential clinical outcomes. We found that extracted imaging signatures does not represent copy number variation and somatic mutation. Quantitative radiomic features provide a potential evidence to predict molecular phenotype and treatment outcome. Radiomic profiles represents transcriptomic phenotypes more well.

  20. Crime’s face: Imagining and representing kleptomania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, W.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Dumas is regarded as one of the most important international painters of this time. In this article, an analysis is made of what her painting The Kleptomaniac (2005) and, in particular, what its title represents. Drawing upon art history, I begin by looking at the original Portrait of a

  1. The occipital place area represents the local elements of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Frederik S; Julian, Joshua B; Kubilius, Jonas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Dilks, Daniel D

    2016-05-15

    Neuroimaging studies have identified three scene-selective regions in human cortex: parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA). However, precisely what scene information each region represents is not clear, especially for the least studied, more posterior OPA. Here we hypothesized that OPA represents local elements of scenes within two independent, yet complementary scene descriptors: spatial boundary (i.e., the layout of external surfaces) and scene content (e.g., internal objects). If OPA processes the local elements of spatial boundary information, then it should respond to these local elements (e.g., walls) themselves, regardless of their spatial arrangement. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded similarly to images of intact rooms and these same rooms in which the surfaces were fractured and rearranged, disrupting the spatial boundary. Next, if OPA represents the local elements of scene content information, then it should respond more when more such local elements (e.g., furniture) are present. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded more to multiple than single pieces of furniture. Taken together, these findings reveal that OPA analyzes local scene elements - both in spatial boundary and scene content representation - while PPA and RSC represent global scene properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 19400 - Registry for Attorneys and Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... digits of his or her Social Security number. See 68 FR 75162. EOIR notes that online security standards... are only accredited to appear before the Department of Homeland Security. See id. \\3\\ As part of the... accredited representative registers, he or she will create a unique UserID and password for online access to...

  3. Professional Human Service Occupation Biases Represented in General Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Johnson, Erica J.; Wikler, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    We examined the coverage given by General Psychology textbooks, representing 8 major commercial publishers, regarding the professions of psychology, counseling, marriage & family therapy, and social workers. Of the 24 textbooks assessed, we found substantial bias favoring the coverage of psychology. While 25% of the texts mentioned social workers,…

  4. Under-Representation in Nationally Representative Secondary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Karen; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the use of secondary data sets. Many such data sets purport to be nationally representative. Secondary data sets include research commissioned by the National Center for Education Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control, and other public entities. Research increasingly utilizes these secondary data in…

  5. Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Michels, Ank

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected within the scope of a Dutch internet panel survey (LISS) in 2011, this study tracks public support for direct, stealth and representative democracy according to educational level. Our findings indicate that, in terms of overall support for each specific type of democracy, lower

  6. Communication received from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the communication received by the Director General from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil to the Agency to inform him about the official inauguration on 9 December 1992 of the headquarters of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) in Rio de Janeiro

  7. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supply a given water demand. The DOE must project the concentration of radionuclides released from the... Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Ground Water Protection Standards § 197.31 What is a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from...

  8. 32 CFR 705.14 - Embarkation of media representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Embarkation of media representatives. 705.14 Section 705.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES... to avoid any interpretation of such review as “censorship” or interference with freedom of the press...

  9. 40 CFR 73.33 - Authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized account representative. 73.33 Section 73.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.33 Authorized account...

  10. Depression and Suicidality among Bisexual Youth: A Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Gloppen, Kari M.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2018-01-01

    To address gaps in the literature on bisexual youth, we used the first nationally representative sample of high school students from the United States to determine profiles of behaviors related to depressive symptoms, a suicide attempt, and a medically-serious attempt. We examined the data from 922 bisexual students in grades 9-12 who completed…

  11. Identifying and representing elements of local contexts in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to represent local context in a 3D visualisa- tionfor rural elders in Namibia we have foundmajor dierences in thecon- ceptualizationof this context between external and local partners in the co-creation process. Through the evaluation of a mobile context capture tool we found a clea...

  12. Markov LIMID processes for representing and solving renewal problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Nilsson, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    to model a Markov Limid Process, where each TemLimid represents a macro action. Algorithms are presented to find optimal plans for a sequence of such macro actions. Use of algorithms is illustrated based on an extended version of an example from pig production originally used to introduce the Limid concept...

  13. Can Democracy Represent Children? Toward a Politics of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John

    2012-01-01

    Children and youth under 18 have made significant strides in recent years toward fuller inclusion in democratic processes. These strides, however, rarely rise to the level of direct political representation, whether in changing policies, making laws, or voting. This article argues that democracies will be able to represent children only by…

  14. The role of a representative reinsurer in optimal reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.; Tan, K.S.; Zhuang, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a one-period optimal reinsurance design model with nn reinsurers and an insurer. For very general preferences of the insurer and that all reinsurers use a distortion premium principle, we establish the existence of a representative reinsurer and this in turn facilitates

  15. Acquiring, Representing, and Evaluating a Competence Model of Diagnostic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    precursor to an illness that later manifests itself by abdominal pains . Thus, the physician is not just matching a set of symptoms to a disease, he is...that a young person might get. and think of anemia in general. There are two ways to look at it. You start out with an adequate number of red cells and...excessive blood loss then you question, are people producing blood adequately? You can have some serious derangement in productions such as sickle cell

  16. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human

  17. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antignani, Sara; Carelli, Vinicio; Cordedda, Carlo; Zonno, Fedele; Ampollini, Marco; Carpentieri, Carmela; Venoso, Gennaro; Bochicchio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  18. Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst's understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed

  19. Chaos control applied to cardiac rhythms represented by ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borem Ferreira, Bianca; Amorim Savi, Marcelo; Souza de Paula, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The control of irregular or chaotic heartbeats is a key issue in cardiology. In this regard, chaos control techniques represent a good alternative since they suggest treatments different from those traditionally used. This paper deals with the application of the extended time-delayed feedback control method to stabilize pathological chaotic heart rhythms. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are employed to represent the cardiovascular behavior. A mathematical model is employed to generate ECG signals using three modified Van der Pol oscillators connected with time delay couplings. This model provides results that qualitatively capture the general behavior of the heart. Controlled ECG signals show the ability of the strategy either to control or to suppress the chaotic heart dynamics generating less-critical behaviors. (paper)

  20. Vulvar Skin Disorders throughout Lifetime: About Some Representative Dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Doyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present general considerations which should be kept in mind by clinicians in charge of women with vulvar diseases. Four representative vulvar dermatoses are described. Lichen simplex chronicus is a pathological condition related to chemical and mechanical irritant agents. Detrimental effects of these irritants, in the presence of other dermatoses, have to be considered when therapeutic responses are unsatisfactory. Lichen sclerosus is the most common vulvar dermatosis in elderly. However, it should be kept in mind that it may be diagnosed at any age. Lichen planus, in spite of sharing a similar range of etiological factors with lichen sclerosus, is a very distinct entity. Finally, Paget’s disease, although rare, is also described especially because of the challenge it represents both clinically and therapeutically.

  1. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bollini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  2. Antecedents and Consequences of Sales Representatives' Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    . In addition, termination competence significantly affects the value of customer portfolios. Practical implications: The findings suggest that managers should more actively consider relationship termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to increase the value of a firm......'s customer portfolio, managers must not only provide a clear definition of the types of customers the organization does not want to serve, but must also implement termination routines within the organization. Managers also need to establish incentives for sales representatives to terminate relationships......Purpose: Most firms have a number of unprofitable customer relationships that drain the firms' resources. However, firms in general and sales representatives in particular hesitate to address this problem and, ultimately, to terminate business relationships. This paper therefore aims to investigate...

  3. Patient representatives' views on patient information in clinical cancer trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    of future simplified and more attractive informed consent forms. CONCLUSIONS: The emotional and cognitive responses to written patient information reported by patient representatives provides a basis for revised formats in future trials and add to the body of information that support use of plain language......BACKGROUND: Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed...... consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives' views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. METHODS: Written patient information leaflets used in four clinical trials for colorectal cancer were used for the study. The trials included phase I...

  4. Representing climate change on public service television: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrett, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Publicly funded broadcasters with a track record in science programming would appear ideally placed to represent climate change to the lay public. Free from the constraints of vested interests and the economic imperative, public service providers are better equipped to represent the scientific, social and economic aspects of climate change than commercial media, where ownership conglomeration, corporate lobbyists and online competition have driven increasingly tabloid coverage with an emphasis on controversy. This prime-time snapshot of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's main television channel explores how the structural/rhetorical conventions of three established public service genres - a science programme, a documentary and a live public affairs talk show - impact on the representation of anthropogenic climate change. The study findings note implications for public trust, and discuss possibilities for innovation in the interests of better public understanding of climate change.

  5. Representing Scientific Communities by Data Visualization (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    These lectures present a research that investigates the representation of communities, and the way to foster their understanding by different audiences. Communities are complex multidimensional entities intrinsically difficult to represent synthetically. The way to represent them is likely to differ depending on the audience considered: governing entities trying to make decision for the future of the community, general public trying to understand the nature of the community and the members of the community themselves. This work considers two types of communities as example: a scientific organization and an arising domain: the EPFL institutional community composed of faculty members and researchers and, at a world wide level, the emerging community of Digital Humanities researchers. For both cases, the research is organised as a process going from graphical research to actual materialization as physical artefacts (posters, maps, etc.), possibly extended using digital devices (augmented reality applications). T...

  6. Crystallochemical particularities of complexes with lower representatives of dicarboiylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrova, G.I.; Kiosse, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of crystallochemical particularities of nonsubstituted dicarboxylic acids, HOOC-(CHsub(2))sub(n)-COOH, complexes with lower representatives of the given series (n=0.1). Besides published data, the studies on the structures obtained by the authors are included herein. From the structure data of salts and complexes with the lower representatives of dicarboxylic acids and oxyacids (among which there are complexes of rare earths and niobium) one can distinguish the formation of two-and polynuclear chelate complexes. Configuration of molecules of oxalic and malonic (and its derivatives) acids does not depend on the type of the compounds formed. The turn of carboxylic groups with respect to the plane of central carbon atoms in oxalate- and malonate-ions depends on their structural environment. The structures of complexes with malonic acid derivatives are not studied well although they are of great theoretical and practical interest

  7. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  8. Processes, data structures, and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA; Thomson, Judi R [Guelph, CA; Harvey, William J [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Whiting, Mark A [Richland, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Chappell, Alan R [Seattle, WA; Butner, R Scott [Richland, WA

    2011-09-20

    Processes, data structures, and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  9. Representing electrons a biographical approach to theoretical entities

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Both a history and a metahistory, Representing Electrons focuses on the development of various theoretical representations of electrons from the late 1890s to 1925 and the methodological problems associated with writing about unobservable scientific entities. Using the electron-or rather its representation-as a historical actor, Theodore Arabatzis illustrates the emergence and gradual consolidation of its representation in physics, its career throughout old quantum theory, and its appropriation and reinterpretation by chemists. As Arabatzis develops this novel biographical

  10. Obtaining Samples Representative of Contaminant Distribution in an Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, Ronald; Spane, Frank A.; Narbutovskih, Susan M.; Conley, Scott F.; Webber, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells have been assumed to provide average indications of contaminant concentrations within the aquifer over the well-screen interval. In-well flow circulation, heterogeneity in the surrounding aquifer, and the sampling method utilized, however, can significantly impact the representativeness of samples as contaminant indicators of actual conditions within the surrounding aquifer. This paper identifies the need and approaches essential for providing cost-effective and technically meaningful groundwater-monitoring results. Proper design of the well screen interval is critical. An accurate understanding of ambient (non-pumping) flow conditions within the monitoring well is essential for determining the contaminant distribution within the aquifer. The ambient in-well flow velocity, flow direction and volumetric flux rate are key to this understanding. Not only do the ambient flow conditions need to be identified for preferential flow zones, but also the probable changes that will be imposed under dynamic conditions that occur during groundwater sampling. Once the in-well flow conditions are understood, effective sampling can be conducted to obtain representative samples for specific depth zones or zones of interest. The question of sample representativeness has become an important issue as waste minimization techniques such as low flow purging and sampling are implemented to combat the increasing cost of well purging and sampling at many hazardous waste sites. Several technical approaches (e.g., well tracer techniques and flowmeter surveys) can be used to determine in-well flow conditions, and these are discussed with respect to both their usefulness and limitations. Proper fluid extraction methods using minimal, (low) volume and no purge sampling methods that are used to obtain representative samples of aquifer conditions are presented

  11. DOES FAIR VALUE REPRESENT A CONCERN FOR ROMANIAN RESEARCHERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurcau Anca-Sabina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual economic context, the fair value concept is of high interest .We tried to see if the concept is only talk about, or if research in Romania has been actually done on this theme. We have analyzed the Romanian Journals recognized by CNCSIS in order to see if this concept represents a concern for Romanian researchers. This article is a literature review of the economic Romanian journals recognize by CNCSIS in the field of “fair value”.

  12. Patient representatives? views on patient information in clinical cancer trials

    OpenAIRE

    Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives? views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. Methods Written patient information leaflet...

  13. The Parliament of Catalonia, representing a millenary people

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu Vilaseca, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Catalonia is a millenary nation, which the current Spanish constitutional order frames as an “autonomous community”. However, Catalonia as a nation was not born with the Spanish Constitution in 1978, nor has any possibility for the future been democratically barred. The most important contribution to Catalonia made by the 1978 Constitution was to make it possible for the Catalan Statute to create the Catalan Parliament, an institution that democratically represents the people of Catalonia and...

  14. Representing value judgements in the evaluation options for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1985-08-01

    In this report we show how the concept of Best Practical Environmental Option for nuclear waste management may be articulated using the methods of Multi-attribute Value Analysis. The concept of characteristic weights is introduced to represent differences of opinion on the relative importance of different factors that may reasonably be held, and show how these may be used to summarise information for decision-makers in a concise way. (author)

  15. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the...

  16. Representing health and illness: thoughts for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2011-06-01

    The on-going discussion about a new empiricism in the study of the medical humanities has lead to a misapprehension about the problems attendant to representing health and illness. The difficulty in understanding the politics of health and illness as well as the concomitant new aestheticism that has arisen concerning its representation demands a rethinking of these categories in the 21st century. Obesity can provide a model for the importance of this problem today.

  17. Representativeness of the IAGOS airborne measurements in the lower troposphere

    OpenAIRE

    Petetin, H.; Jeoffrion, M.; Sauvage, B.; Athier, G.; Blot, R.; Boulanger, D.; Clark, H.; Cousin, J.-M.; Gheusi, F.; Nedelec, P.; Steinbacher, M.; Thouret, V.

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the In Service Aircraft for Global Observing System (IAGOS) program, airborne in-situ O3 and CO measurements are performed routinely using in-service aircraft, providing vertical profiles from the surface to about 10–12 km. Due to the specificity of IAGOS measurements (measurements around busy international airports), uncertainties exist on their representativeness in the lower troposphere as they may be impacted by emissions related to airport activities and/or other air...

  18. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  19. Active Learning by Querying Informative and Representative Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Jun; Jin, Rong; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Active learning reduces the labeling cost by iteratively selecting the most valuable data to query their labels. It has attracted a lot of interests given the abundance of unlabeled data and the high cost of labeling. Most active learning approaches select either informative or representative unlabeled instances to query their labels, which could significantly limit their performance. Although several active learning algorithms were proposed to combine the two query selection criteria, they are usually ad hoc in finding unlabeled instances that are both informative and representative. We address this limitation by developing a principled approach, termed QUIRE, based on the min-max view of active learning. The proposed approach provides a systematic way for measuring and combining the informativeness and representativeness of an unlabeled instance. Further, by incorporating the correlation among labels, we extend the QUIRE approach to multi-label learning by actively querying instance-label pairs. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed QUIRE approach outperforms several state-of-the-art active learning approaches in both single-label and multi-label learning.

  20. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  1. Patch-based visual tracking with online representative sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Weihua; Yuan, Di; Li, Donghao; Liu, Bin; Xia, Daoxun; Zeng, Wu

    2017-05-01

    Occlusion is one of the most challenging problems in visual object tracking. Recently, a lot of discriminative methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. For the discriminative methods, it is difficult to select the representative samples for the target template updating. In general, the holistic bounding boxes that contain tracked results are selected as the positive samples. However, when the objects are occluded, this simple strategy easily introduces the noises into the training data set and the target template and then leads the tracker to drift away from the target seriously. To address this problem, we propose a robust patch-based visual tracker with online representative sample selection. Different from previous works, we divide the object and the candidates into several patches uniformly and propose a score function to calculate the score of each patch independently. Then, the average score is adopted to determine the optimal candidate. Finally, we utilize the non-negative least square method to find the representative samples, which are used to update the target template. The experimental results on the object tracking benchmark 2013 and on the 13 challenging sequences show that the proposed method is robust to the occlusion and achieves promising results.

  2. Using SNOMED CT to Represent Two Interface Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Brown, Steven H.; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A.; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Gregg, William M.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Design Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Measurements Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. Results The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms. PMID:18952944

  3. Using SNOMED CT to represent two interface terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Brown, Steven H; Froehling, David; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Gregg, William M; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-01-01

    Interface terminologies are designed to support interactions between humans and structured medical information. In particular, many interface terminologies have been developed for structured computer based documentation systems. Experts and policy-makers have recommended that interface terminologies be mapped to reference terminologies. The goal of the current study was to evaluate how well the reference terminology SNOMED CT could map to and represent two interface terminologies, MEDCIN and the Categorical Health Information Structured Lexicon (CHISL). Automated mappings between SNOMED CT and 500 terms from each of the two interface terminologies were evaluated by human reviewers, who also searched SNOMED CT to identify better mappings when this was judged to be necessary. Reviewers judged whether they believed the interface terms to be clinically appropriate, whether the terms were covered by SNOMED CT concepts and whether the terms' implied semantic structure could be represented by SNOMED CT. Outcomes included concept coverage by SNOMED CT for study terms and their implied semantics. Agreement statistics and compositionality measures were calculated. The SNOMED CT terminology contained concepts to represent 92.4% of MEDCIN and 95.9% of CHISL terms. Semantic structures implied by study terms were less well covered, with some complex compositional expressions requiring semantics not present in SNOMED CT. Among sampled terms, those from MEDCIN were more complex than those from CHISL, containing an average 3.8 versus 1.8 atomic concepts respectively, pterms.

  4. Patient representatives' views on patient information in clinical cancer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina

    2016-02-01

    Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives' views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. Written patient information leaflets used in four clinical trials for colorectal cancer were used for the study. The trials included phase I-III trials, randomized and non-randomized trials that evaluated chemotherapy/targeted therapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and palliative settings. Data were collected through focus groups and were analysed using inductive content analysis. Two major themes emerged: emotional responses and cognitive responses. Subthemes related to the former included individual preferences and perceptions of effect, while subthemes related to the latter were comprehensibility and layout. Based on these observations the patient representatives provided suggestions for improvement, which largely included development of future simplified and more attractive informed consent forms. The emotional and cognitive responses to written patient information reported by patient representatives provides a basis for revised formats in future trials and add to the body of information that support use of plain language, structured text and illustrations to improve the informed consent process and thereby patient enrolment into clinical trials.

  5. Reference materials and representative test materials: the nanotechnology case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebben, G.; Rasmussen, K.; Kestens, V.; Linsinger, T. P. J.; Rauscher, H.; Emons, H.; Stamm, H.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of chemical, physical and biological tests are performed on manufactured nanomaterials for scientific and regulatory purposes. Existing test guidelines and measurement methods are not always directly applicable to or relevant for nanomaterials. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the use of the existing methods with nanomaterials, thereby identifying where modifications are needed, and where new methods need to be developed and validated. Efforts for verification, development and validation of methods as well as quality assurance of (routine) test results significantly benefit from the availability of suitable test and reference materials. This paper provides an overview of the existing types of reference materials and introduces a new class of test materials for which the term ‘representative test material’ is proposed. The three generic concepts of certified reference material, reference material(non-certified) and representative test material constitute a comprehensive system of benchmarks that can be used by all measurement and testing communities, regardless of their specific discipline. This paper illustrates this system with examples from the field of nanomaterials, including reference materials and representative test materials developed at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, in particular at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), and at the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP).

  6. Representing metarepresentations: is there theory of mind-specific cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2009-03-01

    What cognitive mechanisms underlie Theory of Mind? Some infer domain-specific Theory of Mind cognition based the pattern of children diagnosed with autism failing the False Belief test but passing the False Photograph test. However, we argue that the False Belief test entails various task demands the False Photograph task does not, including the necessity to represent a higher-order representation (a metarepresentation), thus confounding the inference of domain-specificity. Instead, a general difficulty that affects representations of metarepresentations might account for the seeming domain-specific failure. Here we find that False-Belief failing False-Photograph passing children fail the Meta Photograph test, a new photograph-domain test that requires subjects to represent a metarepresentation. We conclude that people who fail the False Belief test but pass the False Photograph test do not necessarily have a content-specific Theory of Mind deficit. Instead, the general ability to represent representations and metarepresentations might underlie Theory of Mind.

  7. Representativeness of wind measurements in moderately complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bossche, Michael; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the representativeness of 10-m wind measurements in a 4 km × 2 km area of modest relief by comparing observations at a central site with those at four satellite sites located in the same area. Using a combination of established and new methods to quantify and visualize representativeness, we found significant differences in wind speed and direction between the four satellite sites and the central site. The representativeness of the central site wind measurements depended strongly on surface wind speed and direction, and atmospheric stability. Through closer inspection of the observations at one of the satellite sites, we concluded that terrain-forced flows combined with thermally driven downslope winds caused large biases in wind direction and speed. We used these biases to generate a basic model, showing that terrain-related differences in wind observations can to a large extent be predicted. Such a model is a cost-effective way to enhance an area's wind field determination and to improve the outcome of pollutant dispersion and weather forecasting models.

  8. Viability of seeds of two representatives from Apocynaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Aviekin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability of some Apocynaceae seeds depending on the duration of storage under conditions of low temperature was studied. Extracted embryos from the seeds of Pachypodium lamerei Drake and Adenium obesum (Forssk. Roem. et Schult with different storage history were analyzed. Embryos were stained by acidic fuchsine what allows identification of viable and destructed cells. Destructed cells were stained much more intensively, while viable cells remained unstained. Observed results showed dependence of viability of P. lamerei and A. obesum seeds from term of storage. It was obtained that the seeds of investigated succulent species, just like in many other tropical plants, rapidly lost their viability and should be described as microbiotic.

  9. A linear programming approach to reconstructing subcellular structures from confocal images for automated generation of representative 3D cellular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott T; Dean, Brian C; Dean, Delphine

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel computer vision algorithm to analyze 3D stacks of confocal images of fluorescently stained single cells. The goal of the algorithm is to create representative in silico model structures that can be imported into finite element analysis software for mechanical characterization. Segmentation of cell and nucleus boundaries is accomplished via standard thresholding methods. Using novel linear programming methods, a representative actin stress fiber network is generated by computing a linear superposition of fibers having minimum discrepancy compared with an experimental 3D confocal image. Qualitative validation is performed through analysis of seven 3D confocal image stacks of adherent vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) grown in 2D culture. The presented method is able to automatically generate 3D geometries of the cell's boundary, nucleus, and representative F-actin network based on standard cell microscopy data. These geometries can be used for direct importation and implementation in structural finite element models for analysis of the mechanics of a single cell to potentially speed discoveries in the fields of regenerative medicine, mechanobiology, and drug discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microalbuminuria Represents a Feature of Advanced Renal Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    2006-12-02

    Dec 2, 2006 ... beta thalassemia J Nephrol 1997; 10(3):163-167. 3. Abbott,KC, Hypolite, IO and Agodoa, LY. Sickle cell nephropathy at end-stage renal disease in the United States: patient characteristics and sur- vival Clin Nephrol 2002; 58(1): 9-15. 4. Polkinghome ,KR Detection and measure- ment of urinary protein ...

