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Sample records for th2 cell activation

  1. Activated rat hepatic stellate cells influence Th1/Th2 profile in vitro.

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    Xing, Zhi-Zhi; Huang, Liu-Ye; Wu, Cheng-Rong; You, Hong; Ma, Hong; Jia, Ji-Dong

    2015-06-21

    To investigate the effects of activated rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) on rat Th1/Th2 profile in vitro. Growth and survival of activated HSCs and CD4(+) T lymphocytes cultured alone or together was assessed after 24 or 48 h. CD4(+) T lymphocytes were then cultured with or without activated HSCs for 24 or 48 h and the proportion of Th1 [interferon (IFN)-γ(+)] and Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4(+)] cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Th1 and Th2 cell apoptosis was assessed after 24 h of co-culture using a caspase-3 staining procedure. Differentiation rates of Th1 and Th2 cells from CD4(+) T lymphocytes that were positive for CD25 but did not express IFN-γ or IL-4 were also assessed after 48 h of co-culture with activated HSCs. Galectin-9 expression in HSCs was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ELISA was performed to assess galectin-9 secretion from activated HSCs. Co-culture of CD4(+) T lymphocytes with activated rat HSCs for 48 h significantly reduced the proportion of Th1 cells compared to culture-alone conditions (-1.73% ± 0.71%; P Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly decreased (-0.44 ± 0.13; P Th1 cells was decreased (-65.71 ± 9.67; P Th1 (12.27% ± 0.99%; P Th1 cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher than in Th2 cells (P Th1 and Th2 cells; however, the increase in the proportion of Th2 cells was significantly higher than that of Th1 cells (1.85% ± 0.48%; P Th1/Th2 profile, inhibiting the Th1 response and enhancing the Th2 response, and this may be a novel pathway for liver fibrogenesis.

  2. Delayed Activation Kinetics of Th2- and Th17 Cells Compared to Th1 Cells.

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    Duechting, Andrea; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-09-12

    During immune responses, different classes of T cells arise: Th1, Th2, and Th17. Mobilizing the right class plays a critical role in successful host defense and therefore defining the ratios of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells within the antigen-specific T cell repertoire is critical for immune monitoring purposes. Antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells can be detected by challenging peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with antigen, and establishing the numbers of T cells producing the respective lead cytokine, IFN-γ and IL-2 for Th1 cells, IL-4 and IL-5 for Th2, and IL-17 for Th-17 cells, respectively. Traditionally, these cytokines are measured within 6 h in flow cytometry. We show here that 6 h of stimulation is sufficient to detect peptide-induced production of IFN-γ, but 24 h are required to reveal the full frequency of protein antigen-specific Th1 cells. Also the detection of IL-2 producing Th1 cells requires 24 h stimulation cultures. Measurements of IL-4 producing Th2 cells requires 48-h cultures and 96 h are required for frequency measurements of IL-5 and IL-17 secreting T cells. Therefore, accounting for the differential secretion kinetics of these cytokines is critical for the accurate determination of the frequencies and ratios of antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

  3. Mode of dendritic cell activation: the decisive hand in Th2/Th17 cell differentiation. Implications in asthma severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroman, Heleen; van den Blink, Bernt; Kool, Mirjam

    2015-02-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, with reversible airflow limitations and airway remodeling. The classification of asthma phenotypes was initially based on different combinations of clinical symptoms, but they are now unfolding to link biology to phenotype. As such, patients can suffer from a predominant eosinophilic, neutrophilic or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory response. In adult asthma patients, eosinophilic inflammation is usually seen in mild-to-moderate disease and neutrophilic inflammation in more severe disease. The underlying T cell response is predominated by T helper (Th) 2, Th17, or a mixed Th2/Th17 cell immune response. Dendritic cells (DCs) are "professional" antigen presenting cells (APCs), since their principal function is to present antigens and induce a primary immune response in resting naive T cells. DCs also drive the differentiation into distinctive Th subsets. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines by DCs and surrounding cells determines the outcome of Th cell differentiation. The nature of DC activation will determine the expression of specific co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines, specifically needed for induction of the different Th cell programs. Thus DC activation is crucial for the subsequent effector Th immune responses. In this review, we will discuss underlying mechanisms that initiate DC activation in favor of Th2 differentiation versus Th1/Th17 and Th17 differentiation in the development of mild versus moderate to severe asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Resistance of activated human T(h)2 cells to NO-induced apoptosis is mediated by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, R; Vellenga, E; de Jong, MA; Traanberg, KF; Postma, DS; de Monchy, JGR; Kauffman, HF

    Activation-induced death of inflammatory cells (AICD) has an important function in immune maintenance, Type 1 T-h cells are known to be more susceptible to AICD than T(h)2 cells. In the current study we examined whether NO-induced apoptosis also preferentially eliminates T(h)1 cells over Th2 cells.

  5. Effects of manganese on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and TH-phosphorylation in a dopaminergic neural cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Danhui; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure causes manganism, a neurological disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which Mn impairs the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) plays a key role in Mn-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neurons. Recently, we showed that PKCδ negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by enhancing protein phosphatase-2A activity in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report that Mn exposure can affect the enzymatic activity of TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by activating PKCδ-PP2A signaling pathway in a dopaminergic cell model. Low dose Mn (3-10 μM) exposure to differentiated mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells for 3 h induced a significant increase in TH activity and phosphorylation of TH-Ser40. The PKCδ specific inhibitor rottlerin did not prevent Mn-induced TH activity or TH-Ser40 phosphorylation. On the contrary, chronic exposure to 0.1-1 μM Mn for 24 h induced a dose-dependent decrease in TH activity. Interestingly, chronic Mn treatment significantly increased PKCδ kinase activity and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme activity. Treatment with the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin almost completely prevented chronic Mn-induced reduction in TH activity, as well as increased PP2A activity. Neither acute nor chronic Mn exposures induced any cytotoxic cell death or altered TH protein levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate that low dose Mn exposure impairs TH activity in dopaminergic cells through activation of PKCδ and PP2A activity.

  6. Effects of PARP-1 Deficiency on Th1 and Th2 Cell Differentiation

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    M. Sambucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell differentiation to effector Th cells such as Th1 and Th2 requires the integration of multiple synergic and antagonist signals. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. Recently, many reports showed that PARP-1, the prototypical member of the PARP family, plays a role in immune/inflammatory responses. Consistently, its enzymatic inhibition confers protection in several models of immune-mediated diseases, mainly through an inhibitory effect on NF-κB (and NFAT activation. PARP-1 regulates cell functions in many types of immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Our results show that PARP-1KO cells displayed a reduced ability to differentiate in Th2 cells. Under both nonskewing and Th2-polarizing conditions, naïve CD4 cells from PARP-1KO mice generated a reduced frequency of IL-4+ cells, produced less IL-5, and expressed GATA-3 at lower levels compared with cells from wild type mice. Conversely, PARP-1 deficiency did not substantially affect differentiation to Th1 cells. Indeed, the frequency of IFN-γ+ cells as well as IFN-γ production, in nonskewing and Th1-polarizing conditions, was not affected by PARP-1 gene ablation. These findings demonstrate that PARP-1 plays a relevant role in Th2 cell differentiation and it might be a target to be exploited for the modulation of Th2-dependent immune-mediated diseases.

  7. Th1 and Th2 help for B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1995-01-01

    that IL-5 (125 U/ml) synergizes with Th1 cells to induce B cell responses to IL-2, that are maintained following T-cell removal, e.g. autonomous. Th1 help in the absence of IL-5 resulted in weak or undetectable responses following T cell removal. The mechanism of IL-5 synergy involved persistence of IL-2R...... anti-Ig did not circumvent the need for IL-5 for autonomous IL-2 responses. Consistent with the above, interaction with an IL-5-producing Th2 clone induced strong autonomous B cell responses to IL-2. Qualitative differences of Th2 help over that of Th1 may thus be attributable to their differential...

  8. Galectin-7 promotes proliferation and Th1/2 cells polarization toward Th1 in activated CD4+ T cells by inhibiting The TGFβ/Smad3 pathway.

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    Luo, Zhenlong; Ji, Yudong; Tian, Dean; Zhang, Yong; Chang, Sheng; Yang, Chao; Zhou, Hongmin; Chen, Zhonghua Klaus

    2018-06-08

    Galectin-7 (Gal-7) has been associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is known that Gal-7 antagonises TGFβ-mediated effects in hepatocytes by interacting with Smad3. Previously, we have demonstrated that Gal-7 is related to CD4+ T cells responses; nevertheless, its effect and functional mechanism on CD4+ T cells responses remain unclear. The murine CD4+ T cells were respectively cultured with Gal-7, anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, or with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs & Gal-7. The effects of Gal-7 on proliferation and the phenotypic changes in CD4+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The cytokines from CD4+ T cells were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Subcellular localisation and expression of Smad3 were determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot, respectively. Gal-7 enhanced the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells in a dose- and β-galactoside-dependent manner. Additionally, Gal-7 treatment did not change the ratio of Th2 cells in activated CD4+ T cells, while it increased the ratio of Th1 cells. Gal-7 also induced activated CD4+ T cells to produce a higher level of IFN-γ and TNF-α and a lower level of IL-10. Moreover, Gal-7 treatment significantly accelerated nuclear export of Smad3 in activated CD4+ T cells. These results revealed a novel role of Gal-7 in promoting proliferation and Th1/2 cells polarization toward Th1 in activated CD4+ T cells by inhibiting the TGFβ/Smad3 pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary murine CD4+ T cells fail to acquire the ability to produce effector cytokines when active Ras is present during Th1/Th2 differentiation.

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    Sujit V Janardhan

    Full Text Available Constitutive Ras signaling has been shown to augment IL-2 production, reverse anergy, and functionally replace many aspects of CD28 co-stimulation in CD4+ T cells. These data raise the possibility that introduction of active Ras into primary T cells might result in improved functionality in pathologic situations of T cell dysfunction, such as cancer or chronic viral infection. To test the biologic effects of active Ras in primary T cells, CD4+ T cells from Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Transgenic mice were transduced with an adenovirus encoding active Ras. As expected, active Ras augmented IL-2 production in naive CD4+ T cells. However, when cells were cultured for 4 days under conditions to promote effector cell differentiation, active Ras inhibited the ability of CD4+ T cells to acquire a Th1 or Th2 effector cytokine profile. This differentiation defect was not due to deficient STAT4 or STAT6 activation by IL-12 or IL-4, respectively, nor was it associated with deficient induction of T-bet and GATA-3 expression. Impaired effector cytokine production in active Ras-transduced cells was associated with deficient demethylation of the IL-4 gene locus. Our results indicate that, despite augmenting acute activation of naïve T cells, constitutive Ras signaling inhibits the ability of CD4+ T cells to properly differentiate into Th1/Th2 effector cytokine-producing cells, in part by interfering with epigenetic modification of effector gene loci. Alternative strategies to potentiate Ras pathway signaling in T cells in a more regulated fashion should be considered as a therapeutic approach to improve immune responses in vivo.

  10. Notch-ligand expression by NALT dendritic cells regulates mucosal Th1- and Th2-type responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Sekine, Shinichi; Kataoka, Kosuke; Markham, Jonathan D.; Irwin, Allyson R.; Moon, Grace H.; Tokuhara, Yuka; Fujihashi, Keiko; Davydova, Julia; Yamamoto, Masato; Gilbert, Rebekah S.; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nasal Ad-FL effectively up-regulates APC function by CD11c + DCs in mucosal tissues. ► Nasal Ad-FL induces Notch ligand (L)-expressing CD11c + DCs. ► Notch L-expressing DCs support the induction of Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing Flt3 ligand (Ad-FL) as nasal adjuvant activates CD11c + dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of antigen (Ag)-specific IgA antibody (Ab) responses. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for activation of CD11c + DCs and their roles in induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-cell responses. Ad-FL activated CD11c + DCs expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand (L)-expression and specific mRNA. When CD11c + DCs from various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues of mice given nasal OVA plus Ad-FL were cultured with CD4 + T cells isolated from non-immunized OVA TCR-transgenic (OT II) mice, significantly increased levels of T cell proliferative responses were noted. Furthermore, Ad-FL activated DCs induced IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 producing CD4 + T cells. Of importance, these APC functions by Ad-FL activated DCs were down-regulated by blocking Notch–Notch-L pathway. These results show that Ad-FL induces CD11c + DCs to the express Notch-ligands and these activated DCs regulate the induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses.

  11. Changes in the Ratio of Tc1/Tc2 and Th1/Th2 Cells but Not in Subtypes of NK-Cells in Preeclampsia

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    Yayi Hou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that natural killer (NK cell activity and Th1 immunitymay be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study aimed to investigate theimmunophenotypes of NK cells and type 1/type 2 immunity in both decidua and maternalperipheral blood between normal (n=11 and preeclamptic pregnant women (n=20 by flowcytometry. The results showed that no significant difference was observed between patientsand controls by detecting CD56+ CD69+ and CD56+ CD94+ NK cells in both peripheralblood and decidua. Moreover, in preeclamptic patients, decreased percentages of Tc2 andTh2 cells and the increased ratios of Tc1/Tc2 were determined in both decidua andmaternal peripheral blood. In addition, the ratio of Th1/Th2 in peripheral blood alsoincreased. There was no significant difference of immunophenotypes of uNK cells betweenpreeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Local decidua and systematic immunity did notcorrelate with each other. These results suggest that the type 1/type 2 immunity shifted totype 1 immunity including Th1 and Tc1 cells may contribute to the patho-genesis ofpreeclampsia.

  12. Notch-ligand expression by NALT dendritic cells regulates mucosal Th1- and Th2-type responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Division of Mucosal Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Sekine, Shinichi [Department of Preventive Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kataoka, Kosuke [Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Markham, Jonathan D.; Irwin, Allyson R.; Moon, Grace H.; Tokuhara, Yuka; Fujihashi, Keiko [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Davydova, Julia; Yamamoto, Masato [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gilbert, Rebekah S. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Fujihashi, Kohtaro, E-mail: kohtarof@uab.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL effectively up-regulates APC function by CD11c{sup +} DCs in mucosal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL induces Notch ligand (L)-expressing CD11c{sup +} DCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch L-expressing DCs support the induction of Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing Flt3 ligand (Ad-FL) as nasal adjuvant activates CD11c{sup +} dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of antigen (Ag)-specific IgA antibody (Ab) responses. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for activation of CD11c{sup +} DCs and their roles in induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-cell responses. Ad-FL activated CD11c{sup +} DCs expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand (L)-expression and specific mRNA. When CD11c{sup +} DCs from various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues of mice given nasal OVA plus Ad-FL were cultured with CD4{sup +} T cells isolated from non-immunized OVA TCR-transgenic (OT II) mice, significantly increased levels of T cell proliferative responses were noted. Furthermore, Ad-FL activated DCs induced IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and IL-4 producing CD4{sup +} T cells. Of importance, these APC functions by Ad-FL activated DCs were down-regulated by blocking Notch-Notch-L pathway. These results show that Ad-FL induces CD11c{sup +} DCs to the express Notch-ligands and these activated DCs regulate the induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses.

  13. Stat6 activity-related Th2 cytokine profile and tumor growth advantage of human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

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    Li, Ben Hui; Xu, Shuang Bing; Li, Feng; Zou, Xiao Guang; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Simayi, Dilixia; Wang, Ying Hong; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2012-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) is critical in Th2 polarization of immune cells and active Stat6 activity has been suggested in anti-tumor immunity in animal models. The present study aims at investigating the impact of natural Stat6 activity on tumor microenvironment in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Using colorectal cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 whose IL-4/Stat6 activities were known and nude mice as a model, we examined correlative relationships between Stat6 activities and gene expression profiles together with cellular behaviors in vitro and in vivo. HT-29 cells carrying active Stat6 signaling displayed spontaneous expression profiles favoring Th2 cytokines, cell cycle promotion, anti-apoptosis and pro-metastasis with increased mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-13, GATA-3, CDK4, CD44v6 and S100A4 using RT-PCR. In contrast, Caco-2 cells carrying defective Stat6 signaling exhibited spontaneous expression profiles favoring Th1 and Th17 cytokines, cell cycle inhibition, pro-apoptosis and anti-metastasis with elevated mRNA expression of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-12A, IL-17, IL-23, T-bet, CDKN1A, CDKNIB, CDKN2A and NM23-H1. Xenograft tumors of Stat6-active HT-29 cells showed a growth advantage over those of Stat6-defective Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, mice bearing HT-29 tumors expressed increased levels of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in the blood and pro-growth and/or pro-metastasis proteins CDK4 and CD44v6 in the tumor. To the contrary, mice bearing Caco-2 tumors expressed heightened levels of Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNF in the blood and pro-apoptosis and anti-metastatic proteins p53 and p27(kip1) in the tumor. Colorectal cancer cells carrying active Stat6 signaling may create a microenvironment favoring Th2 cytokines and promoting expression of genes related to pro-growth, pro-metastasis and anti-apoptosis, which leads to a tumor growth advantage in vivo. These findings may imply why Stat6 pathway is constitutively activated in a

  14. The Metalloporphyrin Antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, Inhibits Th2 Cell Immune Responses in an Asthma Model

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    Paiboon Jungsuwadee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice suggesting an effect on Th2 responsiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that MnTE-2-PyP may alter dendritic cell-Th2 interactions. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DC and OVA323-339-specific Th2 cells were cultured separately in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP for 3 days prior to the co-culturing of the two cell types in the presence of an OVA323-339 peptide and in some cases stimulated with CD3/CD28. MnTE-2-PyP-pretreated DC inhibited IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ production and inhibited Th2 cell proliferation in the DC-Th2 co-culturing system in the presence of the OVA323-339 peptide. Similar results were obtained using the CD3/CD28 cell-activation system; the addition of MnTE-2-PyP inhibited Th2 cell proliferation. MnTE-2-PyP suppressed CD25 expression on OVA-specific Th2 cells, which implied that MnTE-2-PyP can inhibit the activation of Th2 cells. MnTE-2-PyP also down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules: CD40, CD80 and CD86 on immature DC. Our studies suggest that the major mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP inhibits airway inflammation is by acting on the DC and suppressing Th2 cell proliferation and activation.

  15. Role of Th1 and Th2 cells in autoimmune demyelinating disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, L.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that Th1 cells play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas Th2 cells contribute to recovery from disease. A maj or determinant in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells is the type of

  16. Total glucosides of paeony inhibits Th1/Th17 cells via decreasing dendritic cells activation in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Lin, Jinpiao; Xiao, Lianbo; Ouyang, Guilin; Shen, Yu; Huo, Rongfen; Zhou, Zhou; Sun, Yue; Zhu, Xianjin; Zhang, Jie; Shen, Baihua; Li, Ningli

    2012-12-01

    Total glucoside of paeony (TGP), an active compound extracted from paeony root, has been used in therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Th1 and Th17 cells are now believed to play crucial roles in the lesions of RA. However, the molecular mechanism of TGP in inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cells remains unclear. In this study, we found that TGP treatment significantly decreased percentage and number of Th1 and Th17 cells in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Consistently, treatment with TGP decreased expression of T-bet and RORγt as well as phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. In particular, TGP treatment inhibited dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and reduced production of IL-12 and IL-6. Moreover, TGP-treatment RA patients showed shank population of matured DCs and IFN-γ-, IL-17-producing cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TGP inhibited maturation and activation of DCs, which led to impaired Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3-bromopyruvate ameliorate autoimmune arthritis by modulating Th17/Treg cell differentiation and suppressing dendritic cell activation.

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    Okano, Takaichi; Saegusa, Jun; Nishimura, Keisuke; Takahashi, Soshi; Sendo, Sho; Ueda, Yo; Morinobu, Akio

    2017-02-10

    Recent studies have shown that cellular metabolism plays an important role in regulating immune cell functions. In immune cell differentiation, both interleukin-17-producing T (Th17) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) exhibit increased glycolysis through the upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase-2 (HK2). Blocking glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose was recently shown to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation while promoting regulatory T (Treg) cell generation. However, 2-DG inhibits all isoforms of HK. Thus, it is unclear which isoform has a critical role in Th17 cell differentiation and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Here we demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA), a specific HK2 inhibitor, significantly decreased the arthritis scores and the histological scores in SKG mice, with a significant increase in Treg cells, decrease in Th17 cells, and decrease in activated DCs in the spleen. In vitro, BrPA facilitated the differentiation of Treg cells, suppressed Th17 cells, and inhibited the activation of DCs. These results suggested that BrPA may be a therapeutic target of murine arthritis. Although the role of IL-17 is not clarified in the treatment of RA, targeting cell metabolism to alter the immune cell functions might lead to a new therapeutic strategy for RA.

  18. T-cell clones from Th1, Th17 or Th1/17 lineages and their signature cytokines have different capacity to activate endothelial cells or synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavocat, Fabien; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco; Miossec, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    To compare the direct effect of cytokines on synoviocytes and endothelial cells to the effects of supernatants from Th1, Th17 and Th1/17 clones and the direct cell-cell interactions with the same clones. Th17 and Th1/17 clones were obtained from the CD161+CCR6+ fraction and Th1 clones from the CD161-CCR6- fraction of human CD4+ T-cells. Endothelial cells or synoviocytes were cultured in the presence of either isolated pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17 and/or TNF-α) or supernatants from the T-cell clones or co-cultured with T-cell clones themselves. IL-6 and IL-8 expression and production were analyzed. IL-17 and TNF-α induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression, although IL-17 alone had a limited effect on endothelial cells compared to synoviocytes. Supernatants from activated T-helper clones also induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression but with discrepancies between endothelial cells and synoviocytes. Endothelial cells were mostly activated by Th1 clone supernatants whereas synoviocytes were activated by all T-cell subtypes. Finally, cell-cell contact experiments showed a great heterogeneity among cell clones, even from the same lineage. IL-6 expression was mostly induced by contact with Th1 clones both in endothelial and mesenchymal cells whereas IL-8 expression was induced by all T-cell clones whatever their phenotype. We showed that endothelial cells were much more sensitive to Th1 activation whereas synoviocytes were activated by all T-helper lineages. This work highlights the heterogeneity of interactions between T-cells and stromal cells through soluble factors or direct cell contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation of human naïve Th cells increases surface expression of GD3 and induces neoexpression of GD2 that colocalize with TCR clusters.

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    Villanueva-Cabello, Tania M; Mollicone, Rosella; Cruz-Muñoz, Mario E; López-Guerrero, Delia V; Martínez-Duncker, Iván

    2015-12-01

    CD4+ T helper lymphocytes (Th) orchestrate the immune response after their activation by antigen-presenting cells. Activation of naïve Th cells is reported to generate the reduction in surface epitopes of sialic acid (Sia) in α2,3 and α2,6 linkages. In this work, we report that in spite of this glycophenotype, anti-CD3/anti-CD28-activated purified human naïve Th cells show a significant increase in surface Sia, as assessed by metabolic labeling, compared with resting naïve Th cells, suggesting an increased flux of Sia toward Siaα2,8 glycoconjugates. To understand this increase as a result of ganglioside up-regulation, we observed that very early after activation, human naïve Th cells show an increased expression in surface GD3 and neoexpression of surface GD2 gangliosides, the latter clustering with the T cell receptor (TCR). Also, we report that in contrast to GM2/GD2 synthase null mice, lentiviral vector-mediated silencing of the GM2/GD2 synthase in activated human naïve Th cells reduced efficient TCR clustering and downstream signaling, as assessed by proliferation assays and IL-2 and IL-2R expression, pointing to an important role of this enzyme in activation of human naive Th cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Human B cells induce dendritic cell maturation and favour Th2 polarization by inducing OX-40 ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, Mohan S.; Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Pulendran, Bali; Kaveri, Srini V.; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in immune homeostasis by regulating the functions of various immune cells, including T and B cells. Notably, DCs also undergo education on reciprocal signalling by these immune cells and environmental factors. Various reports demonstrated that B cells have profound regulatory functions, although only few reports have explored the regulation of human DCs by B cells. Here we demonstrate that activated but not resting B cells induce maturation of DCs with distinct features to polarize Th2 cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4 and IL-13. B-cell-induced maturation of DCs is contact dependent and implicates signalling of B-cell activation molecules CD69, B-cell-activating factor receptor, and transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor. Mechanistically, differentiation of Th2 cells by B-cell-matured DCs is dependent on OX-40 ligand. Collectively, our results suggest that B cells have the ability to control their own effector functions by enhancing the ability of human DCs to mediate Th2 differentiation. PMID:24910129

  1. Allergen-specific Th1 cells counteract efferent Th2 cell-dependent bronchial hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation partly via IFN-gamma.

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    Huang, T J; MacAry, P A; Eynott, P; Moussavi, A; Daniel, K C; Askenase, P W; Kemeny, D M; Chung, K F

    2001-01-01

    Th2 T cell immune-driven inflammation plays an important role in allergic asthma. We studied the effect of counterbalancing Th1 T cells in an asthma model in Brown Norway rats that favors Th2 responses. Rats received i.v. transfers of syngeneic allergen-specific Th1 or Th2 cells, 24 h before aerosol exposure to allergen, and were studied 18-24 h later. Adoptive transfer of OVA-specific Th2 cells, but not Th1 cells, and OVA, but not BSA exposure, induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to acetylcholine and eosinophilia in a cell number-dependent manner. Importantly, cotransfer of OVA-specific Th1 cells dose-dependently reversed BHR and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia, but not mucosal eosinophilia. OVA-specific Th1 cells transferred alone induced mucosal eosinophilia, but neither BHR nor BAL eosinophilia. Th1 suppression of BHR and BAL eosinophilia was allergen specific, since cotransfer of BSA-specific Th1 cells with the OVA-specific Th2 cells was not inhibitory when OVA aerosol alone was used, but was suppressive with OVA and BSA challenge. Furthermore, recipients of Th1 cells alone had increased gene expression for IFN-gamma in the lungs, while those receiving Th2 cells alone showed increased IL-4 mRNA. Importantly, induction of these Th2 cytokines was inhibited in recipients of combined Th1 and Th2 cells. Anti-IFN-gamma treatment attenuated the down-regulatory effect of Th1 cells. Allergen-specific Th1 cells down-regulate efferent Th2 cytokine-dependent BHR and BAL eosinophilia in an asthma model via mechanisms that depend on IFN-gamma. Therapy designed to control the efferent phase of established asthma by augmenting down-regulatory Th1 counterbalancing mechanisms should be effective.

  2. Intrinsic atopic dermatitis shows similar TH2 and higher TH17 immune activation compared with extrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Dhingra, Nikhil; Gittler, Julia; Shemer, Avner; Cardinale, Irma; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic and intrinsic, representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients with the disease, respectively. Although sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only extrinsic AD is characterized by high serum IgE levels. Because most patients with AD exhibit high IgE levels, an "allergic"/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly TH2/TH22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. We sought to define whether both variants share a common pathogenesis. We stratified 51 patients with severe AD into extrinsic AD (n = 42) and intrinsic AD (n = 9) groups (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD scores) and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and nonlesional intrinsic AD and extrinsic AD by using gene expression (real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry. A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD scores (r = 0.76, P extrinsic AD. Marked infiltrates of T cells and dendritic cells and corresponding epidermal alterations (keratin 16, Mki67, and S100A7/A8/A9) defined lesional skin of patients with both variants. However, higher activation of all inflammatory axes (including TH2) was detected in patients with intrinsic AD, particularly TH17 and TH22 cytokines. Positive correlations between TH17-related molecules and SCORAD scores were only found in patients with intrinsic AD, whereas only patients with extrinsic AD showed positive correlations between SCORAD scores and TH2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) levels and negative correlations with differentiation products (loricrin and periplakin). Although differences in TH17 and TH22 activation exist between patients with intrinsic AD and those with extrinsic AD, we identified common disease-defining features of T-cell activation, production of polarized cytokines, and keratinocyte responses to immune products. Our data indicate that a TH2 bias is not the sole cause of high Ig

  3. Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells stimulated with an adjuvant direct the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, K; Mori, A; Ikeda, R

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that Langerhans cells (LCs) work as the primary orchestrators in the polarization of immune responses towards a T helper type 1 (Th1) or Th2 milieu. In this study, we attempted to generate LCs from murine bone marrow cells and elicit a Th1- or Th2-prone immune response through the LCs after stimulation with Th1 or Th2 adjuvant. LCs were generated from murine bone marrow cells using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and were obtained as I-A(d) positive cells. Mice were primed with Th1/Th2 adjuvant- and ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed LCs and then given a booster injection of OVA 2 days later via the hind footpad. Five days after the OVA injection, the cytokine response in the draining popliteal lymph nodes was investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The generated LCs expressed typical LC surface markers, E-cadherin and Langerin, and were classified accordingly as LC-like dendritic cells (LDCs). Administration of Th1 adjuvant, cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG)-DNA- and OVA-pulsed LDCs into the hind footpads of mice induced a Th1-prone immune response, as represented by up-regulation of IFN-γ production and down-regulation of IL-4 production in the lymph node cells. Conversely, Th2 adjuvant, histamine-pulsed LDCs induced a Th2-prone immune response, as represented by up-regulation of IL-4 production and down-regulation of IFN-γ production. These results suggest that LDCs may be used as a substitute for LCs and have the ability to induce the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo. Our experimental system would therefore be useful for screening of inhibitors of Th1/Th2 differentiation in order to control allergic disease. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  4. Oral Administration of p-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Attenuates Atopic Dermatitis by Downregulating Th1 and Th2 Cytokine Production and Keratinocyte Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Su Lee

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex disease that is caused by various factors, including environmental change, genetic defects, and immune imbalance. We previously showed that p-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA isolated from the roots of Curcuma longa inhibits T-cell activation without inducing cell death. Here, we demonstrated that oral administration of HCA in a mouse model of ear AD attenuates the following local and systemic AD manifestations: ear thickening, immune-cell infiltration, production of AD-promoting immunoregulatory cytokines in ear tissues, increased spleen and draining lymph node size and weight, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by draining lymph nodes, and elevated serum immunoglobulin production. HCA treatment of CD4+ T cells in vitro suppressed their proliferation and differentiation into Th1 or Th2 and their Th1 and Th2 cytokine production. HCA treatment of keratinocytes lowered their production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that drive either Th1 or Th2 responses in AD. Thus, HCA may be of therapeutic potential for AD as it acts by suppressing keratinocyte activation and downregulating T-cell differentiation and cytokine production.

  5. Molecular events by which dendritic cells promote Th2 immune protection in helmith infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Samperio, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Helminth parasites are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting nearly one quarter of the world's population. The common feature of helminth infections is to skew the immune system towards a T-helper 2 (Th2) response that helps to control disease. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells, play a critical role for Th2 skewing against helminth parasites. However, the molecular mechanisms by which helminth antigens activate DCs for Th2 polarization have not yet been clearly defined. This review provides a focused update on the major role of DCs for inducing and/or enhancing Th2 immune responses in helminthic infection and will discuss the main signalling-dependent and independent mechanisms by which helminth antigens activate DCs for Th2 skewing.

  6. Reciprocal modulation of helper Th1 and Th17 cells by the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug terbutaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Gonczi, Catalina M; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Mahdieh; East, Ashley; Martire, Erika; Maurice-Ventouris, Meagane H I; Darlington, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Catecholamine hormones are powerful regulators of the immune system produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). They regulate the adaptive immune system by altering T-cell differentiation into T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell subsets, but the effect on Th17 cells is not known. Th17 cells, defined, in part, by chemokine receptor CCR6 and cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A, are crucial for mediating certain pathogen-specific responses and are linked with several autoimmune diseases. We demonstrated that a proportion of human Th17 cells express beta 2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a G protein-coupled receptor that responds to catecholamines. Activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which were obtained from venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers, with anti-cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) and anti-CD28 and with a β2-agonist drug, terbutaline (TERB), augmented IL-17A levels (P < 0.01) in the majority of samples. TERB reduced interferon gamma (IFNγ) indicating that IL-17A and IFNγ are reciprocally regulated. Similar reciprocal regulation was observed with dbcAMP. Proliferation of Th cells was monitored by carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester labeling and flow cytometry with antibody staining for CD3 and CD4. TERB increased proliferation by a small but significant margin (P < 0.001). Next, Th17 cells (CD4 + CXCR3 - CCR6 + ) were purified using an immunomagnetic positive selection kit, which removes all other mononuclear cells. TERB increased IL-17A from purified Th17 cells, which argues that TERB acts directly on Th17 cells. Thus, hormone signals from the SNS maintain a balance of Th cells subtypes through the β2AR. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. IL-4 enhances IL-10 production in Th1 cells: implications for Th1 and Th2 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ruth E; Hassan, Masriana; Burton, Bronwen R; Britton, Graham; Hill, Elaine V; Verhagen, Johan; Wraith, David C

    2017-09-12

    IL-10 is an immunomodulatory cytokine with a critical role in limiting inflammation in immune-mediated pathologies. The mechanisms leading to IL-10 expression by CD4 + T cells are being elucidated, with several cytokines implicated. We explored the effect of IL-4 on the natural phenomenon of IL-10 production by a chronically stimulated antigen-specific population of differentiated Th1 cells. In vitro, IL-4 blockade inhibited while addition of exogenous IL-4 to Th1 cultures enhanced IL-10 production. In the in vivo setting of peptide immunotherapy leading to a chronically stimulated Th1 phenotype, lack of IL-4Rα inhibited the induction of IL-10. Exploring the interplay of Th1 and Th2 cells through co-culture, Th2-derived IL-4 promoted IL-10 expression by Th1 cultures, reducing their pathogenicity in vivo. Co-culture led to upregulated c-Maf expression with no decrease in the proportion of T-bet + cells in these cultures. Addition of IL-4 also reduced the encephalitogenic capacity of Th1 cultures. These data demonstrate that IL-4 contributes to IL-10 production and that Th2 cells modulate Th1 cultures towards a self-regulatory phenotype, contributing to the cross-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cells. These findings are important in the context of Th1 driven diseases since they reveal how the Th1 phenotype and function can be modulated by IL-4.

  8. Evidence for mouse Th1- and Th2-like helper T cells in vivo. Selective reduction of Th1-like cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.; Mosmann, T.; Strober, S.

    1989-01-01

    Purified CD4+ BALB/c spleen T cells obtained 4-6 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) helped normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP keyhole limpet hemocyanin in adoptive cell transfer experiments. However, the same cells failed to transfer delayed-type hypersensitivity to the adoptive hosts as measured by a foot pad swelling assay. In addition, purified CD4+ cells from TLI-treated mice were unable to induce graft vs. host disease in lethally irradiated allogeneic C57BL/Ka recipient mice. In response to mitogen stimulation, unfractionated spleen cells obtained from TLI mice secreted normal levels of IL-4 and IL-5, but markedly reduced levels of IL-2 and INF-gamma. A total of 229 CD4+ clones from spleen cells of both normal and TLI-treated mice were established, and the cytokine secretion pattern from each clone was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the ratio of Th1- and Th2-like clones in the spleens of normal BALB/c mice is 1:0.6, whereas the ratio in TLI mice is approximately 1:7. These results suggest that Th2-like cells recover rapidly (at approximately 4-6 wk) after TLI treatment and account for the early return of antibody helper activity and secretion of IL-4 and IL-5, but Th1-like cells recover more slowly (in approximately 3 mo) after irradiation, and this accounts for the deficit in cell-mediated immunity and the reduced amount of IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion

  9. Leishmania donovani-reactive Th1- and Th2-like T-cell clones from individuals who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Kurtzhals, J A; Bendtzen, K

    1993-01-01

    analyzed in a panel of L. donovani-reactive CD4+ human T-cell clones generated from individuals who had recovered from VL after antimonial treatment. Two of the T-cell clones produced large amounts of IL-4 without production of IFN-gamma, seven clones produced both IFN-gamma and IL-4, and eight produced...... by interleukin-4 (IL-4)-producing Th2 cells, or cure may result by Th1 cells secreting gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). The present study examined the potential of human T cells to generate Th1 or Th2 responses to L. donovani. The profiles of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and lymphotoxin secretion after antigen stimulation were...... only IFN-gamma. This is the first report of a Th1- and Th2-type response in human leishmaniasis. These results suggest that in analogy with murine models, there is a dichotomy in the human T-cell response to L. donovani infections. Preferential activation of IL-4-producing Th2-like cells may...

  10. Id2 reinforces TH1 cell differentiation and inhibits E2A to repress TFH cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A.; Bélanger, Simon; Omilusik, Kyla D.; Cho, Sunglim; Scott-Browne, James P.; Nance, J. Philip; Goulding, John; Lasorella, Anna; Lu, Li-Fan; Crotty, Shane; Goldrath, Ananda W.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of T helper (TH) effector subsets is critical for host protection. E protein transcription factors and Id proteins are important arbiters of T cell development, but their role in differentiation of TH1 and TFH cells is not well understood. TH1 cells showed robust Id2 expression compared to TFH cells, and RNAi depletion of Id2 increased TFH cell frequencies. Further, TH1 cell differentiation was blocked by Id2 deficiency, leading to E protein-dependent accumulation of effector cells with mixed characteristics during viral infection and severely impaired generation of TH1 cells following Toxoplasma gondii infection. The TFH-defining transcriptional repressor Bcl6 bound the Id2 locus, providing a mechanism for the bimodal Id2 expression and reciprocal development of TH1 and TFH cell fates. PMID:27213691

  11. PTEN drives Th17 cell differentiation by preventing IL-2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Su; Jang, Sung Woong; Lee, Wonyong; Kim, Kiwan; Sohn, Hyogon; Hwang, Soo Seok; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2017-11-06

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells are a CD4 + T cell subset that produces IL-17A to mediate inflammation and autoimmunity. IL-2 inhibits Th17 cell differentiation. However, the mechanism by which IL-2 is suppressed during Th17 cell differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a key factor that regulates Th17 cell differentiation by suppressing IL-2 production. Th17-specific Pten deletion ( Pten fl/fl Il17a cre ) impairs Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of Th17-mediated autoimmune disease. Mechanistically, Pten deficiency up-regulates IL-2 and phosphorylation of STAT5, but reduces STAT3 phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation. PTEN inhibitors block Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and in the EAE model. Thus, PTEN plays a key role in Th17 cell differentiation by blocking IL-2 expression. © 2017 Kim et al.

  12. Correlation Between Th1, Th2 Cells and Levels of Serum MMP-2, MMP-9 in Children with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan WANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the correlation between Th1 and Th2 cells and the levels of serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in children with asthma. Methods: A total of 89 children with asthma were divided into acute group (n=48 and chronic group (n=41 according to the course of disease, and 40 healthy children at the same term were collected as control group. The ratios of Th1 and Th2 cells as well as levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were compared in three groups, and the correlation between Th1 and Th2 cells and levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 was analyzed in acute group and chronic group. Results: When compared with control group, the ratios of Th1 and Th2 cells went down in both acute group and chronic group (P<0.01, while the levels of serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 up (P<0.01. The levels of serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 in acute group were dramatically higher than those in chronic group, and there was statistical significance (P<0.01. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that there was no significant correlation between Th1 and Th2 cells and MMP-2 level (r=0.148, P=0.314, r=0.299, P=0.058; r=0.183, P=0.214, r=0.289, P=0.067, whereas both Th1 and Th2 cells were negatively correlated with MMP-9 level in acute group and chronic group (r=-0.489, P=0.000, r=-0.324, P=0.039; r=-0.352, P=0.014, r=-0.357, P=0.022. Conclusion: Aberrant secretion of Th cells can not only damage the immune function of children with asthma, but also decrease the level of serum MMP-9, consequently affecting the collagen degradation and airway remodeling.

  13. Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Regulates the Expression of Interleukin-4 in Th2 Cells in an All-or-none Fashion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, Juliana; Kreher, Stephan; Lehmann, Katrin; Riedel, René; Bardua, Markus; Lischke, Timo; Jargosch, Manja; Haftmann, Claudia; Bendfeldt, Hanna; Hatam, Farahnaz; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Chang, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Th2 memory lymphocytes have imprinted their Il4 genes epigenetically for expression in dependence of T cell receptor restimulation. However, in a given restimulation, not all Th cells with a memory for IL-4 expression express IL-4. Here, we show that in reactivated Th2 cells, the transcription factors NFATc2, NF-kB p65, c-Maf, p300, Brg1, STAT6, and GATA-3 assemble at the Il4 promoter in Th2 cells expressing IL-4 but not in Th2 cells not expressing it. NFATc2 is critical for assembly of this transcription factor complex. Because NFATc2 translocation into the nucleus occurs in an all-or-none fashion, dependent on complete dephosphorylation by calcineurin, NFATc2 controls the frequencies of cells reexpressing Il4, translates analog differences in T cell receptor stimulation into a digital decision for Il4 reexpression, and instructs all reexpressing cells to express the same amount of IL-4. This analog-to-digital conversion may be critical for the immune system to respond to low concentrations of antigens. PMID:25037220

  14. Interleukin 4 promotes the development of ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells during immunity to intestinal helminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Stephanie M.; Kannan, Yashaswini; Entwistle, Lewis J.; Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Czieso, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Immunity to intestinal helminth infections requires the rapid activation of T helper 2 cells (Th2 cells). However, simultaneous expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells) impedes protective responses, resulting in chronic infections. The ratio between T reg and effector T cells can therefore determine the outcome of infection. The redifferentiation of T reg cells into Th cells has been identified in hyperinflammatory diseases. In this study, we asked whether ex–T reg Th2 cells develop and contribute to type-2 immunity. Using multigene reporter and fate-reporter systems, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of Th2 cells derive from Foxp3+ cells after Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection and airway allergy. Ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells exhibit characteristic Th2 effector functions and provide immunity to H. polygyrus. Through selective deletion of Il4ra on Foxp3+ cells, we further demonstrate IL-4 is required for the development of ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that converting T reg cells into Th2 cells could concomitantly enhance Th2 cells and limit T reg cell–mediated suppression. PMID:28507062

  15. Dysregulated cytokine expression by CD4+ T cells from post-septic mice modulates both Th1 and Th2-mediated granulomatous lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Carson

    Full Text Available Previous epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animals indicate that survivors of severe sepsis exhibit deficiencies in the activation and effector function of immune cells. In particular, CD4+ T lymphocytes can exhibit reduced proliferative capacity and improper cytokine responses following sepsis. To further investigate the cell-intrinsic defects of CD4+ T cells following sepsis, splenic CD4+ T cells from sham surgery and post-septic mice were transferred into lymphopenic mice. These recipient mice were then subjected to both TH1-(purified protein derivative and TH2-(Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen driven models of granulomatous lung inflammation. Post-septic CD4+ T cells mediated smaller TH1 and larger TH2 lung granulomas as compared to mice receiving CD4+ T cells from sham surgery donors. However, cytokine production by lymph node cells in antigen restimulation assays indicated increased pan-specific cytokine expression by post-septic CD4+ T cell recipient mice in both TH1 and TH2 granuloma models. These include increased production of T(H2 cytokines in TH1 inflammation, and increased production of T(H1 cytokines in TH2 inflammation. These results suggest that cell-intrinsic defects in CD4+ T cell effector function can have deleterious effects on inflammatory processes post-sepsis, due to a defect in the proper regulation of TH-specific cytokine expression.

  16. Hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 decreased survival rate of canine lymphoma cells under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Lai, Yu-Chang; Tateno, Morihiro; Setoguchi, Asuka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that hypoxic stimulation enhances growth potentials of canine lymphoma cells by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug (TH-302) inhibits growth potentials in the cells. We investigated how hypoxic culture affects the growth rate, chemoresistance, and invasiveness of canine lymphoma cells and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant lymphoma cells, and influences of TH-302 on survival rate of the cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic culture upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin, and enhanced the growth rate, DOX resistance, and invasiveness of the cells. Additionally, TH-302 decreased the survival rate of the cells under hypoxic condition. Our studies suggest that hypoxic stimulation may advance the tumorigenicity of canine lymphoma cells, favoring malignant transformation. Therefore, the data presented may contribute to the development of TH-302-based hypoxia-targeting therapies for canine lymphoma.

  17. Proanthocyanidins from the bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides ameliorate allergic contact dermatitis through directly inhibiting T cells activation and Th1/Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengyang; Ye, Xiaodi; Yang, Yadong; Teng, Tianli; Li, Xiaoyu; Xu, Shifang; Ye, Yiping

    2015-04-15

    The leaves and bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides are used as anti-microbic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases in Chinese folk medicine. However, the pharmacological effects and material basis responsible for the therapeutic use of this herb have not yet been well studied. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the proanthocyanidin fraction from the bark of M. glyptostroboides (MGEB) and to elucidate its immunological mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory activity of MGEB was evaluated using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in mice. Its potential mechanisms were further investigated by determining its effects on Con A-induced T cell activation and Th1/Th17 responses in vitro. Both intraperitoneal injection and oral administration of MGEB significantly reduced the ear swelling in DNFB-induced ACD mice. MGEB inhibited Con A-induced proliferation and the expression levels of cell surface molecules CD69 and CD25 of T cells in vitro. MGEB also significantly decreased the production of Th1/Th17 specific cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17) and down-regulated their mRNA expression levels in activated T-cells. MGEB could ameliorate ACD, at least in part, through directly inhibiting T cells activation and Th1/Th17 responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Allergic TH2 Response Governed by B-Cell Lymphoma 6 Function in Naturally Occurring Memory Phenotype CD4+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Kohashi, Yuko; Ikari, Jun; Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuhide; Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Fujimura, Lisa; Sakamoto, Akemi; Hatano, Masahiko; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurasawa, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Arima, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) appears to regulate TH2 immune responses in allergies, but its precise role is unclear. We previously reported that Bcl6 suppressed IL-4 production in naïve CD4+ T cell-derived memory TH2 cells. To investigate Bcl6 function in allergic responses in naturally occurring memory phenotype CD4+ T (MPT) cells and their derived TH2 (MPTH2) cells, Bcl6-manipulated mice, highly conserved intron enhancer (hcIE)-deficient mice, and reporter mice for conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2) 3′ distal enhancer region were used to elucidate Bcl6 function in MPT cells. The molecular mechanisms of Bcl6-mediated TH2 cytokine gene regulation were elucidated using cellular and molecular approaches. Bcl6 function in MPT cells was determined using adoptive transfer to naïve mice, which were assessed for allergic airway inflammation. Bcl6 suppressed IL-4 production in MPT and MPTH2 cells by suppressing CNS2 enhancer activity. Bcl6 downregulated Il4 expression in MPTH2 cells, but not MPT cells, by suppressing hcIE activity. The inhibitory functions of Bcl6 in MPT and MPTH2 cells attenuated allergic responses. Bcl6 is a critical regulator of IL-4 production by MPT and MPTH2 cells in TH2 immune responses related to the pathogenesis of allergies. PMID:29696026

  19. IFNγ and IL-12 Restrict Th2 Responses during Helminth/Plasmodium Co-Infection and Promote IFNγ from Th2 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Coomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths establish chronic infections in mammalian hosts. Helminth/Plasmodium co-infections occur frequently in endemic areas. However, it is unclear whether Plasmodium infections compromise anti-helminth immunity, contributing to the chronicity of infection. Immunity to Plasmodium or helminths requires divergent CD4+ T cell-driven responses, dominated by IFNγ or IL-4, respectively. Recent literature has indicated that Th cells, including Th2 cells, have phenotypic plasticity with the ability to produce non-lineage associated cytokines. Whether such plasticity occurs during co-infection is unclear. In this study, we observed reduced anti-helminth Th2 cell responses and compromised anti-helminth immunity during Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Plasmodium chabaudi co-infection. Using newly established triple cytokine reporter mice (Il4gfpIfngyfpIl17aFP635, we demonstrated that Il4gfp+ Th2 cells purified from in vitro cultures or isolated ex vivo from helminth-infected mice up-regulated IFNγ following adoptive transfer into Rag1-/- mice infected with P. chabaudi. Functionally, Th2 cells that up-regulated IFNγ were transcriptionally re-wired and protected recipient mice from high parasitemia. Mechanistically, TCR stimulation and responsiveness to IL-12 and IFNγ, but not type I IFN, was required for optimal IFNγ production by Th2 cells. Finally, blockade of IL-12 and IFNγ during co-infection partially preserved anti-helminth Th2 responses. In summary, this study demonstrates that Th2 cells retain substantial plasticity with the ability to produce IFNγ during Plasmodium infection. Consequently, co-infection with Plasmodium spp. may contribute to the chronicity of helminth infection by reducing anti-helminth Th2 cells and converting them into IFNγ-secreting cells.

  20. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging for quantification of TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines at the single-cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkar, Hakim; Benbernou, N.; Esnault, S.; Shin, H. C.; Guenounou, Moncef

    1998-04-01

    procedure of the original image using a structuring element. The opened image was therefore subtracted from the original one, and the gray intensities were subsequently measured. Fluorescence intensities are mapped in MD representation using Matlab software. Consequently, quantitative comparative expression of intracellular cytokines and cell membrane markers was achieved. Using this technique, we showed that CD4+ and CD8+T lymphocytes expressed a large panel of cytokines, and that protein kinase A (PKA) activation pathway induced a polarization of activated human T cells to the TH-2 type profile. Data also showed different sensitivities of CD45 RO/CD45RA lymphocytes to the activation of PKA, thus suggesting the implication of memory CD4+- and CD8+-T cells in the T cell specific immune and inflammatory processes and their control by PKA activation pathway. Finally, this method represents a powerful tool for the detection and quantification of intracellular cytokine expression and the analysis of the functional properties of T lymphocytes during immune responses.

  1. A dominant role for the methyl-CpG-binding protein Mbd2 in controlling Th2 induction by dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter C; Owen, Heather; Deaton, Aimée M; Borger, Jessica G; Brown, Sheila L; Clouaire, Thomas; Jones, Gareth-Rhys; Jones, Lucy H; Lundie, Rachel J; Marley, Angela K; Morrison, Vicky L; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T; Wachter, Elisabeth; Webb, Lauren M; Sutherland, Tara E; Thomas, Graham D; Grainger, John R; Selfridge, Jim; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Allen, Judith E; Fagerholm, Susanna C; Maizels, Rick M; Ivens, Alasdair C; Bird, Adrian; MacDonald, Andrew S

    2015-04-24

    Dendritic cells (DCs) direct CD4(+) T-cell differentiation into diverse helper (Th) subsets that are required for protection against varied infections. However, the mechanisms used by DCs to promote Th2 responses, which are important both for immunity to helminth infection and in allergic disease, are currently poorly understood. We demonstrate a key role for the protein methyl-CpG-binding domain-2 (Mbd2), which links DNA methylation to repressive chromatin structure, in regulating expression of a range of genes that are associated with optimal DC activation and function. In the absence of Mbd2, DCs display reduced phenotypic activation and a markedly impaired capacity to initiate Th2 immunity against helminths or allergens. These data identify an epigenetic mechanism that is central to the activation of CD4(+) T-cell responses by DCs, particularly in Th2 settings, and reveal methyl-CpG-binding proteins and the genes under their control as possible therapeutic targets for type-2 inflammation.

  2. Dietary Fructo-Oligosaccharides Attenuate Early Activation of CD4+ T Cells Which Produce both Th1 and Th2 Cytokines in the Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues of a Murine Food Allergy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Masato; Arakawa, Haruka; Ishii, Narumi; Ubukata, Chihiro; Michimori, Mana; Noda, Masanari; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Hosono, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation. Single-cell suspensions were prepared from intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues for cellular analysis. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Activation markers and intracellular cytokines in CD4+ T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Activated CD4+ T cells were purified to examine cytokine production. Dietary intake of FOS provided moderate protection from the intestinal inflammation induced by the OVA-containing diet. FOS significantly reduced food allergy-induced Th2 cytokine responses in intestinal tissues but not in systemic tissues. FOS decreased OVA diet-induced IFN-γ+IL-4+ double-positive CD4+ T cells and early-activated CD45RBhighCD69+CD4+ T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we confirmed that these CD45RBhighCD69+CD4+ T cells are able to produce high levels of IFN-γ and moderate level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. Dietary intake of FOS during the development of food allergy attenuates the induction of intestinal Th2 cytokine responses by regulating early activation of naïve CD4+ T cells, which produce both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Our results suggest FOS might be a potential food agent for the prevention of food allergy by modulating oral sensitization to food antigens. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Effector/memory CD4 T cells making either Th1 or Th2 cytokines commonly co-express T-bet and GATA-3.

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    Arundhoti Das

    Full Text Available Naïve CD4 T (NCD4T cells post-activation undergo programming for inducible production of cytokines leading to generation of memory cells with various functions. Based on cytokine based polarization of NCD4T cells in vitro, programming for either 'Th1' (interferon-gamma [IFNg] or 'Th2' (interleukin [IL]-4/5/13 cytokines is thought to occur via mutually exclusive expression and functioning of T-bet or GATA-3 transcription factors (TFs. However, we show that a high proportion of mouse and human memory-phenotype CD4 T (MCD4T cells generated in vivo which expressed either Th1 or Th2 cytokines commonly co-expressed T-bet and GATA-3. While T-bet levels did not differ between IFNg-expressing and IL-4/5/13-expressing MCD4T cells, GATA-3 levels were higher in the latter. These observations were also confirmed in MCD4T cells from FVB/NJ or aged C57BL/6 or IFNg-deficient mice. While MCD4T cells from these strains showed greater Th2 commitment than those from young C57BL/6 mice, pattern of co-expression of TF was similar. Effector T cells generated in vivo following immunization also showed TF co-expression in Th1 or Th2 cytokine producing cells. We speculated that the difference in TF expression pattern of MCD4T cells generated in vivo and those generated in cytokine polarized cultures in vitro could be due to relative absence of polarizing conditions during activation in vivo. We tested this by NCD4T cell activation in non-polarizing conditions in vitro. Anti-CD3 and anti-CD28-mediated priming of polyclonal NCD4T cells in vitro without polarizing milieu generated cells that expressed either IFNg or IL-4/5/13 but not both, yet both IFNg- and IL-4/5/13-expressing cells showed upregulation of both TFs. We also tested monoclonal T cell populations activated in non-polarizing conditions. TCR-transgenic NCD4T cells primed in vitro by cognate peptide in non-polarizing conditions which expressed either IFNg or IL-4/5/13 also showed a high proportion of cells co

  4. Low dose ultraviolet B-irradiated Langerhans cells preferentially activate CD4+ cells of the T helper 2 subset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.C.; Cruz, P.D. Jr.; Bergstresser, P.R.; Tigelaar, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    UVB radiation distorts the Ag-presenting function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC); this has been shown for the presentation of soluble Ag to primed T cells in vitro and for the initiation of delayed-type hypersensitivity in vivo, such as contact hypersensitivity (CH). Previous work has also demonstrated UVB-induced suppression of CH to be mediated ultimately by T cells. Two subsets of CD4+ Th cells, Th1 and Th2, have been identified, based on their cytokine production and functional activities. In particular, Th1 mediate delayed-type hypersensitivity, whereas Th2 do not. To investigate whether the perturbation of LC function induced by UVB radiation leads to a differential activation of these subsets of CD4+ cells, we examined the capacity of unirradiated and irradiated (200 J/m2) APC from adult BALB/c mice to present keyhole limpet hemocyanin to Ag-specific, H2d-restricted Th1 and Th2 cell lines. Four sources of APC were utilized: epidermal cells (EC), flow microfluorometry-purified Ia+ EC (LC), flow microfluorometry-purified Ia- EC, and splenic adherent cells (SAC). Unirradiated EC, LC, and SAC, but not Ia-EC, presented keyhole limpet hemocyanin to both Th1 and Th2. Irradiated EC and LC lost their ability to stimulate Th1, but retained fully their capacity to stimulate Th2. On the other hand, irradiated SAC were unable to induce proliferation of either Th1 or Th2. These findings indicate that suppression of CH mediated by UVB-irradiated LC may result from an alteration of the ratio and/or activity of Th1 and Th2 cells normally generated during the induction of such responses

  5. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells, Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Eli; Feldman, Arie; Cohen, Ziona; Alon, Dora Ben; Minz, Evegeny; Chernyavsky, Alexey; Linov, Lina; Mishal, Joseph; Schlezinger, Menacham; Sthoeger, Zev

    2010-02-01

    A possible link between chronic vascular inflammation and arterial hypertension is now an object of intensive studies. To compare Th1/Th2/Th17 cells-related cytokines, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), and endothelial function in subjects with resistant arterial hypertension (RAH) and controlled arterial hypertension (CAH). Blood pressure was measured by electronic sphygmomanometer. EPC were identified as CD34+/CD133+/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)+ cells by flow cytometry. Th1/Th2/Th17 cells-related cytokines were identified using the Human Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokines MultiAnalyte ELISArray Kit. Endothelium-dependent (FMD) vasodilatation of brachial artery was measured by Doppler ultrasound scanning. RAH group (n = 20) and CAH group (n = 20) and 17 healthy individuals (control group) were recruited. In the RAH group, lower blood levels of EPC number (42.4 +/- 16.7 cells/mL) and EPC% (0.19 +/- 0.08%) were observed than in the CAH group (93.1 +/- 88.7 cells/mL; P = 0.017; 0.27 +/- 0.17; P = 0.036) and control group (68.5 +/- 63.6 cells/mL; P < 0.001; 0.28 +/- 0.17%; P = 0.003), respectively. Plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 levels were significantly higher in the RAH group (1767 +/- 364 pg/mL) than in the CAH group (1292 +/- 349; P < 0.001) and in control group (1203 +/- 419 pg/mL; P < 0.001). In the RAH group, statistically significant negative correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and EPC% (r = -0.72, P < 0.01). FMD in the RAH group was significantly lower (5.5 +/- 0.8%) than in the CAH group (9.2 +/- 1.4; P < 0.001) and in healthy controls (10.1 +/- 1.1%; P < 0.001). RAH is characterized by reduced circulating EPC, substantial endothelial dysfunction, and increased plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 levels.