  11. The immature dentate gyrus represents a shared phenotype of mouse models of epilepsy and psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Rick; Kobayashi, Katsunori; Hagihara, Hideo; Kogan, Jeffrey H; Miyake, Shinichi; Tajinda, Katsunori; Walton, Noah M; Gross, Adam K; Heusner, Carrie L; Chen, Qian; Tamura, Kouichi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki

    2013-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, share common etiologies, pathophysiologies, genetics, and drug responses with many of the epilepsies. Here, we explored overlaps in cellular/molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral phenotypes between putative mouse models of bipolar disorder/schizophrenia and epilepsy. We tested the hypothesis that an immature dentate gyrus (iDG), whose association with psychosis in patients has recently been reported, represents a common phenotype of both diseases. Behaviors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (α-CaMKII) heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice, which are a representative bipolar disorder/schizophrenia model displaying iDG, and pilocarpine-treated mice, which are a representative epilepsy model, were tested followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)/immunohistochemistry for mRNA/protein expression associated with an iDG phenotype. In vitro electrophysiology of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) was examined in pilocarpine-treated epileptic mice. The two disease models demonstrated similar behavioral deficits, such as hyperactivity, poor working memory performance, and social withdrawal. Significant reductions in mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the mature neuronal marker calbindin and concomitant increases in mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the immature neuronal marker calretinin represent iDG signatures that are present in both mice models. Electrophysiologically, we have confirmed that DG GCs from pilocarpine-treated mice represent an immature state. A significant decrease in hippocampal α-CaMKII protein levels was also found in both models. Our data have shown iDG signatures from mouse models of both bipolar disorder/schizophrenia and epilepsy. The evidence suggests that the iDG may, in part, be responsible for the abnormal behavioral phenotype, and that the underlying pathophysiologies in epilepsy

  12. Bcl-XL represents a druggable molecular vulnerability during aurora B inhibitor-mediated polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, O Jameel; Lin, Xiaoyu; Li, Leiming; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Junling; Anderson, Mark G; Tang, Hua; Rodriguez, Luis E; Warder, Scott E; McLoughlin, Shaun; Chen, Jun; Palma, Joann; Glaser, Keith B; Donawho, Cherrie K; Fesik, Stephen W; Shen, Yu

    2010-07-13

    Aurora kinase B inhibitors induce apoptosis secondary to polyploidization and have entered clinical trials as an emerging class of neocytotoxic chemotherapeutics. We demonstrate here that polyploidization neutralizes Mcl-1 function, rendering cancer cells exquisitely dependent on Bcl-XL/-2. This "addiction" can be exploited therapeutically by combining aurora kinase inhibitors and the orally bioavailable BH3 mimetic, ABT-263, which inhibits Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, and Bcl-w. The combination of ABT-263 with aurora B inhibitors produces a synergistic loss of viability in a range of cell lines of divergent tumor origin and exhibits more sustained tumor growth inhibition in vivo compared with aurora B inhibitor monotherapy. These data demonstrate that Bcl-XL/-2 is necessary to support viability during polyploidization in a variety of tumor models and represents a druggable molecular vulnerability with potential therapeutic utility.

  13. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  14. Representativeness of environmental impact assessment methods regarding Life Cycle Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnouf, Antoine; Latrille, Éric; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Helias, Arnaud

    2018-04-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) characterises all the exchanges between human driven activities and the environment, thus representing a powerful approach for tackling the environmental impact of a production system. However, LCA practitioners must still choose the appropriate Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method to use and are expected to justify this choice: impacts should be relevant facing the concerns of the study and misrepresentations should be avoided. This work aids practitioners in evaluating the adequacy between the assessed environmental issues and studied production system. Based on a geometrical standpoint of LCA framework, Life Cycle Inventories (LCIs) and LCIA methods were localized in the vector space spanned by elementary flows. A proximity measurement, the Representativeness Index (RI), is proposed to explore the relationship between those datasets (LCIs and LCIA methods) through an angular distance. RIs highlight LCIA methods that measure issues for which the LCI can be particularly harmful. A high RI indicates a close proximity between a LCI and a LCIA method, and highlights a better representation of the elementary flows by the LCIA method. To illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, representativeness of LCIA methods regarding four electricity mix production LCIs from the ecoinvent database are presented. RIs for 18 LCIA methods (accounting for a total of 232 impact categories) were calculated on these LCIs and the relevance of the methods are discussed. RIs prove to be a criterion for distinguishing the different LCIA methods and could thus be employed by practitioners for deeper interpretations of LCIA results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Representativeness of the LifeLines Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Klijs

    Full Text Available LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online self-registration. Our aim was to investigate the representativeness of the adult study population at baseline and to evaluate differences in the study population according to recruitment strategy.Demographic characteristics of the LifeLines study population, recruited between 2006-2013, were compared with the total adult population in the north of the Netherlands as registered in the Dutch population register. Socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, chronic diseases, and general health were further compared with participants of the Permanent Survey of Living Conditions within the region (2005-2011, N = 6,093. Differences according to recruitment strategy were assessed.Compared with the population of the north of the Netherlands, LifeLines participants were more often female, middle aged, married, living in a semi-urban place and Dutch native. Adjusted for differences in demographic composition, in LifeLines a smaller proportion had a low educational attainment (5% versus 14% or had ever smoked (54% versus 66%. Differences in the prevalence of various chronic diseases and low general health scores were mostly smaller than 3%. The age profiles of the three recruitment groups differed due to age related inclusion criteria of the recruitment groups. Other differences according to recruitment strategy were small.Our results suggest that, adjusted for differences in demographic composition, the LifeLines adult study population is broadly representative for the adult population of the north of the Netherlands. The recruitment strategy had a minor effect on the level of representativeness. These findings indicate that the risk of selection bias is low and that risk estimates

  16. Solar Heliospheric and INterplanetary Environment (SHINE) Students - Student Representatives' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahud, D. M.; Niembro, T.

    2014-12-01

    The SHINE workshop is an annual meeting of solar and heliospheric scientists which, in addition to aiming to improve understanding of solar disturbances and their propagation to, and effect, on the Earth (shinecon.org), is dedicated to actively supporting students. This dedication is substantiated in part through the National Science Foundation (NSF) providing funding for student attendance to the workshop, which enables student participation. Another example of SHINE's commitment to its student members is the incorporation of a Student Day prior to the workshop since 2003, entirely organized and run by two student representatives. While there are variations in format from year to year, Student Day consists of tutorials and research talks exclusively by student volunteers to an audience of only students. The day is intended to provide a low-stress environment for students to learn about the various topics addressed during the workshop, to ask questions freely, and to engage in scientific discussion with other students which hopefully is a catalyst for collaboration. As a result of positive experiences, over the past decade student attendance and participation in the workshop have increased. At the SHINE 2014 workshop, nearly a third of attendees were students. SHINE student visibility has increased over the years, with student posters being advertised at breakfast, inclusion of a student day summary by the student representatives during a plenary session, and continued support from the steering committee. Students are also promoting a broader impact of SHINE sciences via increased social media presence. From a student representative's perspective, SHINE has built and fostered a healthy student community and encourages students to engage in shaping the future of the field.

  17. Out-of-Autoclave Manufacturing of Aerospace Representative Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghs, Julien

    The use of carbon fibre reinforced composites for aerospace structures has seen a high increase in recent years, and is still growing. The high stiffness-to-weight ratio of these materials makes them ideal for primary structures on airplanes, satellites, and spacecrafts. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of composites remains very costly since it requires equipment investment such as an autoclave, and very qualified workers. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing technology is very promising since it only requires a traditional oven, while still aiming at similar part quality. However, the absence of positive pressure compared with an autoclave makes it more difficult to achieve low porosity parts. This research investigates the manufacturing of complex features with out-of autoclave prepreg technology. The features studied are tight-radius corners with a curvature change, and ply drop-offs. Ply drop-offs tests were conducted to identify if porosity is higher at ply terminations. In corners, the bagging arrangement was modified to achieve the most uniform thickness in areas of curvature change, even with small radii. The conclusions from these studies provided us with guidelines to manufacture larger representative parts, which included these features. The representative parts were tested for porosity, thickness uniformity, mechanical performance, and glass transition temperature (Tg). A total of four representative parts were manufactured with out-of-autoclave technology, and one more was manufactured with an autoclave to allow for a proper comparison between the two processes. The materials used were MTM45-1 5 harness satin and CYCOM5320 plain weave for the out-of-autoclave parts, and CYCOM5276-1 plain weave for the autoclave part. The effect of ply drop-offs on porosity was found to be negligible. Thickness deviation in corners was attributed to a combination of consumable bridging, prepreg's bulk factor and inter-ply shear. Overall, out-of-autoclave prepregs showed

  18. Representative Vector Machines: A Unified Framework for Classical Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2016-08-01

    Classifier design is a fundamental problem in pattern recognition. A variety of pattern classification methods such as the nearest neighbor (NN) classifier, support vector machine (SVM), and sparse representation-based classification (SRC) have been proposed in the literature. These typical and widely used classifiers were originally developed from different theory or application motivations and they are conventionally treated as independent and specific solutions for pattern classification. This paper proposes a novel pattern classification framework, namely, representative vector machines (or RVMs for short). The basic idea of RVMs is to assign the class label of a test example according to its nearest representative vector. The contributions of RVMs are twofold. On one hand, the proposed RVMs establish a unified framework of classical classifiers because NN, SVM, and SRC can be interpreted as the special cases of RVMs with different definitions of representative vectors. Thus, the underlying relationship among a number of classical classifiers is revealed for better understanding of pattern classification. On the other hand, novel and advanced classifiers are inspired in the framework of RVMs. For example, a robust pattern classification method called discriminant vector machine (DVM) is motivated from RVMs. Given a test example, DVM first finds its k -NNs and then performs classification based on the robust M-estimator and manifold regularization. Extensive experimental evaluations on a variety of visual recognition tasks such as face recognition (Yale and face recognition grand challenge databases), object categorization (Caltech-101 dataset), and action recognition (Action Similarity LAbeliNg) demonstrate the advantages of DVM over other classifiers.

  19. [Fundamental role of the workers' representative in preventive safety activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossicini, A; Bindi, L; Casale, M C

    2003-01-01

    With the arrival of Legislative Decree 626/94 which brought into Italian law the EU directives on workers' health and safety at the workplace, our country has also introduced rules that make a break with the past in this area, with the creation of new professional roles. The workers' safety representative takes on a fundamentally important role in the management of prevention, safety and health for workers in their place of employment in accordance with article 19. In fact, before the introduction of this Legislative Decree, the "protection" of workers' health was essentially based on rules and regulations the application of which was left to the exclusive and direct responsibility of the relationship between the employer and doctor, leaving out any participation by the worker. Whereas in the past workers could only be considered the final receivers of instructions about the security measures to apply, with Law 626 the workers themselves became active participants in the assessment of risks at work and consequently in the implementing of all the safety and hygiene measures contributing to the reduction of risk levels. The new regulations now in force assign important tasks to the workers' safety representative; all tasks and responsibilities associated with that role are examined and discussed, especially those relating to rights to information and training, consultation and participation in the process of designing and promoting safety measures. The job of workers' representative today takes on a fundamentally important meaning and role in a self-regulating system of work safety, where he or she has a proper area responsibility, so becoming a reference point for the workers generally.

  20. The live album or many ways of representing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzanti Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of live albums can clarify the dialectic between studio recordings and live performances. After discussing key concepts such as authenticity, space, time and place, and documentation, the author gives a preliminary definition of live albums, combining available descriptions and comparing them with different typologies and functions of these recordings. The article aims to give a new definition of the concept of live albums, gathering their primary elements: “A live album is an officially released extended recording of popular music representing one or more actually occurred public performances”.

  1. Direct and Representative Democracy - Supplementing, not Excluding Each Other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    : and (4) more transparency and enlightened understanding versus less confidentiality. The arguments are discussed in relation to general political goals of good government such as legitimacy, efficiency and stability. The basic thesis of the paper is that direct and representative forms of democracy...... are not exclusive. Much of the disagreement among those in favour of and in opposition to the introduction of more elements of direct democracy is caused by arguments that could be tested empirically and on more or less implicit assumptions about an either-or rather than a more-or-less of these forms of government...

  2. OKBL: A language for representing object oriented knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Sugiyai, I.; Ishikawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Industrial system is operated by using numerous ''operator's knowledge'' about the system. Each knowledge can be regarded as an object and is represented and maintained as an 'ACTOR' and written in a language based on the actor concept. OKBL (Object Oriented Operational KnowledgeBase Management Language) is the language proposed here for this purpose and used in OKBS (a system based on OKBL). The OKBS inference mechanism on the knowledgebase written in OKBL is implemented by message passings among ACTORs. OKBS has been applied to the guidance system for the operators of electric power dispatch control stations

  3. Retention performance of green roofs in representative climates worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, F.; Hellies, M.; Deidda, R.

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing process of global urbanization contributes to an increase in stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces, threatening also water quality. Green roofs have been proved to be innovative stormwater management measures to partially restore natural states, enhancing interception, infiltration and evapotranspiration fluxes. The amount of water that is retained within green roofs depends not only on their depth, but also on the climate, which drives the stochastic soil moisture dynamic. In this context, a simple tool for assessing performance of green roofs worldwide in terms of retained water is still missing and highly desirable for practical assessments. The aim of this work is to explore retention performance of green roofs as a function of their depth and in different climate regimes. Two soil depths are investigated, one representing the intensive configuration and another representing the extensive one. The role of the climate in driving water retention has been represented by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration dynamics. A simple conceptual weather generator has been implemented and used for stochastic simulation of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Stochastic forcing is used as an input of a simple conceptual hydrological model for estimating long-term water partitioning between rainfall, runoff and actual evapotranspiration. Coupling the stochastic weather generator with the conceptual hydrological model, we assessed the amount of rainfall diverted into evapotranspiration for different combinations of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in five representative climatic regimes. Results quantified the capabilities of green roofs in retaining rainfall and consequently in reducing discharges into sewer systems at an annual time scale. The role of substrate depth has been recognized to be crucial in determining green roofs retention performance, which in general increase from extensive to intensive settings. Looking at the

  4. Analysis of Mental Processes Represented in Models of Artificial Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Folchini da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Artificial Consciousness concept has been used in the engineering area as being an evolution of the Artificial Intelligence. However, consciousness is a complex subject and often used without formalism. As a main contribution, in this work one proposes an analysis of four recent models of artificial consciousness published in the engineering area. The mental processes represented by these models are highlighted and correlations with the theoretical perspective of cognitive psychology are made. Finally, considerations about consciousness in such models are discussed.

  5. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Multiple representation occurs when information about the same geographic entity is represented electronically more than once. This occurs frequently in practice, and it invariably results in the occurrence of inconsistencies among the different representations. We propose to resolve this situation...... by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means...

  6. Shortest triplet clustering: reconstructing large phylogenies using representative sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Vinh Le

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolutionary relationships among species based on their genetic information is one of the primary objectives in phylogenetic analysis. Reconstructing phylogenies for large data sets is still a challenging task in Bioinformatics. Results We propose a new distance-based clustering method, the shortest triplet clustering algorithm (STC, to reconstruct phylogenies. The main idea is the introduction of a natural definition of so-called k-representative sets. Based on k-representative sets, shortest triplets are reconstructed and serve as building blocks for the STC algorithm to agglomerate sequences for tree reconstruction in O(n2 time for n sequences. Simulations show that STC gives better topological accuracy than other tested methods that also build a first starting tree. STC appears as a very good method to start the tree reconstruction. However, all tested methods give similar results if balanced nearest neighbor interchange (BNNI is applied as a post-processing step. BNNI leads to an improvement in all instances. The program is available at http://www.bi.uni-duesseldorf.de/software/stc/. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the new approach efficiently reconstructs phylogenies for large data sets. We found that BNNI boosts the topological accuracy of all methods including STC, therefore, one should use BNNI as a post-processing step to get better topological accuracy.

  7. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  8. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  9. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2018-05-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  10. Human visual system automatically represents large-scale sequential regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Widmann, Andreas; Schröger, Erich

    2010-03-04

    Our brain recordings reveal that large-scale sequential regularities defined across non-adjacent stimuli can be automatically represented in visual sensory memory. To show that, we adopted an auditory paradigm developed by Sussman, E., Ritter, W., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1998). Predictability of stimulus deviance and the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 9, 4167-4170, Sussman, E., and Gumenyuk, V. (2005). Organization of sequential sounds in auditory memory. NeuroReport, 16, 1519-1523 to the visual domain by presenting task-irrelevant infrequent luminance-deviant stimuli (D, 20%) inserted among task-irrelevant frequent stimuli being of standard luminance (S, 80%) in randomized (randomized condition, SSSDSSSSSDSSSSD...) and fixed manners (fixed condition, SSSSDSSSSDSSSSD...). Comparing the visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of memory-mismatch processes in human visual sensory system, revealed that visual MMN elicited by deviant stimuli was reduced in the fixed compared to the randomized condition. Thus, the large-scale sequential regularity being present in the fixed condition (SSSSD) must have been represented in visual sensory memory. Interestingly, this effect did not occur in conditions with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 480 and 800 ms but was confined to the 160-ms SOA condition supporting the hypothesis that large-scale regularity extraction was based on perceptual grouping of the five successive stimuli defining the regularity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In search of a representative sample of residential building work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Brenda; Woods, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    Most research investigating injuries in construction work is limited by reliance on work samples unrepresentative of the multiple, variable-cycle tasks involved, resulting in incomplete characterisation of ergonomic exposures. In this case study, a participatory approach was used including hierarchical task analysis and site observations of a typical team of house builders in New Zealand, over several working days, to obtain a representative work sample. The builders' work consisted of 14 goal-defined jobs using varying subsets of 15 task types, each taking from less than 1 s to more than 1 h and performed in a variety of postures. Task type and duration varied within and between participants and days, although all participants spent at least 25% of the time moving from place to place, mostly carrying materials, and more than half the time either reaching up or bending down to work. This research has provided a description of residential building work based on a work sample more nearly representative than those previously published and has demonstrated a simple, low-cost but robust field observation method that can provide a valid basis for further study of hazard exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a Representative Mouse Model with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jef; Jacobs, Ans; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the Western world. It represents a disease spectrum ranging from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In particular, NASH can evolve to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. The development of novel treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of representative NASH mouse models. Here, we describe a NASH mouse model, which is based on feeding non-genetically manipulated C57BL6/J mice a 'Western style' high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF-HSD). HF-HSD leads to early obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. After 12 weeks of HF-HSD, all mice exhibit the complete spectrum of features of NASH, including steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and lobular inflammation, together with fibrosis in the majority of mice. Hence, this model closely mimics the human disease. Implementation of this mouse model will lead to a standardized setup for the evaluation of (i) underlying mechanisms that contribute to the progression of NAFLD to NASH, and (ii) therapeutic interventions for NASH. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Engaging workplace representatives in research: what recruitment strategies work best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coole, C; Nouri, F; Narayanasamy, M; Baker, P; Khan, S; Drummond, A

    2018-05-23

    Workplaces are key stakeholders in work and health but little is known about the methods used to recruit workplace representatives (WRs), including managers, occupational health advisers and colleagues, to externally funded healthcare research studies. To detail the strategies used in recruiting WRs from three areas of the UK to a qualitative study concerning their experience of employees undergoing hip or knee replacement, to compare the strategies and inform recruitment methods for future studies. Six strategies were used to recruit WRs from organizations of different sizes and sectors. Data on numbers approached and responses received were analysed descriptively. Twenty-five WRs were recruited. Recruitment had to be extended outside the main three study areas, and took several months. It proved more difficult to recruit from non-service sectors and small- and medium-sized enterprises. The most successful strategies were approaching organizations that had participated in previous research studies, or known professionally or personally to team members. Recruiting a diverse sample of WRs to healthcare research requires considerable resources and persistence, and a range of strategies. Recruitment is easier where local relationships already exist; the importance of building and maintaining these relationships cannot be underestimated. However, the potential risks of bias and participant fatigue need to be acknowledged and managed. Further studies are needed to explore how WRs can be recruited to health research, and to identify the researcher effort and costs involved in achieving unbiased and representative samples.

  14. Type a behaviour pattern and performance as insurance representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. W. Strumpfer

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Participants were 155 insurance representatives and 116 of them who were still in the same position one year later. The performance criterion represented commission on policies and annuities sold; data were obtained for the year of testing and the next year. The Jenkins Activity Survey was administered. The Type A (M === 6.26; SD == 7.90 was not excessively high. The Factor H score correlated r (114 - 0,23, p = 0,05 with the criterion for the second year; no other score correlated significantly with criterion scores. Interventions to reduce Type A behaviour for health reasons seem unlikely to reduce business performance. Opsomming Die deelnemers was 155 assuransieverteenwoordigers en 116 van hulle wat een jaar later nog in dieselfde pos was. Die prestasiekriterium het kommissie op polisse en annuiteite verteenwoordig; gegewens is vir die jaar van toetsing en die volgende jaar verkry. Jenkins se Aktiviteitsvraelys is toegepas. Die Tipe A (X == 6.26; SA - 790 was nie buitengewoon hoog nie. Die Faktor H-telling het r (114 - 0,23, p - 0,05 met die kriterium vir die tweede jaar gekorreleer; geen ander tellings het beduidend met die kriteriumtellings gekorreleer nie. Dit lyk onwaarskynlik dat intervensies om Tipe A-gedrag om gesondheidsredes te verminder besigheidsprestasie sal verlaag.

  15. Review: Pichia pastoris represents an alternative for human glycoprotein production for therapeutic use. Fermentation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Córdoba Ruiz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Producing human proteins in lower organisms' cells using recombinant technology represents a very promising approach for treating many diseases produced by a particular protein deficiency, including close to 40 lysosomal storage diseases. Although E. coli has been the first host successfully employed in expressing human recombinant proteins, it has some limitations owing to its inability to perform some post-traductional steps such as glycosylation. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae has thusbeen initially considered and used. However, S. cerevisiae glycosylates proteins in a very different way to human cells producing highly antigenic proteins and thus some other non-conventional yeasts such as Pichia pastoris have been used recently. Human protein expression is not assodated with growth in this system; growth may occur at high cell concentrations, increasing heterologous protein productivity and yield. The system employs a very efficient, methanol-induced promoter which may be used as sole carbon and energy source. Post-traductional modifications seem more similar to human cells than those produced by other non-mammalian systems used in producing human glycoproteins; they do not secrete large amounts of endogenous proteins, simplifying expressed protein purification. This review presents some strategies for producing heterologous proteins in high density cultures using P. pastoris as an expression system.

  16. Challenges to Issues of Balance and Representativeness in African Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapelo Joseph Otlogetswe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Modern dictionaries depend on corpora of different sizes and types for frequency listings, concordances and collocations, illustrative sentences and grammatical information. With the help of computer software, retrieving such information has increasingly become relatively easy. However, the quality of retrieved information for lexicographic purposes depends on the information input at the stage of corpus construction. If corpora are not representative of the different language usages of a speech community, they may prove to be unreliable sources of lexicographic information. There are, however, issues in African languages which make many African corpora questionable. These issues include a lack of texts of different genres, the unavailability of balanced and representative written texts, a complete absence of spoken texts as well as literacy problems in African societies. This article therefore explores the different challenges to the construction of reliable corpora in African languages. It argues that African languages face peculiar challenges and corpus research may require a different treatment compared to European and American corpus research. It finally concludes that issues of balance and representativeness appear theoretically impossible when looking at the results of sociolinguistic research on the different existing language varieties which are difficult to represent accurately in a corpus.

    Keywords: AFRICAN LANGUAGES, BALANCE, BANK OF ENGLISH, BORROWING,BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS, COBUILD, CODE-SWITCHING, COMPUTERS, CORPORA,DIALECT, DICTIONARIES, FREQUENCY, LANGUAGE VARIETY, REPRESENTATIVENESS,SETSWANA, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SPEECH, TEXT

    Opsomming: Uitdagings betreffende kwessies van balans en verteenwoordigendheidin Afrikaleksikografie. Moderne woordeboeke steun op korpusse vanverskillende groottes en soorte vir frekwensielyste, konkordansies en kollokasies, voorbeeldsinneen taalkundige inligting. Met die hulp van

  17. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process...