  6. Dectin-1 isoforms contribute to distinct Th1/Th17 cell activation in mucosal candidiasis

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    Carvalho, Agostinho; Giovannini, Gloria; De Luca, Antonella; D'Angelo, Carmen; Casagrande, Andrea; Iannitti, Rossana G; Ricci, Giovanni; Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of β-glucans by dectin-1 has been shown to mediate cell activation, cytokine production and a variety of antifungal responses. Here, we report that the functional activity of dectin-1 in mucosal immunity to Candida albicans is influenced by the genetic background of the host. Dectin-1 was required for the proper control of gastrointestinal and vaginal candidiasis in C57BL/6, but not BALB/c mice; in fact, the latter showed increased resistance in the absence of dectin-1. The susceptibility of dectin-1-deficient C57BL/6 mice to infection was associated with defects in IL-17A and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent IL-22 production and in adaptive Th1 responses. In contrast, the resistance of dectin-1-deficient BALB/c mice was associated with increased IL-17A and IL-22 production and the skewing towards Th1/Treg immune responses that provide immunological memory. Disparate canonical/noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways downstream of dectin-1 were activated in the two different mouse strains. Thus, the net activity of dectin-1 in antifungal mucosal immunity is dependent on the host's genetic background, which affects both the innate cytokine production and the adaptive Th1/Th17 cell activation upon dectin-1 signaling. PMID:22543832

  7. Radiation-induced decrease of CD8+ dendritic cells contributes to Th1/Th2 shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu; Li, Bailong; Jia, Xiaojing; Ma, Yan; Gu, Yifeng; Zhang, Pei; Wei, Qun; Cai, Jianming; Cui, Jianguo; Gao, Fu; Yang, Yanyong

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) often reduce the helper T (Th) 1 like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance, which could affect the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. As the most potent antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DC) can be divided into several subsets with specialized function. However, there is no literature covering the changes of DC subsets and their roles in immune regulation in response to IR. In the present study, we were aimed to investigate the changes of DC subsets after IR and its relationship with Th1/Th2 immunity. We found a significant decrease of BDCA3+DC in the blood of patients treated with radiotherapy. CD8+DC, a mouse equivalent of human BDCA3+DC, was also found decreased in mice spleen, peripheral blood and lymph node tissues after irradiation. As CD8+DC mainly induce Th1 immunity, we tested the changes of Th1/Th2 response and found that IR caused a repression of Th1 immunity, indicating a possible role of CD8+DC in radiation-induced Th1/Th2 imbalance. We also found that a CD8+DC-inducing cytokine, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3 ligand), restored CD8+DC and reversed Th1/Th2 shift. And then we found that bone marrow cells from irradiated mice differentiated into less CD8+DC, which was also protected by FLT3 ligand. In conclusion, our data showed that IR induced a decrease of CD8+DC and Th1/Th2 shift, which was reversed by Flt3 ligand treatment, suggesting a novel mechanism for radiation-induced immunosuppression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Dendritic Cell-Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell Differentiation for Cancer Therapy

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    Julia Terhune

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of cellular immunotherapies against cancer requires the generation of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. The type of T-cell response generated (e.g., Th1 or Th2 will determine the efficacy of the therapy, and it is generally assumed that a type-1 response is needed for optimal cancer treatment. IL-17 producing T-cells (Th17/Tc17 play an important role in autoimmune diseases, but their function in cancer is more controversial. While some studies have shown a pro-cancerous role for IL-17, other studies have shown an anti-tumor function. The induction of polarized T-cell responses can be regulated by dendritic cells (DCs. DCs are key regulators of the immune system with the ability to affect both innate and adaptive immune responses. These properties have led many researchers to study the use of ex vivo manipulated DCs for the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. While Th1/Tc1 cells are traditionally used for their potent anti-tumor responses, mounting evidence suggests Th17/Tc17 cells should be utilized by themselves or for the induction of optimal Th1 responses. It is therefore important to understand the factors involved in the induction of both type-1 and type-17 T-cell responses by DCs.

  9. Th17 Cells and Activated Dendritic Cells Are Increased in Vitiligo Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Moussai, Dariush; Gulati, Nicholas; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Cohen, Jules A.; Krueger, James G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by progressive skin de-pigmentation due to the loss of cutaneous melanocytes. The exact cause of melanocyte loss remains unclear, but a large number of observations have pointed to the important role of cellular immunity in vitiligo pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we characterized T cell and inflammation-related dermal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in pigmented non-lesional, leading edge and depigmented lesional vitiligo skin. By immunohistochemistry staining, we observed enhanced populations of CD11c+ myeloid dermal DCs and CD207+ Langerhans cells in leading edge vitiligo biopsies. DC-LAMP+ and CD1c+ sub-populations of dermal DCs expanded significantly in leading edge and lesional vitiligo skin. We also detected elevated tissue mRNA levels of IL-17A in leading edge skin biopsies of vitiligo patients, as well as IL-17A positive T cells by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Langerhans cells with activated inflammasomes were also noted in lesional vitiligo skin, along with increased IL-1ß mRNA, which suggest the potential of Langerhans cells to drive Th17 activation in vitiligo. Conclusions/Significance These studies provided direct tissue evidence that implicates active Th17 cells in vitiligo skin lesions. We characterized new cellular immune elements, in the active margins of vitiligo lesions (e.g. populations of epidermal and dermal dendritic cells subsets), which could potentially drive the inflammatory responses. PMID:21541348

  10. The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmann, T R; Sad, S

    1996-03-01

    Since their discovery nearly ten years ago, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 subsets have been implicated in the regulation of many immune responses. In this article, Tim Mosmann and Subash Sad discuss the increasing number of T-cell subsets defined by cytokine patterns; the differentiation pathways of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; the contribution of other cell types to these patterns; and the cytokine interactions during infection and pregnancy.

  11. The Balance of Th1/Th2 and LAP+Tregs/Th17 Cells Is Crucial for Graft Survival in Allogeneic Corneal Transplantation

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    Shang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. CD4+LAP+ T cells are newly discovered regulatory T cells (Tregs. The aim of this study is to investigate the balance of Th1/Th2 and LAP+Tregs/Th17 in mice after allogeneic corneal transplantation. Methods. A total of 65 mice received orthotopic penetrating transplantation. According to the survival scores of the grafts, the mice were divided into the rejection group and the survival group 3 weeks after transplantation. Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells in the ipsilateral drainage lymph nodes and spleens were measured with flow cytometry. The related cytokines in aqueous humor were also analyzed. Results. The frequencies of Foxp3+Tregs, GARP+Tregs, and LAP+Tregs in the survival group were significantly higher than those in the rejection group. And the expression trend of CD4+LAP+ T cells and CD4+GARP+ T cells was consistent. The level of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, and IL-17A markedly increased in aqueous humor during corneal allograft rejection. The ratio of Th1/Th2 and Th17/LAP+Tregs significantly increased in the rejection group at the 3rd week after corneal transplantation. Conclusion. LAP+Tregs might be regarded as substitute for Foxp3+Tregs. The balance of Th1/Th2 and LAP+Tregs/Th17 is crucial for corneal allograft survival.

  12. Differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses to single epicutaneous immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Hong, Chien-Hui; Liu, Ching-Yi; Ta, Yng-Cun; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-12-01

    Epicutaneous immunization with allergens is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. We recently showed in addition to the Th2 response following single epicutaneous immunization, a remarkable Th1 response is induced in B6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice, mimicking the immune response to allergens in human non-atopics and atopics. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving this differential Th1 response between BALB/c and B6 mice. We characterized dermal dendritic cells by flow cytometric analysis. We measured the induced Th1/Th2 responses by measuring the IFN-γ/IL-13 contents of supernatants of antigen reactivation cultures of lymph node cells. We demonstrate that more dermal dendritic cells with higher activation status migrate into draining lymph nodes of B6 mice compared to BALB/c mice. Dermal dendritic cells of B6 mice have a greater ability to capture protein antigen than those of BALB/c mice. Moreover, increasing the activation status or amount of captured antigen in dermal dendritic cells induced a Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Further, differential activation behavior, but not antigen-capturing ability of dermal dendritic cells between BALB/c and B6 mice is dendritic cell-intrinsic. These results show that the differential activation behavior of dermal dendritic cells underlies the strain-specific Th1 responses following single epicutaneous immunization. Furthermore, our findings highlight the potential differences between human atopics and non-atopics and provide useful information for the prediction and prevention of atopic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential pathogenetic role of Th17, Th0, and Th2 cells in erosive and reticular oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, M-P; Lombardelli, L; Logiodice, F; Tesi, D; Kullolli, O; Biagiotti, R; Giudizi, Mg; Romagnani, S; Maggi, E; Ficarra, G

    2014-03-01

    The role of Th17 cells and associated cytokines was investigated in oral lichen planus. 14 consecutive patients with oral lichen planus were investigated. For biological studies, tissues were taken from reticular or erosive lesions and from normal oral mucosa (controls) of the same patient. mRNA expression for IL-17F, IL-17A, MCP-1, IL-13, IL-2, IL-10, IL-1β, RANTES, IL-4, IL-12B, IL-8, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-18, TGF-β1, IL-23R, IL-7, IL-15, IL-6, MIG, IP-10, LTB, VEGF, IL-5, IL-27, IL-23A, GAPDH, PPIB, Foxp3, GATA3, and RORC was measured using the QuantiGene 2.0. Results showed that Th17-type and Th0-type molecules' mRNAs, when compared with results obtained from tissue controls, were increased in biopsies of erosive lesions, whereas Th2-type molecules' mRNAs were increased in reticular lesions. When the CD4+ T-cell clones, derived from oral lichen planus tissues and tissue controls, were analyzed, a higher prevalence of Th17 (confirmed by an increased CD161 expression) and Th0 CD4+ T clones was found in erosive lesions, whereas a prevalence of Th2 clones was observed in reticular lesions. Our data suggest that Th17, Th0, and Th2 cells, respectively, may have a role in the pathogenesis of erosive and reticular oral lichen planus. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton promotes CD4+ T cell activation and drives Th1 immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangchuan; Wu, Jie; Miao, Miao; Dou, Heng; Nan, Ning; Shi, Mingsheng; Yu, Guang; Shan, Fengping

    2017-08-01

    Several lines of evidences have shown that Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) has immunoregulatory and anti-tumor activities. However, there is no information about the effect of Nr-CWS on CD4 + T cells. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Nr-CWS on the phenotype and function of CD4 + T cells. Our results of in vitro experiments showed that Nr-CWS could significantly up-regulate the expression of CD69 and CD25 on CD4 + T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells, increase the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in the supernatants, but has no significant effect on the apoptosis and death of CD4 + T cells. Results of in vivo experiments showed that Nr-CWS could promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells, and increase the production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 type cytokines). These data suggest that Nr-CWS can enhance the activation of CD4 + T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells and the differentiation of CD4 + T cells to Th1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Toll-like receptor-2 agonist-allergen coupling efficiently redirects Th2 cell responses and inhibits allergic airway eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Jayendra Kumar; Jirmo, Adan Chari; Baru, Abdul Mannan; Ebensen, Thomas; Guzmán, Carlos A; Sparwasser, Tim; Behrens, Georg M N

    2012-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists beneficially modulate allergic airway inflammation. However, the efficiency of TLR agonists varies considerably, and their exact cellular mechanisms (especially of TLR 2/6 agonists) are incompletely understood. We investigated at a cellular level whether the administration of the pharmacologically improved TLR2/6 agonist S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (BPP) conjugated to antigenic peptide (BPP-OVA) could divert an existing Th2 response and influence airway eosinophilia. The effects of BPP-OVA on airway inflammation were assessed in a classic murine sensitization/challenge model and an adoptive transfer model, which involved the adoptive transfer of in vitro differentiated ovalbumin (OVA)-specific Th2 cells. Functional T-cell stimulation by lung dendritic cells (DCs) was determined both in vitro and in vivo, combined with a cytokine secretion analysis. A single mucosal application of BPP-OVA efficiently delivered antigen, led to TLR2-mediated DC activation, and resulted in OVA-specific T-cell proliferation via lung DCs in vivo. In alternative models of allergic airway disease, a single administration of BPP-OVA before OVA challenge (but not BPP alone) significantly reduced airway eosinophilia, most likely through altered antigen-specific T-cell stimulation via DCs. Analyses of adoptively transferred Th2-biased cells after BPP-OVA administration in vivo suggested that BPP-OVA guides antigen-specific Th2 cells to produce significantly higher amounts of IFN-γ upon allergen challenge. In conclusion, our data show for the first time that a single mucosal administration of a TLR 2/6 agonist-allergen conjugate can provoke IFN-γ responses in Th2-biased cells and alleviate allergic airway inflammation.

  16. Notch and presenilin regulate cellular expansion and cytokine secretion but cannot instruct Th1/Th2 fate acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tong Ong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggested that Delta1, 4 and Jagged1, 2 possessed the ability to instruct CD4(+ T cell into selection of Th1 or Th2 fates, respectively, although the underlying mechanism endowing the cleaved Notch receptor with memory of ligand involved in its activation remains elusive. To examine this, we prepared artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing either DLL1 or Jag1. Although both ligands were efficient in inducing Notch2 cleavage and activation in CD4(+ T or reporter cells, the presence of Lunatic Fringe in CD4(+ T cells inhibited Jag1 activation of Notch1 receptor. Neither ligand could induce Th1 or Th2 fate choice independently of cytokines or redirect cytokine-driven Th1 or Th2 development. Instead, we find that Notch ligands only augment cytokine production during T cell differentiation in the presence of polarizing IL-12 and IL-4. Moreover, the differentiation choices of naïve CD4(+ T cells lacking gamma-secretase, RBP-J, or both in response to polarizing cytokines revealed that neither presenilin proteins nor RBP-J were required for cytokine-induced Th1/Th2 fate selection. However, presenilins facilitate cellular proliferation and cytokine secretion in an RBP-J (and thus, Notch independent manner. The controversies surrounding the role of Notch and presenilins in Th1/Th2 polarization may reflect their role as genetic modifiers of T-helper cells differentiation.

  17. Commensal oral bacteria antigens prime human dendritic cells to induce Th1, Th2 or Treg differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitar, A N; Ihan Hren, N; Ihan, A

    2006-02-01

    In various immunopathologic conditions, bacterial flora induce an immune response which results in inflammatory manifestations, e.g. periapical granuloma. Dendritic cells provide the main orchestration of specific immune responses. The aim of our study was to test the capacity of distinct oral bacterial antigens (prepared from Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bacteroides spp.) to prime human dendritic cells for stimulation of the T-lymphocyte response. To assess the T-lymphocyte response, the expression of CD25, CD69, intracellular interferon gamma (cIFN-gamma), and intracellular interleukin 4 (cIL-4) was determined. Dendritic cells were prepared from leukocyte buffy coat from healthy blood donors. Monocytes were stimulated with IL-4 and GM-CSF and dendritic cells activated with bacterial lysates. Cell suspensions contained up to 90% dendritic cells, which represented 2-12% of the initial number of mononuclear cells. Lymphocyte subsets that developed in lymphocyte cultures after 1 week of stimulation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Dendritic cells, primed with antigens of Bacteroides fragilis have shown significantly higher activation and expression of intercellular IFN-gamma by T lymphocytes compared to negative controls. The dendritic cells primed with antigens of P. acnes had no effect on T-lymphocyte activation or cytokine production; instead they induced differentiation of T lymphocytes into CD25bright cells (regulatory T cells) with a potentially inhibitory effect on immune response. Dendritic cells primed with antigens of S. mitis induced increased expression of cIL-4. We conclude that commensal oral bacteria antigens prepared from B. fragilis, S. mitis, and P. acnes prime human dendritic cells to induce Th1, Th2, and T(reg) differentiation, respectively. This may advance our understanding of immunopathologic manifestations in the oral cavity and offer new possibilities for redirecting immune responses in mucosal vaccination.

  18. Preferential susceptibility of Th9 and Th2 CD4+ T cells to X4-tropic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova-Fink, Nina; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Sun, Xiaoming; Harrington, Sean; Rosenberg, Eric S; Yu, Xu G; Lichterfeld, Mathias

    2017-10-23

    The functional polarization of CD4 T cells determines their antimicrobial effector profile, but may also impact the susceptibility to infection with HIV-1. Here, we analyzed the susceptibility of CD4 T cells with different functional polarization to infection with X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1. CD4 T cells with a Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 polarization were subjected to in-vitro infection assays with X4, R5, or vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1. In addition, we sorted differentially polarized CD4 T-cell subsets from individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy and analyzed the tropism of viral env sequences. Th9-polarized CD4 T cells and, to a lesser extent, Th2-polarized CD4 T cells expressed higher surface levels of CXCR4, and are more permissive to X4-tropic infection in vitro. In contrast, Th1 and Th17 CD4 T cells exhibited stronger surface expression of CCR5, and were more susceptible to infection with R5-tropic viruses. Correspondingly, the distribution of X4-tropic viral sequences in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected patients was biased toward Th9/Th2 cells, whereas R5-tropic sequences were more frequently observed in Th17 cells. CD4 T-cell polarization is associated with a distinct susceptibility to X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1 infection.

  19. Effect of ginseng polysaccharides and dendritic cells on the balance of Th1/Th2 T helper cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Liu, Huiping; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of thorascopic administration.of ginseng polysaccharides (GPS) plus dendritic cells (DC) on T helper cell type 1/T helper cell type 2 (Th1/Th2) balance in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 96 NSCLC patients were divided evenly into two groups. The control group was treated with DCs alone and the treatment group was treated with DCs plus GPS. After DCs and GPS were administered thoracoscopically, once a week, 4 times for 30 days, the patients' quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire before and after treatment. Serum interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-2 and IL-5 were examined before and after treatments. The level of Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/ IL-5) increased in both treatment groups, while Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and FACT-L scores decreased (P GPS group than in the control group (P L scores and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) were higher in the control group than in the DCs + GPS group (P GPS had a greater effect on NSCLC patients' immune function as compared with DCs alone. This was evident by increased expression of Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/IL-5), as well as by decreased FACT-L scores and the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5).

  20. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Th2 cells produce IL-13 when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response of cells of the adaptive immune system is dependent on IL-33-, not T cell receptor-, based stimulation. While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant ...

  1. Regulatory Effect of Catalpol on Th1/Th2 cells in Mice with Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Nannan; Zhang, Jianhai; Ma, Xingyan; Wang, Bin; Miao, Xiuming; Wang, Zhaoxia; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Li; Yao, Chengfang; Li, Xia; Jiang, Guosheng

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol (E2 ) deficiency can cause bone loss and the skew of Th1/Th2 cells. However, the correlation between the Th1/Th2 cells and the bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the role of Th1/Th2 in bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and elucidated the therapeutical effect of catalpol in this condition. Young, sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized (Ovx), and naturally aged mice, treated with catalpol at different doses or control vehicle, were used in this study as indicated in each experiment. ELISA assay, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and flow cytometry were used to analyze E2 , C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx-I), bone mineral density (BMD), and Th1/Th2 subsets, respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of specific transcription factors for Th1/Th2 cells (T-bet and GATA-3) were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Bone mineral density and E2 levels positively correlated with the proportion of Th2 subset while negatively correlated with that of Th1 subset and the ratio of Th1/Th2. Catalpol alleviated bone loss effectively by regulating Th1/Th2 polarization. Catalpol promoted the expression of Th2-specific transcription factors while inhibited that associated with Th1. Th1/Th2 skew is involved in bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Catalpol alleviates bone loss effectively by regulating Th1/Th2 paradigm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Th1/M1 conversion to Th2/M2 responses in models of inflammation lacking cell death stimulates maturation of monocyte precursors to fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoAnn eTrial

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that cardiac fibrosis arises from the differentiation of monocyte-derived fibroblasts. We present here evidence that this process requires sequential Th1 and Th2 induction promoting analogous M1 (classically activated and M2 (alternatively activated macrophage polarity. Our models are 1 mice subjected to daily repetitive ischemia reperfusion (I/R without infarction and 2 the in vitro transmigration of human mononuclear leukocytes through human cardiac microvascular endothelium. In the mouse heart, leukocytes entered after I/R in response to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 which is the major cytokine induced by this protocol. Monocytes within the heart then differentiated into fibroblasts making collagen while bearing the markers of M2 macrophages. T cells were seen in these hearts as well as in the human heart with cardiomyopathy. In the in vitro model, transmigration of the leukocytes was likewise induced by MCP-1 and some monocytes matured into fibroblasts bearing M2 markers. In this model, the MCP-1 stimulus induced a transient Th1 and M1 response that developed into a predominately Th2 and M2 response. An increase in the Th2 product IL-13 was present in both the human and the mouse models, consistent with its known role in fibrosis. In these simplified models, in which there is no cell death to stimulate an anti-inflammatory response, there is nonetheless a resolution of inflammation enabling a profibrotic environment. This induces the maturation of monocyte precursors into fibroblasts.

  3. Stable T-bet+GATA-3+ Th1/Th2 Hybrid Cells Arise In Vivo, Can Develop Directly from Naive Precursors, and Limit Immunopathologic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peine, Michael; Fröhlich, Anja; Hegazy, Ahmed N.; Kühl, Anja A.; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Höfer, Thomas; Hartmann, Susanne; Löhning, Max

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated T helper (Th) cell lineages are thought to emerge from alternative cell fate decisions. However, recent studies indicated that differentiated Th cells can adopt mixed phenotypes during secondary immunological challenges. Here we show that natural primary immune responses against parasites generate bifunctional Th1 and Th2 hybrid cells that co-express the lineage-specifying transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 and co-produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The integration of Th1-promoting interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-12 signals together with Th2-favoring IL-4 signals commits naive Th cells directly and homogeneously to the hybrid Th1/2 phenotype. Specifically, IFN-γ signals are essential for T-bet+GATA-3+ cells to develop in vitro and in vivo by breaking the dominance of IL-4 over IL-12 signals. The hybrid Th1/2 phenotype is stably maintained in memory cells in vivo for months. It resists reprogramming into classic Th1 or Th2 cells by Th1- or Th2-promoting stimuli, which rather induce quantitative modulations of the combined Th1 and Th2 programs without abolishing either. The hybrid phenotype is associated with intermediate manifestations of both Th1 and Th2 cell properties. Consistently, hybrid Th1/2 cells support inflammatory type-1 and type-2 immune responses but cause less immunopathology than Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively. Thus, we propose the self-limitation of effector T cells based on the stable cell-intrinsic balance of two opposing differentiation programs as a novel concept of how the immune system can prevent excessive inflammation. PMID:23976880

  4. Stable T-bet(+GATA-3(+ Th1/Th2 hybrid cells arise in vivo, can develop directly from naive precursors, and limit immunopathologic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Peine

    Full Text Available Differentiated T helper (Th cell lineages are thought to emerge from alternative cell fate decisions. However, recent studies indicated that differentiated Th cells can adopt mixed phenotypes during secondary immunological challenges. Here we show that natural primary immune responses against parasites generate bifunctional Th1 and Th2 hybrid cells that co-express the lineage-specifying transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 and co-produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The integration of Th1-promoting interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 signals together with Th2-favoring IL-4 signals commits naive Th cells directly and homogeneously to the hybrid Th1/2 phenotype. Specifically, IFN-γ signals are essential for T-bet(+GATA-3(+ cells to develop in vitro and in vivo by breaking the dominance of IL-4 over IL-12 signals. The hybrid Th1/2 phenotype is stably maintained in memory cells in vivo for months. It resists reprogramming into classic Th1 or Th2 cells by Th1- or Th2-promoting stimuli, which rather induce quantitative modulations of the combined Th1 and Th2 programs without abolishing either. The hybrid phenotype is associated with intermediate manifestations of both Th1 and Th2 cell properties. Consistently, hybrid Th1/2 cells support inflammatory type-1 and type-2 immune responses but cause less immunopathology than Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively. Thus, we propose the self-limitation of effector T cells based on the stable cell-intrinsic balance of two opposing differentiation programs as a novel concept of how the immune system can prevent excessive inflammation.

  5. Angiotensin II Regulates Th1 T Cell Differentiation Through Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-PKA-Mediated Activation of Proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xian-Yun; Zhang, Yun-Long; Chi, Ya-Fei; Yan, Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Jun; Li, Hui-Hua; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Naive CD4+ T cells differentiate into T helper cells (Th1 and Th2) that play an essential role in the cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism by which angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes Th1 differentiation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Ang II-induced Th1 differentiation regulated by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Jurkat cells were treated with Ang II (100 nM) in the presence or absence of different inhibitors. The gene mRNA levels were detected by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The protein levels were measured by ELISA assay or Western blot analysis, respectively. Ang II treatment significantly induced a shift from Th0 to Th1 cell differentiation, which was markedly blocked by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) inhibitor Losartan (LST). Moreover, Ang II significantly increased the activities and the expression of proteasome catalytic subunits (β1, β1i, β2i and β5i) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, Ang II-induced proteasome activities were remarkably abrogated by LST and PKA inhibitor H-89. Mechanistically, Ang II-induced Th1 differentiation was at least in part through proteasome-mediated degradation of IκBα and MKP-1 and activation of STAT1 and NF-κB. This study for the first time demonstrates that Ang II activates AT1R-PKA-proteasome pathway, which promotes degradation of IκBα and MKP-1 and activation of STAT1 and NF-κB thereby leading to Th1 differentiation. Thus, inhibition of proteasome activation might be a potential therapeutic target for Th1-mediated diseases. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Modelo natural de dicotomía TH1-TH2: La enfermedad de Hansen Th1-TH2 balance. Natural model: Hansen'disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L Vaquero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Hansen producida por el Mycobacterium leprae, es una enfermedad infecciosa cuyo amplio espectro clínico e inmunopatológico se correlaciona con los diferentes patrones de respuesta Th1/Th2. La activación preferencial de esas subpoblaciones de linfocitos T CD4 juega un rol importante en su patogenia y constituye un modelo natural de esa dicotomía de la respuesta inmune. Ambas formas polares de la lepra presentan un perfil definido de secreción de citoquinas: Th1 (IL2 e IFN? en el polo tuberculoide y Th2 (IL4, IL5, IL10 en el polo lepromatoso. En el primer caso, la respuesta celular adecuada estimula la activación macrofágica y lleva a la destrucción del bacilo. Las lesiones son escasas y limitadas a la piel y nervios periféricos. En el segundo en cambio, la respuesta celular es casi nula y los bacilos se multiplican descontroladamente dentro de los macrófagos, llevando a la diseminación de las lesiones y afectación de otros órganos. La inmunidad humoral está exacerbada y hay un alto nivel de anticuerpos que no pueden eliminar el germen intracelular. Los factores que determinan la diferenciación hacia una respuesta Th1 ó Th2 no se han esclarecido totalmente. Se han postulado varias hipótesis que hacen referencia a factores genéticos, prevalencia de citoquinas en el microambiente celular, disfunción macrofágica; alteración en los receptores Toll de la inmunidad innata, en la expresión de moléculas coestimulatorias, etc En los últimos años se han descubierto nuevas subpoblaciones de linfocitos, (CD4+ CD25+, Tr1, Th3 y Th17 que estarían implicadas en la desregulación de estas respuestas inmunes.Hansen' disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an infectious illness whose wide clinical and immunopathologic spectrum correl with different Th1/Th2 responses patterns. The prefferencial activation of the CD4 T cells subset play an important rol in it's pathogenia and provides a natural model of that balance

  7. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these "type 2 immune response-related" cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these “type 2 immune response-related” cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed. PMID:26044597

  9. Down-regulation of Notch signaling pathway reverses the Th1/Th2 imbalance in tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Liang; Wu, Chao; Luo, Xinhui; Sun, He; Ding, Jianbing

    2018-01-01

    Th1/Th2 imbalance to Th2 is of significance in the peripheral immune responses in Tuberculosis (TB) development. However, the mechanisms for Th1/Th2 imbalance are still not well determined. Notch signaling pathway is involved in the peripheral T cell activation and effector cell differentiation. However, whether it affects Th1/Th2 imbalance in TB patients is still not known. Here, we used γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) to treat the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy people or individuals with latent or active TB infection in vitro, respectively. Then, the Th1/Th2 ratios were determined by flow cytometry, and cytokines of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 in the culture supernatant were measured by CBA method. The Notch signal pathway associated proteins Hes1, GATA3 and T-bet were quantitated by real-time PCR or immunoblotting. Our results showed that DAPT effectively inhibited the protein level of Hes1. In TB patients, the Th2 ratio increased in the PBMCs, alone with the high expression of GATA3 and IL-4, resulting in the high ratios of Th2/Th1 and GATA3/T-bet in TB patients. However, Th2 cells ratio decreased after blocking the Notch signaling pathway by DAPT and the Th2/Th1 ratio in TB patients were DAPT dose-dependent, accompanied by the decrease of IL-4 and GATA3. But, its influence on Th1 ratio and Th1 related T-bet and IFN-γ levels were not significant. In conclusion, our results suggest that blocking Notch signaling by DAPT could inhibit Th2 responses and restore Th1/Th2 imbalance in TB patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Enhancement of hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 anti-tumor activity by Chk1 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanying; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Sun, Jessica D; Liu, Qian; Ahluwalia, Dharmendra; Wang, Yan; Matteucci, Mark D; Hart, Charles P

    2015-05-21

    The hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 is reduced at its nitroimidazole group and selectively under hypoxic conditions releases the DNA cross-linker bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM). Here, we have explored the effect of Chk1 inhibition on TH-302-mediated pharmacological activities. We employed in vitro cell viability, DNA damage, cellular signaling assays and the in vivo HT29 human tumor xenograft model to study the effect of Chk1inhibition on TH-302 antitumor activities. TH-302 cytotoxicity is greatly enhanced by Chk1 inhibition in p53-deficient but not in p53-proficient human cancer cell lines. Chk1 inhibitors reduced TH-302-induced cell cycle arrest via blocking TH-302-induced decrease of phosphorylation of histone H3 and increasing Cdc2-Y15 phosphorylation. Employing the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, we observed a potentiation of the TH-302 dependent tail moment. TH-302 induced γH2AX and apoptosis were also increased upon the addition of Chk1 inhibitor. Potentiation of TH-302 cytotoxicity by Chk1 inhibitor was only observed in cell lines proficient in, but not deficient in homology-directed DNA repair. We also show that combination treatment led to lowering of Rad51 expression levels as compared to either agent alone. In vivo data demonstrate that Chk1 inhibitor enhances TH-302 anti-tumor activity in p53 mutant HT-29 human tumor xenografts, supporting the hypothesis that these in vitro results can translate to enhanced in vivo efficacy of the combination. TH-302-mediated in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities were greatly enhanced by the addition of Chk1 inhibitors. The preclinical data presented in this study support a new approach for the treatment of p53-deficient hypoxic cancers by combining Chk1 inhibitors with the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

  11. Graft rejection as a Th1-type process amenable to regulation by donor Th2-type cells through an interleukin-4/STAT6 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Jacopo; Foley, Jason; Ryan, Kaitlyn; Buxhoeveden, Nicole; Kapoor, Veena; Amarnath, Shoba; Fowler, Daniel H

    2008-12-01

    Graft rejection has been defined as the mirror image of graft-versus-host disease, which is biologically characterized primarily as a Th1-type process. As such, we reasoned that graft rejection would represent a Th1 response amenable to Th2 modulation. Indeed, adoptive transfer of host Th1-type cells mediated rejection of fully MHC-disparate murine bone marrow allografts more effectively than host Th2-type cells. Furthermore, STAT1-deficient host T cells did not differentiate into Th1-type cells in vivo and failed to mediate rejection. We next hypothesized that donor Th2 cell allograft augmentation would prevent rejection by modulation of the host Th1/Th2 balance. In the setting of donor Th2 cell therapy, host-anti-donor allospecific T cells acquired Th2 polarity, persisted posttransplantation, and did not mediate rejection. Abrogation of rejection required donor Th2 cell IL-4 secretion and host T-cell STAT6 signaling. In conclusion, T cell-mediated marrow graft rejection primarily resembles a Th1-type process that can be abrogated by donor Th2 cell therapy that promotes engraftment through a novel mechanism whereby cytokine polarization is transferred to host T cells.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  13. 3-bromopyruvate ameliorate autoimmune arthritis by modulating Th17/Treg cell differentiation and suppressing dendritic cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Okano, Takaichi; Saegusa, Jun; Nishimura, Keisuke; Takahashi, Soshi; Sendo, Sho; Ueda, Yo; Morinobu, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cellular metabolism plays an important role in regulating immune cell functions. In immune cell differentiation, both interleukin-17-producing T (Th17) cells and dendritic cells (DCs) exhibit increased glycolysis through the upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase-2 (HK2). Blocking glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose was recently shown to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation while promoting regulatory T (Treg) cell generation. However, 2-DG inhibits all i...

  14. Differential activation of airway eosinophils induces IL-13-mediated allergic Th2 pulmonary responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, E A; Doyle, A D; Colbert, D C; Zellner, K R; Protheroe, C A; LeSuer, W E; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Wild-type or cytokine-deficient (IL-13(-/-) or IL-4(-/-) ) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophil deficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or in the lung draining lymph nodes (LDLN), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLN. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4, and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4(+) T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13, whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Differential Activation of Airway Eosinophils Induces IL-13 Mediated Allergic Th2 Pulmonary Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, EA; Doyle, AD; Colbert, DC; Zellner, KR; Protheroe, CA; LeSuer, WE; Lee, NA.; Lee, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Methods Wild type or cytokine deficient (IL-13−/− or IL-4−/−) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. Results In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophildeficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLNs. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4 and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4+ T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13 whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. Conclusion The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. PMID:26009788

  16. The regulation and role of c-FLIP in human Th cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyläniemi, Minna K; Kaukonen, Riina; Myllyviita, Johanna; Rasool, Omid; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    The early differentiation of T helper (Th) cells is a tightly controlled and finely balanced process, which involves several factors including cytokines, transcription factors and co-stimulatory molecules. Recent studies have shown that in addition to the regulation of apoptosis, caspase activity is also needed for Th cell proliferation and activation and it might play a role in Th cell differentiation. The isoforms of the cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) are regulators of CASPASE-8 activity and the short isoform, c-FLIPS, has been shown to be up-regulated by IL-4, the Th2 driving cytokine. In this work, we have studied the expression and functional role of three c-FLIP isoforms during the early Th cell differentiation. Only two of the isoforms, c-FLIPS and c-FLIPL, were detected at the protein level although c-FLIPR was expressed at the mRNA level. The knockdown of c-FLIPL led to enhanced Th1 differentiation and elevated IL-4 production by Th2 cells, whereas the knockdown of c-FLIPS diminished GATA3 expression and IL-4 production by Th2 cells. In summary, our results provide new insight into the role of c-FLIP proteins in the early differentiation of human Th cells.

  17. Polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of Th0 cells, are responsible for lymphocyte produced IL-4 in high IgE-producer schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Silveira Alda

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Results Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high-producers display an increase in the percentage of T lymphocytes expressing IL-4 and IL-5 as compared to IgE low-responders. A coordinate control of the frequency of IL-4 and IL-5 producing lymphocytes in IgE high, but not IgE low-responders, was observed. Conclusions High IgE phenotype human schistosomiasis patients exhibit a coordinate regulation of IL-4 and IL-5 producing cells and the lymphocyte derived IL-4 comes from true polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of measurable Th0 cells as measured by co-production of IL-4 and IFN-γ.

  18. IL-4-producing ILC2s are required for the differentiation of TH2 cells following Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, VS; Kannan, Y; Coomes, SM; Entwistle, LJ; Rückerl, D; Seddon, B; MacDonald, AS; McKenzie, A; Wilson, MS

    2017-01-01

    Immunity to many human and murine gastrointestinal helminth parasites requires interleukin-4 (IL-4)-directed type 2 helper (TH2) differentiation of CD4+ T cells to elicit type-2 immunity. Despite a good understanding of the inflammatory cascade elicited following helminth infection, the initial source of IL-4 is unclear. Previous studies using the rat helminth parasite Nippostronglyus brasiliensis, identified an important role for basophil-derived IL-4 for TH2 differentiation. However, basophils are redundant for TH2 differentiation following infection with the natural helminth parasite of mice Heligmosomoides polygyrus, indicating that other sources of IL-4 are required. In this study using H. polygyrus, which is controlled by IL-4-dependent immunity, we identified that group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produced significant amounts of IL-4 and IL-2 following H. polygyrus infection. Leukotriene D4 was sufficient to stimulate IL-4 secretion by ILC2s, and the supernatant from activated ILC2s could potently drive TH2 differentiation in vitro in an IL-4-dependent manner. Furthermore, specific deletion of IL-4 from ILC2s compromised TH2 differentiation in vivo. Overall, this study highlights a previously unrecognized and important role for ILC2-derived IL-4 for TH2 differentiation in a natural TH2-dependent model of human helminthiasis. PMID:26883724

  19. Viral RNA-Unprimed Rig-I Restrains Stat3 Activation in the Modulation of Regulatory T Cell/Th17 Cell Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Guo, He-Zhou; Li, Xian-Yang; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Wu; Zhao, Jun-Mei; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Innate immunity activation by viral RNA-primed retinoid acid inducible gene-I (Rig-I) in CD4 + T cells antagonizes TGFβ signaling to suppress the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, how viral RNA-unliganded Rig-I (apo-Rig-I) modulates Treg generation remains unclear. In this article, we show that, in the absence of viral infection, Treg differentiation of Rig-I -/- CD4 + T cells was compromised, in the presence of increased generation of Th17 cells and overactivation of Stat3, a critical regulator tilting the Treg/Th17 cell balance. Mechanistically, apo-Rig-I physically associates with Stat3, thereby inhibiting Jak1's association with Stat3 while facilitating Shp2's association to inhibit p-Stat3 levels. Interestingly, inhibition of Stat3 ameliorates the Treg/Th17 imbalance and the colitis observed in Rig-I -/- mice. Collectively, these results uncover an independent functional contribution of the apo-Rig-I/Stat3 interaction in the maintenance of Treg/Th17 cell balance. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  1. Epigenomic analysis of primary human T cells reveals enhancers associated with TH2 memory cell differentiation and asthma susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seumois, Grégory; Chavez, Lukas; Gerasimova, Anna; Lienhard, Matthias; Omran, Nada; Kalinke, Lukas; Vedanayagam, Maria; Ganesan, Asha Purnima V; Chawla, Ashu; Djukanović, Ratko; Ansel, K Mark; Peters, Bjoern; Rao, Anjana; Vijayanand, Pandurangan

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic feature of asthma is the aberrant accumulation, differentiation or function of memory CD4+ T cells that produce type 2 cytokines (TH2 cells). By mapping genome-wide histone modification profiles for subsets of T cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy and asthmatic individuals, we identified enhancers with known and potential roles in the normal differentiation of human TH1 cells and TH2 cells. We discovered disease-specific enhancers in T cells that differ between healthy and asthmatic individuals. Enhancers that gained the histone H3 Lys4 dimethyl (H3K4me2) mark during TH2 cell development showed the highest enrichment for asthma-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which supported a pathogenic role for TH2 cells in asthma. In silico analysis of cell-specific enhancers revealed transcription factors, microRNAs and genes potentially linked to human TH2 cell differentiation. Our results establish the feasibility and utility of enhancer profiling in well-defined populations of specialized cell types involved in disease pathogenesis. PMID:24997565

  2. CD4+ T helper cells and regulatory T cells in active lupus nephritis: an imbalance towards a predominant Th1 response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, D; Kirsztajn, G Mastroianni; Franco, M F; Reis, L A; Perazzio, S F; Mesquita, F V; Ferreira, V da Silva; Andrade, L E Coelho; de Souza, A W Silva

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of CD4 + T cell subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), urine and renal tissue from patients with lupus nephritis (LN). PBMC and urinary cells were collected from 17 patients with active LN, 20 disease controls (DC) with primary glomerulonephritis and 10 healthy controls (HC) and were analysed by flow cytometry with markers for T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells (T reg ) cells. T cell subsets were assessed by immunohistochemistry from LN biopsy specimens from 12 LN patients. T cell subtypes in PBMC were re-evaluated at 6 months of therapy. CD4 + T cells were decreased in PBMC in LN compared with DC and HC (P = 0·0001). No differences were observed in urinary CD4 + T cell subsets between LN and DC. The frequency of urinary Th17 cells was higher in patients with non-proliferative than in proliferative LN (P = 0·041). CD3 + and T-box 21 ( Tbet+) cells were found in glomeruli and interstitium of LN patients, while forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR-γ) and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) were present only in glomeruli. Th1 cells in PBMC were correlated negatively with urinary Th1 cells (Rho = -0·531; P = 0·028) and with T bet in renal interstitium (Rho = -0·782; P = 0·004). At 6 months, LN patients showed an increase in Th17 cells in PBMC. In conclusion, the inverse association between Th1 cells from PBMC and urinary/renal tissue indicate a role for Th1 in LN pathophysiology. Urinary Th17 cells were associated with less severe LN, and Th17 increased in PBMC during therapy. Urinary CD4 + T cells were not different between LN and DC. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  3. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Lewis J.; Khoury, Hania; Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia; Mahmood, Radma; Mansour, Nuha R.; Ching-Cheng Huang, Stanley; Pearce, Edward J.; Pedro S. de Carvalho, Luiz; Ley, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot) regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8 –/–mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM) deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8 –/–M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis. PMID:27487182

  4. Bordetella pertussis commits human dendritic cells to promote a Th1/Th17 response through the activity of adenylate cyclase toxin and MAPK-pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fedele

    Full Text Available The complex pathology of B. pertussis infection is due to multiple virulence factors having disparate effects on different cell types. We focused our investigation on the ability of B. pertussis to modulate host immunity, in particular on the role played by adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA, an important virulence factor of B. pertussis. As a tool, we used human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDC, an ex vivo model useful for the evaluation of the regulatory potential of DC on T cell immune responses. The work compared MDDC functions after encounter with wild-type B. pertussis (BpWT or a mutant lacking CyaA (BpCyaA-, or the BpCyaA- strain supplemented with either the fully functional CyaA or a derivative, CyaA*, lacking adenylate cyclase activity. As a first step, MDDC maturation, cytokine production, and modulation of T helper cell polarization were evaluated. As a second step, engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and TLR4 by B. pertussis and the signaling events connected to this were analyzed. These approaches allowed us to demonstrate that CyaA expressed by B. pertussis strongly interferes with DC functions, by reducing the expression of phenotypic markers and immunomodulatory cytokines, and blocking IL-12p70 production. B. pertussis-treated MDDC promoted a mixed Th1/Th17 polarization, and the activity of CyaA altered the Th1/Th17 balance, enhancing Th17 and limiting Th1 expansion. We also demonstrated that Th1 effectors are induced by B. pertussis-MDDC in the absence of IL-12p70 through an ERK1/2 dependent mechanism, and that p38 MAPK is essential for MDDC-driven Th17 expansion. The data suggest that CyaA mediates an escape strategy for the bacterium, since it reduces Th1 immunity and increases Th17 responses thought to be responsible, when the response is exacerbated, for enhanced lung inflammation and injury.

  5. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA- induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL- 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4, MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN- γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model.

  6. TNF-α inhibitors reduce the pathological Th1 -Th17 /Th2 imbalance in cutaneous mesenchymal stem cells of psoriasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanati, Anna; Orciani, Monia; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Ganzetti, Giulia; Consales, Veronica; Sorgentoni, Giulia; Di Primio, Roberto; Offidani, Annamaria

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis is a disease characterized by an imbalance between Th 1 and Th 17 and Th 2 inflammatory axes, in which cutaneous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are early involved, as they show a greater relative expression of several genes encoding for Th 1 and Th 17 cytokines. Therapeutic implications of TNF-α inhibitors on differentiated skin cells have been largely described in psoriasis; however, their effects on MSCs derived from patients with psoriasis have been only partially described. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of TNF-α inhibitors on cytokine milieu expressed by MSCs isolated from the skin of patients with psoriasis. Resident MSCs from skin of patients with psoriasis and healthy subjects have been isolated, characterized and profiled by PCR and ELISA for the expression of 22 cytokines involved in Th 1 , Th 2 and Th 17 pathways, both before and after 12 weeks therapy with TNF-α inhibitors. The administration of TNF-α inhibitors for 12-weeks acts on MSCs as follows: it reduces the expression of several Th 1 -Th 17 cytokines whose levels are elevated at baseline (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-23A, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL20, CXCL2, CXCL5, IL-17A, IL-17C, IL-17F, IL-21, G-CSF). Similarly, it enhances the expression of several Th 2 cytokines which are underexpressed at baseline (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5), reducing the expression of those overexpressed at baseline (TGF-β and IL-13). TNF-α inhibitors could contribute to reduce the pathological imbalance between the Th 1 -Th 17 vs Th 2 axis in MSCs of patients with psoriasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Modulation of Th1/Th2 Immune Responses by Killed Propionibacterium acnes and Its Soluble Polysaccharide Fraction in a Type I Hypersensitivity Murine Model: Induction of Different Activation Status of Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Squaiella-Baptistão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus present in normal human skin microbiota, which exerts important immunomodulatory effects, when used as heat- or phenol-killed suspensions. We previously demonstrated that heat-killed P. acnes or its soluble polysaccharide (PS, extracted from the bacterium cell wall, suppressed or potentiated the Th2 response to ovalbumin (OVA in an immediate hypersensitivity model, depending on the treatment protocol. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for these effects, using the same model and focusing on the activation status of antigen-presenting cells (APCs. We verified that higher numbers of APCs expressing costimulatory molecules and higher expression levels of these molecules are probably related to potentiation of the Th2 response to OVA induced by P. acnes or PS, while higher expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs seems to be related to Th2 suppression. In vitro cytokines production in cocultures of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes indicated that P. acnes and PS seem to perform their effects by acting directly on APCs. Our data suggest that P. acnes and PS directly act on APCs, modulating the expression of costimulatory molecules and TLRs, and these differently activated APCs drive distinct T helper patterns to OVA in our model.

  8. Intrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD) shows similar Th2 and higher Th17 immune activation compared to extrinsic AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Fariñas, M; Dhingra, N; Gittler, J; Shemer, A; Cardinale, I; de Guzman Strong, C; Krueger, JG; Guttman-Yassky, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic (ADe) and intrinsic (ADi), representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients, respectively. While sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only ADe is characterized by high serum IgE. Since most AD patients exhibit high IgE, an “allergic”/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly Th2/Th22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. Objective To define if both variants share a common pathogenesis. Methods We stratified 51 severe AD patients as ADe (42) and ADi (9) (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD), and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and non-lesional ADi and ADe using gene-expression (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Results A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD (r=0.76, pextrinsic and intrinsic AD variants might be treated with T-cell targeted therapeutics or agents that modify keratinocyte responses. PMID:23777851

  9. Small Molecule TH-39 Potentially Targets Hec1/Nek2 Interaction and Exhibits Antitumor Efficacy in K562 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongxia; Wei, Wei; Ye, Tinghong; Liu, Zhihao; Liu, Li; Luo, Yong; Zhang, Lidan; Gao, Chao; Wang, Ningyu; Yu, Luoting

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is still a major public health issue worldwide, and new therapeutics with anti-tumor activity are still urgently needed. The anti-tumor activity of TH-39, which shows potent anti-proliferative activity against K562 cells with an IC50 of 0.78 µM, was investigated using immunoblot, co-immunoprecipitation, the MTT assay, and flow cytometry. Mechanistically, TH-39 may disrupt the interaction between Hec1 and Nek2 in K562 cells. Moreover, TH-39 inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by influencing the morphology of K562 cells and inducing G0/G1 phase arrest. G0/G1 phase arrest was associated with down-regulation of CDK2-cyclin E complex and CDK4/6-cyclin D complex activities. Furthermore, TH-39 also induced cell apoptosis, which was associated with activation of caspase-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax. TH-39 could also decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in K562 cells. The results indicated that TH-39 might induce apoptosis via the ROS-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This study highlights the potential therapeutic efficacy of the anti-cancer compound TH-39 in treatment-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Th1/Th2 cytokine expression in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y L; Zhang, F Q; Hao, F Q

    2016-07-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), an important complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is not well understood. T helper cell balance (Th1/Th2) is involved in various autoimmune diseases; however, its role in DR is not understood. This study explores changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression during DR. Blood samples were collected from 25 healthy volunteers (normal control group), 35 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM group) without DR, and 30 cases of T2DM patients with DR (DR group). Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of IL-2 and TNF-α, secreted from Th1 cells, and of IL-4 and IL-10, secreted from Th2 cells. We used ELISA to detect cytokine expression in serum to analyze the correlation between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. IL-2 and TNF-αmRNA and protein expression levels in the T2DM and DR groups were significantly higher than in the normal control group (P 0.05). IL-2 and TNF-αwere negatively correlated with IL-4 and IL-10 in the DR group, respectively. We found that Th1 cytokine secretion was higher and Th2 cytokines secretion was lower during DR, leading to a Th1/ Th2 imbalance, suggesting that Th1/Th2 imbalance is a side effect for DR occurrence and development.

  11. Relationships between Th1 or Th2 iNKT cell activity and structures of CD1d-antigen complexes: meta-analysis of CD1d-glycolipids dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of potentially bioactive molecules can be found in nature. In particular, marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The activity of an α-galactosylceramide was first discovered in 1993 via screening of a Japanese marine sponge (Agelas mauritanius. Very rapidly, a synthetic glycololipid analogue of this natural molecule was discovered, called KRN7000. Associated with the CD1d protein, this α-galactosylceramide 1 (KRN7000 interacts with the T-cell antigen receptor to form a ternary complex that yields T helper (Th 1 and Th2 responses with opposing effects. In our work, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations (11.5 µs in total involving eight different ligands (conducted in triplicate in an effort to find out correlation at the molecular level, if any, between chemical modulation of 1 and the orientation of the known biological response, Th1 or Th2. Comparative investigations of human versus mouse and Th1 versus Th2 data have been carried out. A large set of analysis tools was employed including free energy landscapes. One major result is the identification of a specific conformational state of the sugar polar head, which could be correlated, in the present study, to the biological Th2 biased response. These theoretical tools provide a structural basis for predicting the very different dynamical behaviors of α-glycosphingolipids in CD1d and might aid in the future design of new analogues of 1.

  12. Despite disorganized synapse structure, Th2 cells maintain directional delivery of CD40L to antigen-presenting B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Jennifer L; Parker, David C

    2017-01-01

    Upon recognition of peptide displayed on MHC molecules, Th1 and Th2 cells form distinct immunological synapse structures. Th1 cells have a bull's eye synapse structure with TCR/ MHC-peptide interactions occurring central to a ring of adhesion molecules, while Th2 cells have a multifocal synapse with small clusters of TCR/MHC interactions throughout the area of T cell/antigen-presenting cell interaction. In this study, we investigated whether this structural difference in the immunological synapse affects delivery of T cell help. The immunological synapse is thought to ensure antigen-specific delivery of cytolytic granules and killing of target cells by NK cells and cytolytic T cells. In helper T cells, it has been proposed that the immunological synapse may direct delivery of other effector molecules including cytokines. CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a membrane-bound cytokine essential for antigen-specific T cell help for B cells in the antibody response. We incubated Th1 and Th2 cells overnight with a mixture of antigen-presenting and bystander B cells, and the delivery of CD40L to B cells and subsequent B cell responses were compared. Despite distinct immunological synapse structures, Th1 and Th2 cell do not differ in their ability to deliver CD40L and T cell help in an antigen-specific fashion, or in their susceptibility to inhibition of help by a blocking anti-CD40L antibody.

  13. Upregulation of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells is associated with Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fei; Wang, Fukun; An, Liyun; Wang, Xianling

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator preferentially expressed on Th1 cells. Allergic asthma is a clinical syndrome well characterized by Th1/Th2 imbalance. To investigate the role of Tim-3 in the pathogenesis of asthma and its relationship with Th1/Th2 imbalance, a total of 40 patients with allergic asthma and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Expression of Tim-3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance as well as the relationship between them was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Th1/Th2 cytokines in the culture supernatant were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD4(+) T cells and B cells were sorted and co-cultured in vitro, and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Total IgG/IgE in the culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The mRNA level of T-bet and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in allergic asthma patients, while GATA-3 and IL-4 were significantly increased. Expression of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells was much higher in allergic asthma patients and it was negatively correlated with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio or IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio. Blocking of Tim-3 significantly increased Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in the culture supernatant of PBMCs. Blocking of Tim-3 dramatically reduced the production of IgG and IgE in the co-culture supernatant of CD4(+) T cells and B cells. In conclusion, Tim-3 was up-regulated in allergic asthma patients and related with the Th1/Th2 imbalance. Blocking of Tim-3 may be of therapeutic benefit by enhancing the Th1 cytokines response, down-regulating the Th2 cytokines response, and reducing IgG/IgE production.

  14. In vitro Th1 and Th2 cell polarization is severely influenced by the initial ratio of naïve and memory CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    by even small percentages (99% naïve CD4+ T cells resulted in better Th1 and Th2 polarization with significant reduced fractions of IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells, respectively. Moreover, the Th2 primed >99% naïve CD4+ T cells showed significantly higher ratio of IL-4+:IFN-γ+ (>4 fold) and GATA-3:+T......-bet+ (>3 fold) CD4+ T cells when compared with the standard purified >90-95% naïve CD4+ T cells primed under the same culture conditions. This suggests immunomagnetic bead separation, a low cost and easy available technique, with few modifications to the manufacturer's protocol as an attractive alternative...... for laboratories not having a cell sorter. Taken together, we report that it is essential to use rigorously purified (>99%) naïve CD4+ T cells for optimal initial in vitro Th1 and Th2 priming....

  15. Transcriptional profiling reveals molecular signatures associated with HIV permissiveness in Th1Th17 cells and identifies Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma as an intrinsic negative regulator of viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that primary Th1Th17 cells are highly permissive to HIV-1, whereas Th1 cells are relatively resistant. Molecular mechanisms underlying these differences remain unknown. Results Exposure to replication competent and single-round VSV-G pseudotyped HIV strains provide evidence that superior HIV replication in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells was regulated by mechanisms located at entry and post-entry levels. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling identified transcripts upregulated (n = 264) and downregulated (n = 235) in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells (p-value Th17 (nuclear receptors, trafficking, p38/MAPK, NF-κB, p53/Ras, IL-23) vs. Th1 cells (proteasome, interferon α/β). Differentially expressed genes were classified into biological categories using Gene Ontology. Th1Th17 cells expressed typical Th17 markers (IL-17A/F, IL-22, CCL20, RORC, IL-26, IL-23R, CCR6) and transcripts functionally linked to regulating cell trafficking (CEACAM1, MCAM), activation (CD28, CD40LG, TNFSF13B, TNFSF25, PTPN13, MAP3K4, LTB, CTSH), transcription (PPARγ, RUNX1, ATF5, ARNTL), apoptosis (FASLG), and HIV infection (CXCR6, FURIN). Differential expression of CXCR6, PPARγ, ARNTL, PTPN13, MAP3K4, CTSH, SERPINB6, PTK2, and ISG20 was validated by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and/or confocal microscopy. The nuclear receptor PPARγ was preferentially expressed by Th1Th17 cells. PPARγ RNA interference significantly increased HIV replication at levels post-entry and prior HIV-DNA integration. Finally, the activation of PPARγ pathway via the agonist Rosiglitazone induced the nuclear translocation of PPARγ and a robust inhibition of viral replication. Conclusions Thus, transcriptional profiling in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells demonstrated that HIV permissiveness is associated with a superior state of cellular activation and limited antiviral properties and identified PPARγ as an intrinsic negative regulator of viral replication. Therefore, triggering PPARγ pathway via non

  16. A2E Suppresses Regulatory Function of RPE Cells in Th1 Cell Differentiation Via Production of IL-1β and Inhibition of PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian; Wang, Qiu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiaohui; Fan, Huimin; Wang, Fenghua; Liu, Haiyun; Sun, Xiangjun; Sun, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory status of RPE cells induced by A2E is essential in the development of AMD. Recent research indicated T-cell immunity was involved in the pathological progression of AMD. This study was designed to investigate how A2E suppresses immunoregulatory function of RPE cells in T-cell immunity in vitro. Mouse RPE cells or human ARPE19 cells were stimulated with A2E, and co-cultured with naïve T cells under Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization conditions. The intracellular cytokines or transcript factors of the induced T-cells subset were detected with flow cytometer and qRT-PCR. The ROS levels were detected, and the factors and possible pathways involved in the A2E-laden RPE cells were analyzed through neutralization antibody of IL-1β and inhibitors of related pathways. The A2E reduced regulatory function of RPE cells in Treg differentiation. The A2E-laden RPE cells promoted polarization of Th1 cells in vitro, but not Th2 or Th17 differentiation. The A2E induced RPE cells to release inflammatory cytokines and ROS, but PGE2 production was inhibited. Through neutralization of IL-1β or inhibition of COX2-PGE2 pathways, A2E-laden RPE cells expressed reduced effect in inducing Th1 cells. The A2E inhibited regulatory function of RPE cells in suppressing Th1 cell immunity in vitro through production of IL-1β and inhibition of PGE2. Our data indicate that A2E could suppress immunoregulatory function of RPE cells and adaptive immunity might play a role in the immune pathogenesis of AMD.

  17. Human Blood CD1c+ Dendritic Cells Promote Th1 and Th17 Effector Function in Memory CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Rojas, Ingrid M; Mok, Wai-Hong; Pearson, Frances E; Minoda, Yoshihito; Kenna, Tony J; Barnard, Ross T; Radford, Kristen J

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) initiate the differentiation of CD4 + helper T cells into effector cells including Th1 and Th17 responses that play an important role in inflammation and autoimmune disease pathogenesis. In mice, Th1 and Th17 responses are regulated by different conventional (c) DC subsets, with cDC1 being the main producers of IL-12p70 and inducers of Th1 responses, while cDC2 produce IL-23 to promote Th17 responses. The role that human DC subsets play in memory CD4 + T cell activation is not known. This study investigated production of Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12p70, and Th17 promoting cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23, by human blood monocytes, CD1c + DC, CD141 + DC, and plasmacytoid DC and examined their ability to induce Th1 and Th17 responses in memory CD4 + T cells. Human CD1c + DC produced IL-12p70, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 in response to R848 combined with LPS or poly I:C. CD141 + DC were also capable of producing IL-12p70 and IL-23 but were not as proficient as CD1c + DC. Activated CD1c + DC were endowed with the capacity to promote both Th1 and Th17 effector function in memory CD4 + T cells, characterized by high production of interferon-γ, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. These findings support a role for CD1c + DC in autoimmune inflammation where Th1/Th17 responses play an important role in disease pathogenesis.

  18. Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokine expression in hypopharyngeal carcinoma and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Wang, Junfu; Wang, Rui; Su, Qinghong; Luan, Junwen; Huang, Haiyan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Jinsheng; Xu, Xiaoqun

    2016-02-01

    Th0 cells differentiate into Th1 or Th2 depending on multiple transcription factors acting on specific time points to regulate gene expression. Th17 cells, a subset of IL-17-producing T cells distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells, have been described as key players in inflammation and autoimmune diseases as well as cancer development. In the present study, 53 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer were included. The expression levels of Th1-, Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in hypopharyngeal cancer tissues and pericarcinoma tissues were detected. The relationship between Th1, Th2, or Th17 infiltration and metastasis was studied. Our results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of Th1 cytokines were lower, while the expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines were higher in tumor tissues, and the intensity of expression was strengthened with clinical stage increasing. Cancer tissues had higher level expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines than that of pericarcinoma tissues. From the above data, we speculated that high expressions of Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in hypopharyngeal carcinoma may contribute to cancer development and metastasis.

  19. Quantitative Proteomics of Gut-Derived Th1 and Th1/Th17 Clones Reveal the Presence of CD28+ NKG2D- Th1 Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Tahira; Sollid, Ludvig Magne; Olsen, Ingrid; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio

    2016-03-01

    T-helper cells are differentiated from CD4+ T cells and are traditionally characterized by inflammatory or immunosuppressive responses in contrast to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Mass-spectrometry studies on T-helper cells are rare. In this study, we aimed to identify the proteomes of human Th1 and Th1/Th17 clones derived from intestinal biopsies of Crohn's disease patients and to identify differentially expressed proteins between the two phenotypes. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease, with predominantly Th1- and Th17-mediated response where cells of the "mixed" phenotype Th1/Th17 have also been commonly found. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used for protein identification and quantitation. In total, we identified 7401 proteins from Th1 and Th1/Th17 clones, where 334 proteins were differentially expressed. Major differences were observed in cytotoxic proteins that were overrepresented in the Th1 clones. The findings were validated by flow cytometry analyses using staining with anti-granzyme B and anti-perforin and by a degranulation assay, confirming higher cytotoxic features of Th1 compared with Th1/Th17 clones. By testing a larger panel of T-helper cell clones from seven different Crohn's disease patients, we concluded that only a subgroup of the Th1 cell clones had cytotoxic features, and these expressed the surface markers T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 and were negative for expression of natural killer group 2 member D. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Effect of thymosin alpha-1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xia; Qian, Feng; He, Hai-Yang; Liu, Kai-Jun; Lan, Yuan-Zhi; Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi; Fu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Ji; Shen, Zi-Gang; Li, Jian; Yin, Yi; Li, Jin-Tao; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) has been shown to have beneficial effects on numerous immune system parameters, but little is known about the effects of Tα1 on patients with gastric carcinoma. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Tα1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro, and to evaluate its efficacy as an immunoregulatory factor in patients with gastric carcinoma. We compared the effect of Tα1 on the frequency of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, especially the CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from gastric carcinoma patients (N = 35) and healthy donors (N = 22). We also analyzed the changes in the proliferation of PBMCs in response to treatment with Tα1, and examined the production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines by PBMCs and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The treatment of PBMCs from gastric cancer patients, with Tα1 (50 µg/mL) alone increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (suppressive antitumor-specific Tregs) from 1.68 ± 0.697 to 2.19 ± 0.795% (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that Tα1 increases the percentage of Tregs and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in vitro

  1. Effect of thymosin alpha-1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xia [Institute of Immunology,Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Qian, Feng [Department of General Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); He, Hai-Yang; Liu, Kai-Jun [Institute of Immunology,Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Lan, Yuan-Zhi [Department of General Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi; Fu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Ji; Shen, Zi-Gang; Li, Jian; Yin, Yi; Li, Jin-Tao; Wu, Yu-Zhang [Institute of Immunology,Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-12-02

    Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) has been shown to have beneficial effects on numerous immune system parameters, but little is known about the effects of Tα1 on patients with gastric carcinoma. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Tα1 on subpopulations of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro, and to evaluate its efficacy as an immunoregulatory factor in patients with gastric carcinoma. We compared the effect of Tα1 on the frequency of CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells, especially the CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from gastric carcinoma patients (N = 35) and healthy donors (N = 22). We also analyzed the changes in the proliferation of PBMCs in response to treatment with Tα1, and examined the production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines by PBMCs and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The treatment of PBMCs from gastric cancer patients, with Tα1 (50 µg/mL) alone increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ (suppressive antitumor-specific Tregs) from 1.68 ± 0.697 to 2.19 ± 0.795% (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that Tα1 increases the percentage of Tregs and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in vitro.

  2. Antagonizing Arachidonic Acid-Derived Eicosanoids Reduces Inflammatory Th17 and Th1 Cell-Mediated Inflammation and Colitis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA- derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ω3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted Δ5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, RORγτ, and IL-23, decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P≤0.05. Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.

  3. Ex-Th17 (Nonclassical Th1) Cells Are Functionally Distinct from Classical Th1 and Th17 Cells and Are Not Constrained by Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdeo, Sharee A; Cluxton, Deborah; Sulaimani, Jamal; Moran, Barry; Canavan, Mary; Orr, Carl; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula; Fletcher, Jean M

    2017-03-15

    Th17 cells are an important therapeutic target in autoimmunity. However, it is known that Th17 cells exhibit considerable plasticity, particularly at sites of autoimmune inflammation. Th17 cells can switch to become ex-Th17 cells that no longer produce IL-17 but produce IFN-γ. These ex-Th17 cells are also called nonclassical Th1 cells because of their ability to produce IFN-γ, similar to Th1 cells; however, it is unclear whether they resemble Th1 or Th17 cells in terms of their function and regulation, and whether they have a pathogenic role in autoimmunity. We compared the phenotypic and functional features of human Th17, Th1, and ex-Th17 cell populations. Our data showed that despite their loss of IL-17 expression, ex-Th17 cells were more polyfunctional in terms of cytokine production than either Th1 or bona fide Th17 cells, and produced increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. The proliferative brake on Th17 cells appeared to be lifted because ex-Th17 cells proliferated more than Th17 cells after stimulation. In contrast with Th1 and Th17 cells, ex-Th17 cells were highly resistant to suppression of proliferation and cytokines by regulatory T cells. Finally, we showed that ex-Th17 cells accumulated in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these data indicate that human ex-Th17 cells are functionally distinct from Th1 and Th17 cells, and suggest that they may play a pathogenic role at sites of autoimmunity, such as the rheumatoid arthritis joint where they accumulate. These findings have implications for therapeutic strategies that target IL-17, because these may not inhibit pathogenic ex-Th17 cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Requirement for noncognate interaction with T cells for the activation of B cell immunoglobulin secretion by IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1991-01-01

    23.1+ TH1 clone E9.D4 in F23.1 (anti-T cell receptor V-beta 8)-coated microwells. This induced polyclonal B cell activation to enter cell cycle (thymidine incorporation) at 2 days and to secrete immunoglobulin at 5 days. An anti-IL-2 mAb (S4B6) inhibited antibody production completely. Anti-IL-2 did......The mechanism whereby noncognate contact with activated IL-2-producing Type 1 helper T cells (TH1) induces B cell activation was examined. Small resting B cells from C57B1/6 mice were cultured, in the absence of any ligand for surface Ig, with irradiated cells of the hapten-specific, CBA-derived, F...... not inhibit either LPS-induced B cell responses, or T cell activation (measured as IL-3 secretion). Anti-IL-2 receptor (anti-Tac) mAbs also inhibited T-dependent B cell responses, without affecting LPS responses. An anti-IFN-gamma mAb partially inhibited Ig secretion, without affecting entry into cycle. LPS...

  5. The diagnostic value of Th1/Th2 cell cytokine and thyroid autoantibody on autoimmune thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xuemin; Qin Mingxiu; Zhao Yan

    2008-01-01

    To study the diagnostic value of Th1/Th2 cell cytokine and thyroid autoantibody in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), 28 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 15 patients with hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (GDIII), 13 patients with Hashimoto's hyperthyroidism (HTL), 21 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT)and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The serum concentrations of Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and Th2 cytokine (IL-4) were determined by ELISA. The serum levels of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) were measured by RIA. The relationship between the serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and TRAb, TGAb and TPOAb were analyzed. The results showed that IFN-γ levels from higher to lower in different groups were in the order of HT, HTL, GDIII, GD and the IL-4 were GD, GDIII, HTL, HT, respectively. There was significant difference in the IFN-γ (P<0.05) and IL-4 levels (P<0.01) between GDIII and HTL groups. There was no significant difference in TGAb and TPOAb between GDIII and HTL groups. In HT group, IFN-γ levels was positively correlated with TGAb and TPOAb (r=0.67,0.54,P<0.01). In GD group, IL-4 was positively correlated with TRAb (r =0.71,P<0.01). The imbalance of Th1/Th2 cell cytokine reflects pathologic change and abnormality of immune function in AITD patients. The detection of Th1/Th2 cell cytokine combined with thyroid autoantibody may be regarded as an indicator in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. (authors)

  6. Unexpected exacerbations following initiation of disease-modifying drugs in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: Which factor is responsible, anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies, B cells, Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Th17 cells, or others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    Some disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis, which mainly act on T cells, are ineffective for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and induce unexpected relapses. These include interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod, natalizumab, and alemtuzumab. The cases reported here suggest that dimethyl fumarate, which reduces the number of Th1 and Th17 cells and induces IL-4-producing Th2 cells, is also unsuitable for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, irrespective of anti-aquaporin 4 IgG serostatus. Although oral dimethyl fumarate with manageable adverse effects is easy to initiate in the early course of multiple sclerosis, special attention should be paid for atypical demyelinating cases.

  7. P2X7 receptor drives Th1 cell differentiation and controls the follicular helper T cell population to protect against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Machado de Salles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of protective immunity is crucial to improve vaccine strategies to eradicate malaria. However, it is still unclear whether recognition of damage signals influences the immune response to Plasmodium infection. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP accumulates in infected erythrocytes and is released into the extracellular milieu through ion channels in the erythrocyte membrane or upon erythrocyte rupture. The P2X7 receptor senses extracellular ATP and induces CD4 T cell activation and death. Here we show that P2X7 receptor promotes T helper 1 (Th1 cell differentiation to the detriment of follicular T helper (Tfh cells during blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. The P2X7 receptor was activated in CD4 T cells following the rupture of infected erythrocytes and these cells became highly responsive to ATP during acute infection. Moreover, mice lacking the P2X7 receptor had increased susceptibility to infection, which correlated with impaired Th1 cell differentiation. Accordingly, IL-2 and IFNγ secretion, as well as T-bet expression, critically depended on P2X7 signaling in CD4 T cells. Additionally, P2X7 receptor controlled the splenic Tfh cell population in infected mice by promoting apoptotic-like cell death. Finally, the P2X7 receptor was required to generate a balanced Th1/Tfh cell population with an improved ability to transfer parasite protection to CD4-deficient mice. This study provides a new insight into malaria immunology by showing the importance of P2X7 receptor in controlling the fine-tuning between Th1 and Tfh cell differentiation during P. chabaudi infection and thus in disease outcome.

  8. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor decreases the Th1/Th2 ratio in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Zhang, Zhuo; Hou, Jinxiao; Cao, Fenglin; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Ping; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease that exhibits an abnormally high Th1/Th2 ratio. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to decrease the Th1/Th2 ratio in healthy donors. In this study, we investigated the effects of G-CSF treatment on the Th1/Th2 cells and the underlying mechanisms in patients with ITP in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients with ITP and healthy controls were treated with G-CSF. Expression levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-13 in supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) on Th1 and Th2 cells were examined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA-3) in PBMCs was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that G-CSF could significantly reduce the Th1/Th2 ratio in PBMCs from patients with ITP in vitro. As the concentration of G-CSF increased, Th1/Th2 ([IFN-γ+IL-2]/[IL-4+IL-13]) cytokine ratios and T-bet/GATA-3 mRNA ratios decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Th1 cells and Th2 cells both expressed G-CSFR. These results suggest that G-CSF could decrease the Th1/Th2 ratio in the context of ITP, and elucidate the direct and indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms underlying G-CSF functions in Th1/Th2 cells, thus supporting the therapeutic potential of G-CSF in the treatment of patients with ITP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuropeptide Y induces potent migration of human immature dendritic cells and promotes a Th2 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttari, Brigitta; Profumo, Elisabetta; Domenici, Giacomo; Tagliani, Angela; Ippoliti, Flora; Bonini, Sergio; Businaro, Rita; Elenkov, Ilia; Riganò, Rachele

    2014-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a major autonomic nervous system and stress mediator, is emerging as an important regulator of inflammation, implicated in autoimmunity, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Yet the role of NPY in regulating phenotype and functions of dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-presenting cells, remains undefined. Here we investigated whether NPY could induce DCs to migrate, mature, and polarize naive T lymphocytes. We found that NPY induced a dose-dependent migration of human monocyte-derived immature DCs through the engagement of NPY Y1 receptor and the activation of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. NPY promoted DC adhesion to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration. It failed to induce phenotypic DC maturation, whereas it conferred a T helper 2 (Th2) polarizing profile to DCs through the up-regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 production. Thus, during an immune/inflammatory response NPY may exert proinflammatory effects through the recruitment of immature DCs, but it may exert antiinflammatory effects by promoting a Th2 polarization. Locally, at inflammatory sites, cell recruitment could be amplified in conditions of intense acute, chronic, or cold stress. Thus, altered or amplified signaling through the NPY-NPY-Y1 receptor-DC axis may have implications for the development of inflammatory conditions.-Buttari, B., Profumo, E., Domenici, G., Tagliani, A., Ippoliti, F., Bonini, S., Businaro, R., Elenkov, I., Riganò, R. Neuropeptide Y induces potent migration of human immature dendritic cells and promotes a Th2 polarization. © FASEB.

  10. The extraction of "2"2"9Th"3"+ from a buffer-gas stopping cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wense, L. von der; Seiferle, B.; Laatiaoui, M.; Thirolf, P.G.

    2016-01-01

    In the whole landscape of atomic nuclei, "2"2"9Th is currently the only known nucleus which could allow for the development of a nuclear-based frequency standard, as it possesses an isomeric state of just 7.6 eV energy above the ground state. The 3+ charge state is of special importance in this context, as Th"3"+ allows for a simple laser-cooling scheme. Here we emphasize the direct extraction of triply-charged "2"2"9Th from a buffer-gas stopping cell. This finding will not only simplify any future approach of "2"2"9Th ion cooling, but is also used for thorium-beam purification and in this way provides a powerful tool for the direct identification of the "2"2"9Th isomer to ground state nuclear transition.

  11. Co-ordinate expression of Th1/Th2 phenotypes in maternal and fetal blood: evidence for a transplacental nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Doris B; Young, Bruce K

    2012-01-06

    If maternal atopy and environmental exposure affect prenatal Th cell development, the maternal and fetal immune systems should display common Th1/Th2 phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we studied maternal and neonatal blood samples from mothers with total serum IgE ordinate IFN-γ production from paired maternal and fetal mononuclear cells, accompanied by co-ordinate increases in activated CD4+CD69+ cells that display the CCR4+Th2 and CXCR3+ Th1 phenotypes. Maternal and fetal CD4+CXCR3+ T cells were subsequently identified as the major producers of IFN-γ. The data established that a transplacental nexus exists during normal pregnancy and that fetal Th cell responses may be biased by the maternal immune system.

  12. Elevated Ratio of Th17 Cell-Derived Th1 Cells (CD161(+)Th1 Cells) to CD161(+)Th17 Cells in Peripheral Blood of Early-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Shigeru; Nanke, Yuki; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and bone with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It has been reported that IL-17 and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Recently, plasticity in helper T cells has been demonstrated; Th17 cells can convert to Th1 cells. It remains to be elucidated whether this conversion occurs in the early phase of RA. Here, we tried to identify Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and Th17 cell-derived Th1 cells (CD161(+)Th1 cells) in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients. We also evaluated the effect of methotrexate on the ratio of Th17 cells in early-onset RA patients. The ratio of Th17 cell-derived Th1 cells to CD161(+)Th17 cells was elevated in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients. In addition, MTX reduced the ratio of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells. These findings suggest that IL-17 and Th17 play important roles in the early phase of RA; thus, anti-IL-17 antibodies should be administered to patients with RA in the early phase.

  13. Chronic cat allergen exposure induces a TH2 cell-dependent IgG4 response related to low sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renand, Amedee; Archila, Luis D; McGinty, John; Wambre, Erik; Robinson, David; Hales, Belinda J; Thomas, Wayne R; Kwok, William W

    2015-12-01

    In human subjects, allergen tolerance has been observed after high-dose allergen exposure or after completed allergen immunotherapy, which is related to the accumulation of anti-inflammatory IgG4. However, the specific T-cell response that leads to IgG4 induction during chronic allergen exposure remains poorly understood. We sought to evaluate the relationship between cat allergen-specific T-cell frequency, cat allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 titers, and clinical status in adults with cat allergy with and without cat ownership and the cellular mechanism by which IgG4 is produced. Fel d 1-, Fel d 4-, Fel d 7-, and Fel d 8-specific T-cell responses were characterized by CD154 expression after antigen stimulation. In allergic subjects without cat ownership, the frequency of cat allergen (Fel d 1 and Fel d 4)-specific TH2 (sTH2) cells correlates with higher IgE levels and is linked to asthma. Paradoxically, we observed that subjects with cat allergy and chronic cat exposure maintain a high frequency of sTH2 cells, which correlates with higher IgG4 levels and low sensitization. B cells from allergic, but not nonallergic subjects, are able to produce IgG4 after cognate interactions with sTH2 clones and Fel d 1 peptide or the Fel d 1 recombinant protein. These experiments suggest that (1) allergen-experienced B cells with the capacity to produce IgG4 are present in allergic subjects and (2) cat allergen exposure induces an IgG4 response in a TH2 cell-dependent manner. Thus IgG4 accumulation could be mediated by chronic activation of the TH2 response, which in turn drives desensitization. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  14. Cord blood Vα24-Vβ11 natural killer T cells display a Th2-chemokine receptor profile and cytokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Harner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fetal immune system is characterized by a Th2 bias but it is unclear how the Th2 predominance is established. Natural killer T (NKT cells are a rare subset of T cells with immune regulatory functions and are already activated in utero. To test the hypothesis that NKT cells are part of the regulatory network that sets the fetal Th2 predominance, percentages of Vα24(+Vβ11(+ NKT cells expressing Th1/Th2-related chemokine receptors (CKR were assessed in cord blood. Furthermore, IL-4 and IFN-γ secreting NKT cells were quantified within the single CKR(+ subsets. RESULTS: Cord blood NKT cells expressed the Th2-related CCR4 and CCR8 at significantly higher frequencies compared to peripheral blood NKT cells from adults, while CXCR3(+ and CCR5(+ cord blood NKT cells (Th1-related were present at lower percentages. Within CD4(negCD8(neg (DN NKT cells, the frequency of IL-4 producing NKT cells was significantly higher in cord blood, while frequencies of IFN-γ secreting DN NKT cells tended to be lower. A further subanalysis showed that the higher percentage of IL-4 secreting DN NKT cells was restricted to CCR3(+, CCR4(+, CCR5(+, CCR6(+, CCR7(+, CCR8(+ and CXCR4(+ DN subsets in cord blood. This resulted in significantly decreased IFN-γ /IL-4 ratios of CCR3(+, CCR6(+ and CCR8(+ cord blood DN NKT cells. Sequencing of VA24AJ18 T cell receptor (TCR transcripts in sorted cord blood Vα24Vβ11 cells confirmed the invariant TCR alpha-chain ruling out the possibility that these cells represent an unusual subset of conventional T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heterogeneity of cord blood NKT cells, we observed a clear Th2-bias at the phenotypic and functional level which was mainly found in the DN subset. Therefore, we speculate that NKT cells are important for the initiation and control of the fetal Th2 environment which is needed to maintain tolerance towards self-antigens as well as non-inherited maternal antigens.

  15. Activity of the hypoxia-activated prodrug, TH-302, in preclinical human acute myeloid leukemia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portwood, Scott; Lal, Deepika; Hsu, Yung-Chun; Vargas, Rodrigo; Johnson, Megan K; Wetzler, Meir; Hart, Charles P; Wang, Eunice S

    2013-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematologic neoplasm. Recent evidence has shown the bone marrow microenvironment in patients with AML to be intrinsically hypoxic. Adaptive cellular responses by leukemia cells to survive under low oxygenation also confer chemoresistance. We therefore asked whether therapeutic exploitation of marrow hypoxia via the hypoxia-activated nitrogen mustard prodrug, TH-302, could effectively inhibit AML growth. We assessed the effects of hypoxia and TH-302 on human AML cells, primary samples, and systemic xenograft models. We observed that human AML cells and primary AML colonies cultured under chronic hypoxia (1% O2, 72 hours) exhibited reduced sensitivity to cytarabine-induced apoptosis as compared with normoxic controls. TH-302 treatment resulted in dose- and hypoxia-dependent apoptosis and cell death in diverse AML cells. TH-302 preferentially decreased proliferation, reduced HIF-1α expression, induced cell-cycle arrest, and enhanced double-stranded DNA breaks in hypoxic AML cells. Hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species by AML cells were also diminished. In systemic human AML xenografts (HEL, HL60), TH-302 [50 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) 5 times per week] inhibited disease progression and prolonged overall survival. TH-302 treatment reduced the number of hypoxic cells within leukemic bone marrows and was not associated with hematologic toxicities in nonleukemic or leukemic mice. Later initiation of TH-302 treatment in advanced AML disease was as effective as earlier TH-302 treatment in xenograft models. Our results establish the preclinical activity of TH-302 in AML and provide the rationale for further clinical studies of this and other hypoxia-activated agents for leukemia therapy. ©2013 AACR.

  16. Ezh2 regulates transcriptional and post-translational expression of T-bet and promotes Th1 cell responses mediating aplastic anemia in mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; He, Shan; Xie, Fang; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Liu, Yongnian; Mochizuki, Izumi; Meng, Lijun; Sun, Hongxing; Zhang, Yanyun; Guo, Yajun; Hexner, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a potentially fatal bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome. IFN-γ-producing T helper (Th)1 CD4+ T cells mediate the immune destruction of hematopoietic cells, and are central to the pathogenesis. However, the molecular events that control the development of BM-destructive Th1 cells remain largely unknown. Ezh2 is a chromatin-modifying enzyme that regulates multiple cellular processes primarily by silencing gene expression. We recently reported that Ezh2 is crucial for inflammatory T cell responses after allogeneic BM transplantation. To elucidate whether Ezh2 mediates pathogenic Th1 responses in AA and the mechanism of Ezh2 action in regulating Th1 cells, we studied the effects of Ezh2 inhibition in CD4+ T cells using a mouse model of human AA. Conditionally deleting Ezh2 in mature T cells dramatically reduced the production of BM-destructive Th1 cells in vivo, decreased BM-infiltrating Th1 cells, and rescued mice from BM failure. Ezh2 inhibition resulted in significant decrease in the expression of Tbx21 and Stat4 (which encode transcription factors T-bet and STAT4, respectively). Introduction of T-bet but not STAT4 into Ezh2-deficient T cells fully rescued their differentiation into Th1 cells mediating AA. Ezh2 bound to the Tbx21 promoter in Th1 cells, and directly activated Tbx21 transcription. Unexpectedly, Ezh2 was also required to prevent proteasome-mediated degradation of T-bet protein in Th1 cells. Our results identify T-bet as the transcriptional and post-translational Ezh2 target that acts together to generate BM-destructive Th1 cells, and highlight the therapeutic potential of Ezh2 inhibition in reducing AA and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24760151

  17. Autologous bone marrow Th cells can support multiple myeloma cell proliferation in vitro and in xenografted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Fløisand, Y; Myklebust, C V; Bürgler, S; Parente-Ribes, A; Hofgaard, P O; Bogen, B; Taskén, K; Tjønnfjord, G E; Schjesvold, F; Dalgaard, J; Tveita, A; Munthe, L A

    2017-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy where MM cell growth is supported by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment with poorly defined cellular and molecular mechanisms. MM cells express CD40, a receptor known to activate autocrine secretion of cytokines and elicit proliferation. Activated T helper (Th) cells express CD40 ligand (CD40L) and BM Th cells are significantly increased in MM patients. We hypothesized that activated BM Th cells could support MM cell growth. We here found that activated autologous BM Th cells supported MM cell growth in a contact- and CD40L-dependent manner in vitro. MM cells had retained the ability to activate Th cells that reciprocated and stimulated MM cell proliferation. Autologous BM Th cells supported MM cell growth in xenografted mice and were found in close contact with MM cells. MM cells secreted chemokines that attracted Th cells, secretion was augmented by CD40-stimulation. Within 14 days of culture of whole BM aspirates in autologous serum, MM cells and Th cells mutually stimulated each other, and MM cells required Th cells for further expansion in vitro and in mice. The results suggest that Th cells may support the expansion of MM cells in patients.

  18. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy Alleviates Atherosclerosis via Enhancing Efferocytosis and Facilitating a Shift in the Th1/Th2 Balance Toward Th2 Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We and other groups have demonstrated that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated sonodynamic therapy (ALA-SDT induces macrophage and foam cell apoptosis and stabilizes atherosclerosis (AS plaques in animal models. Lymphocytes also play vital roles in the development of AS. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ALA-SDT on T helper (Th cell fate and function, Th subset differentiation, and atherosclerotic lesion stability. Methods: We utilized ALA-SDT on Western diet-fed apoE-/-mice in vivo and human Jurkat cells in vitro. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and TUNEL assays were used to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque size and apoptosis within the atheroma. ALA induced cytotoxicity on cultured Jurkat cells was determined with CCK-8 assay. To address the mechanisms, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening were evaluated by staining with fluorescent probes. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the protein levels of caspases, Bax and cytochrome c and the release of cytochrome c. Cell apoptosis and necrosis and phagocytosis were examined by flow cytometry. ELISAs and immunofluorescent staining were used to assess the corresponding cytokine levels and Th subset cell numbers within the atheroma. Results: Our studies revealed that ALA-SDT significantly enhanced CD4+ cell apoptosis and macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and hence reduced the necrotic core size. ALA-SDT activated the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway with minimal necrosis in Jurkat cells. ALA-SDT inhibited the Th1 response and enhanced the Th2 response. These effects of ALA-SDT were mediated primarily through the generation of ROS. Conclusion: ALA-SDT alleviates AS by enhancing cytotoxic effects on Th cells, subsequently stimulating efferocytosis and facilitating a shift in the Th1/Th2

  19. Toll like Receptor 2 engagement on CD4+ T cells promotes TH9 differentiation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Ahmad Faisal; Reba, Scott M; Li, Qing; Boom, W Henry; Rojas, Roxana E

    2017-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that mycobacterial ligands engage Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on CD4 + T cells and up-regulate T-cell receptor (TCR) triggered Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the role of T-cell expressed TLR2 on CD4 + T-cell differentiation and function, we conducted a gene expression analysis of murine naïve CD4 + T-cells stimulated in the presence or absence of TLR2 co-stimulation. Unexpectedly, naïve CD4 + T-cells co-stimulated via TLR2 showed a significant up-regulation of Il9 mRNA compared to cells co-stimulated via CD28. Under TH9 differentiation, we observed up-regulation of TH9 differentiation, evidenced by increases in both percent of IL-9 secreting cells and IL-9 in culture supernatants in the presence of TLR2 agonist both in polyclonal and Ag85B cognate peptide specific stimulations. Under non-polarizing conditions, TLR2 engagement on CD4 + T-cells had minimal effect on IL-9 secretion and TH9 differentiation, likely due to a prominent effect of TLR2 signaling on IFN-γ secretion and TH1 differentiation. We also report that, TLR2 signaling in CD4 + T cells increased expression of transcription factors BATF and PU.1, known to positively regulate TH9 differentiation. These results reveal a novel role of T-cell expressed TLR2 in enhancing the differentiation and function of TH9 T cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TH1 and TH2 cell polarization increases with aging and is modulated by zinc supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    TH1 and TH2 cell polarization increases with aging and is modulated by zinc supplementation correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 241 8080208; fax: +49 241 8082613. (Rink, Lothar) (Rink, Lothar) Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University - Aachen--> - GERMANY (Uciechowski, Peter) Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University - Aachen--> - GERMAN...

  2. [Th17 and Treg cell levels in patients with sarcoidosis and their relation to disease activation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yue-song; Wang, Hua-ying; Lv, Ding-feng; Fu, Zhong-ming; Yu, Wan-jun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the Th17 cell and Treg cell levels in patients with sarcoidosis, and their relation to disease activation and glucocorticoids treatment. Twenty-three sarcoidosis patients admitted in Yinzhou People's Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013 and 25 healthy subjects (controls) were included in this study. The blood samples and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected in all patients before and after glucocorticoids treatment. The serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) levels were detected. The percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in peripheral blood and BALF were determined by flow cytometry, the concentrations of cytokines in serum and supernatants of BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of ROR-γt and Foxp3 mRNA transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The potential correlation between the percentages of Th17 or Treg cells and SACE levels was evaluated. Compared with healthy controls, significantly higher frequencies of Th17 cells (4.34%±0.89% vs 1.60% ± 0.42%), lower frequencies of Treg cells (1.28% ± 0.37% vs 3.39% ± 0.50%) in peripheral blood were observed. Higher level of ROR-γt mRNA (21.31 ± 3.55 vs 3.63 ± 1.00) and lower level of Foxp3 mRNA (1.60 ± 0.24 vs 3.12 ± 0.76) in peripheral blood were detected in sarcoidosis patients in active stage (before glucocorticoids treatment) (all PSACE (r= 0.781). The imbalance of Th17 cells and Treg cells in peripheral blood and airway may be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, which was associated with the activity of disease, and the treatment of glucocorticoids may achieve a therapeutic effect by correcting the immune imbalance.

  3. T-bet- and STAT4-dependent IL-33 receptor expression directly promotes antiviral Th1 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Claudia; Bonilla, Weldy V; Fröhlich, Anja; Helmstetter, Caroline; Peine, Michael; Hegazy, Ahmed N; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Löhning, Max

    2015-03-31

    During infection, the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, so-called "alarmins," orchestrates the immune response. The alarmin IL-33 plays a role in a wide range of pathologies. Upon release, IL-33 signals through its receptor ST2, which reportedly is expressed only on CD4(+) T cells of the Th2 and regulatory subsets. Here we show that Th1 effector cells also express ST2 upon differentiation in vitro and in vivo during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. The expression of ST2 on Th1 cells was transient, in contrast to constitutive ST2 expression on Th2 cells, and marked highly activated effector cells. ST2 expression on virus-specific Th1 cells depended on the Th1-associated transcription factors T-bet and STAT4. ST2 deficiency resulted in a T-cell-intrinsic impairment of LCMV-specific Th1 effector responses in both mixed bone marrow-chimeric mice and adoptive cell transfer experiments. ST2-deficient virus-specific CD4(+) T cells showed impaired expansion, Th1 effector differentiation, and antiviral cytokine production. Consequently, these cells mediated little virus-induced immunopathology. Thus, IL-33 acts as a critical and direct cofactor to drive antiviral Th1 effector cell activation, with implications for vaccination strategies and immunotherapeutic approaches.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists modulate Th1 and Th2 chemokine secretion in normal thyrocytes and Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Frascerra, Silvia; Corrado, Alda; Pupilli, Cinzia; Bernini, Giampaolo; Benvenga, Salvatore; Ferrannini, Ele; Fallahi, Poupak

    2011-01-01

    Until now, no data are present about the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α activation on the prototype Th1 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10] (CXCL10) and Th2 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2] (CCL2) chemokines secretion in thyroid cells. The role of PPARα and PPARγ activation on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion was tested in Graves' disease (GD) and control primary thyrocytes stimulated with interferon (IFN)γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α. IFNγ stimulated both CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion in primary GD and control thyrocytes. TNFα alone stimulated CCL2 secretion, while had no effect on CXCL10. The combination of IFNγ and TNFα had a synergistic effect both on CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in GD thyrocytes at levels comparable to those of controls. PPARα activators inhibited the secretion of both chemokines (stimulated with IFNγ and TNFα) at a level higher (for CXCL10, about 60-72%) than PPARγ agonists (about 25-35%), which were confirmed to inhibit CXCL10, but not CCL2. Our data show that CCL2 is modulated by IFNγ and TNFα in GD and normal thyrocytes. Furthermore we first show that PPARα activators inhibit the secretion of CXCL10 and CCL2 in thyrocytes, suggesting that PPARα may be involved in the modulation of the immune response in the thyroid.

  5. Reversal of human allergen-specific CRTH2+ T(H)2 cells by IL-12 or the PS-DSP30 oligodeoxynucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, F; Cosmi, L; Manetti, R; Brugnolo, F; Parronchi, P; Maggi, E; Nagata, K; Romagnani, S

    2001-11-01

    The chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on T(H)2 cells (CRTH2) is a receptor for prostaglandin D(2), which among human T cells is selectively expressed by T(H)2 and type 2 cytotoxic effectors. Our purpose was to assess whether the cytokine production profile of T(H)2 effectors could be reversed by exploiting their selective expression of CRTH2. CRTH2(+) T cells were purified from the blood of allergic subjects, stimulated with the specific allergen in the absence or presence of IL-12, and assessed by flow cytometry at the single-cell level for their ability to produce IL-4 and/or IFN-gamma after antigen or polyclonal stimulation. Both IL-12 and the PS-DSP30 oligodeoxynucleotide enabled CRTH2(+) allergen-stimulated T(H)2 cells to produce IFN-gamma. This change in the profile of cytokine production by T(H)2 cells from allergic subjects was related to the upregulation of IL-12 receptor beta2 chain and was associated with the loss of CRTH2. These data demonstrate that the cytokine production pattern of fully differentiated T(H)2 effectors can be changed to a less polarized profile, thus providing the physiologic basis for new immunotherapeutic strategies in allergic disorders.

  6. Clonorchis sinensis adult-derived proteins elicit Th2 immune responses by regulating dendritic cells via mannose receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC, and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4, IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis. Our previous studies had a mere glimpse of T helper type 2 (Th2 dominant immune responses as key players in liver fibrosis induced by C. sinensis infection, but little is known about the involved mechanisms in this pathological process.By flow cytometry (FACS, adult-derived total proteins of C. sinensis (CsTPs down-regulated the expression of surface markers CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II on lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced DC. ELISA results demonstrated that CsTPs inhibited IL-12p70 release from LPS-treated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC. IL-10 level increased in a time-dependent manner in LPS-treated BMDCs after incubation with CsTPs. CD4+ T cells incubated with LPS-treated BMDCs plus CsTPs could significantly elevate IL-4 level by ELISA. Meanwhile, elevated expression of pro-fibrogenic mediators including IL-13 and IL-4 were detected in a co-culture system of LPS-activated BMDCs and naive T cells containing CsTPs. In vivo, CsTPs-immunized mice enhanced expression of type 2 cytokines IL-13, IL-10 and IL-4 in both splenocytes and hepatic tissue. Exposure of BMDCs to CsTPs activated expression of mannose receptor (MR but not toll like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4, C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN and Dectin-2 on the cell surface by RT-PCR and FACS. Blockade of MR almost completely

  7. Th1- and Th2-like subsets of innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernink, Jochem; Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) constitute a family of effectors in innate immunity and regulators of tissue remodeling that have a cytokine and transcription factor expression pattern that parallels that of the T-helper (Th) cell family. Here, we discuss how ILCs can be categorized and summarize the

  8. Effectors of Th1 and Th17 cells act on astrocytes and augment their neuroinflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Kronisch, Julius; Khorooshi, Reza; Knier, Benjamin; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Gudi, Viktoria; Floess, Stefan; Huehn, Jochen; Owens, Trevor; Korn, Thomas; Stangel, Martin

    2017-10-16

    Autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells are believed to mediate the pathology of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS). Their interaction with microglia and astrocytes in the CNS is crucial for the regulation of the neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that only Th1 but not Th17 effectors activate microglia. However, it is not clear which cells are targets of Th17 effectors in the CNS. To understand the effects driven by Th17 cells in the CNS, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in wild-type mice and CD4 + T cell-specific integrin α4-deficient mice where trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS was affected. We compared microglial and astrocyte response in the brain and spinal cord of these mice. We further treated astrocytes with supernatants from highly pure Th1 and Th17 cultures and assessed the messenger RNA expression of neurotrophic factors, cytokines and chemokines, using real-time PCR. Data obtained was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. We observed in α4-deficient mice weak microglial activation but comparable astrogliosis to that of wild-type mice in the regions of the brain populated with Th17 infiltrates, suggesting that Th17 cells target astrocytes and not microglia. In vitro, in response to supernatants from Th1 and Th17 cultures, astrocytes showed altered expression of neurotrophic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, increased expression of chemokines in Th1- and Th17-treated astrocytes enhanced recruitment of microglia and transendothelial migration of Th17 cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate the delicate interaction between T cell subsets and glial cells and how they communicate to mediate their effects. Effectors of Th1 act on both microglia and astrocytes whereas Th17 effectors preferentially target astrocytes to promote neuroinflammation.

  9. BJ-1108, a 6-Amino-2,4,5-trimethylpyridin-3-ol analogue, regulates differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youra; Timilshina, Maheshwor; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Chang, Jae-Hoon

    2017-02-28

    CD4 + T cells play an important role in the initiation of an immune response by providing help to other cells. Among the helper T subsets, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-secreting T helper 1 (Th1) and IL-17-secreting T helper 17 (Th17) cells are indispensable for clearance of intracellular as well as extracellular pathogens. However, Th1 and Th17 cells are also associated with pathogenesis and contribute to the progression of multiple inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we found that BJ-1108, a 6-aminopyridin-3-ol analogue, significantly inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, with no effect on proliferation or apoptosis of activated T cells. Moreover, BJ-1108 inhibited differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells in ovalbumin (OVA)-specific OT II mice. A complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)/OVA-induced inflammatory model revealed that BJ-1108 can reduce generation of proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that BJ-1108 delayed onset of disease and suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease progression by inhibiting differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. BJ-1108 treatment ameliorates inflammation and EAE by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells differentiation. Our findings suggest that BJ-1108 is a promising novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune disease.

  10. The transcription factor Th-POK negatively regulates Th17 differentiation in Vα14i NKT cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Isaac; Zhao, Meng; Kappes, Dietmar; Taniuchi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mouse Vα14 invariant natural killer T (Vα14i NKT) cells produce several cytokines, including IFNγ and IL-4, very rapidly after activation. A subset of these cells, known as NKT17 cells, however, differentiates in the thymus to preferentially produce IL-17. Here, we show that the transcription factor—known as T helper, Poxviruses, and Zinc-finger and Krüppel family, (Th-POK)—represses the formation of NKT17 cells. Vα14i NKT cells from Th-POK–mutant helper deficient (hd/hd) mice have increased transcripts of genes normally expressed by Th17 and NKT17 cells, and even heterozygosity for this mutation leads to dramatically increased numbers of Vα14i NKT cells that are poised to express IL-17, especially in the thymus and lymph nodes. In addition, using gene reporter mice, we demonstrate that NKT17 cells from wild-type mice express lower amounts of Th-POK than the majority population of Vα14i NKT cells. We also show that retroviral transduction of Th-POK represses the expression of the Th17 master regulator RORγT in Vα14i NKT-cell lines. Our data suggest that NKT17-cell differentiation is intrinsically regulated by Th-POK activity, with only low levels of Th-POK permissive for the differentiation of NKT17 cells. PMID:23034280

  11. Lead effects on development and function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells promote Th2 immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Donghong; Mondal, Tapan K.; Lawrence, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Although lead (Pb) has significant effects on the development and function of macrophages, B cells, and T cells and has been suggested to promote allergic asthma in mice and humans, Pb modulation of bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and the resultant DC effects on Th1 and Th2 development have not been examined. Accordingly, we cultured BM cells with murine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) ± PbCl 2 . At day 10, culture supernatant (SN) and non-adherent cells were harvested for analysis. Additionally, day 10 non-adherent BM-DCs were harvested and recultured with mGM-CSF + LPS ± Pb for 2 days. The day 10 Pb exposure significantly inhibited BM-DC generation, based on CD11c expression. Although fewer DCs were generated with Pb, the existing Pb-exposed DCs had significantly greater MHC-II expression than did the non-Pb-exposed DCs. However, these differences diminished upon LPS stimulation. After LPS stimulation, CD80, CD86, CD40, CD54, and MHC-II were all up-regulated on both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs expressed significantly less CD80 than did DCs. The CD86:CD80 ratio suggests a Pb-DC potential for Th2 cell development. After LPS stimulation, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), and TNF-α levels significantly increased with both Pb-DCs and DCs, but Pb-DCs produced significantly less cytokines than did DCs, except for IL-10, which further supports Pb-DC preferential skewing toward type-2 immunity. In vitro studies confirm that Pb-DCs have the ability to polarize antigen-specific T cells to Th2 cells. Pb-DCs also enhanced allogeneic and autologous T cell proliferation in vitro, and in vivo studies suggested that Pb-DCs inhibited Th1 effects on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The Pb effect was mainly on DCs, rather than on T cells, and Pb's modification of DC function appears to be the main cause of Pb's promotion of type-2-related immunity, which may relate to Pb's enhanced activation of the Erk/MAP kinase pathway

  12. Does exposure to UV radiation induce a shift to a Th-2-like immune reaction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to being the primary cause of skin cancer, UV radiation is immune suppressive and there appears to be a link between the ability of UV to suppress the immune response and induce skin cancer. Cytokines made by UV-irradiated keratinocytes play an essential role in activating immune suppression. In particular, we have found that keratinocyte-derived interleukin (IL)-10 is responsible for the systemic impairment of antigen presenting cell function and the UV-induced suppression of delayed-type hypersenstivity (DTH). Antigen presentation by splenic adherent cells isolated from UV-irradiated mice to T helper-1 type T (Th1) cells is suppressed, whereas antigen presentation to T helper-2 type T (Th2) cells is enhanced. The enhanced antigen presentation to Th2 cells and the impaired presentation to Th1 cells can be reversed in vivo by injecting the UV-irradiated mice with monoclonal anti-IL-10 antibody. Furthermore, immune suppression can be transferred from UV-irradiated mice to normal recipients by adoptive transfer of T cells. Injecting the recipient mice with anti-IL-4 or anti-IL-10 prevents the transfer of immune suppression, suggesting the suppressor cells are Th2 cells. In addition, injecting UV-irradiated mice with IL-12, a cytokine that has been shown to be the primary inducer of Th1 cells, and one that prevents the differentiation of Th2 cells in vivo, reverses UV-induced immune suppression. These findings support the hypothesis that UV exposure activates IL-10 secretion, which depresses the function of Th1 cells, while enhancing the activity of Th2 cells. (Author)

  13. Interleukin-34 Regulates Th1 and Th17 Cytokine Production by Activating Multiple Signaling Pathways through CSF-1R in Chicken Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Duc Truong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-34 (IL-34 is a newly recognized cytokine with functions similar to macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1. It is expressed in macrophages and fibroblasts, where it induces cytokine production; however, the mechanism of chicken IL-34 (chIL-34 signaling has not been identified to date. The aim of this study was to analyze the signal transduction pathways and specific biological functions associated with chIL-34 in chicken macrophage (HD11 and fibroblast (OU2 cell lines. We found that IL-34 is a functional ligand for the colony-stimulating factor receptor (CSF-1R in chicken cell lines. Treatment with chIL-34 increased the expression of Th1 and Th17 cytokines through phosphorylation of tyrosine and serine residues in Janus kinase (JAK 2, tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 1, STAT3, and Src homology 2-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2, which also led to phosphorylation of NF-κB1, p-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (TAK1, MyD88, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that chIL-34 functions by binding to CSF-1R and activating the JAK/STAT, nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways; these signaling events regulate cytokine expression and suggest roles for chIL-34 in innate and adaptive immunity.

  14. Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Th2 cytokines and the frequencies of innate and adaptive immunity cells .... As inclusion criteria, all participants were non- .... Ranges of normal values: Fasting glucose: 3.88-6.10 mM (0.7-1.10 g/L); .... of HbA1c, reflecting a poor control of diabetes37 and a .... rophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in.

  15. Arctigenin exerts anti-colitis efficacy through inhibiting the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells via an mTORC1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Dou, Yannong; Yang, Yan; Bian, Difei; Luo, Jinque; Tong, Bei; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2015-08-15

    Arctigenin, the main effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit, has previously been proven to dramatically attenuate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, a frequently used animal model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As Th1 and Th17 cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, the present study addressed whether and how arctigenin exerted anti-colitis efficacy by interfering with the differentiation and activation of Th1/Th17 cells. In vitro, arctigenin was shown to markedly inhibit the differentiation of Th17 cells from naïve T cells, and moderately inhibit the differentiation of Th1 cells, which was accompanied by lowered phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT4, respectively. In contrast, arctigenin was lack of marked effect on the differentiation of either Th2 or regulatory T cells. Furthermore, arctigenin was shown to suppress the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in T cells as demonstrated by down-regulated phosphorylation of the downstream target genes p70S6K and RPS6, and it functioned independent of two well-known upstream kinases PI3K/AKT and ERK. Arctigenin was also able to inhibit the activity of mTORC1 by dissociating raptor from mTOR. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of arctigenin on T cell differentiation disappeared under a status of mTORC1 overactivation via knockdown of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2, a negative regulator of mTORC1) or pretreatment of leucine (an agonist of mTOR). In DSS-induced mice, the inhibition of Th1/Th17 responses and anti-colitis effect of arctigenin were abrogated by leucine treatment. In conclusion, arctigenin ameliorates colitis through down-regulating the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells via mTORC1 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Ruben L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naïve T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we performed comprehensive transcriptome analyses of Jurkat T cells stimulated with various stimuli and pathway inhibitors. Results from these experiments were validated in a human experimental setting using whole blood and purified CD4+ Tcells. Results Calcium-dependent activation of T cells using CD3/CD28 and PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a Th1 expression profile reflected by increased expression of T-bet, RUNX3, IL-2, and IFNγ, whereas calcium-independent activation via PMA/CD28 induced a Th2 expression profile which included GATA3, RXRA, CCL1 and Itk. Knock down with siRNA and gene expression profiling in the presence of selective kinase inhibitors showed that proximal kinases Lck and PKCθ are crucial signaling hubs during T helper cell activation, revealing a clear role for Lck in Th1 development and for PKCθ in both Th1 and Th2 development. Medial signaling via MAPkinases appeared to be less important in these pathways, since specific inhibitors of these kinases displayed a minor effect on gene expression. Translation towards a primary, whole blood setting and purified human CD4+ T cells revealed that PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a more pronounced Th1 specific, Lck and PKCθ dependent IFNγ production, whereas PMA/CD28 induced Th2 specific IL-5 and IL-13 production, independent of Lck activation. PMA/CD3-mediated skewing towards a Th1 phenotype was also reflected in mRNA expression of the master transcription factor Tbet, whereas PMA/CD28-mediated stimulation enhanced GATA3 mRNA expression in primary human CD4+ Tcells. Conclusions This study identifies stimulatory pathways and gene expression profiles for in vitro skewing of T helper cell

  17. Defective TCR stimulation in anergized type 2 T helper cells correlates with abrogated p56(lck) and ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Simon, H U; Blaser, K

    1997-07-01

    Development of IgE-mediated allergic conditions is dependent on the secretion of a Th2 cytokine pattern, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The induction of anergy would be one mechanism to abrogate cytokine secretion by Th2 cells, which may be pivotal to the allergic response. We demonstrate here that incubation of cloned human CD4+ phospholipase A2 (PLA)-specific Th2 cells with antigenic peptide, in the absence of professional APC, results in a state of nonresponsiveness. The anergic T cells failed to proliferate or secrete IL-4 in response to optimal stimulation with PLA and autologous, professional APC. Secretion of IL-5 and IL-13, however, was only partially inhibited. The anergic state of the Th2 cells was not associated with CD3 or CD28 down-regulation. However, anergy did appear to be closely related to alterations in signaling pathways, mediated through the TCR, of the cells. In contrast to untreated Th2 cells, anergized Th2 cells failed to respond to anti-CD3 mAb with either increased tyrosine kinase activity or increased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of p56(lck) or ZAP70. A strong and sustained intracellular calcium flux, observed in untreated Th2 cells in response to anti-CD3 mAb, was absent in anergic Th2 cells. Furthermore, the induction of anergy seems to represent an active process, associated with increased levels of basal tyrosine kinase activity, cytokine production, and CD25 up-regulation in anergic Th2 cells. Together, our results indicate that anergy in Th2 cells is associated with defective transmembrane signaling through the TCR.

  18. Recombinant ESAT-6-CFP10 Fusion Protein Induction of Th1/Th2 Cytokines and FoxP3 Expressing Treg Cells in Pulmonary TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Jackson-Sillah

    Full Text Available Early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6 and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10 are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-specific antigens that are secreted by actively metabolising bacteria and contribute to the virulence of the bacteria. Their ability to induce Treg and Th2 responses, particularly during the first two weeks of treatment, has not been comprehensively examined to date. The purpose of this work was to characterise Th1, Th2 and Treg responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in TB patients before and during the intensive phase of treatment and in healthy M.bovis BCG vaccinated donors.Forty-six newly diagnosed, HIV-negative, smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 20 healthy donors were recruited in the UK and Ghana. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were used in ex vivo ELISPOT and in vitro cultures to identify immunological parameters of interest.The study confirmed that protective immune responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 are impaired in active TB but improved during treatment: circulating antigen-specific IL-4-producing T-cells were increased in untreated TB but declined by two weeks of treatment while the circulating antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T cells which showed a transient rise at one week of treatment, persisted at baseline levels at two months of treatment. In vitro T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production were reduced, while IL-4 and CD4(+FoxP3(+CD25(hi cell expression were increased in response to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in untreated TB. These responses were reversed during early treatment of TB.These observations support further investigations into the possible utility of these parameters as markers of active disease and favourable treatment outcomes.

  19. Recombinant ESAT-6-CFP10 Fusion Protein Induction of Th1/Th2 Cytokines and FoxP3 Expressing Treg Cells in Pulmonary TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Sillah, Dolly; Cliff, Jacqueline M; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Dickson, Emmanuel; Sowah, Sandra; Tetteh, John K A; Addo, Kwasi K; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Bothamley, Graham; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2013-01-01

    Early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens that are secreted by actively metabolising bacteria and contribute to the virulence of the bacteria. Their ability to induce Treg and Th2 responses, particularly during the first two weeks of treatment, has not been comprehensively examined to date. The purpose of this work was to characterise Th1, Th2 and Treg responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in TB patients before and during the intensive phase of treatment and in healthy M.bovis BCG vaccinated donors. Forty-six newly diagnosed, HIV-negative, smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 20 healthy donors were recruited in the UK and Ghana. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used in ex vivo ELISPOT and in vitro cultures to identify immunological parameters of interest. The study confirmed that protective immune responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 are impaired in active TB but improved during treatment: circulating antigen-specific IL-4-producing T-cells were increased in untreated TB but declined by two weeks of treatment while the circulating antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T cells which showed a transient rise at one week of treatment, persisted at baseline levels at two months of treatment. In vitro T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production were reduced, while IL-4 and CD4(+)FoxP3(+)CD25(hi) cell expression were increased in response to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in untreated TB. These responses were reversed during early treatment of TB. These observations support further investigations into the possible utility of these parameters as markers of active disease and favourable treatment outcomes.