  18. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  19. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  20. Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a data set of works councils of trade union IG Metal, this paper investigates psychosocial stress and strain on this specific group in comparison to employees working in administration in general (leadership and non-leadership-role and a national reference value. Methods For assessing psychosocial work factors on works councils within the sector represented by the trade union IG Metal in Germany, a research by using the German standard version of COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was performed. The instrument includes 87 single items forming 25 aspects of strain and stress. Results from the study group of works councils were compared to those from employees working in administration and to the general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of means. To be significant in terms of statistics, p Results All in all, 309 works councils from a national survey of the German chemical and metalworking industries took part in the study. 113 were full-time works council members (exempted from the duty to perform their regular work, 196 were voluntary members (acting as employee representatives on an honorary basis alongside their normal duties. Comparison between works councils and employees working in administration (leadership roles (N=1810 and non-leadership roles (N=2970 and for employees in general (N=35.000 showed unfavourable values for works councils for most scales. Significantly higher values indicating higher strain and stress were found for the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were obtained for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health. Favourable findings were found on the scales: influence at work, quantity of social relations and the partly positive values for quantitative

  1. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    remodeling, wound healing, and tumor repression or growth. The broad scope .... lesions, and (iv) MC leukemia, probably representing the ..... Slow-release Vitamin C (increased degranulation of histamine; inhibition of mast cell degranulation ...

  2. Coping with traumatic brain injury: representative case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnica, C M; Heinemann, A

    1994-04-01

    This case report compares the use of social supports and vulnerability to substance abuse for two rehabilitation clients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a psychosocial assessment, the Motivational Structure Questionnaire, Adaptive Skills Battery, and Ways of Coping Checklist within a representative case method, we studied two individuals in depth to understand differences in postinjury drinking behaviors. We also examined differences in availability and use of social supports and how support was related to coping efforts. Finally, we illustrated goal-setting and the relationship between long-term planning and follow-through on goals. Social supports, adaptive problem-solving behaviors, and positive reappraisal of situations seem to be important elements in postinjury abstinence. Clinically, this research supports the need for fostering use of both social supports and substance use prevention and treatment services when working with both inpatient and outpatient TBI clients.

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF HAPPINESS REPRESENTATION FOR RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Zhdanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotional state of students exerts direct impact on their ability and readiness to cope with challenges when studying, gives rise to the success of educational process and its effectiveness. In this regard, the search of methods and determination of the tasks of psychological diagnostics is brought into focus. Above all, the teacher should consider mentality and valuable attitudes of representatives of various cultures, including their understanding of happiness and personal well-being in the activity against the background of the increasing scales of the international and interethnic mobility.The development of Russian psychology has recently acquired the direction of positive psychology, the focus of which is happiness and positive functioning of the individual. Modern research reveals significant differences in the indicators of happiness and satisfaction with life between representatives of different cultures. However, the diagnostic tools used in such studies are based primarily on the model of happiness image that has been developed in American psychology. In this connection, the question arises as to what extent the image of happiness in American culture correlates with the image of happiness in Russian culture.The aim of this work is to study the representation of happiness between representatives of American and Russian culture, the definition of invariable and variable components in the structure of representation.Methodology and research methods. The study included several stages. At the first stage, the theoretical analysis and development of the ontology of the subject area “Psychology of Happiness” was carried out. At the second stage, an empirical study of the representations of American and Russian respondents was carried out. The main method of data collection was a narrative interview; a method of early personal memories was used to obtain the narrative of happiness. Subsequent processing of verbal

  4. [Involvement of medical representatives in team medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Misaki; Sohma, Michiro; Takagi, Hidehiko

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, chemotherapies have been further advanced because of successive launch of new drugs, introduction of molecular targeting, etc., and the concept of so-called Team Medical Care ,the idea of sharing interdisciplinary expertise for collaborative treatment, has steadily penetrated in the Japanese medical society. Dr. Naoto Ueno is a medical oncologist at US MD Anderson Cancer Center, the birthplace of the Team Medical Care. He has advocated the concept of ABC of Team Oncology by positioning pharmaceutical companies as Team C. Under such team practice, we believe that medical representatives of a pharmaceutical company should also play a role as a member of the Team Medical Care by providing appropriate drug use information to healthcare professionals, supporting post-marketing surveillance of treated patients, facilitating drug information sharing among healthcare professionals at medical institutions, etc.

  5. [Attitudes of general practitioners to pharmaceutical sales representatives in Sousse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdelaziz, A; Harrabi, I; Rahmani, S; Ghedira, A; Gaha, K; Ghannem, H

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic knowledge of physicians is the corner stone to the rational use of medicines; however information about medicines is generally obtained from the pharmaceutical industry via their sales representatives (reps). We aimed to identify general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes to pharmaceutical reps and the information they provide. We surveyed 140 GPs using a self-administered questionnaire. The response rate was 78% (72 GPs from the public sector and 68 from the private sector). About 10% of the GPs said they received daily visits from pharmaceutical reps; 84% of GPs considered them an efficient source of information and 31% said they might change their therapeutic prescribing following visits from these reps. Because of their positive perception of pharmaceutical reps, GPs are susceptible to the information they provide. Controlling the validity of the therapeutic information imparted by the pharmaceutical industry is thus a fundamental component of the programme for the rational use of medicines.

  6. On the Alignment of Shapes Represented by Fourier Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Ericsson, Anders; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    The representation of shapes by Fourier descriptors is a time-honored technique that has received relatively little attention lately. Nevertheless, it has many benefits and is applicable for describing a range of medical structures in two dimensions. Delineations in medical applications often...... consist of continuous outlines of structures, where no information of correspondence between samples exist. In this article, we discuss an alignment method that works directly with the functional representation of Fourier descriptors, and that is optimal in a least-squares sense. With corresponding...... represented by common landmarks can be constructed in an automatic fashion. If the aligned Fourier descriptors are inverse transformed from the frequency domain to the spatial domain, a set of roughly aligned landmarks are obtained. The positions of these are then adjusted along the contour of the objects...

  7. Use of S-α diagram for representing tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Chance, M.; Kessel, C.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1991-05-01

    A use of the S-α diagram is proposed as a tool for representing the plasma equilibrium with a qualitative characterization of its stability through pattern recognition. The diagram is an effective tool for visually presenting the relationship between the shear and dimensionless pressure gradient of an equilibrium. In the PBX-M tokamak, an H-mode operating regime with high poloidal β and L-mode regime with high toroidal β, obtained using different profile modification techniques, are found to have distinct S-α trajectory patterns. Pellet injection into a plasma in the H-mode regime with high toroidal β, obtained using different profile modification techniques, are found to have distinct S-α trajectory patterns. Pellet injection into a plasma in the H-mode regime results in favorable qualities of both regimes. The β collapse process and ELM event also manifest themselves as characteristic changes in the S-α pattern

  8. Representative Bureaucracy and the Role of Expertise in Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarle Trondal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of existing studies on bureaucratic representation focus on bureaucracies’ permanent and internal staff. Yet, the rising sophistication of modern democracies and the technocratization of political life are gradually inducing an increased reliance on external experts to assist in the development and implementation of policy decisions. This trend, we argue, raises the need to extend studies of bureaucratic representation to such external and non-permanent experts in governmental affairs. In this article, we take a first step in this direction using seconded national experts (SNEs in the European Commission as our empirical laboratory. Our results highlight that Commission SNEs do not appear representative of their constituent population (i.e., the EU-27 population along a number of socio-demographic dimensions. Moreover, we find that the role perception of “experts” is primarily explained by organizational affiliation, and only secondarily by demographic characteristics (except, of course, education.

  9. Simplified and representative bacterial community of maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Paulson, Joseph Nathaniel; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-03-21

    Plant-associated microbes are important for the growth and health of their hosts. As a result of numerous prior studies, we know that host genotypes and abiotic factors influence the composition of plant microbiomes. However, the high complexity of these communities challenges detailed studies to define experimentally the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of community assembly and the beneficial effects of such microbiomes on plant hosts. In this work, from the distinctive microbiota assembled by maize roots, through host-mediated selection, we obtained a greatly simplified synthetic bacterial community consisting of seven strains ( Enterobacter cloacae , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum pituitosum, Herbaspirillum frisingense, Pseudomonas putida, Curtobacterium pusillum , and Chryseobacterium indologenes ) representing three of the four most dominant phyla found in maize roots. By using a selective culture-dependent method to track the abundance of each strain, we investigated the role that each plays in community assembly on roots of axenic maize seedlings. Only the removal of E. cloacae led to the complete loss of the community, and C. pusillum took over. This result suggests that E. cloacae plays the role of keystone species in this model ecosystem. In planta and in vitro, this model community inhibited the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides , indicating a clear benefit to the host. Thus, combined with the selective culture-dependent quantification method, our synthetic seven-species community representing the root microbiome has the potential to serve as a useful system to explore how bacterial interspecies interactions affect root microbiome assembly and to dissect the beneficial effects of the root microbiota on hosts under laboratory conditions in the future.

  10. STUDENTS’ COMMUNICATION SKILLS ASSESSMENT BY EXTERNAL LECTURERS AND INDUSTRY REPRESENTATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOORFAZILA KAMAL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft skills, especially communication skills, are important skills which each graduate must possess. Accordingly, several courses and approaches have been carried out in universities to train students in communication skills. The skills are normally evaluated by course lecturers. However, assessments by a third party from outside the university are valuable so that the students’ ahievements may be weighed against external evaluators’ point of views. In the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering (DEESE, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, communication skills assessment by external lecturers and industry representatives are performed on Hari Poster JKEES, where students present their final year project poster. There are two categories of evaluation, namely project and communication skills. The project evaluation covers content, result and impact, while communication skills evaluation covers poster layout and design, and delivery. This study only analyse the students’ communication skills achievement. The participants of this study consists of 109 final year students from two batches, of which 51 students are from year 2014 and the other 58 students from year 2015. The results show that for the year 2014 students, the mean mark given by external lecturers in layout and design category is 6.7, while the mean mark from industry evaluators is 6.5. For the 2015 batch, the mean mark in the layout and design category is 6.3 from external lecturers and 5.9 from industry evaluators. In the delivery category, the mean marks for the 2014 batch are 7.1 and 6.6 from external lecturers and industry evaluators, espectively. Meanwhile, for the 2015 batch, the mean marks by external lecturers and industry evaluators are 6.3 and 5.8, respectively. The results show that both external lecturers and industry representatives judged DEESE students’ communication skills to be good.

  11. [Dangerous liaisons--physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between physicians and detailers (even when legitimate ones) raise scientific and ethical questions. In Portugal little thinking and discussion has been done on the subject and the blames for bribery have monopolized the media. This work intended to review what has been said in medical literature about these interactions. How do physicians see themselves when interacting with pharmaceutical companies and their representatives? Do these companies in fact change their prescriptive behaviour, and, if so, how do they change it? How can physicians interact with detailers and still keep their best practice? A Medline research, from 1966 till 2002, was performed using the key-words as follows. A database similar to Medline but concerning medical journals published in Portugal, Index das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas, was also researched from 1992 to 2002. Pharmaceutical companies are profit bound and they allot promoting activities, and detailing in particular, huge amounts of money. Most physicians hold firmly to the belief that they are able to resist and not be influenced by drug companies promotion activities. Nevertheless, all previous works on literature tell us the opposite. Market research also indicates that detailers effectively promote drug sales. Various works also suggest that the information detailers provide to physicians may be largely incorrect, even comparing it to the written information provided by the pharmaceutical companies they work for. The frequency at which portuguese physicians (especially family physicians) contact with pharmaceutical sales representatives is higher than the frequency reported in countries where the available studies come from (namely, Canada and the United States of America). This may put portuguese physicians at a higher risk, making it imperative that work and wide debate are initiated among the class.

  12. Representativeness of the IAGOS airborne measurements in the lower troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Petetin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the In Service Aircraft for Global Observing System (IAGOS program, airborne in-situ O3 and CO measurements are performed routinely using in-service aircraft, providing vertical profiles from the surface to about 10–12 km. Due to the specificity of IAGOS measurements (measurements around busy international airports, uncertainties exist on their representativeness in the lower troposphere as they may be impacted by emissions related to airport activities and/or other aircraft. In this study, we thus investigate how the IAGOS measurements in the lower troposphere compare with nearby surface stations (from the local Air Quality monitoring network (AQN and more distant regional surface stations (from the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW network. The study focuses on Frankfurt but some results at other European airports (Vienna, Paris are also discussed. Results indicate that the IAGOS observations close to the surface do not appear to be strongly impacted by local emissions related to airport activities. In terms of mixing ratio distribution, seasonal variations and trends, the CO and O3 mixing ratios measured by IAGOS in the first few hundred metres above the surface have similar characteristics to the mixing ratios measured at surrounding urban background stations. Higher in altitude, both the difference with data from the local AQN and the consistency with the GAW regional stations are higher, which indicates a larger representativeness of the IAGOS data. Despite few quantitative differences with Frankfurt, consistent results are obtained in the two other cities Vienna and Paris. Based on 11 years of data (2002–2012, this study thus demonstrates that IAGOS observations in the lowest troposphere can be used as a complement to surface stations to study the air quality in/around the agglomeration, providing important information on the vertical distribution of pollution.

  13. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  14. Comparative floral spur anatomy and nectar secretion in four representatives of Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoń, Sebastian; Kamińska, Magdalena

    2015-11-01

    Nectaries are common in Ranunculaceae. These secretory structures, however, have not been studied in detail despite their importance in plant-animal interactions, and data relating to the structure of nectary spurs, which are so characteristic of several genera of this family, remain scarce. In order to redress this imbalance, we sought, in the present paper, to analyze the anatomical and ultrastructural organization of the nectary spurs of four representatives of Ranunculaceae, i.e., Aconitum lycoctonum L., Aquilegia vulgaris L., Consolida regalis Gray, and Delphinium elatum L. Nectary spurs were examined using light, fluorescence, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The floral nectaries of A. lycoctonum and A. vulgaris are situated at the apices of the spurs, whereas in C. regalis and D. elatum, the nectary is located along the floor surface of the spurs. Nectar in C. regalis and D. elatum is exuded through micro-channels in the cuticle, whereas in A. lycoctonum and A. vulgaris, it is released by means of cell wall disruption, indicating that the method of nectar secretion here is holocrine. Structurally, the nectary of all four investigated species is quite similar, and its cells are typical of nectar-producing cells described in the literature. It is proposed that in A. lycoctonum and A. vulgaris, disruption of the cell wall and the release of the entire cell contents into the spur cavity contribute to the composition of the nectar that the latter contains, enriching it with cytoplasmic components. We conclude that the manner of nectar exudation may vary considerably between closely related plant species, regardless of their geographical origin and phylogeny.

  15. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Lublin Upland. Some Ranunculaceae representatives are dichogamous. This feature is commonly thought as the factor preventing selfpollination and inbreeding depression. For example, Helleborus foetidus and Anemone sylvestris are known to be protogynous, while many of the Aconitum representatives are protandrous. There may be evident difference in duration of each floral sexual phases, like in protandrous Aconitum carmichaelii (the length of male phase vs. female phase = 7.6 vs. 1.9 days, on average or the time spent in stigma and pollen presentation can be similar, like in protogynous Adonis vernalis (7.5 and 8.4 days on average, respectively. Disparities in flowering period, diurnal dynamics of blooming and sexual phases were found to be the adaptations to different insect foraging patterns.

  16. Phylogenomic analysis of Candidatus ‘Izimaplasma’ species: free-living representatives from a Tenericutes clade found in methane seeps

    KAUST Repository

    Skennerton, Connor T.

    2016-04-08

    Tenericutes are a unique class of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are typically parasites or commensals of eukaryotic hosts. Environmental 16S rDNA surveys have identified a number of tenericute clades in diverse environments, introducing the possibility that these Tenericutes may represent non-host-associated, free-living microorganisms. Metagenomic sequencing of deep-sea methane seep sediments resulted in the assembly of two genomes from a Tenericutes-affiliated clade currently known as \\'NB1-n\\' (SILVA taxonomy) or \\'RF3\\' (Greengenes taxonomy). Metabolic reconstruction revealed that, like cultured members of the Mollicutes, these \\'NB1-n\\' representatives lack a tricarboxylic acid cycle and instead use anaerobic fermentation of simple sugars for substrate level phosphorylation. Notably, the genomes also contained a number of unique metabolic features including hydrogenases and a simplified electron transport chain containing an RNF complex, cytochrome bd oxidase and complex I. On the basis of the metabolic potential predicted from the annotated genomes, we devised an anaerobic enrichment media that stimulated the growth of these Tenericutes at 10 °C, resulting in a mixed culture where these organisms represented ∼60% of the total cells by targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Visual identification by FISH confirmed these organisms were not directly associated with Eukaryotes and electron cryomicroscopy of cells in the enrichment culture confirmed an ultrastructure consistent with the defining phenotypic property of Tenericutes, with a single membrane and no cell wall. On the basis of their unique gene content, phylogenetic placement and ultrastructure, we propose these organisms represent a novel class within the Tenericutes, and suggest the names Candidatus \\'Izimaplasma sp. HR1\\' and Candidatus \\'Izimaplasma sp. HR2\\' for the two genome representatives.

  17. Medical Representatives' Intention to Use Information Technology in Pharmaceutical Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eun-Seon; Chang, Hyejung

    2016-10-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices. This study has adopted and modified the theory of Roger's diffusion of innovation model and the technology acceptance model. To test the model empirically, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 221 MRs who were working in three multinational or eleven domestic pharmaceutical companies in Korea. Overall, 28% and 35% of MRs experienced using laptop computers and tablet PCs in pharmaceutical marketing, respectively. However, the rates were different across different groups of MRs, categorized by age, education level, position, and career. The results showed that MRs' intention to use information technology devices was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness in general. Perceived ease of use, organizational and individual innovativeness, and several MR characteristics were also found to have significant impacts. This study provides timely information about e-detailing devices to marketing managers and policy makers in the pharmaceutical industry for successful marketing strategy development by understanding the needs of MRs' intention to use information technology. Further in-depth study should be conducted to understand obstacles and limitations and to improve the strategies for better marketing tools.

  18. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  19. Illusory correlation: a function of availability or representativeness heuristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M G

    2000-08-01

    The present study sought to investigate the illusory correlation phenomenon by experimentally manipulating the availability of information through the use of the "lag" effect (Madigan, 1969). Seventy-four university students voluntarily participated in this study. Similar to Starr and Katkin's (1969) methodology, subjects were visually presented with each possible combination of four experimental problem descriptions and four sentence completions that were paired and shown twice at each of four lags (i.e., with 0, 2, 8 and 20 intervening variables). Subjects were required to make judgements concerning the frequency with which sentence completions and problem descriptions co-occurred. In agreement with previous research (Starr & Katkin, 1969), the illusory correlation effect was found for specific descriptions and sentence completions. Results also yielded a significant effect of lag for mean ratings between 0 and 2 lags; however, there was no reliable increase in judged co-occurrence at lags 8 and 20. Evidence failed to support the hypothesis that greater availability, through the experimental manipulation of lag, would result in increased frequency of co-occurrence judgements. Findings indicate that, in the present study, the illusory correlation effect is probably due to a situational bias based on the representativeness heuristic.

  20. Representing the Marginal Stability of Peptides in Coarse Grained Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet; Dalgicdir, Cahit; Ramezanghorbani, Farhad

    Tertiary structure of proteins is only marginally stable; such that the folded structure is separated from local minima by as little as 10 kcal/mol. In particular for intrinsically disordered peptides, this marginal stability is key to understanding their complex behavior. Bottom-up coarse grained (CG) models for proteins/peptides which rely on structural and/or thermodynamic reference data from experiments or all atom simulations inherently focus on the equilibrium structure and fail to capture the conformational dynamics of the molecule. In this study, we present a CG model for a synthetic peptide, LK, which successfully captures the conformational flexibility of the molecule in different environments. LK peptide is composed of leucine and lysine residues and displays a stark conformational transition from a degenerate conformation in dilute solution to a fully stable alpha-helix at macroscopic and molecular interfaces. In this study we demonstrate that by carefully combining atomistic references from both the unfolded and folded states, one can create a CG model that can represent not only the folded state, but also the conformational transitions that the peptide exhibits in response to changes in the environment. M. Sayar thanks TÜBİTAK (Grant No. 212T184) and TÜBA Distinguished Young Scientist Award (2012 awardee) for financial support.

  1. Higher Level Visual Cortex Represents Retinotopic, Not Spatiotopic, Object Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The crux of vision is to identify objects and determine their locations in the environment. Although initial visual representations are necessarily retinotopic (eye centered), interaction with the real world requires spatiotopic (absolute) location information. We asked whether higher level human visual cortex—important for stable object recognition and action—contains information about retinotopic and/or spatiotopic object position. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging multivariate pattern analysis techniques, we found information about both object category and object location in each of the ventral, dorsal, and early visual regions tested, replicating previous reports. By manipulating fixation position and stimulus position, we then tested whether these location representations were retinotopic or spatiotopic. Crucially, all location information was purely retinotopic. This pattern persisted when location information was irrelevant to the task, and even when spatiotopic (not retinotopic) stimulus position was explicitly emphasized. We also conducted a “searchlight” analysis across our entire scanned volume to explore additional cortex but again found predominantly retinotopic representations. The lack of explicit spatiotopic representations suggests that spatiotopic object position may instead be computed indirectly and continually reconstructed with each eye movement. Thus, despite our subjective impression that visual information is spatiotopic, even in higher level visual cortex, object location continues to be represented in retinotopic coordinates. PMID:22190434

  2. Arctic indigenous peoples as representations and representatives of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Marybeth Long

    2008-06-01

    Recent scientific findings, as presented in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), indicate that climate change in the Arctic is happening now, at a faster rate than elsewhere in the world, and with major implications for peoples of the Arctic (especially indigenous peoples) and the rest of the planet. This paper examines scientific and political representations of Arctic indigenous peoples that have been central to the production and articulation of these claims. ACIA employs novel forms and strategies of representation that reflect changing conceptual models and practices of global change science and depict indigenous peoples as expert, exotic, and at-risk. These portrayals emerge alongside the growing political activism of Arctic indigenous peoples who present themselves as representatives or embodiments of climate change itself as they advocate for climate change mitigation policies. These mutually constitutive forms of representation suggest that scientific ways of seeing the global environment shape and are shaped by the public image and voice of global citizens. Likewise, the authority, credibility, and visibility of Arctic indigenous activists derive, in part, from their status as at-risk experts, a status buttressed by new scientific frameworks and methods that recognize and rely on the local experiences and knowledges of indigenous peoples. Analyses of these relationships linking scientific and political representations of Arctic climate change build upon science and technology studies (STS) scholarship on visualization, challenge conventional notions of globalization, and raise questions about power and accountability in global climate change research.

  3. Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA: computerization and representativeness of its collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo F. Treviño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific collections and herbaria are essential sources of information and education for researchers and practitioners in biological sciences. The Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA, registered at Index Herbariorum since 2004, holds one of the most important collections in Peru. In this paper we provide information about the collection, and its representativeness for the Peruvian flora. HUSA has more than 11000 specimens recorded to date, with more than 2300 determined species, consisting mostly of Magnoliophyta and Pteridophyta (ca. 98%, and a smaller proportion of Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes (fungi and lichens and Bryophyta (mosses. The collection includes specimens from 23 departments of Peru, where the samples belonging to Arequipa have the largest number of individuals collected (3375 accounting for 31% of the collection. Asteraceae and Solanaceae are the most collected with 1571 and 964 specimens, respectively. The majority of geo-referenced specimens came from the tropical wet forest with 15%, followed by the tropical pre-montane wet forest with 8%. We also provide a list of the nomenclatural types and a brief summary of the history and development of HUSA since its creation.