  20. Fisetin, a flavonol, inhibits TH2-type cytokine production by activated human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Shinji; Hirano, Toru; Kotani, Mayumi; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Fujita, Akihito; Suemura, Masaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2003-06-01

    Activation of mast cells and basophils through allergen stimulation releases chemical mediators and synthesizes cytokines. Among these cytokines, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 have major roles in allergic inflammation. We sought to determine the potency of flavonoids (astragalin, fisetin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin) for the inhibition of cytokine expression and synthesis by human basophils. The inhibitory effect of flavonoids on cytokine expression by stimulated KU812 cells, a human basophilic cell line, and freshly purified peripheral blood basophils was measured by means of semiquantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assays. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells were assessed by means of electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Fisetin suppressed the induction of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 mRNA expression by A23187-stimulated KU812 cells and basophils in response to cross-linkage of the IgE receptor. Fisetin reduced IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 synthesis (inhibitory concentration of 50% [IC(50)] = 19.4, 17.7, and 17.4 micromol/L, respectively) but not IL-6 and IL-8 production by KU812 cells. In addition, fisetin inhibited IL-4 and IL-13 synthesis by anti-IgE antibody-stimulated human basophils (IC(50) = 5.1 and 6.2 micromol/L, respectively) and IL-4 synthesis by allergen-stimulated basophils from allergic patients (IC(50) = 4.8 micromol/L). Among the flavonoids examined, kaempferol and quercetin showed substantial inhibitory activities in cytokine expression but less so than those of fisetin. Fisetin inhibited nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 by A23187-stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide evidence of a novel activity of the flavonoid fisetin that suppresses the expression of T(H)2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5) by basophils.

  1. Th1 cytokine-induced syndecan-4 shedding by airway smooth muscle cells is dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiahui; Khalil, Najwa; Tesarik, Candice; Vanapalli, Karunasri; Yaputra, Viki; Alkhouri, Hatem; Oliver, Brian G G; Armour, Carol L; Hughes, J Margaret

    2012-04-01

    In asthma, airway smooth muscle (ASM) chemokine secretion can induce mast cell recruitment into the airways. The functions of the mast cell chemoattractant CXCL10, and other chemokines, are regulated by binding to heparan sulphates such as syndecan-4. This study is the first demonstration that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) from people with and without asthma express and shed syndecan-4 under basal conditions. Syndecan-4 shedding was enhanced by stimulation for 24 h with the Th1 cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but not interferon-γ (IFNγ), nor the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. ASMC stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFNγ (cytomix) induced the highest level of syndecan-4 shedding. Nonasthmatic and asthmatic ASM cell-associated syndecan-4 protein expression was also increased by TNF-α or cytomix at 4-8 h, with the highest levels detected in cytomix-stimulated asthmatic cells. Cell-associated syndecan-4 levels were decreased by 24 h, whereas shedding remained elevated at 24 h, consistent with newly synthesized syndecan-4 being shed. Inhibition of ASMC matrix metalloproteinase-2 did not prevent syndecan-4 shedding, whereas inhibition of ERK MAPK activation reduced shedding from cytomix-stimulated ASMC. Although ERK inhibition had no effect on syndecan-4 mRNA levels stimulated by cytomix, it did cause an increase in cell-associated syndecan-4 levels, consistent with the shedding being inhibited. In conclusion, ASMC produce and shed syndecan-4 and although this is increased by the Th1 cytokines, the MAPK ERK only regulates shedding. ASMC syndecan-4 production during Th1 inflammatory conditions may regulate chemokine activity and mast cell recruitment to the ASM in asthma.

  2. Thymic irradiation inhibits the rapid recovery of TH1 but not TH2-like functions of CD4+ T cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.; Adkins, B.; Strober, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four to six weeks after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), there is a selective deficit in the CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-2, proliferate in the MLR, and induce GVHD (Th1-like functions). A similar deficit in CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-4 and help antibody responses (Th2-like functions) is not observed. In the present study, shielding of the thymus with lead during TLI increased the Th1-like functions of CD4+ cells. Mice without thymus shields showed a marked selective reduction in the medullary stromal cells identified with the monoclonal antibody, MD1, and the severe reduction was prevented with thymus shields. Thus, shielding the thymus prevents the depletion of thymic medullary stromal cells and allows for a rapid recovery of Th1-like functions in the mouse spleen after TLI. Th2-like functions recover rapidly after TLI whether or not the thymus is irradiated

  3. Effect of xanthohumol on Th1/Th2 balance in a breast cancer mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Pan, Yanlong; Gou, Panhong; Zhou, Cheng; Ma, Lianqing; Liu, Qiming; Du, Yuping; Yang, Jinbo; Wang, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylflavonoid found in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus, exhibits a variety of biological activities. Numerous studies have reported that XN inhibits the growth of many types of cancer cells, but the effects of XN on tumor immunity have not yet been studied. We explored the effect of XN on Th1/Th2 balance and the underlying mechanism based on a BALB/c-4T1 breast cancer mouse model. The results showed that XN significantly slowed down tumor growth and inhibited expression of antitumor proliferation protein Ki-67 as well as breast cancer-specific marker cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that XN enhanced the secretion of perforin, granzyme B and increased the ratio of CD8+/CD25+. ELISA analysis of cytokine results demonstrated that XN obviously upregulated Th1 cytokines, while downregulated Th2 cytokines. Th1/Th2 ratio analysis by flow cytometry illustrated that XN regulated the balance drift to Th1 polarization. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results manifested that XN induced expression of T-bet, a Th1-specific transcription factor. Furthermore, we found that XN significantly promoted the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)4. Our results demonstrated that XN promoted Th1/Th2 balance towards Th1 polarization, and STAT4 may play a positive role in the regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines by XN.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonists modulate Th1 and Th2 chemokine secretion in normal thyrocytes and Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Alessandro, E-mail: a.antonelli@med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Ferrari, Silvia Martina, E-mail: sm.ferrari@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Frascerra, Silvia, E-mail: lafrasce@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Corrado, Alda, E-mail: dala_res@hotmail.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Pupilli, Cinzia, E-mail: c.pupilli@dfc.unifi.it [Endocrinology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi and University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, I-50134, Florence (Italy); Bernini, Giampaolo, E-mail: g.bernini@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Benvenga, Salvatore, E-mail: s.benvenga@me.nettuno.it [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, University of Messina, Piazza Pugliatti 1, I-98122, Messina (Italy); Ferrannini, Ele, E-mail: eferrannini@med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy); Fallahi, Poupak, E-mail: poupak@int.med.unipi.it [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa-School of Medicine, Via Roma 67, I-56100, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Until now, no data are present about the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} activation on the prototype Th1 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10] (CXCL10) and Th2 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2] (CCL2) chemokines secretion in thyroid cells. The role of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} activation on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion was tested in Graves' disease (GD) and control primary thyrocytes stimulated with interferon (IFN){gamma} and tumor necrosis factor (TNF){alpha}. IFN{gamma} stimulated both CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion in primary GD and control thyrocytes. TNF{alpha} alone stimulated CCL2 secretion, while had no effect on CXCL10. The combination of IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} had a synergistic effect both on CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in GD thyrocytes at levels comparable to those of controls. PPAR{alpha} activators inhibited the secretion of both chemokines (stimulated with IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha}) at a level higher (for CXCL10, about 60-72%) than PPAR{gamma} agonists (about 25-35%), which were confirmed to inhibit CXCL10, but not CCL2. Our data show that CCL2 is modulated by IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in GD and normal thyrocytes. Furthermore we first show that PPAR{alpha} activators inhibit the secretion of CXCL10 and CCL2 in thyrocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} may be involved in the modulation of the immune response in the thyroid.

  5. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  6. Photo(chemotherapy reduces circulating Th17 cells and restores circulating regulatory T cells in psoriasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Furuhashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photo(chemotherapy is widely used to treat psoriasis, the pathogenesis of which might be caused by an imbalance of Th17 cells/regulatory T cells (Treg. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of photo(chemotherapy on the Th17/Treg balance and Treg function. METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained from psoriasis patients treated with bath-psoralen ultraviolet A (UVA, n = 50 or narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB, n = 18, and age-matched healthy volunteers (n = 20. CD3(+CD4(+IL-17A(+ or CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+cells were analyzed to estimate Th17 or Treg number by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Moreover, CD4(+ CD25(- T cells from patients treated with PUVA(n = 14 were incubated in CFSE and activated with or without CD4(+ CD25(+T cells, and the suppressive function of CD4(+ CD25(+T cells were analyzed. RESULTS: Photo(chemotherapy significantly reduced Th17 levels from 5.66 ± 3.15% to 2.96 ± 2.89% in patients with increased Th17 (Th17/CD4>3.01% [mean+SD of controls]. In contrast, photo(chemotherapy significantly increased Treg levels from 2.77 ± 0.75 to 3.40 ± 1.88% in patients with less than 4.07% Treg level, defined as the mean of controls. Furthermore, while Treg suppressed the CD4(+CD25(- T cell proliferation to a greater extent in controls (Treg Functional Ratio 94.4 ± 4.28% than in patients (70.3±25.1%, PUVA significantly increased Treg Functional Ratio to 88.1 ± 6.47%. Th17 levels in severe patients (>30 PASI were significantly higher as compared to controls. Th17 levels that were left after treatment in the patients not achieving PASI 50 (3.78 ± 4.18% were significantly higher than those in the patients achieving PASI 75 (1.83±1.87%. Treg levels in patients achieving PASI 90 (4.89 ± 1.70% were significantly higher than those in the patients not achieving PASI 90 (3.90 ± 1.66%. Treg levels prior to treatment with Th17 high decreased group (5.16 ± 2.20% was significantly higher than that with Th17 high increased group

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation during Allergic Lung Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hong; Bradbury, J. Alyce; Dackor, Ryan T.; Edin, Matthew L.; Graves, Joan P.; DeGraff, Laura M.; Wang, Ping Ming; Bortner, Carl D.; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Lih, Fred B.; Cook, Donald N.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Jetten, Anton M.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Th17 cells comprise a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells that are major contributors to allergic responses. It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids regulate Th17 cells during allergic lung inflammation.

  8. Animal models of allergen-induced tolerance in asthma: are T-regulatory-1 cells (Tr-1) the solution for T-helper-2 cells (Th-2) in asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournoy, K G; Hove, C; Grooten, J; Moerloose, K; Brusselle, G G; Joos, G F

    2006-01-01

    Non-specific anti-inflammatory medication is actually the treatment of choice for controlling the T-helper type 2 (Th-2) cell-driven airway inflammation in asthma. The induction of counterbalancing Th-1 cell clones, long considered a promising approach for immunotherapy, has failed to fulfil its promise because of potentially detrimental side-effects. This is therefore probably not a valid option for the treatment of asthma. With the increasing awareness that active immune mechanisms exist to control inflammatory responses, interest rises to investigate whether these can be exploited to control allergen-induced airway disease. The induction of antigen-specific T cells with suppressive characteristics (regulatory T cells) is therefore a potentially interesting approach. These regulatory T cells mediate tolerance in healthy, non-atopic individuals and have the potential of becoming an effective means of preventing allergen-induced airway inflammation and possibly of suppressing ongoing allergic immune responses. Here we review the available knowledge about allergen-induced suppressive immunity obtained from animal models taking into account the different developmental stages of allergic airway disease.

  9. Total glucosides of paeony suppresses experimental autoimmune uveitis in association with inhibition of Th1 and Th2 cell function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-Tao; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Peng, Man-Qiang; Lin, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) are active components extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of TGP in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model of mice. The C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, EAU-control group, and EAU-TGP group. Clinical score of images of the eye fundus were taken on 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after induction of EAU. The concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in intraocular fluid were measured at 14 days after EAU induction with the use of a multiplex assay system. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the frequency of CD4+, CD8+, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen and lymph nodes. Western blotting was used to measure expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway-related proteins in retina. Clinical scores for uveitis were lower in TGP-treated EAU mice than those without TGP treatment. Importantly, the concentrations of cytokines induced by T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cells in intraocular fluid were reduced in EAU mice treated with TGP. Furthermore, the frequency of CD4+, IFN-γ, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio was decreased and the frequency of CD8+ was increased in spleen and lymph nodes of mice treated with TGP. The anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were mediated by inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathways. Our results showed that TGP suppressed uveitis in mice via the inhibition of Th1 and Th2 cell function. Thus, TGP may be a promising therapeutic strategy for uveitis, as well as other ocular inflammatory diseases.

  10. Derp1-modified dendritic cells attenuate allergic inflammation by regulating the development of T helper type1(Th1)/Th2 cells and regulatory T cells in a murine model of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaoqing; Han, Bing; Liu, Shuangxi; Wang, Hong; Zhuang, Wenjie; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Ruxin

    2017-10-01

    The CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to regulate Th2-induced allergic rhinitis (AR). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Derp1-modified dendritic cells (DCs) in AR immunotherapy. Derp1 was synthesized and transfected into DCs to generate Derp1-modified DCs. Phenotypes of Derp1-modified DCs were analyzed with flow cytometry using antibodies against DC markers CD11c, CD11b, CD59, CD103 and Toll-like receptor 1(TLR1). Four groups of subject mice were formed; the controls were treated with immature DCs, while the AR mice models were sensitized with Derp1(AR) and treated with DCs(DC-AR) or Derp1-modified DCs (Derp1DC-AR). The frequency of sneezing and scratching, eosinophil cell count, and Th1/Th2 ratio in the spleen were measured for all groups. The percentage of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured using flow cytometry; serum IgE, IgG1, and histamine were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; expression levels of transcription factors T-bet, GATA3, Foxp3+ and IL-10 were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot used in analyzed expression of Foxp3+ and IL-10 in nasal mucosa. Treatment with Derp1-modified DCs ameliorated the allergic response. The Derp1DC-AR group had significantly lower eosinophil cell count and the IgE, IgG1, and histamine levels than the AR and DC-AR groups, and higher mRNA levels of Th1 transcription factors T-bet, IL-10 and Foxp3 in nasal mucosa than DC-AR mice, but Th2 transcription factors GATA3 mRNA expression level has the opposite results. Furthermore, the Th1/Th2 ratio and percentage of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Tregs was significantly lower in the AR group (pTh1/Th2, showing an immunotherapeutic effect against AR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of allergic asthma: Modulation of Th2 cells and their responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erb Klaus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atopic asthma is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease characterised by recurrent episodes of wheezy, laboured breathing with an underlying Th2 cell-mediated inflammatory response in the airways. It is currently treated and, more or less, controlled depending on severity, with bronchodilators e.g. long-acting beta agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists or anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids (inhaled or oral, leukotriene modifiers, theophyline and anti-IgE therapy. Unfortunately, none of these treatments are curative and some asthmatic patients do not respond to intense anti-inflammatory therapies. Additionally, the use of long-term oral steroids has many undesired side effects. For this reason, novel and more effective drugs are needed. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ Th2 cells and their products as targets for the development of new drugs to add to the current armamentarium as adjuncts or as potential stand-alone treatments for allergic asthma. We argue that in early disease, the reduction or elimination of allergen-specific Th2 cells will reduce the consequences of repeated allergic inflammatory responses such as lung remodelling without causing generalised immunosuppression.

  12. TLR9 played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination of maltose-binding protein and BCG-induced Th1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weihua; Wang, Fang; Liu, Guomu; Zhang, Nannan; Yuan, Hongyan; Jie, Jing; Tai, Guixiang

    2016-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that maltose-binding protein (MBP) combined with BCG induced synergistic mouse Th1 activation in vivo. Here, to explore the mechanism of MBP combined with BCG on Th1 activation, mouse purified CD4 + T cells were stimulated with MBP and BCG in vitro. The results showed that MBP combined with BCG synergistically increased IFN-γ production, accompanied with the upregulation of TLR2/9 expressions, suggesting that TLR2/9 were involved in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Next, TLR2 antibodies and TLR9 inhibitor were used to further analyze the effects of TLRs in Th1 activation. Results showed TLR2 antibody partly decreased MBP combined with BCG-induced IFN-γ production, MyD88 expression and IκB phosphorylation, indicating that TLR2-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway was involved in the MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation. Moreover, MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation was completely abrogated by TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that TLR9-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Further study showed that TLR9 inhibitor downregulated TLR2 expression, suggesting that TLR9 signaling regulated TLR2 activation to favor Th1 resonse induced by MBP combined with BCG. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the cross-talk of TLR2 and TLR9 triggered Th1 activation collaboratively and our findings provided valuable information about designing more effective adjuvant for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune...... to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a past history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis proliferated vigorously in response to PSA-2 isolated from Leishmania major, whereas the antigen did not activate cells from presumably unexposed Danes....... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with previous L. major infection had varying proliferative responses to PSA-2 derived from L. donovani promastigotes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by PSA-2 from L. major produced high amounts of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor...

  14. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of TSLP Function in Human Allergic Disorders - TSLP Programs the “Th2 code” in Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoki; Liu, Yong-Jun; Arima, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been recently implicated as a key molecule for initiating allergic inflammation at the epithelial cell-dendritic cell (DC) interface. In humans, aberrant TSLP expression is observed in allergic tissues, such as lesional skins of atopic dermatitis, lungs of asthmatics, nasal mucosa of atopic rhinitis and nasal polyps, and ocular surface of allergic keratoconjunctivitis. TSLP is produced predominantly by damaged epithelial cells and stimulates myeloid DCs (mDCs). TSLP-activated mDCs can promote the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into a Th2 phenotype and the expansion of CD4+ Th2 memory cells in a unique manner dependent on OX40L, one of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily members with Th2-promoting function, and lack of production of IL-12. From a genetic point of view, multiple genome-wide association studies have repeatedly identified the TSLP gene as one of the loci associated with susceptibility to allergic diseases. Thus, TSLP is a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic disorders. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate TSLP expression and the effects of TSLP on orchestrating the immune response toward a Th2 phenotype is essential for developing anti-TSLP therapy. PMID:22189594

  15. Oxidative stress modulates the cytokine response of differentiated Th17 and Th1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimannan, Thiruvaimozhi; Peroumal, Doureradjou; Parida, Jyoti R; Barik, Prakash K; Padhan, Prasanta; Devadas, Satish

    2016-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling is critical in T helper (Th) cell differentiation; however its role in differentiated Th cell functions is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of oxidative stress on the effector functions of in vitro differentiated mouse Th17 and Th1 cells or CD4 + T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis using pro-oxidants plumbagin (PB) and hydrogen peroxide. We found that in mouse Th cells, non-toxic concentration of pro-oxidants inhibited reactivation induced expression of IL-17A in Th17 and IFN-γ in Th1 cells by reducing the expression of their respective TFs, RORγt and T-bet. Interestingly, in both the subsets, PB increased the expression of IL-4 by enhancing reactivation induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We further investigated the cytokine modulatory effect of PB on CD4 + T cells isolated from PBMCs of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, a well-known Th17 and or Th1 mediated disease. In human CD4 + T cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis patients, PB reduced the frequencies of IL-17A + (Th17), IFN - γ + (Th1) and IL-17A + /IFN - γ + (Th17/1) cells and also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) an antioxidant completely reversed PB mediated cytokine modulatory effects in both mouse and human cells indicating a direct role for ROS. Together our data suggest that oxidative microenvironment can alter cytokine response of terminally differentiated cells and thus altering intracellular ROS could be a potential way to target Th17 and Th1 cells in autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. TGF-β converts Th1 cells into Th17 cells through stimulation of Runx1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hou-Pu; Cao, Anthony T; Feng, Ting; Li, Qingjie; Zhang, Wenbo; Yao, Suxia; Dann, Sara M; Elson, Charles O; Cong, Yingzi

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated CD4(+) T cells preserve plasticity under various conditions. However, the stability of Th1 cells is unclear, as is whether Th1 cells can convert into Th17 cells and thereby contribute to the generation of IFN-γ(+) IL-17(+) CD4(+) T cells, the number of which correlates with severity of colitis. We investigated whether IFN-γ(+) Th1 cells can convert into Th17 cells under intestinal inflammation and the mechanisms involved. IFN-γ(Thy1.1+) Th1 cells were generated by culturing naïve CD4(+) T cells from IFN-γ(Thy1.1) CBir1 TCR-Tg reporter mice, whose TCR is specific for an immunodominant microbiota antigen, CBir1 flagellin, under Th1 polarizing conditions. IFN-γ(Thy1.1+) Th1 cells induced colitis in Rag(-/-) mice after adoptive transfer and converted into IL-17(+) Th17, but not Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the inflamed intestines. TGF-β and IL-6, but not IL-1β and IL-23, regulated Th1 conversion into Th17 cells. TGF-β induction of transcriptional factor Runx1 is crucial for the conversion, since silencing Runx1 by siRNA inhibited Th1 conversion into Th17 cells. Furthermore, TGF-β enhanced histone H3K9 acetylation but inhibited H3K9 trimethylation of Runx1- and ROR-γt-binding sites on il-17 or rorc gene in Th1 cells. We conclude that Th1 cells convert into Th17 cells under inflammatory conditions in intestines, which is possibly mediated by TGF-β induction of Runx1. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mycophenolate Mofetil Modulates Differentiation of Th1/Th2 and the Secretion of Cytokines in an Active Crohn's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing-Kang; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Li, Su-Nan; Gao, Ying-Jie; Lv, Yan; Xu, Zi-Peng; Huang, Bing-Xu; Xu, Shi-Yao; Yang, Dong-Xue; Zeng, Ya-Long; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-06

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an alternative immunosuppressive agent that has been reported to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of MMF on intestinal injury and tissue inflammation, which were caused by Crohn's disease (CD). Here, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-relapsing (TNBS) colitis was induced in mice; then, we measured the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells in mouse splenocytes by flow cytometry and the secretion of cytokines in mice with TNBS-induced colitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR/ELISA). The results show that MMF significantly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β in mice with TNBS-induced colitis; however, MMF did not inhibit the expression of IL-10 mRNA. Additionally, ELISA showed that the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β were down-regulated in a TNBS model of colitis. Flow cytometric analysis showed MMF markedly reduced the percentages of Th1 and Th2 splenocytes in the CD mouse model. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) also significantly decreased the percentages of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro. Furthermore, MMF treatment not only significantly ameliorated diarrhea, and loss of body weight but also abrogated the histopathologic severity and inflammatory response of inflammatory colitis, and increased the survival rate of TNBS-induced colitic mice. These results suggest that treatment with MMF may improve experimental colitis and induce inflammatory response remission of CD by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulation of the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells.

  18. Recently activated naive CD4 T cells can help resting B cells, and can produce sufficient autocrine IL-4 to drive differentiation to secretion of T helper 2-type cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, M; Swain, S L

    1995-05-01

    Development of T cells during primary responses was investigated using pigeon cytochrome C-specific naive Th from TCR transgenic mice. Naive CD4 cells did not activate and help resting B cells. This failure was found to be primarily because the resting B cells were incapable of stimulating the naive Th. Provision of a costimulatory signal such as anti-CD28, or addition of APCs that express costimulatory molecules, such as dendritic cells, activated B cells, and B7+ and B7+ICAM(+)-expressing fibroblasts, induced naive Th activation and promoted T cell-dependent help for IgM secretion. T cell activation for as little as 24 h promoted helper activity, and Ig secretion required production of small amounts of IL-4 by the activated naive Th. On initial stimulation, naive Th secrete only IL-2. By mRNA analysis, activated naive Th were also shown to produce IL-4, however induction of IL-4 message only occurred 24 h after initial activation and required additional stimulation with Ag. A single exposure of naive CD4 to Ag/APC followed by 4 to 12 days in culture led to generation of effector Th which secreted IL-2 and some IFN-gamma, and no detectable IL-4 or IL-5, and which could only help B cells to IgM secretion. In contrast, similar cultures that received Ag/APC one or more times during this period generated effector cells capable of secreting easily detectable titers of IL-4 and IL-5, as well as IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and able to now promote IgG1 and IgE responses. Generation of these Th0-like effectors was accompanied by increasing amounts of IL-4 secreted during the culture period after each restimulation, and addition of anti-IL-4 in culture inhibited development of the capacity to produce Th2 cytokines. These studies reinforce the notion that naive CD4 must interact with a costimulatory professional APC, rather than a resting B cell, for initiation of the primary response, but show that such an interaction can result in rapid development of the ability to interact with

  19. Synergistic induction of apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells by bortezomib and hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302, in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinsong; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Xu, Dehui; Menu, Eline; De Raeve, Hendrik; De Bruyne, Elke; De Bryune, Elke; Xu, Song; Van Camp, Ben; Handisides, Damian; Hart, Charles P; Vanderkerken, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recently, we showed that hypoxia is a critical microenvironmental factor in multiple myeloma, and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 selectively targets hypoxic multiple myeloma cells and improves multiple disease parameters in vivo. To explore approaches for sensitizing multiple myeloma cells to TH-302, we evaluated in this study the antitumor effect of TH-302 in combination with the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. First, we show that TH-302 and bortezomib synergistically induce apoptosis in multiple myeloma cell lines in vitro. Second, we confirm that this synergism is related to the activation of caspase cascades and is mediated by changes of Bcl-2 family proteins. The combination treatment induces enhanced cleavage of caspase-3/8/9 and PARP, and therefore triggers apoptosis and enhances the cleavage of proapoptotic BH3-only protein BAD and BID as well as the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1. In particular, TH-302 can abrogate the accumulation of antiapoptotic Mcl-1 induced by bortezomib, and decreases the expression of the prosurvival proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, we found that the induction of the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and NOXA is associated with this synergism. In response to the genotoxic and endoplasmic reticulum stresses by TH-302 and bortezomib, the expression of PUMA and NOXA were upregulated in p53-dependent and -independent manners. Finally, in the murine 5T33MMvv model, we showed that the combination of TH-302 and bortezomib can improve multiple disease parameters and significantly prolong the survival of diseased mice. In conclusion, our studies provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of the combination of TH-302 and bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma.

  20. Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Amre; Abushouk, Amir; Hamza, Anhar; Siddig, Emmanuel; Fahal, Ahmed H

    2016-07-01

    Eumycetoma is a progressive and destructive chronic granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease caused by certain fungi, the most common being Madurella mycetomatis. The host defence mechanisms against fungi usually range from an early non-specific immune response to activation and induction of specific adaptive immune responses by the production of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines in patients infected with Madurella mycetomatis, and the association between their levels and disease prognosis. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan, where 70 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma were enrolled; 35 with, and 35 without surgical excision. 70 healthy individuals from mycetoma endemic areas were selected as controls. The levels of serum cytokines were determined by cytometric bead array technique. Significantly higher levels of the Th-1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2) were recorded in patients treated with surgical excision, compared to those treated without surgical excision. In contrast, the Th-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) were significantly lower in patients treated with surgical excision compared to those treated without surgical excision. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that cell-mediated immunity can have a role to play in the pathogenesis of eumycetoma.

  1. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell differentiation in mice. Using in vitro co-culture systems and subsequent cytokine analysis, we showed that LSECs induced high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in developing Th1 cells. These LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells had no pro-inflammatory capacity in vivo but instead actively suppressed an inflammatory Th1-cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Blockage of IL-10 signaling in vivo inhibited immunosuppressive activity of LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells. We identified the Notch pathway as a mechanism how LSECs trigger IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. LSECs expressed high levels of the Delta-like and Jagged family of Notch ligands and induced expression of the Notch target genes hes-1 and deltex-1 in Th1 cells. Blockade of Notch signaling selectively inhibited IL-10 induction in Th1 cells by LSECs. Our findings suggest that LSEC-induced IL-10 expression in Th1 cells via the Notch pathway may contribute to the control of hepatic inflammatory immune responses by induction of a self-regulatory mechanism in pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Mast cells have no impact on cutaneous leishmaniasis severity and related Th2 differentiation in resistant and susceptible mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christoph; Wolff, Svenja; Zapf, Thea; Raifer, Hartmann; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Bollig, Nadine; Camara, Bärbel; Trier, Claudia; Schleicher, Ulrike; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lohoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The genus leishmania comprises different protozoan parasites which are causative agents of muco-cutaneous and systemic, potentially lethal diseases. After infection with the species Leishmania major, resistant mice expand Th1 cells which stimulate macrophages for Leishmania destruction. In contrast, susceptible mice generate Th2 cells which deactivate macrophages, leading to systemic spread of the pathogens. Th-cell differentiation is determined within the first days, and Th2 cell differentiation requires IL-4, whereby the initial IL-4 source is often unknown. Mast cells are potential sources of IL-4, and hence their role in murine leishmaniasis has previously been studied in mast cell-deficient Kit mutant mice, although these mice display immunological phenotypes beyond mast cell deficiency. We therefore readdressed this question by infecting Kit-independent mast cell-deficient mice that are Th1 (C57BL/6 Cpa(Cre) ) or Th2 (BALB/c Cpa(Cre) ) prone with L. major. Using different parasite doses and intra- or subcutaneous infection routes, the results demonstrate no role of mast cells on lesion size development, parasite load, immune cell phenotypes expanding in draining lymph nodes, and cytokine production during murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Thus, other cell types such as ILCs or T cells have to be considered as primary source of Th2-driving IL-4. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Elevated Levels of Cytokines Associated with Th2 and Th17 Cells in Vitreous Fluid of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Macrophages are involved in low-grade inflammation in diabetes, and play pathogenic roles in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR by producing proinflammatory cytokines. T cells as well as other cells are also activated by proinflammatory cytokines, and infiltration into the vitreous of patients with PDR has been shown. In this study, we measured helper T (Th cell-related cytokines in the vitreous of PDR patients to define the characteristics of Th-mediated immune responses associated with PDR. The study group consisted of 25 type 2 diabetic patients (25 eyes with PDR. The control group consisted of 27 patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM, 26 patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH, and 26 patients with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. Vitreous fluid was obtained at the beginning of vitrectomy, and centrifuging for cellular removals was not performed. Serum was also collected from PDR patients. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble sCD40L, and TNFα in the vitreous and serum samples were measured. Both percent detectable and levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, and TNFα in the vitreous were significantly higher than those in the serum in PDR patients. Vitreous levels of these cytokines and IL-31 were significantly higher in PDR than in ERM or MH patients. Vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα in PDR patients were also significantly higher than those of sarcoidosis patients. In PDR patients, vitreous IL-17A level correlated significantly with vitreous levels of IL-22 and IL-31, and especially with IL-4 and TNFα. Although it is unclear whether these cytokines play facilitative roles or inhibitory roles for the progression of PDR, the present study indicated that Th2- and Th17-related immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  4. Effect of low dose radiation on Th1 and Th2 of thymocytes and splenocytes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ou; Liu Shuzheng; Mu Ying

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the possible mechanism of activation of helper T cells after low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, the influence of whole-body irradiation (WBI) with 75 mGy X-rays on Th1 and Th2 was studied. Methods: Mice were irradiated at a dose rate of 12.5 mGy/min, and IFN-γ and IL-6 mRNA levels of the myocytes and splenocytes were analyzed by dot blot and Northern blot hybridization. Results: It was found that IFN-γ and IL-6 mRNA significantly increased after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays. Conclusion: The gene induction of cytokine profile after LDR indicates that activation of both Th1 and Th2 subtypes may be involved in the stimulation of immune functions by LDR

  5. Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Juszczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Th17 cells are a recently described subset of T helper lymphocytes characterized by the production of IL-17 (IL-17A. Since their discovery in 2003, studies on Th17 cells have become increasingly popular among immunologists and they have emerged as key players in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS and other autoimmune disorders traditionally attributed to Th1 cells. Murine Th17 lymphocytes differentiate from naive CD4 cells in a specific cytokine environment, which includes TGF- and IL-6 or IL-21, whereas human Th17 cell development requires TGF-, IL-1, and IL-2 in combination with IL-6, IL-21, or IL-23. Th17-related response is additionally enhanced by osteopontin, TNF, and PGE2 and suppressed by IL-25, IL-27, IL-35, and IL-10. Apart from their main cytokine, Th17 cells can also express IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, TNF, CCL20, and, in humans, IL-26. All of these mediators may contribute to the proinflammatory action of Th17 .cells both in the clearance of various pathogens and in autoimmunity. At least some of these functions are exerted through the induction of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL8 by IL-17. Accumulating evidence from studies on mice and humans indicates an important role of Th17 cells in mediating autoimmune neuroinflammation. This has led some immunologists to question the previously exhibited importance of Th1 cells in MS pathology. However, more recent data suggest that both these T-cell subsets are capable of inducing and promoting the disease. Further investigation is required to clarify the role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of MS since some of the Th17-related molecules appear as attractive targets for future therapeutic strategies

  6. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  7. Induction of appropriate Th-cell phenotypes: cellular decision-making in heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ham, H-J; Andeweg, A C; de Boer, R J

    2013-11-01

    Helper T (Th)-cell differentiation is a key event in the development of the adaptive immune response. By the production of a range of cytokines, Th cells determine the type of immune response that is raised against an invading pathogen. Th cells can adopt many different phenotypes, and Th-cell phenotype decision-making is crucial in mounting effective host responses. This review discusses the different Th-cell phenotypes that have been identified and how Th cells adopt a particular phenotype. The regulation of Th-cell phenotypes has been studied extensively using mathematical models, which have explored the role of regulatory mechanisms such as autocrine cytokine signalling and cross-inhibition between self-activating transcription factors. At the single cell level, Th responses tend to be heterogeneous, but corrections can be made soon after T-cell activation. Although pathogens and the innate immune system provide signals that direct the induction of Th-cell phenotypes, these instructive mechanisms could be easily subverted by pathogens. We discuss that a model of success-driven feedback would select the most appropriate phenotype for clearing a pathogen. Given the heterogeneity in the induction phase of the Th response, such a success-driven feedback loop would allow the selection of effective Th-cell phenotypes while terminating incorrect responses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. CD4+ T cell-derived novel peptide Thp5 induces interleukin-4 production in CD4+ T cells to direct T helper 2 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Moin; Chatterjee, Samit; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Pandey, Nishant Kumar; Singh, Yogesh; Tousif, Sultan; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Van Kaer, Luc; Das, Jyoti; Das, Gobardhan

    2012-01-20

    The differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells requires production of the cytokine IL-4 in the local microenvironment. It is evident that naïve/quiescently activated CD4(+) T cells produce the IL-4 that drives Th2 cell differentiation. Because early production of IL-4 in naïve T cells leads to preferential Th2 cell differentiation, this process needs to be tightly regulated so as to avoid catastrophic and misdirected Th2 cell differentiation. Here, we show that Thp5, a novel peptide with structural similarity to vasoactive intestinal peptide, regulates production of early IL-4 in newly activated CD4(+) T cells. Induction of IL-4 in CD4(+) T cells by Thp5 is independent of the transcription factor STAT6 but dependent on ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, cytokines (IL-12 and TGF-β) that promote the differentiation of Th1 or Th17 cells inhibit Thp5 induction, thus suppressing Th2 cell differentiation. We further showed that Thp5 enhances Th2 responses and exacerbates allergic airway inflammation in mice. Taken together, our findings reveal that early activated CD4(+) T cells produce Thp5, which plays a critical role as a molecular switch in the differentiation of Th cells, biasing the response toward the Th2 cell phenotype.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Display Impaired Function in Inhibiting Th17 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess multipotent and immunomodulatory properties and are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases. This study explored the function of bone marrow MSCs from rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, focusing on immunomodulatory effects. RA MSCs showed decreased proliferative activity and aberrant migration capacity. No significant differences were observed in cytokine profiles between RA and control MSCs. The effects of RA MSCs on proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and distribution of specific CD4+ T cell subtypes (Th17, Treg, and Tfh cells were investigated. RA MSCs appeared to be indistinguishable from controls in suppressing PBMC proliferation, decreasing the proportion of Tfh cells, and inducing the polarization of Treg cells. However, the capacity to inhibit Th17 cell polarization was impaired in RA MSCs, which was related to the low expression of CCL2 in RA MSCs after coculture with CD4+ T cells. These findings indicated that RA MSCs display defects in several important biological activities, especially the capacity to inhibit Th17 cell polarization. These functionally impaired MSCs may contribute to the development of RA disease.

  10. The influence of hydro-ethanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on Th1/Th2 balance in isolated human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Abnous, Khalil; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-24

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidants activity of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) were mentioned in traditional texts. In previous studies, different anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of P. oleracea were demonstrated. However, the mechanism of action and immunomodulatory property of this plant are greatly unknown. In the present study, the effect of the extract of this plant on IL-4, IL10, IFN-γ and T helper (h)1/Th2 balance in non-stimulated and stimulated human lymphocytes was examined. The effect of three concentrations (160, 40 and 10µg/ml) of P. oleracea or dexamethasone were evaluated on percentage of cell proliferation and nitric oxide (NO) production as well as secretion of cytokines (IL-4, IL10 and IFN-γ) in PHA-stimulated and non-stimulated lymphocytes, and compared to control and dexamethasone as positive control (n=15 for each group). In stimulated cells, dexamethasone significantly inhibited the percentage of cell proliferation, NO production, and secretion of cytokines in comparison to control group (P<0.001 for all cases). The percentage of cell proliferation, NO production, and secretion of cytokines were significantly decreased while Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4) and Treg/Th2 (IL-10/IL-4) balances significantly enhanced in treated groups with all three concentrations of extract compared to control group (P<0.001 for all cases). The effect of all concentrations of the extract on cell proliferation, NO production and secretion of cytokines as well as Treg/Th2 balance were significantly lower than dexamethasone (P<0.001 for all cases), but Th1/Th2 ratio obtained in the presence of only low extract concentration was lower than dexamethasone (P<0.01). Different concentrations of extract promoted Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th2 balances which may suggest the therapeutic value of the plant in inflammatory disease associated with decreased Th1/Th2 balance such as asthma or cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protease activity of Per a 10 potentiates Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 and OX40L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Komal; Kale, Sagar L; Arora, Naveen

    2015-12-01

    Proteases are implicated in exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, the role of proteolytic activity of Per a 10 was evaluated on Th2 polarization. Intranasal administration of Per a 10 in mice led to allergic airway inflammation as seen by higher IgE levels, cellular infiltration, IL-17A, and Th2 cytokines, whereas, inactive (Δ)Per a 10 showed attenuated response. There was an increased OX40L expression on lung and lymph node dendritic cells in Per a 10 immunized group and on Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs. Reduction in CD40 expression without any change at transcript level in lungs of Per a 10 immunized mice suggested CD40 cleavage. BMDCs pulsed with Per a 10 showed reduced CD40 expression with lower IL-12p70 secretion as compared to heat inactivated Per a 10. IL-23, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs supernatant. In DC-T cell coculture studies, Per a 10 pulsed BMDCs showed higher levels of IL-4 and IL-13 that were reduced on blocking of either IL-23 or OX40L. In conclusion, the data suggests a critical role of protease activity of Per a 10 in promoting Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 secretion and OX40L expression on dendritic cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Regulatory role of NKG2D+ NK cells in intestinal lamina propria by secreting double-edged Th1 cytokines in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Peng, Pai-Lan; Lin, Xue; Chang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Nie, Jia-Yan; Dong, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2017-11-17

    The role of intestinal lamina propria (LP) NKG2D+ NK cells is unclear in regulating Th1/Th2 balance in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells in DSS-induced colitis model and intestinal mucosal samples of UC patients, as well as the secretion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in NK cell lines after MICA stimulation. The role of Th1 cytokines in UC was validated by bioinformatics analysis. We found that DSS-induced colitis in mice was characterized by a Th2-mediated process. In acute phrase, the frequency of LP NKG2D+ lymphocytes increased significantly and decreased in remission, while the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells decreased significantly in acute phase and increased in remission. No obvious change was found in the frequency of total LP NK cells. Similarly, severe UC patients had a higher expression of mucosal NKG2D and a lower number of NKG2D+ NK cells than mild to moderate UC. In NK cell lines, the MICA stimulation could induce a predominant secretion of Th1 cytokines (TNF, IFN-γ). Furthermore, in bioinformatics analysis, mucosal Th1 cytokine of TNF, showed a double-edged role in UC when compared to the Th1-mediated disease of Crohn's colitis. In conclusion, LP NKG2D+ NK cells partially played a regulatory role in UC through secreting Th1 cytokines to regulate the Th2-predominant Th1/Th2 imbalance, despite of the concomitant pro-inflammatory effects of Th1 cytokines.

  13. EMT factor Zeb1 depletion in dendritic cells enhances Helminth clearance in mice by increasing Th2 cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Smita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells that act as bridging link between innate and adaptive immune system. They are equipped with pathogen recognition receptors (PRR to identify the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMPS on any antigen. DCs elicit an immune response through polarizing T cells towards various subtypes like Th1, Th2 & Tregs. Though DC-T cell interaction has been widely studied, but how this single DC molecule amalgamate various transcriptional signals for translating the message to the T cells and induce diverse immunological responses still needs to be unraveled. Therefore to identify the role of transcription factor in immune programming we have targeted the largest member of TFs family, Zinc Finger Transcription Factors (ZF-TFs. Among various ZF-TFs we have narrowed our study to three interesting candidates Zeb1, Zeb2 and Zbtb10 based on their expression in DCs from an unpublished microarray data. Here in this study we have tried to understand the role of Zeb1, master regulator of EMT program in orchestrating DC responses. Zeb1 links the epithelial – mesenchymal transition and has been widely studied molecule in cancer biology. Except for the fact that it act as transcriptional repressor and represses IL2 gene promoter no other reports are available in immune biology, thereby rendering it a perfect candidate to be used for detailed characterization in dendritic cells. In our study, we found that Zeb1 depleted CD8α+DCs shows an increase in co-stimulatory marker like CD80 & CD86 whereas there is a decrease in MHC class I & II molecule. Thereafter at transcript & protein level we found decrease in pro-inflammatory & anti-inflammatory cytokine like IL6 & IL10 respectively, the bioactive form of IL12 i.e. IL12p70 which polarizes T cells towards Th1 response showed a significant decrease in bio-plex when compared with control CD8α+DCs. The regulatory markers which develop regulatory T cells like Pdl1, IL

  14. Induction and activation of human Th17 by targeting antigens to dendritic cells via dectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duluc, Dorothée; Joo, HyeMee; Ni, Ling; Yin, Wenjie; Upchurch, Katherine; Li, Dapeng; Xue, Yaming; Klucar, Peter; Zurawski, Sandra; Zurawski, Gerard; Oh, SangKon

    2014-06-15

    Recent compelling evidence indicates that Th17 confer host immunity against a variety of microbes, including extracellular and intracellular pathogens. Therefore, understanding mechanisms for the induction and activation of Ag-specific Th17 is important for the rational design of vaccines against pathogens. To study this, we employed an in vitro system in which influenza hemagglutinin (HA) 1 was delivered to dendritic cells (DCs) via Dectin-1 using anti-human Dectin-1 (hDectin-1)-HA1 recombinant fusion proteins. We found that healthy individuals maintained broad ranges of HA1-specific memory Th17 that were efficiently activated by DCs targeted with anti-hDectin-1-HA1. Nonetheless, these DCs were not able to induce a significant level of HA1-specific Th17 responses even in the presence of the Th17-promoting cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. We further found that the induction of surface IL-1R1 expression by signals via TCRs and common γ-chain receptors was essential for naive CD4(+) T cell differentiation into HA1-specific Th17. This process was dependent on MyD88, but not IL-1R-associated kinase 1/4. Thus, interruptions in STAT3 or MyD88 signaling led to substantially diminished HA1-specific Th17 induction. Taken together, the de novo generation of pathogen-specific human Th17 requires complex, but complementary, actions of multiple signals. Data from this study will help us design a new and effective vaccine strategy that can promote Th17-mediated immunity against microbial pathogens. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Preferential Th1 cytokine profile of phosphoantigen-stimulated human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, Margaret R

    2010-01-01

    Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognise pyrophosphate-based antigens (phosphoantigens) and have multiple functions in innate and adaptive immunity, including a unique ability to activate other cells of the immune system. We used flow cytometry and ELISA to define the early cytokine profiles of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulated in vitro with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2 enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) in the absence and presence of IL-2 and IL-15. We show that fresh Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) within 4 hours of stimulation with phosphoantigen, but neither IL-10, IL-13, nor IL-17 was detectable up to 72 hours under these conditions. Cytokine production was not influenced by expression or lack, thereof, of CD4 or CD8. Addition of IL-2 or IL-15 caused expansion of IFN-γ-producing Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, but did not enhance IFN-γ secretion after 24-72 hours. Thus, phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have potential as Th1-biasing adjuvants for immunotherapy.

  16. Preferential Th1 Cytokine Profile of Phosphoantigen-Stimulated Human Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R. Dunne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognise pyrophosphate-based antigens (phosphoantigens and have multiple functions in innate and adaptive immunity, including a unique ability to activate other cells of the immune system. We used flow cytometry and ELISA to define the early cytokine profiles of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulated in vitro with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP and (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2 enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP in the absence and presence of IL-2 and IL-15. We show that fresh Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α within 4 hours of stimulation with phosphoantigen, but neither IL-10, IL-13, nor IL-17 was detectable up to 72 hours under these conditions. Cytokine production was not influenced by expression or lack, thereof, of CD4 or CD8. Addition of IL-2 or IL-15 caused expansion of IFN-γ-producing Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, but did not enhance IFN-γ secretion after 24–72 hours. Thus, phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have potential as Th1-biasing adjuvants for immunotherapy.

  17. Use of INAA to study the determination of Se, Th, Zn, Co and Fe levels of yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czauderna, M.; Turska, M.; Sitowska, B.

    1996-01-01

    Differences in the effects of seleno-cystine (CySe) 2 , glutathione (GSH), Se(IV) [as SeO 2 ] and Se(VI) [as (NH 4 ) 2 SeO 4 ] on Th(IV) [as Th(CO 3 ) 2 ] uptake by the cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been studied. The Th, Se, Zn, Co and Fe levels of the yeast cells were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results obtained show that the addition of Th alone to the culture medium resulting in the Th content of the cells and the Th level of the yeast slightly decreased during the incubation. The addition of Th in combination with GSH produced a higher decrease of the Th content in comparison with the single Th dosage. During the initial 48 h of the incubation the presence of Th and Se(VI) in the medium produced a decrease of the Th level of the cells in comparison with the addition of Th alone. (CySe) 2 or SeO 2 does not produce a regular change of the Th level of the cells. Th uptake by the yeast influenced the retention of Se in the cells. In fact, the Se levels of the cells were always significantly higher when the yeast was incubated in the medium containing Th and SeO 2 or Se(VI). The enhance in the Se level of the cells rises increasing concentrations of SeO 2 in the culture medium. Th decreased the Se content of the yeast when the cells were incubated in the medium containing (CySe) 2 and Th. GSH supply in combination with Th and SeO 2 produced a very significant enhancement of the Se abundance in the cells in comparison with the single addition of SeO 2 . Se-compounds and/or Th dosages affected the Zn, Co and Fe contents of the cells. The Fe level of the yeast is below the quantitative detection limit of Fe when the cells were incubated in the medium containing Th. (Author)

  18. CCR6(+) Th cell populations distinguish ACPA positive from ACPA negative rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulissen, Sandra M J; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Davelaar, Nadine; Vroman, Heleen; Hazes, Johanna M W; de Jong, Pascal H P; Lubberts, Erik

    2015-11-30

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be separated into two major subpopulations based on the absence or presence of serum anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). The more severe disease course in ACPA(+) RA and differences in treatment outcome between these subpopulations suggest that ACPA(+) and ACPA(-) RA are different disease subsets. The identification of T-helper (Th) cells specifically recognizing citrullinated peptides, combined with the strong association between HLA-DRB1 and ACPA positivity, point toward a pathogenic role of Th cells in ACPA(+) RA. In this context we recently identified a potential pathogenic role for CCR6(+) Th cells in RA. Therefore, we examined whether Th cell population distributions differ by ACPA status. We performed a nested matched case-control study including 27 ACPA(+) and 27 ACPA(-) treatment-naive early RA patients matched for disease activity score in 44 joints, presence of rheumatoid factor, sex, age, duration of complaints and presence of erosions. CD4(+)CD45RO(+) (memory) Th cell distribution profiles from these patients were generated based on differential chemokine receptor expression and related with disease duration. ACPA status was not related to differences in total CD4(+) T cell or memory Th cell proportions. However, ACPA(+) patients had significantly higher proportions of Th cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR6 and CXCR3. Similar proportions of CCR4(+) and CCR10(+) Th cells were found. Within the CCR6(+) cell population, four Th subpopulations were distinguished based on differential chemokine receptor expression: Th17 (CCR4(+)CCR10(-)), Th17.1 (CXCR3(+)), Th22 (CCR4(+)CCR10(+)) and CCR4/CXCR3 double-positive (DP) cells. In particular, higher proportions of Th22 (p = 0.02), Th17.1 (p = 0.03) and CCR4/CXCR3 DP (p = 0.01) cells were present in ACPA(+) patients. In contrast, ACPA status was not associated with differences in Th1 (CCR6(-)CXCR3(+); p = 0.90), Th2 (CCR6(-)CCR4(+); p = 0.27) and T

  19. Pyruvate sensitizes pancreatic tumors to hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather C; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Dutta, Prasanta; Kim, Munju; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Leos, Rafael; Bailey, Kate M; Martinez, Gary; Lloyd, Mark C; Weber, Craig; Mitchell, James B; Lynch, Ronald M; Baker, Amanda F; Gatenby, Robert A; Rejniak, Katarzyna A; Hart, Charles; Krishna, Murali C; Gillies, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic niches in solid tumors harbor therapy-resistant cells. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) have been designed to overcome this resistance and, to date, have begun to show clinical efficacy. However, clinical HAPs activity could be improved. In this study, we sought to identify non-pharmacological methods to acutely exacerbate tumor hypoxia to increase TH-302 activity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumor models. Three human PDAC cell lines with varying sensitivity to TH-302 (Hs766t > MiaPaCa-2 > SU.86.86) were used to establish PDAC xenograft models. PDAC cells were metabolically profiled in vitro and in vivo using the Seahorse XF system and hyperpolarized (13)C pyruvate MRI, respectively, in addition to quantitative immunohistochemistry. The effect of exogenous pyruvate on tumor oxygenation was determined using electroparamagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging. Hs766t and MiaPaCa-2 cells exhibited a glycolytic phenotype in comparison to TH-302 resistant line SU.86.86. Supporting this observation is a higher lactate/pyruvate ratio in Hs766t and MiaPaCa xenografts as observed during hyperpolarized pyruvate MRI studies in vivo. Coincidentally, response to exogenous pyruvate both in vitro (Seahorse oxygen consumption) and in vivo (EPR oxygen imaging) was greatest in Hs766t and MiaPaCa models, possibly due to a higher mitochondrial reserve capacity. Changes in oxygen consumption and in vivo hypoxic status to pyruvate were limited in the SU.86.86 model. Combination therapy of pyruvate plus TH-302 in vivo significantly decreased tumor growth and increased survival in the MiaPaCa model and improved survival in Hs766t tumors. Using metabolic profiling, functional imaging, and computational modeling, we show improved TH-302 activity by transiently increasing tumor hypoxia metabolically with exogenous pyruvate. Additionally, this work identified a set of biomarkers that may be used clinically to predict which tumors will be most responsive to

  20. Role of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule in T helper cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E. de Vries

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CDw150 is a 70 kDa glycoprotein. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is constitutively expressed on memory T cells, CD56+ T cells, a subset of T cell receptor γδ+ cells, immature thymocytes and, at low levels, on a proportion of peripheral blood B cells. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is rapidly upregulated on all T and B cells after activation. Engagement of SLAM by F(ab’2 fragments of an anti-SLAM monoclonal antibody (mAb A12 enhances antigen-specific T cell proliferation. In addition, mAb A12 was directly mitogenic for T cell clones and activated T cells. T cell proliferation induced by mAb A12 is independent of interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-12 and IL-15, but is cyclosporin A sensitive. Ligation of SLAM during antigen-specific T cell proliferation resulted in upregulation of interferon (IFN-γ production, even by allergen-specific T helper cell (Th 2 clones, whereas the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 production were only marginally affected. The mAb A12 was unable to induce IL-4 and IL-5 production by Th1 clones. Co-stimulation of skin-derived Der P1-specific Th2 cells from patients with atopic dermatitis via SLAM resulted in the generation of a population of IFN-γ-producing cells, thereby reverting their phenotype to a Th0 pattern. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is a high-affinity self ligand mediating homophilic cell interaction. In addition, soluble SLAM enhances both T and B cell proliferation. Collectively, these data indicate that SLAM molecules act both as receptors and ligands that are not only involved in T cell expansion but also drive the expanding T cells during immune responses into the Th0/Th1 pathway. This suggests that signaling through SLAM plays a role in directing Th0/Th1 development.

  1. Impairment of the Intrinsic Capability of Th1 Polarization in Irradiated Mice: A Close Look at the Imbalanced Th1/Th2 Response after Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renxiang; Wang, Yi-Wen; Fornace, Albert J; Li, Heng-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Two major CD4 + T-helper (Th) lineages are Th1 and Th2, and well balanced Th1/Th2 responses are essential for immune function. In previously published studies, it was reported that radiation induces a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance toward a Th2-dominant direction, and this imbalance may contribute to postirradiation immune dysfunction. The polarization of Th cells is driven by the cytokine milieu and controlled by intracellular regulatory pathways that respond to cytokine signaling. It is widely accepted that radiation induces cytokine aberration, however, the precise alterations of cytokines in various tissue environments have been difficult to evaluate. In addition, the effects of radiation on the intrinsic functions of Th cells remain uncharacterized. Therefore, how radiation affects Th1/Th2 balance remains somewhat unclear. To address this, we investigated the changes in the polarization capability of Th cells by isolating them from mice previously exposed to radiation and assessing the cells in an established in vitro Th polarization system. Our novel results demonstrate that prior exposure to radiation led to the persistent aberration of the inherent capability of Th cells to differentiate into Th1 and Th2 lineages. The parallel changes in expression of Th1-specific master transcription factors and the key genes in metabolic reprograming indicated that radiation affects the core components in Th1 polarization. While Th1 differentiation was impaired after irradiation, little adverse effect was observed in Th2 differentiation; both of these findings contribute to the known phenotypes of Th1/Th2 imbalance caused by radiation.

  2. Murine Th9 cells promote the survival of myeloid dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Mingjun; Lu, Yong; Hong, Bangxing; Zheng, Yuhuan; He, Jin; Yang, Jing; Qian, Jianfei; Yi, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells to initiate immune responses, and DC survival time is important for affecting the strength of T-cell responses. Interleukin (IL)-9-producing T-helper (Th)-9 cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity. However, it is unclear how Th9 cells communicate with DCs. In this study, we investigated whether murine Th9 cells affected the survival of myeloid DCs. DCs derived from bone marrow of C57BL/6 mice were cocultured with Th9 cells from OT-II mice using transwell, and the survival of DCs was examined. DCs cocultured with Th9 cells had longer survival and fewer apoptotic cells than DCs cultured alone in vitro. In melanoma B16-OVA tumor-bearing mice, DCs conditioned by Th9 cells lived longer and induced stronger anti-tumor response than control DCs did in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that IL-3 but not IL-9 secreted by Th9 cells was responsible for the prolonged survival of DCs. IL-3 upregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL and activated p38, ERK and STAT5 signaling pathways in DCs. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that Th9 cells can promote the survival of DCs through IL-3, and will be helpful for designing Th9 cell immunotherapy and more effective DC vaccine for human cancers.

  3. What about Th1/Th2 in cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Neto A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The T helper cell type 1 (Th1 response is essential to resist leishmaniasis, whereas the Th2 response favors the disease. However, many leishmanial antigens, which stimulate a Th1 immune response during the disease or even after the disease is cured, have been shown to have no protective action. Paradoxically, antigens associated with an early Th2 response have been found to be highly protective if the Th1 response to them is generated before infection. Therefore, finding disease-associated Th2 antigens and inducing a Th1 immune response to them using defined vaccination protocols is an interesting unorthodox alternative approach to the discovery of a leishmania vaccine.

  4. Increased Circulating Th17 Cells, Serum IL-17A, and IL-23 in Takayasu Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chaurasia, Smriti; Misra, Ramnath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Th17, γδT, NK, and NKT cells in peripheral blood and serum IL-17 and IL-23 in Takayasu arteritis (TA) were measured and correlated with disease activity. Methods. Th17 (anti-CD3APC, CD4PECy7, and IL-17PE), NKT, NK (anti-CD3APC, CD56FITC), and γδT (anti-CD3FITC and γδTCRAPC) cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 30 patients with TA (ACR1990 criteria) and 20 healthy controls, serum IL-17 and IL-23 measured by ELISA. Relation with disease activity (NIH criteria, ITAS2010) was analyzed (using nonparametric tests, median with interquartile range). Results. Mean age of patients was 33.47 ± 11.78 years (25 females); mean symptom duration was 7.1 ± 5.3 years. 13 were not on immunosuppressants; 12 were active (ITAS2010 ≥ 4). The percentage of Th17 cells was significantly expanded in TA (patients 2.1 (1.5-3.2) versus controls 0.75 (0.32-1.2); p < 0.0001) with no differences in other cell populations. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 (pg/mL) in patients (6.2 (4.6-8.5) and 15 (14.9-26.5), resp.) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than controls (3.9 (3.9-7.3) and undetectable median value, resp.). Subgroup analysis revealed no correlation of Th17 cells, serum IL-17, and IL-23 with disease activity or medications, nor any significant difference before and after medication. Conclusions. There is significant expansion of Th17 cells and elevated serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels in TA patients compared to healthy controls.

  5. The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm induced by stachydrine hydrochloride reduces uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Bin; Li, Yuzhu; Wang, Li; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhou, Xianbin; Guo, Yuqi; Jiang, Guosheng; Yao, Chengfang

    2013-01-09

    The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm plays an important role in achieving maternal-fetal immunotolerance and participates in RU486-induced abortion. Excessive uterine bleeding is the most common side effect of RU486-induced abortion; however, its etiopathogenesis has not been fully understood. Therefore, elucidating the correlation between the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm and the volume of uterine bleeding may offer novel therapeutic target for reducing uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion. Leonurus sibiricus has been used in clinics to reduce postpartum hemorrhage with low toxicity and high efficiency; however, the effective constituents and therapeutic mechanism have not been described. Stachydrine hydrochloride is the main constituent of L. sibiricus, therefore L. sibiricus is regarded as a candidate for reducing uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice by regulating the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm. The purpose of this study was to determine the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in uterine bleeding of RU486-induced abortion mice and to elucidate the immunopharmacologic effects of stachydrine hydrochloride on inducing the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in reducing the uterine bleeding volume in RU486-induced abortion mice. To investigate the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in uterine bleeding during RU486-induced abortion mice, pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high- and low-dose RU486 (1.5mg/kg and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively), and the serum progesterone (P(4)) protein level, uterine bleeding volume, and proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cells in mice at the maternal-fetal interface were detected by ELISA assay, alkaline hematin photometric assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. To determine the regulatory effect of stachydrine hydrochloride on the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in vitro, splenocytes of non-pregnant mice were separated and treated with P(4,) RU486, and/or stachydrine hydrochloride (10(-5)M, 10(-4)M, and 10(-3)M, respectively). The proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17

  6. High Risk First Degree Relatives of Type 1 Diabetics: An Association with Increases in CXCR3+ T Memory Cells Reflecting an Enhanced Activity of Th1 Autoimmune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Milicic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the level of (a CXCR3+ (Th1 and CCR4+ (Th2 T memory cells (b interferon-γ inducible chemokine (IP-10(Th1 and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC(Th2, in 51 first degree relatives (FDRs of type 1 diabetics (T1D (17 high risk FDRs (GADA+, IA-2+ and 34 low risk FDRs (GADA−, IA-2−, 24 recent-onset T1D (R-T1D, and 18 healthy subjects. T memory subsets were analyzed by using four-color immunofluorescence staining and flowcytometry. IP-10 and TARC were determined by ELISA. High risk FDRs showed higher levels of CXCR3+ and lower level of CCR4+ T memory cells compared to low risk FDRs (64.98 ± 5.19 versus 42.13 ± 11.11; 29.46 ± 2.83 versus 41.90 ± 8.58%, resp., P<0.001. Simultaneously, both IP-10 and TARC levels were increased in high risk versus low risk FDRs (160.12 ± 73.40 versus 105.39 ± 71.30; 438.83 ± 120.62 versus 312.04 ± 151.14 pg/mL, P<0.05. Binary logistic regression analysis identified the level of CXCR3+ T memory cells as predictors for high risk FDRs, together with high levels of IP-10. The results imply that, in FDRs, the risk for T1D might be strongly influenced by enhanced activity of Th1 and diminished activity of Th2 autoimmune response.

  7. Characterization of the subsets of human NKT-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Jian; Huang, Shi-Yun; Sun, Xin

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the subsets of natural killer T (NKT)-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the peripheral blood (PB) and/or decidual tissue of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The percentages of NKT-like cells in the PB and deciduas of URSA patients in early pregnancy and in the PB of nonpregnant women were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (Th1 cytokine) and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, in the PB and decidual tissue was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most percentages of subsets of NKT-like cells (CD3(+)CD56(+), CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+)) in the PB and deciduas were significantly greater in URSA patients than in normal pregnant and nonpregnant women. A cut-off value of 3.75% for the increased percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB appeared to be predictive of pregnancy failure. Moreover, we found that in the decidua, IFN-γ expression was significantly higher, while IL-4 and IL-10 expression was significantly lower in URSA patients compared with those with a normal pregnancy. The ratio of decidual Th1/Th2 cytokines in URSA patients was significantly increased compared with that in normal pregnant women. Decidual IL-4 expression correlated negatively with the percentages of blood CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells and the decidual CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells. NKT-like cells may play an important role in maintaining normal pregnancy. Measurement of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB may provide a potential tool for assessing patients' risk of spontaneous abortion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. HYPOXIA-ACTIVATED PRO-DRUG TH-302 EXHIBITS POTENT TUMOUR SUPPRESSIVE ACTIVITY AND COOPERATES WITH CHEMOTHERAPY AGAINST OSTEOSARCOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Vasilios; Labrinidis, Agatha; Zinonos, Irene; Hay, Shelley; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; DeNichilo, Mark; Ingman, Wendy; Atkins, Gerald J.; Findlay, David M.; Zannettino, Andrew CW.; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia is a major cause of treatment failure for a variety of malignancies. However, tumour hypoxia also offers treatment opportunities, exemplified by the development compounds that target hypoxic regions within tumours. TH-302 is a pro-drug created by the conjugation of 2-nitroimidazole to bromo-isophosphoramide (Br-IPM). When TH-302 is delivered to regions of hypoxia, Br-IPM, the DNA cross linking toxin, is released. In this study we assessed the cytotoxic activity of TH-302 against osteosarcoma cells in vitro and evaluated its anticancer efficacy as a single agent, and in combination with doxorubicin, in an orthotopic mouse model of human osteosarcoma (OS). In vitro, TH-302 was potently cytotoxic to osteosarcoma cells selectively under hypoxic conditions, whereas primary normal human osteoblasts were protected. Animals transplanted with OS cells directly into their tibiae and left untreated developed mixed osteolytic/osteosclerotic bone lesions and subsequently developed lung metastases. TH-302 reduced tumor burden in bone and cooperated with doxorubicin to protect bone from osteosarcoma induced bone destruction, while it also reduced lung metastases. TH-302 may therefore be an attractive therapeutic agent with strong activity as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy against OS. PMID:25444931

  9. Hypoxia-activated pro-drug TH-302 exhibits potent tumor suppressive activity and cooperates with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Vasilios; Labrinidis, Agatha; Zinonos, Irene; Hay, Shelley; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; DeNichilo, Mark; Ingman, Wendy; Atkins, Gerald J; Findlay, David M; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a major cause of treatment failure for a variety of malignancies. However, tumor hypoxia also offers treatment opportunities, exemplified by the development compounds that target hypoxic regions within tumors. TH-302 is a pro-drug created by the conjugation of 2-nitroimidazole to bromo-isophosphoramide (Br-IPM). When TH-302 is delivered to regions of hypoxia, Br-IPM, the DNA cross linking toxin, is released. In this study we assessed the cytotoxic activity of TH-302 against osteosarcoma cells in vitro and evaluated its anticancer efficacy as a single agent, and in combination with doxorubicin, in an orthotopic mouse model of human osteosarcoma (OS). In vitro, TH-302 was potently cytotoxic to osteosarcoma cells selectively under hypoxic conditions, whereas primary normal human osteoblasts were protected. Animals transplanted with OS cells directly into their tibiae and left untreated developed mixed osteolytic/osteosclerotic bone lesions and subsequently developed lung metastases. TH-302 reduced tumor burden in bone and cooperated with doxorubicin to protect bone from osteosarcoma induced bone destruction, while it also reduced lung metastases. TH-302 may therefore be an attractive therapeutic agent with strong activity as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy against OS. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identity and Diversity of Human Peripheral Th and T Regulatory Cells Defined by Single-Cell Mass Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicki, Matthew A; Amaya Hernandez, Laura C; Davis, Kara L; Bacchetta, Rosa; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia

    2018-01-01

    Human CD3 + CD4 + Th cells, FOXP3 + T regulatory (Treg) cells, and T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells are essential for ensuring peripheral immune response and tolerance, but the diversity of Th, Treg, and Tr1 cell subsets has not been fully characterized. Independent functional characterization of human Th1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper (Tfh), Treg, and Tr1 cells has helped to define unique surface molecules, transcription factors, and signaling profiles for each subset. However, the adequacy of these markers to recapitulate the whole CD3 + CD4 + T cell compartment remains questionable. In this study, we examined CD3 + CD4 + T cell populations by single-cell mass cytometry. We characterize the CD3 + CD4 + Th, Treg, and Tr1 cell populations simultaneously across 23 memory T cell-associated surface and intracellular molecules. High-dimensional analysis identified several new subsets, in addition to the already defined CD3 + CD4 + Th, Treg, and Tr1 cell populations, for a total of 11 Th cell, 4 Treg, and 1 Tr1 cell subsets. Some of these subsets share markers previously thought to be selective for Treg, Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tfh cells, including CD194 (CCR4) + FOXP3 + Treg and CD183 (CXCR3) + T-bet + Th17 cell subsets. Unsupervised clustering displayed a phenotypic organization of CD3 + CD4 + T cells that confirmed their diversity but showed interrelation between the different subsets, including similarity between Th1-Th2-Tfh cell populations and Th17 cells, as well as similarity of Th2 cells with Treg cells. In conclusion, the use of single-cell mass cytometry provides a systems-level characterization of CD3 + CD4 + T cells in healthy human blood, which represents an important baseline reference to investigate abnormalities of different subsets in immune-mediated pathologies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. C5a regulates IL-12+ DC migration to induce pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is well known that complement system C5a is excessively activated during the onset of sepsis. However, it is unclear whether C5a can regulate dentritic cells (DCs to stimulate adaptive immune cells such as Th1 and Th17 in sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. CLP-induced sepsis was treated with anti-C5a or IL-12. IL-12(+DC, IFNγ(+Th1, and IL-17(+Th17 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-12 was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Our studies here showed that C5a induced IL-12(+DC cell migration from the peritoneal cavity to peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Furthermore, IL-12(+DC cells induced the expansion of pathogenic IFNγ(+Th1 and IL-17(+Th17 cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Moreover, IL-12, secreted by DC cells in the peritoneal cavity, is an important factor that prevents the development of sepsis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that C5a regulates IL-12(+DC cell migration to induce pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in sepsis.

  12. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Thijs W H; Puchner, Teresa; Korkmaz, H Inci; Vos, Mariska; Soeters, Maarten R; de Vries, Carlie J M

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) impedes Th1 activation as measured by i) decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii) decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet), Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii) decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis.

  13. Changes in the Th1 : Th2 Cytokine Bias in Pregnancy and the Effects of the Anti-Inflammatory Cyclopentenone Prostaglandin 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2

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    Lynne Sykes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a complex immunological state in which a bias towards T helper 2 (Th2 protects the fetus. Evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines increase the risk of poor neonatal outcome, independently of the direct effect of preterm labour. The anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2 inhibits nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-κB in amniocytes and myocytes in vitro and is a ligand for the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2 receptor. Here we examine the Th1:Th2 cytokine bias in pregnancy and whether 15dPGJ2 could be used to inhibit the production of the proinflammatory cytokines through inhibition of NF-κB while simultaneously promoting Th2 interleukin 4 (IL-4 synthesis via CRTH2 in T helper cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from women at 28 weeks, term pre-labour, term labour as well as non-pregnant female controls were cultured with 15dPGJ2 or vehicle control and stimulated with phorbol myristyl acetate (PMA/ionomycin. The percentage of CD4+ cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in response to PMA/ionomycin was significantly reduced in pregnancy. 15dPGJ2 reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α production in stimulated T helper cells, but did not alter IL-4 production in CRTH2+ve cells. 15dPGJ2 also reduced phospho-p65 in stimulated PBMCs. In summary, 15dPGJ2 suppresses the Th1 response of PBMCs during pregnancy and active labour whilst maintaining the Th2 response suggesting a therapeutic benefit in reducing neonatal morbidity in inflammation-induced PTL.

  14. Biglycan, a novel trigger of Th1 and Th17 cell recruitment into the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastase, Madalina-Viviana; Zeng-Brouwers, Jinyang; Beckmann, Janet; Tredup, Claudia; Christen, Urs; Radeke, Heinfried H; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Schaefer, Liliana

    2017-12-15

    Th1 and Th17 cells, T helper (Th) subtypes, are key inducers of renal fibrosis. The molecular mechanisms of their recruitment into the kidney, however, are not well understood. Here, we show that biglycan, a proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix, acting in its soluble form as a danger signal, stimulates autonomously the production of Th1 and Th17 chemoattractants CXCL10 and CCL20 in macrophages. In the presence of IFNγ, biglycan synergistically stimulates CXCL9. In macrophages deficient for TLR2, TLR4, and their adaptor molecules MyD88 or TRIF, we identified highly selective mechanisms of biglycan-dependent Th1/17 chemoattraction. Thus, the expression of CXCL9 and CXCL10, common chemoattractants for CXCR3-positive Th1 and Th17 cells, is triggered in a biglycan-TLR4/TRIF-dependent manner. By contrast, biglycan induces CCL20 chemokine production, responsible for CCR6-positive Th17 cell recruitment, in a TLR2/4/MyD88-dependent manner. Importantly, at the onset of diabetes mellitus and lupus nephritis we provide evidence for biglycan-dependent recruitment of Th1 and Th17 cells, IFNγ and IL-17 production, and development of albuminuria in mice lacking or overexpressing soluble biglycan. Furthermore, by genetic ablation of Cxcl10 we showed in vivo involvement of this chemokine in biglycan-dependent recruitment of Th1 and Th17 cells into the kidney. Finally, a positive correlation of biglycan and CXCL10/CXCL9 levels was detected in plasma from patients with diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephritis. Taken together, we identified biglycan as a novel trigger of Th1 and Th17 cell recruitment into the kidney and we postulate that interfering with biglycan/TLR/TRIF/MyD88-signaling might provide novel therapeutic avenues for renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  16. The PDL1-PD1 Axis Converts Human Th1 Cells Into Regulatory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Shoba; Mangus, Courtney W.; Wang, James C.M.; Wei, Fang; He, Alice; Kapoor, Veena; Foley, Jason E.; Massey, Paul R.; Felizardo, Tania C.; Riley, James L.; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Fowler, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Immune surveillance by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells is critical for the host response to tumors and infection, but also contributes to autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after transplantation. The inhibitory molecule programmed death ligand-1 (PDL1) has been shown to anergize human Th1 cells, but other mechanisms of PDL1-mediated Th1 inhibition such as the conversion of Th1 cells to a regulatory phenotype have not been well characterized. We hypothesized that PDL1 may cause Th1 cells to manifest differentiation plasticity. Conventional T cells or irradiated K562 myeloid tumor cells overexpressing PDL1 converted TBET+ Th1 cells into FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (TREGS) in vivo, thereby preventing human-into-mouse xenogeneic GvHD (xGvHD). Either blocking PD1 expression on Th1 cells by siRNA targeting or abrogation of PD1 signaling by SHP1/2 pharmacologic inhibition stabilized Th1 cell differentiation during PDL1 challenge and restored the capacity of Th1 cells to mediate lethal xGVHD. PD1 signaling therefore induces human Th1 cells to manifest in vivo plasticity, resulting in a TREG phenotype that severely impairs cell-mediated immunity. Converting human Th1 cells to a regulatory phenotype with PD1 signaling provides a potential way to block GvHD after transplantation. Moreover, because this conversion can be prevented by blocking PD1 expression or pharmacologically inhibiting SHP1/2, this pathway provides a new therapeutic direction for enhancing T cell immunity to cancer and infection. PMID:22133721

  17. H. pylori attenuates TNBS-induced colitis via increasing mucosal Th2 cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Zhong; Tan, Gao; Wu, Fang; Zhi, Fa-Chao

    2017-09-26

    There is an epidemiological inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection and Crohn's disease (CD). However, whether H. pylori plays a protective role against CD remains unclear. Since 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is thought to resemble CD, we investigated whether H. pylori can attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Here we show that H. pylori can attenuate the severity of TNBS-induced colitis. In addition, H. pylori not only down-regulates Th17 and Th1 cytokine expression, but can up-regulate Th2 cytokine expression and increase the Th2:Th17 ratio of CD4 + T in the colonic mucosa of TNBS-induced colitis. Our results indicate that H. pylori attenuates TNBS-induced colitis mainly through increasing Th2 cells in murine colonic mucosa. Our finding offers a novel view on the role of H. pylori in regulating gastrointestinal immunity, and may open a new avenue for development of therapeutic strategies in CD by making use of asymptomatic H. pylori colonization.

  18. TH17, TH22 and Treg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Wolff

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4(+ T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that T(H17, T(H22 and T(Reg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas T(H1 and T(H2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of T(H17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1. These results suggest that CD4(+ T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment.

  19. Dopamine Receptor D3 Signaling on CD4+ T Cells Favors Th1- and Th17-Mediated Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Francisco; Prado, Carolina; González, Hugo; Franz, Dafne; Osorio-Barrios, Francisco; Osorio, Fabiola; Ugalde, Valentina; Lopez, Ernesto; Elgueta, Daniela; Figueroa, Alicia; Lladser, Alvaro; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2016-05-15

    Dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) expressed on CD4(+) T cells is required to promote neuroinflammation in a murine model of Parkinson's disease. However, how DRD3 signaling affects T cell-mediated immunity remains unknown. In this study, we report that TCR stimulation on mouse CD4(+) T cells induces DRD3 expression, regardless of the lineage specification. Importantly, functional analyses performed in vivo using adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-II cells into wild-type recipients show that DRD3 deficiency in CD4(+) T cells results in attenuated differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells toward the Th1 phenotype, exacerbated generation of Th2 cells, and unaltered Th17 differentiation. The reciprocal regulatory effect of DRD3 signaling in CD4(+) T cells favoring Th1 generation and impairing the acquisition of Th2 phenotype was also reproduced using in vitro approaches. Mechanistic analysis indicates that DRD3 signaling evokes suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 expression, a negative regulator of Th2 development, which indirectly favors acquisition of Th1 phenotype. Accordingly, DRD3 deficiency results in exacerbated eosinophil infiltration into the airways of mice undergoing house dust mite-induced allergic response. Interestingly, our results show that, upon chronic inflammatory colitis induced by transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells into lymphopenic recipients, DRD3 deficiency not only affects Th1 response, but also the frequency of Th17 cells, suggesting that DRD3 signaling also contributes to Th17 expansion under chronic inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, our findings indicate that DRD3-mediated signaling in CD4(+) T cells plays a crucial role in the balance of effector lineages, favoring the inflammatory potential of CD4(+) T cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to Der p 1 allergen enhance the recruitment of Th2 cells: major involvement of the chemokines TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammad, Hamida; Smits, Hermelijn H.; Ratajczak, Céline; Nithiananthan, Asokananthan; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Stewart, Geoffrey A.; Jacquet, Alain; Tonnel, Andre-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen - presenting cells that can orientate the immune response towards a Th1 or a Th2 type. DC produce chemokines that are involved in the recruitment of either Th1 cells, such as IP10 (CXCL10), Th2 cells such as TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22), or non-polarized T

  1. Effectors of Th1 and Th17 cells act on astrocytes and augment their neuroinflammatory properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Kronisch, Julius; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells are believed to mediate the pathology of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS). Their interaction with microglia and astrocytes in the CNS is crucial for the regulation of the neuroinflammation. Previously we have shown that only Th1...... mice where trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS was affected. We compared microglia and astrocyte response in the brain and spinal cord of these mice. We further treated astrocytes with supernatants from highly pure Th1 and Th17 cultures and assessed the mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors......, cytokines and chemokines using real-time PCR. Data obtained was analysed using Kruskal- Wallis test. Results: We observed in α4-deficient mice weak microglial activation but comparable astrogliosis to that of wild-type mice in the regions of the brain populated with Th17 infiltrates suggesting that Th17...

  2. MicroRNA-145 influences the balance of Th1/Th2 via regulating RUNX3 in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Linxia; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Linlan; Chen, Qizhang; Zhang, Hong; Pan, Hui; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Yang

    To delineate the underlying mechanism of microRNA-145 modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 via targeting RUNX3 in asthma patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from asthma patients and healthy controls. CD4 + T cells were isolated and cultured. Using quantitative PCR detect, the level of microRNA-145 and RUNX3 mRNA level in the CD4 + T cells from asthma patients and healthy controls, meanwhile, western blot was used to detect the RUNX3 protein level. Th1 or Th2 related cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay was performed to confirm the correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. MicroRNA-145 mimic or inhibitor was transfected in the CD4 + T cells and the changes of RUNX3 level, Th1 or Th2 related cytokines and the percentage of Th1 and Th2 were observed after transfection. MicroRNA-145 level of CD4 + T cells was higher with a lower RUNX3 expression in asthma patients. There is negative correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. Th2 hyperactivity and Th1 deficiency was detected in the CD4 + T cells of asthma patients. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay has shown that RUNX3 is a target of microRNA. Up-regulation or down-regulation of miR-145 level caused RUNX3 expression changes in CD4 + T cells and influence the related cytokines. Inhibition of microRNA-145 may reverse the imbalance of Th1/Th2 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 could regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through targeting the RUNX3 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 and RUNX3 may be used as biomarkers or targets in the diagnosis or therapy of asthma.

  3. House dust extracts have both TH2 adjuvant and tolerogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nicholas; Lam, Diane; Paulus, Petra; Batzer, Glenda; Horner, Anthony A

    2006-05-01

    Although mechanisms remain a subject of controversy, there is general agreement that living environments influence allergic risk during the first years of life. We reasoned that sterile house dust extracts (HDEs) would have immunologic activities reflective of their environments of origin and therefore would be useful surrogates for investigations of how ambient exposures influence immune homeostasis. These experiments determined how airway HDE exposures influence adaptive responses to a coadministered antigen and subsequent airway hypersensitivity responses to antigen challenge. Mice received intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) vaccinations on a weekly basis. Select groups of mice also received intranasal HDE weekly with OVA; daily at one seventh the weekly dose, beginning 7 days before the first OVA sensitization; or both. Weekly intranasal vaccinations with OVA and HDE primed mice for the development of T(H)2-biased immune and airway hypersensitivity responses. In contrast, daily low-dose intranasal HDE exposures protected against the immunologic and pathologic outcomes associated with weekly intranasal OVA/HDE vaccinations. The T(H)2 adjuvant activities of HDEs were found to be dependant on MyD88, a molecule critical for signaling through a majority of Toll-like receptors. Moreover, the tolerogenic activity associated with daily intranasal HDE exposures could be replicated with LPS. These investigations demonstrate that in addition to allergens, living environments contain immunomodulatory materials with both T(H)2 adjuvant and tolerogenic activities. As the contents of HDEs are ubiquitous, these experiments might recapitulate and help explain clinically relevant immunologic events involved in the maintenance of aeroallergen tolerance and the dysregulated responses that lead to allergic respiratory diseases.

  4. Thermal expansion studies on Th(MoO4)2, Na2Th(MoO4)3 and Na4Th(MoO4)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskar, Meera; Krishnan, K.; Dahale, N.D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal expansion behavior of Th(MoO 4 ) 2 , Na 2 Th(MoO 4 ) 3 and Na 4 Th(MoO 4 ) 4 was studied under vacuum in the temperature range of 298-1123 K by high temperature X-ray diffractometer. Th(MoO 4 ) 2 was synthesized by reacting ThO 2 with 2 mol of MoO 3 , at 1073 K in air and Na 2 Th(MoO 4 ) 3 and Na 4 Th(MoO 4 ) 4 were prepared by reacting Th(MoO 4 ) 2 with 1 and 2 mol of Na 2 MoO 4 , respectively at 873 K in air. The XRD data of Th(MoO 4 ) 2 was indexed on orthorhombic system where as XRD data of Na 2 Th(MoO 4 ) 3 and Na 4 Th(MoO 4 ) 4 were indexed on tetragonal system. The lattice parameters and cell volume of all the three compounds, fit into polynomial expression with respect to temperature, showed positive thermal expansion (PTE) up to 1123 K. The average value of thermal expansion coefficients for Th(MoO 4 ) 2 , Na 2 Th(MoO 4 ) 3 and Na 4 Th(MoO 4 ) 4 were determined from the high temperature data

  5. Effects of γ-rays on Th1 and Th2 immune function of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei; Cui Yufang; An Xiaoxia; Xu Han; Dong Bo; Liu Xiaolan; Luo Qingliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of 6 Gy whole body γ-irradiation on immune function of Th1 and Th2 in mouse, and to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanism of immune system injury induced by irradiation. Methods: Surface marker and intracellular cytokines of lymphocytes were stained with fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies, then the changes of lymphocyte subpopulations, especially the Th1 and Th2 in mouse peripheral blood and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: (1) 1 d after 6 Gy y- irradiation, lymphocytic subsets of CD 19 + and CD 8 + in spleen decreased apparently and the percentages of them were only 30% and 41% of control groups respectively (P 19 + and 14 d for CD 8 + respectively, however, up to 21 d post-irradiation they still did not return to control level. (2) Th1 subpopulations in mouse peripheral blood and spleen were significantly reduced at 1 d after irradiation and were only 2.6% and 7.6% of control groups (P 4 + / CD 8 + were significantly increased at 1 d post-irradiation in mouse spleen because of swift reduction of CD 8 + cells. Interestingly, either in peripheral blood or in spleen in irradiated mice, the ratio of Th1/Th2 were evidently raised because of the decrement of Th1 cells, exhibited obviously a phenomenon of predominant immune response of Th2 cells. Conclusions: It is suggested that the depression of mouse immune function induced by 6 Gy γ-irradiation might be caused by changes of CD 4 + /CD 8 + ratio, especially the imbalance of Th1/Th2 function subpopulations. It is shown that the imbalance of Th1/Th2 function subpopulations plays an important role in radiation-induced immune injury, thus providing a better insight into the molecular mechanism and new strategies for prevent and treatment measures of immune injury by irradiation. (authors)

  6. Th cells promote CTL survival and memory via acquired pMHC-I and endogenous IL-2 and CD40L signaling and by modulating apoptosis-controlling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa

    Full Text Available Involvement of CD4(+ helper T (Th cells is crucial for CD8(+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated immunity. However, CD4(+ Th's signals that govern CTL survival and functional memory are still not completely understood. In this study, we assessed the role of CD4(+ Th cells with acquired antigen-presenting machineries in determining CTL fates. We utilized an adoptive co-transfer into CD4(+ T cell-sufficient or -deficient mice of OTI CTLs and OTII Th cells or Th cells with various gene deficiencies pre-stimulated in vitro by ovalbumin (OVA-pulsed dendritic cell (DCova. CTL survival was kinetically assessed in these mice using FITC-anti-CD8 and PE-H-2K(b/OVA257-264 tetramer staining by flow cytometry. We show that by acting via endogenous CD40L and IL-2, and acquired peptide-MHC-I (pMHC-I complex signaling, CD4(+ Th cells enhance survival of transferred effector CTLs and their differentiation into the functional memory CTLs capable of protecting against highly-metastasizing tumor challenge. Moreover, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis demonstrate that increased survival of CD4(+ Th cell-helped CTLs is matched with enhanced Akt1/NF-κB activation, down-regulation of TRAIL, and altered expression profiles with up-regulation of prosurvival (Bcl-2 and down-regulation of proapoptotic (Bcl-10, Casp-3, Casp-4, Casp-7 molecules. Taken together, our results reveal a previously unexplored mechanistic role for CD4(+ Th cells in programming CTL survival and memory recall responses. This knowledge could also aid in the development of efficient adoptive CTL cancer therapy.

  7. Th cells promote CTL survival and memory via acquired pMHC-I and endogenous IL-2 and CD40L signaling and by modulating apoptosis-controlling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeshappa, Channakeshava Sokke; Xie, Yufeng; Xu, Shulin; Nanjundappa, Roopa Hebbandi; Freywald, Andrew; Deng, Yulin; Ma, Hong; Xiang, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Involvement of CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells is crucial for CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immunity. However, CD4(+) Th's signals that govern CTL survival and functional memory are still not completely understood. In this study, we assessed the role of CD4(+) Th cells with acquired antigen-presenting machineries in determining CTL fates. We utilized an adoptive co-transfer into CD4(+) T cell-sufficient or -deficient mice of OTI CTLs and OTII Th cells or Th cells with various gene deficiencies pre-stimulated in vitro by ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed dendritic cell (DCova). CTL survival was kinetically assessed in these mice using FITC-anti-CD8 and PE-H-2K(b)/OVA257-264 tetramer staining by flow cytometry. We show that by acting via endogenous CD40L and IL-2, and acquired peptide-MHC-I (pMHC-I) complex signaling, CD4(+) Th cells enhance survival of transferred effector CTLs and their differentiation into the functional memory CTLs capable of protecting against highly-metastasizing tumor challenge. Moreover, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis demonstrate that increased survival of CD4(+) Th cell-helped CTLs is matched with enhanced Akt1/NF-κB activation, down-regulation of TRAIL, and altered expression profiles with up-regulation of prosurvival (Bcl-2) and down-regulation of proapoptotic (Bcl-10, Casp-3, Casp-4, Casp-7) molecules. Taken together, our results reveal a previously unexplored mechanistic role for CD4(+) Th cells in programming CTL survival and memory recall responses. This knowledge could also aid in the development of efficient adoptive CTL cancer therapy.

  8. CCR6+ Th cell distribution differentiates systemic lupus erythematosus patients based on anti-dsDNA antibody status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Jiang, Zhenyu; Wu, Jiang; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhao, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease has been shown to be associated with the generation of multiple auto-antibodies. Among these, anti-dsDNA antibodies (anti-DNAs) are specific and play a pathogenic role in SLE. Indeed, anti-DNA + SLE patients display a worse disease course. The generation of these pathogenic anti-DNAs has been attributed to the interaction between aberrant T helper (Th) cells and autoimmune B cells. Thus, in this study we have investigated whether CCR6 + Th cells have the ability to differentiate SLE patients based on anti-DNA status, and if their distribution has any correlation with disease activity. We recruited 25 anti-DNA + and 25 anti-DNA - treatment-naive onset SLE patients, matched for various clinical characteristics in our nested matched case-control study. CCR6 + Th cells and their additional subsets were analyzed in each patient by flow cytometry. Anti-DNA + SLE patients specifically had a higher percentage of Th cells expressing CCR6 and CXCR3. Further analysis of CCR6 + Th cell subsets showed that anti-DNA + SLE patients had elevated proportions of Th9, Th17, Th17.1 and CCR4/CXCR3 double-negative (DN) cells. However, the proportions of CCR6 - Th subsets, including Th1 and Th2 cells, did not show any association with anti-DNA status. Finally, we identified a correlation between CCR6 + Th subsets and clinical indicators, specifically in anti-DNA + SLE patients. Our data indicated that CCR6 + Th cells and their subsets were elevated and correlated with disease activity in anti-DNA + SLE patients. We speculated that CCR6 + Th cells may contribute to distinct disease severity in anti-DNA + SLE patients.

  9. Blood Stem Cell Activity Is Arrested by Th1-Mediated Injury Preventing Engraftment following Nonmyeloablative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Mareike; Kohrt, Holbrook E. K.; Küpper, Natascha J.; Filatenkov, Alexander; Linderman, Jessica A.; Hadeiba, Husein; Negrin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    T cells are widely used to promote engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Their role in overcoming barriers to HSC engraftment is thought to be particularly critical when patients receive reduced doses of preparative chemotherapy and/or radiation compared with standard transplantations. In this study, we sought to delineate the effects CD4+ cells on engraftment and blood formation in a model that simulates clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation by transplanting MHC-matched, minor histocompatibility–mismatched grafts composed of purified HSCs, HSCs plus bulk T cells, or HSCs plus T cell subsets into mice conditioned with low-dose irradiation. Grafts containing conventional CD4+ T cells caused marrow inflammation and inhibited HSC engraftment and blood formation. Posttransplantation, the marrows of HSCs plus CD4+ cell recipients contained IL-12–secreting CD11c+ cells and IFN-γ–expressing donor Th1 cells. In this setting, host HSCs arrested at the short-term stem cell stage and remained in the marrow in a quiescent cell cycling state (G0). As a consequence, donor HSCs failed to engraft and hematopoiesis was suppressed. Our data show that Th1 cells included in a hematopoietic allograft can negatively impact HSC activity, blood reconstitution, and engraftment of donor HSCs. This potential negative effect of donor T cells is not considered in clinical transplantation in which bulk T cells are transplanted. Our findings shed new light on the effects of CD4+ T cells on HSC biology and are applicable to other pathogenic states in which immune activation in the bone marrow occurs such as aplastic anemia and certain infectious conditions. PMID:27815446

  10. Retinoic Acid Is Essential for Th1 Cell Lineage Stability and Prevents Transition to a Th17 Cell Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chrysothemis C.; Esterhazy, Daria; Sarde, Aurelien; London, Mariya; Pullabhatla, Venu; Osma-Garcia, Ines; al-Bader, Raya; Ortiz, Carla; Elgueta, Raul; Arno, Matthew; de Rinaldis, Emanuele; Mucida, Daniel; Lord, Graham M.; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CD4+ T cells differentiate into phenotypically distinct T helper cells upon antigenic stimulation. Regulation of plasticity between these CD4+ T-cell lineages is critical for immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune disease. However, the factors that regulate lineage stability are largely unknown. Here we investigate a role for retinoic acid (RA) in the regulation of lineage stability using T helper 1 (Th1) cells, traditionally considered the most phenotypically stable Th subset. We found that RA, through its receptor RARα, sustains stable expression of Th1 lineage specifying genes, as well as repressing genes that instruct Th17-cell fate. RA signaling is essential for limiting Th1-cell conversion into Th17 effectors and for preventing pathogenic Th17 responses in vivo. Our study identifies RA-RARα as a key component of the regulatory network governing maintenance and plasticity of Th1-cell fate and defines an additional pathway for the development of Th17 cells. PMID:25769610

  11. Id2 reinforces TH1 differentiation and inhibits E2A to repress TFH differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A; Bélanger, Simon; Omilusik, Kyla D; Cho, Sunglim; Scott-Browne, James P; Nance, J Philip; Goulding, John; Lasorella, Anna; Lu, Li-Fan; Crotty, Shane; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2016-07-01

    The differentiation of helper T cells into effector subsets is critical to host protection. Transcription factors of the E-protein and Id families are important arbiters of T cell development, but their role in the differentiation of the TH1 and TFH subsets of helper T cells is not well understood. Here, TH1 cells showed more robust Id2 expression than that of TFH cells, and depletion of Id2 via RNA-mediated interference increased the frequency of TFH cells. Furthermore, TH1 differentiation was blocked by Id2 deficiency, which led to E-protein-dependent accumulation of effector cells with mixed characteristics during viral infection and severely impaired the generation of TH1 cells following infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The TFH cell-defining transcriptional repressor Bcl6 bound the Id2 locus, which provides a mechanism for the bimodal Id2 expression and reciprocal development of TH1 cells and TFH cells.

  12. Upregulation of bacterial-specific Th1 and Th17 responses that are enriched in CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qin-Yun; Huang, Da-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Xiao-Feng

    2017-11-01

    The microbial community in the mucosal surfaces is involved in the development of human cancers, including gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. The respiratory tract in the lung also hosts a distinctive microbial community, but the correlation between this community and lung cancer is largely unknown. Here, we examined the Th1 and Th17 responses toward several bacterial antigens, in CD4 + T cells sourced from the peripheral blood (PB), the lung cancer (LC) tissue, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Compared to healthy controls, the NSCLC patients presented significantly higher frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells reacting to Streptococcus salivarius and S. agalactiae, in the PB, LC, and GI tract. Further investigation showed that the upregulation in anti-bacteria response was likely antigen-specific for two reasons. Firstly, the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells reacting to Escherichia coli, a typical GI bacterium, were not upregulated in the PB and the LC of NSCLC patients. Secondly, the S. salivarius and S. agalactiae responses could be partially blocked by Tü39, a MHC class II blocking antibody, suggesting that antigen-specific interaction between CD4 + T cells and antigen-presenting cells was required. We also found that S. salivarius and S. agalactiae could potently activate the monocytes to secrete higher levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor, which were Th1- and Th17-skewing cytokines. Interestingly, whereas CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells represented <20% of total CD4 + T cells, they represented 17%-82% of bacteria-specific Th1 or Th17 cells. Together, these data demonstrated that NSCLC patients presented a significant upregulation of bacterial-specific Th1 and Th17 responses that were enriched in CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Retinoic acid is essential for Th1 cell lineage stability and prevents transition to a Th17 cell program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chrysothemis C; Esterhazy, Daria; Sarde, Aurelien; London, Mariya; Pullabhatla, Venu; Osma-Garcia, Ines; Al-Bader, Raya; Ortiz, Carla; Elgueta, Raul; Arno, Matthew; de Rinaldis, Emanuele; Mucida, Daniel; Lord, Graham M; Noelle, Randolph J

    2015-03-17

    CD4(+) T cells differentiate into phenotypically distinct T helper cells upon antigenic stimulation. Regulation of plasticity between these CD4(+) T-cell lineages is critical for immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune disease. However, the factors that regulate lineage stability are largely unknown. Here we investigate a role for retinoic acid (RA) in the regulation of lineage stability using T helper 1 (Th1) cells, traditionally considered the most phenotypically stable Th subset. We found that RA, through its receptor RARα, sustains stable expression of Th1 lineage specifying genes, as well as repressing genes that instruct Th17-cell fate. RA signaling is essential for limiting Th1-cell conversion into Th17 effectors and for preventing pathogenic Th17 responses in vivo. Our study identifies RA-RARα as a key component of the regulatory network governing maintenance and plasticity of Th1-cell fate and defines an additional pathway for the development of Th17 cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of T-bet, the master regulator of Th1 cells, in the cytotoxicity of murine CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshima, Koji; Misawa, Kana; Ohashi, Chihiro; Iwabuchi, Kazuya

    2018-05-01

    Although CD4 + T cells are generally regarded as helper T cells, some activated CD4 + T cells have cytotoxic properties. Given that CD4 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) often secrete IFN-γ, CTL activity among CD4 + T cells may be attributable to Th1 cells, where a T-box family molecule, T-bet serves as the "master regulator". However, although the essential contribution of T-bet to expression of IFN-γ has been well-documented, it remains unclear whether T-bet is involved in CD4 + T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In this study, to investigate the ability of T-bet to confer cytolytic activity on CD4 + T cells, the T-bet gene (Tbx21) was introduced into non-cytocidal CD4 + T cell lines and their cytolytic function analyzed. Up-regulation of FasL (CD178), which provided the transfectant with cytotoxicity, was observed in Tbx21transfected CD4 + T cells but not in untransfected parental cells. In one cell line, T-bet transduction also induced perforin gene (Prf1) expression and Tbx21 transfectants efficiently killed Fas - target cells. Although T-bet was found to repress up-regulation of CD40L (CD154), which controls FasL-mediated cytolysis, the extent of CD40L up-regulation on in vitro-differentiated Th1 cells was similar to that on Th2 cells, suggesting the existence of a compensatory mechanism. These results collectively indicate that T-bet may be involved in the expression of genes, such as FasL and Prf1, which confer cytotoxicity on Th1 cells. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Marijuana-derived Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses Th1/Th17 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity through microRNA regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sido, Jessica M; Jackson, Austin R; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2016-09-01

    ∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of the major bioactive cannabinoids derived from the Cannabis sativa plant and is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is driven by proinflammatory T helper cells including the classic inflammatory Th1 lineage as well as the more recently discovered Th17 lineage. In the current study, we investigated whether THC can alter the induction of Th1/Th17 cells involved in mBSA-induced DTH response. THC treatment (20 mg/kg) of C57BL/6 mice with DTH caused decreased swelling and infiltration of immune cells at the site of antigen rechallenge. Additionally, THC treatment decreased lymphocyte activation as well as Th1/Th17 lineage commitment, including reduced lineage-specific transcription factors and cytokines. Interestingly, while DTH caused an overexpression of miR-21, which increases Th17 differentiation via SMAD7 inhibition, and downregulation of miR-29b, an IFN-γ inhibitor, THC treatment reversed this microRNA (miR) dysregulation. Furthermore, when we transfected primary cells from DTH mice with miR-21 inhibitor or miR-29b mimic, as seen with THC treatment, the expression of target gene message was directly impacted increasing SMAD7 and decreasing IFN-γ expression, respectively. In summary, the current study suggests that THC treatment during DTH response can simultaneously inhibit Th1/Th17 activation via regulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression. • THC treatment inhibits simultaneous Th1/Th17 driven inflammation. • THC treatment corrects DTH-mediated microRNA dysregulation. • THC treatment regulates proinflammatory cytokines and transcription factors.

  16. The role of Th1 and Th17 cells in glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Nader; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    T helper (Th) cells as an important part of the immune is responsible for elimination of invading pathogens. But, if Th cell responses are not regulated effectively, the autoimmune diseases might develop. The Th17 subset usually produces interleukin-17A which in experimental models of organ-specific autoimmune inflammation is very important. Directory of open access journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Embase, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science have been searched. Fifty-six articles were found and searched. In the present review article, we tried to summarize the recently published data about characteristics and role of Th1 and Th17 cells and discuss in detail, the potential role of these T helpers immune responses in renal inflammation and renal injury, focusing on glomerulonephritis. Published papers in animal and human studies indicated that autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, classically believed to be Th1-mediated, are mainly derived from a Th17 immune response. Identification of the Th17 subgroup has explained seemingly paradoxical observations and improved our understanding of immune-mediated inflammatory responses. Secretion of IL-17A, as well as IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, suggests that Th17 subset may play a crucial role as a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory Th subset. There is experimental evidence to support the notion that Th1 and Th17 cells contribute to kidney injury in renal inflammatory diseases like glomerulonephritis.

  17. Foxo1 and Foxp1 play opposing roles in regulating the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells programmed by IL-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Enguang; Ma, Xingzhe; Lu, Yong; Yang, Maojie; Wang, Qiang; Xue, Gang; Qian, Jianfei; Wang, Siqing; Yi, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Tumor-specific CD4+ T helper 9 (TH9) cells, so-called because of their production of the cytokine interleukin-9 (IL-9), are a powerful effector T cell subset for cancer immunotherapy. We found that pretreatment of naïve CD4+ T cells with IL-7 further enhanced their differentiation into TH9 cells and augmented their antitumor activity. IL-7 markedly increased the abundance of the histone acetyltransferase p300 by activating the STAT5 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways and promoting the acetylation of histones at the Il9 promoter. As a result, the transcriptional regulator Foxo1 was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus, bound to the Il9 promoter, and induced the production of IL-9 protein. In contrast, Foxp1, which bound to the Il9 promoter in naïve CD4+ T cells and inhibited Il9 expression, was outcompeted for binding to the Il9 promoter by Foxo1 and translocated to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, forced expression of Foxo1 or a deficiency in Foxp1 in CD4+ T cells markedly increased the production of IL-9, whereas a deficiency in Foxo1 inhibited the ability of IL-7 to enhance the differentiation and antitumor activity of TH9 cells. Thus, we identified the roles of Foxo1 as a positive regulator and Foxp1 as a negative regulator of TH9 cell differentiation and antitumor activity, which may provide potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:29018172

  18. A High RORγT/CD3 Ratio is a Strong Prognostic Factor for Postoperative Survival in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: Analysis of Helper T Cell Lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Th17 and Regulatory T Cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kinugasa, Tetsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Sato, Kensaku; Yuge, Kotaro; Ohchi, Takafumi; Fujino, Shinya; Shiraiwa, Sachiko; Katagiri, Mitsuhiro; Akagi, Yoshito; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), part of the host immune response, have been widely reported as influential factors in the tumor microenvironment for the clinical outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the network of helper T cells is very complex, and which T-cell subtypes affect the progression of CRC and postoperative prognosis remains unclear. This study investigated the expression of several subtypes of TILs including T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells to determine their correlation with clinicopathologic features and postoperative prognosis. The study investigated the expression of TILs using immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray samples for 199 CRC patients. The number of each T-cell subtype infiltrating tumors was counted using ImageJ software. The relationship between TIL marker expression, clinicopathologic features, and prognosis was analyzed. A high RORγT/CD3 ratio (Th17 ratio) was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002), and a high of Foxp3/CD3 ratio (Treg ratio) was correlated with tumor location in the colon (p = 0.04), as shown by the Chi square test. In multivariate analysis, a high RORγT/CD3 ratio was the only independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = 0.04; hazard ratio [HR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-3.45). This study confirmed a high RORγT/CD3 ratio as a strong prognostic marker for postoperative survival. The immunohistochemistry results suggest that Th17 may affect lymph node metastasis in CRC. If new immunotherapies reducing Th17 expression are established, they may improve the efficiency of cancer treatment and prolong the survival of patients with CRC.

  19. Regulation of Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by natural product compound berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xia; Guo, Bingshi T; Wan, Bing; Fang, Lei; Lu, Limin; Wu, Lili; Zang, Ying Qin; Zhang, Jingwu Z

    2010-08-01

    Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we showed that BBR was efficacious in the amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through novel regulatory mechanisms involving pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells. BBR inhibited differentiation of Th17 cells and, to a lesser degree, Th1 cells through direct actions on the JAK/STAT pathway, whereas it had no effect on the relative number of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. In addition, BBR indirectly influenced Th17 and Th1 cell functions through its effect on the expression and function of costimulatory molecules and the production of IL-6, which was attributable to the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in CD11b(+) APCs. BBR treatment completely abolished the encephalitogenicity of MOG(35-55)-reactive Th17 cells in an adoptive transfer EAE model, and the same treatment significantly inhibited the ability of MOG(35-55)-reactive Th1 cells to induce EAE. This study provides new evidence that natural compounds, such as BBR, are of great value in the search for novel anti-inflammatory agents and therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases.

  20. Modulation of chicken macrophage effector function by Th1/Th2 cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulation of macrophage activity by TH1/2 cytokines is important to maintain the balance of immunity to provide adequate protective immunity while avoiding excessive inflammation. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are the hallmark TH1 and TH2 cytokines, respectively. In avian species, information concerning reg...

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine and amodiaquine through p21-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sera; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jang, Eun Jung; Won, Hee Yeon; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi- Gyeong; Kim, Kwang Soo; Hwang, Eun Sook

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) have been used for treating or preventing malaria for decades, and their application has expanded into treating inflammatory disease in humans. CQ and AQ are applicable for controlling rheumatoid arthritis, but their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and AQ on T cell activation and T cell-mediated immune response. CQ had no significant effect on T cell numbers, but decreased the population of T cells with a high division rate. However, AQ treatment significantly increased the number of cells with low division rates and eliminated cells with high division rates, resulting in the inhibition of T cell proliferation triggered by T cell receptor stimulation, of which inhibition occurred in developing effector T helper and regulatory T cells, regardless of the different exogenous cytokines. Interestingly, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly and dose-dependently increased by CQ, and more potently by AQ, while other cell cycle regulators were unchanged. Both CQ and AQ elevated the transcription level of p21 though the activation of p53, but also blocked p21 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide, causing p21 protein accumulation mainly in the nucleus. Sustained treatment of developing T cells with either CQ or AQ suppressed IFN-γ production in a dose dependent manner and potently inhibited the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These results demonstrate that CQ and AQ increase the expression level of p21 and inhibit T cell proliferation and the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, thereby revealing beneficial roles in treating a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases mediated by inflammatory T cells. -- Highlights: •T cell division rates are suppressed by chloroquine and amodiaquine treatment. •Chloroquine and amodiaquine potently increased the p21 expression. •The p21 induction is

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine and amodiaquine through p21-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sera; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jang, Eun Jung; Won, Hee Yeon; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi- Gyeong [College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Soo [Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478 (United States); Hwang, Eun Sook, E-mail: eshwang@ewha.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-27

    Chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) have been used for treating or preventing malaria for decades, and their application has expanded into treating inflammatory disease in humans. CQ and AQ are applicable for controlling rheumatoid arthritis, but their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and AQ on T cell activation and T cell-mediated immune response. CQ had no significant effect on T cell numbers, but decreased the population of T cells with a high division rate. However, AQ treatment significantly increased the number of cells with low division rates and eliminated cells with high division rates, resulting in the inhibition of T cell proliferation triggered by T cell receptor stimulation, of which inhibition occurred in developing effector T helper and regulatory T cells, regardless of the different exogenous cytokines. Interestingly, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly and dose-dependently increased by CQ, and more potently by AQ, while other cell cycle regulators were unchanged. Both CQ and AQ elevated the transcription level of p21 though the activation of p53, but also blocked p21 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide, causing p21 protein accumulation mainly in the nucleus. Sustained treatment of developing T cells with either CQ or AQ suppressed IFN-γ production in a dose dependent manner and potently inhibited the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These results demonstrate that CQ and AQ increase the expression level of p21 and inhibit T cell proliferation and the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, thereby revealing beneficial roles in treating a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases mediated by inflammatory T cells. -- Highlights: •T cell division rates are suppressed by chloroquine and amodiaquine treatment. •Chloroquine and amodiaquine potently increased the p21 expression. •The p21 induction is

  3. IL-27 regulates the adherence, proliferation, and migration of MSCs and enhances their regulatory effects on Th1 and Th2 subset generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fenghuang; Yi, Junzhu; Wang, Zhuoya; Hu, Yejia; Han, Chunlei; Xue, Qun; Zhang, Xueguang; Luan, Xiying

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin 27 (IL-27) regulates T cell function and is involved in inflammation. It has been reported that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hPMSCs) can inhibit T cell responses and attenuate inflammation reactions. However, it is unclear whether IL-27 can regulate hPMSC function. Here, we examined the effects of IL-27 upon adherence, migration, and proliferation as well as the immunomodulatory effects of hPMSCs. The results show that IL-27 receptor α chain (IL-27Rα) is expressed in hPMSCs. IL-27 at 30 ng/ml inhibited hPMSC adherence and proliferation, while the migration of hPMSCs was promoted with IL-27 at doses of 20 or 30 ng/ml, as determined with use of real-time cell analysis (RTCA). Moreover, IL-27 promoted regulatory effects of hPMSCs through enhancing Th2 and suppressing Th1 subset generation from activated T cells in human peripheral blood. IL-27 also enhanced the ability of hPMSCs to secrete IL-10 from CD4 + T cells through increased expression levels of the programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) in hPMSCs via the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling pathway. In conclusion, IL-27 has significant modulatory effects on adherence, proliferation, and migration of hPMSCs. IL-27 increased PDL1 expression levels in hPMSCs via the JAK/STAT1 pathway, which then enhanced the regulatory effects of hPMSCs upon Th1 and Th2 cell generations and IL-10 secretion from CD4 + T cells.

  4. CCR6+ Th cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons with multiple sclerosis are dominated by pathogenic non-classic Th1 cells and GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restorick, S M; Durant, L; Kalra, S; Hassan-Smith, G; Rathbone, E; Douglas, M R; Curnow, S J

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to CCR6 + IL-17-secreting CD4 + T cells (Th17) in the pathology of a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, other Th subsets also play important pathogenic roles, including those that secrete IFNγ and GM-CSF. CCR6 expression by Th17 cells allows their migration across the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they are involved in the early phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and in MS these cells are elevated in the CSF during relapses and contain high frequencies of autoreactive cells. However, the relatively low frequency of Th17 cells suggests they cannot by themselves account for the high percentage of CCR6 + cells in MS CSF. Here we identify the dominant CCR6 + T cell subsets in both the blood and CSF as non-classic Th1 cells, including many that secrete GM-CSF, a key encephalitogenic cytokine. In addition, we show that Th cells secreting GM-CSF but not IFNγ or IL-17, a subset termed GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells, also accumulate in the CSF. Importantly, in MS the proportion of IFNγ- and GM-CSF-secreting T cells expressing CCR6 was significantly enriched in the CSF, and was elevated in MS, suggesting these cells play a pathogenic role in this disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polarization of T-helper lymphocytes toward the Th2 phenotype in uremic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libetta, C; Rampino, T; Dal Canton, A

    2001-08-01

    T-helper (Th) lymphocytes consist of Th1 and Th2 subsets. Th1 cells are effectors of cell-mediated immunity and secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which recruits new Th1 cells in cooperation with interleukin-12 (IL-12; produced by monocytes) and inhibits Th2 differentiation. Th2 cells produce IL-4 and IL-10, which inhibit IFN-gamma secretion and cell immunity. We investigated whether the impaired immune response in uremia is associated with an altered balance of Th1/Th2. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) on conservative treatment (CRF patients), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis therapy (ESRD-HD patients), and healthy controls (CON). CD4(+) cells were isolated from PBMCs by negative selection using a magnetic labeling system. PBMCs and purified CD4(+) cells were cultured in Iscove's medium and Iscove's medium plus mitogens (phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide). IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured in supernatant. The constitutive release of IL-4 and IL-10 by PBMCs and CD4(+) cells of CRF and ESRD-HD patients was increased by five to eight times in comparison with CON (P CON, 115.8 pg/2 x10(6) cells; CRF, 81.8 pg/2 x10(6) cells; ESRD-HD, 9.3 pg/2 x10(6) cells; CD4(+) cells: CON, 358.0 pg/5 x 10(5) cells; CRF, 165.4 pg/5 x 10(5) cells; ESRD-HD, 43.5 pg/5 x 10(5) cells). The ability of PBMCs of ESRD-HD patients to secrete IFN-gamma was recovered after IL-4 and IL-10 neutralization. Uremia is associated with a prevalence of Th1 over Th2 cells and a configuration of cytokine network that depresses cell-mediated immunity.