  4. Representative concentration pathways and mitigation scenarios for nitrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of mitigating nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions are substantially different from those for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), because nitrogen (N) is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions are from the agricultural sector. Here I use a model of emission factors of N 2 O to demonstrate the magnitude of improvements in agriculture and industrial sectors and changes in dietary habits that would be necessary to match the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) now being considered in the fifth assessment report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Stabilizing atmospheric N 2 O by 2050, consistent with the most aggressive of the RCP mitigation scenarios, would require about 50% reductions in emission factors in all sectors and about a 50% reduction in mean per capita meat consumption in the developed world. Technologies exist to achieve such improved efficiencies, but overcoming social, economic, and political impediments for their adoption and for changes in dietary habits will present large challenges. (letter)

  5. Examination of representative drum from 618-9 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The work described in this report was conducted in pursuance of Task E of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Solid Waste Technology Support Program for Westinghouse Hanford Company. Task E calls for a determination of the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels under typical Hanford Site conditions. To meet this objective, Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined one intact drum that was judged to be representative of the largely intact drums excavated at the 618-9 Burial Ground located west of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Six samples were examined to characterize the drum, its composition, and its corrosion and corrosion products. The drum, which was found empty, was constructed of low-carbon steel. Its surface appeared relatively sound. The drum metal varied in thickness, but the minimum thickness in the samples was near 0.020 in. The corrosion corresponds to approximately 25 to 35 mils of metal loss, roughly a 1 mil/yr corrosion rate. Corrosion products were goethite and maghymite, expected products of iron buried in soil. Apparently, the drum leaked some time ago, but the cause of the leakage is unknown because records of the drums and their burial are limited. The drum was empty when found, and it is possible that it could have failed by pitting rather than by general corrosion. A pitting rate of about 3.5 mils/yr would have caused loss of drum integrity in the time since burial

  6. Interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Alkaabba, Abdulaziz; Qadi, Mahdi; Albahlal, Abdullah; Alabdulkarim, Yasir; Alabduljabbar, Mohammad; Alqahtani, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representative (PR) is a major component of the promotional activities by pharmaceutical companies. The lack of studies examining the magnitude of this interaction in Saudi Arabia is evident. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and associated characteristics of physician-PR interaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted among physicians working in the different regions of Saudi Arabia between March and July of 2012. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and July of 2012 in the different regions of Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and handed to all participants, both in paper and electronic formats. A total of 663 participants completed the questionnaire. The participation rate was 66.3% (663/1000). The majority of the participants (72.9%) reported interaction with PRs. This was lower among residents/interns compared to higher ranking employees (55.6% vs 83.6%, P strategy to reduce negative impact.

  7. 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy findings representing osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dae Gun; Moon, Tae Geon; Kim, Ji Hong; Son, Seok Man; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki

    2001-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled phosphates is one of the most common procedures in evaluation of various skeletal disorders. Metabolic bone diseases show involvement of the whole skeleton and are associated with increased bone turnover and increased uptake of 99m Tc-labeled phosphates. In this study, we investigated apparently normal women who were examined with routine bone scintigraphy applied bone densitometry to correlate it with skeletal uptake in bone scan. This study includes 79 women who were performed both of bone mineral density(BMD) and bone scintigraphy. We investigated the relation of bone scan findings and BMD of lumbar, femur, radius. Regional BMD were negatively correlated with increased age. Among the bone scintigraphy findings representing metabolic bone disease, uptakes by the long bones, skull and mandible increased with age in women, while that in the costochondral junction decreased. Increased skull and mandible uptakes is associated with decreased BMD, and it has statistically significance. Our results show that increased radionuclide uptake in bone scintigraphy, especially skull and mandible uptake was associated with decreased lumbar, femur BMD in women. So that, increased skull and mandible uptake in women would be a scintigraphic sign of osteopenia or osteoporosis

  8. Representative Delay Measurements (RDM: Facing the Challenge of Modern Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Fabini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.

  9. Kernel-based discriminant feature extraction using a representative dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglin; Sancho Gomez, Jose-Luis; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    2002-07-01

    Discriminant Feature Extraction (DFE) is widely recognized as an important pre-processing step in classification applications. Most DFE algorithms are linear and thus can only explore the linear discriminant information among the different classes. Recently, there has been several promising attempts to develop nonlinear DFE algorithms, among which is Kernel-based Feature Extraction (KFE). The efficacy of KFE has been experimentally verified by both synthetic data and real problems. However, KFE has some known limitations. First, KFE does not work well for strongly overlapped data. Second, KFE employs all of the training set samples during the feature extraction phase, which can result in significant computation when applied to very large datasets. Finally, KFE can result in overfitting. In this paper, we propose a substantial improvement to KFE that overcomes the above limitations by using a representative dataset, which consists of critical points that are generated from data-editing techniques and centroid points that are determined by using the Frequency Sensitive Competitive Learning (FSCL) algorithm. Experiments show that this new KFE algorithm performs well on significantly overlapped datasets, and it also reduces computational complexity. Further, by controlling the number of centroids, the overfitting problem can be effectively alleviated.

  10. Modeling of Cementitious Representative Volume Element with Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzamanian, M. M.; Basirun, W. J.

    CEMHYD3D has been employed to simulate the representative volume element (RVE) of cementitious systems (Type I cement) containing fly ash (Class F) through a voxel-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach. Three-dimensional microstructures composed of voxels are generated for a heterogeneous cementitious material consisting of various constituent phases. The primary focus is to simulate a cementitious RVE containing fly ash and to present the homogenized macromechanical properties obtained from its analysis. Simple kinematic uniform boundary conditions as well as periodic boundary conditions were imposed on the RVE to obtain the principal and shear moduli. Our current work considers the effect of fly ash percentage on the elastic properties based on the mass and volume replacements. RVEs with lengths of 50, 100 and 200μm at different degrees of hydration are generated, and the elastic properties are modeled and simulated. In general, the elastic properties of a cementitious RVE with fly ash replacement for cement based on mass and volume differ from each other. Moreover, the finite element (FE) mesh density effect is studied. Results indicate that mechanical properties decrease with increasing mesh density.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum dolichol phosphate mannose synthase represents a novel clade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Santos de Macedo, Cristiana; Niehus, Sebastian; Dorn, Caroline; Kimmel, Juergen; Azzouz, Nahid; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2008-01-01

    Dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM) catalyzes the reaction between dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) and guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-Man) to form dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man). This molecule acts as mannose donor for N-glycosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum DPM1 (Pfdpm1) possesses a single predicted transmembrane region near the N-, but not the C-terminus. Here we show that the cloned Pfdpm1 gene failed to complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant indicating that the parasite gene does not belong to the baker's yeast group, as was previously assumed. Furthermore, Pfdpm1 was unable to complement a mouse mutant deficient in DPM but efficiently complements the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast mutant, indicating a difference between fission yeast and mammalian DPM genes. Therefore, we reanalyzed the hydrophobicity scales of all known DPMs and consequently reclassify the DPM clade into six major novel subgroups. Furthermore, we show that Pfdpm1 represents a unique enzyme among these subgroups

  12. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  13. Representing knowledge, data and concepts for EHRS using DCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William

    2011-01-01

    With the move towards next generations of Electronic Health Record Systems (EHRS), the focus changes from administrative and data retrieval and data entry system capabilities towards clinical functions. The representation of the clinical knowledge and evidence base into EHRS becomes an important asset for health care, with its own challenges. Clinician's do want EHRS support but do not want to standardize care, they do want unified terminology and structured data entry but also free text. In addition, information modelers challenge each other for the best solution, and care pathways and other workflows seem to differ for each situation. Such diverging approaches add complexity to the already difficult situation around Information Technology in health care, the EHRS in particular. This paper argues that a change is necessary to adopt Detailed Clinical Modeling as a method to organize clinical knowledge, represent concepts and define data in such a manner that it allows for semantics to be exchanged without being trapped in a specific technology. DCM help to fulfill the requirements for the enter data once, reuse multiple times paradigm for EHRS.

  14. Shimoni bat virus, a new representative of the Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Mayer, Anne E; Niezgoda, Michael; Markotter, Wanda; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-05-01

    During 2009, 616 bats representing at least 22 species were collected from 10 locations throughout Kenya. A new lyssavirus, named Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV), was isolated from the brain of a dead Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni), found in a cave in the coastal region of Kenya. Genetic distances and phylogenetic reconstructions, implemented for each gene and for the concatenated alignment of all five structural genes (N, P, M, G and L), demonstrated that SHIBV cannot be identified with any of the existing species, but rather should be considered an independent species within phylogroup II of the Lyssavirus genus, most similar to Lagos bat virus (LBV). Antigenic reaction patterns with anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies corroborated these distinctions. In addition, new data on the diversity of LBV suggests that this species may be subdivided quantitatively into three separate genotypes. However, the identity values alone are not considered sufficient criteria for demarcation of new species within LBV. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  16. Exclusivity structures and graph representatives of local complementation orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Adán; Parker, Matthew G.; Scarpa, Giannicola; Severini, Simone

    2013-07-01

    We describe a construction that maps any connected graph G on three or more vertices into a larger graph, H(G), whose independence number is strictly smaller than its Lovász number which is equal to its fractional packing number. The vertices of H(G) represent all possible events consistent with the stabilizer group of the graph state associated with G, and exclusive events are adjacent. Mathematically, the graph H(G) corresponds to the orbit of G under local complementation. Physically, the construction translates into graph-theoretic terms the connection between a graph state and a Bell inequality maximally violated by quantum mechanics. In the context of zero-error information theory, the construction suggests a protocol achieving the maximum rate of entanglement-assisted capacity, a quantum mechanical analogue of the Shannon capacity, for each H(G). The violation of the Bell inequality is expressed by the one-shot version of this capacity being strictly larger than the independence number. Finally, given the correspondence between graphs and exclusivity structures, we are able to compute the independence number for certain infinite families of graphs with the use of quantum non-locality, therefore highlighting an application of quantum theory in the proof of a purely combinatorial statement.

  17. Interaction of turbulent deflagrations with representative flow obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durst, B.; Ardey, N.; Mayinger, F.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of a gradual release of hydrogen in the course of an assumed, severe accident in a light water reactor, the combustion will normally start out as a slow deflagration. Acceleration of an initially slow flame due to interactions of chemical kinetics and turbulent heat and mass transfer can result in very high flame speeds. Therefore, in order to assess hydrogen mitigation techniques, detailed knowledge about flame acceleration and interaction of flames with obstacles is required. The reported investigations are aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for turbulent flame acceleration and improving present correlations for estimates and models for numerical simulations of hydrogen combustion processes. A medium-scale square cross-section setup is employed, using flow obstacles with shapes representative for reactor containments. The global flame speed is deduced from measurements using thermocouples, pressure transducers and photodiodes. Measurements using a two-component LDA-system are being carried through in order to correlate global flame spread and local turbulence parameters. Results indicate that low blockage-ratio obstacles only marginally influence the flame, as disturbances which are induced remain local to the vicinity of the obstacle and die out very quickly downstream thereof. Flow visualizations by means of a Schlieren setup indicate very complex flow structures in the vicinity of obstacles. The results are being used to validate turbulent reaction models. A model based on probability density functions (pdf) of assumed shape has been developed and initial calculations are presented. (author)

  18. Social tagging: a model for representing information in the blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pérez Sanchidrián

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study addresses the theoretical and conceptual aspects related to social labeling. Has the advantages of labels on different platforms of Web 2.0. Exposes some of the major sites of social labeling system including Flickr, Delicious, Technorati is destcan, among others. Terminologically analyzed using the tags in the blogosphere as a model for representing information. Methods: The research took as methods of qualitative content analysis to identify the behavior of the international literature on this subject and the metric analysis to characterize the use of social labeling in the blogosphere. Results: The study led to qualitatively describe the use of labels on blogs and their terminological particularities associated with the following aspects: creating labels in these spaces is related to a number of social issues among which we can highlight: Politics, Culture, economy, Gender, History, Sexuality, Discrimination, Health, Environment, Technology. The labels on these platforms are defined from the general to the particular and there is no limit concurrency for its creation, usually the authors cite for each post 4-7 labels in order to spread their content as possible in the community. Conclusions: This study enables reflect the social impact of using labels on platforms like blogs.

  19. Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML): an open format for representing quantitative biological dynamics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoda, Koji; Tohsato, Yukako; Ho, Kenneth H L; Onami, Shuichi

    2015-04-01

    Recent progress in live-cell imaging and modeling techniques has resulted in generation of a large amount of quantitative data (from experimental measurements and computer simulations) on spatiotemporal dynamics of biological objects such as molecules, cells and organisms. Although many research groups have independently dedicated their efforts to developing software tools for visualizing and analyzing these data, these tools are often not compatible with each other because of different data formats. We developed an open unified format, Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML; current version: 0.2), which provides a basic framework for representing quantitative biological dynamics data for objects ranging from molecules to cells to organisms. BDML is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML). Its advantages are machine and human readability and extensibility. BDML will improve the efficiency of development and evaluation of software tools for data visualization and analysis. A specification and a schema file for BDML are freely available online at http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/bdml/. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Examining the "Veggie" personality: Results from a representative German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Tamara M; Egloff, Boris

    2018-01-01

    An increasing proportion of people choose to follow a vegetarian diet. To date, however, little is known about if and how individual differences in personality relate to following a vegetarian diet. In the two studies presented here, we aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of self-defined vegetarians in two waves of a German representative sample (N = 4496 and 5125, respectively), (2) analyze the effect of socio-demographic variables on dietary behavior, and (3) examine individual differences between vegetarians and meat eaters in personality traits, political attitudes, and health-related variables. In Study 1, a strict definition of vegetarians was used, while in Study 2 the definition was laxer, to include also individuals who only predominantly followed a vegetarian diet. The prevalence of self-defined vegetarians was 2.74% in Study 1, and 5.97% in Study 2. Participants who were female, younger, and more educated were more likely to report following a vegetarian diet in both studies, and vegetarians had higher income as compared to meat eaters in Study 2. We also found differences between vegetarians and meat eaters with regard to personality traits, political attitudes, and health-related variables. Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed a unique effect beyond socio-demographic variables for openness (Studies 1 and 2), conscientiousness (Study 1), trust (Study 2), conservatism (Studies 1 and 2), and level of interest in politics (Study 1) on diet: Individuals with higher scores in openness and political interest had a higher probability of being vegetarian, whereas people with higher scores in conscientiousness and conservatism had a smaller likelihood of being vegetarian. We conclude that there are individual differences between vegetarians and meat eaters in socio-demographics, personality traits, and political attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Japanese practicing physicians' relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%, received drug samples (85% and stationery (96%, and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME events at the workplace (80% and outside the workplace (93%. Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49% and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%. Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to

  2. Physicians-Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives Interactions and Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists. Taking the specific case of physician-pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR) interactions, also called as detailing, where the PSRs lobby physicians to prescribe their brand drugs while bringing them gifts on the side, an August 2016 article concluded that gifts as small as $20 are associated with higher prescribing rates. A close examination reveals the intricacies of the relationships. Though PSRs ultimately want to push their drugs, more than gifts, they also bring the ready-made synthesized knowledge about the drugs, something the busy physicians, starving for time to read the literature themselves, find hard to let go. Conscientious physicians are not unaware of the marketing tactics. And yet, physicians too are humans. It is also the nature of their job that requires an innate cognitive dissonance to be functional in medical practice, a trait that sometimes works against them in case of PSR interactions. Besides, PSRs too follow the dictates of the shareholders of their companies. Therefore, if they try to influence physicians using social psychology, it is a job they are asked to do. The complexity of relationships creates conundrums that are hard to tackle. This commentary examines various dimensions of these relationships. In the end, a few suggestions are offered as a way forward. PMID:27637269

  3. Representing Reservoir Stratification in Land Surface and Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigzaw, W.; Li, H. Y.; Leung, L. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Voisin, N.; Payn, R. A.; Demissie, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A one-dimensional reservoir stratification modeling has been developed as part of Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), which is the river transport model used in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) and Community Earth System Model (CESM). Reservoirs play an important role in modulating the dynamic water, energy and biogeochemical cycles in the riverine system through nutrient sequestration and stratification. However, most earth system models include lake models that assume a simplified geometry featuring a constant depth and a constant surface area. As reservoir geometry has important effects on thermal stratification, we developed a new algorithm for deriving generic, stratified area-elevation-storage relationships that are applicable at regional and global scales using data from Global Reservoir and Dam database (GRanD). This new reservoir geometry dataset is then used to support the development of a reservoir stratification module within MOSART. The mixing of layers (energy and mass) in the reservoir is driven by eddy diffusion, vertical advection, and reservoir inflow and outflow. Upstream inflow into a reservoir is treated as an additional source/sink of energy, while downstream outflow represented a sink. Hourly atmospheric forcing from North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) Phase II and simulated daily runoff by ACME land component are used as inputs for the model over the contiguous United States for simulations between 2001-2010. The model is validated using selected observed temperature profile data in a number of reservoirs that are subject to various levels of regulation. The reservoir stratification module completes the representation of riverine mass and heat transfer in earth system models, which is a major step towards quantitative understanding of human influences on the terrestrial hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical cycles.

  4. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  5. Physicians-Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives Interactions and Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash R. Patwardhan MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists. Taking the specific case of physician-pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR interactions, also called as detailing, where the PSRs lobby physicians to prescribe their brand drugs while bringing them gifts on the side, an August 2016 article concluded that gifts as small as $20 are associated with higher prescribing rates. A close examination reveals the intricacies of the relationships. Though PSRs ultimately want to push their drugs, more than gifts, they also bring the ready-made synthesized knowledge about the drugs, something the busy physicians, starving for time to read the literature themselves, find hard to let go. Conscientious physicians are not unaware of the marketing tactics. And yet, physicians too are humans. It is also the nature of their job that requires an innate cognitive dissonance to be functional in medical practice, a trait that sometimes works against them in case of PSR interactions. Besides, PSRs too follow the dictates of the shareholders of their companies. Therefore, if they try to influence physicians using social psychology, it is a job they are asked to do. The complexity of relationships creates conundrums that are hard to tackle. This commentary examines various dimensions of these relationships. In the end, a few suggestions are offered as a way forward.

  6. Do 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Represent PAH Air Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Khlystov, Andrey

    2017-08-15

    Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air. The aim was to investigate whether 16 particle-bound U.S. EPA priority PAHs adequately represented health risks of inhalation exposure to atmospheric PAH mixtures. PAH concentrations were converted to benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. TEFs of PAH compounds for which such data is not available were estimated using TEFs of close isomers. Total BaPeq toxicities (∑ 88 BaPeq) of gas- and particle-phase PAHs were compared with BaPeq toxicities calculated for the 16 particle-phase EPA PAH (∑ 16EPA BaPeq). The results showed that 16 EPA particle-bound PAHs underrepresented the carcinogenic potency on average by 85.6% relative to the total (gas and particle) BaPeq toxicity of 88 PAHs. Gas-phase PAHs, like methylnaphthalenes, may contribute up to 30% of ∑ 88 BaPeq. Accounting for other individual non-EPA PAHs (i.e., benzo(e)pyrene) and gas-phase PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene) will make the risk assessment of PAH-containing air samples significantly more accurate.

  7. An Anthology as a Representative Genre in Contemporary Ukrainian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Haleta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed a history and functions of an anthology in a modern Ukrainian literature from the last quarter of the 19th c. to the beginning of the 21st. An anthology is treated as a literary and anthropological project which is characterized by recasting of original materials and specific politics of its re-arangement. It proposes a new cultural value hierarchy, defines a literary field and the rules of its organization. As a form of literary self-representation an anthology participates in a process of forming a literary tradition and canon, its diversification up to the emergence of anti-canon; it intensifies a work of cultural memory, represents new literary genres and styles and also indicates an appearance of diaspora as a model of cultural citizenship. Numerous anthological projects also stress spacial, performative, subjective, gender, erotical, somatic, and oneirological aspects of creative writing; they rethink a very nature of literature as a creative experiment and as a social action in a context of mass culture and new media development. This allows us to consider the literary anthology as a way of a literary self-reflection and as a separate meta-genre in modern Ukrainian literature. The main genre-defining anthological qualities are such as selectivity, double methonimity, integrity and an ability to create new cultural values. The history of anthology as a specific meta-genre helps us to understand the general pecularities of modenr and postmodern literature, its structure and principles of development, its key problems and challanges and also its the most important achievements.

  8. Prescribers and pharmaceutical representatives: why are we still meeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melissa A; Keough, Mary Ellen; Baril, Joann L; Saccoccio, Laura; Mazor, Kathleen M; Ladd, Elissa; Von Worley, Ann; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that pharmaceutical marketing influences prescribing and may cause cognitive dissonance for prescribers. This work has primarily been with physicians and physician-trainees. Questions remain regarding why prescribers continue to meet with pharmaceutical representatives (PRs). To describe the reasons that prescribers from various health professions continue to interact with PRs despite growing evidence of the influence of these interactions. Multi-disciplinary focus groups with 61 participants held in practice settings and at society meetings. Most prescribers participating in our focus groups believe that overall PR interactions are beneficial to patient care and practice health. They either trust the information from PRs or feel that they are equipped to evaluate it independently. Despite acknowledgement of study findings to the contrary, prescribers state that they are able to effectively manage PR interactions such that their own prescribing is not adversely impacted. Prescribers describe few specific strategies or policies for these interactions, and report that policies are not consistently implemented with all members of a clinic or institution. Some prescribers perceive an inherent contradiction between academic centers and national societies receiving money from pharmaceutical companies, and then recommending restriction at the level of the individual prescriber. Prescribers with different training backgrounds present a few novel reasons for these meetings. Despite evidence that PR detailing influences prescribing, providers from several health professions continue to believe that PR interactions improve patient care, and that they can adequately evaluate and filter information presented to them by PRs. Focus group comments suggest that cultural change is necessary to break the norms that exist in many settings. Applying policies consistently, considering non-physician members of the healthcare team, working with trainees, restructuring

  9. How do auditory cortex neurons represent communication sounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Quentin; Huetz, Chloé; Gourévitch, Boris; Laudanski, Jonathan; Occelli, Florian; Edeline, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    A major goal in auditory neuroscience is to characterize how communication sounds are represented at the cortical level. The present review aims at investigating the role of auditory cortex in the processing of speech, bird songs and other vocalizations, which all are spectrally and temporally highly structured sounds. Whereas earlier studies have simply looked for neurons exhibiting higher firing rates to particular conspecific vocalizations over their modified, artificially synthesized versions, more recent studies determined the coding capacity of temporal spike patterns, which are prominent in primary and non-primary areas (and also in non-auditory cortical areas). In several cases, this information seems to be correlated with the behavioral performance of human or animal subjects, suggesting that spike-timing based coding strategies might set the foundations of our perceptive abilities. Also, it is now clear that the responses of auditory cortex neurons are highly nonlinear and that their responses to natural stimuli cannot be predicted from their responses to artificial stimuli such as moving ripples and broadband noises. Since auditory cortex neurons cannot follow rapid fluctuations of the vocalizations envelope, they only respond at specific time points during communication sounds, which can serve as temporal markers for integrating the temporal and spectral processing taking place at subcortical relays. Thus, the temporal sparse code of auditory cortex neurons can be considered as a first step for generating high level representations of communication sounds independent of the acoustic characteristic of these sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisinger, Andy [New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, PO Box 10002, Wellington 6143 (New Zealand); Meinshausen, Malte [Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany); Manning, Martin, E-mail: andy.reisinger@nzagrc.org.nz [Climate Change Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

    2011-04-15

    Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO{sub 2} is influenced by climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, and atmospheric residence times of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O also depend on ambient temperature and other environmental changes. We calculated the currently foreseeable future changes in the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2}, which acts as the denominator for the calculation of all GWPs, and specifically the GWPs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, along four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) up to the year 2100. We find that the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2} decreases under all RCPs, although for longer time horizons this decrease is smaller than for short time horizons due to increased climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. The 100-year GWP of CH{sub 4} would increase up to 20% under the lowest RCP by 2100 but would decrease by up to 10% by mid-century under the highest RCP. The 100-year GWP of N{sub 2}O would increase by more than 30% by 2100 under the highest RCP but would vary by less than 10% under other scenarios. These changes are not negligible but are mostly smaller than the changes that would result from choosing a different time horizon for GWPs, or from choosing altogether different metrics for comparing greenhouse gas emissions, such as global temperature change potentials.