  6. Th17-lineage cells in pulmonary sarcoidosis and Löfgren's syndrome: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Jelle R; Kaiser, Ylva; Broos, Caroline E; Wijsenbeek, Marlies S; Grunewald, Johan; Kool, Mirjam

    2018-02-01

    Sarcoidosis, a multisystem granulomatous disorder, has historically been classified as Th1-driven disease. However, increasing data demonstrate a key role of Th17-cell plasticity in granuloma formation and maintenance. In Löfgren's syndrome (LS), an acute and distinct phenotype of sarcoidosis with a favorable outcome, differences in Th17-lineage cell subsets, cytokine expression and T-cell suppressive mechanisms may account for differences in clinical presentation as well as prognosis compared to non-LS sarcoidosis. In contrast with LS, up to 20% of non-LS sarcoidosis patients may progress to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. In non-LS sarcoidosis patients, IFN-γ-producing Th17.1-cells appear to be more pathogenic and possibly linked to disease progression, while a broader range of cytokines is found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in LS patients. Differences in Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression on Th17-cells and regulatory T-cells (Treg) could contribute to Th17-cell pathogenicity and consequently to either disease resolution or ongoing inflammation in sarcoidosis. Furthermore, several genes and SNPs are associated with disease susceptibility and outcome in sarcoidosis, the majority of which are involved in antigen presentation, T-cell activation or regulation of T-cell survival. Novel insights into the role of Th17-cells in the pathogenesis of both LS and non-LS sarcoidosis will unravel pathogenic and benign Th17-lineage cell function and drivers of Th17-cell plasticity. This will also help identify new treatment strategies for LS and non-LS sarcoidosis patients by altering Th17-cell activation, suppress conversion into more pathogenic subtypes, or influence cytokine signaling towards a beneficial signature of Th17-lineage cells. In this review, we summarize new insights into Th17-cell plasticity in the complex pathogenesis of sarcoidosis and connect these cells to the different disease phenotypes, discuss the role of genetic

  7. The role of CD154-CD40 versus CD28-B7 costimulatory pathways in regulating allogeneic Th1 and Th2 responses in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishimoto, K; Dong, V M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2000-01-01

    We used signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and STAT6 gene knockout (-/-) mice as recipients of fully mismatched cardiac allografts to study the role of T-cell costimulatory pathways in regulating allogeneic T-helper 1 (Th1) versus Th2 responses in vivo. STAT4(-/-) mice have...... impaired Th1 responses, whereas STAT6(-/-) mice do not generate normal Th2 responses. Cardiac allografts from C57BL/6 mice were transplanted into normal wild-type (WT), STAT4(-/-), and STAT6(-/-) BALB/c recipients. STAT4(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice rejected their grafts with the same tempo as untreated WT....... Furthermore, there was a similar differential effect of CD28-B7 versus CD154-CD40 blockade in inhibiting immune responses in animals immunized with ovalbumin and complete Freund's adjuvant. These novel data indicate that Th1 and Th2 cells are differentially regulated by CD28-B7 versus CD154-CD40 costimulation...

  8. A Distinct Inhibitory Function for miR-18a in Th17 Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Misty M; Maul, Julia; Singh, Priti B; Pua, Heather H; Dahlström, Frank; Wu, Nanyan; Huang, Xiaozhu; Ansel, K Mark; Baumjohann, Dirk

    2017-07-15

    Th17 cell responses orchestrate immunity against extracellular pathogens but also underlie autoimmune disease pathogenesis. In this study, we uncovered a distinct and critical role for miR-18a in limiting Th17 cell differentiation. miR-18a was the most dynamically upregulated microRNA of the miR-17-92 cluster in activated T cells. miR-18a deficiency enhanced CCR6 + RAR-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt + Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and increased the number of tissue Th17 cells expressing CCR6, RORγt, and IL-17A in airway inflammation models in vivo. Sequence-specific miR-18 inhibitors increased CCR6 and RORγt expression in mouse and human CD4 + T cells, revealing functional conservation. miR-18a directly targeted Smad4 , Hif1a , and Rora , all key transcription factors in the Th17 cell gene-expression program. These findings indicate that activating signals influence the outcome of Th cell differentiation via differential regulation of mature microRNAs within a common cluster. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Concentration of thorium isotopes and the activity ratios of 230Th/232Th and 228Th/232Th in seawater in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuo; Sugimura, Yukio; Yasujima, Tadahide.

    1978-01-01

    The concentration of thorium isotopes and the activity ratios of 230 Th/ 232 Th and 228 Th/ 232 Th in 500 l sea water samples collected in the Pacific Ocean were determined. Thorium isotopes were analyzed by alpha-ray spectrometry after separating them from other elements with an anion exchange resin. The average content of thorium ( 232 Th) of 0.9 ng l -1 was obtained in the open Pacific water. The average contents of 230 Th and 228 Th were 2.1 x 10 -2 pgl -1 and 1.2 agl -1 respectively. It was found that the ratios of 230 Th/ 232 Th and 228 Th/ 232 Th ranged respectively from 1.0 to 29, and from 0.4 to as high as 128. (author)

  10. Oral beta-glucan adjuvant therapy converts nonprotective Th2 response to protective Th1 cell-mediated immune response in mammary tumor-bearing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon D Ross

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Beta (1-3-D-glucans were identified almost 40 years ago as biological response modifiers that stimulated tumor rejection. In vitro studies have shown that beta-glucans bind to a lectin domain within complement receptor type 3 (CR3, or to, more recently described dectin-1 a beta-glucan specific receptor, acting mainly on phagocytic cells. In this study, we assessed the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes from mice bearing mammary tumors receiving i.v. anti-tumor mAbs combined or not with whole glucan particle suspension given orally (WGP, 400 microg every 24 hours. The proportions of T cells producing IL-4 and IFNgamma were determined by flow cytometry. The proportion of T cells producing IL-4 was significantly higher in tumor-bearing mice not receiving beta-glucan-enhanced therapy. Conversely, T cells from mice undergoing beta-glucan-enhanced therapy showed increased production of the Th1 cytokine IFNgamma. The switch from a Th2 to a Th1 response after WGP therapy was possibly mediated by intestinal mucosal macrophages releasing IL-12.

  11. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Prevent Allostimulation In Vivo and Control Checkpoints of Th1 Priming: Migration of Human DC to Lymph Nodes and NK Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consentius, C; Akyüz, L; Schmidt-Lucke, J A; Tschöpe, C; Pinzur, L; Ofir, R; Reinke, P; Volk, H-D; Juelke, K

    2015-10-01

    Although the immunomodulatory potency of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is well established, the mechanisms behind are still not clear. The crosstalk between myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and natural killer (NK) cells and especially NK cell-derived interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) play a pivotal role in the development of type 1 helper (Th1) cell immune responses. While many studies explored the isolated impact of MSC on either in vitro generated DC, NK, or T cells, there are only few data available on the complex interplay between these cells. Here, we investigated the impact of MSC on the functionality of human mDC and the consequences for NK cell and Th1 priming in vitro and in vivo. In critical limb ischemia patients, who have been treated with allogeneic placenta-derived mesenchymal-like stromal cells (PLX-PAD), no in vivo priming of Th1 responses toward the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatches could be detected. Further in vitro studies revealed that mDC reprogramming could play a central role for these effects. Following crosstalk with MSC, activated mDC acquired a tolerogenic phenotype characterized by reduced migration toward CCR7 ligand and impaired ability to stimulate NK cell-derived IFN-γ production. These effects, which were strongly related to an altered interleukin (IL)-12/IL-10 production by mDC, were accompanied by an effective prevention of Th1 priming in vivo. Our findings provide novel evidence for the regulation of Th1 priming by MSC via modulation of mDC and NK cell crosstalk and show that off-the-shelf produced MHC-mismatched PLX-PAD can be used in patients without any sign of immunogenicity. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  12. The cytokine polymorphisms affecting Th1/Th2 increase the susceptibility to, and severity of, chronic ITP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Takayuki; Gotoh, Nanami; Nitta, Yasuhiro; Alkebsi, Lobna; Kasamatsu, Tetsuhiro; Minato, Yusuke; Yokohama, Akihiko; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Handa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hirokazu

    2017-05-16

    T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) polarization in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) has been reported at the protein and mRNA levels. We evaluated the impact of Th1/Th2 cytokine and cytokine receptor functional polymorphisms on both susceptibility to, and severity of, cITP. We analysed IFN-γ + 874 T/A, IFN-γR -611G/A, IL-4 -590C/T, and IL-4Rα Q576R polymorphisms in 126 cITP patients (male/female: 34/92; median age: 47.7 years) and 202 healthy control donors. Genotyping was determined by PCR and direct sequencing. The Th1/Th2 ratio was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells via flow cytometry. cITP patients had a higher frequency of the IL-4Rα 576 non-QQ genotype compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.04). cITP patients with the IFN-γ +874 non-AA genotype (high expression type) showed more severe thrombocytopenia than those with the AA genotype (P Th1/Th2 ratio than control patients (P Th1/Th2 ratio (P Th1/Th2 increase the susceptibility to, and severity of, chronic ITP.

  13. Association between Th1/Th2 immune imbalance and obesity in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Shi, Bingwei; Wang, Juan; Cao, Peixia; Diao, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Yali; Li, Shuping

    2018-02-15

    This study aimed to investigate the Th1/Th2 cells in peripheral blood of PCOS patients, and assess the potential correlation between Th1/Th2 imbalance and obesity. Thirty-nine PCOS patients and 23 age-matched controls were enrolled. The PBMCs were obtained before pharmacological intervention in women with or without PCOS. The profiles of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines of CD3 + CD - T lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Plasma sex hormones including E 2 , T, FSH, LH, and FINS, FPG were measured, together with BMI, WC, LH/FSH, E 2 /T and HOMA-IR index being calculated. Association between Th1/Th2 imbalance and BMI, WC were evaluated. The proportion of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were significantly higher in PCOS patients than those in controls, accompanied by elevated T, LH, LH/FSH, FINS, HOMA-IR index and reduced E 2 /T. The Th1/Th2 ratio was increased when BMI and WC were enhanced in PCOS. Moreover, the significant difference of Th1/Th2 ratio was observed between WC subgroups of PCOS. It is concluded that Th1 type immunity is predominant in systemic immunization of PCOS patients. Th1/Th2 immune imbalance is connected with obesity, especially abdominal obesity, and may be one of the underlying mechanism for the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  14. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+) T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+) cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+) cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  15. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+ T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA. In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+ T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+ cell as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+ cell differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight pretreatment (4 weeks. These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  16. n3 PUFAs reduce mouse CD4+ T-cell ex vivo polarization into Th17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Hou, Tim Y; Turk, Harmony F; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of n3 (ω3) PUFAs on polarization of CD4(+) T cells into effector subsets other than Th1 and Th2. We assessed the effects of dietary fat [corn oil (CO) vs. fish oil (FO)] and fermentable fiber [cellulose (C) vs. pectin (P)] (2 × 2 design) in male C57BL/6 mice fed CO-C, CO-P, FO-C, or FO-P diets for 3 wk on the ex vivo polarization of purified splenic CD4(+) T cells (using magnetic microbeads) into regulatory T cells [Tregs; forkhead box P3 (Foxp3(+)) cells] or Th17 cells [interleukin (IL)-17A(+) and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) γτ(+) cells] by flow cytometry. Treg polarization was unaffected by diet; however, FO independently reduced the percentage of both CD4(+) IL-17A(+) (P diets enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or DHA + EPA similarly reduced Th17-cell polarization in comparison to CO by reducing expression of the Th17-cell signature cytokine (IL-17A; P = 0.0015) and transcription factor (RORγτ P = 0.02), whereas Treg polarization was unaffected. Collectively, these data show that n3 PUFAs exert a direct effect on the development of Th17 cells in healthy mice, implicating a novel n3 PUFA-dependent, anti-inflammatory mechanism of action via the suppression of the initial development of this inflammatory T-cell subset.

  17. Interactions between Th1 cells and Tregs affect regulation of hepatic fibrosis in biliary atresia through the IFN-γ/STAT1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jie; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie; Yan, Wenbo; Wu, Jin; Yan, Junkai; Zhou, Kejun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Xia, Qiang; Cai, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4 + T helper (Th) cells have important roles in bile duct injury of biliary atresia (BA). However, their impacts on liver fibrosis are undefined. Between 2013 and 2016, 146 patients with various stages of BA were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood, liver biopsy and lymph node samples were collected. Flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting and immunostaining were used to characterize lymphocytes from BA patients. Deficiency of Tregs was observed along with increased Th1, Th2 and Th17 frequencies in the peripheral blood and livers of BA patients. The levels of peripheral and intrahepatic Th1 cells positively correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis. Furthermore, Th1 cells were located in close proximity to activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and areas of fibrosis in BA livers. In culture, Th1 cells accelerated the proliferation and secretion of profibrogenic markers of HSCs through the IFN-γ/STAT1 pathway. Of note, Tregs blocked the Th1-stimulated effects on HSCs by inhibiting Th1-induced activation of STAT1. Consistent with the results of in vitro study, intrahepatic IFN-γ/STAT1 levels increased in relation to the severity of liver fibrosis in BA patients, and the altered balance between MMP2 and TIMP1 expressions in livers may contribute to increased deposition of extracellular matrix and fibrosis. Finally, to identify the effects of Th1 cells on Tregs, we demonstrated that Th1 cells upregulated the proportion of aTreg cells by secreting IFN-γ cytokine. Thus, aberrant Th1 immune responses in BA promote the proliferation and secretion of HSCs through the IFN-γ/STAT1 pathway. The regulation of HSCs by the interactions between Tregs and Th1 cells might be part of the mechanism underlying progressive liver fibrosis and may be a suitable target for therapy.

  18. Regulation of Th1 cells and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by glycogen synthase kinase-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, Eléonore; Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Yeh, Wen-I; Song, Ling; Palomo, Valle; Michalek, Suzanne M.; Woodgett, James R.; Harrington, Laurie E.; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Martinez, Ana; Jope, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a rodent model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a debilitating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, for which only limited therapeutic interventions are available. Since MS is mediated in part by autoreactive T cells, particularly Th17 and Th1 cells, in the present study, we tested if inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), previously reported to reduce Th17 cell generation, also alter Th1 cell production or ameliorate EAE. GSK3 inhibitors were found to impede the production of Th1 cells by reducing STAT1 activation. Molecularly reducing the expression of either of the two GSK3 isoforms demonstrated that Th17 cell production was sensitive to reduced levels of GSK3β, and Th1 cell production was inhibited in GSK3α-deficient cells. Administration of the selective GSK3 inhibitors TDZD-8, VP2.51, VP0.7, or L803-mts, significantly reduced the clinical symptoms of MOG35-55-induced EAE in mice, nearly eliminating the chronic progressive phase, and reduced the number of Th17 and Th1 cells in the spinal cord. Administration of TDZD-8 or L803-mts after the initial disease episode ameliorated clinical symptoms in a relapsing/remitting model of PLP139-151-induced EAE. Furthermore, deletion of GSK3β specifically in T cells was sufficient to ameliorate MOG35-55-induced EAE. These results demonstrate isoform-selective effects of GSK3 on T cell generation, therapeutic effects of GSK3 inhibitors in EAE, and that GSK3 inhibition in T cells is sufficient to reduce the severity of EAE, suggesting that GSK3 may be a feasible target for developing new therapeutic interventions for MS. PMID:23606540

  19. Pneumocystis-Driven Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Formation Requires Th2 and Th17 Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddens, Taylor; Elsegeiny, Waleed; Garcia-Hernadez, Maria de la Luz; Castillo, Patricia; Trevejo-Nunez, Giraldina; Serody, Katelin; Campfield, Brian T; Khader, Shabaana A; Chen, Kong; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Kolls, Jay K

    2017-03-28

    Inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) is an ectopic lymphoid structure composed of highly organized T cell and B cell zones that forms in the lung in response to infectious or inflammatory stimuli. Here, we develop a model for fungal-mediated iBALT formation, using infection with Pneumocystis that induces development of pulmonary lymphoid follicles. Pneumocystis-dependent iBALT structure formation and organization required CXCL13 signaling. Cxcl13 expression was regulated by interleukin (IL)-17 family members, as Il17ra -/- , Il17rb -/- , and Il17rc -/- mice failed to develop iBALT. Interestingly, Il17rb -/- mice have intact Th17 responses, but failed to generate an anti-Pneumocystis Th2 response. Given a role for Th2 and Th17 immunity in iBALT formation, we demonstrated that primary pulmonary fibroblasts synergistically upregulated Cxcl13 transcription following dual stimulation with IL-13 and IL-17A in a STAT3/GATA3-dependent manner. Together, these findings uncover a role for Th2/Th17 cells in regulating Cxcl13 expression and provide an experimental model for fungal-driven iBALT formation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Curcumin attenuates the scurfy-induced immune disorder, a model of IPEX syndrome, with inhibiting Th1/Th2/Th17 responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Kyeseok; Lee, Hyeonhoon; Kim, Minhwan; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-09-15

    Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome (IPEX) is a lethal autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the Foxp3 gene scurfin (scurfy). Immunosuppressive therapy for IPEX patients has been generally ineffective and has caused severe side effects, however curcumin has shown immune regulation properties for inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel diseases without side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin would attenuate symptoms of IPEX in mouse model and would prolong its survival period. C57BL/6 mice were separated into scurfy or wild-type litter mate groups by genotyping, and each group subsequently was separated into 2 subgroups that were fed a 1% curcumin containing or normal diet from the last day of breast-feeding. After weaning, pups were fed either a 1% curcumin containing or normal diet until all scurfy mice die for survival data. To elucidate immune cell proportions in spleen and lymph nodes, cells were analyzed by flowcytometry. Cellular cytokine production was accessed to investigate the effects of curcumin in T cell differentiation in vitro. Scurfy mice fed a 1% curcumin diet survived 4.0-fold longer compared to scurfy (92.5 days) mice fed a normal diet (23 days). A curcumin diet decreased all of the Th1/Th2/Th17 cell populations and attenuated diverse symptoms such as splenomegaly in scurfy mice. In vitro experiments showed that curcumin treatment directly decreased the Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A in CD4 + T cells. Curcumin diet attenuated the scurfy-induced immune disorder, a model of IPEX syndrome, by inhibiting Th1/Th2/Th17 responses in mice. These results have implications for improving clinical therapy for patients with IPEX and other T cell related autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. B Cells Promote Th1- Skewed NKT Cell Response by CD1d-TCR Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Park, Se-Ho

    2013-01-01

    CD1d expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are good glyco-lipid antigen presenting cells for NKT cells. However, resting B cells are very weak stimulators for NKT cells. Although ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) loaded B cells can activate NKT cells, it is not well defined whether B cells interfere NKT cell stimulating activity of DCs. Unexpectedly, we found in this study that B cells can promote Th1-skewed NKT cell response, which means a increased level of IFN-? by NKT cells, concomitant with a d...

  2. Simultaneous detection of decidual Th1/Th2 and NK1/NK2 immunophenotyping in unknown recurrent miscarriage using 8-color flow cytometry with FSC/Vt extended strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Wen, Xi; Liu, Jia; Yan, Cui-Yan; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Lan-Rong; Hu, Qiao-Fei; Li, Jian

    2017-06-30

    Th1/Th2 imbalance is considered as a mechanism for recurrent miscarriage. The NK1/NK2 paradigm is hypothesised to play an important role in pregnancy. However, few results showed simultaneous changes of these subsets in vivo in decidual tissues. The present study aimed to detect the decidual mononuclear cells (dMo), and the Th1/Th2, and NK1/NK2 paradigm simultaneously using multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) in unexplained recurrent miscarriages (URM). Mononuclear cells were isolated from the decidual tissues of URM cases and early pregnant women. The mononuclear cell percent was demonstrated by detecting the expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, and CD16 extracellular markers, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-4 intracellular markers in live cells using 8-color flow cytometry with forward scatter (FSC)/side scatter (SSC) and FSC/viability (Vt) initial gating strategies, and the ratios of Th1/Th2 and decidual NK1 (dNK1)/decidual NK2 (dNK2) cells were compared between the subject groups. Two initial gating strategies of the FSC/SSC or FSC/Vt, with central or extended gating scales, were adapted, and there was no main effect or interaction for the cell proportions, except for the type 1 and type 2 subsets in the FSC/Vt extended gating strategy. There was no significant difference of the proportions of the decidual T, dNK, NKT-like, Th, and Tc cells between the two groups. However, the Th1/Th2 and dNK1/dNK2 ratios in the URM patients were higher compared with the normal group when using the FSC/Vt extended gating strategy. The present study provides means to detect Th1/Th2 and dNK1/dNK2 simultaneously in URM patients for large sample investigations in the future. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Blockade of PD-1 Signaling Enhances Th2 Cell Responses and Aggravates Liver Immunopathology in Mice with Schistosomiasis japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 220 million people worldwide are chronically infected with schistosomes, causing severe disease or even death. The major pathological damage occurring in schistosomiasis is attributable to the granulomatous inflammatory response and liver fibrosis induced by schistosome eggs. The inflammatory response is tightly controlled and parallels immunosuppressive regulation, constantly maintaining immune homeostasis and limiting excessive immunopathologic damage in important host organs. It is well known that the activation of programmed death 1 (PD-1 signaling causes a significant suppression of T cell function. However, the roles of PD-1 signaling in modulating CD4+ T cell responses and immunopathology during schistosome infection, have yet to be defined.Here, we show that PD-1 is upregulated in CD4+ T cells in Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum-infected patients. We also show the upregulation of PD-1 expression in CD4+ T cells in the spleens, mesenteric lymph nodes, and livers of mice with S. japonicum infection. Finally, we found that the blockade of PD-1 signaling enhanced CD4+ T helper 2 (Th2 cell responses and led to more severe liver immunopathology in mice with S. japonicum infection, without a reduction of egg production or deposition in the host liver.Overall, our study suggests that PD-1 signaling is specifically induced to control Th2-associated inflammatory responses during schistosome infection and is beneficial to the development of PD-1-based control of liver immunopathology.

  4. Hypoxia-activated chemotherapeutic TH-302 enhances the effects of VEGF-A inhibition and radiation on sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, C; Lee, H-J; Park, D J; Lee, Y-J; Tap, W D; Eisinger-Mathason, T S K; Hart, C P; Choy, E; Simon, M C; Yoon, S S

    2015-06-30

    Human sarcomas with a poor response to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) inhibition and radiation therapy (RT) have upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-1α target genes. This study examines the addition of the hypoxia-activated chemotherapy TH-302 to VEGF-A inhibition and RT (a.k.a. trimodality therapy). Trimodality therapy was examined in two xenograft models and in vitro in tumour endothelial cells and sarcoma cell lines. In both mouse models, VEGF-A inhibition and radiation showed greater efficacy than either therapy alone in slowing sarcoma growth. When TH-302 was added, this trimodality therapy completely blocked tumour growth with tumours remaining dormant for over 3 months after cessation of therapy. Trimodality therapy caused 2.6- to 6.2-fold more endothelial cell-specific apoptosis than bimodality therapies, and microvessel density and HIF-1α activity were reduced to 11-13% and 13-20% of control, respectively. When trimodality therapy was examined in vitro, increases in DNA damage and apoptosis were much more pronounced in tumour endothelial cells compared with that in sarcoma cells, especially under hypoxia. The combination of TH-302, VEGF-A inhibition, and RT is highly effective in preclinical models of sarcoma and is associated with increased DNA damage and apoptosis in endothelial cells and decreased HIF-1α activity.

  5. Autoimmune Th17 Cells Induced Synovial Stromal and Innate Lymphoid Cell Secretion of the Cytokine GM-CSF to Initiate and Augment Autoimmune Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Keiji; Hashimoto, Motomu; Ito, Yoshinaga; Matsuura, Mayumi; Ito, Hiromu; Tanaka, Masao; Watanabe, Hitomi; Kondoh, Gen; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yasuda, Keiko; Kopf, Manfred; Potocnik, Alexandre J; Stockinger, Brigitta; Sakaguchi, Noriko; Sakaguchi, Shimon

    2018-06-19

    Despite the importance of Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases, it remains unclear how they control other inflammatory cells in autoimmune tissue damage. Using a model of spontaneous autoimmune arthritis, we showed that arthritogenic Th17 cells stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes via interleukin-17 (IL-17) to secrete the cytokine GM-CSF and also expanded synovial-resident innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in inflamed joints. Activated synovial ILCs, which expressed CD25, IL-33Ra, and TLR9, produced abundant GM-CSF upon stimulation by IL-2, IL-33, or CpG DNA. Loss of GM-CSF production by either ILCs or radio-resistant stromal cells prevented Th17 cell-mediated arthritis. GM-CSF production by Th17 cells augmented chronic inflammation but was dispensable for the initiation of arthritis. We showed that GM-CSF-producing ILCs were present in inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Thus, a cellular cascade of autoimmune Th17 cells, ILCs, and stromal cells, via IL-17 and GM-CSF, mediates chronic joint inflammation and can be a target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Enhance the Efficacy of Adoptive Cell Transfer Using Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes by Modifying the Th1 Polarization and Local Infiltration of Th17 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy using tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs was an important therapeutic strategy against tumors. But the efficacy remains limited and development of new strategies is urgent. Recent evidence suggested that CpG-ODNs might be a potent candidate for tumor immunotherapy. Here we firstly reported that CpG-ODNs could significantly enhance the antitumor efficacy of adoptively transferred TILs in vivo accompanied by enhanced activity capacity and proliferation of CD8+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, as well as a Th1 polarization immune response. Most importantly, we found that CpG-ODNs could significantly elevate the infiltration of Th17 cells in tumor mass, which contributed to anti-tumor efficacy of TILs in vivo. Our findings suggested that CpG ODNs could enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of adoptively transferred TILs through modifying Th1 polarization and local infiltration of Th17 cells, which might provide a clue for developing a new strategy for ACT based on TILs.

  7. Yellow fever vaccine YF-17D activates multiple dendritic cell subsets via TLR2, 7, 8, and 9 to stimulate polyvalent immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querec, Troy; Bennouna, Soumaya; Alkan, Sefik; Laouar, Yasmina; Gorden, Keith; Flavell, Richard; Akira, Shizuo; Ahmed, Rafi; Pulendran, Bali

    2006-02-20

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) is one of the most effective vaccines available, with a 65-yr history of use in >400 million people globally. Despite this efficacy, there is presently no information about the immunological mechanisms by which YF-17D acts. Here, we present data that suggest that YF-17D activates multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on dendritic cells (DCs) to elicit a broad spectrum of innate and adaptive immune responses. Specifically, YF-17D activates multiple DC subsets via TLRs 2, 7, 8, and 9 to elicit the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-6, and interferon-alpha. Interestingly, the resulting adaptive immune responses are characterized by a mixed T helper cell (Th)1/Th2 cytokine profile and antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, distinct TLRs appear to differentially control the Th1/Th2 balance; thus, whilst MyD88-deficient mice show a profound impairment of Th1 cytokines, TLR2-deficient mice show greatly enhanced Th1 and Tc1 responses to YF-17D. Together, these data enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of YF-17D, and highlight the potential of vaccination strategies that use combinations of different TLR ligands to stimulate polyvalent immune responses.

  8. CD4+ T-cell clones obtained from cattle chronically infected with Fasciola hepatica and specific for adult worm antigen express both unrestricted and Th2 cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W C; Davis, W C; Dobbelaere, D A; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1994-01-01

    The well-established importance of helper T (Th)-cell subsets in immunity and immunoregulation of many experimental helminth infections prompted a detailed study of the cellular immune response against Fasciola hepatica in the natural bovine host. T-cell lines established from two cattle infected with F. hepatica were characterized for the expression of T-cell surface markers and proliferative responses against F. hepatica adult worm antigen. Parasite-specific T-cell lines contained a mixture of CD4+, CD8+, and gamma/delta T-cell-receptor-bearing T cells. However, cell lines containing either fewer than 10% CD8+ T cells or depleted of gamma/delta T cells proliferated vigorously against F. hepatica antigen, indicating that these T-cell subsets are not required for proliferative responses in vitro. Seventeen F. hepatica-specific CD4+ Th-cell clones were examined for cytokine expression following concanavalin A stimulation. Biological assays to measure interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-4, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor and Northern (RNA) blot analysis to verify the expression of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma revealed that the Th-cell clones expressed a spectrum of cytokine profiles. Several Th-cell clones were identified as Th2 cells by the strong expression of IL-4 but little or no IL-2 or IFN-gamma mRNA. The majority of Th-cell clones were classified as Th0 cells by the expression of either all three cytokines or combinations of IL-2 and IL-4 or IL-4 and IFN-gamma. No Th1-cell clones were obtained. All of the Th-cell clones expressed a typical memory cell surface phenotype, characterized as CD45Rlow, and all expressed the lymph node homing receptor (L selectin). These results are the first to describe cytokine responses of F. hepatica-specific T cells obtained from infected cattle and extend our previous analysis of Th0 and Th1 cells from cattle immune to Babesia bovis (W. C. Brown, V. M. Woods, D. A. E. Dobbelaere, and K. S. Logan, Infect. Immun. 61

  9. Metabolism of murine TH 17 cells: Impact on cell fate and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Solt, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    An effective adaptive immune response relies on the ability of lymphocytes to rapidly act upon a variety of insults. In T lymphocytes, this response includes cell growth, clonal expansion, differentiation, and cytokine production, all of which place a significant energy burden on the cell. Recent evidence shows that T-cell metabolic reprogramming is an essential component of the adaptive immune response and specific metabolic pathways dictate T-cell fate decisions, including the development of TH 17 versus T regulatory (Treg) cells. TH 17 cells have garnered significant attention due to their roles in the pathology of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Attempts to characterize TH 17 cells have demonstrated that they are highly dynamic, adjusting their function to environmental cues, which dictate their metabolic program. In this review, we highlight recent data demonstrating the impact of cellular metabolism on the TH 17/Treg balance and present factors that mediate TH 17-cell metabolism. Some examples of these include the differential impact of the mTOR signaling complexes on T-helper-cell differentiation, hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) promotion of glycolysis to favor TH 17-cell development, and ACC1-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis favoring TH 17-cell development over Treg cells. Finally, we discuss the potential therapeutic options and the implications of modulating TH 17-cell metabolism for the treatment of TH 17-mediated diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Immunostimulatory Activity of the Cytokine-Based Biologic, IRX-2, on Human Papillomavirus-Exposed Langerhans Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Diane M; Woodham, Andrew W; Naylor, Paul H; Egan, James E; Berinstein, Neil L; Kast, W Martin

    2016-05-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are the antigen-presenting cells of the epithelial layer and are responsible for initiating immune responses against skin and mucosa-invading viruses. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated suppression of LC function is a crucial mechanism of HPV immune evasion, which can lead to persistent infection and development of several human cancers, including cervical, anal, and head and neck cancers. The cell-derived cytokine-based biologic, IRX-2, consists of multiple well-defined cytokines and is broadly active on various immune cell subsets. In this study, we investigated primary human LC activation after exposure to HPV16, followed by treatment with IRX-2 in vitro, and evaluated their subsequent ability to induce HPV16-specific T cells. In contrast to its activity on dendritic cells, HPV16 alone is not sufficient to induce phenotypic and functional activation of LCs. However, IRX-2 induces a significant upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory molecules, T helper 1 (Th1)-associated cytokine release, and chemokine-directed migration of LCs pre-exposed to HPV16. Furthermore, LCs treated with IRX-2 after HPV16 exposure induced CD8(+) T-cell responses against specific HLA-A*0201-binding HPV16 T-cell epitopes. The present study suggests that IRX-2 is an attractive immunomodulator for assisting the immune response in eradication of HPV-infected cells, thereby potentially preventing HPV-induced cancers.

  11. Targeting beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors differentially shifts Th1, Th2, and inflammatory cytokine profiles in immune organs to attenuate adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne eLorton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulates host defense responses and restores homeostasis. SNS-immune regulation is altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and rodent models of RA, characterized by nerve remodeling in immune organs and defective adrenergic receptor (AR signaling to immune cell targets that typically promotes or suppresses inflammation via α- and β2-AR activation, respectively, and indirectly drives humoral immunity by blocking Th1 cytokine secretion. Here, we investigate how β2-AR stimulation and/or α-AR blockade at disease onset affects disease pathology and cytokine profiles in relevant immune organs from male Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA. Rats challenged to induce AA were treated with terbutaline (TERB, a β2-AR agonist (600 μg/kg/day and/or phentolamine (PHEN, an α-AR antagonist (5.0 mg/kg/day or vehicle from disease onset through severe disease. We report that in spleen, mesenteric (MLN and draining lymph node (DLN cells, TERB reduces proliferation, an effect independent of IL-2. TERB also fails to shift Th cytokines from a Th1 to Th2 profile in spleen and MLN (no effect on IFN-γ and DLN (greater IFN-γ cells. In splenocytes, TERB, PHEN and co-treatment (PT promotes an anti-inflammatory profile (greater IL-10 and lowers TNF-α (PT only. In DLN cells, drug treatments do not affect inflammatory profiles, except PT, which raised IL-10. In MLN cells, TERB or PHEN lowers MLN cell secretion of TNF-α or IL-10, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate disrupted β2-AR, but not α-AR signaling in AA. Aberrant β2-AR signaling consequently derails the sympathetic regulation of lymphocyte expansion, Th cell differentiation, and inflammation in the spleen, DLNs and MLNs that is required for immune system homeostasis. Importantly, this study provides potential mechanisms through which reestablished balance between α- and β2-AR function in the immune system ameliorates inflammation and joint

  12. miR-148a is upregulated by Twist1 and T-bet and promotes Th1-cell survival by regulating the proapoptotic gene Bim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftmann, Claudia; Stittrich, Anna-Barbara; Zimmermann, Jakob; Fang, Zhuo; Hradilkova, Kristyna; Bardua, Markus; Westendorf, Kerstin; Heinz, Gitta A; Riedel, René; Siede, Julia; Lehmann, Katrin; Weinberger, Esther E; Zimmel, David; Lauer, Uta; Häupl, Thomas; Sieper, Joachim; Backhaus, Marina; Neumann, Christian; Hoffmann, Ute; Porstner, Martina; Chen, Wei; Grün, Joachim R; Baumgrass, Ria; Matz, Mareen; Löhning, Max; Scheffold, Alexander; Wittmann, Jürgen; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Radbruch, Andreas; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin

    2015-04-01

    Repeatedly activated T helper 1 (Th1) cells present during chronic inflammation can efficiently adapt to the inflammatory milieu, for example, by expressing the transcription factor Twist1, which limits the immunopathology caused by Th1 cells. Here, we show that in repeatedly activated murine Th1 cells, Twist1 and T-bet induce expression of microRNA-148a (miR-148a). miR-148a regulates expression of the proapoptotic gene Bim, resulting in a decreased Bim/Bcl2 ratio. Inhibition of miR-148a by antagomirs in repeatedly activated Th1 cells increases the expression of Bim, leading to enhanced apoptosis. Knockdown of Bim expression by siRNA in miR-148a antagomir-treated cells restores viability of the Th1 cells, demonstrating that miR-148a controls survival by regulating Bim expression. Thus, Twist1 and T-bet not only control the differentiation and function of Th1 cells, but also their persistence in chronic inflammation. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The clinical severity score of chronic actinic dermatitis correlates with in vivo photoallergic reactions and the immunologic parameters related to a shift towards Th2 immunity from the Th2/Th1 balanced status in patients with chronic actinic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dong-Yeob; Choi, Seung-Hwan; Ha, Seung-Min; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Song, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Kyeong Hee; Kim, Ki-Ho

    2016-07-01

    Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) has a more complicated pathogenetic basis than others. The clinical grading system and its correlations with the clinical and immunological parameters still remained to be investigated to define the nature of CAD in a more detailed manner. We investigated correlations of the clinical severity score of CAD (CSS-CAD) with the clinical and immunological parameters. We evaluated 72 patients with CAD and classified them into three groups according to the CSS-CAD. We analysed total IgE level, peripheral blood (PB) eosinophil count, the ratio of Th2cell (CCR4 + CD4 +) percentage over Th1 cell (CXCR3 + CD4 +) percentage (Th2/Th1) and/or the sum of suppressor/cytotoxic T cells. The total IgE levels and the percentage of PB eosinophils were higher in the severer group than other groups. A shift towards Th2 from Th2/Th1 balanced status may be affected by total counts of suppressor T cells, and the patient with higher Th2/Th1 ratio than balanced status had the more proportion in the severer CSS-CAD group than other groups. The CSS-CAD correlates with total IgE level, PB eosinophil count and a shift towards Th2 immunity from Th2/Th1. So we suggest the Th1/Th2 dysbalance may be affected by the CSS-CAD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Interferon-β Suppresses Murine Th1 Cell Function in the Absence of Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Nicolas; Baillargeon, Joanie; Doss, Prenitha Mercy Ignatius Arokia; Roy, Andrée-Pascale; Rangachari, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β is a front-line therapy for the treatment of the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis. However, its immunosuppressive mechanism of function remains incompletely understood. While it has been proposed that IFN-β suppresses the function of inflammatory myelin antigen-reactive T cells by promoting the release of immunomodulatory cytokines such as IL-27 from antigen-presenting cells (APCs), its direct effects on inflammatory CD4+ Th1 cells are less clear. Here, we establish that IFN-β inhibits mouse IFN-γ+ Th1 cell function in the absence of APCs. CD4+ T cells express the type I interferon receptor, and IFN-β can suppress Th1 cell proliferation under APC-free stimulation conditions. IFN-β-treated myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells are impaired in their ability to induce severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) upon transfer to lymphocyte-deficient Rag1-/- mice. Polarized Th1 cells downregulate IFN-γ and IL-2, and upregulate the negative regulatory receptor Tim-3, when treated with IFN-β in the absence of APCs. Further, IFN-β treatment of Th1 cells upregulates phosphorylation of Stat1, and downregulates phosphorylation of Stat4. Our data indicate that IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells are directly responsive to IFN-β and point to a novel mechanism of IFN-β-mediated T cell suppression that is independent of APC-derived signals. PMID:25885435

  15. β-Arrestin-2-Dependent Signaling Promotes CCR4-mediated Chemotaxis of Murine T-Helper Type 2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui; Choi, Yeon Ho; Zidar, David A; Walker, Julia K L

    2018-06-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disease that leads to significant healthcare costs and reduction in quality of life. Although many cell types are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, CD4 + T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cells are centrally involved. We previously reported that the asthma phenotype is virtually absent in ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged mice that lack global expression of β-arrestin (β-arr)-2 and that CD4 + T cells from these mice displayed significantly reduced CCL22-mediated chemotaxis. Because CCL22-mediated activation of CCR4 plays a role in Th2 cell regulation in asthmatic inflammation, we hypothesized that CCR4-mediated migration of CD4 + Th2 cells to the lung in asthma may use β-arr-dependent signaling. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of various signaling inhibitors on CCL22-induced chemotaxis using in vitro-polarized primary CD4 + Th2 cells from β-arr2-knockout and wild-type mice. Our results show, for the first time, that CCL22-induced, CCR4-mediated Th2 cell chemotaxis is dependent, in part, on a β-arr2-dependent signaling pathway. In addition, we show that this chemotactic signaling mechanism involves activation of P-p38 and Rho-associated protein kinase. These findings point to a proinflammatory role for β-arr2-dependent signaling and support β-arr2 as a novel therapeutic target in asthma.

  16. Cholera Toxin Promotes Th17 Cell Differentiation by Modulating Expression of Polarizing Cytokines and the Antigen-Presenting Potential of Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ok; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT), an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholera, acts as a mucosal adjuvant. In a previous study, we showed that CT skews differentiation of CD4 T cells to IL-17-producing Th17 cells. Here, we found that intranasal administration of CT induced migration of migratory dendritic cell (DC) populations, CD103+ DCs and CD11bhi DCs, to the lung draining mediastinal lymph nodes (medLN). Among those DC subsets, CD11bhi DCs that were relatively immature had a major role in Th17 cell differentiation after administration of CT. CT-treated BMDCs showed reduced expression of MHC class II and CD86, similar to CD11bhi DCs in medLN, and these BMDCs promoted Th17 cell differentiation more potently than other BMDCs expressing higher levels of MHC class II and CD86. By analyzing the expression of activation markers such as CD25 and CD69, proliferation and IL-2 production, we determined that CT-treated BMDCs showed diminished antigen-presenting potential to CD4+ T cells compared with normal BMDCs. We also found that CT-stimulated BMDCs promote activin A expression as well as IL-6 and IL-1β, and activin A had a synergic role with TGF-β1 in CT-mediated Th17 cell differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that CT-stimulated DCs promote Th17 cell differentiation by not only modulating antigen-presenting potential but also inducing Th polarizing cytokines.

  17. n3 PUFAs Reduce Mouse CD4+ T-Cell Ex Vivo Polarization into Th17 Cells123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M.; Hou, Tim Y.; Turk, Harmony F.; McMurray, David N.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of n3 (ω3) PUFAs on polarization of CD4+ T cells into effector subsets other than Th1 and Th2. We assessed the effects of dietary fat [corn oil (CO) vs. fish oil (FO)] and fermentable fiber [cellulose (C) vs. pectin (P)] (2 × 2 design) in male C57BL/6 mice fed CO-C, CO-P, FO-C, or FO-P diets for 3 wk on the ex vivo polarization of purified splenic CD4+ T cells (using magnetic microbeads) into regulatory T cells [Tregs; forkhead box P3 (Foxp3+) cells] or Th17 cells [interleukin (IL)-17A+ and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) γτ+ cells] by flow cytometry. Treg polarization was unaffected by diet; however, FO independently reduced the percentage of both CD4+ IL-17A+ (P diets enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or DHA + EPA similarly reduced Th17-cell polarization in comparison to CO by reducing expression of the Th17-cell signature cytokine (IL-17A; P = 0.0015) and transcription factor (RORγτ P = 0.02), whereas Treg polarization was unaffected. Collectively, these data show that n3 PUFAs exert a direct effect on the development of Th17 cells in healthy mice, implicating a novel n3 PUFA–dependent, anti-inflammatory mechanism of action via the suppression of the initial development of this inflammatory T-cell subset. PMID:23864512

  18. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

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    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1

  19. Diversity and plasticity of Th cell types predicted from regulatory network modelling.

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    Aurélien Naldi

    Full Text Available Alternative cell differentiation pathways are believed to arise from the concerted action of signalling pathways and transcriptional regulatory networks. However, the prediction of mammalian cell differentiation from the knowledge of the presence of specific signals and transcriptional factors is still a daunting challenge. In this respect, the vertebrate hematopoietic system, with its many branching differentiation pathways and cell types, is a compelling case study. In this paper, we propose an integrated, comprehensive model of the regulatory network and signalling pathways controlling Th cell differentiation. As most available data are qualitative, we rely on a logical formalism to perform extensive dynamical analyses. To cope with the size and complexity of the resulting network, we use an original model reduction approach together with a stable state identification algorithm. To assess the effects of heterogeneous environments on Th cell differentiation, we have performed a systematic series of simulations considering various prototypic environments. Consequently, we have identified stable states corresponding to canonical Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg subtypes, but these were found to coexist with other transient hybrid cell types that co-express combinations of Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17 markers in an environment-dependent fashion. In the process, our logical analysis highlights the nature of these cell types and their relationships with canonical Th subtypes. Finally, our logical model can be used to explore novel differentiation pathways in silico.

  20. Natural killer cells regulate Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance in chlamydial lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell is an important component in innate immunity, playing a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by modulating the function of other immune cells including T cells. In this study, we focused on the role of NK cells in regulating Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance during chlamydial lung infection. We found that NK cell-depleted mice showed decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, which was correlated with reduced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17 and IL-22 production as well as T-bet and receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t expression compared with mice treated with the isotype control antibody. In contrast, NK cell depletion significantly increased Treg in cell number and related transcription factor (Foxp3) expression. The opposite trends of changes of Th1/Th17 and Treg led to significant reduction in the Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios. The data implicate that NK cells play an important role in host defence against chlamydial lung infection, mainly through maintaining Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. Key role of group v secreted phospholipase A2 in Th2 cytokine and dendritic cell-driven airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling.

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    William R Henderson

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that disruption of the gene for group X secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-X markedly diminishes airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in a mouse asthma model. With the large number of additional sPLA2s in the mammalian genome, the involvement of other sPLA2s in the asthma model is possible - in particular, the group V sPLA2 (sPLA2-V that like sPLA2-X is highly active at hydrolyzing membranes of mammalian cells.The allergen-driven asthma phenotype was significantly reduced in sPLA2-V-deficient mice but to a lesser extent than observed previously in sPLA2-X-deficient mice. The most striking difference observed between the sPLA2-V and sPLA2-X knockouts was the significant impairment of the primary immune response to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA in the sPLA2-V(-/- mice. The impairment in eicosanoid generation and dendritic cell activation in sPLA2-V(-/- mice diminishes Th2 cytokine responses in the airways.This paper illustrates the diverse roles of sPLA2s in the immunopathogenesis of the asthma phenotype and directs attention to developing specific inhibitors of sPLA2-V as a potential new therapy to treat asthma and other allergic disorders.

  2. Evaluation of Th1/Th2-Related Immune Response against Recombinant Proteins of Brucella abortus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Young Bin; Park, Woo Bin; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Suk; Yoo, Han Sang

    2016-06-28

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella, a genus of gram-negative bacteria. Cytokines have key roles in the activation of innate and acquired immunities. Despite several research attempts to reveal the immune responses, the mechanism of Brucella infection remains unclear. Therefore, immune responses were analyzed in mice immunized with nine recombinant proteins. Cytokine production profiles were analyzed in the RAW 264.7 cells and naive splenocytes after stimulation with three recombinant proteins, metal-dependent hydrolase (r0628), bacterioferritin (rBfr), and thiamine transporter substrate-binding protein (rTbpA). Immune responses were analyzed by ELISA and ELISpot assay after immunization with proteins in mice. The production levels of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 were time-dependently increased after having been stimulated with proteins in the RAW 264.7 cells. In naive splenocytes, the production of IFN-γ and IL-2 was increased after stimulation with the proteins. It was concluded that two recombinant proteins, r0628 and rTbpA, showed strong immunogenicity that was induced with Th1-related cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α more than Th2-related cytokines IL-6, IL-4, and IL-5 in vitro. Conversely, a humoral immune response was activated by increasing the number of antigen-secreting cells specifically. Furthermore, these could be candidate diagnosis antigens for better understanding of brucellosis.

  3. Activity of the hypoxia-activated pro-drug TH-302 in hypoxic and perivascular regions of solid tumors and its potential to enhance therapeutic effects of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Jasdeep K; Tannock, Ian F

    2014-06-01

    Many chemotherapy drugs have poor therapeutic activity in regions distant from tumor blood vessels because of poor tissue penetration and low cytotoxic activity against slowly-proliferating cells. The hypoxia-activated pro-drug TH-302 may have selective toxicity for hypoxic and neighboring cells in tumors. Here we characterize the spatial distribution and ability of TH-302 to selectively target hypoxic regions and complement the effect of doxorubicin and docetaxel by modifying biomarker distribution. Athymic nude mice bearing human breast MCF-7 or prostate PC-3 tumors were treated with doxorubicin or docetaxel respectively and TH-302 alone or in combination. Biomarkers of drug effect including γH2aX (a marker of DNA damage), cleaved caspase-3 or -6 (markers of apoptosis) and reduction in Ki-67 (a marker of cell proliferation) were quantified in tumor sections in relation to functional blood vessels (recognized by DiOC7) and hypoxia (recognized by EF5) using immunohistochemistry. γH2aX expression at 10 min and cleaved caspase-3 or -6 at 24 hr after doxorubicin or docetaxel decreased with increasing distance from tumor blood vessels, with minimal expression in hypoxic regions; maximum reduction in Ki67 levels was observed in regions closest to vasculature at 24 hr. TH-302 induced maximal cell damage in hypoxic and neighboring regions, but was also active in tumor regions closer to blood vessels. TH-302 given 4 hr before doxorubicin or docetaxel increased DNA damage and apoptosis throughout the tumor compared to chemotherapy alone. When given with doxorubicin or docetaxel, TH-302 complements and enhances anticancer effects in both perivascular and hypoxic regions but also increases toxicity. © 2013 UICC.

  4. Overexpression of Notch ligand Delta-like-1 by dendritic cells enhances their immunoregulatory capacity and exerts antiallergic effects on Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Lin, Chu-Lun; Leu, Sy-Jye; Lee, Yueh-Lun

    2018-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells, and Notch ligand Delta-like-1 (DLL1) on DCs was implicated in type 1T helper (Th1) differentiation. In this study, we produced genetically engineered bone marrow-derived DCs that expressed DLL1 (DLL1-DCs) by adenoviral transduction. DLL1-DCs exerted a fully mature phenotype, and had positive effects on expression levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and costimulatory molecules. Coculture of allogeneic T cells with ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed DLL1-DCs enhanced T cell proliferative responses and promoted Th1 cell differentiation. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of OVA-stimulated DLL1-DCs into asthmatic mice alleviated the cardinal features of allergic asthma, including immunoglobulin E (IgE) production, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, and production of Th2-type cytokines. Notably, enhanced levels of the Th1-biased IgG 2a response and interferon (IFN)-γ production were observed in these mice. Taken together, these data indicate that DLL1-DCs promoted Th1 cell development to alter the Th1/Th2 ratio and ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured w...

  6. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

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    Areej M. Assaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  7. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Areej M; Al-Abbassi, Reem; Al-Binni, Maysaa

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  8. Obesity promotes prolonged ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation modulating T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 immune responses in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F M C; Oliveira, E E; Gouveia, A C C; Brugiolo, A S S; Alves, C C; Correa, J O A; Gameiro, J; Mattes, J; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P

    2017-07-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obesity affects the development and phenotype of asthma by inducing inflammatory mechanisms in addition to eosinophilic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of obesity on allergic airway inflammation and T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses using an experimental model of asthma in BALB/c mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and analyses were performed at 24 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. Obesity induced an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing macrophages and neutrophils which peaked at 48 h after the last OVA challenge, and was associated with higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-9, IL-17A, leptin and interferon (IFN)-γ in the lungs. Higher goblet cell hyperplasia was associated with elevated mast cell influx into the lungs and trachea in the obese allergic mice. In contrast, early eosinophil influx and lower levels of IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), CCL11 and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) were observed in the obese allergic mice in comparison to non-obese allergic mice. Moreover, obese mice showed higher numbers of mast cells regardless of OVA challenge. These results indicate that obesity affects allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving mast cell influx and the release of TSLP and IL-25, which favoured a delayed immune response with an exacerbated Th1, Th2 and Th17 profile. In this scenario, an intense mixed inflammatory granulocyte influx, classically activated macrophage accumulation and intense mucus production may contribute to a refractory therapeutic response and exacerbate asthma severity. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Intranasal delivery of cholera toxin induces th17-dominated T-cell response to bystander antigens.

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    Jee-Boong Lee

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is a potent vaccine adjuvant, which promotes mucosal immunity to protein antigen given by nasal route. It has been suggested that CT promotes T helper type 2 (Th2 response and suppresses Th1 response. We here report the induction of Th17-dominated responses in mice by intranasal delivery of CT. This dramatic Th17-driving effect of CT, which was dependent on the B subunit, was observed even in Th1 or Th2-favored conditions of respiratory virus infection. These dominating Th17 responses resulted in the significant neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of mice given CT. Both in vitro and in vivo treatment of CT induced strongly augmented IL-6 production, and Th17-driving ability of CT was completely abolished in IL-6 knockout mice, indicating a role of this cytokine in the Th17-dominated T-cell responses by CT. These data demonstrate a novel Th17-driving activity of CT, and help understand the mechanisms of CT adjuvanticity to demarcate T helper responses.

  10. The Concerted Action of Type 2 and Type 3 Deiodinases Regulates the Cell Cycle and Survival of Basal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Caterina; Ambrosio, Raffaele; De Stefano, Maria Angela; Di Girolamo, Daniela; Di Cicco, Emery; Cicatiello, Annunziata Gaetana; Mancino, Giuseppina; Porcelli, Tommaso; Raia, Maddalena; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Salvatore, Domenico; Dentice, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) mediate pleiotropic cellular processes involved in metabolism, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. The intracellular hormonal environment can be tailored by the type 1 and 2 deiodinase enzymes D2 and D3, which catalyze TH activation and inactivation respectively. In many cellular systems, THs exert well-documented stimulatory or inhibitory effects on cell proliferation; however, the molecular mechanisms by which they control rates of cell cycle progression have not yet been entirely clarified. We previously showed that D3 depletion or TH treatment influences the proliferation and survival of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. Surprisingly, we also found that BCC cells express not only sustained levels of D3 but also robust levels of D2. The aim of the present study was to dissect the contribution of D2 to TH metabolism in the BCC context, and to identify the molecular changes associated with cell proliferation and survival induced by TH and mediated by D2 and D3. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 technology to genetically deplete D2 and D3 in BCC cells and studied the consequences of depletion on cell cycle progression and on cell death. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of synchronized cells, and the apoptosis rate by annexin V incorporation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that D2 inactivation accelerates cell cycle progression thereby enhancing the proportion of S-phase cells and cyclin D1 expression. Conversely, D3 mutagenesis drastically suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of BCC cells. Furthermore, the basal apoptotic rate was oppositely regulated in D2- and D3-depleted cells. Our results indicate that BCC cells constitute an example in which the TH signal is finely tuned by the concerted expression of opposite-acting deiodinases. The dual regulation of D2 and D3 expression plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and cell death by influencing cyclin D1-mediated

  11. Anti-IL-2 treatment impairs the expansion of T(reg cell population during acute malaria and enhances the Th1 cell response at the chronic disease.

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    Cláudia A Zago

    Full Text Available Plasmodium chabaudi infection induces a rapid and intense splenic CD4(+ T cell response that contributes to both disease pathogenesis and the control of acute parasitemia. The subsequent development of clinical immunity to disease occurs concomitantly with the persistence of low levels of chronic parasitemia. The suppressive activity of regulatory T (T(reg cells has been implicated in both development of clinical immunity and parasite persistence. To evaluate whether IL-2 is required to induce and to sustain the suppressive activity of T(reg cells in malaria, we examined in detail the effects of anti-IL-2 treatment with JES6-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb on the splenic CD4(+ T cell response during acute and chronic P. chabaudi AS infection in C57BL/6 mice. JES6-1 treatment on days 0, 2 and 4 of infection partially inhibits the expansion of the CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ cell population during acute malaria. Despite the concomitant secretion of IL-2 and expression of high affinity IL-2 receptor by large CD4(+ T cells, JES6-1 treatment does not impair effector CD4(+ T cell activation and IFN-γ production. However, at the chronic phase of the disease, an enhancement of cellular and humoral responses occurs in JES6-1-treated mice, with increased production of TNF-α and parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. Furthermore, JES6-1 mAb completely blocked the in vitro proliferation of CD4(+ T cells from non-treated chronic mice, while it further increased the response of CD4(+ T cells from JES6-1-treated chronic mice. We conclude that JES6-1 treatment impairs the expansion of T(reg cell population during early P. chabaudi malaria and enhances the Th1 cell response in the late phase of the disease.

  12. Th17 Pathway As a Target for Multipotent Stromal Cell Therapy in Dogs: Implications for Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, A; Walker, N J; Nordstrom, M; Borjesson, D L

    2016-01-01

    Detrimental Th17 driven inflammatory and autoimmune disease such as Crohn's disease, graft versus host disease and multiple sclerosis remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multipotent stromal/stem cell (MSC) inhibit Th17 polarization and activation in vitro and in rodent models. As such, MSC based therapeutic approaches are being investigated as novel therapeutic approaches to treat Th17 driven diseases in humans. The significance of naturally occurring diseases in dogs is increasingly recognized as a realistic platform to conduct pre-clinical testing of novel therapeutics. Full characterization of Th17 cells in dogs has not been completed. We have developed and validated a flow-cytometric method to detect Th17 cells in canine blood. We further demonstrate that Th17 and other IL17 producing cells are present in tissues of dogs with naturally occurring chronic inflammatory diseases. Finally, we have determined the kinetics of a canine specific Th17 polarization in vitro and demonstrate that canine MSC inhibit Th17 polarization in vitro, in a PGE2 independent mechanism. Our findings provide fundamental research tools and suggest that naturally occurring diseases in dogs, such as inflammatory bowel disease, may be harnessed to translate novel MSC based therapeutic strategies that target the Th17 pathway.