  11. Design and evaluation of representative indoor radon surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Csegzi, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a procedure to design and evaluate representative indoor radon surveys. The procedure is based on random sampling of a population of houses and careful statistical analysis of measured indoor radon concentrations. The method is designed to estimate the fraction of houses in which annual average 222 Rn activity concentration may exceed a certain reference level. Measurements of annual average indoor 222 Rn activity concentration were done in sleeping rooms at pillow level using etched track type radon detectors. We applied the above procedure in an old fashioned village and in a fast developing small city in Transylvania, Romania. In the village almost all houses were single floor wooden made houses without cellar built with traditional technology on a geologically uniform area. The distribution of indoor 222 Rn activity concentration in a sample of 115 houses can almost perfectly be fitted with log-normal probability density function. The correlation coefficient of linear fitting on linearized scales was k = -0.9980. The percentages of houses expected to have annual average 222 Rn activity concentration higher than 400 Bq m -3 is less than 1 %, and of those higher than 600 Bq m -3 can be estimated to be around 0.1 %. The small city, on the other hand lies on a geologically inhomogeneous area, and house construction technology has also changed dramatically in past decades. The resulting distribution of measured indoor 222 Rn activity concentration in a sample of 116 houses cannot be fitted with any simple probability density function. Therefore the prediction of the fraction of houses in which the annual average 222 Rn activity concentration may exceed a certain reference level could not be done adequately. With certain assumptions we estimated that the percentages of houses expected to have annual average 222 Rn activity concentration higher than 400 Bq m -3 is between 3 and 7 %, and of those higher than 600 Bq m -3 can be estimated to be between

  12. Engineering activities on the ITER representative diagnostic equatorial port plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, L.; Doceul, L.; Salasca, S.; Martins, J.-P.; Jullien, F.; Dechelle, Christian; Bidaud, Pierre; Pilard, Vincent; Terra, Alexis; Ogea, Mathieu; Ciattaglia, Emanuela; Walker, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Most of ITER diagnostic systems are integrated in port plugs, which are water cooled stainless steel structures inserted into the vacuum vessel ports. The port plug must provide basic functions such as neutron and gamma shielding, supporting the first wall armour (BSM), closing the vacuum vessel ports, while supporting the diagnostic equipments. ITER diagnostic port plug must resist a severe environment like high temperature due to neutron interaction with the structures and high electromechanical loading during disruptions events. CEA has contributed to the design and integration tasks in the frame of the representative equatorial port plug EQ no. 01, in particular on the engineering, structural and thermal finite element analysis. These detailed analyses have highlighted some design issues which were worked out through different solutions. This paper contains a description of the engineering activities performed such as: -The static mechanical calculations of the top plate closure system under disruption load. -The static mechanical calculations of the BSM attachment to the port plug. These two first studies led to design changes proposals which significantly improved the behaviour of the structures but also showed that the safety margin with respect to design limits is quite low. -The design of a Diagnostic Shield Module (DSM) integrated inside the port plug and a proposition of attachment scheme, with respect to disruption loads. The manufacturing of the DSM has been taken into account, as well as diagnostic integration inside the structure and maintenance aspects. -The thermal assessment of the port plug under neutronic load during normal operation, with the optimization of the cooling system. The maximum temperature calculated in normal operation has been reduced from 900 deg. C to less than 400 deg. C in the front plate; and the cooling arrangement at the back of the port plug has been simplified without important temperature increase.

  13. Engineering activities on the ITER representative diagnostic equatorial port plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, L. [Association Euratom CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM (France)], E-mail: lmeunier@cea.fr; Doceul, L.; Salasca, S.; Martins, J.-P.; Jullien, F.; Dechelle, Christian; Bidaud, Pierre; Pilard, Vincent; Terra, Alexis; Ogea, Mathieu [Association Euratom CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM (France); Ciattaglia, Emanuela [EFDA CSU, Garching (Germany); Walker, Christopher [ITER International Organisation (France)

    2009-06-15

    Most of ITER diagnostic systems are integrated in port plugs, which are water cooled stainless steel structures inserted into the vacuum vessel ports. The port plug must provide basic functions such as neutron and gamma shielding, supporting the first wall armour (BSM), closing the vacuum vessel ports, while supporting the diagnostic equipments. ITER diagnostic port plug must resist a severe environment like high temperature due to neutron interaction with the structures and high electromechanical loading during disruptions events. CEA has contributed to the design and integration tasks in the frame of the representative equatorial port plug EQ no. 01, in particular on the engineering, structural and thermal finite element analysis. These detailed analyses have highlighted some design issues which were worked out through different solutions. This paper contains a description of the engineering activities performed such as: -The static mechanical calculations of the top plate closure system under disruption load. -The static mechanical calculations of the BSM attachment to the port plug. These two first studies led to design changes proposals which significantly improved the behaviour of the structures but also showed that the safety margin with respect to design limits is quite low. -The design of a Diagnostic Shield Module (DSM) integrated inside the port plug and a proposition of attachment scheme, with respect to disruption loads. The manufacturing of the DSM has been taken into account, as well as diagnostic integration inside the structure and maintenance aspects. -The thermal assessment of the port plug under neutronic load during normal operation, with the optimization of the cooling system. The maximum temperature calculated in normal operation has been reduced from 900 deg. C to less than 400 deg. C in the front plate; and the cooling arrangement at the back of the port plug has been simplified without important temperature increase.

  14. Representatives of religious education in the structure of Novorossiysk university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. П. Бахчиванжи

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available History of the Departments of Theology, Ecclesiastical History and Ecclesiastical Law of Novorossiysk University as well as clarification of activities of professors who were the Heads of these Departments is the subject of the article. The objective of the research was to reveal the contribution to science these professors had made on basis of such material as “Records of Proceedings of the Board Meeting of Novorossiysk University”, “Teaching of Sciences at the Imperial Novorossiysk University Review” as well as the particular studies of the professors themselves. As a result of the research using the analytical approach generic aspects of existence of theological departments in educational structure of the University including the period of teaching the theological disciplines at the Richelieu Lycée were described. The basic legislative acts regulating the activity of such Departments were stated and the activity of such professors as Pavlovskiy M.K., Kudryavtsev A.N., Voytovskiy V.M., Klitin A.N., Krasnoseltsev N.F., Dobroklonskiy A.P., Almazov A.I., Pavlov F.S. who not only became the significant persons in the history of the University but also played the leading role in social and spiritual life of Odessa in general was elucidated. Such analysis of the activity of the representatives of religious education at Novorossiysk University provided an opportunity to conclude of the importance of the theological disciplines in educational structure of the University as it is them that are of great importance to the spiritual development of personality and society on the whole.

  15. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Representational similarity analyses showed that amygdala codes the entire dimension of valence, ranging from pleasantness to unpleasantness. This unidimensional representation significantly correlated with self-reported valence ratings but not with intensity ratings. Furthermore, within-trial valence representations evolved over time, prioritizing earlier differentiation of unpleasant stimuli. Together, these findings underscore the idea that both spatial and temporal features uniquely encode pleasant and unpleasant odor valence in the amygdala. The availability of a unidimensional valence code in the amygdala, distributed in both space and time, would create greater flexibility in determining the pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli, providing a mechanism by which expectation, context, attention, and learning could influence affective boundaries for guiding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of affective processing in the amygdala by demonstrating that this brain region represents the entire valence dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. An important implication of this unidimensional valence code is that pleasant and unpleasant valence cannot coexist in the amygdale because overlap of fMRI ensemble patterns for these two valence extremes obscures their unique content. This functional architecture, whereby subjective valence maps onto a pattern continuum between pleasant and unpleasant poles, offers a robust mechanism by which context

  16. How preschoolers and adults represent their joint action partner's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Meyer, M; Hartstra, E; Bekkering, H; Hunnius, S

    2017-10-24

    We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying turn-taking joint action in 42-month-old children (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) using a behavioral task of dressing a virtual bear together. We aimed to investigate how participants represent a partners' behavior, i.e., in terms of specific action kinematics or of action effects. The bear was dressed by pressing a smaller and a bigger button. In the Action-response task, instructions asked participants to respond to the partner by pressing the same or opposite button; in the Action-effect task they had to respond to the partner's action effect by dressing the bear with the lacking part of the clothing, which in some cases implied pressing the same button and in other cases implied pressing the opposite button. In 50% of the trials, the partner's association between each button and the ensuing effect (dressing the bear with t-shirt or pants) was reversed, while it never changed for participants. Both children and adults showed no effect of physical congruency of actions, but showed impaired performance in the Action-effect task if their partner achieved her effect through a different action-effect association than their own. These results suggest that, when encoding their partner's actions, agents are influenced by action-effect associations that they learnt through their own experience. While interference led to overt errors in children, it caused longer reaction times in adults, suggesting that a flexible cognitive control (that is still in development in young children) is required to take on the partner's perspective.

  17. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional

  18. THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF PATHOGENIC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEPTOSPIRA GENIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Vaganova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pathogenic leptospires can infect wide spectrum of hosts and they can survive in the environment long time. The outer membrane is the cellular component participated in interaction of microorganisms and environment. In present time several proteins located in the outer membrane of leptospires which are responsible for colonization of host organism, protection from influence of immune system of host, transport of substances in to the cell and other processes have been described. The outer membrane contains proteins and lipopolysaccharide molecules which have citotoxic effect. It was shown that regulation of protein composition of membranes depends on several factors of environment such as temperature, osmolarity, presence of certain substances in environment. Lipopolysaccharide and protein molecules of outer membranes have antigenic properties. These molecules can be used in practice as the components of vaccine against leptospiroses and diagnostic tools. Current review summarize information concerning structural organization of the outer membrane of leptospires, diversities of incoming parts of molecules and regulation of their synthesis. Moreover, perspectives of practical using of the outer membrane components in diagnostics and prevention of leptospiroses are presented.

  19. A Multi-Agent Framework Manages a Representative Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, D.; Schmidt, D.; Biswas, G.; Kinnebrew, J.; Otte, W.; Shankaran, N.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's vision of a Sensor Web (which includes a distributed global observation system) consists of a large number of elements, such as remote spacecraft hosting multiple instruments, in situ terrestrial and oceanic sensor networks, and airborne assets. Researchers and developers of a Sensor web face a number of challenges that arise from (1) the inherent heterogeneous and geographical distributed nature of the Sensor web; (2) the myriad mission goals and objectives that must be satisfied by the Sensor web, ranging from an improved understanding of earth science, weather forecasting, and disaster management to an alleviation of societal problems; and (3) the need to support myriad operational modes, such as long and short-term monitoring and targeted observations. Resolving these challenges requires some form of autonomy - typically embodied in software. Agent technology has emerged both as a salient purveyor of entities that exhibit autonomous behavior and also as a paradigm for constructing complex software systems with a large number of interacting heterogeneous components. This paper describes our experiences integrating the Multi-agent Architecture for Coordinated Responsive Observations (MACRO) into the SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education, and Research (SEAMONSTER). MACRO provides agents at (1) the mission level, where agents interact with users to define science goals and then translate these goals into a set of prioritized tasks that have to be executed to achieve these goals, and (2) the resource level, where agents translate tasks into activities related to data collection, data analysis, and data communication. As a representative small-scale sensor web situated in multiple locations on the Juneau Icefield, SEAMONSTER affords an unparalleled opportunity to develop, mature, and showcase MACRO's multi-level agent capabilities. MACRO is developed by the Lockheed Martin Space System Company's Advanced Technology

  20. Heterogeneous researchers in a two-sector representative consumer economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Research activities have uncertain outcomes. The question asked in this paper is whether or not this uncertainty can be a central piece on the explanation of long run consumption growth paths. More specifically, we inquire how the existence of different research projects, with different degrees of uncertainty, contributes to unpredictable consumption growth paths. The proposed scenario is a two-sector representative consumer model with researchers that invest in different innovation projects. There is heterogeneity in terms of risk associated to research programs (researchers invest in projects with the same expected outcome but different volatility. This difference in volatility, combined with an adaptive learning - bounded rationality rule, implies an aggregate index of technology and a consumption growth rate that do not present a predictable pattern over time.As actividades de investigação produzem resultados incertos. A questão colocada neste artigo é se esta incerteza pode ser uma peça central na explicação das trajectórias de crescimento do consumo no longo prazo. Mais especificamente, pergunta-se como a existência de diferentes projectos de investigação, com diferentes graus de incerteza associados, contribui para trajectórias de crescimento do consumo que não são passíveis de previsão. O cenário proposto é um modelo de consumidor representativo de dois sectores com investigadores que investem em diferentes projectos de inovação. Existe heterogeneidade ao nível do risco associado aos programas de investigação (os investigadores investem em projectos com o mesmo resultado esperado mas diferente volatilidade. A diferença na volatilidade, combinada com uma regra de aprendizagem adaptativa - racionalidade limitada, implica um índice agregado de tecnologia e uma taxa de crescimento do consumo que não apresentam um padrão previsível ao longo do tempo.

  1. Representativeness of different factors affecting the economic impact of mastitis in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this study was to identify and quantify the most representative factor affecting the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds in order to establish those that should receive greater attention from farmers and technicians to reduce the economic impact of this important disease. A simulation study was conducted with the CU$TO MASTITE program, considering 324 different herds and using combinations of the following factors: somatic cell count (250,000; 500,000; 750,000 and 1,000,000 somatic cells/mL milk; production scale (50; 100 and 150 lactating cows; productivity per animal (10; 20 and 30 L/cow/day; average annual incidence of clinical mastitis (1%; 7% and 15%, and involuntary culling rate due to mastitis (2%; 4% and 6%. Preventive measures included expenses with monitoring [culture and antibiogram, bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC, and individual somatic cell counts], pre- and post-dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows, and maintenance of the milking machine. Only treatments of clinical cases were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. The mean incidence of clinical mastitis (MIM and BTSCC were significant (P<0.05 in five of the seven models analyzed [economic impact per lactating cow (ILC, economic impact per liter of milk (ILM, economic impact of curative treatment per liter of milk (CTM, economic impact of milk disposal/liter of sold milk (IMD, and economic impact of reduction in production per liter of milk (IRM]. However, the standardized coefficient for MIM was higher in three indicators (ILC, IMD and CTM, a fact rendering this factor more representative when compared to BTSCC, which also had five significant indicators. Comparison of the medians of curative treatments and preventive measures per lactating cow revealed an excellent cost/benefit ratio. These findings demonstrate that both

  2. Cell cycle regulation in human embryonic stem cells: links to adaptation to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Tomas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Holubcova, Zuzana; Hampl, Ales

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle represents not only a tightly orchestrated mechanism of cell replication and cell division but it also plays an important role in regulation of cell fate decision. Particularly in the context of pluripotent stem cells or multipotent progenitor cells, regulation of cell fate decision is of paramount importance. It has been shown that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) show unique cell cycle characteristics, such as short doubling time due to abbreviated G1 phase; these properties change with the onset of differentiation. This review summarizes the current understanding of cell cycle regulation in hESCs. We discuss cell cycle properties as well as regulatory machinery governing cell cycle progression of undifferentiated hESCs. Additionally, we provide evidence that long-term culture of hESCs is accompanied by changes in cell cycle properties as well as configuration of several cell cycle regulatory molecules.

  3. Officers, Boards, Committees, and Representatives of the American Psychological Association, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Council of Representatives is composed of the Board of Directors, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) representative, division representatives, and state, provincial, and territorial association representatives. Then representatives for the current year, with terms of office, are listed in this article.

  4. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  5. Simulation of DNAPL migration in heterogeneous translucent porous media based on estimation of representative elementary volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Wu, Jianfeng; Wu, Jichun

    2017-10-01

    When the dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) comes into the subsurface environment, its migration behavior is crucially affected by the permeability and entry pressure of subsurface porous media. A prerequisite for accurately simulating DNAPL migration in aquifers is then the determination of the permeability, entry pressure and corresponding representative elementary volumes (REV) of porous media. However, the permeability, entry pressure and corresponding representative elementary volumes (REV) are hard to determine clearly. This study utilizes the light transmission micro-tomography (LTM) method to determine the permeability and entry pressure of two dimensional (2D) translucent porous media and integrates the LTM with a criterion of relative gradient error to quantify the corresponding REV of porous media. As a result, the DNAPL migration in porous media might be accurately simulated by discretizing the model at the REV dimension. To validate the quantification methods, an experiment of perchloroethylene (PCE) migration is conducted in a two-dimensional heterogeneous bench-scale aquifer cell. Based on the quantifications of permeability, entry pressure and REV scales of 2D porous media determined by the LTM and relative gradient error, different models with different sizes of discretization grid are used to simulate the PCE migration. It is shown that the model based on REV size agrees well with the experimental results over the entire migration period including calibration, verification and validation processes. This helps to better understand the microstructures of porous media and achieve accurately simulating DNAPL migration in aquifers based on the REV estimation.

  6. Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.

    2011-04-01

    Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas

  7. Associated factors of obesity in Spanish representative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; López-Solaber, Ana M; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2013-09-01

    Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and the serious health and economic consequences, the scientific community, health professionals and health agencies are looking for the best strategies to prevent/ fight this trend. In order to plan the most appropriate intervention measures the first step is to identify the associated factors of obesity. This paper presents the results of research conducted/coordinated by our research team and promoted by the Spanish Food Safety Agency (AESAN), in the last five years. These studies were focussed on representative samples of the Spanish population, paying attention to the condition of overweight/obesity and their associated factors. The first study, FANPE ("Fuentes alimentarias de nutrientes de la población española") (2009), was centered in 418 adults (18-60 years) from 15 provinces (30 sampling points). Its aim was to analyze the dietary sources of nutrients, paying particular attention to sodium. This research showed that the risk of overweight/obesity increa ses with age, in people who have follow weight control diets, in ex-smokers, married people and those who slept less than 8.5 hours per day, while the risk is lower in women, people who make sport and those with a University degree. It was also found that overweight people had higher sodium intake and urine excretion. Therefore, and having in mind that 88.2% of the subjects took more than 2 g/day of sodium (the maximum recommended), it is advised to lower the sodium intake not only from the health point of view but also as a probably strategy against obesity. The study ALADINO (Estudio de Alimentación, Actividad física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad--Study of the Diet, Physical Activity, Child Development and Obesity) (2010-2011) was focused on 7659 children (6-9 years) from 19 autonomous communities. We founded a higher percentage of overweight/obesity in boys than in girls, and a significant increase in the figures from the age of 7. Being

  8. Graphical User Interface Development for Representing Air Flow Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nilika

    2004-01-01

    In the Turbine Branch, scientists carry out experimental and computational work to advance the efficiency and diminish the noise production of jet engine turbines. One way to do this is by decreasing the heat that the turbine blades receive. Most of the experimental work is carried out by taking a single turbine blade and analyzing the air flow patterns around it, because this data indicates the sections of the turbine blade that are getting too hot. Since the cost of doing turbine blade air flow experiments is very high, researchers try to do computational work that fits the experimental data. The goal of computational fluid dynamics is for scientists to find a numerical way to predict the complex flow patterns around different turbine blades without physically having to perform tests or costly experiments. When visualizing flow patterns, scientists need a way to represent the flow conditions around a turbine blade. A researcher will assign specific zones that surround the turbine blade. In a two-dimensional view, the zones are usually quadrilaterals. The next step is to assign boundary conditions which define how the flow enters or exits one side of a zone. way of setting up computational zones and grids, visualizing flow patterns, and storing all the flow conditions in a file on the computer for future computation. Such a program is necessary because the only method for creating flow pattern graphs is by hand, which is tedious and time-consuming. By using a computer program to create the zones and grids, the graph would be faster to make and easier to edit. Basically, the user would run a program that is an editable graph. The user could click and drag with the mouse to form various zones and grids, then edit the locations of these grids, add flow and boundary conditions, and finally save the graph for future use and analysis. My goal this summer is to create a graphical user interface (GUI) that incorporates all of these elements. I am writing the program in

  9. Gene Fusions Associated with Recurrent Amplicons Represent a Class of Passenger Aberrations in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing has spurred highly sensitive detection and discovery of gene fusions in cancer, but distinguishing potentially oncogenic fusions from random, “passenger” aberrations has proven challenging. Here we examine a distinctive group of gene fusions that involve genes present in the loci of chromosomal amplifications—a class of oncogenic aberrations that are widely prevalent in breast cancers. Integrative analysis of a panel of 14 breast cancer cell lines comparing gene fusions discovered by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and genome-wide copy number aberrations assessed by array comparative genomic hybridization, led to the identification of 77 gene fusions, of which more than 60% were localized to amplicons including 17q12, 17q23, 20q13, chr8q, and others. Many of these fusions appeared to be recurrent or involved highly expressed oncogenic drivers, frequently fused with multiple different partners, but sometimes displaying loss of functional domains. As illustrative examples of the “amplicon-associated” gene fusions, we examined here a recurrent gene fusion involving the mediator of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, RPS6KB1 kinase in BT-474, and the therapeutically important receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line. These gene fusions comprise a minor allelic fraction relative to the highly expressed full-length transcripts and encode chimera lacking the kinase domains, which do not impart dependence on the respective cells. Our study suggests that amplicon-associated gene fusions in breast cancer primarily represent a by-product of chromosomal amplifications, which constitutes a subset of passenger aberrations and should be factored accordingly during prioritization of gene fusion candidates.

  10. CellNet: Network Biology Applied to Stem Cell Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Morris, Samantha A.; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Daley, George Q.; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for improving cell derivations. Analyzing expression data from 56 published reports, we found that cells derived via directed differentiation more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts than products of direct conversion, as reflected by the establishment of target cell-type gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Furthermore, we discovered that directly converted cells fail to adequately silence expression programs of the starting population, and that the establishment of unintended GRNs is common to virtually every cellular engineering paradigm. CellNet provides a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type and a rational strategy to guide enhanced cellular engineering. PMID:25126793

  11. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  12. Collective cell streams in epithelial monolayers depend on cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirók, András; Varga, Katalin; Méhes, Előd; Szabó, András

    2013-01-01

    We report spontaneously emerging, randomly oriented, collective streaming behavior within a monolayer culture of a human keratinocyte cell line, and explore the effect of modulating cell adhesions by perturbing the function of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules. We demonstrate that decreasing cell adhesion induces narrower and more anisotropic cell streams, reminiscent of decreasing the Taylor scale of turbulent liquids. To explain our empirical findings, we propose a cell-based model that represents the dual nature of cell–cell adhesions. Spring-like connections provide mechanical stability, while a cellular Potts model formalism represents surface-tension driven attachment. By changing the relevance and persistence of mechanical links between cells, we are able to explain the experimentally observed changes in emergent flow patterns. (paper)

  13. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  14. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F González-Maya

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26% of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5% in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  15. [Embryonic stem cells. Future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, M; David, R; Franz, W M

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are able to differentiate into any cell type, and therefore represent an excellent source for cellular replacement therapies in the case of widespread diseases, for example heart failure, diabetes, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury. A major prerequisite for their efficient and safe clinical application is the availability of pure populations for direct cell transplantation or tissue engineering as well as the immunological compatibility of the transplanted cells. The expression of human surface markers under the control of cell type specific promoters represents a promising approach for the selection of cardiomyocytes and other cell types for therapeutic applications. The first human clinical trial using ES cells will start in the United States this year.

  16. Overview of Cell Synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2017-01-01

    The widespread interest in cell synchronization is maintained by the studies of control mechanism involved in cell cycle regulation. During the synchronization distinct subpopulations of cells are obtained representing different stages of the cell cycle. These subpopulations are then used to study regulatory mechanisms of the cycle at the level of macromolecular biosynthesis (DNA synthesis, gene expression, protein synthesis), protein phosphorylation, development of new drugs, etc. Although several synchronization methods have been described, it is of general interest that scientists get a compilation and an updated view of these synchronization techniques. This introductory chapter summarizes: (1) the basic concepts and principal criteria of cell cycle synchronizations, (2) the most frequently used synchronization methods, such as physical fractionation (flow cytometry, dielectrophoresis, cytofluorometric purification), chemical blockade, (3) synchronization of embryonic cells, (4) synchronization at low temperature, (5) comparison of cell synchrony techniques, (6) synchronization of unicellular organisms, and (7) the effect of synchronization on transfection.