  13. A possible mechanism in the recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 cells through CD163(+) M2 macrophages in the lesional skin of eosinophilic cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Furudate, Sadanori; Kakizaki, Aya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophages play a critical role in the recruitment of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory T cells (Treg). To study the role of M2 macrophages and Treg cells in eosinophilic celulitis. We employed immunohistochemical staining for CD163( )and CD206 (macrophages) as well as FoxP3 (Treg), in lesional skin of four cases of eosinophilic cellulitis. CD163(+) CD206(+) M2 macrophages, which were previously reported to produce CCL17 to induce Th2 cells and Treg cells, were predominantly infiltrating the subcutaneous tissues and interstitial area of the dermis. M2 macrophages derived from PBMC showed significantly increased expression of CCL11, CCL17, CCL24 and CCL26 mRNA and production of CCL17 and CCL24, when stimulated by IL-4 or IL- 13. In addition, CCL17-producing cells and CCL24-producing cells were prominent in the lesional skin of EC. Our study sheds light on one of the possible immunological mechanisms of eosinophilic cellulitis.

  14. [EFFECT OF 4-METHYLPYRAZOLE ON IMMUNE RESPONSE, FUNCTION OF Th1 AND Th2 LYMPHOCYTES, AND CYTOKINE CONCENTRATION IN RAT BLOOD AFTER ACUTE METHANOL POISONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodskii, P F; Maslyakov, V V; Gromov, M S

    2016-01-01

    It was established in experiments on noninbred albino rats that the acute intoxication with methanol (1.0 LD50) decreased cellular and humoral immune responses, Th2-lymphocyte activity (to a greater extent as compared to the function of Th1 cells), reduced the blood concentration of immunoregulatory (IFN-g, IL-2, IL-4) and proinflammatory (TNF, IL-1b, IL-6) cytokines on the average by 36.5% (p Methanol antidote 4-methylpyrazole (non-competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) administered upon acute intoxication with methanol at a dose of 1.0 DL50 partially reduces the intoxication-induced suppression of humoral and cellular immune response, activity of T-helper cells, and production of IL-4 and restores blood levels of TNF, IL-1b, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6 to the control values.

  15. Activation of the HMGB1-RAGE axis upregulates TH expression in dopaminergic neurons via JNK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Jungim; Lee, Min Joung; Ryu, Ilhwan; Ju, Xianshu; Oh, Eungseok; Chung, Woosuk; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Heo, Jun Young

    2017-11-04

    The derangement of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity reduces dopamine synthesis and is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, the extracellular modulator and intracellular regulatory mechanisms of TH have yet to be identified. Recently, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was reported to be actively secreted from glial cells and is regarded as a mediator of dopaminergic neuronal loss. However, the mechanism for how HMGB1 affects TH expression, particularly through the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), has not yet been investigated. We found that recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1) upregulates TH mRNA expression via simultaneous activation of JNK phosphorylation, and this induction of TH expression is blocked by inhibitors of RAGE and JNK. To investigate how TH expression levels change through the HMGB1-RAGE axis as a result of MPP + toxicity, we co-treated SN4741 dopaminergic cells with MPP + and rHMGB1. rHMGB1 blocked the reduction of TH mRNA following MPP + treatment without altering cell survival rates. Our results suggest that HMGB1 upregulates TH expression to maintain dopaminergic neuronal function via activating RAGE, which is dependent on JNK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A pro-inflammatory role for Th22 cells in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Cheng, Ping; Liu, Xiao-fei; Peng, Liu-sheng; Li, Bo-sheng; Wang, Ting-ting; Chen, Na; Li, Wen-hua; Shi, Yun; Chen, Weisan; Pang, Ken C; Zeng, Ming; Mao, Xu-hu; Yang, Shi-ming; Guo, Hong; Guo, Gang; Liu, Tao; Zuo, Qian-fei; Yang, Hui-jie; Yang, Liu-yang; Mao, Fang-yuan; Lv, Yi-pin; Zou, Quan-ming

    2015-09-01

    Helper T (Th) cell responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Th22 cells represent a newly discovered Th cell subset, but their relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR and ELISA analyses were performed to examine cell, protein and transcript levels in gastric samples from patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Gastric tissues from interleukin (IL)-22-deficient and wild-type (control) mice were also examined. Tissue inflammation was determined for pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory protein production. Gastric epithelial cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were isolated, stimulated and/or cultured for Th22 cell function assays. Th22 cells accumulated in gastric mucosa of both patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Th22 cell polarisation was promoted via the production of IL-23 by dendritic cells (DC) during H. pylori infection, and resulted in increased inflammation within the gastric mucosa. This inflammation was characterised by the CXCR2-dependent influx of MDSCs, whose migration was induced via the IL-22-dependent production of CXCL2 by gastric epithelial cells. Under the influence of IL-22, MDSCs, in turn, produced pro-inflammatory proteins, such as S100A8 and S100A9, and suppressed Th1 cell responses, thereby contributing to the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis. This study, therefore, identifies a novel regulatory network involving H. pylori, DCs, Th22 cells, gastric epithelial cells and MDSCs, which collectively exert a pro-inflammatory effect within the gastric microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this Th22-dependent pathway may therefore prove a valuable strategy in the therapy of H. pylori-associated gastritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Derek K.; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P.; Walker, Tina D.; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E.; Barra, Nicole G.; Bassett, Jennifer D.; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A.; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4+/+ or il4−/− eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

  18. Effect of Intravenous immunoglobulin on Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and improvement of pregnancy outcome in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Abdolmohammadi-Vahid, Samaneh; Ghaebi, Mahnaz; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Afkham, Amir; Danaii, Shahla; Abdollahi-Fard, Sedigheh; Heidari, Lida; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Nouri, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Women with elevated natural killer (NK) cell frequency and function during pregnancy, suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). In the present study, the possible effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration on Th1 and Th2 cell frequency, cytokine secretion, and expression of transcription factors is compared between RPL patients and control group. Totally, 44 women with a history of RPL (32 women as treated group and 12 as control group) were enrolled in the study. The frequency of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes, the expression of transcription factors related to these cells and the serum levels of associated cytokines were assessed by flowcytometry, real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. All, assessments were performed both before and after treatment with IVIG. A significant reduction in Th1 lymphocyte frequency, transcription factor expression and cytokine levels were observed in IVIG-treated group, while all the above parameters indicated a significant increase for Th2 lymphocytes. Th1/Th2 ratio decreased significantly (p value<0.0001) at the end of treatment and 28 out of 32 (87.5%) women in IVIG-treated group had live birth in comparison with 5 out of 12 (41.6%) in untreated group. IVIG administration proves to be an efficient therapeutic strategy which is able to enhance the success rate of pregnancy through a shift in Th2 responses. Furthermore, IVIG presents efficacy for the treatment of reproduction failures especially in subjects with immune cell abnormalities and increased NK cell level and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of non-responsiveness in human allergen-specific type 2 T helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yssel, H; Fasler, S; Lamb, J; de Vries, J E

    1994-12-01

    Activation of allergen-reactive human T helper (Th)2 cells in the absence of professional antigen-presenting cells, induces non-responsiveness or anergy in these cells in vitro. This induction of anergy is accompanied by phenotypic modulation and altered cytokine production. Furthermore, peptide-treated Th2 cells fail to provide B-cell help for IgE synthesis. Recent studies indicate that impaired signal transduction via the T-cell receptor may account for the lack of responsiveness to antigenic stimulation. Here, we review present knowledge on the cell biology of non-responsive or anergic Th2 cells.

  20. Relative Contribution of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Adaptive Immunity to Bordetella pertussis: Towards the Rational Design of an Improved Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pádraig J.; Allen, Aideen C.; Walsh, Kevin; Misiak, Alicja; Lavelle, Ed C.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.; Mills, Kingston H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging infectious disease despite the introduction of safer acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa). One explanation for this is that Pa are less protective than the more reactogenic whole cell pertussis vaccines (Pw) that they replaced. Although Pa induce potent antibody responses, and protection has been found to be associated with high concentrations of circulating IgG against vaccine antigens, it has not been firmly established that host protection induced with this vaccine is mediated solely by humoral immunity. The aim of this study was to examine the relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in host immunity to infection with B. pertussis and in immunity induced by immunization with Pw and Pa and to use this information to help rationally design a more effective Pa. Our findings demonstrate that Th1 and Th17 both function in protective immunity induced by infection with B. pertussis or immunization with Pw. In contrast, a current licensed Pa, administered with alum as the adjuvant, induced Th2 and Th17 cells, but weak Th1 responses. We found that IL-1 signalling played a central role in protective immunity induced with alum-adsorbed Pa and this was associated with the induction of Th17 cells. Pa generated strong antibody and Th2 responses, but was fully protective in IL-4-defective mice, suggesting that Th2 cells were dispensable. In contrast, Pa failed to confer protective immunity in IL-17A-defective mice. Bacterial clearance mediated by Pa-induced Th17 cells was associated with cell recruitment to the lungs after challenge. Finally, protective immunity induced by an experimental Pa could be enhanced by substituting alum with a TLR agonist that induces Th1 cells. Our findings demonstrate that alum promotes protective immunity through IL-1β-induced IL-17A production, but also reveal that optimum protection against B. pertussis requires induction of Th1, but not Th2 cells. PMID:23592988

  1. Impaired Gal-9 Dysregulates the PBMC-Induced Th1/Th2 Imbalance in Abortion-Prone Matings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengzhou He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent miscarriage is defined as the loss of 3 or more consecutive pregnancies; however, the underlying immunologic mechanisms that trigger pregnancy loss remain largely unelucidated. Galectin-9 (Gal-9 may modulate a variety of biologic functions and play an important role in Th1/Th2 immune deviation. To analyze the mechanism of Gal-9 in abortion, we used the classical abortion-prone mouse model (DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice to detect the expression of Gal-9 at the maternal-fetal interface. We also mimicked the immune environment of pregnancy by culturing trophoblast cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to explore how Gal-9 might be involved in the pathogenesis of abortion. We found that the expression levels of Gal-9 in abortion-prone matings were lower than that for controls. Using a coculture system, we detected a Th1 preponderance in the coculture from abortion-prone matings. Furthermore, Gal-9 blockade augmented the imbalance of Th1/Th2 immunity in abortion-prone matings by promoting the secretion of Th1-derived cytokines in coculture, while there was a Th2 preponderance when we administered recombinant Gal-9. In conclusion, our results suggest that the Gal-9 signal is important for the regulation of PBMC function toward a Th2 bias at the maternal-fetal interface, which is beneficial for the maintenance of a normal pregnancy.

  2. An aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand acts on dendritic cells and T cells to suppress the Th17 response in allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ping; Hu, Guo-Hua; Kang, Hou-Yong; Yao, Hong-Bing; Kou, Wei; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Cheng; Hong, Su-Ling

    2014-05-01

    A predominant Th17 population is a marker of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) exhibits strong immunomodulation potential via regulation of the differentiation of T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) after activation by its ligand, such as 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of AhR on Th17 differentiation by investigating the action of ITE on DCs and CD4(+) T cells from patients with AR. In all, 26 AR patients and 12 healthy controls were included in this study. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 in the culture supernatant and the presence of Th17 cells in CD4(+) T cells and DC-CD4(+) T-cell co-culture system were measured before and after treatment with ITE. We show that ITE significantly induced cell secretion of IL-10 and inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 production in DCs, and promoted IL-10 production and suppressed IL-17 expression in CD4(+) T cells in vitro. It also suppressed the expansion of Th17 cells in vitro. Our work demonstrates that ITE acts on DCs and CD4(+) T cells to inhibit the Th17 response that suppresses AR; the AhR-DC-Th17 axis may be an important pathway in the treatment of AR. ITE, a nontoxic AhR ligand, attenuated the Th17 response; thus, it appears to be a promising therapeutic candidate for suppressing the inflammatory responses associated with AR.

  3. CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Radha; Eligar, Sachin M.; Kumar, Natesh; Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M.; Shastry, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. ► RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. ► Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. ► RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL–induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

  4. miR-146a modulates autoreactive Th17 cell differentiation and regulates organ-specific autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xi; Choi, In Young; Wang, Yu-Chen; Liu, Siyuan; Pham, Alexander T; Moon, Heesung; Smith, Drake J; Rao, Dinesh S; Boldin, Mark P; Yang, Lili

    2017-10-02

    Autoreactive CD4 T cells that differentiate into pathogenic Th17 cells can trigger autoimmune diseases. Therefore, investigating the regulatory network that modulates Th17 differentiation may yield important therapeutic insights. miR-146a has emerged as a critical modulator of immune reactions, but its role in regulating autoreactive Th17 cells and organ-specific autoimmunity remains largely unknown. Here, we have reported that miR-146a-deficient mice developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). We bred miR-146a-deficient mice with 2D2 T cell receptor-Tg mice to generate 2D2 CD4 T cells that are deficient in miR-146a and specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), an autoantigen in the EAE model. miR-146a-deficient 2D2 T cells induced more severe EAE and were more prone to differentiate into Th17 cells. Microarray analysis revealed enhancements in IL-6- and IL-21-induced Th17 differentiation pathways in these T cells. Further study showed that miR-146a inhibited the production of autocrine IL-6 and IL-21 in 2D2 T cells, which in turn reduced their Th17 differentiation. Thus, our study identifies miR-146a as an important molecular brake that blocks the autocrine IL-6- and IL-21-induced Th17 differentiation pathways in autoreactive CD4 T cells, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target for treating autoimmune diseases.

  5. Measurement of the 232Th-series activity in gas sockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman, I.

    1995-01-01

    The activity of 232 Th and its daughters in Th-based gas sockets is required for health risk assessment. By absolute measurement of the 228 Ac-and 212 Pb/ 208 Tl-activities, the total activity of the sockets can be assessed. It is governed by 228 Ra and 228 Th and the product age. (author) 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  6. The ThPOK transcription factor differentially affects the development and function of self-specific CD8(+) T cells and regulatory CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twu, Yuh-Ching; Teh, Hung-Sia

    2014-03-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor ThPOK plays a crucial role in CD4 T-cell development and CD4/CD8 lineage decision. In ThPOK-deficient mice, developing T cells expressing MHC class II-restricted T-cell receptors are redirected into the CD8 T-cell lineage. In this study, we investigated whether the ThPOK transgene affected the development and function of two additional types of T cells, namely self-specific CD8 T cells and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. Self-specific CD8 T cells are characterized by high expression of CD44, CD122, Ly6C, 1B11 and proliferation in response to either IL-2 or IL-15. The ThPOK transgene converted these self-specific CD8 T cells into CD4 T cells. The converted CD4(+) T cells are no longer self-reactive, lose the characteristics of self-specific CD8 T cells, acquire the properties of conventional CD4 T cells and survive poorly in peripheral lymphoid organs. By contrast, the ThPOK transgene promoted the development of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells resulting in an increased recovery of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells that expressed higher transforming growth factor-β-dependent suppressor activity. These studies indicate that the ThPOK transcription factor differentially affects the development and function of self-specific CD8 T cells and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Enrichment for Th1 cells in the Mel-14+ CD4+ T cell fraction in aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, R.; Tielemans, M.; Nagelkerken, L.

    1995-01-01

    CD4+ T cells from young and aged mice were sorted into Mel-14+ cells which are regarded as naive cells and Mel-14- cells which are regarded as memory cells. These subsets were stimulated in short-time cultures with anti-CD3 or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 in order to determine the presence of Th1 and/or Th2

  8. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1/LFA-1 ligation favors human Th1 development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Hermelijn H.; de Jong, Esther C.; Schuitemaker, Joost H. N.; Geijtenbeek, Theo B. H.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Wierenga, Eddy A.

    2002-01-01

    Th cell polarization toward Th1 or Th2 cells is strongly driven by exogenous cytokines, in particular IL-12 or IL-4, if present during activation by Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DC). However, additional Th cell polarizing mechanisms are induced by the ligation of cell surface molecules on DC and

  9. Epigallocatechin gallate protects dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Peng, Ning; Du, Fang; Li, Xu-ping; Le, Wei-dong

    2006-04-01

    To observe whether the dopaminergic neuroprotective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is associated with its inhibition of microglial cell activation in vivo. The effects of EGCG at different doses on dopaminergic neuronal survival were tested in a methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury model in the primary mesencephalic cell cultures. With unbiased stereological method, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells were counted in the A8, A9 and A10 regions of the substantia nigra (SN) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL/6 mice. The effect of EGCG on microglial activation in the SN was also investigated. Pretreatment with EGCG (1 to 100 micromol/L) significantly attenuated MPP+-induced TH-ir cell loss by 22.2% to 80.5% in the mesencephalic cell cultures. In MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice, EGCG at a low concentration (1 mg/kg) provided significant protection against MPTP-induced TH-ir cell loss by 50.9% in the whole nigral area and by 71.7% in the A9 region. EGCG at 5 mg/kg showed more prominent protective effect than at 1 or 10 mg/kg. EGCG pretreatment significantly inhibited microglial activation and CD11b expression induced by MPTP. EGCG exerts potent dopaminergic neuroprotective activity by means of microglial inhibition, which shed light on the potential use of EGCG in treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  10. CD147/basigin limits lupus nephritis and Th17 cell differentiation in mice by inhibiting the interleukin-6/STAT-3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kayaho; Kosugi, Tomoki; Sato, Waichi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sato, Yuka; Kamimura, Daisuke; Kato, Noritoshi; Tsuboi, Naotake; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi; Murakami, Masaaki; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kadomatsu, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T cells (Th17 cells) play critical roles in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the fundamental mechanism regulating Th17 cell differentiation is not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that plasma levels of CD147/basigin (Bsg) in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) were closely associated with disease activity. but the molecular mechanism involving Bsg has been elusive. Here, we addressed the role of Bsg in the pathogenesis of LN. Injections of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane [TMPD]) were administered to Bsg(-/-) or Bsg(+/+) mice to induce LN. The mice were killed 6 months after being injected, for histologic and biochemical analyses of the kidneys and spleens. Pristane induced LN more strikingly in Bsg(-/-) mice than in Bsg(+/+) mice, even though humoral autoimmunity was similarly increased in both genotypes. The increased number of Th17, but not Th1, Treg cells, was augmented in Bsg(-/-) mice. The expression of IL-17 was also increased in the kidneys of Bsg(-/-) mice, in proportion to LN disease activity. Furthermore, treatment with anti-IL-17 antibody reduced LN disease activity in Bsg(-/-) mice. Complementary to these phenotypes of Bsg(-/-) mice, Bsg expression was enhanced in activated CD4+ T cells in vivo and in vitro. Bsg deficiency selectively augmented in vitro differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells to Th17 cells and STAT-3 phosphorylation during this differentiation. Moreover, STAT-3 phosphorylation was suppressed by crosslinking of Bsg with its antibody. Bsg plays an indispensable role in Th17 cell differentiation as a negative regulator by suppressing the IL-6/STAT-3 pathway. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ruben L.; Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; He, Xuehui; Vink, Paul M.; Wijnands, Frank; Gorecka, Monika; Klop, Henri; Bauerschmidt, Sussane; Garritsen, Anja; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; Joosten, Irma; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Alkema, Wynand

    2012-01-01

    Background: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  12. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.L.; Fleuren, W.W.M.; He, X.; Vink, P.M.; Wijnands, F.; Gorecka, M.; Klop, H.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Garritsen, A.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Joosten, I.; Boots, A.M.H.; Alkema, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  13. Cathepsin S Is Involved in Th17 Differentiation Through the Upregulation of IL-6 by Activating PAR-2 after Systemic Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Dekita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive links have been found between periodontitis and numerous diseases in humans via persistent inflammation throughout the body. However, the main factors responsible for maintaining this pro-inflammatory condition are poorly understood. The spleen, the largest secondary immune organ, is a central hub regulating the immune response/inflammation due to the dendritic cell (DC response to CD4+ T cell subtype differentiation, and lysosomal proteinase cathepsin S (CatS is known to be involved in DC functions. In the present study, we found that CatS-induced IL-6 production by splenic DCs subsequently promotes Th17 differentiation, in response to systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharide derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS. The population of CD11c+ DCs was significantly increased in the splenic marginal zone (MZ locally of wild-type (DBA/2 mice with splenomegaly but not in that of CatS deficient (CatS-/- mice after systemic exposure to PgLPS for 7 consecutive days (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal. Similarly, the population of Th17+CD4+ T cells was also significantly increased in the splenic MZ of wild-type mice but not in that of CatS-/- mice after PgLPS exposure. Furthermore, the increase in the Th17+ CD4+ T cell population paralleled increases in the levels of CatS and IL-6 in CD11c+ cells in the splenic MZ. In isolated primary splenic CD11c+ cells, the mRNA expression and the production of IL-6 was dramatically increased in wild-type mice but not in CatS-/- mice after direct stimulation with PgLPS (1 μg/ml, and this PgLPS-induced increase in the IL-6 expression was completely abolished by pre-treatment with Z-Phe-Leu-COCHO (Z-FL, the specific inhibitor of CatS. The PgLPS activated protease-activated receptor (PAR 2 in the isolated splenic CD11c+ cells was also significantly inhibited by CatS deficiently. In addition, the PgLPS-induced increase in the IL-6 production by splenic CD11c+ cells was completely abolished by pre-treatment with

  14. Reverse plasticity: TGF-β and IL-6 induce Th1-to-Th17-cell transdifferentiation in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geginat, Jens; Paroni, Moira; Kastirr, Ilko; Larghi, Paola; Pagani, Massimiliano; Abrignani, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    Th17 cells are a heterogeneous population of pro-inflammatory T cells that have been shown to mediate immune responses against intestinal bacteria. Th17 cells are highly plastic and can transdifferentiate to Th1/17 cells or unconventional Th1 cells, which are highly pathogenic in animal models of immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. A recent European Journal of Immunology article by Liu et al. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45:1010-1018) showed, surprisingly, that Th1 cells have a similar plasticity, and could transdifferentiate to Th17 cells. Thus, IFN-γ-producing Th1 effector cells specific for an intestinal microbial antigen were shown to acquire IL-17-producing capacities in the gut in a mouse model of colitis, and in response to TGF-β and IL-6 in vitro. TGF-β induced Runx1, and together with IL-6 was shown to render the ROR-γt and IL-17 promoters in Th1 cells accessible for Runx1 binding. In this commentary, we discuss how this unexpected plasticity of Th1 cells challenges our view on the generation of Th1/17 cells with the capacity to co-produce IL-17 and IFN-γ, and consider possible implications of this Th1-to-Th17-cell conversion for therapies of inflammatory bowel diseases and protective immune responses against intracellular pathogens. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Th17 cells in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Li, Xiang; Xia, Junhui

    2016-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been identified as a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammatory disorder, which has been recognized as a B cell-mediated humoral immune disease. However, cases have been reported indicating that some of the neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have been resistant to B cell-related treatments. Recently, more and more evidence has shown that T cell-mediated immunity may take part in the pathogenesis of NMOSD, especially in the Th17 phenotype. In our PUBMED search, we used the following keywords: Th17 cell, Th17 cell-related cytokines, T cells, B cells, B cell-related productions, NMO, NMOSD, recurrent/bilateral optic neuritis, recurrent transverse myelitis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. We systemically reviewed the role of Th17 cells and Th17 cell-related cytokines in NMOSD. We found that Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 and TGF-β, are not only directly involved in the pathogenesis but also collaborated with B cells and B cell-related antibody production to induce CNS lesions. Th17 cell-related therapy has also been reviewed in this article, and the data suggested that Th17 may be a new therapeutic target of NMOSD.

  16. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Interleukin-1 is required for cancer eradication mediated by tumor-specific Th1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haabeth, Ole Audun Werner; Lorvik, Kristina Berg; Yagita, Hideo; Bogen, Bjarne; Corthay, Alexandre

    The role of inflammation in cancer is controversial as both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive aspects of inflammation have been reported. In particular, it has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), may either promote or suppress cancer. However, the cellular and molecular basis underlying these opposing outcomes remains enigmatic. Using mouse models for myeloma and lymphoma, we have recently reported that inflammation driven by tumor-specific T helper 1 (Th1) cells conferred protection against B-cell cancer and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was essential for this process. Here, we have investigated the contribution of several inflammatory mediators. Myeloma eradication by Th1 cells was not affected by inhibition of TNF-α, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In contrast, cancer elimination by tumor-specific Th1 cells was severely impaired by the in vivo neutralization of both IL-1α and IL-1β (collectively named IL-1) with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). The antitumor functions of tumor-specific Th1 cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages were both affected by IL-1 neutralization. Secretion of the Th1-derived cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ at the incipient tumor site was severely reduced by IL-1 blockade. Moreover, IL-1 was shown to synergize with IFN-γ for induction of tumoricidal activity in tumor-infiltrating macrophages. This synergy between IL-1 and IFN-γ may explain how inflammation, when driven by tumor-specific Th1 cells, represses rather than promotes cancer. Collectively, the data reveal a central role of inflammation, and more specifically of the canonical pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, in enhancing Th1-mediated immunity against cancer.

  18. Monomethylfumarate affects polarization of monocyte-derived dendritic cells resulting in down-regulated Th1 lymphocyte responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; Rademaker, Mirjam; Ravensbergen, Bep

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris, a type-1 cytokine-mediated chronic skin disease, can be treated successfully with fumaric acid esters (FAE). Beneficial effects of this medication coincided with decreased production of IFN-gamma. Since dendritic cells (DC) regulate the differentiation of T helper (Th) cells......% of that by the respective Th cells cocultured with control DC. IL-4 production by primed, but not naive Th cells cocultured with MMF-DC was decreased as compared to cocultures with control DC. IL-10 production by naive and primed Th cells cocultured with MMF-DC and control DC did not differ. In addition, MMF inhibited LPS......-induced NF-kappaB activation in DC. Together, beneficial effects of FAE in psoriasis involve modulation of DC polarization by MMF such that these cells down-regulate IFN-gamma production by Th cells....

  19. Th1-Th17 Ratio as a New Insight in Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzazi, Hadi; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Memarian, Ali; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Behnampour, Nasser; Yazdani, Yaghoub

    2018-02-01

    The Th17, Th1 and dual Th17/Th1 cells are important players in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease. To assess their roles, the frequency and impact of these cells were investigated in patients with different disease activity. In 14 new cases and 41 established RA patients in comparison with 22 healthy controls, the percentages of Th17, Th1 and dual Th17/Th1 cells were determined by flow-cytometry and their correlations were investigated with disease activity score (DAS28). Moreover, serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 as inducer and functional cytokines for Th17 were investigated. Finally, serum levels of anti citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were assessed. Percentage of Th17 cells in RA patients were increased in comparison with healthy controls (pTh1 cells in RA patients were less than healthy group (pTh17/Th1 cell only in new cases of RA were more than healthy control groups (pTh1/Th17 ratio in RA patients is statistically different with healthy control group (pTh1/Th17 ratio in RA patient suggested a new paradigm in the field of autoimmune disease and indicated that imbalance or plasticity between these subsets can be important in progress, diagnosis and therapy of RA disease.

  20. Role of interleukin (IL)-17 and T-helper (Th)17 cells in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Yang, Jian Ming

    2017-11-04

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, is reported to be significantly generated by a distinct subset of CD4 + T-cells, upgrading cancer-elicited inflammation and preventing cancer cells from immune surveillance. T-helper (Th)17 cells produced from naive CD4 + T cells have recently been renowned and generally accepted, gaining eminence in cancer studies and playing the effective role in context of cancer. Th17 cells are the main source of IL-17-secreting cells, It was found that other cell types produced this cytokine as well, including Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), δγT cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells and Natural killer (NK) cells. Th17-associated cytokines give impetus to tumor progression, or inducing angiogenesis and metastasis. This review demonstrates an understanding on how the pro- or antitumor function of Th17 cells and IL-17 may change cancer progression, leading to the appearance of complex and pivotal biologic activities in tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: far beyond Th1/Th2 dualism lupus: cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Poliana Macedo; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Stadtlober, Nicole Perugini; Franchi Santos, Lorena Flor da Rosa; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Iriyoda, Tatiana Mayumi Veiga; Costa, Neide Tomimura; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Maes, Michael; Dichi, Isaias; Simão, Andréa Name Colado

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to delineate cytokine profiles of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), construct prediction models for diagnosis and disease activity using those profiles, and to examine the associations between TNFB Ncol polymorphism, body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D levels with cytokine levels. Two hundred SLE patients and 196 healthy controls participated in this case-control study. Plasma cytokines levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL- 4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-17 were measured and cytokines profiles were computed. IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in SLE, while IL-4 was lower in SLE. The Th1/Th2 and Th1+Th17/Th2 profiles were significantly higher in SLE than in healthy controls, whereas there were no significant differences in the proinflammatory cytokine profile (TNFα+IL-6+IL-1β). In total, 90.4% of all subjects were correctly classified using Th1+Th17 profile and IL-10 (positively associated) and IL-4 (negatively associated) as predictor variables (sensitivity=66.7% and specificity=96.9%). In all, 20.9% of the variance in the SLE Disease Activity Index was predicted by the Th1+Th17/Th2 ratio, IL-10 and BMI (all positively) and proinflammatory profile (inversely associated). B1/B1 genotype is accompanied by increased IL-17 and Th17/Th2 ratio, while B1/B2 genotype is accompanied by higher IL-4 and IFNγ values. 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with IFN-γ levels. SLE is accompanied by Th1, Th17 and Treg profile and lowered IL-4 production. Lowered vitamin D levels and B1/B1 genotype, but not BMI, contribute to changes in cytokines profiles. Future treatments should target Th1, Th2 and Th17 profiles rather than inflammatory cytokines.

  2. B Cells Promote Th1- Skewed NKT Cell Response by CD1d-TCR Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Park, Se-Ho

    2013-10-01

    CD1d expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are good glyco-lipid antigen presenting cells for NKT cells. However, resting B cells are very weak stimulators for NKT cells. Although α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) loaded B cells can activate NKT cells, it is not well defined whether B cells interfere NKT cell stimulating activity of DCs. Unexpectedly, we found in this study that B cells can promote Th1-skewed NKT cell response, which means a increased level of IFN-γ by NKT cells, concomitant with a decreased level of IL-4, in the circumstance of co-culture of DCs and B Cells. Remarkably, the response promoted by B cells was dependent on CD1d expression of B cells.

  3. Increased percentage of Th17 cells in peritoneal fluid is associated with severity of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogacz, Marek; Winkler, Izabela; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Adamiak, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Th17 cells are a newly discovered T helper lymphocyte subpopulation, producing interleukin IL-17. Th17 cells are present in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) at different stages of endometriosis. We aim to establish their potential importance in the pathogenesis and clinical features of the disease. The percentage of Th17 cells among T helper lymphocytes was determined in the PF and peripheral blood (PB) of patients with endometriosis and in the control group by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies: anti-CD-4-FITC, anti-CD-3-PE/Cy5, and anti-IL-17A-PE. Th17 percentage is increased in PF in comparison with PB in both endometriotic patients and in the control group. In severe endometriosis, the percentage of Th17 cells in PF was higher than with early (I/II stage) endometriosis. A positive correlation between the percentage of Th17 cells in PF and the white blood cell count in PB was found in patients with endometriosis. Targeting the activity of PF Th17 cells may have an influence on the proliferation of ectopic tissue and clinical manifestations of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fasciola hepatica reinfection potentiates a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg response and correlates with the clinical phenotypes of anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Quesada, Carla; Reguera-Gomez, Marta; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Fresno, Manuel; Gironès, Núria

    2017-01-01

    expression levels but no Treg expression, correlating with severe anemia; ii) another which includes increased splenic Ifng and Treg expression levels, correlating with a less severe anemia. Conclusions/Significance In animals with established F. hepatica infection a huge increase in the immune response occurs, being a mixed Th2/Treg associated gene expression together with an expression of Ifng. Interestingly, a Th17 associated gene expression is also observed. Reinfection in the chronic phase is able to activate a mixed immune response (Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg) against F. hepatica but T and B proliferation to mitogens is strongly suppressed in all infected rats vs control in the advanced chronic phase independently of reinfection The systemic immune response is different in each group, suggesting that suppression is mediated by different mechanisms in each case. Immune suppression could be due to the parasite in PI and R8 rats and the induction of suppressive cells such as Treg in R12. This is the first study to provide fundamental insight into the immune profile in fascioliasis reinfection and its relation with the clinical phenotypes of anemia. PMID:28362822

  5. Breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) promotes dendritic cell maturation in vitro and enhances Th2 inflammation in murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Chai, Shou-jie; Qian, Ying-ying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Kai

    2012-12-01

    To determine the roles of breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) in regulating dendritic cell maturation and in pathology of acute asthma. Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were prepared, and infected with adenovirus over-expressing BRP-39. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of acute asthma was made in female BALB/c mice by sensitizing and challenging with chicken OVA and Imject Alum. The transfected BMDCs were adoptively transferred into OVA-treated mice via intravenous injection. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation and pulmonary histopathology were characterized. The expression of BRP-39 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in lung tissues of OVA-treated mice. The BMDCs infected with adenovirus BRP-39 exhibited greater maturation and higher activity in vitro. Adoptive transfer of the cells into OVA-treated mice significantly augmented OVA-induced AHR and eosinophilic inflammation. Meanwhile, BRP-39 further enhanced the production of OVA-induced Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, but significantly attenuated OVA-induced IFN-γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In OVA-induced murine model of acute asthma, BRP-39 is over-expressed in lung tissue and augments Th2 inflammatory response and AHR. BRP-39 promotes dendritic cell maturation in vitro. Therefore, BRP-39 may be a potential therapeutic target of asthma.

  6. Regulation of nasal airway homeostasis and inflammation in mice by SHP-1 and Th2/Th1 signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Hyun Cho

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease orchestrated by Th2 lymphocytes. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1 is known to be a negative regulator in the IL-4α/STAT-6 signaling pathway of the lung. However, the role of SHP-1 enzyme and its functional relationship with Th2 and Th1 cytokines are not known in the nasal airway. In this study, we aimed to study the nasal inflammation as a result of SHP-1 deficiency in viable motheaten (mev mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Cytology, histology, and expression of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed to define the nature of the nasal inflammation. Targeted gene depletion of Th1 (IFN-γ and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines was used to identify the critical pathways involved. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs were studied to demonstrate the clearance mechanism of recruited inflammatory cells into the nasal airway. We showed here that mev mice had a spontaneous allergic rhinitis-like inflammation with eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia, up-regulation of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13, chemokines (eotaxin, and MMPs. All of these inflammatory mediators were clearly counter-regulated by Th2 and Th1 cytokines. Deletion of IFN-γ gene induced a strong Th2-skewed inflammation with transepithelial migration of the inflammatory cells. These findings suggest that SHP-1 enzyme and Th2/Th1 paradigm may play a critical role in the maintenance of nasal immune homeostasis and in the regulation of allergic rhinitis.

  7. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the differentiation and migration of T(H17 cells to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D(3, the most physiologically relevant form of vitamin D, is an essential organic compound that has been shown to have a crucial effect on the immune responses. Vitamin D(3 ameliorates the onset of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; however, the direct effect of vitamin D(3 on T cells is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an in vitro system using cells from mice, the active form of vitamin D(3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 suppresses both interleukin (IL-17-producing T cells (T(H17 and regulatory T cells (Treg differentiation via a vitamin D receptor signal. The ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 (1,25(OH(2D(3 to reduce the amount of IL-2 regulates the generation of Treg cells, but not T(H17 cells. Under T(H17-polarizing conditions, 1,25(OH(2D(3 helps to increase the numbers of IL-10-producing T cells, but 1,25(OH(2D(3's negative regulation of T(H17 development is still defined in the IL-10(-/- T cells. Although the STAT1 signal reciprocally affects the secretion of IL-10 and IL-17, 1,25(OH(2D(3 inhibits IL-17 production in STAT1(-/- T cells. Most interestingly, 1,25(OH(2D(3 negatively regulates CCR6 expression which might be essential for T(H17 cells to enter the central nervous system and initiate EAE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present results in an experimental murine model suggest that 1,25(OH(2D(3 can directly regulate T cell differentiation and could be applied in preventive and therapeutic strategies for T(H17-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  8. Co-stimulation by anti-immunoglobulin is required for B cell activation by CD40Llow T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    cell Ag specificity by using anti-CD3/T cell receptor (TcR) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to activate T cells. To study the role of sIg engagement in the responsiveness of B cells to T help, we pre-treated small resting B cells with soluble anti-kappa mAb prior to contact with an activated Th1 clone...... strongly. Low buoyant density B cells also responded to CD40Llow Th cells. There was no B cell response to resting Th cells. mAb against CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II completely inhibited B cell responses to CD40Llow Th1 cells, equivalent...

  9. Developmental control of integrin expression regulates Th2 effector homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrin CD18, a component of the LFA-1 complex that also includes CD11a, is essential for Th2, but not Th1, cell homing, but the explanation for this phenomenon remains obscure. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which Th2 effector responses require the LFA-1 complex. CD11a-deficient T ...

  10. Immunomodulation Mechanism of Antidepressants: Interactions between Serotonin/Norepinephrine Balance and Th1/Th2 Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Matteo; Rocchi, Giulio; Escelsior, Andrea; Fornaro, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones regulate major immune functions, including the selection of T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cytokine responses, related to cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. A role of imbalance and dynamic switching of Th1/Th2 system has been proposed, with relative displacement of the immune reserve in relation to complex interaction between Th1/Th2 and neuro-hormonal balance fluctuations, in the pathogenesis of various chronic human diseases, probably also including psychiatric disorders. Components of the stress system such as norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids appear to mediate a Th2 shift, while serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin might mediate a Th1 shift. Some antidepressants would occur affecting these systems, acting on neurotransmitter balance (especially the 5-HT/NE balance) and expression levels of receptor subtypes, which in turn affect cytokine production and relative Th1/Th2 balance. It could be therefore hypothesized that the antidepressant-related increase in NE tone enhances the Th2 response, while the decrease in NE tone or the increase in 5-HT tone enhances the Th1 response. However, the neurotransmitter and Th1/Th2 balance modulation could be relative, aiming to restore physiological levels a previous imbalance in receptor sensitivity and cytokine production. The considerations on neuro-immunomodulation could represent an additional aid in the study of pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in the choice of specific antidepressants in specific clusters of symptoms, especially in comorbidity with internal pathologies. Furthermore limited data, reviewed here, have shown the effectiveness of some antidepressants as pure immunomodulators. However, these considerations are tentative and require experimental confirmation or refutation by future studies. PMID:23204981

  11. Inflammatory Th17 cells promote depression-like behavior in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, Eléonore; Harrington, Laurie E.; Jope, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recognition of substantial immune-neural interactions is revising dogmas about their insular actions and revealing that immune-neural interactions can substantially impact CNS functions. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 promotes susceptibility to depression and drives production of inflammatory T helper 17 (Th17) T cells, raising the hypothesis that in mouse models Th17 cells promote susceptibility to depression-like behaviors. Methods Behavioral characteristics were measured in male mice administered Th17 cells, CD4+ cells, or vehicle, and in RORγT+/GFP mice or male mice treated with RORγT inhibitor or anti-IL-17A antibodies. Results Mouse brain Th17 cells were elevated by learned helplessness and chronic restraint stress, two common depression-like models. Th17 cell administration promoted learned helplessness in 89% of mice in a paradigm where no vehicle-treated mice developed learned helplessness, and impaired novelty suppressed feeding and social interaction behaviors. Mice deficient in the RORγT transcription factor necessary for Th17 cell production exhibited resistance to learned helplessness, identifying modulation of RORγT as a potential intervention. Treatment with the RORγT inhibitor SR1001, or anti-IL-17A antibodies to abrogate Th17 cell function, reduced Th17-dependent learned helplessness. Conclusions These findings indicate that Th17 cells are increased in the brain during depression-like states, promote depression-like behaviors in mice, and specifically inhibiting the production or function of Th17 cells reduces vulnerability to depression-like behavior, suggesting antidepressant effects may be attained by targeting Th17 cells. PMID:23174342

  12. A noncognate interaction with anti-receptor antibody-activated helper T cells induces small resting murine B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    on resting B cells (even in the presence of intact F23.1 antibody), but could induce antibody secretion by anti-Ig-preactivated B cells. Both F23.1+ clones (E9.D4 and 4.35F2) and one F23.1- clone (D2.2) could synergize with supernatants from activated E9.D4 T cells to induce B cell activation. F(ab')2......Culture of small resting allogeneic B cells (of an irrelevant haplotype) with two clones of T helper (Th) cells that were activated by the F23.1 anti-T cell receptor antibody led to the activation of B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody. Th cell supernatants by themselves had no effect...... fragments of F23.1 induced E9.D4 to activate B cells as efficiently as intact F23.1 and B cell populations that had been incubated with F23.1 were not activated when cultured with E9.D4, although T cells recognized cell-presented F23.1 and were weakly activated. Reduction of the density of F23.1 adsorbed...

  13. Calibration of a low background gas-flow proportional counter to estimate "2"3"4Th activity in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, E.; Lozano, R.L.; Miguel, E.G. San; Casas-Ruiz, M.; Bolívar, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper relates the calibration of a low background gas-flow proportional counter. This calibration has been used to determine low activity of "2"3"4Th in coastal water samples. Two methods were used to prepare calibration samples: Evaporation and Electrodeposition. First method was rejected due to the lack of reproducibility because the different geometry adopted by the drops of tracer once dried on the disk. On the contrary, through the second method, similar efficiencies were obtained in all detectors with an average of 0.401±0.004. In this paper, the whole procedure to obtain "2"3"4Th activity in dissolution as well as in particulate matter has been detailed, and all the algorithms needed to calculate activities and efficiencies are shown. Finally, two experiments have been designed in order to validate the calibration of the beta counter and the method to determine "2"3"4Th in coastal waters with high concentration of particulate matter. - Highlights: • This paper shows a Home-made calibration using two methods to prepare calibration samples. • The algorithms needed to obtain Th-234 activity concentrations are described in full detail. • This is the first time Th-234 has been determined in water samples from Huelva Estuary.

  14. Th17 cytokines differentiate obesity from obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and promote TNFα production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Blanche; Cilfone, Nicholas A; Belkina, Anna C; DeFuria, Jason; Jagannathan-Bogdan, Madhumita; Zhu, Min; Kuchibhatla, Ramya; McDonnell, Marie E; Xiao, Qiang; Kepler, Thomas B; Apovian, Caroline M; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    T cell inflammation plays pivotal roles in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The identification of dominant sources of T cell inflammation in humans remains a significant gap in understanding disease pathogenesis. It was hypothesized that cytokine profiles from circulating T cells identify T cell subsets and T cell cytokines that define T2DM-associated inflammation. Multiplex analyses were used to quantify T cell-associated cytokines in αCD3/αCD28-stimulated PBMCs, or B cell-depleted PBMCs, from subjects with T2DM or BMI-matched controls. Cytokine measurements were subjected to multivariate (principal component and partial least squares) analyses. Flow cytometry detected intracellular TNFα in multiple immune cell subsets in the presence/absence of antibodies that neutralize T cell cytokines. T cell cytokines were generally higher in T2DM samples, but Th17 cytokines are specifically important for classifying individuals correctly as T2DM. Multivariate analyses indicated that B cells support Th17 inflammation in T2DM but not control samples, while monocytes supported Th17 inflammation regardless of T2DM status. Partial least squares regression analysis indicated that both Th17 and Th1 cytokines impact %HbA1c. Among various T cell subsets, Th17 cells are major contributors to inflammation and hyperglycemia and are uniquely supported by B cells in obesity-associated T2DM. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  15. T-Bet Enhances Regulatory T Cell Fitness and Directs Control of Th1 Responses in Crescentic GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosko, Anna; Kluger, Malte A; Diefenhardt, Paul; Melderis, Simon; Wegscheid, Claudia; Tiegs, Gisa; Stahl, Rolf A K; Panzer, Ulf; Steinmetz, Oliver M

    2017-01-01

    Th1 cells are central pathogenic mediators of crescentic GN (cGN). Mechanisms responsible for Th1 cell downregulation, however, remain widely unknown. Recently, it was proposed that activation of the Th1-characteristic transcription factor T-bet optimizes Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells to counteract Th1-type inflammation. Because very little is known about the role of T-bet + Treg1 cells in inflammatory diseases, we studied the function of these cells in the nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) model of cGN. The percentage of Treg1 cells progressively increased in kidneys of nephritic wild-type mice during the course of NTN, indicating their functional importance. Notably, naïve Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice, lacking Treg1 cells, showed spontaneous skewing toward Th1 immunity. Furthermore, absence of Treg1 cells resulted in aggravated NTN with selectively dysregulated renal and systemic Th1 responses. Detailed analyses of Treg cells from Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice revealed unaltered cytokine production and suppressive capacity. However, in competitive cotransfer experiments, wild-type Treg cells outcompeted T-bet-deficient Treg cells in terms of population expansion and expression levels of Foxp3, indicating that T-bet expression is crucial for general Treg fitness. Additionally, T-bet-deficient Treg cells lacked expression of the Th1-characteristic trafficking receptor CXCR3, which correlated with significant impairment of renal Treg infiltration. In summary, our data indicate a new subtype of Treg cells in cGN. These Treg1 cells are characterized by activation of the transcription factor T-bet, which enhances the overall fitness of these cells and optimizes their capacity to downregulate Th1 responses by inducing chemokine receptor CXCR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Oral Treatment with Extract of Agaricus blazei Murill Enhanced Th1 Response through Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Suppressed OVA-Sensitized Allergy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Bouike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the mechanism of the antiallergic activity of Agaricus blazei Murill extract (ABME, the present paper used an in vivo allergy model and an in vitro intestinal gut model. During OVA sensitization, the serum IgE levels decreased significantly in ABME group. Interleukin (IL-4 and -5 produced from OVA-restimulated splenocytes was significantly decreased, and anti-CD3ε/CD28 antibody treatment also reduced IL-10, -4, and -5 production and increased IFN-γ production in ABME group. These results suggest that oral administration of ABME improves Th1/Th2 balance. Moreover, a coculture system constructed of Caco-2 cells and splenocytes from OT-II mice or RAW 264.7 cells indicated that the significant increases in IFN-γ production by ABME treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that the antiallergic activity of ABME was due to the activation of macrophages by epithelial cells and the promotion of the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells in the immune.

  17. TH17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26

    KAUST Repository

    Meller, Stephan

    2015-07-13

    Interleukin 17-producing helper T cells (TH 17 cells) have a major role in protection against infections and in mediating autoimmune diseases, yet the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. We found that interleukin 26 (IL-26), a human TH17 cell-derived cytokine, is a cationic amphipathic protein that kills extracellular bacteria via membrane-pore formation. Furthermore, TH17 cell-derived IL-26 formed complexes with bacterial DNA and self-DNA released by dying bacteria and host cells. The resulting IL-26-DNA complexes triggered the production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells via activation of Toll-like receptor 9, but independently of the IL-26 receptor. These findings provide insights into the potent antimicrobial and proinflammatory function of TH17 cells by showing that IL-26 is a natural human antimicrobial that promotes immune sensing of bacterial and host cell death. © 2015 Nature America, Inc.

  18. TH17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26

    KAUST Repository

    Meller, Stephan; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Voo, Kui S; Friedrich, Heike C; Chamilos, Georgios; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Conrad, Curdin; Gregorio, Josh; Le Roy, Didier; Roger, Thierry; Ladbury, John E; Homey, Bernhard; Watowich, Stanley; Modlin, Robert L; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Liu, Yong-Jun; Arold, Stefan T.; Gilliet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 17-producing helper T cells (TH 17 cells) have a major role in protection against infections and in mediating autoimmune diseases, yet the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. We found that interleukin 26 (IL-26), a human TH17 cell-derived cytokine, is a cationic amphipathic protein that kills extracellular bacteria via membrane-pore formation. Furthermore, TH17 cell-derived IL-26 formed complexes with bacterial DNA and self-DNA released by dying bacteria and host cells. The resulting IL-26-DNA complexes triggered the production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells via activation of Toll-like receptor 9, but independently of the IL-26 receptor. These findings provide insights into the potent antimicrobial and proinflammatory function of TH17 cells by showing that IL-26 is a natural human antimicrobial that promotes immune sensing of bacterial and host cell death. © 2015 Nature America, Inc.

  19. Differential Expression of Serum MicroRNAs Supports CD4+ T Cell Differentiation into Th2/Th17 Cells in Severe Equine Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pacholewska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and may be exported from cells via exosomes or in partnership with RNA-binding proteins. MiRNAs in body fluids can act in a hormone-like manner and play important roles in disease initiation and progression. Hence, miRNAs are promising candidates as biomarkers. To identify serum miRNA biomarkers in the equine model of asthma we investigated small RNA derived from the serum of 34 control and 37 asthmatic horses. These samples were used for next generation sequencing, novel miRNA identification and differential miRNA expression analysis. We identified 11 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between case and control horses: eca-miR-128, eca-miR-744, eca-miR-197, eca-miR-103, eca-miR-107a, eca-miR-30d, eca-miR-140-3p, eca-miR-7, eca-miR-361-3p, eca-miR-148b-3p and eca-miR-215. Pathway enrichment using experimentally validated target genes of the human homologous miRNAs showed a significant enrichment in the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (key player in airway remodeling in asthma and the phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3 signaling pathway (modulator of CD4+ T cell maturation and function. Downregulated miR-128 and miR-744 supports a Th2/Th17 type immune response in severe equine asthma.

  20. T cell expression of IL-18R and DR3 is essential for non-cognate stimulation of Th1 cells and optimal clearance of intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Oanh H; O'Donnell, Hope; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Tsolis, Renée M; McSorley, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    Th1 cells can be activated by TCR-independent stimuli, but the importance of this pathway in vivo and the precise mechanisms involved require further investigation. Here, we used a simple model of non-cognate Th1 cell stimulation in Salmonella-infected mice to examine these issues. CD4 Th1 cell expression of both IL-18R and DR3 was required for optimal IFN-γ induction in response to non-cognate stimulation, while IL-15R expression was dispensable. Interestingly, effector Th1 cells generated by immunization rather than live infection had lower non-cognate activity despite comparable IL-18R and DR3 expression. Mice lacking T cell intrinsic expression of MyD88, an important adapter molecule in non-cognate T cell stimulation, exhibited higher bacterial burdens upon infection with Salmonella, Chlamydia or Brucella, suggesting that non-cognate Th1 stimulation is a critical element of efficient bacterial clearance. Thus, IL-18R and DR3 are critical players in non-cognate stimulation of Th1 cells and this response plays an important role in protection against intracellular bacteria.

  1. RhIL-11 treatment normalized Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 imbalance in in human immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Zhou, Xieming; Guo, Wenjian; Li, Qianqian; Pan, Xiahui; Bao, Yunhua; He, Muqing; Zhu, Baoling; Lin, Xiaoji; Jin, Limin; Yao, Rongxin

    2016-09-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune hemorrhagic disorder characterized by reduction in platelet counts. T helper 1 (Th1) cells polarization with an increased shift of Th1/Th2 ratio has been reported in ITP. This shift is associated with transcription factor T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) upregulation and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA-3) downregulation, leading to an increased T-bet/GATA-3 ratio. Our previous in vitro study showed that recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) could normalize Th1/Th2 imbalance in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from adult ITP patients, which co-occurred with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio restoration. In this report, we investigated whether rhIL-11 had therapeutic effect in clinical ITP patients and whether rhIL-11 treatment could normalize Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 levels in vivo. We found rhIL-11 treatment had a response rate of 67.7% and significantly decreased Th1 and T-bet levels but increased Th2 and GATA-3 levels in ITP patients who showed good response, normalizing Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 ratios similar to that in healthy controls. Thus our study suggested rhIL-11 was effective with tolerable adverse effects in ITP. The treatment strategy warrants further clinical investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of mice with fenbendazole attenuates allergic airways inflammation and Th2 cytokine production in a model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yeping; Zhou, Jiansheng; Webb, Dianne C

    2009-01-01

    Mouse models have provided a significant insight into the role of T-helper (Th) 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 in regulating eosinophilia and other key features of asthma. However, the validity of these models can be compromised by inadvertent infection of experimental mouse colonies with pathogens such as oxyurid parasites (pinworms). While the benzimidazole derivative, fenbendazole (FBZ), is commonly used to treat such outbreaks, the effects of FBZ on mouse models of Th2 disease are largely unknown. In this investigation, we show that mice fed FBZ-supplemented food during the in utero and post-weaning period developed attenuated lung eosinophilia, antigen-specific IgG1 and Th2 cytokine responses in a model of asthma. Treatment of the mediastinal lymph node cells from allergic mice with FBZ in vitro attenuated cell proliferation, IL-5 and IL-13 production and expression of the early lymphocyte activation marker, CD69 on CD4(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells. In addition, eosinophilia and Th2 responses remained attenuated after a 4-week withholding period in allergic mice treated preweaning with FBZ. Thus, FBZ modulates the amplitude of Th2 responses both in vivo and in vitro.

  3. Simultaneous analysis of multiple T helper subsets in leprosy reveals distinct patterns of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs markers expression in clinical forms and reactional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Michelle de Campos Soriani; Marques, Heloisa; Binelli, Larissa Sarri; Malange, Mariana Silva Vieira; Devides, Amanda Carreira; Silva, Eliane Aparecida; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi; Ghidella, Cassio Cesar; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Farias Fernandes; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro

    2017-12-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference among clinical forms of leprosy can be associated with the immune response of patients, mainly by T helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Then, aiming at clarifying the immune response, the expression of cytokines related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs profiles were evaluated by qPCR in 87 skin biopsies from leprosy patients. Additionally, cytokines and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were determined in serum by ELISA. The results showed that the expression of various targets (mRNA) related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs were significantly modulated in leprosy when compared with healthy individuals, suggesting the presence of a mixed profile. In addition, the targets related to Th1 predominated in the tuberculoid pole and side and Th2 and Tregs predominated in the lepromatous pole and side; however, Th17 targets showed a mixed profile. Concerning reactional events, Tregs markers were decreased and IL-15 was increased in reversal reaction and IL-17F, CCL20 and IL-8 in erythema nodosum leprosum, when compared with the respective non-reactional leprosy patients. Additionally, ELISA analysis demonstrated that IL-22, IL-6, IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibody levels were significantly higher in the serum of patients when compared with healthy individuals, and IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were also increased in the lepromatous pole and side. Together, these results indicate that Th1, Th2 and Th17 are involved in the determination of clinical forms of leprosy and suggest that decreased Tregs activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of reactional events.

  4. IFN-γ-producing Th1-like regulatory T cells may limit acute cellular renal allograft rejection: Paradoxical post-transplantation effects of IFN-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Haiyan; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Ming; Qian, Yeyong; Han, Yong; Wang, Xinying; Gao, Yu; Yuan, Ming; Xu, Liang; Yao, Chen; Xiao, Li; Shi, Bingyi

    2017-02-01

    IFN-γ is a protypical proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in inflammation and acute graft rejection. Accumulating evidence indicates that IFN-γ can exert previously unexpected immunoregulatory activities. However, little is known about the role of IFN-γ secreted by Th1-like regulatory T cells in human kidney transplantation. To determine the function of IFN-γ in acute T cell-mediated renal allograft rejection (ACR), we examined serum cytokine expression profiles in ACR patients by human cytokine multiplex immunoassay and analyzed the cellular origins of IFN-γ in peripheral blood and renal allograft biopsies from ACR cases and controls by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed significant reduction in serum concentrations of Th1-inducing cytokines IL-12p70 and IFN-γ as well as Th2-related cytokine IL-4 in ACR patients compared with stable controls. However, levels of several Th1-, Th2- and Th17-related cytokines, such as IL-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, IL-12 (p40), IL-10, IL-15, IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23, as well as the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cell, did not differ between ACR cases and stable controls. Moreover, we found the levels of IFN-γ were correlated with those of the anti-inflammatory factor, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in ACR. Notably, the Th1-like Treg cell-to-Foxp3 - Th1 cell ratio was significantly lower in ACR patients compared with that in stable controls. In graft biopsies from ACR patients, Treg cells and Th1-like Treg cells were less abundant than those without ACR. Our study indicates that IFN-γ secreted from Th1-like Treg cells negatively modulates ACR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The combination of maltose-binding protein and BCG-induced Th1 activation is involved in TLR2/9-mediated upregulation of MyD88-TRAF6 and TLR4-mediated downregulation of TRIF-TRAF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guomu; Zhai, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Hongyue; Yang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Nannan; Tai, Guixiang; Ni, Weihua

    2018-03-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that maltose-binding protein (MBP) activated Th1 through the TLR2-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway and the TLR4-mediated TRIF-dependent pathway. The combination of MBP and BCG synergistically induced Th1 activation, and the TLR2/9-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway is involved in this process. To further explore this mechanism, we stimulated purified mouse CD4 + T cells with MBP and BCG in vitro. The results demonstrated that MBP combined with BCG synergistically increased IFN-γ production and TLR2/4/9 expression, suggesting the involvement of TLR2/4/9 in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Next, TLRs 2/4/9 were blocked to analyze the effects of TLRs on Th1 activation. The results demonstrated that MBP induced a low level of Th1 activation by upregulating TLR2-mediated MyD88-TRAF6 and TLR4-mediated TRIF-TRAF3 expression, whereas MBP combined with BCG induced synergistic Th1 activation, which was not only triggered by strong upregulation of TLR2/9-mediated MyD88-TRAF6 expression but also by shifting TLR4-mediated TRIF-TRAF3 into the TRIF-TRAF6 pathway. Moreover, we observed that a TLR4 antibody upregulated MyD88 expression and a TLR9 inhibitor downregulated TRIF expression, indicating that there was cross-talk between TLRs 2/4/9 in MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation. Our findings may expand the knowledge regarding TLR cross-talk involved in regulating the Th1 response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mina: a Th2 response regulator meets TGFβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Meenu R; Lian, Shangli; Bix, Mark

    2014-12-01

    The JmjC protein Mina is an important immune response regulator. Classical forward genetics first discovered its immune role in 2009 in connection with the development of T helper 2 (Th2) cells. This prompted investigation into Mina's role in the two best-studied contexts where Th2 responses are essential: atopic asthma and helminth expulsion. In work focused on a mouse model of atopic asthma, Mina deficiency was found to ameliorate airway hyper-resistance and pulmonary inflammation. And, in a case-control study genetic variation at the human MINA locus was found to be associated with the development of childhood atopic asthma. Although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of Mina's involvement in pulmonary inflammation remains unknown, our recent work on parasitic helminth expulsion suggests the possibility that, rather than T cells, epithelial cells responding to TGFβ may play the dominant role. Here we review the growing body of literature on the emerging Mina pathway in T cells and epithelial cells and attempt to set these into a broader context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electro-acupuncture at Acupoint ST36 Ameliorates Inflammation and Regulates Th1/Th2 Balance in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Tao; Long, Man; Chen, Longyun; Wang, Lei; Yin, Nina; Chen, Zebin

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) therapy. However, its underlying mechanism on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), a classic allergic inflammatory disease, still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of EA intervention in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, OVA-DTH, DTH + EA, DTH + Sham. "Zusanli" acupoint (ST36) was used for DTH + EA, whereas a non-acupoint (localized 5 mm below the "Zusanli" acupoint) was selected for DTH + Sham. Footpad thickness was checked, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was estimated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of IgG and IgE in serum of different groups and inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants from homogenized footpads, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5, were determined by ELISA. Cell proliferation of spleen lymphocytes was assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The frequency of CD4 + IFN-γ + and CD4 + IL-4 + T cells was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of T-bet and GATA-3 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Our data showed EA treatment at acupoint ST36 relieved the pathological progression of DTH responses via reduction in footpad swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, levels of IgG and IgE as well as decreased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in homogenized footpad tissue. Moreover, detailed studies were performed revealing that EA attenuated the percentage of CD4 + IFN-γ + T cells and prevented Th cells differentiation into Th1 cells, and this results from inhibiting secretion of IFN-γ and suppressing expression of T-bet, an IFN-γ transcription factor. The results indicated that EA treatment improved Th1-mediated allergic skin inflammation via restoring Th1/Th2 balance by curbing Th1

  8. TRAF6 is essential for maintenance of regulatory T cells that suppress Th2 type autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Muto

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs maintain immune homeostasis by limiting inflammatory responses. TRAF6 plays a key role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by mediating signals from various receptors including the T-cell receptor (TCR. T cell-specific deletion of TRAF6 has been shown to induce multiorgan inflammatory disease, but the role of TRAF6 in Tregs remains to be investigated. Here, we generated Treg-specific TRAF6-deficient mice using Foxp3-Cre and TRAF6-flox mice. Treg-specific TRAF6-deficient (cKO mice developed allergic skin diseases, arthritis, lymphadenopathy and hyper IgE phenotypes. Although TRAF6-deficient Tregs possess similar in vitro suppression activity compared to wild-type Tregs, TRAF6-deficient Tregs did not suppress colitis in lymphopenic mice very efficiently due to reduced number of Foxp3-positive cells. In addition, the fraction of TRAF6-deficient Tregs was reduced compared with wild-type Tregs in female cKO mice without inflammation. Moreover, adoptive transfer of Foxp3 (+ Tregs into Rag2(-/- mice revealed that TRAF6-deficient Tregs converted into Foxp3(- cells more rapidly than WT Tregs under lymphopenic conditions. Fate-mapping analysis also revealed that conversion of Tregs from Foxp3(+ to Foxp3(- (exFoxp3 cells was accelerated in TRAF6-deficient Tregs. These data indicate that TRAF6 in Tregs plays important roles in the maintenance of Foxp3 in Tregs and in the suppression of pathogenic Th2 type conversion of Tregs.

  9. Evaluation of accessory cell heterogeneity. I. Differential accessory cell requirement for T helper cell activation and for T-B cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramila, G; Studer, S; Kennedy, M; Sklenar, I; Erb, P

    1985-01-01

    Several Ia+ tumor cell lines and peritoneal exudate macrophages were tested as accessory cells (AC) for the activation of antigen-specific T cells and for T-B cooperation. The macrophages and all the Ia+ tumor lines tested induced the release of lymphokines from T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted fashion and reconstituted the antibody responses of AC-depleted spleen cells or of purified T and B cells. However, only the normal macrophages but none of the tumor lines induced carrier-specific T helper (Th) cells which help B cells for specific antihapten antibody responses by linked recognition. For T-B cooperation accessory cells were also required, but in contrast to Th cell activation any type of Ia+ AC (e.g. macrophage or tumor line) was effective. Strong MHC-restriction between the lymphocytes and the AC was seen if antigen-pulsed AC were added into the AC-depleted T-B cooperation cultures. If the AC and antigen were concomitantly added to the AC-depleted T-B cultures, MHC-restriction was less obvious. Concanavalin A supernatant reconstituted the response of AC-depleted T-B cultures provided antigen-specific Th cells and the hapten-carrier conjugate were present. If, however, tumor line-activated T cells were added instead of macrophage-induced Th cells, no cooperation with B cells took place even in the presence of Con A supernatant. The results obtained demonstrate a differential AC requirement for the induction of Th cells depending on the differentiation stage of the Th cells.

  10. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Hou, Tim Y; Turk, Harmony F; Weeks, Brad; Wu, Chaodong; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site) and spleen (systemic inflammatory site), and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF) diet (59.2% kcal) alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO) for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i) serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin), ii) adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21) and iii) total (F4/80⁺ CD11b⁺) and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80⁺ CD11c⁺) macrophage content compared to HF (Pdiet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ) and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ) versus HF (P<0.05). Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05). Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4⁺ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.

  11. Th17 Cells Induce Dopaminergic Neuronal Death via LFA-1/ICAM-1 Interaction in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan; Huang, Yan; Cao, Bei-Bei; Qiu, Yi-Hua; Peng, Yu-Ping

    2017-12-01

    T helper (Th)17 cells, a subset of CD4 + T lymphocytes, have strong pro-inflammatory property and appear to be essential in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. However, the involvement of Th17 cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the nigrostriatal system is unclear. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that Th17 cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma and induce neuroinflammation and DAergic neuronal death in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )-induced PD models. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the substantia nigra (SN) was assessed by the signal of FITC-labeled albumin that was injected into blood circulation via the ascending aorta. Live cell imaging system was used to observe a direct contact of Th17 cells with neurons by staining these cells using the two adhesion molecules, leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, respectively. Th17 cells invaded into the SN where BBB was disrupted in MPTP-induced PD mice. Th17 cells exacerbated DAergic neuronal loss and pro-inflammatory/neurotrophic factor disorders in MPP + -treated ventral mesencephalic (VM) cell cultures. A direct contact of LFA-1-stained Th17 cells with ICAM-1-stained VM neurons was dynamically captured. Either blocking LFA-1 in Th17 cells or blocking ICAM-1 in VM neurons with neutralizing antibodies abolished Th17-induced DAergic neuronal death. These results establish that Th17 cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma of PD mice through lesioned BBB and exert neurotoxic property by promoting glial activation and importantly by a direct damage to neurons depending on LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction.

  12. Th17 Cell Induction by Adhesion of Microbes to Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarashi, Koji; Tanoue, Takeshi; Ando, Minoru; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Nagano, Yuji; Narushima, Seiko; Suda, Wataru; Imaoka, Akemi; Setoyama, Hiromi; Nagamori, Takashi; Ishikawa, Eiji; Shima, Tatsuichiro; Hara, Taeko; Kado, Shoichi; Jinnohara, Toshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takashi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Yokoyama, Shin-Ichiro; Tokoro, Shunji; Mori, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Yurika; Morita, Hidetoshi; Ivanov, Ivaylo I; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Nuñez, Gabriel; Camp, J Gray; Hattori, Masahira; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Honda, Kenya

    2015-10-08

    Intestinal Th17 cells are induced and accumulate in response to colonization with a subgroup of intestinal microbes such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and certain extracellular pathogens. Here, we show that adhesion of microbes to intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) is a critical cue for Th17 induction. Upon monocolonization of germ-free mice or rats with SFB indigenous to mice (M-SFB) or rats (R-SFB), M-SFB and R-SFB showed host-specific adhesion to small intestinal ECs, accompanied by host-specific induction of Th17 cells. Citrobacter rodentium and Escherichia coli O157 triggered similar Th17 responses, whereas adhesion-defective mutants of these microbes failed to do so. Moreover, a mixture of 20 bacterial strains, which were selected and isolated from fecal samples of a patient with ulcerative colitis on the basis of their ability to cause a robust induction of Th17 cells in the mouse colon, also exhibited EC-adhesive characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging biomarkers to monitor response to the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 in the MiaPaCa2 flank xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio; Li, Yuguo; Galons, Jean-Philippe; Cornnell, Heather; Gillies, Robert J; Pagel, Mark D; Baker, Amanda F

    2012-09-01

    TH-302, a hypoxia-activated anticancer prodrug, was evaluated for antitumor activity and changes in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. TH-302 monotherapy resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth compared to vehicle-treated controls. TH-302 treatment was also associated with a significant decrease in the volume transfer constant (K(trans)) compared to vehicle-treated controls 1 day following the first dose measured using DCE-MRI. This early decrease in K(trans) following the first dose as measured is consistent with selective killing of the hypoxic fraction of cells which are associated with enhanced expression of hypoxia inducible transcription factor-1 alpha that regulates expression of permeability and perfusion factors including vascular endothelial growth factor-A. No changes were observed in DW-MRI following treatment with TH-302, which may indicate that this technique is not sensitive enough to detect changes in small hypoxic fractions of the tumor targeted by TH-302. These results suggest that changes in tumor permeability and/or perfusion may be an early imaging biomarker for response to TH-302 therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dopamine receptors D3 and D5 regulate CD4(+)T-cell activation and differentiation by modulating ERK activation and cAMP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Dafne; Contreras, Francisco; González, Hugo; Prado, Carolina; Elgueta, Daniela; Figueroa, Claudio; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2015-07-15

    Dopamine receptors have been described in T-cells, however their signalling pathways coupled remain unknown. Since cAMP and ERKs play key roles regulating T-cell physiology, we aim to determine whether cAMP and ERK1/2-phosphorylation are modulated by dopamine receptor 3 (D3R) and D5R, and how this modulation affects CD4(+) T-cell activation and differentiation. Our pharmacologic and genetic evidence shows that D3R-stimulation reduced cAMP levels and ERK2-phosphorylation, consequently increasing CD4(+) T-cell activation and Th1-differentiation, respectively. Moreover, D5R expression reinforced TCR-triggered ERK1/2-phosphorylation and T-cell activation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate how D3R and D5R modulate key signalling pathways affecting CD4(+) T-cell activation and Th1-differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Valsartan Attenuates Atherosclerosis via Upregulating the Th2 Immune Response in Prolonged Angiotensin II–Treated ApoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kai; Zeng, Qiutang; Lu, Qinghua; Lin, Yingzhong; Wu, Bangwei; Yu, Kunwu; Dong, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Jianwei; Chai, Meng; Liu, Yuyang; Ji, Qingwei; Zhou, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Valsartan has a protective effect against hypertension and atherosclerosis in humans and experimental animal models. This study aimed to determine the effect of prolonged treatment with angiotensin II (Ang II) on atherosclerosis and the effect of valsartan on the activity of CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets. The results showed that prolonged treatment (8 wks) with exogenous Ang II resulted in an increased atherosclerotic plaque size and a switch of stable-to-unstable plaque via modulating on CD4+ T lymphocyte activity, including an increase in the T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells and a decrease in Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) cells. In contrast, valsartan treatment efficiently reversed the imbalance in CD4+ T lymphocyte activity, ameliorated atherosclerosis and elicited a stable plaque phenotype in addition to controlling blood pressure. In addition, treatment with anti-interleukin (IL)-5 monoclonal antibodies weakened the antiatherosclerotic effects of valsartan without affecting blood pressure. PMID:25685964

  16. The Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer are very complex and not yet entirely clarified. T lymphocytes and their immune-regulatory cytokines play a pivotal role in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Following activation by unique cytokines, CD4+ T helper cells differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs. Traditionally, research in lung cancer immunity has focused almost exclusively on Th1/Th2 cell balance. Recently, Th17 cells and Tregs represent an intriguing issue to be addressed in lung cancer pathogenesis. Tregs play an important role in the preservation of self-tolerance and modulation of overall immune responses against tumor cells. Th17 cells directly or via other proinflammatory cytokines modulate antitumor immune responses. Notably, there is a close relation between Tregs and Th17 cells. However, the possible interaction between these subsets in lung cancer remains to be elucidated. In this setting, targeting Treg/Th17 balance for therapeutic purposes may represent a useful tool for lung cancer treatment in the future. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings of the role of these novel populations in lung cancer immunity and to highlight the pleiotropic effects of these subsets on the development and regulation of lung cancer.

  17. Crystal structures of Th(OH)PO4, U(OH)PO4 and Th2O(PO4)2. Condensation mechanism of M(IV)(OH)PO4 (M= Th, U) into M2O(PO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacheux, N.; Clavier, N.; Wallez, G.; Quarton, M.

    2007-01-01

    Three new crystal structures, isotypic with β-Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 , have been resolved by the Rietveld method. All crystallize with an orthorhombic cell (S.G.: Cmca) with a = 7.1393(2) Angstroms, b = 9.2641(2) Angstroms, c 12.5262(4) Angstroms, V = 828.46(4) (Angstroms) 3 and Z = 8 for Th(OH)PO 4 ; a = 7.0100(2) Angstroms, b = 9.1200(2) Angstroms, c = 12.3665(3) Angstroms, V 790.60(4) (Angstroms) 3 and Z = 8 for U(OH)PO 4 ; a 7.1691(3) Angstroms, b 9.2388(4) Angstroms, c = 12.8204(7) Angstroms, V 849.15(7) (Angstroms) 3 and Z = 4 for Th 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 . By heating, the M(OH)PO 4 (M Th, U) compounds condense topotactically into M 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 , with a change of the environment of the tetravalent cation that lowers from 8 to 7 oxygen atoms. The lower stability of Th 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 compared to that of U 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 seems to result from this unusual environment for tetravalent thorium. (authors)

  18. Inorganic arsenic represses interleukin-17A expression in human activated Th17 lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzadec, Claudie; Macoch, Mélinda; Robineau, Marc; Sparfel, Lydie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2012-08-01

    Trivalent inorganic arsenic [As(III)] is an efficient anticancer agent used to treat patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia. Recently, experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that this metalloid can also cure lymphoproliferative and/or pro-inflammatory syndromes in different murine models of chronic immune-mediated diseases. T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes play a central role in development of these diseases, in mice and humans, especially by secreting the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ and IL-17A, respectively. As(III) impairs basic functions of human T cells but its ability to modulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by differentiated Th lymphocytes is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that As(III), used at concentrations clinically achievable in plasma of patients, has no effect on the secretion of interferon-γ from Th1 cells but almost totally blocks the expression and the release of IL-17A from human Th17 lymphocytes co-stimulated for five days with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, in the presence of differentiating cytokines. In addition, As(III) specifically reduces mRNA levels of the retinoic-related orphan receptor (ROR)C gene which encodes RORγt, a key transcription factor controlling optimal IL-17 expression in fully differentiated Th17 cells. The metalloid also blocks initial expression of IL-17 gene induced by the co-stimulation, probably in part by impairing activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that As(III) represses expression of the major pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17A produced by human Th17 lymphocytes, thus strengthening the idea that As(III) may be useful to treat inflammatory immune-mediated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic inhibits secretion of IL-17A from human naïve and memory Th17 lymphocytes. ► Arsenic represses early expression of IL-17A gene in human activated T lymphocytes. ► Arsenic interferes with activation of

  19. Intratumoral Th2 predisposition combines with an increased Th1 functional phenotype in clinical response to intravesical BCG in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Gruenbacher, Georg; Culig, Zoran; Brunner, Andrea; Fuchs, Dietmar; Fritz, Josef; Gander, Hubert; Rahm, Andrea; Thurnher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Th1-type immunity is considered to be required for efficient response to BCG in bladder cancer, although Th2 predisposition of BCG responders has recently been reported. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of Th1 and Th2 components in 23 patients undergoing BCG treatment. Peripheral blood, serum and urine samples were prospectively collected at baseline, during and after BCG. Th1 (neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR), IL-12, IFN-γ, soluble TNF-R75 and IL-2Rα) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) biomarkers as well as CD4 expression in T helper (Th), effector and regulatory T cells were determined. Local immune cell subsets were measured on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry to examine expression of transcription factors that control Th1 (T-bet) and Th2-type (GATA3) immunity. We confirmed a Th2 predisposition with a mean GATA3/T-bet ratio of 5.51. BCG responders showed significantly higher levels of urinary (p = 0.003) and serum neopterin (p = 0.012), kynurenine (p = 0.015), KTR (p = 0.005), IFN-γ (p = 0.005) and IL-12 (p = 0.003) during therapy, whereas levels of IL-10 decreased significantly (p Th1-type immune responses and thus contribute to the BCG success.

  20. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood...... donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1ß, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1ß, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-¿. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted...... in increased IFN-¿ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Ra, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33...

  1. Serotonin decreases the production of Th1/Th17 cytokines and elevates the frequency of regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, Priscila M; Monteiro, Clarice; Dias, Aleida S O; Kasahara, Taissa M; Ferreira, Thaís B; Hygino, Joana; Wing, Ana Cristina; Andrade, Regis M; Rueda, Fernanda; Sales, Marisa C; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2018-05-02

    Excessive levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with reduced serotonin (5-HT) synthesis, a neurotransmitter with diverse immune effects. In this study, we evaluated the ability of exogenous 5-HT to modulate the T-cell behavior of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating autoimmune disease mediated by Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Here, 5-HT attenuated, in vitro, T-cell proliferation and Th1 and Th17 cytokines production in cell cultures from MS patients. Additionally, 5-HT reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 release by CD8 + T-cells. By contrast, 5-HT increased IL-10 production by CD4 + T-cells from MS patients. A more accurate analysis of these IL-10-secreting CD4 + T-cells revealed that 5-HT favors the expansion of FoxP3 + CD39 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) and type 1 regulatory T cells. Notably, this neurotransmitter also elevated the frequency of Treg17 cells, a novel regulatory T-cell subset. The effect of 5-HT in up-regulating CD39 + Treg and Treg17 cells was inversely correlated with the number of active brain lesions. Finally, in addition to directly reducing cytokine production by purified Th1 and Th17 cells, 5-HT enhanced in vitro Treg function. In summary, our data suggest that serotonin may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of MS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigen-Specific Th17 Cells Are Primed by Distinct and Complementary Dendritic Cell Subsets in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Trautwein-Weidner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. can cause severe and chronic mucocutaneous and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Protection from mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on T helper cells, in particular those secreting IL-17. The events regulating T cell activation and differentiation toward effector fates in response to fungal invasion in different tissues are poorly understood. Here we generated a Candida-specific TCR transgenic mouse reactive to a novel endogenous antigen that is conserved in multiple distant species of Candida, including the clinically highly relevant C. albicans and C. glabrata. Using TCR transgenic T cells in combination with an experimental model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC we investigated antigen presentation and Th17 priming by different subsets of dendritic cells (DCs present in the infected oral mucosa. Candida-derived endogenous antigen accesses the draining lymph nodes and is directly presented by migratory DCs. Tissue-resident Flt3L-dependent DCs and CCR2-dependent monocyte-derived DCs collaborate in antigen presentation and T cell priming during OPC. In contrast, Langerhans cells, which are also present in the oral mucosa and have been shown to prime Th17 cells in the skin, are not required for induction of the Candida-specific T cell response upon oral challenge. This highlights the functional compartmentalization of specific DC subsets in different tissues. These data provide important new insights to our understanding of tissue-specific antifungal immunity.

  3. Ebselen attenuates cisplatin-induced ROS generation through Nrf2 activation in auditory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Jin; Park, Channy; Han, A Lum; Youn, Myung-Ja; Lee, Jeong-Han; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Eun-Sook; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Ho-Kyun; Chung, Sang-Young; So, Hongseob; Park, Raekil

    2009-05-01

    Ebselen, an organoselenium compound that acts as a glutathione peroxidase mimetic, has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this effect is not fully understood in auditory cells. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of ebselen against cisplatin-induced toxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cells, organotypic cultures of cochlear explants from two-day postnatal rats (P(2)) and adult Balb/C mice. Pretreatment with ebselen ameliorated apoptotic death induced by cisplatin in HEI-OC1 cells and organotypic cultures of Corti's organ. Ebselen pretreatment also significantly suppressed cisplatin-induced increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and lipid peroxidation levels. Ebselen dose-dependently increased the expression level of an antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter in HEI-OC1 cells through the translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus. Furthermore, we found that pretreatment with ebselen significantly restored Nrf2 function, whereas it ameliorated the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in cells transfectants with either a pcDNA3.1 (control) or a DN-Nrf2 (dominant-negative) plasmid. We also observed that Nrf2 activation by ebselen increased the expression of phase II antioxidant genes, including heme oxygenase (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS). Treatment with ebselen resulted in an increased expression of HO-1 and intranuclear Nrf2 in hair cells of organotypic cultured cochlea. After intraperitoneal injection with cisplatin, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) threshold was measured on 8th day in Balb/C mice. ABR threshold shift was marked occurred in mice injected with cisplatin (16 mg/kg, n=5; Click and 8-kHz stimuli, pebselen was not significantly changed. These results suggest that ebselen activates the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway

  4. Vitamin D Counteracts Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Cathelicidin Downregulation in Dendritic Cells and Allows Th1 Differentiation and IFNγ Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Anna K O; Kongsbak, Martin; Hansen, Marie M; Lopez, Daniel Villalba; Levring, Trine B; Woetmann, Anders; Ødum, Niels; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Geisler, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) presents a serious health problem with approximately one-third of the world's population infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a latent state. Experience from the pre-antibiotic era and more recent clinical studies have established a beneficial role of sunlight and vitamin D in patients with TB. At the same time, experimental data have shown that Th1 cells through production of IFNγ are crucial for cathelicidin release by macrophages, bacterial killing, and containment of M. tuberculosis in granulomas. Paradoxically, vitamin D has repeatedly been ascribed an immune-suppressive function inhibiting Th1 differentiation and production of IFNγ in T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate this apparent paradox. We studied naïve human CD4 + T cells activated either with CD3 and CD28 antibodies or with allogeneic dendritic cells (DC) stimulated with heat-killed M. tuberculosis (HKMT) or purified toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. We show that vitamin D does not block differentiation of human CD4 + T cells to Th1 cells and that interleukin (IL)-12 partially counteracts vitamin D-mediated inhibition of IFNγ production promoting production of equal amounts of IFNγ in Th1 cells in the presence of vitamin D as in T cells activated in the absence of vitamin D and IL-12. Furthermore, we show that HKMT and TLR2 ligands strongly downregulate cathelicidin expression in DC and that vitamin D counteracts this by upregulating cathelicidin expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vitamin D counteracts M. tuberculosis -induced cathelicidin downregulation and allows Th1 differentiation and IFNγ secretion.

  5. Vitamin D Counteracts Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Cathelicidin Downregulation in Dendritic Cells and Allows Th1 Differentiation and IFNγ Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. O. Rode

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB presents a serious health problem with approximately one-third of the world’s population infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a latent state. Experience from the pre-antibiotic era and more recent clinical studies have established a beneficial role of sunlight and vitamin D in patients with TB. At the same time, experimental data have shown that Th1 cells through production of IFNγ are crucial for cathelicidin release by macrophages, bacterial killing, and containment of M. tuberculosis in granulomas. Paradoxically, vitamin D has repeatedly been ascribed an immune-suppressive function inhibiting Th1 differentiation and production of IFNγ in T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate this apparent paradox. We studied naïve human CD4+ T cells activated either with CD3 and CD28 antibodies or with allogeneic dendritic cells (DC stimulated with heat-killed M. tuberculosis (HKMT or purified toll-like receptor (TLR ligands. We show that vitamin D does not block differentiation of human CD4+ T cells to Th1 cells and that interleukin (IL-12 partially counteracts vitamin D-mediated inhibition of IFNγ production promoting production of equal amounts of IFNγ in Th1 cells in the presence of vitamin D as in T cells activated in the absence of vitamin D and IL-12. Furthermore, we show that HKMT and TLR2 ligands strongly downregulate cathelicidin expression in DC and that vitamin D counteracts this by upregulating cathelicidin expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vitamin D counteracts M. tuberculosis-induced cathelicidin downregulation and allows Th1 differentiation and IFNγ secretion.

  6. Fission gas release from ThO2 and ThO2--UO2 fuels (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, I.; Spahr, G.L.; White, L.S.; Waldman, L.A.; Giovengo, J.F.; Pfennigwerth, P.L.; Sherman, J.

    1978-08-01

    Fission gas release data are presented from 51 fuel rods irradiated as part of the LWBR irradiations test program. The fuel rods were Zircaloy-4 clad and contained ThO 2 or ThO 2 -UO 2 fuel pellets, with UO 2 compositions ranging from 2.0 to 24.7 weight percent and fuel densities ranging from 77.8 to 98.7 percent of theoretical. Rod diameters ranged from 0.25 to 0.71 inches and fuel active lengths ranged from 3 to 84 inches. Peak linear power outputs ranged from 2 to 22 kw/ft for peak fuel burnups up to 56,000 MWD/MTM. Measured fission gas release was quite low, ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 percent. Fission gas release was higher at higher temperature and burnup and was lower at higher initial fuel density. No sensitivity to UO 2 composition was evidenced

  7. Tick saliva inhibits dendritic cell migration, maturation and function, while promoting development of Th2 responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skallová, Anna; Iezzi, G.; Ampenberger, F.; Kopf, M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 9 (2008), s. 6186-9192 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : dendritic cell * tick saliva * Th2 * immune responses Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.000, year: 2008

  8. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  9. Reduced Th22 cell proportion and prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants following maternal probiotic supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, A D B; Simpson, M R; Rø, T B; Storrø, O; Johnsen, R; Videm, V; Øien, T

    2017-08-01

    In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children. To examine whether Th cell proportions were affected by maternal probiotic supplementation and thus could mediate the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. A total of 415 pregnant women were randomized to ingest a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) or placebo, and their offspring were assessed for AD during the first 2 years of life. Peripheral blood collected at 3 months of age was analysed for regulatory T cells (n=140) and Th subsets (n=77) including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22. The proportion of Th22 cells was reduced in children in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group (median 0.038% vs 0.064%, P=.009). The difference between the probiotic and placebo groups was also observed in the children who did not develop AD during the 2-year follow-up. The proportion of Th22 cells was increased in children who developed AD compared to the children who did not develop AD (0.090% vs 0.044%, Pprobiotics was partially mediated through the reduction in Th22 cells. Perinatal maternal probiotic supplementation with a combination of LGG, Bb-12 and La-5 reduced the proportion of Th22 cells in 3-month-old children. This may partially explain the preventive effect of probiotics on AD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pulsed high-dose dexamethasone modulates Th1-/Th2-chemokine imbalance in immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongtang; Wang, Meiying; Zhou, Shufen; Ma, Ji; Shi, Yan; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming; Guo, Chengshan

    2016-10-24

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play important roles in autoimmune diseases; however, their role in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is unclear. High-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) may become a first-line therapy for adult patients with ITP, but the effect of HD-DXM on chemokines in ITP patients is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the mechanism of pulsed HD-DXM for management of ITP, specifically regarding the chemokine pathways. Th1-/Th2-associated chemokine and chemokine receptor profiles in ITP patients before and after pulsed HD-DXM was studied. Plasma levels of CCL5 and CXCL11 (Th1-associated) and of CCL11 (Th2-associated) were determined by ELISA. Gene expression of these three chemokines and their corresponding receptors CCR5, CXCR3, and CCR3, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Thirty-three of the thirty-eight ITP patients responded effectively to HD-DXM (oral, 40 mg/day, 4 days). In ITP patients, plasma CXCL11 levels increased, while CCL11 and CCL5 decreased compared to controls (P Th1-/Th2-associated chemokines and chemokine receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of ITP. Importantly, regulating Th1 polarization by pulsed HD-DXM may represent a novel approach for immunoregulation in ITP.

  11. TCR-independent functions of Th17 cells mediated by the synergistic actions of cytokines of the IL-12 and IL-1 families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Kyung Lee

    Full Text Available The development of Th17 cells is accompanied by the acquisition of responsiveness to both IL-12 and IL-23, cytokines with established roles in the development and/or function of Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. IL-12 signaling promotes antigen-dependent Th1 differentiation but, in combination with IL-18, allows the antigen-independent perpetuation of Th1 responses. On the other hand, while IL-23 is dispensable for initial commitment to the Th17 lineage, it promotes the pathogenic function of the Th17 cells. In this study, we have examined the overlap between Th1 and Th17 cells in their responsiveness to common pro-inflammatory cytokines and how this affects the antigen-independent cytokine responses of Th17 cells. We found that in addition to the IL-1 receptor, developing Th17 cells also up-regulate the IL-18 receptor. Consequently, in the presence of IL-1β or IL-18, and in the absence of TCR activation, Th17 cells produce Th17 lineage cytokines in a STAT3-dependent manner when stimulated with IL-23, and IFN© via a STAT4-dependent mechanism when stimulated with IL-12. Thus, building on previous findings of antigen-induced plasticity of Th17 cells, our results indicate that this potential of Th17 cells extends to their cytokine-dependent antigen-independent responses. Collectively, our data suggest a model whereby signaling via either IL-1β or IL-18 allows for bystander responses of Th17 cells to pathogens or pathogen products that differentially activate innate cell production of IL-12 or IL-23.

  12. Common Features of Regulatory T Cell Specialization During Th1 Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Littringer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells are essential for maintaining self-tolerance and preventing excessive immune responses. In the context of Th1 immune responses, co-expression of the Th1 transcription factor T-bet with Foxp3 is essential for Treg cells to control Th1 responses. T-bet-dependent expression of CXCR3 directs Treg cells to the site of inflammation. However, the suppressive mediators enabling effective control of Th1 responses at this site are unknown. In this study, we determined the signature of CXCR3+ Treg cells arising in Th1 settings and defined universal features of Treg cells in this context using multiple Th1-dominated infection models. Our analysis defined a set of Th1-specific co-inhibitory receptors and cytotoxic molecules that are specifically expressed in Treg cells during Th1 immune responses in mice and humans. Among these, we identified the novel co-inhibitory receptor CD85k as a functional predictor for Treg-mediated suppression specifically of Th1 responses, which could be explored therapeutically for selective immune suppression in autoimmunity.

  13. Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug TH-302 Targets Hypoxic Bone Marrow Niches in Preclinical Leukemia Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Juliana; Ramirez, Marc S; Millward, Niki Zacharias; Velez, Juliana; Harutyunyan, Karine G; Lu, Hongbo; Shi, Yue-Xi; Matre, Polina; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Ma, Helen; Konoplev, Sergej; McQueen, Teresa; Volgin, Andrei; Protopopova, Marina; Mu, Hong; Lee, Jaehyuk; Bhattacharya, Pratip K; Marszalek, Joseph R; Davis, R Eric; Bankson, James A; Cortes, Jorge E; Hart, Charles P; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the prevalence of hypoxia in the leukemic bone marrow, its association with metabolic and transcriptional changes in the leukemic blasts and the utility of hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 in leukemia models. Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to interrogate the pyruvate metabolism of the bone marrow in the murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model. Nanostring technology was used to evaluate a gene set defining a hypoxia signature in leukemic blasts and normal donors. The efficacy of the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 was examined in the in vitro and in vivo leukemia models. Metabolic imaging has demonstrated increased glycolysis in the femur of leukemic mice compared with healthy control mice, suggesting metabolic reprogramming of hypoxic bone marrow niches. Primary leukemic blasts in samples from AML patients overexpressed genes defining a "hypoxia index" compared with samples from normal donors. TH-302 depleted hypoxic cells, prolonged survival of xenograft leukemia models, and reduced the leukemia stem cell pool in vivo In the aggressive FLT3/ITD MOLM-13 model, combination of TH-302 with tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib had greater antileukemia effects than either drug alone. Importantly, residual leukemic bone marrow cells in a syngeneic AML model remain hypoxic after chemotherapy. In turn, administration of TH-302 following chemotherapy treatment to mice with residual disease prolonged survival, suggesting that this approach may be suitable for eliminating chemotherapy-resistant leukemia cells. These findings implicate a pathogenic role of hypoxia in leukemia maintenance and chemoresistance and demonstrate the feasibility of targeting hypoxic cells by hypoxia cytotoxins. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Neurotransmitters activate T-cells and elicit crucial functions via neurotransmitter receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levite, Mia

    2008-08-01

    Neurotransmitters are traditionally viewed as nerve-secreted molecules that trigger or inhibit neuronal functions. Yet, neurotransmitters bind also their neurotransmitter receptors in T-cells and directly activate or suppress T-cell functions. This review focuses only on the activating effects of neurotransmitters on T-cells, primarily naïve/resting cells, and covers dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and few neuropeptides: GnRH-I, GnRH-II, substance P, somatostatin, CGRP, and neuropeptide Y. T-cells express many neurotransmitter receptors. These are regulated by TCR-activation, cytokines, or the neurotransmitters themselves, and are upregulated/downregulated in some human diseases. The context - whether the T-cells are naïve/resting or antigen/mitogen/cytokine-activated, the T-cell subset (CD4/CD8/Th1/Th2/Teff/Treg), neurotransmitter dose (low/optimal or high/excess), exact neurotransmitter receptors expressed, and the cytokine milieu - is crucial, and can determine either activation or suppression of T-cells by the same neurotransmitter. T-cells also produce many neurotransmitters. In summary, neurotransmitters activate vital T-cell functions in a direct, potent and specific manner, and may serve for communicating between the brain and the immune system to elicit an effective and orchestrated immune function, and for new therapeutic avenues, to improve T-cell eradication of cancer and infectious organisms.

  15. Inflammasome and Fas-Mediated IL-1β Contributes to Th17/Th1 Cell Induction in Pathogenic Bacterial Infection In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Ryosuke; Yonehara, Shin; Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro; Ishido, Satoshi; Ishii, Ken J; Tsutsui, Hiroko

    2017-08-01

    CD4 + Th cells play crucial roles in orchestrating immune responses against pathogenic microbes, after differentiating into effector subsets. Recent research has revealed the importance of IFN-γ and IL-17 double-producing CD4 + Th cells, termed Th17/Th1 cells, in the induction of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In addition, Th17/Th1 cells are involved in the regulation of infection caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans. However, the precise mechanism of Th17/Th1 induction during pathogen infection is unclear. In this study, we showed that the inflammasome and Fas-dependent IL-1β induces Th17/Th1 cells in mice, in response to infection with the pathogenic intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes In the spleens of infected wild-type mice, Th17/Th1 cells were induced, and expressed T-bet and Rorγt. In Pycard -/- mice, which lack the adaptor molecule of the inflammasome (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain), Th17/Th1 induction was abolished. In addition, the Fas-mediated IL-1β production was required for Th17/Th1 induction during bacterial infection: Th17/Th1 induction was abolished in Fas -/- mice, whereas supplementation with recombinant IL-1β restored Th17/Th1 induction via IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1), and rescued the mortality of Fas -/- mice infected with Listeria IL-1R1, but not apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain or Fas on T cells, was required for Th17/Th1 induction, indicating that IL-1β stimulates IL-1R1 on T cells for Th17/Th1 induction. These results indicate that IL-1β, produced by the inflammasome and Fas-dependent mechanisms, contributes cooperatively to the Th17/Th1 induction during bacterial infection. This study provides a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Th17/Th1 induction during pathogenic microbial infections in vivo. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists

  16. Failure of itraconazole to prevent T-helper type 2 cell immune deviation: Implications for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Steinke, John W; Liu, Lixia; Negri, Julie; Borish, Larry; Payne, Spencer C

    2016-11-01

    T-helper (Th) type 2 cell inflammation is the hallmark of several disease processes, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and some forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Itraconazole has been used as both an antifungal and an anti-inflammatory agent, with some success in many of these diseases, in part, by altering Th2 cytokine expression by T cells. It is not known whether this merely reflects inhibition of established Th2-like cells or the inhibition of differentiation of naive T cells into Th2-like cells. To evaluate the role of itraconazole in the differentiation of naive T cells during activation. Naive CD45RA+ T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers. Th1 and Th2 type cells were differentiated in the presence of varying concentrations of itraconazole. After stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 beads, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution was performed to evaluate proliferation and intracellular cytokine staining for interleukin (IL) 4 and interferon (IFN) gamma within proliferating T cells was measured along with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for secreted IL-5, IL-13, and IFN gamma. Itraconazole had no effect on proliferation of unbiased, Th1, or Th2 cells. Similarly, there was no effect of itraconazole on either intracellular cytokine staining of IL-4 and IFN gamma or secreted cytokine expression of IFN gamma, IL-5, and IL-13 in any of the cell populations. Itraconazole did not alter the ability of naive T cells to proliferate or secrete cytokines under Th1 or Th2 deviating conditions in vitro. As such, reported inhibition of Th2-like lymphocyte function by itraconazole reflected action on mature effector cells and may have underscored why antifungal treatment failed in many clinical trials of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

  17. Th2-related immune responses by the Brucella abortus cellular antigens, malate dehydrogenase, elongation factor, and arginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Young Bin; Shim, Soojin; Park, Woo Bin; Kim, Suk; Yoo, Han Sang

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species. The disease is difficult to control due to the intracellular survival of the bacterium and the lack of precise understanding of pathogenesis. Despite of continuous researches on the pathogenesis of Brucella spp. infection, there is still question on the pathogenesis, especially earlier immune response in the bacterial infection. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), elongation factor (Tsf), and arginase (RocF), which showed serological reactivity, were purified after gene cloning, and their immune modulating activities were then analyzed in a murine model. Cytokine production profiles were investigated by stimulating RAW 264.7 cells and naïve splenocytes with the three recombinant proteins. Also, immune responses were analyzed by ELISA and an ELIspot assay after immunizing mice with the three proteins. Only TNF-α was produced in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, whereas Th1-related cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-2, were induced in naïve splenocytes. In contrast, Th2-type immune response was more strongly induced in antigen-secreting cells in the splenocytes obtained 28 days after immunizing mice with the three proteins, as were IgM and IgG. The induction of Th2-related antibody, IgG1, was higher than the Th1-related antibody, IgG2a, in immunized mice. These results suggest that the three proteins strongly induce Th2-type immune response in vivo, even though Th1-related cytokines were produced in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinan, Rufine; Fagninou, Adnette; Nekoua, Magloire Pandoua; Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole; Moutairou, Kabirou; Yessoufou, Akadiri

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN- γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections.

  19. The existence of Th22, pure Th17 and Th1 cells in CIN and Cervical Cancer along with their frequency variation in different stages of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tian, Xinli; Mumtahana, Fidia; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Teng; Croce, Kimiko Della; Ma, Daoxin; Kong, Beihua; Cui, Baoxia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it is found that T-helper (Th) 22 cells are involved in different types of autoimmune and tumor diseases. But, till now, no study has been carried out to understand the involvement of these cells in cervical cancer (CC). Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Interleukin-22 (IL-22), IL-17 in the peripheral blood of healthy controls (HC), CIN and cervical cancer patients. From peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), mRNA expression levels of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), RAR-related orphan receptor C (RORC), TNF-α and IL-6 were respectively determined. Using the method of ELISA, plasma concentrations of IL-22, IL-17 and TNF-α were examined. Th22 and Th17 cells were elevated in CC and CIN patients. Th1 cells and the plasma concentrations of IL-22 in CC patients were significantly increased compared with HC. In CC patients, an increased prevalence of Th22 cells was associated with lymph node metastases. There was a positive correlation between Th22 and Th17 cells, but an approximately negative correlation between Th22 and Th1 cells in CC patients. The mRNA expression of RORC, TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly high in CC patients. Our results indicate that there is a higher circulatory frequency of Th22, Th17 and Th1 cells in CC which may conjointly participate in the pathogenesis and growth of CC

  20. Intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia differentially affects circulating TC1, TH1, TH17 and TREG cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjertsen Bjørn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several observations suggest that immunological events early after chemotherapy, possibly during the period of severe treatment-induced cytopenia, are important for antileukemic immune reactivity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. We therefore investigated the frequencies of various T cell subsets (TC1, TH1, TH17 and CD25+ FoxP3+ TREG cells in AML patients with untreated disease and following intensive chemotherapy. Results Relative levels of circulating TC1 and TH1 cells were decreased in patients with severe chemotherapy-induced cytopenia, whereas TH17 levels did not differ from healthy controls. Increased levels of regulatory CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells were detected in AML patients with untreated disease, during chemotherapy-induced cytopenia and during regeneration after treatment. TH17 and TH1 levels were significantly higher in healthy males than females, but this gender difference was not detected during chemotherapy-induced cytopenia. Finally, exogenous IL17-A usually had no or only minor effects on proliferation of primary human AML cells. Conclusions We conclude that the effect of intensive AML chemotherapy differ between circulating T cell subsets, relative frequencies of TH17 cells are not affected by chemotherapy and this subset may affect AML cells indirectly through their immunoregulatory effects but probably not through direct effects of IL17-A.

  1. Th-17 cells infiltrate the liver in human biliary atresia and are related to surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard; Quaglia, Alberto; Hussain, Munther; Hadzic, Nedim; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego; Davenport, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Biliary atresia (BA), a cholangiopathy of unknown etiology is associated with intrahepatic mononuclear cell infiltrate. An abnormal reaction to viral exposure has been hypothesized in some cases. We aimed to investigate the nature of the CD4+ hepatic infiltrate in defined clinical variants of BA by quantification of inflammatory cell components. Liver biopsies of infants obtained at Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE) were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies to Tbet, GATA-3, FOXP3 and interleukin (IL) 17, identifying Th-1, Th-2, Tregs and Th-17 cells respectively. T cells were counted with the aid of a graticule. Data are reported as median (range) of cells per high-power-field (×400) and compared using nonparametric statistical tests with P≤0.05 regarded as significant. Liver biopsies from BA (n=37) and age-matched cholestatic controls (e.g. alpha-1-anti trypsin deficiency, Alagilles syndrome, n=12) were investigated. BA infants were divided into three groups: cytomegalovirus IgM +ve (CMV; n=9); BA splenic malformation (BASM; n=9) and isolated BA (IBA; n=19). All T-cell subsets were present in the portal tracts, with an overrepresentation of Th-1 (PTh-17 (PTh-2 (P=0.94) or Tregs (P=0.15), compared to controls. Th-1 cells predominated in the CMV group; (18 [7-37] vs. 3 [0-14] [BASM] and vs. 5 [3-23] [IBA]; PTh-17 cells. The degree of Th-1 cell infiltrate inversely correlated with platelet count (rS=-0.49; PTh-17 cells were fewer (6 [2-11] vs. 11 [8-20]; P=0.02) in infants who cleared their jaundice (n=15, Th-17 cells infiltrate the liver in BA and are associated with a worse surgical outcome; a Th-1 profile predominates in CMV-associated BA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in CD4+ T cells contributes to alleviation of Th17/Treg imbalance in collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Yan; Cai, Huan-Huan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholamines, is expressed in T lymphocytes. However, the role of T cell-expressed TH in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is less clear. Herein, we aimed to show the contribution of TH expression by CD4 + T cells to alleviation of helper T (Th)17/regulatory T (Treg) imbalance in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of RA. CIA was prepared by intradermal injection of collagen type II (CII) at tail base of DBA1/J mice. Expression of TH in the spleen and the ankle joints was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Percentages of TH-expressing Th17 and Treg cells in splenic CD4 + T cells were determined by flow cytometry. Overexpression and knockdown of TH gene in CD4 + T cells were taken to evaluate effects of TH on Th17 and Treg cells in CIA. TH expression was upregulated in both the inflamed tissues (spleen and ankle joints) and the CD4 + T cells of CIA mice. In splenic CD4 + T cells, the cells expressing TH were increased during CIA. These cells that expressed more TH in CIA were mainly Th17 cells rather than Treg cells. TH gene overexpression in CD4 + T cells from CIA mice reduced Th17 cell percentage as well as Th17-related transcription factor and cytokine expression and secretion, whereas TH gene knockdown enhanced the Th17 cell activity. In contrast, TH gene overexpression increased Treg-related cytokine expression and secretion in CD4 + T cells of CIA mice, while TH gene knockdown decreased the Treg cell changes. Collectively, these findings show that CIA induces TH expression in CD4 + T cells, particularly in Th17 cells, and suggest that the increased TH expression during CIA represents an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  3. Oral-resident natural Th17 cells and γδ T cells control opportunistic Candida albicans infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Peterson, Alanna C; Brane, Lucas; Huppler, Anna R; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Whibley, Natasha; Garg, Abhishek V; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R; Gibson, Gregory A; Mamo, Anna J; Osborne, Lisa C; Bishu, Shrinivas; Ghilardi, Nico; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Watkins, Simon C; Artis, David; McGeachy, Mandy J; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-09-22

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. OPC is frequent in HIV/AIDS, implicating adaptive immunity. Mice are naive to Candida, yet IL-17 is induced within 24 h of infection, and susceptibility is strongly dependent on IL-17R signaling. We sought to identify the source of IL-17 during the early innate response to candidiasis. We show that innate responses to Candida require an intact TCR, as SCID, IL-7Rα(-/-), and Rag1(-/-) mice were susceptible to OPC, and blockade of TCR signaling by cyclosporine induced susceptibility. Using fate-tracking IL-17 reporter mice, we found that IL-17 is produced within 1-2 d by tongue-resident populations of γδ T cells and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD44(hi)TCRβ(+)CCR6(+) natural Th17 (nTh17) cells, but not by TCR-deficient innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) or NK cells. These cells function redundantly, as TCR-β(-/-) and TCR-δ(-/-) mice were both resistant to OPC. Whereas γδ T cells were previously shown to produce IL-17 during dermal candidiasis and are known to mediate host defense at mucosal surfaces, nTh17 cells are poorly understood. The oral nTh17 population expanded rapidly after OPC, exhibited high TCR-β clonal diversity, and was absent in Rag1(-/-), IL-7Rα(-/-), and germ-free mice. These findings indicate that nTh17 and γδ T cells, but not ILCs, are key mucosal sentinels that control oral pathogens. © 2014 Conti et al.

  4. Arctigenin functions as a selective agonist of estrogen receptor β to restrict mTORC1 activation and consequent Th17 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Tong, Bei; Yang, Yan; Luo, Jinque; Yuan, Xusheng; Wei, Zhifeng; Yue, Mengfan; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-12-20

    Arctigenin was previously proven to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation and thereby attenuate colitis in mice by down-regulating the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The present study was performed to address its underlying mechanism in view of estrogen receptor (ER). The specific antagonist PHTPP or siRNA of ERβ largely diminished the inhibitory effect of arctigenin on the mTORC1 activation in T cell lines and primary CD4+ T cells under Th17-polarization condition, suggesting that arctigenin functioned in an ERβ-dependent manner. Moreover, arctigenin was recognized to be an agonist of ERβ, which could bind to ERβ with a moderate affinity, promote dissociation of ERβ/HSP90 complex and nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of ERβ, and increase the transcription activity. Following activation of ERβ, arctigenin inhibited the activity of mTORC1 by disruption of ERβ-raptor-mTOR complex assembly. Deficiency of ERβ markedly abolished arctigenin-mediated inhibition of Th17 cell differentiation. In colitis mice, the activation of ERβ, inhibition of mTORC1 activation and Th17 response by arctigenin were abolished by PHTPP treatment. In conclusion, ERβ might be the target protein of arctigenin responsible for inhibition of mTORC1 activation and resultant prevention of Th17 cell differentiation and colitis development.

  5. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Monk

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site and spleen (systemic inflammatory site, and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF diet (59.2% kcal alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin, ii adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21 and iii total (F4/80⁺ CD11b⁺ and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80⁺ CD11c⁺ macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05. In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ versus HF (P<0.05. Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05. Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4⁺ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.

  6. Th17 cells transdifferentiate into regulatory T cells during resolution of inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagliani, Nicola; Vesely, Maria Carolina Amezcua; Iseppon, Andrea; Brockmann, Leonie; Xu, Hao; Palm, Noah W; de Zoete, Marcel R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483419X; Licona-Limón, Paula; Paiva, Ricardo S; Ching, Travers; Weaver, Casey; Zi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Xinghua; Fan, Rong; Garmire, Lana X; Cotton, Matthew J; Drier, Yotam; Bernstein, Bradley; Geginat, Jens; Stockinger, Brigitta; Esplugues, Enric; Huber, Samuel; Flavell, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a beneficial host response to infection but can contribute to inflammatory disease if unregulated. The Th17 lineage of T helper (Th) cells can cause severe human inflammatory diseases. These cells exhibit both instability (they can cease to express their signature cytokine, IL-17A)

  7. Dysregulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells and TH2 cells impairs pollutant-induced allergic airway responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grove, Katrien C; Provoost, Sharen; Hendriks, Rudi W; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Seys, Leen J M; Kumar, Smitha; Maes, Tania; Brusselle, Guy G; Joos, Guy F

    2017-01-01

    Although the prominent role of T H 2 cells in type 2 immune responses is well established, the newly identified type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can also contribute to orchestration of allergic responses. Several experimental and epidemiologic studies have provided evidence that allergen-induced airway responses can be further enhanced on exposure to environmental pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). However, the components and pathways responsible remain incompletely known. We sought to investigate the relative contribution of ILC2 and adaptive T H 2 cell responses in a murine model of DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. Wild-type, Gata-3 +/nlslacZ (Gata-3-haploinsufficient), RAR-related orphan receptor α (RORα) fl/fl IL7R Cre (ILC2-deficient), and recombination-activating gene (Rag) 2 -/- mice were challenged with saline, DEPs, or house dust mite (HDM) or DEP+HDM. Airway hyperresponsiveness, as well as inflammation, and intracellular cytokine expression in ILC2s and T H 2 cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were assessed. Concomitant DEP+HDM exposure significantly enhanced allergic airway inflammation, as characterized by increased airway eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, accumulation of ILC2s and T H 2 cells, type 2 cytokine production, and airway hyperresponsiveness compared with sole DEPs or HDM. Reduced Gata-3 expression decreased the number of functional ILC2s and T H 2 cells in DEP+HDM-exposed mice, resulting in an impaired DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. Interestingly, although the DEP-enhanced allergic inflammation was marginally reduced in ILC2-deficient mice that received combined DEP+HDM, it was abolished in DEP+HDM-exposed Rag2 -/- mice. These data indicate that dysregulation of ILC2s and T H 2 cells attenuates DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. In addition, a crucial role for the adaptive immune system was shown on concomitant DEP+HDM exposure. Copyright © 2016 American

  8. Tomatidine Attenuates Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation by Suppressing Th2 Cytokines in a Mouse Model of Asthma

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    Chieh-Ying Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatidine is isolated from the fruits of tomato plants and found to have anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated whether tomatidine suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin and treated with tomatidine by intraperitoneal injection. Airway resistance was measured by intubation analysis as an indication of airway responsiveness, and histological studies were performed to evaluate eosinophil infiltration in lung tissue. Tomatidine reduced AHR and decreased eosinophil infiltration in the lungs of asthmatic mice. Tomatidine suppressed Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tomatidine also blocked the expression of inflammatory and Th2 cytokine genes in lung tissue. In vitro, tomatidine inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and CCL11 production in inflammatory BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. These results indicate that tomatidine contributes to the amelioration of AHR and eosinophil infiltration by blocking the inflammatory response and Th2 cell activity in asthmatic mice.

  9. Fabrication of ThO2 and ThO2-UO2 pellets for proliferation resistant fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.B.; Davis, N.C.

    1979-10-01

    To meet this objective, batches of ThO 2 powders were compared and milling parameters, pressing and sintering conditions were established. A method for blending ThO 2 and UO 2 into homogeneous powders that press and sinter into 95% TD pellets was determined. The effect of UO 2 additions on ThO 2 -UO 2 pellet properties was determined and a process for fabricating irradiation test quality ThO 2 -20 wt% UO 2 pellets containing CaO as a dissolution aid was established

  10. Inactive Gingipains from P. gingivalis Selectively Skews T Cells toward a Th17 Phenotype in an IL-6 Dependent Manner

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    Jan Potempa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gingipain cysteine proteases are considered key virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis. They significantly influence antibacterial and homeostatic functions of macrophages, neutrophils, the complement system, and cytokine networks. Recent data indicate the role of P. gingivalis in T cell differentiation; however, the involvement of gingipains in this process remains elusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of danger signals triggered by the gingipains on the generation of Th17 cells, which play a key role in protection against bacterial diseases but may cause chronic inflammation and bone resorption. To this end we compared the effects of the wild-type strain of P. gingivalis (W83 with its isogenic mutant devoid of gingipain activity (ΔKΔRAB, and bacterial cells pretreated with a highly-specific inhibitor of gingipains activity (KYTs. Antigen presenting cells (APCs, both professional (dendritic cells, and non-professional (gingival keratinocytes, exposed to viable bacteria expressed high amounts of cytokines (IL-6, IL-21, IL-23. These cytokines are reported to either stimulate or balance the Th17-dependent immune response. Surprisingly, cells infected with P. gingivalis devoid of gingipain activity showed increased levels of all tested cytokines compared to bacteria with fully active enzymes. The effect was dependent on both the reduction of cytokine proteolysis and the lack of cross-talk with other bacterial virulence factors, including LPS and fimbriae that induce de novo synthesis of cytokines. The profile of lymphocyte T differentiation from naive T cells showed enhanced generation of Th17 in response to bacteria with inactive gingipains. Moreover, we found that gingipain-dependent induction of Th17 cells was highly specific, since other T cell-subsets remained unchanged. Finally, inhibition of IL-6 signaling in dendritic cells led to a significant depletion of the Th17 population. Cumulatively

  11. Inactive Gingipains from P. gingivalis Selectively Skews T Cells toward a Th17 Phenotype in an IL-6 Dependent Manner.