  17. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  18. In situ immune response and mechanisms of cell damage in central nervous system of fatal cases microcephaly by Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda S S; de Sousa, Jorge R; Araujo, Marialva T F; Martins Filho, Arnaldo J; de Alcantara, Bianca N; Araujo, Fernanda M C; Queiroz, Maria G L; Cruz, Ana C R; Vasconcelos, Beatriz H Baldez; Chiang, Jannifer O; Martins, Lívia C; Casseb, Livia M N; da Silva, Eliana V; Carvalho, Valéria L; Vasconcelos, Barbara C Baldez; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Oliveira, Consuelo S; Quaresma, Juarez A S; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2018-01-08

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture. In microcephaly cases, the histopathological features of the tissue samples were characterized in three CNS areas (meninges, perivascular space, and parenchyma). The changes found were mainly calcification, necrosis, neuronophagy, gliosis, microglial nodules, and inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear cells. The in situ immune response against ZIKV in the CNS of newborns is complex. Despite the predominant expression of Th2 cytokines, other cytokines such as Th1, Th17, Treg, Th9, and Th22 are involved to a lesser extent, but are still likely to participate in the immunopathogenic mechanisms of neural disease in fatal cases of microcephaly caused by ZIKV.

  19. Optimization of the representativeness and transposition approach, for the neutronic design of experimental programs in critical mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos-Santos, N.

    2013-01-01

    The work performed during this thesis focused on uncertainty propagation (nuclear data, technological uncertainties, calculation biases,...) on integral parameters, and the development of a novel approach enabling to reduce this uncertainty a priori directly from the design phase of a new experimental program. This approach is based on a multi-parameter multi-criteria extension of representativeness and transposition theories. The first part of this PhD work covers an optimization study of sensitivity and uncertainty calculation schemes to different modeling scales (cell, assembly and whole core) for LWRs and FBRs. A degraded scheme, based on standard and generalized perturbation theories, has been validated for the calculation of uncertainty propagation to various integral quantities of interest. It demonstrated the good a posteriori representativeness of the EPICURE experiment for the validation of mixed UOX-MOX loadings, as the importance of some nuclear data in the power tilt phenomenon in large LWR cores. The second part of this work was devoted to methods and tools development for the optimized design of experimental programs in ZPRs. Those methods are based on multi-parameters representativeness using simultaneously various quantities of interest. Finally, an original study has been conducted on the rigorous estimation of correlations between experimental programs in the transposition process. The coupling of experimental correlations and multi-parametric representativeness approach enables to efficiently design new programs, able to answer additional qualification requirements on calculation tools. (author) [fr

  20. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  1. Determination of a representative volume element based on the variability of mechanical properties with sample size in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Cristian; Young, Ashley; James, Bryony; Aguilera, José M

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of food structure is commonly obtained by image analysis of a small portion of the material that may not be the representative of the whole sample. In order to quantify structural parameters (air cells) of 2 types of bread (bread and bagel) the concept of representative volume element (RVE) was employed. The RVE for bread, bagel, and gelatin-gel (used as control) was obtained from the relationship between sample size and the coefficient of variation, calculated from the apparent Young's modulus measured on 25 replicates. The RVE was obtained when the coefficient of variation for different sample sizes converged to a constant value. In the 2 types of bread tested, the tendency of the coefficient of variation was to decrease as the sample size increased, while in the homogeneous gelatin-gel, it remained always constant around 2.3% to 2.4%. The RVE resulted to be cubes with sides of 45 mm for bread, 20 mm for bagels, and 10 mm for gelatin-gel (smallest sample tested). The quantitative image analysis as well as visual observation demonstrated that bread presented the largest dispersion of air-cell sizes. Moreover, both the ratio of maximum air-cell area/image area and maximum air-cell height/image height were greater for bread (values of 0.05 and 0.30, respectively) than for bagels (0.03 and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, the size and the size variation of air cells present in the structure determined the size of the RVE. It was concluded that RVE is highly dependent on the heterogeneity of the structure of the types of baked products.

  2. Alternative Cell Death Pathways and Cell Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fulda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases.

  3. Collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event in Caenorhabditis elegans aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Anat; Miller, Elizabeth A; Morimoto, Richard I

    2009-09-01

    Protein damage contributes prominently to cellular aging. To address whether this occurs at a specific period during aging or accumulates gradually, we monitored the biochemical, cellular, and physiological properties of folding sensors expressed in different tissues of C. elegans. We observed the age-dependent misfolding and loss of function of diverse proteins harboring temperature-sensitive missense mutations in all somatic tissues at the permissive condition. This widespread failure in proteostasis occurs rapidly at an early stage of adulthood, and coincides with a severely reduced activation of the cytoprotective heat shock response and the unfolded protein response. Enhancing stress responsive factors HSF-1 or DAF-16 suppresses misfolding of these metastable folding sensors and restores the ability of the cell to maintain a functional proteome. This suggests that a compromise in the regulation of proteostatic stress responses occurs early in adulthood and tips the balance between the load of damaged proteins and the proteostasis machinery. We propose that the collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event of aging that amplifies protein damage in age-associated diseases of protein conformation.

  4. The pituitary gland under infrared light - in search of a representative spectrum for homogeneous regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, A; Banas, K; Furgal-Borzych, A; Kwiatek, W M; Pawlicki, B; Breese, M B H

    2015-04-07

    The pituitary gland is a small but vital organ in the human body. It is located at the base of the brain and is often described as the master gland due to its multiple functions. The pituitary gland secretes and stores hormones, such as the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (hGH), prolactin, gonadotropins, and luteinizing hormones, as well as the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). A proper diagnosis of pituitary disorders is of utmost importance as this organ participates in regulating a variety of body functions. Typical histopathological analysis provides much valuable information, but it gives no insight into the biochemical background of the changes that occur within the gland. One approach that could be used to evaluate the biochemistry of tissue sections obtained from pituitary disorders is Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectromicroscopy. In order to collect diagnostically valuable information large areas of tissue must be investigated. This work focuses on obtaining a unique and representative FTIR spectrum characteristic of one type of cell architecture within a sample. The idea presented is based on using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for data evaluation to search for uniform patterns within samples from the perspective of FTIR spectra. The results obtained demonstrate that FTIR spectromicroscopy, combined with proper statistical evaluation, can be treated as a complementary method for histopathological analysis and ipso facto can increase the sensitivity and specificity for detecting various disorders not only for the pituitary gland, but also for other human tissues.

  5. Can TIE-2 expressing monocytes represent a novel marker for hepatocellular carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapas, Barbara; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is a global health problem representing the sixth most common cancer and the third cause of cancer related death worldwide. The number of deaths per year in HCC is comparable to the incidence number, underlying the aggressive behavior of HCC and the modest efficacy of available curative treatments. Effective HCC treatment is problematic also due to the lack of early and specific diagnostic markers. In this regard, particular interest has been put on the tyrosine kinase with Ig and endothelial growth factor (EGF) homology domains 2 (TIE2), a receptor of angiopoietins, predominantly present on endothelial cells but also observed on monocytes [TIE-2-expressing monocytes (TEMs)]. Recently, a work by Matsubara et al. showed that the amount of circulating TEMs is higher in hepatitis virus C (HCV)/HCC patients compared to HCV patients or healthy subjects. Additionally the authors showed that TEMs have a diagnostic potential for HCC. Whereas the molecular mechanisms responsible for this observation remain elusive and further studies are necessary to confirm this finding, the work of Matsubara et al. may contribute to the identification of a novel HCC prognostic and diagnostic marker.

  6. Harnessing Big Data to Represent 30-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, N.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Van Huijgevoort, M.; Milly, C.; Sulman, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial land surface processes play a critical role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (˜30 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing global environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles. The state-of-the-art Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model is then used to simulate these tiles and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  7. The Langerhans cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, K.; Stingl, G.

    1983-01-01

    Langerhans cells are the bone-marrow-derived immune cells of the epidermis; they express Ia antigens and receptors for the Fc portion of IgG and complement components and are required for epidermal-cell-induced antigen-specific, syngeneic and allogeneic T-cell activitation and the generation of epidermal-cell-induced cytotoxic T cells. Their presence within the epidermis and functional integrity determine whether topical application of haptens leads to specific sensitization or unresponsiveness, and in skin grafts of only I region disparate donors, they represent the cells responsible for the critical allosensitizing signal. UV radiation abrogates most of Langerhans cell functions in vitro; under certain conditions in vivo, it prevents contact sensitization favoring the development of specific unresponsiveness. UV radiation abrogates antigen-presenting capacities of epidermal cells by interfering both with the processing of antigen by Langerhans cells and the production of the epidermal-cell-derived thymocyte activating factor required for optimal T-cell responses

  8. Representative bureaucracy, organizational strategy, and public service performance: An emperical analysis of English local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Andrews, Rhys; Boyne, George A.; Meier, Kenneth J.; Walker, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    The theory of representative bureaucracy suggests that organizations perform better if their workforces reflect the characteristics of their constituent populations. The management literature implies that the impact of representative bureaucracy is contingent on organizational strategy. Our

  9. Technical basis for the aboveground structure failure and associated represented hazardous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOETZ, T.G.

    2003-01-01

    This technical basis document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for the aboveground structure failure representative accident and associated represented hazardous conditions. This document was developed to support the documented safety analysis

  10. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  11. The appropriateness of using various Minkowskian metrics for representing cognitive configurations

    OpenAIRE

    G D Richardson

    1981-01-01

    Cognitive mapping has been a rapidly growing area of research concerned with how cognitive information about environments is represented, interpreted, and used. One area of research has been concerned with what geometry best represents cognitive spatial information. This paper further pursues this topic by examining which of three Minkowskian metrics (city-block, Euclidean, dominance) is most appropriate for representing cognitive configurations.

  12. Representative voice in different organizational contexts : a study of 40 departments of a Dutch childcare organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauksztat, Birgit; Wittek, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    'Representative voice' can be defined as actions in which one or more speakers represent others when speaking up about a problem at the workplace or making a suggestion. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of representative voice, assess the frequency of its occurrence and examine

  13. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  14. 22 CFR 72.9 - Responsibility if legal representative is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility if legal representative is... Nationals § 72.9 Responsibility if legal representative is present. (a) A consular officer should not act as provisional conservator if the consular officer knows that a legal representative is present in the foreign...

  15. Contingent representativity: Rival views of representatve bureaucracy and the challenges for nationbuilders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we argue that representative bureaucracy is a changing concept, and that in the academic and policy debate on representative bureaucracy in fact three different debates are intermingled. While the debate on representative bureaucracy in Public Administration is generally

  16. 40 CFR 60.4110 - Authorization and Responsibilities of Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hg designated representative. 60.4110 Section 60.4110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4110 Authorization and Responsibilities of Hg designated representative...

  17. 28 CFR 540.20 - Inmate correspondence with representatives of the news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of the news media. 540.20 Section 540.20 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... correspondence with representatives of the news media. (a) An inmate may write through “special mail” to representatives of the news media specified by name or title (see § 540.2(b)). (b) The inmate may not receive...

  18. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  19. Cell Interactomics and Carcinogenetic Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, IC; Report to the Institute of Genomics

    2004-01-01

    Single cell interactomics in simpler organisms, as well as somatic cell interactomics in multicellular organisms, involve biomolecular interactions in complex signalling pathways that were recently represented in modular terms by quantum automata with ‘reversible behavior’ representing normal cell cycling and division. Other implications of such quantum automata, modular modeling of signaling pathways and cell differentiation during development are in the fields of neural plasticity and brain development leading to quantum-weave dynamic patterns and specific molecular processes underlying extensive memory, learning, anticipation mechanisms and the emergence of human consciousness during the early brain development in children. Cell interactomics is here represented for the first time as a mixture of ‘classical’ states that determine molecular dynamics subject to Boltzmann statistics and ‘steady-state’, metabolic (multi-stable) manifolds, together with ‘configuration’ spaces of metastable quant...

  20. Cell Surface Enzymatic Engineering-Based Approaches to Improve Cellular Therapies

    KAUST Repository

    AbuElela, Ayman; Sakashita, Kosuke; Merzaban, Jasmeen

    2014-01-01

    The cell surface represents the interface between the cell and its environment. As such, the cell surface controls cell–cell interactions and functions such as adhesion and migration, and will transfer external cues to regulate processes

  1. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-04-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  2. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  3. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  4. Identification of Human Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Huw; Olivero, Carlotta; Patel, Girish K

    2018-04-20

    The cancer stem cell model states that a subset of tumor cells, called "cancer stem cells," can initiate and propagate tumor growth through self-renewal, high proliferative capacity, and their ability to recreate tumor heterogeneity. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we have shown that tumor cells that express the cell surface protein CD200 fulfill the cancer stem cell hypothesis. CD200+ CD45- BCC cells represent 0.05-3.96% of all BCC cells and reside in small clusters at the tumor periphery. Using a novel, reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assay, we determined that tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequencies are approximately 1 per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200+ CD45- BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200+ CD45- cells, representing ~1500-fold enrichment. The methods used to identify and purify CD200+ CD45- BCC cells, as well as characterize gene expression, are described herein.

  5. Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, K. J.; Matrisian, L. M.; Jensen, R. A.; Rodgers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family members have been associated with advanced-stage cancer and contribute to tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis as determined by inhibitor studies. In situ hybridization was performed to analyze the expression and localization of all known MMPs in a series of human breast cancer biopsy specimens. Most MMPs were localized to tumor stroma, and all MMPs had very distinct expression patterns. Matrilysin was expressed by morphologically normal epithelial ducts within tumors and in tissue from reduction mammoplasties, and by epithelial-derived tumor cells. Many family members, including stromelysin-3, gelatinase A, MT-MMP, interstitial collagenase, and stromelysin-1 were localized to fibroblasts of tumor stroma of invasive cancers but in quite distinct, and generally widespread, patterns. Gelatinase B, collagenase-3, and metalloelastase expression were more focal; gelatinase B was primarily localized to endothelial cells, collagenase-3 to isolated tumor cells, and metalloelastase to cytokeratin-negative, macrophage-like cells. The MMP inhibitor, TIMP-1, was expressed in both stromal and tumor components in most tumors, and neither stromelysin-2 nor neutrophil collagenase were detected in any of the tumors. These results indicate that there is very tight and complex regulation in the expression of MMP family members in breast cancer that generally represents a host response to the tumor and emphasize the need to further evaluate differential functions for MMP family members in breast tumor progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8686751

  6. Physicians' perceptions of medical representative visits in Yemen: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Areefi, Mahmoud Abdullah; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham b Mohamed

    2013-08-20

    The pharmaceutical industry invests heavily in promotion, and it uses a variety of promotional strategies to influence physicians' prescribing decisions. Within this context, medical representatives (MRs) are the key personnel employed in promoting their products. One significant consequence of the interactions between physicians and medical representatives is a conflict of interests which may contribute to the over prescribing of medications and thus negative effects on patients' health and economics. There is limited detailed information published on the reasons why physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives. This study aims to qualitatively explore physicians' attitudes about interactions with medical representatives and their reasons for accepting the medical representatives' visits. In-depth interviews were used to gain a better understanding of physicians' perceptions of medical representative visits. A total of 32 physicians from both private and public hospitals were interviewed. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and subject to thematic analysis using a framework analysis approach. The present qualitative study found that the majority of the physicians had positive interactions with medical representatives. The physicians' main reasons stated for allowing medical representatives' visits are the social contacts and mutual benefits they will gain from these representatives. They also emphasized that the meeting with representatives provides educational and scientific benefits. A few physicians stated that the main reasons behind refusing the meeting with medical representatives were lack of conviction about the product and obligation to prescribe medicine from the representative company. Most of the physicians believed that they were under marketing pressure to prescribe certain medicines. Although physicians are aware that the medical representatives could influence their prescribing decision, they welcome

  7. Iron status and its determinants in a nationally representative sample of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Egli, Ines; Ines, Egli; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-05-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is associated with adverse neonatal health outcomes. Iron status and its determinants were assessed in a representative sample of Belgian pregnant women. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean cell volume were measured using a Beckman Coulter Hematology Analyzer and serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentrations by immunoassay. In total, 55 obstetric clinics and 1,311 pregnant women were included. Approximately 40% of third-trimester and 6% of first-trimester women had SF levels less than 15 μg/L. Approximately 21% of third-trimester and 4% of first-trimester women had anemia (Hb 8.5 mg/L). The median body iron stores were 8.1 mg/kg among first-trimester women, but only 3.6 mg/kg among third-trimester women. SF levels were significantly positively associated with age and education level, and were higher among nulliparous women and lower among North-African women. sTfr concentrations were significantly negatively associated with age and were lower among smokers, nulliparous women, and women who planned their pregnancy. Despite the fact that two thirds of Belgian pregnant women took iron-containing supplements, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia were frequent in third-trimester women. The World Health Organization regards this as a moderate public health problem. National iron supplementation guidelines are needed in Belgium to optimize iron status during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The biological effects of ozone on representative members of five groups of animal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, D.C.; Zee, Y.C.; Osebold, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    In an effort to establish the biological relevance of the reactions of ozone with soluble proteins and lipid bilayer membrane systems, representative viruses from five major virus groups were exposed to moderate concentrations of ozone. The virus suspensions were exposed at 37/sup 0/C to 0.00, 0.16, and 0.64 ppm ozone in the gas phase. The ozone reacted with the virus suspensions as a thin film of fluid on the surface of a rotating culture bottle as the gas was drawn through the bottle at a flow rate of 2 liters/min. The three enveloped viruses tested exhibited different susceptibilities to ozone inactivation which correlated with their thermolability in the absence of ozone. The order of susceptibility to ozone inactivation of the enveloped viruses was vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) (Rhabdoviridae) > influenza A virus (WSN strain) (Orthomyxoviridae) > infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) (Herpesviridae). The inactivation reactions of the enveloped viruses with ozone showed pseudo-first-order kinetics. A simple reaction model was used to derive a reaction rate expression from which rate constrants and reaction stoichiometry were estimated. In contrast to the enveloped viruses, the two nonenveloped viruses examined were relatively resistant to ozone inactivation. Polio virus type I (Picornaviridae) was found to be completely resistant to ozone inactivation after 60 hr exposure to either ozone concentration, while infectious canine hepatitis virus (Adenoviridae) showed only slight inactivation after exposure to 0.64 ppm ozone for 66 hr. The significance of these results with regard to the reactions of ozone with cell membranes and other components is discussed.

  9. Nanoscale changes in chromatin organization represent the initial steps of tumorigenesis: a transmission electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkezyan, Lusik; Backman, Vadim; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Subramanian, Hariharan; White, Craig; Dela Cruz, Mart; Wali, Ramesh K; Goldberg, Michael J; Bianchi, Laura K; Roy, Hemant K

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear alterations are a well-known manifestation of cancer. However, little is known about the early, microscopically-undetectable stages of malignant transformation. Based on the phenomenon of field cancerization, the tissue in the field of a tumor can be used to identify and study the initiating events of carcinogenesis. Morphological changes in nuclear organization have been implicated in the field of colorectal cancer (CRC), and we hypothesize that characterization of chromatin alterations in the early stages of CRC will provide insight into cancer progression, as well as serve as a biomarker for early detection, risk stratification and prevention. For this study we used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nuclei harboring pre-neoplastic CRC alterations in two models: a carcinogen-treated animal model of early CRC, and microscopically normal-appearing tissue in the field of human CRC. We quantify the chromatin arrangement using approaches with two levels of complexity: 1) binary, where chromatin is separated into areas of dense heterochromatin and loose euchromatin, and 2) grey-scale, where the statistics of continuous mass-density distribution within the nucleus is quantified by its spatial correlation function. We established an increase in heterochromatin content and clump size, as well as a loss of its characteristic peripheral positioning in microscopically normal pre-neoplastic cell nuclei. Additionally, the analysis of chromatin density showed that its spatial distribution is altered from a fractal to a stretched exponential. We characterize quantitatively and qualitatively the nanoscale structural alterations preceding cancer development, which may allow for the establishment of promising new biomarkers for cancer risk stratification and diagnosis. The findings of this study confirm that ultrastructural changes of chromatin in field carcinogenesis represent early neoplastic events leading to the development of well

  10. Interference with hemozoin formation represents an important mechanism of schistosomicidal action of antimalarial quinoline methanols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana B R Corrêa Soares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni is one of the major causative agents of human schistosomiasis, which afflicts 200 million people worldwide. Praziquantel remains the main drug used for schistosomiasis treatment, and reliance on the single therapy has been prompting the search for new therapeutic compounds against this disease. Our group has demonstrated that heme crystallization into hemozoin (Hz within the S. mansoni gut is a major heme detoxification route with lipid droplets involved in this process and acting as a potential chemotherapeutical target. In the present work, we investigated the effects of three antimalarial compounds, quinine (QN, quinidine (QND and quinacrine (QCR in a murine schistosomiasis model by using a combination of biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Treatment of S. mansoni-infected female Swiss mice with daily intraperitoneal injections of QN, and QND (75 mg/kg/day from the 11(th to 17(th day after infection caused significant decreases in worm burden (39%-61% and egg production (42%-98%. Hz formation was significantly inhibited (40%-65% in female worms recovered from QN- and QND-treated mice and correlated with reduction in the female worm burden. We also observed that QN treatment promoted remarkable ultrastructural changes in male and female worms, particularly in the gut epithelium and reduced the granulomatous reaction to parasite eggs trapped in the liver. Microarray gene expression analysis indicated that QN treatment increased the expression of transcripts related to musculature, protein synthesis and repair mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: The overall significant reduction in several disease burden parameters by the antimalarial quinoline methanols indicates that interference with Hz formation in S. mansoni represents an important mechanism of schistosomicidal action of these compounds and points out the heme crystallization process as a

  11. Comparison of three cell block techniques for detection of low frequency abnormal cells

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack M; Hecht SA

    2013-01-01

    Steven A Hecht, Matthew McCormackHologic Inc, Marlborough, MA, USABackground: The Cellient® Automated Cell Block System rapidly creates paraffin-embedded cell blocks by using vacuum filtration to deposit a layer of cells on a filter and infiltrate those cells with reagents and paraffin. This study used a “tracer” cell model to mimic low frequency abnormal cells and compare detection and representative sampling with simple sedimentation, Richard-Allan HistoGel&t...

  12. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  13. Humans choose representatives who enforce cooperation in social dilemmas through extortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred; Hilbe, Christian; Semmann, Dirk; Sommerfeld, Ralf; Marotzke, Jochem

    2016-03-01

    Social dilemmas force players to balance between personal and collective gain. In many dilemmas, such as elected governments negotiating climate-change mitigation measures, the decisions are made not by individual players but by their representatives. However, the behaviour of representatives in social dilemmas has not been investigated experimentally. Here inspired by the negotiations for greenhouse-gas emissions reductions, we experimentally study a collective-risk social dilemma that involves representatives deciding on behalf of their fellow group members. Representatives can be re-elected or voted out after each consecutive collective-risk game. Selfish players are preferentially elected and are hence found most frequently in the `representatives' treatment. Across all treatments, we identify the selfish players as extortioners. As predicted by our mathematical model, their steadfast strategies enforce cooperation from fair players who finally compensate almost completely the deficit caused by the extortionate co-players. Everybody gains, but the extortionate representatives and their groups gain the most.

  14. In Search of Prototypes and Feminist Bank-Tellers: Exploring the Representativeness Heuristic

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    According to the heuristics and biases approach, the representativeness heuristic (RH) is one of the heuristics available for assessing subjective probabilities (A. Tversky & D. Kahneman, 1974). A subjective probability assessed by the RH is determined by how representative the target object is of the target category. Several aspects of the RH are argued to cause systematic biases, for example: (i) When the RH is used, the category is represented by one single prototypical exemplar. This ...

  15. CREPT-MCNP code for efficiency calibration of HPGe detectors with the representative point method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The representative point method for the efficiency calibration of volume samples has been previously proposed. For smoothly implementing the method, a calculation code named CREPT-MCNP has been developed. The code estimates the position of a representative point which is intrinsic to each shape of volume sample. The self-absorption correction factors are also given to make correction on the efficiencies measured at the representative point with a standard point source. Features of the CREPT-MCNP code are presented.

  16. Like a virgin (mother): analysis of data from a longitudinal, US population representative sample survey

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Amy H; Attard, Samantha M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Joyner, William H; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of self report of pregnancy without sexual intercourse (virgin pregnancy) and factors related to such reporting, in a population representative group of US adolescents and young adults. Design Longitudinal, population representative sample survey. Setting Nationally representative, multiethnic National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, United States. Participants 7870 women enrolled at wave I (1995) and completing the most recent wave of data collect...

  17. PD-L1-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    -specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune responses...

  18. Perspectives on Regulatory T Cell Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Probst-Kepper, Michael; Kröger, Andrea; Garritsen, Henk S.P.; Buer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive transfer in animal models clearly indicate an essential role of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in prevention and treatment of autoimmune and graft-versus-host disease. Thus, Treg cell therapies and development of drugs that specifically enhance Treg cell function and development represent promising tools to establish dominant tolerance. So far, lack of specific markers to differentiate human Treg cells from activated CD4+ CD25+ effector T cells, which also express FOXP3 ...

  19. Chitin synthases from Saprolegnia are involved in tip growth and represent a potential target for anti-oomycete drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Guerriero

    Full Text Available Oomycetes represent some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens. Typical examples are Phytophthora infestans, which causes potato and tomato late blight, and Saprolegnia parasitica, responsible for fish diseases. Despite the economical and environmental importance of oomycete diseases, their control is difficult, particularly in the aquaculture industry. Carbohydrate synthases are vital for hyphal growth and represent interesting targets for tackling the pathogens. The existence of 2 different chitin synthase genes (SmChs1 and SmChs2 in Saprolegnia monoica was demonstrated using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. The function of SmCHS2 was unequivocally demonstrated by showing its catalytic activity in vitro after expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant SmCHS1 protein did not exhibit any activity in vitro, suggesting that it requires other partners or effectors to be active, or that it is involved in a different process than chitin biosynthesis. Both proteins contained N-terminal Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking domains, which have never been reported in any other known carbohydrate synthases. These domains are involved in protein recycling by endocytosis. Enzyme kinetics revealed that Saprolegnia chitin synthases are competitively inhibited by nikkomycin Z and quantitative PCR showed that their expression is higher in presence of the inhibitor. The use of nikkomycin Z combined with microscopy showed that chitin synthases are active essentially at the hyphal tips, which burst in the presence of the inhibitor, leading to cell death. S. parasitica was more sensitive to nikkomycin Z than S. monoica. In conclusion, chitin synthases with species-specific characteristics are involved in tip growth in Saprolegnia species and chitin is vital for the micro-organisms despite its very low abundance in the cell walls. Chitin is most likely synthesized transiently at the apex of the cells before cellulose, the major

  20. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  1. Learning Organizations, Employee Development and Learning Representative Schemes in the UK and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bill; Cassell, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Disparities in learning opportunities endure. This paper aims to investigate whether the learning representative schemes in the UK and New Zealand (NZ) may redress disparate opportunities for learning. Design/methodology/approach: An interview study of UK trade unions' educational officers and an interview study of representatives of…

  2. 26 CFR 601.505 - Revocation, change in representation and substitution or delegation of representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorizes the substitution or delegation. An employee of a recognized representative may not be substituted... substitution or delegation of representative. 601.505 Section 601.505 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Practice Requirements § 601.505 Revocation, change in representation and substitution or delegation of...

  3. Participation of the Neighborhood Representatives (Mukhtars into Managerial Activities in Local Level: Burdur Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa LAMBA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood representatives (mukhtars are the nearest administrative units to citizens in local level. It is required to take advantage of that the neighborhood representatives know their districts and residents better than central and local government authorities. In addition, it will be appropriate to the principles of subsidiarity and the European Charter of Local Self Government to determine problems and demands of neighborhoods by their representatives. It is necessary to maintain communication channels and keep close relations with neighborhood representatives by local governments to use that advantage efficiently. It is aimed in this study to determine the participation level of neighborhood representatives into managerial activities in local level. For that purpose, the neighborhood representatives in the center of Burdur province are included in the research. According to the findings, it has been determined that the neighborhood representatives have participated into various activities without experiencing any difficulty, and they have been informed about the services regarding to their neighborhoods, and they have kept close relationship with central and local administrations, and most of them could communicate with local authorities directly. Therefore, it has been concluded that the neighborhood representatives have been influential enough in decision-making mechanisms in local level in Burdur.

  4. Celebrating the Smithsonian Soils Exhibit in the Classroom with the State/Representative Soil Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Post, C. J.; Koppenheffer, Andrea; Asbill, John

    2009-01-01

    State/representative soil is one of many symbols (e.g., tree, flower, bird, etc.) adopted by citizens to be recognized as an important item to their state. We have developed a set of laboratory exercises, assignments, and exam questions utilizing the state/representative soil that gives college students an opportunity to practice interpretation of…

  5. 75 FR 79031 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information, Collection; Representative of Miners; Legal Identity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Extension of Existing Information, Collection; Representative of Miners; Legal Identity Report; Opening and....2, 40.3, 40.4, and 40.5, Representative of Miners; 30 CFR 41.20, Legal Identity Report; 30 CFR 56... designation. Legal Identity Report Section 109(d) of the Mine Act requires each operator of a coal or other...

  6. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  7. 37 CFR 10.85 - Representing a client within the bounds of the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representing a client within... OFFICE Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.85 Representing a client within the bounds of the law. (a) In representation of a client, a practitioner shall not: (1) Initiate...

  8. 29 CFR 215.4 - Employees not represented by a labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees not represented by a labor organization. 215.4 Section 215.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.4 Employees not represented by a labor...

  9. 22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in the...

  10. 42 CFR 424.54 - Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or... Ordinarily Made § 424.54 Payment to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee. Medicare may pay amounts due a beneficiary to the beneficiary's legal guardian or representative payee. ...

  11. Specifying pancreatic endocrine cell fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collombat, Patrick; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob; Serup, Palle; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2006-07-01

    Cell replacement therapy could represent an attractive alternative to insulin injections for the treatment of diabetes. However, this approach requires a thorough understanding of the molecular switches controlling the specification of the different pancreatic cell-types in vivo. These are derived from an apparently identical pool of cells originating from the early gut endoderm, which are successively specified towards the pancreatic, endocrine, and hormone-expressing cell lineages. Numerous studies have outlined the crucial roles exerted by transcription factors in promoting the cell destiny, defining the cell identity and maintaining a particular cell fate. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of the pancreas with particular emphasis on recent findings concerning the transcription factor hierarchy orchestrating endocrine cell fate allocation.

  12. Activated allogeneic NK cells preferentially kill poor prognosis B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sanchez-Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild type (wt IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA mismatched Natural Killer (NK cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.□

  13. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV ) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  14. Stem cells and the evolving notion of cellular identity

    OpenAIRE

    Daley, George Q.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are but one class of the myriad types of cells within an organism. With potential to self-renew and capacity to differentiate, stem cells play essential roles at multiple stages of development. In the early embryo, pluripotent stem cells represent progenitors for all tissues while later in development, tissue-restricted stem cells give rise to cells with highly specialized functions. As best understood in the blood, skin and gut, stem cells are the seeds that sustain tissue homeost...

  15. Non-integrating episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells in chemically defined conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slamecka, J.; Salimova, L.; McClellan, S.; van Kelle, M.; Kehl, D.; Laurini, J.; Cinelli, P.; Owen, L.; Hoerstrup, S.P.; Weber, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) represent an attractive potential cell source for fetal and pediatric cell-based therapies. However, upgrading them to pluripotency confers refractoriness toward senescence, higher proliferation rate and unlimited differentiation potential. AFSC were observed to

  16. Characterization of nonlymphoid cells in rat spleen, with special reference to strongly Ia-positive branched cells in T-cell areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    By use of a monoclonal antibody against Ia antigen in an immunoperoxidase method, strongly Ia-positive branched cells are found in the T-cell areas of the splenic white pulp of the rat. In order to further characterize these cells, enzyme histochemical characteristics, phagocytic capacity, and irradiation sensitivity have been studied. Evidence is presented that these strongly Ia-positive branched cells represent interdigitating cells. The influence of whole-body irradiation on interdigitating cells is discussed. Comparison with data from the literature on the in vitro dendritic cell isolated from spleen cell suspensions reveals many similarities between the described interdigitating cell in vivo and the dendritic cell in vitro

  17. Putative nanobacteria represent physiological remnants and culture by-products of normal calcium homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Young

    Full Text Available Putative living entities called nanobacteria (NB are unusual for their small sizes (50-500 nm, pleomorphic nature, and accumulation of hydroxyapatite (HAP, and have been implicated in numerous diseases involving extraskeletal calcification. By adding precipitating ions to cell culture medium containing serum, mineral nanoparticles are generated that are morphologically and chemically identical to the so-called NB. These nanoparticles are shown here to be formed of amorphous mineral complexes containing calcium as well as other ions like carbonate, which then rapidly acquire phosphate, forming HAP. The main constituent proteins of serum-derived NB are albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1, but their involvement appears circumstantial since so-called NB from different body fluids harbor other proteins. Accordingly, by passage through various culture media, the protein composition of these particles can be modulated. Immunoblotting experiments reveal that antibodies deemed specific for NB react in fact with either albumin, fetuin-A, or both, indicating that previous studies using these reagents may have detected these serum proteins from the same as well as different species, with human tissue nanoparticles presumably absorbing bovine serum antigens from the culture medium. Both fetal bovine serum and human serum, used earlier by other investigators as sources of NB, paradoxically inhibit the formation of these entities, and this inhibition is trypsin-sensitive, indicating a role for proteins in this inhibitory process. Fetuin-A, and to a lesser degree albumin, inhibit nanoparticle formation, an inhibition that is overcome with time, ending with formation of the so-called NB. Together, these data demonstrate that NB are most likely formed by calcium or apatite crystallization inhibitors that are somehow overwhelmed by excess calcium or calcium phosphate found in culture medium or in body fluids, thereby becoming seeds for calcification. The

  18. Representativeness, legitimacy and power in public involvement in health-service management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham P

    2008-12-01

    Public participation in health-service management is an increasingly prominent policy internationally. Frequently, though, academic studies have found it marginalized by health professionals who, keen to retain control over decision-making, undermine the legitimacy of involved members of the public, in particular by questioning their representativeness. This paper examines this negotiation of representative legitimacy between staff and involved users by drawing on a qualitative study of service-user involvement in pilot cancer-genetics services recently introduced in England, using interviews, participant observation and documentary analysis. In contrast to the findings of much of the literature, health professionals identified some degree of representative legitimacy in the contributions made by users. However, the ways in which staff and users constructed representativeness diverged significantly. Where staff valued the identities of users as biomedical and lay subjects, users themselves described the legitimacy of their contribution in more expansive terms of knowledge and citizenship. My analysis seeks to show how disputes over representativeness relate not just to a struggle for power according to contrasting group interests, but also to a substantive divergence in understanding of the nature of representativeness in the context of state-orchestrated efforts to increase public participation. This divergence might suggest problems with the enactment of such aspirations in practice; alternatively, however, contestation of representative legitimacy might be understood as reflecting ambiguities in policy-level objectives for participation, which secure implementation by accommodating the divergent constructions of those charged with putting initiatives into practice.

  19. On the determination of representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Kunkun; Chang, Li; Zheng, Bailin; Tang, Youhong; Wang, Hongjian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method to convert indentation load–depth curve into representative stress–strain curve is presented. • Representative stress–strain curves of six metals are obtained using finite element analysis. • Different representative strain definitions are compared using finite element method. • Representative stress–strain curve of molybdenum films is obtained by nanoindentation tests. - Abstract: In this study, attempts have been made to estimate the representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials from indentation tests using an iterative method. Finite element analysis was performed to validate the method. The results showed that representative stress–strain relations of metallic materials using the present method were in a good agreement with those from tensile tests. Further, this method was extended to predict representative stress–strain relation of ultra-thin molybdenum films with a thickness of 485 nm using nanoindentation. Yielding strength and strain hardening exponent of the films were therefore obtained, which showed a good agreement with the published data

  20. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+), a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(-) and IgM(+). Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined.

  1. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Oenothera elata plastid chromosome, representing plastome I of the five distinguishable euoenothera plastomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfer, H; Swiatek, M; Hornung, S; Herrmann, R G; Maier, R M; Chiu, W L; Sears, B

    2000-05-01

    We describe the 159,443-bp [corrected] sequence of the plastid chromosome of Oenothera elata (evening primrose). The Oe. elata plastid chromosome represents type I of the five genetically distinguishable basic plastomes found in the subsection Euoenothera. The genus Oenothera provides an ideal system in which to address fundamental questions regarding the functional integration of the compartmentalised genetic system characteristic of the eukaryotic cell. Its highly developed taxonomy and genetics, together with a favourable combination of features in its genetic structure (interspecific fertility, stable heterozygous progeny, biparental transmission of organelles, and the phenomenon of complex heterozygosity), allow facile exchanges of nuclei, plastids and mitochondria, as well as individual chromosome pairs, between species. The resulting hybrids or cybrids are usually viable and fertile, but can display various forms of developmental disturbance.

  2. Communication dated 14 July 2006 received from the Resident Representative of France to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General has received a communication dated 14 July 2006 from the Resident Representative of France, on behalf of the Resident Representatives of China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and the Secretary-General and High Representative of the European Union attaching the text of the offer which was approved on 1 June 2006 at the ministerial meeting in Vienna and delivered to the Iranian authorities in Tehran on 6 June 2006 by Mr. Javier Solana. The communication and, as requested therein, the attached text, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  3. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Desainte-Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  4. State vector reduction - 1: Dynamical reduction theories; changing quantum theory so the statevector represents reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Pearle, P.

    1991-02-01

    The propositions, that what we see around us is real and that reality should be represented by the statevector, conflict with quantum theory. In quantum theory, the statevector can readily become a sum of states of comparable norm, each state representing a different reality. In this paper we present the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) theory, in which a modified Schroedinger equation, while scarcely affecting the dynamics of a microscopic system, rapidly ''reduces'' the statevector of a macroscopic system to a state appropriate for representing individual reality. (author). Refs

  5. Brand I Feel Slovenia: Inclusion of the Key Areas’ Representatives in the Branding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Konecnik Ruzzier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the part of the process of I feel Slovenia brand developmentin which we investigated 707 respondents from key stakeholdergroups. Respondents were representatives of all key stakeholdergroups in the country who, along with the other two target groups (opinionleaders and local inhabitants, represented the most importantstakeholders in the process of country brand development. A strongagreement regarding brand identity elements is evident from researchresults, which imply that identity elements shared by representativesfrom different internal stakeholder groups should form the basis of astrong country brand. Such brand foundation represents a strong preconditionfor a country brand, which could through hard and systematicwork become a strong and successful brand.

  6. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  7. Mesangial cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Hanna E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  8. Investigation of representing hysteresis in macroscopic models of two-phase flow in porous media using intermediate scale experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Trevisan, Luca; Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating hysteresis into models is important to accurately capture the two phase flow behavior when porous media systems undergo cycles of drainage and imbibition such as in the cases of injection and post-injection redistribution of CO2 during geological CO2 storage (GCS). In the traditional model of two-phase flow, existing constitutive models that parameterize the hysteresis associated with these processes are generally based on the empirical relationships. This manuscript presents development and testing of mathematical hysteretic capillary pressure—saturation—relative permeability models with the objective of more accurately representing the redistribution of the fluids after injection. The constitutive models are developed by relating macroscopic variables to basic physics of two-phase capillary displacements at pore-scale and void space distribution properties. The modeling approach with the developed constitutive models with and without hysteresis as input is tested against some intermediate-scale flow cell experiments to test the ability of the models to represent movement and capillary trapping of immiscible fluids under macroscopically homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The hysteretic two-phase flow model predicted the overall plume migration and distribution during and post injection reasonably well and represented the postinjection behavior of the plume more accurately than the nonhysteretic models. Based on the results in this study, neglecting hysteresis in the constitutive models of the traditional two-phase flow theory can seriously overpredict or underpredict the injected fluid distribution during post-injection under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions, depending on the selected value of the residual saturation in the nonhysteretic models.

  9. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  10. Natural killer cells for immunotherapy – Advantages of cell lines over blood NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eKlingemann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells form a patient’s blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes. Especially, cancer patients are known to have dysfunctional NK cells. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T-cells. Establishing cell lines from donor blood NK cells have not been successful, in contrast to blood NK cells obtained from patients with a clonal NK cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. However, except for the NK-92 cell line none of the other six known cell lines has consistent and reproducibly high anti-tumor cytotoxicity, nor can they be easily genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through ADCC. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been widely given to patients with advanced cancer with demonstrated efficiency and minimal side effects.

  11. Assessing terpene content variability of whitebark pine in order to estimate representative sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of population variability, particular attention has to be paid to the selection of a representative sample. The aim of this study was to assess the size of the new representative sample on the basis of the variability of chemical content of the initial sample on the example of a whitebark pine population. Statistical analysis included the content of 19 characteristics (terpene hydrocarbons and their derivates of the initial sample of 10 elements (trees. It was determined that the new sample should contain 20 trees so that the mean value calculated from it represents a basic set with a probability higher than 95 %. Determination of the lower limit of the representative sample size that guarantees a satisfactory reliability of generalization proved to be very important in order to achieve cost efficiency of the research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-173011, br. TR-37002 i br. III-43007

  12. 48 CFR 619.402 - Small Business Administration procurement center representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Business... DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Cooperation with the Small Business Administration 619.402 Small Business Administration procurement center representatives. ...

  13. CARDfile data base representativeness, Phase 1 : general characteristics including populations, vehicles, roads, and fatal accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    This report details the results of an analysis performed to evaluate the : representativeness of the Crash Avoidance Research accident data base : (CARDfile). The accident records for 1983 and 1984 from six states (Indiana, : Maryland, Michigan, Penn...

  14. CARDfile Data Base Representatives - Phase I: General Characteristics including Populations, Vehicles, Roads, and Fatal Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of an analysis performed to evaluate the representativeness of the Crash Avoidance Research accident data base (CARDfile). The accident records for 1983 and 1984 from six states (Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvan...

  15. Pharmaceutical representatives' beliefs and practices about their professional practice: a study in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, K M; Mustafa, A F; Yousif, M A

    2012-08-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives are an important promotional tool for pharmaceutical companies. This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to determine pharmaceutical representatives' beliefs and practices about their professional practice in Sudan. A random sample of 160 pharmaceutical representatives were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The majority were male (84.4%) and had received training in professional sales skills (86.3%) and about the products being promoted (82.5%). Only 65.6% agreed that they provided full and balanced information about products. Not providing balanced information was attributed by 23.1% to doctors' lack of time. However, 28.1% confessed they sometimes felt like hiding unfavourable information, 21.9% were sometimes or always inclined to give untrue information to make sales and 66.9% considered free gifts as ethically acceptable. More attention is needed to dissemination of ethical codes of conduct and training about the ethics of drug promotion for pharmaceutical representatives in Sudan.

  16. Fiscal years 2007 and 2008 : representative examples of completed RD&T projects and activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The tables in this document correspond to major offices and initiatives at the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Research, Development, and Technology (RD&T), located at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. The tables provide represe...

  17. Developing a Common Language for Workplace Ethics: Comparing the Opinions of Educators and Business Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth; Chowdhury, Mohammad

    1998-01-01

    Ratings of workplace ethics competencies by 67 educators and 43 industry representatives resulted in 34 competencies needed and used frequently by new workers. Educators rated 11 competencies higher than business reps, who rated 1 competency higher than teachers did. (SK)

  18. Interactions between human mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A; Perez, Sonia A; Gritzapis, Angelos D; Baxevanis, Constantin N; Papamichail, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells representing an attractive therapeutic tool for regenerative medicine. They possess unique immunomodulatory properties, being capable of suppressing T-cell responses and modifying dendritic cell differentiation, maturation, and function, whereas they are not inherently immunogenic, failing to induce alloreactivity to T cells and freshly isolated natural killer (NK) cells. To clarify the generation of host immune responses to implanted MSCs in tissue engineering and their potential use as immunosuppressive elements, the effect of MSCs on NK cells was investigated. We demonstrate that at low NK-to-MSC ratios, MSCs alter the phenotype of NK cells and suppress proliferation, cytokine secretion, and cyto-toxicity against HLA-class I- expressing targets. Some of these effects require cell-to-cell contact, whereas others are mediated by soluble factors, including transforming growth factor-beta1 and prostaglandin E2, suggesting the existence of diverse mechanisms for MSC-mediated NK-cell suppression. On the other hand, MSCs are susceptible to lysis by activated NK cells. Overall, these data improve our knowledge of interactions between MSCs and NK cells and consequently of their effect on innate immune responses and their contribution to the regulation of adaptive immunity, graft rejection, and cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Targeting immune co-stimulatory effects of PD-L1 and PD-L2 might represent an effective therapeutic strategy in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal eBodhankar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke outcome is worsened by the infiltration of inflammatory immune cells into ischemic brains. Our recent study demonstrated that PD-L1- and to a lesser extent PD-L2-deficient mice had smaller brain infarcts and fewer brain-infiltrating cells vs. WT mice, suggesting a pathogenic role for PD-Ligands in experimental stroke. We sought to ascertain PD-L1 and PD-L2-expressing cell types that affect T-cell activation, post-stroke in the context of other known co-stimulatory molecules. Thus, cells from male WT and PD-L-deficient mice undergoing 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO followed by 96h of reperfusion were treated with neutralizing antibodies to study co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory interactions between CD80, CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-Ls that regulate CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell activation. We found that antibody neutralization of PD-1 and CTLA-4 signaling post-MCAO resulted in higher proliferation in WT CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells, confirming an inhibitory role of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on T-cell activation. Also, CD80/CD28 interactions played a prominent regulatory role for the CD8+ T-cells and the PD-1/PD-L2 interactions were dominant in controlling the CD4+ T-cell responses in WT mice after stroke. A suppressive phenotype in PD-L1-deficient mice was attributed to CD80/CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L2 interactions. PD-L2 was crucial in modulating CD4+ T-cell responses, whereas PD-L1 regulated both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells. To establish the contribution of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on regulatory B-cells (Bregs, infarct volumes were evaluated in male PD-L1- and PD-L2-deficient mice receiving IL-10+ B-cells 4h post-MCAO. PD-L2- but not PD-L1-deficient recipients of IL-10+ B-cells had markedly reduced infarct volumes, indicating a regulatory role of PD-L2 on Bregs. These results imply that PD-L1 and PD-L2 differentially control induction of T- and Breg-cell responses after MCAO, thus suggesting that selective targeting of PD-L1 and PD-L2 might represent a valuable therapeutic

  20. End-of-life decisions for people with intellectual disabilities, an interview study with patient representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Annemieke M A; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Proot, Ireen M; Metsemakers, Job; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2013-09-01

    Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory procedures. We interviewed 16 patient representatives after the deaths of 10 people with intellectual disabilities in the Netherlands. The core category 'Deciding for someone else' describes the context in which patient representatives took end-of-life decisions. The patient representatives felt highly responsible for the outcomes. They had not involved the patients in the end-of-life decision-making process, nor any professionals other than the doctor. The categories of 'Motives' and 'Support' were connected to the core category of 'Deciding for someone else'. 'Motives' refers to the patient representatives' ideas about quality of life, prevention from suffering, patients who cannot understand the burden of interventions and emotional reasons reported by patient representatives. 'Support' refers to the support that patient representatives wanted the doctors to give to them in the decision-making process. From the perspective of the patient representatives, the process of end-of-life decision-making can be improved by ensuring clear roles and an explicit description of the tasks and responsibilities of all participants. Regular discussion between everyone involved including people with intellectual disabilities themselves can improve knowledge about each other's motives for end-of-decisions and can clarify expectations towards each other.

  1. Request by the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the statement made by the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Board of Governors on 20 February 1987 and the statement which the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran intended to make in response to the statement made by the Governor from Iraq in the Board of Governors on 20 February 1987. They refer to military attacks on Iranian nuclear facilities

  2. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The document includes three attachments: the letter of 3 May 1984 from the Director General of the IAEA to the Resident Representative of Iraq, the letter of 10 May 1984 to the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of Iraq and the summary record of discussion in the Board of Governors on 5 June 1984 at its 619th meeting concerning item 20 of the provisional agenda ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  3. Representing Lumped Markov Chains by Minimal Polynomials over Field GF(q)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Shalagin, S. V.; Eminov, B. F.

    2018-05-01

    A method has been proposed to represent lumped Markov chains by minimal polynomials over a finite field. The accuracy of representing lumped stochastic matrices, the law of lumped Markov chains depends linearly on the minimum degree of polynomials over field GF(q). The method allows constructing the realizations of lumped Markov chains on linear shift registers with a pre-defined “linear complexity”.

  4. A content analysis of how 'normal' sports betting behaviour is represented in gambling advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Gonzalez, H; Guerrero-Solé, F; Griffiths, MD

    2017-01-01

    The pervasiveness of sports betting marketing and advertising is arguably normalising betting behaviour among increasingly larger groups of population. In their adverts, bookmakers represent characters and situations that conventionalise betting and promote specific behaviours while ignoring others. The present study examined a sample of British and Spanish sports betting television adverts (N=135) from 2014 to 2016 to understand how bettors and betting are being represented. Using content an...

  5. Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Bang, Anne G; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Agulnick, Alan D; Smart, Nora G; Moorman, Mark A; Kroon, Evert; Carpenter, Melissa K; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2006-11-01

    Of paramount importance for the development of cell therapies to treat diabetes is the production of sufficient numbers of pancreatic endocrine cells that function similarly to primary islets. We have developed a differentiation process that converts human embryonic stem (hES) cells to endocrine cells capable of synthesizing the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, gut-tube endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and endocrine precursor--en route to cells that express endocrine hormones. The hES cell-derived insulin-expressing cells have an insulin content approaching that of adult islets. Similar to fetal beta-cells, they release C-peptide in response to multiple secretory stimuli, but only minimally to glucose. Production of these hES cell-derived endocrine cells may represent a critical step in the development of a renewable source of cells for diabetes cell therapy.

  6. Mentalizing regions represent distributed, continuous, and abstract dimensions of others' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster-Hale, Jorie; Richardson, Hilary; Velez, Natalia; Asaba, Mika; Young, Liane; Saxe, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, we find evidence that motivational versus epistemic features are independently represented by theory of mind (ToM) regions: RTPJ contains information about the justification of the belief, bilateral TPJ represents the modality of the source of knowledge, and VMPFC represents the valence of the resulting emotion. These representations are found only in regions implicated in social cognition and predict behavioral responses at the level of single items. We argue that cortical regions implicated in mental state inference contain complementary, but distinct, representations of epistemic and motivational features of others' beliefs, and that, mirroring the processes observed in sensory systems, social stimuli are represented in distinct and distributed formats across the human brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oligopeptide antigens of the angiotensin lineage compete for presentation by paraformaldehyde-treated accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    series are highly susceptible to proteolytic destruction in cultures containing prefixed accessory cells. The proteases responsible for the destruction of these peptides are apparently located in the plasma membrane of accessory cells. These enzymes represent a methodologic problem in studies...

  8. Tumors of germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, Ricardo; Avila, Andres

    2002-01-01

    The tumors of germinal cells (TGC) are derived neoplasia of the primordial germinal cells that in the life embryonic migrant from the primitive central nervous system until being located in the gonads. Their cause is even unknown and they represent 95% of the testicular tumors. In them, the intention of the treatment is always healing and the diagnostic has improved thanks to the results of the handling multidisciplinary. The paper includes topics like their incidence and prevalence, epidemiology and pathology, clinic and diagnoses among other topics

  9. Cells and cell biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Alistair; Hendry, Charles; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, aims to promote understanding of the basic structure and function of cells. It assists healthcare professionals to appreciate the complex anatomy and physiology underpinning the functioning of the human body. Several introductory chemical concepts and terms are outlined. The basic building blocks of all matter, atoms, are examined and the way in which they may interact to form new compounds within the body is discussed. The basic structures and components that make up a typical cell are considered.

  10. Genome analysis of Elusimicrobium minutum, the first cultivated representative of the Elusimicrobia phylum (formerly Termite Group 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlemann, D. P. R.; Geissinger, O.; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, W.; Kunin, V.; Sun, H.; Lapidus, A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Brune, A.

    2009-02-01

    The candidate phylum Termite group 1 (TG1), is regularly 1 encountered in termite hindguts but is present also in many other habitats. Here we report the complete genome sequence (1.64 Mbp) of Elusimicrobium minutum strain Pei191{sup T}, the first cultured representative of the TG1 phylum. We reconstructed the metabolism of this strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from a beetle larva gut and discuss the findings in light of physiological data. E. minutum has all genes required for uptake and fermentation of sugars via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including several hydrogenases, and an unusual peptide degradation pathway comprising transamination reactions and leading to the formation of alanine, which is excreted in substantial amounts. The presence of genes encoding lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the presence of a pathway for peptidoglycan formation are consistent with ultrastructural evidence of a Gram-negative cell envelope. Even though electron micrographs showed no cell appendages, the genome encodes many genes putatively involved in pilus assembly. We assigned some to a type II secretion system, but the function of 60 pilE-like genes remains unknown. Numerous genes with hypothetical functions, e.g., polyketide synthesis, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, antibiotic transport, and oxygen stress protection, indicate the presence of hitherto undiscovered physiological traits. Comparative analysis of 22 concatenated single-copy marker genes corroborated the status of Elusimicrobia (formerly TG1) as a separate phylum in the bacterial domain, which was so far based only on 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

  11. Investigating why and for whom management ethnic representativeness influences interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Alex P; Avery, Derek R; Dawson, Jeremy F; King, Eden B

    2017-11-01

    Preliminary research suggests that employees use the demographic makeup of their organization to make sense of diversity-related incidents at work. The authors build on this work by examining the impact of management ethnic representativeness-the degree to which the ethnic composition of managers in an organization mirrors or is misaligned with the ethnic composition of employees in that organization. To do so, they integrate signaling theory and a sense-making perspective into a relational demography framework to investigate why and for whom management ethnic representativeness may have an impact on interpersonal mistreatment at work. Specifically, in three complementary studies, the authors examine the relationship between management ethnic representativeness and interpersonal mistreatment. First, they analyze the relationship between management ethnic representativeness and perceptions of harassment, bullying, and abuse the next year, as moderated by individuals' ethnic similarity to others in their organizations in a sample of 60,602 employees of Britain's National Health Service. Second, a constructive replication investigates perceived behavioral integrity as an explanatory mechanism that can account for the effects of representativeness using data from a nationally representative survey of working adults in the United States. Third and finally, online survey data collected at two time points replicated these patterns and further integrated the effects of representativeness and dissimilarity when they are measured using both objective and subjective strategies. Results support the authors' proposed moderated mediation model in which management ethnic representation is negatively related to interpersonal mistreatment through the mediator of perceived behavioral integrity, with effects being stronger for ethnically dissimilar employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A Cell Model to Evaluate Chemical Effects on Adult Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells (CPC) represent a population of cells in the heart critical for its regeneration and function over a lifetime. The impact of chemicals on adult human CSC/CPC differentiation and function is unknown. Research was conducted to dev...

  13. Tundrisphaera lichenicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrotolerant representative of the family Isosphaeraceae from lichen-dominated tundra soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Ivanova, Anastasia A; Detkova, Ekaterina N; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2017-09-01

    Two strains of aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented bacteria, P12T and P515, were isolated from a lichen-dominated peatland and a forested tundra soil of north-western Siberia, respectively. Cells of these isolates were represented by non-motile spheres that occurred singly or were arranged in short chains and aggregates. While growing on solid media, cells of strains P12T and P515 attached to the surface by means of holdfast-like appendages. These isolates were mildly acidophilic (optimum growth at pH 5.5-6.0), psychrotolerant bacteria, which displayed tolerance of low temperatures (4-15 °C), grew optimally at 15-22 °C and did not grow at temperatures above 28 °C. The preferred growth substrates were sugars and some heteropolysaccharides. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. Trimethylornithine lipid was the major polar lipid. The only quinone was MK-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 61.2-62.2 mol%. Strains P12T and P515 possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which affiliated them with the family Isosphaeraceae, order Planctomycetales, and these displayed the highest similarity (93-94 %) to 16S rRNA gene sequences from members of the genus Singulisphaera. However, the signature fatty acid of species of the genus Singulisphaera, i.e. C18 : 2ω6c,12c, was absent in cells of strains P12T and P515. They also differed from members of the genus Singulisphaera by substrate utilization pattern and a number of physiological characteristics. Based on these data, the novel isolates should be considered as representing a novel genus and species of planctomycetes, for which the name Tundrisphaera lichenicola gen. nov., sp. nov, is proposed. The type strain is P12T (=LMG 29571T=VKM B-3044T).

  14. CellNet: network biology applied to stem cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Morris, Samantha A; Lummertz da Rocha, Edroaldo; Daley, George Q; Collins, James J

    2014-08-14

    Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for improving cell derivations. Analyzing expression data from 56 published reports, we found that cells derived via directed differentiation more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts than products of direct conversion, as reflected by the establishment of target cell-type gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Furthermore, we discovered that directly converted cells fail to adequately silence expression programs of the starting population and that the establishment of unintended GRNs is common to virtually every cellular engineering paradigm. CellNet provides a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type and a rational strategy to guide enhanced cellular engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  16. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H.; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J. P. L.; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain

  17. Online Recruitment: Feasibility, Cost, and Representativeness in a Study of Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Liana S; Butterworth, Peter; Poyser, Carmel; Batterham, Philip J; Farrer, Louise M

    2017-03-08

    Online recruitment is feasible, low-cost, and can provide high-quality epidemiological data. However, little is known about the feasibility of recruiting postpartum women online, or sample representativeness. The current study investigates the feasibility of recruiting a population of postpartum women online for health research and examines sample representativeness. Two samples of postpartum women were compared: those recruited online as participants in a brief survey of new mothers (n=1083) and those recruited face-to-face as part of a nationally representative study (n=579). Sociodemographic, general health, and mental health characteristics were compared between the two samples. Obtaining a sample of postpartum women online for health research was highly efficient and low-cost. The online sample over-represented those who were younger (aged 25-29 years), were in a de facto relationship, had higher levels of education, spoke only English at home, and were first-time mothers. Members of the online sample were significantly more likely to have poor self-rated health and poor mental health than the nationally representative sample. Health differences remained after adjusting for sociodemographic differences. Potential exists for feasible and low-cost e-epidemiological research with postpartum populations; however, researchers should consider the potential influence of sample nonrepresentativeness. ©Liana S Leach, Peter Butterworth, Carmel Poyser, Philip J Batterham, Louise M Farrer. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 08.03.2017.

  18. The mainstream is not electable: when vision triumphs over representativeness in leader emergence and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Berson, Yair; Galinsky, Adam D

    2011-07-01

    Theories of visionary leadership propose that groups bestow leadership on exceptional group members. In contrast, social identity perspectives claim that leadership arises, in part, from a person's ability to be seen as representative of the group. Integrating these perspectives, the authors propose that effective leaders often share group members' perspectives concerning the present, yet offer a unique and compelling vision for the group's future. In addition, although intergroup contexts may increase the value of representativeness, the authors predict that vision dominates representativeness in single-group situations characterized by high levels of collective stress (e.g., a natural disaster). Five studies demonstrated that visionary leaders (those who offer novel solutions to their group's predicament) attract more followers, promote group identification and intrinsic motivation, mobilize collective action, and effectively regulate group members' emotions and reactions to crises compared to representative leaders. The authors discuss when, why, and how vision triumphs over representativeness in leader emergence and effectiveness. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  19. Representativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gfeller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal and annual representativeness of ionic aerosol proxies (among others, calcium, sodium, ammonium and nitrate in various firn cores in the vicinity of the NEEM drill site in northwest Greenland have been assessed. Seasonal representativeness is very high as one core explains more than 60% of the variability within the area. The inter-annual representativeness, however, can be substantially lower (depending on the species making replicate coring indispensable to derive the atmospheric variability of aerosol species. A single core at the NEEM site records only 30% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in some species, while five replicate cores are already needed to cover approximately 70% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in all species. The spatial representativeness is very high within 60 cm, rapidly decorrelates within 10 m but does not diminish further within 3 km. We attribute this to wind reworking of the snow pack leading to sastrugi formation. Due to the high resolution and seasonal representativeness of the records we can derive accurate seasonalities of the measured species for modern (AD 1990–2010 times as well as for pre-industrial (AD 1623–1750 times. Sodium and calcium show similar seasonality (peaking in February and March respectively for modern and pre-industrial times, whereas ammonium and nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and ammonium both peak in May during modern times, whereas during pre-industrial times ammonium peaked during July–August and nitrate during June–July.

  20. Sidestepping questions of legitimacy: how community representatives manoeuvre to effect change in a health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sally; Stephenson, Niamh; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies of community participation in health services commonly tie effectiveness to the perceived legitimacy of community representatives among health staff. This article examines the underlying assumption that legitimacy is the major pathway to influence for community representatives. It takes a different vantage point from previous research in its examination of data (primarily through 34 in-depth interviews, observation and recording of 26 meetings and other interactions documented in field notes) from a 3-year study of community representatives' action in a large health region in Australia. The analysis primarily deploys Michel de Certeau's ideas of Strategy and Tactic to understand the action and effects of the generally 'weaker players' in the spaces and places dominated by powerful institutions. Through this lens, we can see the points where community representatives are active participants following their own agenda, tactically capitalising on cracks in the armour of the health service to seize opportunities that present themselves in time to effect change. Being able to see community representatives as active producers of change, not simply passengers following the path of the health service, challenges how we view the success of community participation in health.

  1. GABA signaling stimulates ?-cell-mediated ?-like cell neogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, Tiziana; Avolio, Fabio; Vieira, Andhira; Ben-Othman, Nouha; Courtney, Monica; Gjernes, Elisabet; Hadzic, Biljana; Druelle, No?mie; Navarro Sanz, Sergi; Silvano, Serena; Mansouri, Ahmed; Collombat, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetes is a chronic and progressing disease, the number of patients increasing exponentially, especially in industrialized countries. Regenerating lost insulin-producing cells would represent a promising therapeutic alternative for most diabetic patients. To this end, using the mouse as a model, we reported that GABA, a food supplement, could induce insulin-producing beta-like cell neogenesis offering an attractive and innovative approach for diabetes therapeutics.

  2. Simulating Large Area, High Intensity AM0 Illumination on Earth- Representative Testing at Elevated Temperatures for the BepiColombo and SolO Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuttinger, C.; Quabis, D.; Zimmermann, C. G.

    2014-08-01

    During both the BepiColombo and the Solar Orbiter (SolO) mission, severe environmental conditions with sun intensities up to 10.6 solar constants (SCs) resp. 12.8 SCs will be encountered. Therefore, a special cell design was developed which can withstand these environmental loads. To verify the solar cells under representative conditions, a set of specific tests is conducted. The key qualification test for these high intensity, high temperature (HIHT) missions is a combined test, which exposes a large number of cells simultaneously to the complete AM0 spectrum at the required irradiance and temperature. Such a test was set up in the VTC1.5 chamber located at ESTEC. This paper provides an overview of the challenges in designing a setup capable of achieving this HIHT simulation. The solutions that were developed will be presented. Also the performance of the setup will be illustrated by actual test results.

  3. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) entitled “Guarantees for representatives of the personnel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to all members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 2) entitled “Guarantees for members of the personnel holding representative office” of November 1992. The circular was revised in order to adapt the time given to the representatives of the personnel to perform their elective mandate and to ensure more transparency in their activities, by indicating, inter alia, the percentage of time worked in the framework of their mandate, as well as the training, activities and ensuing results. Department Head Office HR Department

  4. An Ontology as a Tool for Representing Fuzzy Data in Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Martinez-Cruz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several applications to represent classical or fuzzy data in databases have been developed in the last two decades. However, these representations present some limitations specially related with the system portability and complexity. Ontologies provides a mechanism to represent data in an implementation-independent and web-accessible way. To get advantage of this, in this paper, an ontology, that represents fuzzy relational database model, has been redefined to communicate users or applications with fuzzy data stored in fuzzy databases. The communication channel established between the ontology and any Relational Database Management System (RDBMS is analysed in depth throughout the text to justify some of the advantages of the system: expressiveness, portability and platform heterogeneity. Moreover, some tools have been developed to define and manage fuzzy and classical data in relational databases using this ontology. Even an application that performs fuzzy queries using the same technology is included in this proposal together with some examples using real databases.

  5. Chronological changes in Japanese physicians' attitude and behavior concerning relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent qualitative studies indicated that physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives depending on the relative weight of the benefits to the risks and are also influenced by a variety of experiences and circumstances. However, these studies do not provide enough information about if, when, how and why their attitudes and behaviors change over time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A qualitative study using semi-structured face-to-face individual interviews was conducted on 9 Japanese physicians who attended a symposium on conflicts of interest held in Tokyo. Interviews were designed to explore chronological changes in individual physicians' attitude and behavior concerning relationships with pharmaceutical representatives and factors affecting such changes. Their early interaction with pharmaceutical representatives was passive as physicians were not explicitly aware of the meaning of such interaction. They began to think on their own about how to interact with pharmaceutical representatives as they progressed in their careers. Their attitude toward pharmaceutical representatives changed over time. Factors affecting attitudinal change included work environment (local regulations and job position, role models, views of patients and the public, acquisition of skills in information seeking and evidence-based medicine, and learning about the concepts of professionalism and conflict of interest. However, the change in attitude was not necessarily followed by behavioral change, apparently due to rationalization and conformity to social norms. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' attitudes toward relationships with pharmaceutical representatives changed over time and factors affecting such changes were various. Paying attention to these factors and creating new social norms may be both necessary to produce change in behavior consistent with change in attitude.

  6. Interest (mis)alignments in representative negotiations: Do pro-social agents fuel or reduce inter-group conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, H.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    In representative negotiations, interests of the representative and the represented constituency are not always aligned. We investigated how interest (mis)alignment and representative’s social value orientation influence representative negotiations. Past theory and research on the principal-agent

  7. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208527.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel" of January 2014. This document contains a single change to reflect the terminology under the new career structure: the term "career path" is replaced by "grade". This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  8. A constitutive model for representing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a constitutive model for representing inelastic flow due to coupled creep, damage, and healing in rock salt is present in this paper. This model, referred to as Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model, has been formulated by considering individual mechanisms that include dislocation creep, shear damage, tensile damage, and damage healing. Applications of the model to representing the inelastic flow and fracture behavior of WIPP salt subjected to creep, quasi-static loading, and damage healing conditions are illustrated with comparisons of model calculations against experimental creep curves, stress-strain curves, strain recovery curves, time-to-rupture data, and fracture mechanism maps

  9. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Generate Muscle Cells and Repair Muscle Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezawa, Mari; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Itokazu, Yutaka; Yoshihara, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio; Takeda, Shin-ichi; Ide, Chizuka; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2005-07-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential as therapeutic agents. We report a method for inducing skeletal muscle lineage cells from human and rat general adherent MSCs with an efficiency of 89%. Induced cells differentiated into muscle fibers upon transplantation into degenerated muscles of rats and mdx-nude mice. The induced population contained Pax7-positive cells that contributed to subsequent regeneration of muscle upon repetitive damage without additional transplantation of cells. These MSCs represent a more ready supply of myogenic cells than do the rare myogenic stem cells normally found in muscle and bone marrow.

  10. Comparative transcriptional profiling of human Merkel cells and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Nicolas; Coquart, Nolwenn; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Mogha, Ariane; Fautrel, Alain; Boulais, Nicholas; Dréno, Brigitte; Martin, Ludovic; Hu, Weiguo; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; Misery, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is believed to be derived from Merkel cells after infection by Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and other poorly understood events. Transcriptional profiling using cDNA microarrays was performed on cells from MCPy-negative and MCPy-positive Merkel cell carcinomas and isolated normal Merkel cells. This microarray revealed numerous significantly upregulated genes and some downregulated genes. The extensive list of genes that were identified in these experiments provides a large body of potentially valuable information of Merkel cell carcinoma carcinogenesis and could represent a source of potential targets for cancer therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Establishment of an In Vitro System Representing the Chicken Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a+, a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a− and IgM+. Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined. PMID:23185307

  12. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorjahan Banu Alitheen

    Full Text Available The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+, a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(- and IgM(+. Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240 was examined.

  13. Cell damage evaluation of mammalian cells in cell manipulation by amplified femtosecond ytterbium laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Z.-Y.; Iino, T.; Hagihara, H.; Maeno, T.; Okano, K.; Yasukuni, R.; Hosokawa, Y.

    2018-03-01

    A micrometer-scale explosion with cavitation bubble generation is induced by focusing a femtosecond laser in an aqueous solution. We have proposed to apply the explosion as an impulsive force to manipulate mammalian cells especially in microfluidic chip. Herein, we employed an amplified femtosecond ytterbium laser as an excitation source for the explosion and evaluated cell damage in the manipulation process to clarify the application potential. The damage of C2C12 myoblast cell prepared as a representative mammalian cell was investigated as a function of distance between cell and laser focal point. Although the cell received strong damage on the direct laser irradiation condition, the damage sharply decreased with increasing distance. Since the threshold distance, above which the cell had no damage, was consistent with radius of the cavitation bubble, impact of the cavitation bubble would be a critical factor for the cell damage. The damage had strong nonlinearity in the pulse energy dependence. On the other hand, cell position shift by the impact of the cavitation bubble was almost proportional to the pulse energy. In balance between the cell viability and the cell position shift, we elucidated controllability of the cell manipulation in microfluidic chip.

  14. Stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukes, Jojanneke; Both, Sanne; Post, Janine; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Marcel; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter defines stem cells and their properties. It identifies the major differences between embryonic and adult stem cells. Stem cells can be defined by two properties: the ability to make identical copies of themselves and the ability to form other cell types of the body. These properties are

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian Version in a Representative Military Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) and to establish the most accurate cutoff for prevalence estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative...

  16. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  17. 20 CFR 416.665 - How does your representative payee account for the use of benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the use of benefits? 416.665 Section 416.665 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... in order to make accounting reports and must make those records available upon our request. If your representative payee fails to provide an annual accounting of benefits or other required reports, we may require...

  18. 20 CFR 404.2065 - How does your representative payee account for the use of benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the use of benefits? 404.2065 Section 404.2065 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... records of how benefits were used in order to make accounting reports and must make those records available upon our request. If your representative payee fails to provide an annual accounting of benefits...

  19. A study on the representative person of critical group for radiological assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab-Bock; Lee, Doo-Ho; Yang, Yang-Hee; Jang, Young-Sik; Moon, Jong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The 'maximum individual' concept based on US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 has been used for the public dose calculation in Korea. However, the 'maximum individual' results in largely overestimating the public dose. In Korea, the adoption of the 'representative person' is under consideration. The 'representative person' was recommended by ICRP Publication No. 101. In this study, individual habits (consumption of foodstuffs, use of local resources) of representative person have been analyzed or investigated. The age-specific food consumption rates of the representative person were derived from the Korean national dietary survey by government in 2005. The foodstuffs are classified into 12 classes - grain, fruits, kimchi, vegetables, milk, beef, pork, poultry, fishes, mollusca, crustacea, and seaweeds. The use of local resources such as the self-sufficiency of foodstuffs was investigated by using the questionnaire survey to the public members within 2 km from four nuclear power plant sites in Korea. The 95th percentile values are used for the top-two pathways such as grain and kimchi, but the average values are used for other foods. The results show that the effective dose from new habit data is about 30% lower than that from the existing data. (author)

  20. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…